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Sample records for valence-band offset controversy

  1. The Synthesis of NiO/TiO2 Heterostructures and Their Valence Band Offset Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Ibupoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a heterojunction based on p-type NiO/n-type TiO2 nanostructures has been prepared on the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO glass substrate by hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-Ray diffraction techniques were used for the morphological and crystalline arrays characterization. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to determine the valence-band offset (VBO of the NiO/TiO2 heterojunction prepared on FTO glass substrate. The core levels of Ni 2p and Ti 2p were utilized to align the valence-band offset of p-type NiO/n-type TiO2 heterojunction. The valence band offset was found to be ∼0.41 eV and the conduction band was calculated about ∼0.91 eV. The ratio of conduction band offset and the valence-band offset was found to be 2.21.

  2. Determination of a natural valence-band offset - The case of HgTe and CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C. K.; Spicer, W. E.

    1987-01-01

    A method to determine a natural valence-band offset (NVBO), i.e., the change in the valence-band maximum energy which is intrinsic to the bulk band structures of semiconductors is proposed. The HgTe-CdTe system is used as an example in which it is found that the valence-band maximum of HgTe lies 0.35 + or - 0.06 eV above that of CdTe. The NVBO of 0.35 eV is in good agreement with the X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurement of the heterojunction offset. The procedure to determine the NVBO between semiconductors, and its implication on the heterojunction band lineup and the electronic structures of semiconductor alloys, are discussed.

  3. Valence band offset of wurtzite InN/SrTiO3 heterojunction measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The valence band offset (VBO of wurtzite indium nitride/strontium titanate (InN/SrTiO3 heterojunction has been directly measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The VBO is determined to be 1.26 ± 0.23 eV and the conduction band offset is deduced to be 1.30 ± 0.23 eV, indicating the heterojunction has a type-I band alignment. The accurate determination of the valence and conduction band offsets paves a way to the applications of integrating InN with the functional oxide SrTiO3.

  4. Characterization of MBE-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructure valence band offsets with varying In composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Wenyuan, E-mail: wyjiaonju@gmail.com; Kong, Wei; Li, Jincheng; Kim, Tong-Ho; Brown, April S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708 (United States); Collar, Kristen [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708 (United States); Losurdo, Maria [CNR-NANOTEC, Istituto di Nanotecnologia, via Orabona, 4-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used in this work to experimentally determine the valence band offsets of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructures with varying indium composition. We find that the internal electric field resulting from polarization must be taken into account when analyzing the XPS data. Valence band offsets of 0.12 eV for In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N, 0.15 eV for In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N, and 0.23 eV for In{sub 0.098}Al{sub 0.902}N with GaN are obtained. The results show that a compositional-depended bowing parameter is needed in order to estimate the valence band energies of InAlN as a function of composition in relation to those of the binary endpoints, AlN and InN.

  5. Characterization of MBE-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructure valence band offsets with varying In composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyuan Jiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS is used in this work to experimentally determine the valence band offsets of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructures with varying indium composition. We find that the internal electric field resulting from polarization must be taken into account when analyzing the XPS data. Valence band offsets of 0.12 eV for In0.18Al0.82N, 0.15 eV for In0.17Al0.83N, and 0.23 eV for In0.098Al0.902N with GaN are obtained. The results show that a compositional-depended bowing parameter is needed in order to estimate the valence band energies of InAlN as a function of composition in relation to those of the binary endpoints, AlN and InN.

  6. Ab-initio calculation of the valence-band offset at strained GaAs/InAs (001) heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tit, N.; Peressi, M.

    1993-06-01

    We present a self consistent pseudopotential calculation of the valence band offset (VBO) at GaAs/InAs (001) strained heterojunction, which is chose as an example of the isovalent polar with common-anion lattice mismatched heterojunctions. The effects of strain are studied by looking at the variation of the VBO versus the in plane lattice constant, which is imposed by the substrate. Our results show that the VBO can be tuned by about 0.17 eV going from GaAs to InAs substrates. Comparison of our work with the available experimental and theoretical results is also discussed. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Determination of the valence-band offset of CdS/CIS solar cell devices by target factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niles, D.W.; Contreras, M.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine and compare the valence-band offsets ({Delta}E{sub v}) for CdS grown by chemical bath deposition on single-crystal and thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS). The thin-film CIS device was suitable for photovoltaic energy production. By sputtering through the CdS/CIS interface and reducing the depth profile with target factor analysis, the magnitude of {Delta}E{sub v} was determined to be {Delta}E{sub v} = 1.06 {+-} 0.15 eV for both the single-crystal and thin-film interfaces. This determination of {Delta}E{sub v} is about 0.25 eV larger than many previously reported estimations CdS grown by physical vapor deposition on CIS and helps explain the record performance of CdS/CIS photovoltaic devices.

  8. Valence band offset of β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Qin, Zhixin; Fan, Shunfei; Li, Zhiwei; Shi, Kai; Zhu, Qinsheng; Zhang, Guoyi

    2012-10-10

    A sample of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure has been grown by dry thermal oxidation of GaN on a sapphire substrate. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the β-Ga2O3 layer was formed epitaxially on GaN. The valence band offset of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure is measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the valence band of the β-Ga2O3/GaN structure is 1.40 ± 0.08 eV.

  9. Measurement of the valence band-offset in a PbSe/ZnO heterojunction by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Lin; Qiu Jijun; Weng Binbin; Yuan Zijian; Shi Zhisheng [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Li Xiaomin; Gan Xiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Sellers, Ian R. [Deparment of Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2012-12-24

    A heterojunction of PbSe/ZnO has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to directly measure the valence-band offset (VBO) of the heterojunction. The VBO, {Delta}E{sub V}, was determined as 2.51 {+-} 0.05 eV using the Pb 4p{sup 3/2} and Zn 2p{sup 3/2} core levels as a reference. The conduction-band offset, {Delta}E{sub C}, was, therefore, determined to be 0.59 {+-} 0.05 eV based on the above {Delta}E{sub V} value. This analysis indicates that the PbSe/ZnO heterojunction forms a type I (Straddling Gap) heterostructure.

  10. Thickness-dependent change in the valence band offset of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface studied using synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, S., E-mail: toyoda.satoshi.4w@kyoto-u.ac.jp; Oshima, M. [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    We have studied the thickness-dependent change in the valence band offset (VBO) of the SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) interface using synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy with soft and hard X-rays. The SiO{sub 2}-film thickness (T{sub ox}) and X-ray irradiation time (t{sub irrad}) were systematically parameterized to distinguish between the “intrinsic” T{sub ox} effects in the VBOs and the “extrinsic” differential charging phenomena in SiO{sub 2} films on Si substrates. The results revealed that at a spontaneous time (t{sub irrad} ≈ 5 s) that suppresses the differential charging phenomena as much as possible, the experimental VBO abruptly increases as a function of T{sub ox} and gradually saturates to the traditional VBO value range determined by the internal photoemission and photoconduction measurements. This effect is not attributed to the differential charging phenomena, but rather it is attributed to the “intrinsic” T{sub ox}-dependent change in the VBO. The two possible physical behaviors include electronic polarization and image charge. We have derived the electronic polarization contribution from experimental data by carefully describing the effects of the long-range image charges based on the classical dielectric-screening model.

  11. Hole energy and momentum distributions in valence bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, G. van der.

    1982-01-01

    In order to understand the electrical and magnetic properties of solids, the knowledge of the density of states and the dispersion relation of the valence bands is indispensable. This thesis offers some alternative methods to obtain information about the nature of the valence band. Part A deals with the energy distribution of the photoelectrons. A simple model, which explains the core hole satellite structure in compounds with large correlation effects between the valence band holes and the created photo-hole, is outlined. CuCl, CuX 2 (X = F Cl and Br) are studied, by photoemission and Auger electron spectroscopies in determining the valence band properties. Part B deals with the simultaneous measurement of the energy and the wave vector of the emitted electrons. A practical example is given for the determination of the dispersion relation in copper. The measurements of a surface resonance band and the distribution of the secondary electrons are also reported. (Auth.)

  12. Optical verification of the valence band structure of cadmium arsenide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelten, M.J.; Es, van C.M.; Blom, F.A.P.; Jongeneelen, J.W.F.

    1980-01-01

    Optical absorption measurements were performed on thin single crystalline samples of Cd3As2 at temperatures of 300 K and 10 K. At low temperature the interband absorption coefficient shows clearly two steps due to direct transitions from the heavy hole and light hole valence bands to the conduction

  13. Spectroscopic determination of valence band parameters in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.; Lough, B.C.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The general form of the Hamiltonian for an electron or hole in a semiconductor has been given by Luttinger. The valence band is characterised by three parameters - γ 1 , γ 2 , γ 3 -now commonly known as the Luttinger parameters. Despite many investigations there is still considerable uncertainty regarding the Luttinger parameters of InP. The situation has been reviewed by Hackenberg et al. These authors themselves sought to determine the Luttinger parameters by hot-electron luminescence and discovered that many Luttinger parameter triplets were consistent with their data. We employ a spectroscopic approach to estimating valence-band parameters in InP. Calculations have been made for both the unperturbed energy levels and the energy levels in a magnetic field of acceptor impurities in semiconductors characterised by different Luttinger parameters. We compare our recent experimental data for the transitions associated with the Zn acceptor impurity in InP in magnetic fields up to 30 T to determine the most appropriate set of valence-band parameters for InP

  14. Determination of valence band parameters in ZnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, D.; Noethe, A.; Reimann, K. (Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst. - Lehrstuhl 2)

    1984-10-01

    The fine structure of the 2P exciton in ZnTe is studied by two-photon-absorption. The energy splitting into four states, caused by the envelope-hole coupling, allows the determination of the Luttinger parameters ..gamma../sub 2/ and ..gamma../sub 3/, which describe the complex valence band. ..gamma../sub 2/ = 0.8 and ..gamma../sub 3/ = 1.7 are obtained. These values are compared to results of other experiments mainly on 1S excitons.

  15. Relaxation and cross section effects in valence band photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFeely, F.R.

    1976-09-01

    Various problems relating to the interpretation of valence band x-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra of solids are discussed. The experiments and calculations reported herein deal with the following questions: (1) To what extent do many-body effects manifest themselves in an XPS valence band spectrum, and thus invalidate a direct comparison between the photoemission energy distribution, I(E), and the density of states, N(E), calculated on the basis of ground-state one-electron theory. (2) The effect of the binding-energy-dependent photoemission cross section on I(E) at XPS energies. (3) In favorable cases indicated by (1) and (2) we examine the effect of the interaction of the crystal field with the apparent spin-orbit splittings of core levels observed in XPS spectra. (4) The use of tight binding band structure calculations to parameterize the electronic band structure from XPS and other data is described. (5) The use of high energy angle-resolved photoemission on oriented single crystals to gain orbital symmetry information is discussed. (6) The evolution of the shape of the photoemission energy distribution (of polycrystalline Cu) as a function of photon energy from 50 less than or equal h ω less than or equal 175 is discussed

  16. Valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: sekhar@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • VB Photoemission study and DFT calculations on Pd based ternary superconductors are presented. • Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} shows a temperature dependent pseudogap. • VB spectral features of ternary superconductors are correlated to their structural geometry. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}Te{sub 6} using experimental photoemission spectroscopy and density functional based theoretical calculations. We observe a qualitatively similarity between valence band (VB) spectra of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6}. Further, we find a pseudogap feature in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} at low temperature, unlike other two compounds. We have correlated the structural geometry with the differences in VB spectra of these compounds. The different atomic packing in these compounds could vary the strength of inter-orbital hybridization among various atoms which leads to difference in their electronic structure as clearly observed in our DOS calculations.

  17. Measurement of valence band structure in arbitrary dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Choi, Eun H.

    2012-01-01

    A new way of measuring the band structure of various dielectric materials using the secondary electron emission from Auger neutralization of ions is introduced. The first example of this measurement scheme is the magnesium oxide (MgO) films with respect to the application of the films in the display industries. The density of state in the valence bands of MgO film and MgO film with a functional layer (FL) deposited over a dielectric surface reveals that the density peak of film with a FL is considerably less than that of film, thereby indicating a better performance of MgO film with functional layer in display devices. The second example of the measurement is the boron-zinc oxide (BZO) films with respect to the application of the films to the development of solar cells. The measurement of density of state in BZO film suggests that a high concentration of boron impurity in BZO films may enhance the transition of electrons and holes through the band gap from the valence to the conduction band in zinc oxide crystals; thereby improving the conductivity of the film. Secondary electron emission by the Auger neutralization of ions is highly instrumental for the determination of the density of states in the valence band of dielectric materials.

  18. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyukhin, S.; Golovchak, R.; Kovalskiy, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Jain, H.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As x Se 100−x , As x S 100−x , Ge x Se 100−x and Ge x S 100−x chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  19. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyukhin, S., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Jain, H. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2011-04-15

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x}, As{sub x}S{sub 100-x}, Ge{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} and Ge{sub x}S{sub 100-x} chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  20. Electronic structures and valence band splittings of transition metals doped GaNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Lee, Kyu-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    For a practical viewpoint, presence of spin splitting of valence band in host semiconductors by the doping of transition metal (TM) ions is an essential property when designing a diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) material. The first principle calculations were performed on the electronic and magnetic structure of 3d transition metal doped GaN. V, Cr, and Mn doped GaNs could not be candidates for DMS materials since most of their magnetic moments is concentrated on the TM ions and the splittings of valence band were negligible. In the cases of Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu doped GaNs, on the contrary, long-ranged spin splitting of valence band was found, which could be candidates for DMS materials

  1. Atomic contributions to the valence band photoelectron spectra of metal-free, iron and manganese phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidermane, I., E-mail: ieva.bidermane@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7588, F-75005 Paris (France); Brumboiu, I.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Totani, R. [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, I-67010 L’Aquila (Italy); Grazioli, C. [CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, ss. 14 km. 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Departement of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste (Italy); Shariati-Nilsson, M.N.; Herper, H.C.; Eriksson, O.; Sanyal, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Ressel, B. [University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska Cesta 11c, 5270 Ajdovščina (Slovenia); Simone, M. de [CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, ss. 14 km. 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Lozzi, L. [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, I-67010 L’Aquila (Italy); Brena, B.; Puglia, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • In detail comparison between the valence band structure of H{sub 2}Pc, FePc and MnPc. • Comparison between the gas phase samples and thin evaporated films on Au (1 1 1). • Detailed analysis of the atomic orbital contributions to the valence band features. • DFT/HSE06 study of the valence band electronic structure of H{sub 2}Pc, FePc and MnPc. - Abstract: The present work reports a photoelectron spectroscopy study of the low-energy region of the valence band of metal-free phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}Pc) compared with those of iron phthalocyanine (FePc) and manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc). We have analysed in detail the atomic orbital composition of the valence band both experimentally, by making use of the variation in photoionization cross-sections with photon energy, and theoretically, by means of density functional theory. The atomic character of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO), reflected on the outermost valence band binding energy region, is different for MnPc as compared to the other two molecules. The peaks related to the C 2p contributions, result in the HOMO for H{sub 2}Pc and FePc and in the HOMO-1 for MnPc as described by the theoretical predictions, in very good agreement with the experimental results. The DFT simulations, discerning the atomic contribution to the density of states, indicate how the central metal atom interacts with the C and N atoms of the molecule, giving rise to different partial and total density of states for these three Pc molecules.

  2. Giant Cu 2p Resonances in CuO Valence-Band Photoemission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeng, L.H.; Chen, C.T.; Ghijsen, J.; Rudolf, P.; Sette, F.

    1991-01-01

    We report the observation of a giant resonance in the Cu 2p resonant-photoemission spectra of CuO. The study allows the unambiguous identification of the local Cu 3d8 configuration in the valence-band photoemission spectrum, providing conclusive evidence for the charge-transfer nature of the

  3. Theory of two-photon absorption by exciton states in cubic semiconductors with degenerate valence bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ai Viet; Nguyen Toan Thang.

    1987-06-01

    The coefficient of the absorption of two polarized photons is calculated for direct band gap semiconductors with degenerate valence bands. Wannier-Mott exciton states are included in both the intermediate and final states. Numerical calculations are performed for ZnSe and are compared with Sondergeld's experimental and theoretical results. (author). 11 refs, 2 tabs

  4. Nature of the valence band states in Bi2(Ca, Sr, La)3Cu2O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, B.O.; Lindberg, P.A.P.; Shen, Z.; Dessau, D.S.; Spicer, W.E.; Lindau, I.; Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have used photoemission spectroscopy to examine the symmetry of the occupied states of the valence band for the La doped superconductor Bi 2 (Ca, Sr, La) 3 Cu 2 O 8 . While the oxygen states near the bottom of the 7 eV wide valence band exhibit predominantly O 2p z symmetry, the states at the top of the valence band extending to the Fermi level are found to have primarily O 2p x and O 2p y character. We have also examined anomalous intensity enhancements in the valence band feature for photon energies near 18 eV. These enhancements, which occur at photon energies ranging from 15.8 to 18.0 eV for the different valence band features, are not consistent with either simple final state effects or direct O2s transitions to unoccupied O2p states

  5. Tunneling emission of electrons from semiconductors' valence bands in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalganov, V. D.; Mileshkina, N. V.; Ostroumova, E. V.

    2006-01-01

    Tunneling emission currents of electrons from semiconductors to vacuum (needle-shaped GaAs photodetectors) and to a metal (silicon metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes with a tunneling-transparent insulator layer) are studied in high and ultrahigh electric fields. It is shown that, in semiconductors with the n-type conductivity, the major contribution to the emission current is made by the tunneling emission of electrons from the valence band of the semiconductor, rather than from the conduction band

  6. Instanton contributions to the valence band of the double Sine-Gordon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricotta, R.M.; Escobar, C.O.

    1982-01-01

    The energy dispersion relation for the valence band of the double sine-Gordon potential is calculated, approximating the tunneling amplitude by a sum of contributions of multi-instantons and anti-instatons trajectories. The interesting feature of this potential is that they have to deal with two types of instantons, as there are two different potential barriers within one period of the potential. The results with the standard WKB approximation are compared. (Author) [pt

  7. Valence band variation in Si (110) nanowire induced by a covered insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Hua, Xu; Xiao-Yan, Liu; Yu-Hui, He; Gang, Du; Ru-Qi, Han; Jin-Feng, Kang; Chun, Fan; Ai-Dong, Sun

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we investigate strain effects induced by the deposition of gate dielectrics on the valence band structures in Si (110) nanowire via the simulation of strain distribution and the calculation of a generalized 6×6k·p strained valence band. The nanowire is surrounded by the gate dielectric. Our simulation indicates that the strain of the amorphous SiO 2 insulator is negligible without considering temperature factors. On the other hand, the thermal residual strain in a nanowire with amorphous SiO 2 insulator which has negligible lattice misfit strain pushes the valence subbands upwards by chemical vapour deposition and downwards by thermal oxidation treatment. In contrast with the strain of the amorphous SiO 2 insulator, the strain of the HfO 2 gate insulator in Si (110) nanowire pushes the valence subbands upwards remarkably. The thermal residual strain by HfO 2 insulator contributes to the up-shifting tendency. Our simulation results for valence band shifting and warping in Si nanowires can provide useful guidance for further nanowire device design. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  8. Systematic study on intermolecular valence-band dispersion in molecular crystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Intermolecular valence-band dispersion of crystalline films of phthalocyanines. • Intermolecular transfer integral versus lattice constant. • Site-specific intermolecular interaction and resultant valence-band dispersion. • Band narrowing effect induced by elevated temperature. - Abstract: Functionalities of organic semiconductors are governed not only by individual properties of constituent molecules but also by solid-state electronic states near the Fermi level such as frontier molecular orbitals, depending on weak intermolecular interactions in various conformations. The individual molecular property has been widely investigated in detail; on the other hand, the weak intermolecular interaction is difficult to investigate precisely due to the presence of the structural and thermal energy broadenings in organic solids. Here we show quite small but essential intermolecular valence band dispersions and their temperature dependence of sub-0.1-eV scale in crystalline films of metal phthalocyanines (H_2Pc, ZnPc, CoPc, MnPc, and F_1_6ZnPc) by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with synchrotron radiation. The observed bands show intermolecular and site dependent dispersion widths, phases, and periodicities, for different chemical substitution of terminal groups and central metals in the phthalocyanine molecule. The precise and systematic band-dispersion measurement would be a credible approach toward the comprehensive understanding of intermolecular interactions and resultant charge transport properties as well as their tuning by substituents in organic molecular systems.

  9. Accounting for many-body correlation effects in the calculation of the valence band photoelectron emission spectra of ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minar, J.; Chadov, S.; Ebert, H.; Chioncel, L.; Lichtenstein, A.; De Nadai, C.; Brookes, N.B.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of dynamical correlation effects on the valence band photoelectron emission of ferromagnetic Fe, Co and Ni has been investigated. Angle-resolved as well as angle-integrated valence band photoelectron emission spectra were calculated on the basis of the one-particle Green's function, which was obtained by using the fully relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. The correlation effects have been included in terms of the electronic self-energy which was calculated self-consistently within Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). In addition a theoretical approach to calculate high-energy angle-resolved valence band photoelectron emission spectra is presented

  10. Valence Band Structure of InAs1-xBix and InSb1-xBix Alloy Semiconductors Calculated Using Valence Band Anticrossing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Samajdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The valence band anticrossing model has been used to calculate the heavy/light hole and spin-orbit split-off energies in InAs1-xBix and InSb1-xBix alloy systems. It is found that both the heavy/light hole, and spin-orbit split E+ levels move upwards in energy with an increase in Bi content in the alloy, whereas the split E− energy for the holes shows a reverse trend. The model is also used to calculate the reduction of band gap energy with an increase in Bi mole fraction. The calculated values of band gap variation agree well with the available experimental data.

  11. On the theory of phonoriton in cubic semiconductors with a degenerate valence band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ai Viet; Nguyen Thi Que Huong; Le Qui Thong

    1992-10-01

    The ''phonoriton'' is an elementary excitation constructed from an exciton polariton and phonon in semiconductors under intense excitation by an electromagnetic wave near the exciton resonance (L.V. Keldysh and A.L. Ivanov, 1982). In this paper we develop a theory of phonoriton in direct band gap cubic semiconductor with a degenerate valence band using the simple model of J.L. Birman and B.S. Wang (1990). In addition to experimental proofs of the existence of phonoriton we propose an experiment to measure its flight time. (author). 33 refs

  12. Optical gain and gain suppression of quantum-well lasers with valence band mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.; Chuang, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of valence band mixing on the nonlinear gains of quantum-well lasers are studied theoretically. The authors' analysis is based on the multiband effective-mass theory and the density matrix formalism with intraband relaxation taken into account. The gain and the gain-suppression coefficient of a quantum-well laser are calculated from the complex optical susceptibility obtained by the density matrix formulation with the theoretical dipole moments obtained from the multiband effective-mass theory. The calculated gain spectrum shows that there are remarkable differences (both in peak amplitude and spectral shape) between our model with valence band mixing and the conventional parabolic band model. The shape of the gain spectrum calculated by the authors' model becomes more symmetric due to intraband relaxation together with nonparabolic energy dispersions and is closer to the experimental observations when compared with the conventional method using the parabolic band model and the multiband effective-mass calculation without intraband relaxation. Both give quite asymmetric gain spectra. Optical intensity in the GaAs active region is estimated by solving rate equations for the stationary states with nonlinear gain suppression. The authors calculate the mode gain for the resonant mode including the gain suppression, which results in spectral hole burning of the gain spectrum

  13. Convergence of valence bands for high thermoelectric performance for p-type InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hai-Zhu; Li, Ruo-Ping; Liu, Jun-Hui; Huang, Ming-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Band engineering to converge the bands to achieve high valley degeneracy is one of effective approaches for designing ideal thermoelectric materials. Convergence of many valleys in the valence band may lead to a high Seebeck coefficient, and induce promising thermoelectric performance of p-type InN. In the current work, we have systematically investigated the electronic structure and thermoelectric performance of wurtzite InN by using the density functional theory combined with semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Form the results, it can be found that intrinsic InN has a large Seebeck coefficient (254 μV/K) and the largest value of Z e T is 0.77. The transport properties of p-type InN are better than that of n-type one at the optimum carrier concentration, which mainly due to the large Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN, although the electrical conductivity of n-type InN is larger than that of p-type one. We found that the larger Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN may originate from the large valley degeneracy in the valence band. Moreover, the low minimum lattice thermal conductivity for InN is one key factor to become a good thermoelectric material. Therefore, p-type InN could be a potential material for further applications in the thermoelectric area.

  14. Spin-dependent electron-phonon coupling in the valence band of single-layer WS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinsche, Nicki Frank; Ngankeu, Arlette S.; Guilloy, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The absence of inversion symmetry leads to a strong spin-orbit splitting of the upper valence band of semiconducting single-layer transition-metal dichalchogenides such as MoS2 or WS2. This permits a direct comparison of the electron-phonon coupling strength in states that only differ by their spin....... Here, the electron-phonon coupling in the valence band maximum of single-layer WS2 is studied by first-principles calculations and angle-resolved photoemission. The coupling strength is found to be drastically different for the two spin-split branches, with calculated values of λK=0.0021 and 0.......40 for the upper and lower spin-split valence band of the freestanding layer, respectively. This difference is somewhat reduced when including scattering processes involving the Au(111) substrate present in the experiment but it remains significant, in good agreement with the experimental results....

  15. Auger electron emission initiated by the creation of valence-band holes in graphene by positron annihilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirayath, V A; Callewaert, V; Fairchild, A J; Chrysler, M D; Gladen, R W; Mcdonald, A D; Imam, S K; Shastry, K; Koymen, A R; Saniz, R; Barbiellini, B; Rajeshwar, K; Partoens, B; Weiss, A H

    2017-07-13

    Auger processes involving the filling of holes in the valence band are thought to make important contributions to the low-energy photoelectron and secondary electron spectrum from many solids. However, measurements of the energy spectrum and the efficiency with which electrons are emitted in this process remain elusive due to a large unrelated background resulting from primary beam-induced secondary electrons. Here, we report the direct measurement of the energy spectra of electrons emitted from single layer graphene as a result of the decay of deep holes in the valence band. These measurements were made possible by eliminating competing backgrounds by employing low-energy positrons (holes by annihilation. Our experimental results, supported by theoretical calculations, indicate that between 80 and 100% of the deep valence-band holes in graphene are filled via an Auger transition.

  16. Valence-band splitting energies in wurtzite InP nanowires: Photoluminescence spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadret, E. G.; Dias, G. O.; Dacal, L. C. O.; de Lima, M. M., Jr.; Ruffo, C. V. R. S.; Iikawa, F.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Chiaramonte, T.; Cotta, M. A.; Tizei, L. H. G.; Ugarte, D.; Cantarero, A.

    2010-09-01

    We investigated experimentally and theoretically the valence-band structure of wurtzite InP nanowires. The wurtzite phase, which usually is not stable for III-V phosphide compounds, has been observed in InP nanowires. We present results on the electronic properties of these nanowires using the photoluminescence excitation technique. Spectra from an ensemble of nanowires show three clear absorption edges separated by 44 meV and 143 meV, respectively. The band edges are attributed to excitonic absorptions involving three distinct valence-bands labeled: A, B, and C. Theoretical results based on “ab initio” calculation gives corresponding valence-band energy separations of 50 meV and 200 meV, respectively, which are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Valence band structures of InAs/GaAs quantum rings using the Fourier transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Boyong; Yu Zhongyuan; Liu Yumin

    2009-01-01

    The valence band structures of strained InAs/GaAs quantum rings are calculated, with the four-band k · p model, in the framework of effective-mass envelope function theory. When determining the Hamiltonian matrix elements, we develop the Fourier transform method instead of the widely used analytical integral method. Using Fourier transform, we have investigated the energy levels as functions of the geometrical parameters of the rings and compared our results with those obtained by the analytical integral method. The results show that the energy levels in the quantum rings change dramatically with the inner radius, outer radius, average radius, width, height of the ring and the distance between two adjacent rings. Our method can be adopted in low-dimensional structures with arbitrary shape. Our results are consistent with those in the literature and should be helpful for studying and fabricating optoelectronic devices

  18. Resonant photoemission at core-level shake-up thresholds: Valence-band satellites in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerneholm, O.; Andersen, J.N.; Wigren, C.; Nilsson, A.; Nyholm, R.; Ma; Ortensson, N.

    1990-01-01

    Three-hole satellites (3d 7 final-state configuration) in the nickel valence-band photoelectron spectrum have been identified at 13 and 18 eV binding energy with use of synchrotron radiation from the MAX storage ring. The three-hole satellites show resonances at photon energies close to the threshold for excitation of 3p 5 3d 9 core-hole shake-up states. The 13-eV satellite also shows a resonance directly at the 3p threshold. This is interpreted as an interference between the direct three-hole ionization and a shake-up transition in the Auger decay of the 3p hole. This shake-up process is also identified directly in the M 2,3 M 4,5 M 4,5 Auger spectrum

  19. A Comparison of the Valence Band Structure of Bulk and Epitaxial GeTe-based Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzyk, M.A.; Kowalski, B.J.; Orlowski, B.A.; Knoff, W.; Story, T.; Dobrowolski, W.; Slynko, V.E.; Slynko, E.I.; Johnson, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a comparison of the experimental results, which have been obtained by the resonant photoelectron spectroscopy for a set of selected diluted magnetic semiconductors based on GeTe, doped with manganese. The photoemission spectra are acquired for the photon energy range of 40-60 eV, corresponding to the Mn 3p → 3d resonances. The spectral features related to Mn 3d states are revealed in the emission from the valence band. The Mn 3d states contribution manifests itself in the whole valence band with a maximum at the binding energy of 3.8 eV. (authors)

  20. Decay of Wannier-Mott excitons interacting with acoustic phonon in semiconductors with a degenerate valence band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Toan Thang; Nguyen Ai Viet; Nguyen Hong Quang

    1987-06-01

    Decay probabilities of light and heavy excitons interacting with acoustic phonons in cubic semiconductors with a degenerate valence band are calculated. The numerical results for GaAs showed that the decay probability of the light exciton is much greater than that of the heavy one. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig

  1. Experimental determination of conduction and valence bands of semiconductor nanoparticles using Kelvin probe force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen; Chen Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    The ability to determine a semiconductor’s band edge positions is important for the design of new photocatalyst materials. In this paper, we introduced an experimental method based on Kelvin probe force microscopy to determine the conduction and valence band edge energies of semiconductor nanomaterials, which has rarely been demonstrated. We tested the method on six semiconductor nanoparticles (α-Fe 2 O 3 , CeO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , CuO, TiO 2 , and ZnO) with known electronic structures. The experimentally determined band edge positions for α-Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , and CuO well matched the literature values with no statistical difference. Except CeO 2 , all other metal oxides had a consistent upward bias in the experimental measurements of band edge positions because of the shielding effect of the adsorbed surface water layer. This experimental approach may outstand as a unique alternative way of probing the band edge energy positions of semiconductor materials to complement the current computational methods, which often find limitations in new synthetic or complex materials. Ultimately, this work provides scientific foundation for developing experimental tools to probe nanoscale electronic properties of photocatalytic materials, which will drive breakthroughs in the design of novel photocatalytic systems and advance the fundamental understanding of material properties.

  2. Crossover and valence band Kβ X-rays of chromium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazinic, Stjepko; Mandic, Luka; Kavcic, Matjaz; Bozicevic, Iva

    2011-01-01

    Kβ X-ray spectra of chromium metal and selected chromium oxides were measured twice using medium resolution flat crystal spectrometer and high resolution spectrometer employing Johansson geometry after excitation with 2 MeV proton beams. The positions and intensities of crossover (Kβ'') and valence (Kβ 2,5 ) band X-rays relative to the primary Kβ X-ray components were extracted in a consistent way. The results were compared with the existing data obtained by proton and photon induced ionization mechanisms and theoretical predictions. The obtained results in peak relative positions and intensities were analyzed in order to study dependence on the chromium oxidation states and chromium-oxygen bond lengths in selected chromium oxides. Our results obtained by both spectrometers confirm that the linear trend observed for the valence peak relative energy shift as a function of chromium oxidation number does not depend on the experimental resolution. Experimental results for normalized intensities (i.e. relative intensities divided with the number of chromium-oxygen pairs) of crossover and valence band X-rays obtained by both spectrometers are in very good agreement, and follow exponential relationship with the average Cr-O bond lengths in corresponding chromium oxides. The observed trends in crossover and valence X-rays normalized intensities could be used to measure the average chromium-oxygen bond length in various chromium oxides, with the sum of both crossover and valence X-ray normalized intensities being the most sensitive measure.

  3. Simultaneous Conduction and Valence Band Quantization in Ultrashallow High-Density Doping Profiles in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, F.; Wells, J. W.; Pakpour-Tabrizi, A. C.; Jackman, R. B.; Thiagarajan, B.; Hofmann, Ph.; Miwa, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous quantization of conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) states in silicon using ultrashallow, high-density, phosphorus doping profiles (so-called Si:P δ layers). We show that, in addition to the well-known quantization of CB states within the dopant plane, the confinement of VB-derived states between the subsurface P dopant layer and the Si surface gives rise to a simultaneous quantization of VB states in this narrow region. We also show that the VB quantization can be explained using a simple particle-in-a-box model, and that the number and energy separation of the quantized VB states depend on the depth of the P dopant layer beneath the Si surface. Since the quantized CB states do not show a strong dependence on the dopant depth (but rather on the dopant density), it is straightforward to exhibit control over the properties of the quantized CB and VB states independently of each other by choosing the dopant density and depth accordingly, thus offering new possibilities for engineering quantum matter.

  4. Energy shift and conduction-to-valence band transition mediated by a time-dependent potential barrier in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Andrey; da Costa, D. R.; de Sousa, G. O.; Pereira, J. M.; Farias, G. A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the scattering of a wave packet describing low-energy electrons in graphene by a time-dependent finite-step potential barrier. Our results demonstrate that, after Klein tunneling through the barrier, the electron acquires an extra energy which depends on the rate of change of the barrier height with time. If this rate is negative, the electron loses energy and ends up as a valence band state after leaving the barrier, which effectively behaves as a positively charged quasiparticle.

  5. Location of the valence band maximum in the band structure of anisotropic 1 T'-ReSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickholt, P.; Noky, J.; Schwier, E. F.; Shimada, K.; Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, T.; Datzer, C.; Drüppel, M.; Krüger, P.; Rohlfing, M.; Donath, M.

    2018-04-01

    Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are a focus of current research due to their fascinating optical and electronic properties with possible technical applications. ReSe2 is an interesting material of the TMDC family, with unique anisotropic properties originating from its distorted 1 T structure (1 T '). To develop a fundamental understanding of the optical and electric properties, we studied the underlying electronic structure with angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) as well as band-structure calculations within the density functional theory (DFT)-local density approximation (LDA) and GdW approximations. We identified the Γ ¯M¯1 direction, which is perpendicular to the a axis, as a distinct direction in k space with the smallest bandwidth of the highest valence band. Using photon-energy-dependent ARPES, two valence band maxima are identified within experimental limits of about 50 meV: one at the high-symmetry point Z , and a second one at a non-high-symmetry point in the Brillouin zone. Thus, the position in k space of the global valence band maximum is undecided experimentally. Theoretically, an indirect band gap is predicted on a DFT-LDA level, while quasiparticle corrections lead to a direct band gap at the Z point.

  6. Valence band structure of PDMS surface and a blend with MWCNTs: A UPS and MIES study of an insulating polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmerl, Natalya M.; Khodakov, Dmitriy A.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Andersson, Gunther G., E-mail: gunther.andersson@flinders.edu.au

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Valence electron spectroscopy was performed on an insulating polymer using different charge compensation methods. • MWCNT were embedded in PDMS and found to be the most effective method for reducing the charging of the insulating polymer. • The valence band spectrum of PDMS was obtained via MIES and UPS. • Ion scattering spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration depth profile of the PDMS in the sample. - Abstract: The use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is increasing with new technologies working toward compact, flexible and transparent devices for use in medical and microfluidic systems. Electronic characterization of PDMS and other insulating materials is difficult due to charging, yet necessary for many applications where the interfacial structure is vital to device function or further modification. The outermost layer in particular is of importance as this is the area where chemical reactions such as surface functionalization will occur. Here, we investigate the valence band structure of the outermost layer and near surface area of PDMS through the use of metastable induced photoelectron spectroscopy (MIES) paired with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The chemical composition of the samples under investigation were measured via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the vertical distribution of the polymer was shown with neutral impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (NICISS). Three separate methods for charge compensation are used for the samples, and their effectiveness is compared.

  7. Internal-strain effect on the valence band of strained silicon and its correlation with the bond angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaoka, Takeshi, E-mail: inaoka@phys.u-ryukyu.ac.jp; Yanagisawa, Susumu; Kadekawa, Yukihiro [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)

    2014-02-14

    By means of the first-principles density-functional theory, we investigate the effect of relative atom displacement in the crystal unit cell, namely, internal strain on the valence-band dispersion of strained silicon, and find close correlation of this effect with variation in the specific bond angles due to internal strain. We consider the [111] ([110]) band dispersion for (111) ((110)) biaxial tensility and [111] ([110]) uniaxial compression, because remarkably small values of hole effective mass m* can be obtained in this dispersion. Under the practical condition of no normal stress, biaxial tensility (uniaxial compression) involves additional normal compression (tensility) and internal strain. With an increase in the internal-strain parameter, the energy separation between the highest and second-highest valence bands becomes strikingly larger, and the highest band with conspicuously small m* extends remarkably down to a lower energy region, until it intersects or becomes admixed with the second band. This is closely correlated with the change in the specific bond angles, and this change can reasonably explain the above enlargement of the band separation.

  8. The localized effect of the Bi level on the valence band in the dilute bismuth GaBixAs1-x alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan-Zhen; Zhu, Min-Min; Wang, Jun; Wang, Sha-Sha; Lu, Ke-Qing

    2018-05-01

    The research on the temperature dependence of the band gap energy of the dilute bismuth GaBixAs1-x alloy has been done. It is found that its temperature insensitiveness is due to the enhanced localized character of the valence band state and the small decrease of the temperature coefficient for the conduction band minimum (CBM). The enhanced localized character of the valence band state is the main factor. In order to describe the localized effect of the Bi levels on the valence band, the localized energy is introduced into the Varshni's equation. It is found that the effect of the localized Bi level on the valence band becomes strong with increasing Bi content. In addition, it is found that the pressure dependence of the band gap energy of GaBixAs1-x does not seem to be influenced by the localized Bi levels. It is due to two factors. One is that the pressure dependence of the band gap energy is mainly determined by the D CBM of GaBixAs1-x. The D CBM of GaBixAs1-x is not influenced by the localized Bi levels. The other is that the small variation of the pressure coefficient for the D valence band maximum (VBM) state of GaBixAs1-x can be cancelled by the variation of the pressure coefficient for the D CBM state of GaBixAs1-x.

  9. Valence Band Structure of InAs1−xBix and InSb1−xBix Alloy Semiconductors Calculated Using Valence Band Anticrossing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samajdar, D. P.; Dhar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The valence band anticrossing model has been used to calculate the heavy/light hole and spin-orbit split-off energies in InAs1−xBix and InSb1−xBix alloy systems. It is found that both the heavy/light hole, and spin-orbit split E + levels move upwards in energy with an increase in Bi content in the alloy, whereas the split E − energy for the holes shows a reverse trend. The model is also used to calculate the reduction of band gap energy with an increase in Bi mole fraction. The calculated values of band gap variation agree well with the available experimental data. PMID:24592181

  10. Valence band structure of InAs(1-x)Bi(x) and InSb(1-x)Bi(x) alloy semiconductors calculated using valence band anticrossing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samajdar, D P; Dhar, S

    2014-01-01

    The valence band anticrossing model has been used to calculate the heavy/light hole and spin-orbit split-off energies in InAs(1-x)Bi(x) and InSb(1-x)Bi(x) alloy systems. It is found that both the heavy/light hole, and spin-orbit split E + levels move upwards in energy with an increase in Bi content in the alloy, whereas the split E - energy for the holes shows a reverse trend. The model is also used to calculate the reduction of band gap energy with an increase in Bi mole fraction. The calculated values of band gap variation agree well with the available experimental data.

  11. Determination of the impact of Bi content on the valence band energy of GaAsBi using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Collar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the change of the valence band energy of GaAs1-xBix (0valence band energy per addition of 1 % Bi is determined for strained and unstrained thin films using a linear approximation applicable to the dilute regime. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE was used as a complementary technique to determine the change in GaAsBi bandgap resulting from Bi addition. Analysis of SE and XPS data together supports the conclusion that ∼75% of the reduction in the bandgap is in the valence band for a compressively strained, dilute GaAsBi thin film at room temperature.

  12. Electronic properties and bonding in Zr Hx thin films investigated by valence-band x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Martin; Schmidt, Susann; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans

    2017-11-01

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding in reactively magnetron sputtered Zr Hx (x =0.15 , 0.30, 1.16) thin films with oxygen content as low as 0.2 at.% are investigated by 4d valence band, shallow 4p core-level, and 3d core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With increasing hydrogen content, we observe significant reduction of the 4d valence states close to the Fermi level as a result of redistribution of intensity toward the H 1s-Zr 4d hybridization region at ˜6 eV below the Fermi level. For low hydrogen content (x =0.15 , 0.30), the films consist of a superposition of hexagonal closest-packed metal (α phase) and understoichiometric δ -Zr Hx (Ca F2 -type structure) phases, while for x =1.16 , the films form single-phase Zr Hx that largely resembles that of stoichiometric δ -Zr H2 phase. We show that the cubic δ -Zr Hx phase is metastable as thin film up to x =1.16 , while for higher H contents the structure is predicted to be tetragonally distorted. For the investigated Zr H1.16 film, we find chemical shifts of 0.68 and 0.51 eV toward higher binding energies for the Zr 4 p3 /2 and 3 d5 /2 peak positions, respectively. Compared to the Zr metal binding energies of 27.26 and 178.87 eV, this signifies a charge transfer from Zr to H atoms. The change in the electronic structure, spectral line shapes, and chemical shifts as a function of hydrogen content is discussed in relation to the charge transfer from Zr to H that affects the conductivity by charge redistribution in the valence band.

  13. Determination of band offsets at strained NiO and MgO heterojunction for MgO as an interlayer in heterojunction light emitting diode applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.D., E-mail: devsh@rrcat.gov.in [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Nand, Mangla [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400085 (India); Ajimsha, R.S.; Upadhyay, Anuj; Kamparath, Rajiv; Mukherjee, C.; Misra, P.; Sinha, A.K. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Jha, S.N. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400085 (India); Ganguli, Tapas [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Valence band offset at NiO/MgO heterojunction is experimentally determined. • Experimentally determined value of 2.3 ± 0.4 eV is significantly larger than the predicted from theoretical calculations. • The value of valence band offset is in corroboration with that estimated from the band transitivity model. • Our result can be used to predict accurately carrier transport and electroluminescence mechanisms for heterojunction LEDs. - Abstract: Valence band offset of 2.3 ± 0.4 eV at strained NiO/MgO heterojunction is determined from photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements. The determined value of valence band offset is larger than that is predicted from first principle calculations, but is in corroboration with that obtained from band transitivity rule. Our PES result indicates a larger value of the valence band offset at strained NiO/MgO heterojunction and can be used to predict accurately carrier transport and electroluminescence mechanisms for n-ZnO/MgO/p-NiO and p-NiO/MgO/n-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes.

  14. Effects of surface condition on the work function and valence-band position of ZnSnN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Amanda M.; Tolstova, Yulia; Lewis, Nathan S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2017-12-01

    ZnSnN2 is an emerging wide band gap earth-abundant semiconductor with potential applications in photonic devices such as solar cells, LEDs, and optical sensors. We report the characterization by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of reactively radio-frequency sputtered II-IV-nitride ZnSnN2 thin films. For samples transferred in high vacuum, the ZnSnN2 surface work function was 4.0 ± 0.1 eV below the vacuum level, with a valence-band onset of 1.2 ± 0.1 eV below the Fermi level. The resulting band diagram indicates that the degenerate bulk Fermi level position in ZnSnN2 shifts to mid-gap at the surface due to band bending that results from equilibration with delocalized surface states within the gap. Brief (< 10 s) exposures to air, a nitrogen-plasma treatment, or argon-ion sputtering caused significant chemical changes at the surface, both in surface composition and interfacial energetics. The relative band positioning of the n-type semiconductor against standard redox potentials indicated that ZnSnN2 has an appropriate energy band alignment for use as a photoanode to effect the oxygen-evolution reaction.

  15. Polarization Dependent Bulk-sensitive Valence Band Photoemission Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations: Part I. 3d Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shigenori; Hamada, Ikutaro

    2017-12-01

    The X-ray polarization dependent valence band HAXPES spectra of 3d transition metals (TMs) of Ti-Zn were measured to investigate the orbital resolved electronic structures by utilizing that the fact the photoionization cross-section of the atomic orbitals strongly depends on the experimental geometry. We have calculated the HAXPES spectra, which correspond to the cross-section weighted densities of states (CSW-DOSs), where the DOSs were obtained by the density functional theory calculations, and we have determined the relative photoionization cross-sections of the 4s and 4p orbitals to the 3d orbital in the 3d TMs. The experimentally obtained bulk-sensitive 3d and 4s DOSs were good agreement with the calculated DOSs in Ti, V, Cr, and Cu. In contrast, the deviations between the experimental and calculated 3d DOSs for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni were found, suggesting that the electron correlation plays an important role in the electronic structures for these materials.

  16. Valence-band and core-level photoemission study of single-crystal Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Z.; Lindberg, P.A.P.; Wells, B.O.; Mitzi, D.B.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1988-01-01

    High-quality single crystals of Bi 2 CaSr 2 Cu 2 O 8 superconductors have been prepared and cleaved in ultrahigh vacuum. Low-energy electron diffraction measurements show that the surface structure is consistent with the bulk crystal structure. Ultraviolet photoemission and x-ray photoemission experiments were performed on these well-characterized sample surfaces. The valence-band and the core-level spectra obtained from the single-crystal surfaces are in agreement with spectra recorded from polycrystalline samples, justifying earlier results from polycrystalline samples. Cu satellites are observed both in the valence band and Cu 2p core level, signaling the strong correlation among the Cu 3d electrons. The O 1s core-level data exhibit a sharp, single peak at 529-eV binding energy without any clear satellite structures

  17. Features of carrier tunneling between the silicon valence band and metal in devices based on the Al/high-K oxide/SiO_2/Si structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vexler, M. I.; Grekhov, I. V.

    2016-01-01

    The features of electron tunneling from or into the silicon valence band in a metal–insulator–semiconductor system with the HfO_2(ZrO_2)/SiO_2 double-layer insulator are theoretically analyzed for different modes. It is demonstrated that the valence-band current plays a less important role in structures with HfO_2(ZrO_2)/SiO_2 than in structures containing only silicon dioxide. In the case of a very wide-gap high-K oxide ZrO_2, nonmonotonic behavior related to tunneling through the upper barrier is predicted for the valence-band–metal current component. The use of an insulator stack can offer certain advantages for some devices, including diodes, bipolar tunnel-emitter transistors, and resonant-tunneling diodes, along with the traditional use of high-K insulators in a field-effect transistor.

  18. Effect of phase formation on valence band photoemission and photoresonance study of Ti/Ni multilayers using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Pramod; Chaudhari, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents investigation of Ti-Ni alloy phase formation and its effect on valence band (VB) photoemission and photoresonance study of as-deposited as well as annealed Ti/Ni multilayers (MLs) up to 600 deg. C using synchrotron radiation. For this purpose [Ti (50 A)/Ni (50 A)]X 10 ML structures were deposited by using electron-beam evaporation technique under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Formation of different phases of Ti-Ni alloy due to annealing treatment has been confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The XRD pattern corresponding as-deposited ML sample shows crystalline nature of both Ti and Ni deposited layers, whereas 300 deg. C annealed ML sample show solid-state reaction (SSR) leading to amorphization and subsequent recrystallisation at higher temperatures of annealing (≥400 deg. C) with the formation of TiNi, TiNi 3 and Ti 2 Ni alloy phases. The survey scans corresponding to 400, 500 and 600 deg. C annealed ML sample shows interdiffusion and intermixing of Ni atoms into Ti layers leading to chemical Ti-Ni alloys phase formation at interface. The corresponding recorded VB spectra using synchrotron radiation at 134 eV on as-deposited ML sample with successive sputtering shows alternately photoemission bands due to Ti 3d and Ni 3d, respectively, indicating there is no mixing of the consequent layers and any phase formation at the interface during deposition. However, ML samples annealed at higher temperatures of annealing, particularly at 400, 500 and 600 deg. C show a clear shift in Ni 3d band and its satellite peak position to higher BE side indicates Ti-Ni alloy phase formation. In addition to this, reduction of satellite peak intensity and Ni 3d density of states (DOS) near Fermi level is also observed due to Ti-Ni phase formation with higher annealing temperatures. The variable photon energy VB measurements on as-deposited and ML samples annealed at 400 deg. C confirms existence and BE position of observed Ni 3d satellite

  19. First determination of the valence band dispersion of CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-I.; Barragán, Ana; Nair, Maya N.; Jacques, Vincent L. R.; Le Bolloc'h, David; Fertey, Pierre; Jemli, Khaoula; Lédée, Ferdinand; Trippé-Allard, Gaëlle; Deleporte, Emmanuelle; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Tejeda, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    The family of hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskites is in the limelight because of their recently discovered high photovoltaic efficiency. These materials combine photovoltaic energy conversion efficiencies exceeding 22% and low-temperature and low-cost processing in solution; a breakthrough in the panorama of renewable energy. Solar cell operation relies on the excitation of the valence band electrons to the conduction band by solar photons. One factor strongly impacting the absorption efficiency is the band dispersion. The band dispersion has been extensively studied theoretically, but no experimental information was available. Herein, we present the first experimental determination of the valence band dispersion of methylammonium lead halide in the tetragonal phase. Our results pave the way for contrasting the electronic hopping or the electron effective masses in different theories by comparing to our experimental bands. We also show a significant broadening of the electronic states, promoting relaxed conditions for photon absorption, and demonstrate that the tetragonal structure associated to the octahedra network distortion below 50 °C induces only a minor modification of the electronic bands, with respect to the cubic phase at high temperature, thus minimizing the impact of the cubic-tetragonal transition on solar cell efficiencies.

  20. Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Botchkarev, A.; Rockett, A.; Morkoc, H.

    1996-01-01

    The valence-band discontinuities at various wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions were measured by means of x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A significant forward endash backward asymmetry was observed in the InN/GaN endash GaN/InN and InN/AlN endash AlN/InN heterojunctions. The asymmetry was understood as a piezoelectric strain effect. We report the valence band discontinuities for InN/GaN=1.05±0.25 eV, GaN/AlN=0.70±0.24 eV, and InN/AlN=1.81±0.20 eV, all in the standard type I lineup. These values obey transitivity to within the experimental accuracy. Tables of photoemission core level binding energies are reported for wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Band offsets in ITO/Ga2O3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Patrick H.; Ren, F.; Hays, David C.; Gila, B. P.; Pearton, S. J.; Jang, Soohwan; Kuramata, Akito

    2017-11-01

    The valence band offsets in rf-sputtered Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)/single crystal β-Ga2O3 (ITO/Ga2O3) heterostructures were measured with X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy using the Kraut method. The bandgaps of the component materials in the heterostructure were determined by Reflection Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy as 4.6 eV for Ga2O3 and 3.5 eV for ITO. The valence band offset was determined to be -0.78 ± 0.30 eV, while the conduction band offset was determined to be -0.32 ± 0.13 eV. The ITO/Ga2O3 system has a nested gap (type I) alignment. The use of a thin layer of ITO between a metal and the Ga2O3 is an attractive approach for reducing contact resistance on Ga2O3-based power electronic devices and solar-blind photodetectors.

  2. Chemical state analysis of heat-treated 6, 13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene investigated by XPS valence band spectra, XANES spectra and first-principles calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, Maiko; Natsume, Yutaka; Kikuma, Jun; Setoyama, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) valence band spectra reflect the chemical bonding states. To take this advantage, we tried to interpret experimental spectra by the occupied density of states (DOS) based on first principles calculation. In this work, we discussed XPS and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra of 6, 13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-Pen), which is well known as an organic semiconductor. We studied chemical structure change of TIPS-Pen caused by heat-treatment at 300degC under nitrogen and under the air. It has been suggested that the structural change of pentacene skeleton by Diels-Alder type reaction occurs in both cases. In addition, the sample heat-treated under the air showed desorption of the isopropyl group and increase of oxygen concentration. (author)

  3. Valence band electronic structure of Ho-doped La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 using ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, S. K.; Mukharjee, R. N.; Mishra, D. K.; Roul, B. K.; Sekhar, B. R.; Dalai, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    In this manuscript we report the valence band electronic structure of Ho doped La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy. We compared the density of states of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3, La0.67Ca0.3Ho0.03MnO3 and La0.64Ho0.03Ca0.33MnO3 near the Fermi level at various temperatures. Significant amount of changes have been observed at higher temperatures (220 K and 300 K) where the near Fermi level density of states increases with Ho doping into La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 indicating the enhancement of magnitude of change in metallicity (conductivity).

  4. Valence band structure and density of states effective mass model of biaxial tensile strained silicon based on k · p theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Qian-Wei; Liu Hong-Xia; Wang Shu-Long; Qin Shan-Shan; Wang Zhi-Lin

    2011-01-01

    After constructing a stress and strain model, the valence bands of in-plane biaxial tensile strained Si is calculated by k · p method. In the paper we calculate the accurate anisotropy valance bands and the splitting energy between light and heavy hole bands. The results show that the valance bands are highly distorted, and the anisotropy is more obvious. To obtain the density of states (DOS) effective mass, which is a very important parameter for device modeling, a DOS effective mass model of biaxial tensile strained Si is constructed based on the valance band calculation. This model can be directly used in the device model of metal—oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). It also a provides valuable reference for biaxial tensile strained silicon MOSFET design. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. Interplay of Coulomb interactions and disorder in three-dimensional quadratic band crossings without time-reversal symmetry and with unequal masses for conduction and valence bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Ipsita; Nandkishore, Rahul M.

    2018-03-01

    Coulomb interactions famously drive three-dimensional quadratic band crossing semimetals into a non-Fermi liquid phase of matter. In a previous work [Nandkishore and Parameswaran, Phys. Rev. B 95, 205106 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.205106], the effect of disorder on this non-Fermi liquid phase was investigated, assuming that the band structure was isotropic, assuming that the conduction and valence bands had the same band mass, and assuming that the disorder preserved exact time-reversal symmetry and statistical isotropy. It was shown that the non-Fermi liquid fixed point is unstable to disorder and that a runaway flow to strong disorder occurs. In this paper, we extend that analysis by relaxing the assumption of time-reversal symmetry and allowing the electron and hole masses to differ (but continuing to assume isotropy of the low energy band structure). We first incorporate time-reversal symmetry breaking disorder and demonstrate that there do not appear any new fixed points. Moreover, while the system continues to flow to strong disorder, time-reversal-symmetry-breaking disorder grows asymptotically more slowly than time-reversal-symmetry-preserving disorder, which we therefore expect should dominate the strong-coupling phase. We then allow for unequal electron and hole masses. We show that whereas asymmetry in the two masses is irrelevant in the clean system, it is relevant in the presence of disorder, such that the `effective masses' of the conduction and valence bands should become sharply distinct in the low-energy limit. We calculate the RG flow equations for the disordered interacting system with unequal band masses and demonstrate that the problem exhibits a runaway flow to strong disorder. Along the runaway flow, time-reversal-symmetry-preserving disorder grows asymptotically more rapidly than both time-reversal-symmetry-breaking disorder and the Coulomb interaction.

  6. Band Offsets at the Interface between Crystalline and Amorphous Silicon from First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarolimek, K.; Hazrati, E.; de Groot, R. A.; de Wijs, G. A.

    2017-07-01

    The band offsets between crystalline and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a -Si ∶H ) are key parameters governing the charge transport in modern silicon heterojunction solar cells. They are an important input for macroscopic simulators that are used to further optimize the solar cell. Past experimental studies, using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and capacitance-voltage measurements, have yielded conflicting results on the band offset. Here, we present a computational study on the band offsets. It is based on atomistic models and density-functional theory (DFT). The amorphous part of the interface is obtained by relatively long DFT first-principles molecular-dynamics runs at an elevated temperature on 30 statistically independent samples. In order to obtain a realistic conduction-band position the electronic structure of the interface is calculated with a hybrid functional. We find a slight asymmetry in the band offsets, where the offset in the valence band (0.29 eV) is larger than in the conduction band (0.17 eV). Our results are in agreement with the latest XPS measurements that report a valence-band offset of 0.3 eV [M. Liebhaber et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031601 (2015), 10.1063/1.4906195].

  7. Band offsets of non-polar A-plane GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterostructures measured by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ling; Zhu, Qin Sheng; Yang, Shao Yan; Liu, Gui Peng; Li, Hui Jie; Wei, Hong Yuan; Jiao, Chun Mei; Liu, Shu Man; Wang, Zhan Guo; Zhou, Xiao Wei; Mao, Wei; Hao, Yue; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The band offsets of non-polar A-plane GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions are measured by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A large forward-backward asymmetry is observed in the non-polar GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions. The valence-band offsets in the non-polar A-plane GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions are determined to be 1.33 ± 0.16 and 0.73 ± 0.16 eV, respectively. The large valence-band offset difference of 0.6 eV between the non-polar GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions is considered to be due to piezoelectric strain effect in the non-polar heterojunction overlayers.

  8. Large shift and small broadening of Br2 valence band upon dimer formation with H2O: an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin-Mergarejo, Ricardo; Rubayo-Soneira, Jesus; Halberstadt, Nadine; Ayed, Tahra; Bernal-Uruchurtu, Margarita I; Hernández-Lamoneda, Ramón; Janda, Kenneth C

    2011-06-16

    Valence electronic excitation spectra are calculated for the H(2)O···Br(2) complex using highly correlated ab initio potentials for both the ground and the valence electronic excited states and a 2-D approximation for vibrational motion. Due to the strong interaction between the O-Br and the Br-Br stretching motions, inclusion of these vibrations is the minimum necessary for the spectrum calculation. A basis set calculation is performed to determine the vibrational wave functions for the ground electronic state and a wave packet simulation is conducted for the nuclear dynamics on the excited state surfaces. The effects of both the spin-orbit interaction and temperature on the spectra are explored. The interaction of Br(2) with a single water molecule induces nearly as large a shift in the spectrum as is observed for an aqueous solution. In contrast, complex formation has a remarkably small effect on the T = 0 K width of the valence bands due to the fast dissociation of the dihalogen bond upon excitation. We therefore conclude that the widths of the spectra in aqueous solution are mostly due to inhomogeneous broadening. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Valence band electronic structure and band alignment of LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}(111) heterointerfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabel, J.; Scheiderer, P.; Zapf, M.; Schuetz, P.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R. [Physikalisches Institut and Roentgen Center for Complex Material Systems (RCCM), Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schlueter, C.; Lee, T.L. [Diamond Light Source, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    As in the famous LaAlO{sub 3}(LAO)/SrTiO{sub 3}(STO) (001) a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) also forms at the interface between LAO and STO in (111) orientation. A distinct feature of the (111) interface is its peculiar real space topology. Each bilayer represents a buckled honeycomb lattice similar to graphene which is known theoretically to host various topologically non-trivial states. Bilayer STO in proximity to the interface can be regarded as a three-orbital generalization of graphene with enhanced electron correlations making it a promising candidate for the realization of strongly correlated topological phases. We have investigated the electronic structure of the LAO/STO (111) heterostructure in relation to the oxygen vacancy concentration which we can control by synchrotron light irradiation and oxygen dosing. With hard X-ray photoemission we study the core levels, whereas resonant soft X-ray photoemission is used to probe the interfacial valence band (VB) states. Two VB features are found: a peak at the Fermi level associated with the 2DES and in-gap states at higher binding energies attributed to oxygen vacancies. By varying the oxygen vacancy contribution we can tune the emergence of the VB states and engineer the interfacial band alignment.

  10. Relation between plasmons and the valence-band density-of-states in polymethylmethacrylate - influence of ion irradiation on damage selectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moliton, J.P.; Jussiaux, C.; Trigaud, T.; Lazzaroni, R.; Lhost, O.; Bredas, J.L.; Kihn, Y.; Sevely, J.

    1996-01-01

    A physical model is presented that aims at rationalizing the selectivity of bond breakage observed when polymethylmethacrylate is irradiated by ions in the 10-500 keV energy range. This model, previously proposed by Brandt and Ritchie, is based on electronic collective effects. The coupling between the pure plasma oscillation at omega(p) and the oscillation of free electrons at [omega(k0)(2)](1/2) makes the whole electronic population resonant at the frequency omega(rp) = (omega(p)(2) + [omega(k0)(2)])(1/2). By computing the valence-band density of states, we calculate [omega(k0)(2)] and then deduce the theoretical value of omega(rp). On the other hand, we provide an experimental measurement of omega(rp) and study its dependence on ion fluence by electron-energy-loss spectroscopy. The validity of the model of Brandt and Ritchie is then discussed in the light of both theoretical and experimental data. (author)

  11. Pulsed laser deposition of HfO{sub 2} thin films on indium zinc oxide: Band offsets measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciun, D.; Craciun, V., E-mail: valentin.craciun@inflpr.ro

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • High quality amorphous IZO and HfO{sub 2} films were obtained by PLD technique. • XPS measurements were used to obtain the valence band alignment in HfO{sub 2}/IZO heterostructure. • A valence band offset (ΔE{sub V}) of 1.75 eV was obtained for the HfO{sub 2}/IZO heterostructure. • A conduction band offset (ΔE{sub C}) of 0.65 eV was estimated for the HfO{sub 2}/IZO heterostructure. - Abstract: One of the most used dielectric films for amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) based thin films transistor is HfO{sub 2}. The estimation of the valence band discontinuity (ΔE{sub V}) of HfO{sub 2}/IZO heterostructure grown using the pulsed laser deposition technique, with In/(In + Zn) = 0.79, was obtained from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The binding energies of Hf 4d5, Zn 2p3 and In 3d5 core levels and valence band maxima were measured for thick pure films and for a very thin HfO{sub 2} film deposited on a thick IZO film. A value of ΔE{sub V} = 1.75 ± 0.05 eV was estimated for the heterostructure. Taking into account the measured HfO{sub 2} and IZO optical bandgap values of 5.50 eV and 3.10 eV, respectively, a conduction band offset ΔE{sub C} = 0.65 ± 0.05 eV in HfO{sub 2}/IZO heterostructure was then obtained.

  12. Measurement of ZnO/Al2O3 Heterojunction Band Offsets by in situ X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Hong-Wen; Zhang Hong; Wang Xue-Min; Zhao Yan; Yan Da-Wei; Jiang Zhong-Qian; Yao Gang; Zeng Ti-Xian; Wu Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    ZnO films are grown on c-sapphire substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. The band offsets of the ZnO/Al 2 O 3 heterojunction are studied by in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band of Al 2 O 3 is found to be 3.59±0.05eV below that of ZnO. Together with the resulting conduction band offset of 2.04±0.05eV, this indicates that a type-I staggered band line exists at the ZnO/Al 2 O 3 heterojunction

  13. Computational Controversy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Benjamin; Kuhn, Tobias; Beelen, Kaspar; Aroyo, Lora

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, vaccination, abortion, Trump: Many topics are surrounded by fierce controversies. The nature of such heated debates and their elements have been studied extensively in the social science literature. More recently, various computational approaches to controversy analysis have

  14. Still controversial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-10-15

    It is some sixty years since the existence of the neutrino was controversially postulated by the controversial Wolfgang Pauli. Today, the neutrino remains controversial. At the Berkeley Conference, summarizer Steve Weinberg kept the spotlight on these enigmatic particles during a considerable portion of his talk.

  15. Still controversial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    It is some sixty years since the existence of the neutrino was controversially postulated by the controversial Wolfgang Pauli. Today, the neutrino remains controversial. At the Berkeley Conference, summarizer Steve Weinberg kept the spotlight on these enigmatic particles during a considerable portion of his talk

  16. Deduction of the chemical state and the electronic structure of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy core-level and valence-band spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Liang, Le [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Lanting, E-mail: lantingzh@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lmsun@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hirano Institute for Materials Innovation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sun, Limin, E-mail: lantingzh@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lmsun@sjtu.edu.cn [Instrumental Analysis Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hirano, Shinichi [Hirano Institute for Materials Innovation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-10-28

    Characterization of chemical state and electronic structure of the technologically important Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is attractive for understanding the physical nature of its excellent magnetic properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of such rare-earth compound is important and also challenging due to the easy oxidation of surface and small photoelectron cross-sections of rare-earth 4f electrons and B 2p electrons, etc. Here, we reported an investigation based on XPS spectra of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound as a function of Ar ion sputtering time. The chemical state of Fe and that of B in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound can be clearly determined to be 0 and −3, respectively. The Nd in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is found to have the chemical state of close to +3 instead of +3 as compared with the Nd in Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, by comparing the valence-band spectrum of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound to that of the pure Fe, the contributions from Nd, Fe, and B to the valence-band structure of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is made more clear. The B 2p states and B 2s states are identified to be at ∼11.2 eV and ∼24.6 eV, respectively, which is reported for the first time. The contribution from Nd 4f states can be identified both in XPS core-level spectrum and XPS valence-band spectrum. Although Nd 4f states partially hybridize with Fe 3d states, Nd 4f states are mainly localized in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound.

  17. Band offsets in HfTiO/InGaZnO4 heterojunction determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, G.; Chen, X.F.; Lv, J.G.; Fang, Z.B.; Liu, Y.M.; Zhu, K.R.; Sun, Z.Q.; Liu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Band offsets in HfTiO/InGaZnO 4 heterojunction were determined by XPS. • Valence band offset of HfTiO/IGZO heterojunction is determined to be 0.35 eV. • Conduction band offset of 1.61 eV is deduced for HfTiO/IGZO heterojunction. - Abstract: In current report, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been pursued to obtain the valence band discontinuity (ΔE v ) of sputter deposited HfTiO/InZnGaO 4 (IGZO) heterostructures. A ΔE v value of 0.32 ± 0.1 eV was obtained by using the Ga 2p3/2, Zn 2p3/2, and In 3d5/2 energy levels as references. Taking into consideration the experimental band gaps of 5.35 eV and 3.39 eV for HfTiO and IGZO thin films measured by absorption method, respectively, this would result in a conduction band offset of 1.64 eV in this heterostructure

  18. Plutonium controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated

  19. Plutonium controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  20. Computational Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, Benjamin; Kuhn, Tobias; Beelen, Kaspar; Aroyo, Lora

    2017-01-01

    Climate change, vaccination, abortion, Trump: Many topics are surrounded by fierce controversies. The nature of such heated debates and their elements have been studied extensively in the social science literature. More recently, various computational approaches to controversy analysis have appeared, using new data sources such as Wikipedia, which help us now better understand these phenomena. However, compared to what social sciences have discovered about such debates, the existing computati...

  1. The observation of valence band change on resistive switching of epitaxial Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} film using removable liquid electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hong-Sub; Park, Hyung-Ho, E-mail: hhpark@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seodaemun-Ku, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-07

    The resistive switching (RS) phenomenon in transition metal oxides (TMOs) has received a great deal of attention for non-volatile memory applications. Various RS mechanisms have been suggested as to explain the observed RS characteristics. Many reports suggest that changes of interface and the role of oxygen vacancies originate in RS phenomena; therefore, in this study, we use a liquid drop of mercury as the top electrode (TE), epitaxial Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (PCMO) (110) film of the perovskite manganite family for RS material, and an Nb-doped (0.7 at. %) SrTiO{sub 3} (100) single crystal as the substrate to observe changes in the interface between the TE and TMOs. The use of removable liquid electrode Hg drop as TE not only enables observation of the RS characteristic as a bipolar RS curve (counterclockwise) but also facilitates analysis of the valence band of the PCMO surface after resistive switching via photoelectron spectroscopy. The observed I-V behaviors of the low and high resistance states (HRS) are explained with an electrochemical migration model in PCMO film where accumulated oxygen vacancies at the interface between the Hg TE and PCMO (110) surface induce the HRS. The interpreted RS mechanism is directly confirmed via valence band spectrum analysis.

  2. Measurement of core level and band offsets at the interface of ITO/Hg_3In_2Te_6(1 1 0) heterojunction by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yapeng; Fu, Li; Sun, Jie; Ibrahim, Kurash; Wang, Jia-ou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The valence band maximum of ITO film and MIT were measured to be 1.6 eV and 0.6 eV, respectively. • The concentration of In element presented a trend of increasing first and then decreasing from MIT to ITO. • The valence band offsets of the ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction was confirmed to be a type-II band alignment phenomenon. - Abstract: The Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) film was deposited on the surface of Hg_3In_2Te_6 (short for MIT) (1 1 0) for the fabrication of ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction by using the pulsed laser deposition method. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to examine the band offsets and core level of ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunctions. The result showed that the valence band maximum of ITO films and MIT(1 1 0) were 1.6 eV and 0.6 eV, respectively. Meanwhile, it was found that the binding energy of Te 3d, Sn 3d and Hg 4f remained unchanged during the ITO deposition process. However, the binding energy of O 1s and In 3d_5_/_2 increased about 0.3 eV and 0.2 eV, respectively, with the thickness increasing of ITO film from 3.5 nm to 5 nm. This may due to the elements diffusion at the interface region during the film growing process. According to the core level spectrum, it can be speculated that no significant chemical reaction occurred at the interface of ITO/MIT(1 1 0). In addition, the valence band offset of the ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction can be calculated to be −1 ± 0.15 eV by the means of the photoelectron spectroscopy methods. The conduction band offset is deduced to be −3.96 ± 0.15 eV from the known valence band offset value, indicating that the band offsets of ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction is a type-II band alignment.

  3. Measurement of core level and band offsets at the interface of ITO/Hg{sub 3}In{sub 2}Te{sub 6}(1 1 0) heterojunction by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yapeng [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Fu, Li, E-mail: fuli@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Sun, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Ibrahim, Kurash; Wang, Jia-ou [Laboratory of Synchrotron Radiation, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • The valence band maximum of ITO film and MIT were measured to be 1.6 eV and 0.6 eV, respectively. • The concentration of In element presented a trend of increasing first and then decreasing from MIT to ITO. • The valence band offsets of the ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction was confirmed to be a type-II band alignment phenomenon. - Abstract: The Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) film was deposited on the surface of Hg{sub 3}In{sub 2}Te{sub 6} (short for MIT) (1 1 0) for the fabrication of ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction by using the pulsed laser deposition method. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to examine the band offsets and core level of ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunctions. The result showed that the valence band maximum of ITO films and MIT(1 1 0) were 1.6 eV and 0.6 eV, respectively. Meanwhile, it was found that the binding energy of Te 3d, Sn 3d and Hg 4f remained unchanged during the ITO deposition process. However, the binding energy of O 1s and In 3d{sub 5/2} increased about 0.3 eV and 0.2 eV, respectively, with the thickness increasing of ITO film from 3.5 nm to 5 nm. This may due to the elements diffusion at the interface region during the film growing process. According to the core level spectrum, it can be speculated that no significant chemical reaction occurred at the interface of ITO/MIT(1 1 0). In addition, the valence band offset of the ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction can be calculated to be −1 ± 0.15 eV by the means of the photoelectron spectroscopy methods. The conduction band offset is deduced to be −3.96 ± 0.15 eV from the known valence band offset value, indicating that the band offsets of ITO/MIT(1 1 0) heterojunction is a type-II band alignment.

  4. The carrier transport mechanism and band offset at the interface of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yapeng, E-mail: liyp1984@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China); Li, Yingfeng [School of Electrical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China); Wang, Jianyuan [School of Nature and Applied Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); He, Zhirong; Zhang, Yonghong; Yu, Qi; Hou, Juncai [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723001 (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The carrier transport deviated from ideal thermionic emission model. • One deep level present at the interface of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction. • The band offsets of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction are a type-II band alignment. - Abstract: The ZnO films were deposited on the surface of n-Si(111) substrate by pulsed laser deposition for fabrication of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction. The carrier transport mechanism, deep level defects and band offsets at the interface of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction were investigated by current- voltage measurement, deep level transient spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results showed that the barrier height and ideality factor values varied in the different linear voltage range by using the thermionic emission model, which was due to the deep level participated in carrier transport. Meanwhile, it was found that one deep level appeared at the interface of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction with densities of the deep level about 8.5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} and activation energies about 224 m eV, which originated from O{sup 2−} vacancies of ZnO films. In addition, the valence band offset of the ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction can be calculated to be −2.4 ± 0.15 eV. The conduction band offset is deduced to be −3.5 ± 0.15 eV from the valence band offset value, indicating that the band offsets of ZnO/n-Si(111) heterojunction is a type-II band alignment.

  5. Band offsets in HfTiO/InGaZnO{sub 4} heterojunction determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, G., E-mail: ganghe01@issp.ac.cn [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials & Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Chen, X.F. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials & Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Lv, J.G., E-mail: jglv@hftc.edu.cn [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230601 (China); Fang, Z.B., E-mail: csfzb@usx.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Liu, Y.M.; Zhu, K.R.; Sun, Z.Q. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials & Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Liu, M., E-mail: mliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanostructure, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Band offsets in HfTiO/InGaZnO{sub 4} heterojunction were determined by XPS. • Valence band offset of HfTiO/IGZO heterojunction is determined to be 0.35 eV. • Conduction band offset of 1.61 eV is deduced for HfTiO/IGZO heterojunction. - Abstract: In current report, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been pursued to obtain the valence band discontinuity (ΔE{sub v}) of sputter deposited HfTiO/InZnGaO{sub 4} (IGZO) heterostructures. A ΔE{sub v} value of 0.32 ± 0.1 eV was obtained by using the Ga 2p3/2, Zn 2p3/2, and In 3d5/2 energy levels as references. Taking into consideration the experimental band gaps of 5.35 eV and 3.39 eV for HfTiO and IGZO thin films measured by absorption method, respectively, this would result in a conduction band offset of 1.64 eV in this heterostructure.

  6. Electron and hole photoemission detection for band offset determination of tunnel field-effect transistor heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Qin; Kirillov, Oleg A.; Levin, Igor; Richter, Curt A.; Gundlach, David J.; Nguyen, N. V.; Bijesh, R.; Datta, S.; Liang, Yiran; Peng, Lian-Mao; Liang, Xuelei

    2014-01-01

    We report experimental methods to ascertain a complete energy band alignment of a broken-gap tunnel field-effect transistor based on an InAs/GaSb hetero-junction. By using graphene as an optically transparent electrode, both the electron and hole barrier heights at the InAs/GaSb interface can be quantified. For a Al 2 O 3 /InAs/GaSb layer structure, the barrier height from the top of the InAs and GaSb valence bands to the bottom of the Al 2 O 3 conduction band is inferred from electron emission whereas hole emissions reveal the barrier height from the top of the Al 2 O 3 valence band to the bottom of the InAs and GaSb conduction bands. Subsequently, the offset parameter at the broken gap InAs/GaSb interface is extracted and thus can be used to facilitate the development of predicted models of electron quantum tunneling efficiency and transistor performance

  7. Theoretical and experimental studies of the ZnSe/CuInSe2 heterojunction band offset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Schwerdtfeger, C.R.; Wei, S.; Zunger, A.; Rioux, D.; Patel, R.; Hoechst, H.

    1993-01-01

    We report first-principles band structure calculations that show that ZnSe/CuInSe 2 has a significant valence band offset (VBO, ΔE v ): 0.70±0.05 eV for the relaxed interface and 0.60±0.05 eV for the coherent interface. These large values demonstrate the failure of the common anion rule. This is traced to a stronger Cu,d-Se,p level repulsion in CuInSe 2 than the Zn,d-Se,p repulsion in ZnSe. The VBO was then studied by synchrotron radiation soft x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. ZnSe overlayers were sequentially grown in steps on n-type CuInSe 2 (112) single crystals at 200 degree C. In situ photoemission measurements were acquired after each growth in order to observe changes in the valence band electronic structure as well as changes in the In 4d and Zn 3d core lines. Results of these measurements reveal that the VBO is ΔE v =0.70±0.15 eV, in good agreement with the first-principles prediction

  8. Caffeine controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentle, Samuel J; Travers, Colm P; Carlo, Waldemar A

    2018-04-01

    Caffeine use in preterm infants has endured several paradigms: from standard of care to possible neurotoxin to one of the few medications for which there is evidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) risk reduction. The purpose of the review is to analyze this dynamic trajectory and discuss controversies that still remain after decades of caffeine use. Following concerns for caffeine safety in preterm infants, a large randomized controlled trial demonstrated a reduction in BPD and treatment for patent ductus arteriosus. The lower rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment noted at 18-21 months was not statistically different at later timepoints; however, infants in the caffeine group had lower rates of motor impairment at 11-year follow-up. The time of caffeine therapy initiation is now substantially earlier, and doses used are sometimes higher that previously used, but there are limited data to support these practices. Caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity (AOP) remains one of the pillars of neonatal care, although more evidence to support dosing and timing of initiation and discontinuation are needed.

  9. Change in the conversion rate for the E3-isomer sup(235m)U (76,8 eV; 1/2+ → 7/2-) at variation of configurations of the valence band of the atomic shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechukhin, D.P.; Soldatov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater method, a change of the conversion rate lambda for the E3 isomer (at the transition energy of h/2πω=77 eV) with respect to the rate lambda for the normal configuration of uranium atom, (7ssup(1/2)sup(2)(6dsup(3/2))sup(1)(5fsup(5/2))sup(3), is calcUlated for 14 configurations of the valence band of the atomic shell, including considerable variations of the occupation numbers in 6d, 7s, and 5f orbits. A very strong change Δlambda/lambda 1 is found to be due to variation of the occupation number for the 5f orbit (ΔN(5f) not equal to 0); the change amounts to about 8% per ΔN(5f)=+-1, that is an order of magnitude higher than Δlambda/lambda 1 due to variations of the occupation numbers for other orbits in the cases where N(5f)=const. Though the direct contribution from the 5f electrons to the conversion is very small ( 1 for ΔN(5f) not equal to 0. A rigid correlation between the partial conversion rate and the r. m. s. radius of the orbit is obtained for 6p orbits

  10. Valence band electronic structure of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 1.2}Se{sub 5} and Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: sekhar@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-03-15

    We present a comparative study of our valence band photoemission results on Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 1.2}Se{sub 5} and Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} superconductors which are supported by our DFT based electronic structure calculations. We observe that the VB spectra of both the compounds are qualitatively similar, except for some slight differences in the binding energy positions of all the features. This could be due to the unequal electronegativities of Se and S atom. The calculated density of states (DOS) reveals that the VB features are mainly composed of Pd-Se/S hybridized states. The nature of DOS originating from the distinctly coordinated Pd atoms is different. Further, various Pd-4d and Nb-4d states crossing the Fermi level (E{sub f}) signifies the multiband character of these compounds. In addition, we find a temperature dependent pseudogap in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} which is absent in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 1.2}Se{sub 5}.

  11. Carbon offsetting: sustaining consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Lovell; Harriet Bulkeley; Diana Liverman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine how theories of sustainable and ethical consumption help us to understand a new, rapidly expanding type of consumer product designed to mitigate climate change: carbon offsets. The voluntary carbon offset market grew by 200% between 2005 and 2006, and there are now over 150 retailers of voluntary carbon offsets worldwide. Our analysis concentrates on the production and consumption of carbon offsets, drawing on ideas from governmentality and political ecology about how...

  12. Valence band photoemission studies of clean metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, P.S.

    1978-04-01

    The application of Angle-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARPES) to crystalline solids and the utilization of such studies to illuminate several questions concerning the detailed electronic structure of such materials, are discussed. Specifically, by construction of a Direct Transition (DT) model and the utilization of energy-dependent angle-resolved normal photoemission in the photon energy range 32 eV < or = hν < or = 200 eV, the bulk band structure of copper is experimentally mapped out along three different directions in the Brillouin Zone; GAMMA to K, GAMMA to L, and GAMMA to X. In addition, various effects which influence the obtainable resolution in vector k-space, namely, thermal disorder, momentum broadening, and band mixing, are discussed and are shown to place severe limitations on the applicability of the DT model. Finally, a model for Angle-Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) based on the symmetry of the initial-state wavefunctions is presented and compared to experimental results obtained from copper single crystals

  13. Offset drilling obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, K.D.; Kalmakoff, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the 'offset well' clause found in freehold and Crown natural gas and petroleum leases was presented. The objective was to provide lessors and lessees with a clear understanding of the rights and obligations associated with offset wells. It was noted that offset well obligations vary according to the form of lease used, the type of offsetting well, the regulatory regime and the geophysical characteristics of the producing formation. Some suggestions were made as to how current versions of the offset well clause can be amended to overcome some of the problems encountered in applying the clause to an offset horizontal well that has been drilled on adjoining lands. Failure to resolve the new issues presented by horizontal drilling technology in terms of documentation, which records respective rights and obligations on the basis of generally accepted principles, will result in large numbers of conflicts and unnecessary litigation. 144 refs., 1 fig

  14. Low Offset AC Correlator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This patent describes a low offset AC correlator avoids DC offset and low frequency noise by frequency operating the correlation signal so that low...noise, low level AC amplification can be substituted for DC amplification. Subsequently, the high level AC signal is demodulated to a DC level. (Author)

  15. Determination of band offsets at GaN/single-layer MoS2 heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao

    2016-07-25

    We report the band alignment parameters of the GaN/single-layer (SL) MoS2 heterostructure where the GaN thin layer is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on CVD deposited SL-MoS2/c-sapphire. We confirm that the MoS2 is an SL by measuring the separation and position of room temperature micro-Raman E1 2g and A1 g modes, absorbance, and micro-photoluminescence bandgap studies. This is in good agreement with HRTEM cross-sectional analysis. The determination of band offset parameters at the GaN/SL-MoS2 heterojunction is carried out by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy accompanying with electronic bandgap values of SL-MoS2 and GaN. The valence band and conduction band offset values are, respectively, measured to be 1.86 ± 0.08 and 0.56 ± 0.1 eV with type II band alignment. The determination of these unprecedented band offset parameters opens up a way to integrate 3D group III nitride materials with 2D transition metal dichalcogenide layers for designing and modeling of their heterojunction based electronic and photonic devices.

  16. Determination of band offsets at GaN/single-layer MoS{sub 2} heterojunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Mishra, Pawan; Ng, Tien Khee; Janjua, Bilal; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Ooi, Boon S., E-mail: boon.ooi@kaust.edu.sa [Photonics Laboratory, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Hedhili, Mohamed Nejib; Anjum, Dalaver H. [Adavanced Nanofabrication Imaging and Characterization, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Tseng, Chien-Chih; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong [Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Joyce, Hannah J. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-18

    We report the band alignment parameters of the GaN/single-layer (SL) MoS{sub 2} heterostructure where the GaN thin layer is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on CVD deposited SL-MoS{sub 2}/c-sapphire. We confirm that the MoS{sub 2} is an SL by measuring the separation and position of room temperature micro-Raman E{sup 1}{sub 2g} and A{sup 1}{sub g} modes, absorbance, and micro-photoluminescence bandgap studies. This is in good agreement with HRTEM cross-sectional analysis. The determination of band offset parameters at the GaN/SL-MoS{sub 2} heterojunction is carried out by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy accompanying with electronic bandgap values of SL-MoS{sub 2} and GaN. The valence band and conduction band offset values are, respectively, measured to be 1.86 ± 0.08 and 0.56 ± 0.1 eV with type II band alignment. The determination of these unprecedented band offset parameters opens up a way to integrate 3D group III nitride materials with 2D transition metal dichalcogenide layers for designing and modeling of their heterojunction based electronic and photonic devices.

  17. Determination of band offsets at GaN/single-layer MoS2 heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Mishra, Pawan; Ng, Tien Khee; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Janjua, Bilal; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Tseng, Chien-Chih; Shi, Yumeng; Joyce, Hannah J.; Li, Lain-Jong; Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the band alignment parameters of the GaN/single-layer (SL) MoS2 heterostructure where the GaN thin layer is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on CVD deposited SL-MoS2/c-sapphire. We confirm that the MoS2 is an SL by measuring the separation and position of room temperature micro-Raman E1 2g and A1 g modes, absorbance, and micro-photoluminescence bandgap studies. This is in good agreement with HRTEM cross-sectional analysis. The determination of band offset parameters at the GaN/SL-MoS2 heterojunction is carried out by high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy accompanying with electronic bandgap values of SL-MoS2 and GaN. The valence band and conduction band offset values are, respectively, measured to be 1.86 ± 0.08 and 0.56 ± 0.1 eV with type II band alignment. The determination of these unprecedented band offset parameters opens up a way to integrate 3D group III nitride materials with 2D transition metal dichalcogenide layers for designing and modeling of their heterojunction based electronic and photonic devices.

  18. Policy development for biodiversity offsets: a review of offset frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Bruce A; Kiesecker, Joseph M

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets seek to compensate for residual environmental impacts of planned developments after appropriate steps have been taken to avoid, minimize or restore impacts on site. Offsets are emerging as an increasingly employed mechanism for achieving net environmental benefits, with offset policies being advanced in a wide range of countries (i.e., United States, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). To support policy development for biodiversity offsets, we review a set of major offset policy frameworks-US wetlands mitigation, US conservation banking, EU Natura 2000, Australian offset policies in New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia, and Brazilian industrial and forest offsets. We compare how the frameworks define offset policy goals, approach the mitigation process, and address six key issues for implementing offsets: (1) equivalence of project impacts with offset gains; (2) location of the offset relative to the impact site; (3) "additionality" (a new contribution to conservation) and acceptable types of offsets; (4) timing of project impacts versus offset benefits; (5) offset duration and compliance; and (6) "currency" and mitigation replacement ratios. We find substantial policy commonalities that may serve as a sound basis for future development of biodiversity offsets policy. We also identify issues requiring further policy guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; and (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios.

  19. Reduced energy offset via substitutional doping for efficient organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Sun, Weifu; Zhang, Qin; Ruan, Kelian; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Xu, Haijiao; Xu, Zhongyuan; Li, Qinghua

    2015-06-01

    Charge carrier transport in bulk heterojunction that is central to the device performance of solar cells is sensitively dependent on the energy level alignment of acceptor and donor. However, the effect of energy level regulation induced by nickel ions on the primary photoexcited electron transfer and the performance of P3HT/TiO2 hybrid solar cells remains being poorly understood and rarely studied. Here we demonstrate that the introduction of the versatile nickel ions into TiO2 nanocrystals can significantly elevate the conduction and valence band energy levels of the acceptor, thus resulting in a remarkable reduction of energy level offset between the conduction band of acceptor and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor. By applying transient photoluminescence and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopies, we demonstrate that the electron transfer becomes more competitive after incorporating nickel ions. In particular, the electron transfer life time is shortened from 30.2 to 16.7 ps, i.e., more than 44% faster than pure TiO2 acceptor, thus leading to a notable increase of power conversion efficiency in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. This work underscores the promising virtue of engineering the reduction of 'excess' energy offset to accelerate electron transport and demonstrates the potential of nickel ions in applications of solar energy conversion and photon detectors.

  20. Band offsets and electronic structures of interface between In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As and InP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Genwang [School of Physical Science and Engineering and Key Laboratory of Materials Physics of Ministry of Education of China, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); College of Science, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Changhong; Wang, Weichao [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liang, Erjun, E-mail: ejliang@zzu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Engineering and Key Laboratory of Materials Physics of Ministry of Education of China, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2016-02-07

    III–V semiconductor interfacing with high-κ gate oxide is crucial for the high mobility metal-oxide-semiconductor field transistor device. With density functional theory calculations, we explored the band offsets and electronic structures of the In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As/InP interfaces with various interfacial bondings. Among six different bonding interfaces, we found that P-In(Ga) bonding interface showed the highest stability. Local density of states calculations was adopted to calculate the band offsets. Except for the metallic interface, we noticed that neither valence band offset nor conduction band offset depended on the interfacial bondings. For the most stable P-In(Ga) interface, we did not observe any gap states. Furthermore, we explored the P-In(Ga) interfaces with interfacial P-As exchange defects, which slightly modified the interface stability and the band offsets but did not produce any gap states. These findings provide solid evidence that InP could serve as a promising interfacial passivation layer between III–V material and high-κ oxide in the application of high mobility devices.

  1. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  2. Modification of band offsets of InGaZnO4/Si heterojunction through nitrogenation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.F.; He, G.; Lv, J.G.; Liu, M.; Wang, P.H.; Chen, X.S.; Sun, Z.Q.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on the band offset of sputtering-derived InZnGaO 4 (IGZO)/Si heterostructures has been systematically investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Elemental analysis indicates that nitrogen has been successfully incorporated into the IGZO film. By using In 3d 5/2 , In 3d 3/2 and Ga 3d core level (CL) XPS spectra as references, values of valence band offsets (ΔE v ) of have been determined to be 2.56 ± 0.02 and 2.44 ± 0.02 eV for IGZO/Si and IGZO:N/Si heterojunctions, respectively. Using the experimental band gap of 3.59 and 3.50 eV of the IGZO/Si and IGZO:N/Si, the calculated values of conduction band offset (ΔE c ) is 0.09 ± 0.01 and 0.06 ± 0.01 eV, respectively. The results indicate that nitrogen incorporation leads to the reduction in band gap and ΔE v and the slight effect on the ΔE c has also been detected. - Highlights: • α-IGZO/Si and α-IGZO:N/Si heterostructures have been obtained by sputtering. • Nitrogen dependent ΔE v and ΔE v have been determined by XPS measurements. • Nitrogen incorporation in IGZO leads to the reduced band gap and increased ΔE v . • Nitrogen incorporation has no apparent effect on the ΔE c of α-IGZO/Si

  3. The nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.; Dobkin, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with the nuclear controversy, especially in the United States. To a certain extent the nuclear debate has become heavily politicised. Public opinion and anti-nuclear groups are mentioned as well as nuclear disarmament

  4. Theoretical prediction of the band offsets at the ZnO/anatase TiO{sub 2} and GaN/ZnO heterojunctions using the self-consistent ab initio DFT/GGA-1/2 method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, D. Q., E-mail: fangdqphy@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, S. L. [MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-01-07

    The band offsets of the ZnO/anatase TiO{sub 2} and GaN/ZnO heterojunctions are calculated using the density functional theory/generalized gradient approximation (DFT/GGA)-1/2 method, which takes into account the self-energy corrections and can give an approximate description to the quasiparticle characteristics of the electronic structure of semiconductors. We present the results of the ionization potential (IP)-based and interfacial offset-based band alignments. In the interfacial offset-based band alignment, to get the natural band offset, we use the surface calculations to estimate the change of reference level due to the interfacial strain. Based on the interface models and GGA-1/2 calculations, we find that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of ZnO, respectively, lie 0.64 eV and 0.57 eV above those of anatase TiO{sub 2}, while lie 0.84 eV and 1.09 eV below those of GaN, which agree well with the experimental data. However, a large discrepancy exists between the IP-based band offset and the calculated natural band offset, the mechanism of which is discussed. Our results clarify band alignment of the ZnO/anatase TiO{sub 2} heterojunction and show good agreement with the GW calculations for the GaN/ZnO heterojunction.

  5. Band structure, band offsets, substitutional doping, and Schottky barriers of bulk and monolayer InSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2017-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the electronic structure of the layered semiconductor InSe. We calculate the band structure of the monolayer and bulk material using density functional theory, hybrid functionals, and G W . The band gap of the monolayer InSe is calculated to be 2.4 eV in screened exchange hybrid functional, close to the experimental photoluminescence gap. The electron affinities and band offsets are calculated for vertical stacked-layer heterostructures, and are found to be suitable for tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) in combination with WS e2 or similar. The valence-band edge of InSe is calculated to lie 5.2 eV below the vacuum level, similar to that for the closed shell systems HfS e2 or SnS e2 . Hence InSe would be suitable to act as a p -type drain in the TFET. The intrinsic defects are calculated. For Se-rich layers, the Se adatom (interstitial) is found to be the most stable defect, whereas for In-rich layers, the Se vacancy is the most stable for the neutral state. Antisites tend to have energies just above those of vacancies. The Se antisite distorts towards a bond-breaking distortion as in the EL2 center of GaAs. Both substitutional donors and acceptors are calculated to be shallow, and effective dopants. They do not reconstruct to form nondoping configurations as occurs in black phosphorus. Finally, the Schottky barriers of metals on InSe are found to be strongly pinned by metal induced gap states (MIGS) at ˜0.5 eV above the valence-band edge. Any interfacial defects would lead to a stronger pinning at a similar energy. Overall, InSe is an effective semiconductor combining the good features of 2D (lack of dangling bonds, etc.) with the good features of 3D (effective doping), which few others achieve.

  6. Study of interfaces and band offsets in TiN/amorphous LaLuO3 gate stacks

    KAUST Repository

    Mitrovic, Ivona Z.

    2011-07-01

    TiN/LaLuO3 (LLO) gate stacks formed by molecular beam deposition have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, medium energy ion scattering, spectroscopic ellipsometry, scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The results indicate an amorphous structure for deposited LLO films. The band offset between the Fermi level of TiN and valence band of LLO is estimated to be 2.65 ± 0.05 eV. A weaker La-O-Lu bond and a prominent Ti2p sub-peak which relates to Ti bond to interstitial oxygen have been identified for an ultra-thin 1.7 nm TiN/3 nm LLO gate stack. The angle-dependent XPS analysis of Si2s spectra as well as shifts of La4d, La3d and Lu4d core levels suggests a silicate-type with Si-rich SiOx LLO/Si interface. Symmetrical valence and conduction band offsets for LLO to Si of 2.2 eV and the bandgap of 5.5 ± 0.1 eV have been derived from the measurements. The band alignment for ultra-thin TiN/LLO gate stack is affected by structural changes. Copyright © 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy, controversies and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertholet, J.-L.; Garbely, M.; Lachal, B.; Romerio, F.; Weber, W.

    2003-01-01

    The energy debate raises deep controversies, as discussions on climate change or electricity markets' deregulation show. In this context, it is very difficult for the citizen to express himself in referendums and for the decision maker to slice between various options. Experts themselves deliver controversial evaluations and interest groups can benefit from them to suggest their own solution. This book enables to get a better insight and better understand energy-related controversies and the environmental and socio-economic impacts of energy. It deals with topics as complex and politically extreme as the exhaustion of fossil fuels, climate change, ionising radiations, renewable energy sources, energy consumption in Southern countries and the reorganisation of electricity markets. It starts with an article on the precaution principle and it ends with a glance on the future, devoted to education in the field of efficient energy use [fr

  8. Obstetric controversies in thyroidology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that thyroid disorders commonly affect women. The care of pregnant women affected by thyroid disease is an important clinical challenge for endocrinologists. Hypothyroidism is the commonest problem, and maternal hypothyroxinemia has been linked to adverse feto-maternal outcomes. This article would discuss the controversy regarding first-trimester thyroid hormone deficiency and fetal brain development. Certain obstetric controversies in the management of hyperthyroidism in pregnancy, including the indications of TSH receptor antibody measurements and fetal thyroid status monitoring would also be discussed.

  9. Carbon offsets, reversal risk and US climate policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yihsu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One controversial issue in the larger cap-and-trade debate is the proper use and certification of carbon offsets related to changes in land management. Advocates of an expanded offset supply claim that inclusion of such activities would expand the scope of the program and lower overall compliance costs, while opponents claim that it would weaken the environmental integrity of the program by crediting activities that yield either nonexistent or merely temporary carbon sequestration benefits. Our study starts from the premise that offsets are neither perfect mitigation instruments nor useless "hot air." Results We show that offsets provide a useful cost containment function, even when there is some threat of reversal, by injecting additional "when-flexibility" into the system. This allows market participants to shift their reduction requirements to periods of lower cost, thereby facilitating attainment of the least-cost time path without jeopardizing the cumulative environmental integrity of the system. By accounting for market conditions in conjunction with reversal risk, we develop a simple offset valuation methodology, taking into account the two most important factors that typically lead offsets to be overvalued or undervalued. Conclusion The result of this paper is a quantitative "model rule" that could be included in future legislation or used as a basis for active management by a future "carbon fed" or other regulatory authority with jurisdiction over the US carbon market to actively manage allowance prices.

  10. Band offsets and growth mode of molecular beam epitaxy grown MgO (111) on GaN (0002) by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. S.; Collazo, R.; Losego, M. D.; Mita, S.; Sitar, Z.; Maria, J.-P.

    2007-10-01

    MgO is a proposed dielectric for use as a tunneling barrier in devices integrating GaN and ferroelectric oxides. In this study, we present data regarding the growth mode and band offsets of MgO grown epitaxially on GaN (0002) surfaces using molecular beam epitaxy. Using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and molecular beam epitaxy, we determine, from sequential growth experiments, that the growth of MgO proceeds via the Volmer-Weber (three-dimensional) mode, and full coalescence of the film does not occur until approximately 12nm of MgO has been deposited. The observation of a three-dimensional growth mode is in agreement with previously published data. For the valence band offset, we find a value of 1.2±0.2eV, which corresponds to a 3.2eV conduction band offset. XPS measurements suggest a chemically abrupt interface and no effect on band lineup due to the slow coalescence behavior.

  11. Band offsets and growth mode of molecular beam epitaxy grown MgO (111) on GaN (0002) by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, H. S.; Collazo, R.; Losego, M. D.; Mita, S.; Sitar, Z.; Maria, J.-P.

    2007-01-01

    MgO is a proposed dielectric for use as a tunneling barrier in devices integrating GaN and ferroelectric oxides. In this study, we present data regarding the growth mode and band offsets of MgO grown epitaxially on GaN (0002) surfaces using molecular beam epitaxy. Using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and molecular beam epitaxy, we determine, from sequential growth experiments, that the growth of MgO proceeds via the Volmer-Weber (three-dimensional) mode, and full coalescence of the film does not occur until approximately 12 nm of MgO has been deposited. The observation of a three-dimensional growth mode is in agreement with previously published data. For the valence band offset, we find a value of 1.2±0.2 eV, which corresponds to a 3.2 eV conduction band offset. XPS measurements suggest a chemically abrupt interface and no effect on band lineup due to the slow coalescence behavior

  12. Band offsets of novel CoTiO{sub 3}/Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} heterojunction measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangkawong, Kanlayawat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Tantraviwat, Doldet [Thai Microelectronics Center (TMEC), National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), Chachoengsao 24000 (Thailand); Phanichphant, Sukon [Materials Science Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Inceesungvorn, Burapat, E-mail: binceesungvorn@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Band lineup of novel CoTiO{sub 3}/Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} composite is determined by semidirect XPS method. • The composite forms a type-II staggered heterojunction. • Valence and conduction-band offsets are 0.2 ± 0.3 and −0.6 ± 0.3 eV, respectively. • Band lineup determination is needed for understanding charge transfer at interfaces. - Abstract: The energy band diagram and band offsets of the novel CoTiO{sub 3}/Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalyst are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for the first time. Excluding the strain effect, the valence-band and conduction-band offsets are determined to be 0.2 ± 0.3 eV and −0.6 ± 0.3 eV, respectively. The CoTiO{sub 3}/Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} composite forms a type-II heterojunction, for which the photogenerated charge carriers could be effectively separated. The results suggest that determination of the energy band structure is crucial for understanding the photogenerated charge transfer mechanism at the interfaces, hence the corresponding photocatalytic activity and would also be beneficial to the design of new and efficient heterostructure-based photocatalysts.

  13. Controversies in Obesity Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karandish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The markedly high prevalence of obesity contributes to the increased incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, and heart disease. Because of high prevalence of obesity in almost all countries, it has been the focus of many researches throughout the world during the recent decades. Along with increasing researches, new concepts and controversies have been emerged. The existing controversies on the topic are so deep that some researches argue on absolutely philosophical questions such as “Is obesity a disease?” or “Is it correct to treat obesity?” These questions are based on a few theories and real data that explain obesity as a biological adaptation and also the final results of weight loss programs. Many people attempt to lose weight by diet therapy, physical activity and lifestyle modifications. Importantly, weight loss strategies in the long term are ineffective and may have unintended consequences including decreasing energy expenditure, complicated appetite control, eating disorders, reducing self-esteem, increasing the plasma and tissue levels of persistent organic pollutants that promote metabolic complications, and consequently, higher risk of repeated cycles of weight loss and weight regain. In this review, major paradoxes and controversies on obesity including classic obesity paradox, pre-obesity; fat-but-fit theory, and healthy obesity are explained. In addition, the relevant strategies like “Health at Every Size” that emphasize on promotion of global health behaviors rather than weight loss programs are explained.

  14. Weak value controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidman, L.

    2017-10-01

    Recent controversy regarding the meaning and usefulness of weak values is reviewed. It is argued that in spite of recent statistical arguments by Ferrie and Combes, experiments with anomalous weak values provide useful amplification techniques for precision measurements of small effects in many realistic situations. The statistical nature of weak values is questioned. Although measuring weak values requires an ensemble, it is argued that the weak value, similarly to an eigenvalue, is a property of a single pre- and post-selected quantum system. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  15. Cartography of architectural controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Katrine

    2009-01-01

    on the visual materials and documents produced during the process, and interviews with architects, clients and engineers, I describe the continuous efforts to establish and strengthen architectural motives, and how they eventually gain the ability to align other motives and other actors. I suggest...... that employing the visualising methods of the recent development of Actor-Network-Theory called ‘Cartography of Controversies' might contribute to trans-disciplinary efforts to develop analytic understanding of the conflicting human purposes and power-struggles at stake in the be-coming of architecture....

  16. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  17. Governing the carbon offset market

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, Heather C.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon offsets are produced and sold under the international climate change regime (the United Nations Kyoto Protocol) and also within an expanding voluntary offset market in which companies and individuals can voluntarily opt to compensate for their greenhouse gas emissions. The volume of carbon produced and consumed within compliance and voluntary markets has grown dramatically in the last 5 years, raising a number of governance challenges. This Focus Article gives an overview of the govern...

  18. Modification of band offsets of InGaZnO{sub 4}/Si heterojunction through nitrogenation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.F. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials & Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); He, G., E-mail: hegang@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials & Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, 500 Yutian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Lv, J.G., E-mail: jglv@hftc.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230061 (China); Liu, M., E-mail: mliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanostructure, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, P.H. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials & Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Chen, X.S. [National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, 500 Yutian Road, Shanghai 200083 (China); Sun, Z.Q. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials & Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2015-10-25

    The effect of nitrogen on the band offset of sputtering-derived InZnGaO{sub 4} (IGZO)/Si heterostructures has been systematically investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. Elemental analysis indicates that nitrogen has been successfully incorporated into the IGZO film. By using In 3d{sub 5/2}, In 3d{sub 3/2} and Ga 3d core level (CL) XPS spectra as references, values of valence band offsets (ΔE{sub v}) of have been determined to be 2.56 ± 0.02 and 2.44 ± 0.02 eV for IGZO/Si and IGZO:N/Si heterojunctions, respectively. Using the experimental band gap of 3.59 and 3.50 eV of the IGZO/Si and IGZO:N/Si, the calculated values of conduction band offset (ΔE{sub c}) is 0.09 ± 0.01 and 0.06 ± 0.01 eV, respectively. The results indicate that nitrogen incorporation leads to the reduction in band gap and ΔE{sub v} and the slight effect on the ΔE{sub c} has also been detected. - Highlights: • α-IGZO/Si and α-IGZO:N/Si heterostructures have been obtained by sputtering. • Nitrogen dependent ΔE{sub v} and ΔE{sub v} have been determined by XPS measurements. • Nitrogen incorporation in IGZO leads to the reduced band gap and increased ΔE{sub v}. • Nitrogen incorporation has no apparent effect on the ΔE{sub c} of α-IGZO/Si.

  19. Valence and conduction band offsets at low-k a-SiO{sub x}C{sub y}:H/a-SiC{sub x}N{sub y}:H interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Sean W., E-mail: sean.king@intel.com; Brockman, Justin; French, Marc; Jaehnig, Milt; Kuhn, Markus [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); French, Benjamin [Ocotillo Materials Laboratory, Intel Corporation, Chandler, Arizona 85248 (United States)

    2014-09-21

    In order to understand the fundamental electrical leakage and reliability failure mechanisms in nano-electronic low-k dielectric/metal interconnect structures, we have utilized x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy to determine the valence and conduction band offsets present at interfaces between non-porous and porous low-k a-SiO{sub x}C{sub y}:H interlayer dielectrics and a-SiC{sub x}N{sub y}:H metal capping layers. The valence band offset for such interfaces was determined to be 2.7±0.2 eV and weakly dependent on the a-SiOC:H porosity. The corresponding conduction band offset was determined to be 2.1±0.2 eV. The large band offsets indicate that intra metal layer leakage is likely dominated by defects and trap states in the a-SiOC:H and a-SiCN:H dielectrics.

  20. Exxon Valdez controversy revived

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Four years after its occurrence rocked the petroleum industry and revitalized the US environmental movement, the Exxon Valdez tanker oil spill off Alaska continues to stir controversy. Conflicting reports abound over whether there is long term damage to the Prince William Sound ecosystem resulting from the March 24, 1989, spill. Government scientists at recent conferences disclosed studies they contend show long term, significant damage to the sound. Exxon this month launched a counteroffensive, disclosing results of studies it funded that it claims show no credible scientific evidence of long term damage. At the same time, the company blasted as flawed the government's data on assessing environmental damage to the sound and charged that test samples from the sound were mishandled. Meantime, Prince William Sound still shows lingering effects from the Exxon Valdez oil spill. But recovery has been so rapid that there is more controversy over how to use $900 million in natural resource recovery funds that Exxon paid than over how badly species are suffering. The paper describes Exxon's studies; faulty data; lingering damage; and an update on tanker safety

  1. The breast implant controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R R; Harrison, M C; LeVier, R R

    1994-02-01

    The breast implant issue is a "bad news/good news" story. For many women with implants, the controversy has caused a fair degree of anxiety which may or may not be resolved as further information becomes available. It has also taken its toll on Dow Corning. Whole lines of medical products have been eliminated or are being phase out. The development of new medical applications has been terminated. As a consequence, employees have lost their jobs. What the effect will be on the biomedical industry as a whole remains to be seen (11). While silicones have been an important component in various medical devices, it is likely that other materials can be used as replacements. However, suppliers of non-silicone materials are also reevaluating their role in this market. For example, Du Pont, the nation's largest chemical company, has determined that the unpredictable and excessive costs of doing business with manufacturers of implantable medical devices no longer justifies the unrestricted sale of standard raw materials into this industry. Other companies are quietly following suit. On the up side, it is possible that the research being driven by this controversy will result in a greater understanding of the immunologic implications of xenobiotics, of the importance of nonbiased observations, of the need for ready access to valid data sets, and of the opportunity for valid scientific information to guide legal decisions. Only time will tell.

  2. Adolescent varicocoele management controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serefoglu, E C; Saitz, T R; La Nasa, J A; Hellstrom, W J

    2013-01-01

    Varicocoele is defined as excessive dilatation of the pampiniform venous plexus of the spermatic cord. Varicocoele frequently appears during early puberty and is recognized to be the most common surgically correctable cause of male infertility. However, the actual incidence in adolescents, pathophysiology and the association with male factor infertility all remain somewhat controversial. The most accurate diagnostic technique for identifying young men who will benefit from surgical treatment has yet to be established. Observations of testicular asymmetry and deteriorating semen quality helped establish current guidelines and recommendations for surgical treatment. Further studies, comparing observation with surgical intervention, are needed to refine the current indications for varicocoele repair in the adolescent male. © 2012 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  3. Siting controversial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, R.D.; Blacker, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    There is often significant difficulty involved with siting controversial facilities. The social and political problems are frequently far more difficult to resolve than the technical and economic issues. The tendancy for most developing organizations is to address only technical issues in the search for a technically optimal site, to the exclusion of such weighting considerations as the social and political climate associated with potential sites--an approach which often imperils the success of the project. The site selection processes currently suggested is summarized and two contemporary examples of their application are cited. The difference between developers' real objectives and the objectives they have implicitly assumed by adopting the recommended approaches without augmentation are noted. The resulting morass of public opposition is attributed to the failure to consider the needs of individuals and groups who stand to be negatively impacted by the development. A comprehensive implementation strategy which addresses non-technical consideration in parallel with technical ones is presented and evaluated

  4. Controversies in gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and controversy are old friends. However, several major studies in the field have clarified some of the main issues. There is now no doubt that hyperglycaemia, at levels less than those that occur in overt diabetes, is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as large-for-gestational age infants, neonatal hyperinsulinism, neonatal hypoglycaemia and pre-eclampsia. We also have evidence now that a standard approach to GDM with diagnosis at 24-28 weeks, dietary advice, self-monitoring of blood glucose and insulin therapy as needed reduces these adverse perinatal outcomes. Unknown, however, is if this same approach is effective at reducing long-term risks of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in both the mothers and babies. For example, could our management strategies miss critical time points of fuel-mediated injury to the foetus important for the baby's long-term metabolic health? The implications of a recent international consensus statement on new diagnostic criteria for GDM are discussed, as well as issues relating to the timing of diagnosis. The potential place for a risk calculator for adverse outcomes in GDM pregnancy that takes into account glycaemic and non-glycaemic risk factors is considered. Such a tool could help stratify GDM women to different levels of care. Ongoing issues relating to maternal glycaemic and foetal growth targets, and the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents in GDM are discussed. To resolve some of the remaining controversies, further carefully designed randomised controlled trials in GDM with long-term follow-up of both mothers and babies are necessary. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Offsets - An opportunity of Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRIN, Coralie

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear Research Reactors sometimes need to implement projects to upgrade, revamp or convert their reactor, acquire new fuel elements, etc. However, as their activities are mainly of noncommercial nature, they sometimes lack of financial resources to implement these projects by themselves. Several solutions exist: loans, governmental budget, subsidies from international organizations (IAEA). Offsets are another source of financing. They also are free of charge for the reactor. The objective of offsets is to Identify, implement and finance projects that: directly create or sustain a local economic activity of high-added value, would not have happened without the Obligor's intervention, and are of crucial importance given the country's political background (favor employment, technology transfers, training and education, research and development, etc.). Companies worldwide are willing to finance local projects to fulfill their Offset Obligation. Local organizations or institutions are willing to invest to increase their activities but lack of financial resources. Offset regulations are an opportunity on both sides and are free for the local organization. The monetary value of an Offset obligation is calculated as a percentage of the main contract price (or as a percentage of the imported part value). That percentage depends on the Country's legislation and on the nature of the main contract (defense or civilian). This value has to be compensated by an equivalent economic value (a Project's cost is different from its value). There is two ways of assessing a value: - Political aspects: The Project is of political importance for the country (development of an export capability, technology and/or know-how transfers) and the project in line with the country's political priorities (employment, research, international presence, etc.). - Economic benefits: the project directly sustains or creates additional activities, turnover, R and D, employment, etc. It benefits directly

  6. 7 CFR 400.129 - Salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salary offset. 400.129 Section 400.129 Agriculture... Years § 400.129 Salary offset. (a) Debt collection by salary offset is feasible if: the cost to the Government of collection by salary offset does not exceed the amount of the debt; there are no legal...

  7. Valence and conduction band offsets of β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiding; Torres Castanedo, C. G.; Liu, Kaikai; Li, Kuang-Hui; Guo, Wenzhe; Lin, Ronghui; Liu, Xinwei; Li, Jingtao; Li, Xiaohang

    2017-10-01

    Both β-Ga2O3 and wurtzite AlN have wide bandgaps of 4.5-4.9 and 6.1 eV, respectively. We calculated the in-plane lattice mismatch between the (-201) plane of β-Ga2O3 and the (0002) plane of AlN, which was found to be 2.4%. This is the smallest mismatch between β-Ga2O3 and binary III-nitrides which is beneficial for the formation of a high quality β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction. However, the valence and conduction band offsets (VBO and CBO) at the β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction have not yet been identified. In this study, a very thin (less than 2 nm) β-Ga2O3 layer was deposited on an AlN/sapphire template to form the heterojunction by pulsed laser deposition. High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the core-level (CL) binding energies of Ga 3d and Al 2p with respect to the valence band maximum in individual β-Ga2O3 and AlN layers, respectively. The separation between Ga 3d and Al 2p CLs at the β-Ga2O3/AlN interface was also measured. Eventually, the VBO was found to be -0.55 ± 0.05 eV. Consequently, a staggered-gap (type II) heterojunction with a CBO of -1.75 ± 0.05 eV was determined. The identification of the band alignment of the β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction could facilitate the design of optical and electronic devices based on these and related alloys.

  8. Valence and conduction band offsets of β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haiding

    2017-10-16

    Both β-Ga2O3 and wurtzite AlN have wide bandgaps of 4.5–4.9 and 6.1 eV, respectively. We calculated the in-plane lattice mismatch between the (−201) plane of β-Ga2O3 and the (0002) plane of AlN, which was found to be 2.4%. This is the smallest mismatch between β-Ga2O3 and binary III-nitrides which is beneficial for the formation of a high quality β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction. However, the valence and conduction band offsets (VBO and CBO) at the β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction have not yet been identified. In this study, a very thin (less than 2 nm) β-Ga2O3 layer was deposited on an AlN/sapphire template to form the heterojunction by pulsed laser deposition. High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the core-level (CL) binding energies of Ga 3d and Al 2p with respect to the valence band maximum in individual β-Ga2O3 and AlN layers, respectively. The separation between Ga 3d and Al 2p CLs at the β-Ga2O3/AlN interface was also measured. Eventually, the VBO was found to be −0.55 ± 0.05 eV. Consequently, a staggered-gap (type II) heterojunction with a CBO of −1.75 ± 0.05 eV was determined. The identification of the band alignment of the β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction could facilitate the design of optical and electronic devices based on these and related alloys.

  9. Determination of conduction and valence band electronic structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    shifts in the rutile Ti d-band to lower energy with respect to anatase, i.e., ... requires excitation with UV light due to its wide band ... RIXS maps were compared to the theoretical results .... optical methods are insufficient, such as dark samples.

  10. Photoemission from valence bands of transition metal-phthalocyanines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Ming-Hui; Nagaosa, Mayumi; Nagamatsu, Shin-ichi; Hosoumi, Shunsuke; Kera, Satoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Ueno, Nobuo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The HOMO mainly comes from the carbon atoms of Pc rings and the central metal atoms almost have no contribution on the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO: a 1u ) distribution of CoPc as well as NiPc. → Influence by central metal atom on the photoemission intensities from the HOMO of two single molecule systems is negligible for the major. → The modification of the distribution for π-orbital upon adsorption as well as the scattering effects of the central metal on the photoemission intensities are negligible for the major. - Abstract: Angular dependencies of ultraviolet photoelectron spectrum of transition metal-phthalocyanines (TM-Pcs), NiPc and CoPc, have been studied by using multiple-scattering theory to explore the electronic structure of the organometallic complexes influenced by central metal atom. The calculated angular distributions of photoelectrons for the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO: a 1u ) from the two single systems are nearly the same and represent well the experimental results obtained for the well-ordered monolayer on the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate. The central metal atoms almost have no contribution on the HOMO distribution, which mainly comes from the carbon atoms of Pc ring. Moreover, the modification of the distribution for π orbital upon adsorption as well as the scattering effects of the central metal on the photoemission intensities are negligible for the major.

  11. The spammed code offset method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; Vreede, de N.

    2013-01-01

    Helper data schemes are a security primitive used for privacy-preserving biometric databases and Physical Unclonable Functions. One of the oldest known helper data schemes is the Code Offset Method (COM). We propose an extension of the COM: the helper data is accompanied by many instances of fake

  12. The spammed code offset method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; Vreede, de N.

    2014-01-01

    Helper data schemes are a security primitive used for privacy-preserving biometric databases and physical unclonable functions. One of the oldest known helper data schemes is the code offset method (COM). We propose an extension of the COM: the helper data are accompanied by many instances of fake

  13. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  14. The voluntary offset - approaches and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    After having briefly presented the voluntary offset mechanism which aims at funding a project of reduction or capture of greenhouse gas emissions, this document describes the approach to be followed to adopt this voluntary offset, for individuals as well as for companies, communities or event organisations. It describes other important context issues (projects developed under the voluntary offset, actors of the voluntary offsetting market, market status, offset labels), and how to proceed in practice (definition of objectives and expectations, search for needed requirements, to ensure the meeting of requirements with respect to expectations). It addresses the case of voluntary offset in France (difficult implantation, possible solutions)

  15. 34 CFR 31.11 - Offset process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset process. 31.11 Section 31.11 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education SALARY OFFSET FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES WHO ARE INDEBTED TO THE UNITED STATES UNDER PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE SECRETARY OF EDUCATION § 31.11 Offset process. (a) The...

  16. 5 CFR 179.307 - Administrative offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative offset. 179.307 Section 179.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.307 Administrative offset. (a) If the debtor does not...

  17. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of band offsets in Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO heterojunction for UV photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karmvir; Rawal, Ishpal; Punia, Rajesh; Dhar, Rakesh

    2017-10-01

    Here, we report the valence and conduction band offset measurements in pure ZnO and the Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO heterojunction by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies for UV photodetector applications. For detailed investigations on the band offsets and UV photodetection behavior of Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO heterostructures, thin films of pristine ZnO, Ga-doped ZnO (Ga0.02Zn0.98O), and heterostructures of Ga-doped ZnO with ZnO (Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO) were deposited using a pulsed laser deposition technique. The deposited thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies were carried out on all the thin films for the investigation of valence and conduction band offsets. The valence band was found to be shifted by 0.28 eV, while the conduction band has a shifting of -0.272 eV in the Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO heterojunction as compared to pristine ZnO thin films. All the three samples were analyzed for photoconduction behavior under UVA light of the intensity of 3.3 mW/cm2, and it was observed that the photoresponse of pristine ZnO (19.75%) was found to increase with 2 wt. % doping of Ga (22.62%) and heterostructured thin films (29.10%). The mechanism of UV photodetection in the deposited samples has been discussed in detail, and the interaction of chemisorbed oxygen on the ZnO surface with holes generated by UV light exposure has been the observed mechanism for the change in electrical conductivity responsible for UV photoresponse on the present deposited ZnO films.

  18. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  19. High temperature and low pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride on AlGaN: Band offsets and passivation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Pramod; Washiyama, Shun; Kaess, Felix; Hernandez-Balderrama, Luis H.; Haidet, Brian B.; Alden, Dorian; Franke, Alexander; Sarkar, Biplab; Kohn, Erhard; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States); Hayden Breckenridge, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7919 (United States); REU, Physics Department at Wofford College, Spartanburg, South Carolina 29303 (United States)

    2016-04-14

    In this work, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the band offsets and interface Fermi level at the heterojunction formed by stoichiometric silicon nitride deposited on Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N (of varying Al composition “x”) via low pressure chemical vapor deposition. Silicon nitride is found to form a type II staggered band alignment with AlGaN for all Al compositions (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) and present an electron barrier into AlGaN even at higher Al compositions, where E{sub g}(AlGaN) > E{sub g}(Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). Further, no band bending is observed in AlGaN for x ≤ 0.6 and a reduced band bending (by ∼1 eV in comparison to that at free surface) is observed for x > 0.6. The Fermi level in silicon nitride is found to be at 3 eV with respect to its valence band, which is likely due to silicon (≡Si{sup 0/−1}) dangling bonds. The presence of band bending for x > 0.6 is seen as a likely consequence of Fermi level alignment at Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/AlGaN hetero-interface and not due to interface states. Photoelectron spectroscopy results are corroborated by current-voltage-temperature and capacitance-voltage measurements. A shift in the interface Fermi level (before band bending at equilibrium) from the conduction band in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/n-GaN to the valence band in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/p-GaN is observed, which strongly indicates a reduction in mid-gap interface states. Hence, stoichiometric silicon nitride is found to be a feasible passivation and dielectric insulation material for AlGaN at any composition.

  20. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  1. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmahos George C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries.

  2. Danish Cartoon Crisis/Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The Danish Cartoon Crisis Controversy is one of several terms that refer to the turmoil that associates with the Danish newspaper Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten’s publication of 12 cartoons on 30 September 2005. “The Muhammad Cartoon Crisis” is an alternative heading used for the violent global rea...

  3. Controversial Issues in Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Selma C.

    The author discusses controversial issues in the field of learning disabilities (LD). Among topics addressed are conflicting definitions of LD and the impact of the operational definition accepted by the US Government; etiological questions concerning the separation of neurological, environmental, and emotional factors; approaches used in training…

  4. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  5. Risk controversies. Concepts - conflicts - communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungermann, H.

    1991-01-01

    Common arguments and differences in risk communication in connection with the controversial discussion surrounding the fields of genetic engineering, chemistry, nuclear engineering, information techniques, and climate research are investigated. Presented are comparative analyses on subjects, those becoming active, and strategies of risk communication. (DG) [de

  6. Introducing Ethics Using Structured Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, David; Elefsiniotis, Takis P.; Elms, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a method of introducing ethics to a second-year class of civil engineering students. The method, known as a "structured controversy", takes the form of a workshop where the students assume the identity of stakeholders having an interest in a proposed development in an environmentally sensitive region. The instructor…

  7. Desecuritization as Displacement of Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Marc; Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    By signing the Ilulissat Declaration of May 2008, the five littoral states of the Arctic Ocean pre-emptively desecuritized potential geopolitical controversies in the Arctic Ocean by confirming that international law and geo-science are the defining factors underlying the future delimitation...

  8. Current controversies, is there merit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2009-01-01

    Xylitol has become a debated measure in caries prevention. This paper aims to examine and comment on some possible controversies, with emphasis on the most recent literature. A search for clinical trials was conducted through 2007 in PubMed, and papers describing a controlled xylitol intervention...

  9. Women's Athletics: Coping with Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Barbara J., Ed.

    This book is a collection of papers discussing controversial topics in women's athletics. Section one, "Overview--Women's Rights," includes articles on women's rights and equal opportunities in sports, the emergence of women in sports, and significant events in a century of American women's sports. Section two, "Women's Intercollegiate…

  10. Effect of temperature on the valency bands of HDO in water in the liquid and solid states. Effects on the analysis of heavy water using infra-red absorption; Effet de temperature sur les bandes de valence de HDO dans l'eau a l'etat liquide et a l'etat solide - consequences pour l'analyse de l'eau lourde par absorption infra-rouge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccaldi, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    After, a description of the technique used, a qualitative examination is made of the influence of the temperature on the {nu}{sub OH}(3,400 cm{sup -1}) and {nu}{sub OD} (2,500 cm{sup -1}) valence bands of HDO in the liquid state and then during the passage to the solid state. Quantitative examination with two cells of different thickness makes it possible to define the influence of temperature on the residual absorption of the pure liquid (D{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}O and on the valency bands ({nu}{sub OH} and {nu}{sub OD} respectively). It is found that a similar change occurs in the two bands but that the changes in the background are very different. During the passage from the liquid to the solid state the shape of the bands varies considerably but little change occurs in the total intensity. It has been possible to express these results in a simple form which is directly applicable to analytical problems. (authors) [French] Apres un rappel de la technique utilisee, on examine qualitativement l'influence de la temperature sur les bandes de valence {nu}{sub OH} (3400 cm{sup -1}) et {nu}{sub OD} (2500 cm{sup -1}) de HDO a l'etat liquide puis le passage a l'etat solide. L'examen quantitatif, avec deux cuves d'epaisseurs differentes, permet de preciser l'influence de la temperature sur l'absorption residuelle du liquide pur (D{sub 2}O ou H{sub 2}O) et sur les bandes de valence ( {nu}{sub OH} et {nu}{sub OD} respectivement). On constate une evolution parallele de ces bandes mais un comportement tres different du fond continu. Lors du passage de l'etat liquide a l'etat solide, la forme des bandes varie considerablement mais non l'intensite totale. On a pu formuler ces resultats sous une forme simple applicable directement aux problemes analytiques. (auteurs)

  11. Controversial Science and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordon, James

    2012-03-01

    The possibility that the OPERA collaboration has detected superluminal neutrinos was among the most controversial topics in physics news in decades, and one of the most widely covered stories in all of science in 2011. Word of the research initially reached journalists and the public prior to publication in peer-reviewed journals. Understandably, many physicists are concerned that the significance of controversial science may be exaggerated or distorted when news organizations report on science at such an early stage. I will offer an overview of the ways the story was promoted by the media relations personnel, and outline the rationales that motivate media relations efforts along with the associated benefits and drawbacks that can result. Finally, I will examine the accuracy and completeness of the superluminal neutrino news stories that ultimately were made available to the general public.

  12. Nuclear controversy with many undercurrents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingjaerde, R.O.

    1979-01-01

    The president of the Norwegian Atomic Energy Society presents, in the form of an interview his opinions on the nature of the nuclear controversy in Norway. He is very critical of the emotional and uninformed nature of much of the criticism of nuclear power, and emphasises that nuclear power must be regarded as an alternative to other, less favourable forms of thermal power, as a supplement to hydroelectric power, or to electricity rationing. While a society using less energy is quite feasible, it would hardly be acceptable. The waste disposal controversy is quite artifical, as perfectly safe methods of disposal are available. Finally he regrets that it is the conclusions only in the Nuclear Power Commission's report which have attracted attention, and mainly the comments of the dissident minority. (JIW)

  13. Utilization of curve offsets in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltalab, Vahid; Yaman, Ulas; Dolen, Melik

    2018-05-01

    Curve offsets are utilized in different fields of engineering and science. Additive manufacturing, which lately becomes an explicit requirement in manufacturing industry, utilizes curve offsets widely. One of the necessities of offsetting is for scaling which is required if there is shrinkage after the fabrication or if the surface quality of the resulting part is unacceptable. Therefore, some post-processing is indispensable. But the major application of curve offsets in additive manufacturing processes is for generating head trajectories. In a point-wise AM process, a correct tool-path in each layer can reduce lots of costs and increase the surface quality of the fabricated parts. In this study, different curve offset generation algorithms are analyzed to show their capabilities and disadvantages through some test cases and improvements on their drawbacks are suggested.

  14. Sexual Orientation, Controversy, and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc

    2016-09-01

    SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. The controversy about nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    A short review of the events of the past several years in the conflict in the USA between the groups supporting or opposing nuclear power. Reference is made to publications on both sides of the controversy which the author considers to be well reasoned and useful sources of information. Mention is also made of the legal and legislative actions taken by both sides. The arguments against nuclear power are summarized and solutions to the problems which are the source of these arguments are suggested

  16. Doctrinal controversies and ecumenical councils | Ogbonnaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work focused on the doctrinal controversies that have confronted the Church in the course of its development and the accompanying councils that sought to resolve these theological controversies. The paper did this historically, by showing the origin of the problems, the factors and features involved in the controversies ...

  17. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary... referred for offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under this... resolved to the satisfaction of GSA. ...

  18. Band Offset Measurements in Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3/Zn0.8Al0.2O Heterojunction Studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Heng, Yuekun; Yang, Yuzhen; Yu, Yang; Wen, Kaile

    2017-12-01

    Pure aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) and zinc aluminum oxide (Zn x Al 1-x O) thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The microstructure and optical band gaps (E g ) of the Zn x Al 1-x O (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 1) films were studied by X-ray diffractometer and Tauc method. The band offsets and alignment of atomic-layer-deposited Al 2 O 3 /Zn 0.8 Al 0.2 O heterojunction were investigated in detail using charge-corrected X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In this work, different methodologies were adopted to recover the actual position of the core levels in insulator materials which were easily affected by differential charging phenomena. Valence band offset (ΔE V ) and conduction band offset (ΔE C ) for the interface of the Al 2 O 3 /Zn 0.8 Al 0.2 O heterojunction have been constructed. An accurate value of ΔE V  = 0.82 ± 0.12 eV was obtained from various combinations of core levels of heterojunction with varied Al 2 O 3 thickness. Given the experimental E g of 6.8 eV for Al 2 O 3 and 5.29 eV for Zn 0.8 Al 0.2 O, a type-I heterojunction with a ΔE C of 0.69 ± 0.12 eV was found. The precise determination of the band alignment of Al 2 O 3 /Zn 0.8 Al 0.2 O heterojunction is of particular importance for gaining insight to the design of various electronic devices based on such heterointerface.

  19. Managing Controversies in the Fuzzy Front End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Gasparin, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the controversies that emerge in the fuzzy front end (FFE) and how they are closed so the innovation process can move on. The fuzzy front has been characterized in the literature as a very critical phase, but controversies in the FFE have not been studied before....... The analysis investigates the microprocesses around the controversies that emerge during the fuzzy front end of four products. Five different types of controversies are identified: profit, production, design, brand and customers/market. Each controversy represents a threat, but also an opportunity to search...

  20. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F.; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering “biodiversity offsets” as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

  1. Nuclear power. The Windscale controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, G.

    1978-01-01

    The aims of this unit are: (1) to provide a basic understanding of nuclear technology and of the associated technical and environmental problems; (2) to provide an understanding of: (a) the historical growth of the nuclear industry; (b) the arguments for the continued development of nuclear power, and the institutions promoting that development; (3) to provide a basic understanding of the mechanisms and institutions which officially regulate the nuclear power programme in the UK; (4) to provide an understanding of the main issues - technical, economic, social and political - involved in the controversy over the proposed expansion of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd's reprocessing facilities at Windscale, and the events leading up to the Public Inquiry on the proposal which began in June 1977; and (5) to examine (a) the reason for the growth in opposition to nuclear power in various countries and the different approaches taken by the opposition groups; (b) the political impact and effectiveness of that opposition. (author)

  2. Subclinical hypothyroidism: Controversies to consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Abbas Raza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnoses of subclinicaal hypothyroidism (SCH is biochemically made, when serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH levels is elevated while free thyroid hormone levels are within normal reference range. SCH is diagnosed after excluding all other causes of elevated TSH levels. Symptoms of SCH may vary from being asymptomatic to having mild nonspecific symptoms. The risk of progression to overt hypothyroidism is related to number of factors including initial serum TSH concentration, presence of auto antibodies, family history and presence goiter. Various screening recommendations for thyroid function assessment are in practice. There are still controversies surrounding SCH and associated risk of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, pregnancy outcomes, neuropsychiatric issues, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia. Consensus will require more large randomized clinical studies involving various age groups and medical condition, especially in developing countries. All these efforts will definitely improve our understanding of disease and ultimately patient outcomes.

  3. Partisan Scholarship in Technoscientific Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Hansson, Anders

    2012-01-01

    of who controls, manipulates, and establishes decisions, facts, and knowledge. With this in mind, it is possible to identify different forms of partisan research including capture by participants, de facto and overt partisanship, and mercenary scholarship. These different forms of partisan scholarship...... are characterised by differences in the motives underlying epistemological choices of research topic and method, personal commitments to the fields studied, use of research findings in controversies, and positioning of results in wider debates. Two examples help to illustrate partisan scholarship: first, a study...... of new technologies for managing climate change (carbon dioxide capture and storage); and second, the construction of the new underground metro system in Athens and its accommodation of accessibility standards. Both cases entail partisan positions and raise similar concerns about the orthodox...

  4. Darwinian Controversies: An Historiographical Recounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depew, David J.

    2010-05-01

    This essay reviews key controversies in the history of the Darwinian research tradition: the Wilberforce-Huxley debate in 1860, early twentieth-century debates about the heritability of acquired characteristics and the consistency of Mendelian genetics with natural selection; the 1925 Scopes trial about teaching evolution; tensions about race, culture, and eugenics at the 1959 centenary celebration Darwin’s Origin of Species; adaptationism and its critics in the Sociobiology debate of 1970s and, more recently, Evolutionary Psychology; and current disputes about Intelligent Design. These controversies, I argue, are etched into public memory because they occur at the emotionally charged boundaries between public-political, technical-scientific, and personal-religious spheres of discourse. Over most of them falls the shadow of eugenics. The main lesson is that the history of Darwinism cannot be told except by showing the mutual influence of the different norms of discourse that obtain in the personal, technical, and public spheres. Nor can evolutionary biology successfully be taught to citizens and citizens-to-be until the fractious intersections between spheres of discourse have been made explicit. In the course of showing why, I take rival evolutionary approaches to be dynamical historical research traditions rather than static theories. Accordingly, I distinguish Darwin’s version of Darwinism from its later transformations. I pay special attention to the role Darwin assigned to development in evolution, which was marginalized by twentieth-century population genetical Darwinism, but has recently resurfaced in new forms. I also show how the disputed phrases “survival of the fittest” and “social Darwinism” have shaped personal anxieties about “Darwinism,” have provoked public opposition to teaching evolution in public schools, and have cast a shadow over efforts to effectively communicate to the public largely successful technical efforts to make

  5. 12 CFR 1408.39 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1408.39 Section... STATES Offset Against Salary § 1408.39 Procedures for salary offset. (a) The Chairman, or designee of the... periods following the date of mailing or delivery of the Notice of Intent to Collect by Salary Offset. (c...

  6. 22 CFR 309.17 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset. 309.17 Section 309.17 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.17 Procedures for salary offset. Unless otherwise provided by statute or contract, the following procedures apply to salary offset: (a...

  7. 41 CFR 105-56.018 - Salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary offset. 105-56... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.018 Salary offset. When a match occurs and all...

  8. 5 CFR 1639.27 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1639.27... Salary Offset § 1639.27 Procedures for salary offset. (a) The Board will coordinate salary deductions... pay and will implement the salary offset. (c) Deductions will begin within three official pay periods...

  9. 41 CFR 105-56.028 - Salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary offset. 105-56... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.028 Salary offset. When a match occurs and all...

  10. 12 CFR 608.839 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 608.839 Section... OWED THE UNITED STATES Offset Against Salary § 608.839 Procedures for salary offset. (a) The Chairman... Intent to Collect by Salary Offset. (c)(1) If the amount of the debt is equal to or is less than 15...

  11. 5 CFR 179.211 - Notice of salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of salary offset. 179.211 Section... COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.211 Notice of salary offset. (a) Upon receipt of proper... certification as the debtor, a written notice of salary offset. Such notice shall, at a minimum: (1) State that...

  12. 7 CFR 3.46 - Offset against tax refunds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Offset against tax refunds. 3.46 Section 3.46 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Administrative Offset § 3.46 Offset against tax refunds. USDA will take action to effect administrative offset against tax refunds due to debtors...

  13. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  14. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Nicol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.

  15. CONTROVERSIAL ASPECTS REGARDING TAX EVASION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea-Constantin SINESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the paper, we have highlighted some controversial aspects regarding the crime of tax evasion, referring to some important decisions of the High Court of Cassation and Justice and also of the Bucharest Court of Appeal. Debating upon the impunity provision stated by art. 10 of Law no. 241/2005, the study also sheds light upon the issue of the perspective of the judicial organs regarding the juridical regime of the tax due for dividends. The main focus of the paper leads to the situations when there is legal ground for the tax due for dividends to be considered part of the damage caused by tax evasion crime. The study includes a short analysis of some relevant provisions of the Romanian Fiscal Code and also some aspects deriving from decisions issued by the Administrative and Tax Litigation Chamber of The High Court of Cassation and Justice concerning the legal regime of dividends. Consequently, the authors are presenting both perspectives of the interpretation of the issue regarding the tax due for dividends to be considered part of the damage caused by tax evasion crime, resulting from two decisions of the two Criminal Sections of The Bucharest Court of Appeal, also arguing in favour of the most solid interpretation among them

  16. Lyme disease: why the controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, M H

    2016-12-01

    Some Australians have become convinced of the existence of locally acquired Lyme disease (LD). The history of LD, since its recognition in the early 1970s, is reviewed as a model for investigative approaches to unknown syndromes. Australian Management Guidelines for LD include the requirement for diagnostic testing by National Association of Testing Authorities-accredited laboratories using Therapeutic Goods Administration-licensed tests, which result in the efficient diagnosis of LD in overseas travellers. Despite this, patients who have not left Australia pay many thousands of dollars for non-specialist consultations and testing at overseas laboratories. Unproven long-term therapy with multiple antibiotics has resulted in serious complications, including allergies, line sepsis, pancreatitis and pseudomembranous colitis. Studies have shown that LD vectors are not found in Australia, and Lyme Borrelia has not been found in Australian vectors, animals or patients with autochthonous illnesses. I propose that (i) A non-controversial name for the chronic syndrome should be adopted, 'Australian Multisystem Disorder'. (ii) Research funding should enable the development of a consensus case definition and studies of the epidemiology of this syndrome with laboratory investigations to identify an aetiology and surrogate markers of disease. Prospective, randomised treatment studies could then be undertaken using ethical protocols. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  17. Controversies in presacral tumors management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Issa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Presacral tumors are rare lesions of the retrorectal space that can present diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty because of their anatomic location and the different tissue types and etiology. Although the diagnosis and management of these tumors has evolved in recent years, several points still to be addressed in order to improve perioperative diagnosis and treatment. In the upcoming we will try to highlight some controversial points; the pre-operative biopsies, neoadjuvant therapy, the necessity of surgery and the role of minimally invasive surgeries of presacral tumors. Resumo: Tumores pré-sacrais são lesões raras do espaço retrorretal que podem trazer dificuldades diagnósticas e terapêuticas por causa de sua localização anatômica e também pelos diferentes tipos de tecidos e etiologia. Embora nos últimos anos o diagnóstico e tratamento desses tumores tenham evoluído, diversos pontos ainda devem ser estudados com vistas à melhora do diagnóstico e tratamento no perioperatório. Mais adiante, tentaremos esclarecer alguns pontos controversos; biópsias pré-operatórias, terapia neoadjuvante, a necessidade de cirurgia e o papel das cirurgias minimamente invasivas para os tumores pré-sacrais. Keywords: Presacral tumor, Preoperative biopsy, Neoadjuvant therapy, Palavras-chave: Tumor pré-sacral, Biópsia pré-operatória, Terapia neoadjuvante

  18. 20 CFR 627.708 - Offset process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Offset process. 627.708 Section 627.708 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING... process. (a) In accordance with section 164(d) of the Act, the primary sanction for misexpenditure of JTPA...

  19. Sample Adaptive Offset Optimization in HEVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As the next generation of video coding standard, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC adopted many useful tools to improve coding efficiency. Sample Adaptive Offset (SAO, is a technique to reduce sample distortion by providing offsets to pixels in in-loop filter. In SAO, pixels in LCU are classified into several categories, then categories and offsets are given based on Rate-Distortion Optimization (RDO of reconstructed pixels in a Largest Coding Unit (LCU. Pixels in a LCU are operated by the same SAO process, however, transform and inverse transform makes the distortion of pixels in Transform Unit (TU edge larger than the distortion inside TU even after deblocking filtering (DF and SAO. And the categories of SAO can also be refined, since it is not proper for many cases. This paper proposed a TU edge offset mode and a category refinement for SAO in HEVC. Experimental results shows that those two kinds of optimization gets -0.13 and -0.2 gain respectively compared with the SAO in HEVC. The proposed algorithm which using the two kinds of optimization gets -0.23 gain on BD-rate compared with the SAO in HEVC which is a 47 % increase with nearly no increase on coding time.

  20. Understanding Controversies in Urban Climate Change Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Nina; Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the controversies that exist in urban climate change adaptation and how these controversies influence the role of homeowners in urban adaptation planning. A concrete SUDS project in a housing cooperative in Copenhagen has been used as a case study thereby investigating the m...

  1. Managing Controversies in the Fuzzy Front End

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Gasparin, Marta

    2016-01-01

    . The analysis investigates the microprocesses around the controversies that emerge during the fuzzy front end of four products. Five different types of controversies are identified: profit, production, design, brand and customers/market. Each controversy represents a threat, but also an opportunity to search...... for new solutions in the unpredictable non-linear processes. The study uses an ethnographic approach using qualitative data from interviews, company documents, external communication and marketing material, minutes of meetings, informal conversations and observations. The analysis of four FFE processes...... demonstrates how the fuzzy front requires managers to deal with controversies that emerge from many different places and involve both human and non-human actors. Closing the controversies requires managers to take account of the situation, identify the problem that needs to be addressed, and initiate a search...

  2. A GPS Satellite Clock Offset Prediction Method Based on Fitting Clock Offset Rates Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fuhong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed that a satellite atomic clock offset prediction method based on fitting and modeling clock offset rates data. This method builds quadratic model or linear model combined with periodic terms to fit the time series of clock offset rates, and computes the model coefficients of trend with the best estimation. The clock offset precisely estimated at the initial prediction epoch is directly adopted to calculate the model coefficient of constant. The clock offsets in the rapid ephemeris (IGR provided by IGS are used as modeling data sets to perform certain experiments for different types of GPS satellite clocks. The results show that the clock prediction accuracies of the proposed method for 3, 6, 12 and 24 h achieve 0.43, 0.58, 0.90 and 1.47 ns respectively, which outperform the traditional prediction method based on fitting original clock offsets by 69.3%, 61.8%, 50.5% and 37.2%. Compared with the IGU real-time clock products provided by IGS, the prediction accuracies of the new method have improved about 15.7%, 23.7%, 27.4% and 34.4% respectively.

  3. Cap and trade offsets regulation - consultation paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Due to increasing concerns about the environment, British Columbia has committed to reducing its 2007 greenhouse gas emissions levels by 33% in 2020 and 80% in 2050. To reach those objectives, emissions trading and offset regulations are being developed by the Climate Action Secretariat. The aim of this document is to present a first draft of the regulations to the various stakeholders, including First Nations and the general public, together with the proposed offset eligibility criteria and related process, and to get their feedback. This document is itself part of the 5-phase process of developing the regulations. Following the 45 days during which comments on the proposed regulation were sought, the climate action secretariat will complete legal drafting of the regulations, drawing on help from this stakeholder input, and the regulation will subsequently be implemented. An accompanying response form was attached to this consultation paper.

  4. Band offset in zinc oxy-sulfide/cubic-tin sulfide interface from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanal, K.C.; Nair, P.K.; Nair, M.T.S., E-mail: mtsn@ier.unam.mx

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Zinc oxy-sulfide thin films, 175–240 nm, deposited by rf-sputtering from targets of ZnO + ZnS. • Oxygen content in thin films is enhanced 3–4 times compared with that in ZnO:ZnS targets. • Thin film ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} with x = 0.88–0.27 and optical band gap 2.8–3.2 eV is suitable for solar cells. • The conduction band offset with SnS of cubic structure studied by XPS are +0.41 to −0.28 eV. - Abstract: Zinc oxy-sulfide, ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x}, has been found to provide better band alignment in thin film solar cells of tin sulfide of orthorhombic crystalline structure. Here we examine ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x}/SnS-CUB interface, in which the ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} thin film was deposited by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering on SnS thin film of cubic (CUB) crystalline structure with a band gap (E{sub g}) of 1.72 eV, obtained via chemical deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provides the valence band maxima of the materials and hence places the conduction band offset of 0.41 eV for SnS-CUB/ZnO{sub 0.27}S{sub 0.73} and −0.28 eV for SnS-CUB/ZnO{sub 0.88}S{sub 0.12} interfaces. Thin films of ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} with 175–240 nm in thickness were deposited from targets prepared with different ZnO to ZnS molar ratios. With the target of molar ratio of 1:13.4, the thin films are of composition ZnO{sub 0.27}S{sub 0.73} with hexagonal crystalline structure and with that of 1:1.7 ratio, it is ZnO{sub 0.88}S{sub 0.12}. The optical band gap of the ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} thin films varies from 2.90 eV to 3.21 eV as the sulfur to zinc ratio in the film increases from 0.12:1 to 0.73:1 as determined from X-ray diffraction patterns. Thus, band offsets sought for absorber materials and zinc oxy-sulfide in solar cells may be achieved through a choice of ZnO:ZnS ratio in the sputtering target.

  5. Update on markets for forestry offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeff, T.; Eichler, L.; Deecke, I.; Fehse, J.

    2007-01-01

    This guide is an update of the book 'Guidebook to Markets and Commercialization of CDM forestry projects'. The document provides information on the development of CMD methodologies, projects registered and markets since the publication of the first version. In addition it introduces the emerging non-Kyoto markets, it presents a classification of the existing developments, it describes each market including the buyer's preferences and it discusses the use of standards and quality criteria and transaction costs. We focus on markets for offsets from developing countries, rather than domestic offsets in developed countries. Section 1 is an introduction to the topic and an overview of the most recent developments. Sections 2 and 3 look at recent experiences and market developments for CDM reforestation projects. These sections are meant to be an update of the above mentioned guidebook and thus refrain from an exhaustive description. Section 4 assesses non-Kyoto markets for carbon offsets from forestry projects. It includes a description of the various market schemes and types of buyers. The section attempts to provide the project developer with useful information for developing a project following buyer' requirements. Finally, section 5 puts the assessment of opportunities for forestry in the broader context of the larger carbon markets. The report then concludes with a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of the CDM and non-Kyoto schemes from the project developer's point of view

  6. Hydroelectric power is green, although controversial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Hydroelectric power is worldwide the most important source of renewable energy. Still, it has some controversial aspects, which are briefly discussed in this article, focusing on Belgium and the Netherlands [nl

  7. The Effect of Allowing Pollution Offsets with Imperfect Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary Sigman; Howard F. Chang

    2011-01-01

    Public policies for pollution control, including climate change policies, sometimes allow polluters in one sector subject to an emissions cap to offset excessive emissions in that sector with pollution abatement in another sector. The government may often find it more costly to verify offset claims than to verify compliance with emissions caps. Concerns about such difficulties in enforcement may lead regulators to restrict the use of offsets. In this paper, we demonstrate that allowing offset...

  8. Controversies in Persistent (Chronic) Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that more than 300 000 new cases of Lyme disease occur each year in the United States and that 10% to 20% of these patients will remain symptomatic despite receiving appropriate antibiotic therapy. Many elements of the disease are poorly understood and have generated considerable controversy. This paper discusses the medical controversies related to posttreatment manifestations and their potential impact on infusion nurses. PMID:27755213

  9. How science makes environmental controversies worse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarewitz, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    I use the example of the 2000 US Presidential election to show that political controversies with technical underpinnings are not resolved by technical means. Then, drawing from examples such as climate change, genetically modified foods, and nuclear waste disposal, I explore the idea that scientific inquiry is inherently and unavoidably subject to becoming politicized in environmental controversies. I discuss three reasons for this. First, science supplies contesting parties with their own bodies of relevant, legitimated facts about nature, chosen in part because they help make sense of, and are made sensible by, particular interests and normative frameworks. Second, competing disciplinary approaches to understanding the scientific bases of an environmental controversy may be causally tied to competing value-based political or ethical positions. The necessity of looking at nature through a variety of disciplinary lenses brings with it a variety of normative lenses, as well. Third, it follows from the foregoing that scientific uncertainty, which so often occupies a central place in environmental controversies, can be understood not as a lack of scientific understanding but as the lack of coherence among competing scientific understandings, amplified by the various political, cultural, and institutional contexts within which science is carried out. In light of these observations, I briefly explore the problem of why some types of political controversies become 'scientized' and others do not, and conclude that the value bases of disputes underlying environmental controversies must be fully articulated and adjudicated through political means before science can play an effective role in resolving environmental problems

  10. 22 CFR 1007.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Procedures for salary offset. 1007.8 Section 1007.8 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 1007.8 Procedures for salary offset... final salary or leave payments in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 3716. ...

  11. 29 CFR 1650.110 - Implementation of salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Implementation of salary offset. 1650.110 Section 1650.110... Procedures for the Collection of Debts by Salary Offset § 1650.110 Implementation of salary offset. (a... proposed voluntary repayment agreement, deductions will begin in the next bi-weekly salary payment after a...

  12. 16 CFR 1027.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1027.8 Section 1027.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL SALARY OFFSET § 1027.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by the method and in the...

  13. 10 CFR 16.15 - Procedures for internal salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for internal salary offset. 16.15 Section 16.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SALARY OFFSET PROCEDURES FOR COLLECTING DEBTS OWED BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT § 16.15 Procedures for internal salary offset. (a) Deductions to...

  14. 17 CFR 141.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 141.8 Section 141.8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SALARY OFFSET § 141.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by...

  15. 10 CFR 1015.215 - Federal salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal salary offset. 1015.215 Section 1015.215 Energy... Administrative Collection of Claims § 1015.215 Federal salary offset. (a) DOE may authorize Treasury to offset a Federal salary to satisfy delinquent debt in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 5514, Installment Deduction for...

  16. 40 CFR 13.21 - Employee salary offset-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee salary offset-general. 13.21... STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 13.21 Employee salary offset—general. (a) Purpose. This section... collection by salary offset under 5 U.S.C. 5514 of debts owed EPA and debts owed to other Federal agencies by...

  17. 45 CFR 33.10 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 33.10 Section 33.10 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SALARY OFFSET § 33.10 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Method and source of deductions. Unless the employee and the Secretary have...

  18. 38 CFR 1.992 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1.992 Section 1.992 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.992 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Types of collection...

  19. 5 CFR 1215.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1215.8... MANAGEMENT Salary Offset § 1215.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's... payment due to a separated employee including but not limited to final salary payment or leave in...

  20. 45 CFR 607.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 607.8 Section 607.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SALARY OFFSET § 607.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by...

  1. 32 CFR 1697.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1697.8 Section 1697.8 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SALARY OFFSET § 1697.8 Procedures for salary offset. (a) Deductions to liquidate an employee's debt will be by...

  2. 14 CFR 1261.603 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1261.603... salary offset. If NASA is both the paying and creditor agency, the following requirements must be met... of the debt through salary offset by deductions from the employee's current disposable pay, stating...

  3. 22 CFR 34.16 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 34.16 Section 34.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 34.16 Procedures for salary offset. Unless otherwise provided by statute or contract, the following...

  4. 5 CFR 179.212 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 179.212... COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.212 Procedures for salary offset. (a) The Director or his or her designee shall coordinate salary deductions under this subpart. (b) OPM payroll office shall determine the...

  5. 45 CFR 708.10 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 708.10 Section 708... COLLECTION BY SALARY OFFSET FROM INDEBTED CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES § 708.10 Procedures for salary offset... to final salary payment, retired pay, or lump sum leave, etc. as of the date of separation to the...

  6. 47 CFR 1.1951 - Offset against tax refunds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Offset against tax refunds. 1.1951 Section 1... Claims Owed the United States Cooperation with the Internal Revenue Service § 1.1951 Offset against tax refunds. The Commission will take action to effect administrative offset against tax refunds due to...

  7. 13 CFR 120.1722 - SBA's offset rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SBA's offset rights. 120.1722... of SBA Secondary Market Guarantee Program for First Lien Position 504 Loan Pools § 120.1722 SBA's offset rights. SBA shall have the right to offset any amount owed by Lender to SBA, including, without...

  8. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary... salary offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under this subpart... otherwise resolved to the satisfaction of the creditor agency. ...

  9. Alternative method for determining the constant offset in lidar signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir A. Kovalev; Cyle Wold; Alexander Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2009-01-01

    We present an alternative method for determining the total offset in lidar signal created by a daytime background-illumination component and electrical or digital offset. Unlike existing techniques, here the signal square-range-correction procedure is initially performed using the total signal recorded by lidar, without subtraction of the offset component. While...

  10. Research on Stress Neutral Layer Offset in the Straightening Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailian Gui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress neutral layer offset is analyzed by theoretical and numerical calculation methods. In traditional straightening theory, the stress neutral layer was consistent with the geometric central layer. However, there is a phenomenon that the stress neutral layer has some offset with the geometric neutral layer. This offset is a very important factor for improving the precision of the straightening force. The formula of the stress neutral layer offset is obtained by a theoretical method and the change law is given by numerical calculation method. The neutral layer offset theory provides the theoretical basis for establishing the model of straightening force precisely.

  11. Reagan Defense Forum: The Third Offset Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-07

    guided weapons as you do, and have a homefield advantage. How would you do that? And the LRRDPP really, really did a great job in looking at that...The second thing was the Defense Science Board summer study on autonomy . To a person, every single person on the summer study said, we can’t prove...it, but we believe we are at an inflection point at an artificial intelligence and autonomy . How might we use that as an advantage in an offset

  12. Efficient Fixed-Offset GPR Scattering Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Chen, Xianyao

    2004-01-01

    The electromagnetic scattering by buried three-dimensional penetrable objects, as involved in the analysis of ground penetrating radar systems, is calculated using the extended Born approximation. The involved scattering tensor is calculated using fast Fourier transforms (FFT's). We incorporate...... in the scattering calculation the correct radiation patterns of the ground penetrating radar antennas by using their plane-wave transmitting and receiving spectra. Finally, we derive an efficient FFT-based method to analyze a fixed-offset configuration in which the location of the transmitting antenna is different...

  13. Emissions trading with offset markets and free quota allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Strand, Jon

    2012-07-01

    We study interactions between a 'policy bloc's' emissions quota market and an offset market where emissions offsets can be purchased from a non-policy 'fringe' of countries (such as for the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol). Policy-bloc firms are assumed to benefit from free quota allocations that are updated according to either past emissions or past outputs. We show that both overall abatement, and the allocation of given abatement between the policy bloc and the fringe, tend to be inefficient. When the policy-bloc quota market and offset markets are fully integrated (and firms buy offsets directly from the fringe), and all quotas and offsets must be traded at a single price, it is optimal for the policy bloc to either not constrain the offset market whatsoever, or to ban offsets completely. The former (latter) case occurs when free allocation of quotas is not too generous (very generous), and the offset market can profitably deliver large (only a small) quota amounts. Governments of policy countries would however instead prefer to buy offsets directly from the fringe at a price below the policy-bloc quota price. The offset price will then be below the marginal damage cost of emissions, and the quota price in the policy bloc above marginal damage cost. This solution is also inefficient as the policy bloc (acting as a monopsonist) purchases too few offsets from the fringe.(Author)

  14. BC Hydro shops for GHG offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    BC Hydro is reported to have offered to purchase one million tonnes of carbon dioxide reductions in Canada's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Trading program (GERT). The program uses a baseline and credit system, where emitters purchase measurable quantities of site-specific GHG reductions. Since mid-1998, the program registered five bilateral trades and seven offers to sell. BC Hydro's recent offer is the first offer to buy. BC Hydro has made the offer to buy in expectation of the introduction of the start of the Kyoto Protocol reductions, and expects to be in the game for some time to come if it is to meet its obligations under the Kyoto Protocol. Preference will be given to projects located in Canada, but BC Hydro will consider reductions created anywhere in the world. The financial range of a single trade is between $50,000 and $1 million. (GHG offsets are currently trading in North America for between $.50 and $3.00 Cdn per metric tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent.) At present, offsets are selling at a heavily discounted price because of the uncertainty that investments made now will be credited against future regulations curbing emitters. Consequently, buying now while prices are low, may lead to sizable benefits later, depending on the actual regulations when they are promulgated. Trading now will also give BC Hydro greater credibility and assurance to have its voice heard when discussions about emissions trading and the implementation of emission trading rules reaches the serious stage

  15. The words of controversy about climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetouani, Lamria

    2007-01-01

    The author analyses the rhetorical staging of controversies which occur in France about climate change, and more particularly about the greenhouse effect. In a first part, she makes a distinction between four registers of controversy: on responsibilities, on consequences and extent of the phenomenon, on solutions, and on spatio-temporal projections of the greenhouse effect. She shows that debates are structured by an opposition between optimism and pessimism. In a second part, based on a lexicological analysis, she highlights the important oppositions between scientific speeches and political speeches, independent speeches and technocratic speeches, and so on, with unexpected aspects. It appears that controversy goes largely beyond the scientific debate, and incorporates crossed interventions of economic, political and social concern

  16. On the history of the nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.

    1979-01-01

    For the past ten years or so the introduction and expansion of nuclear power in a number of industrialized countries of the Western world has been accompanied by a sometimes vehement controversy. This controversy has taken many forms and, in almost all countries, has had distinct effects on the utilization of nuclear power for energy supply purposes. It has given rise to considerable delays in the completion of nuclear installations and, in one country, has even resulted in a rejection of nuclear power altogether. The different facets of the picture, i.e. public action groups opposing nuclear power, the nuclear controversy and scientists, political activities, appeals to courts of law and actions bordering on illegality, are described chronologically and their impacts are analyzed. (orig.) [de

  17. Is there a scientific nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.; Borsch, P.

    1977-01-01

    In the present rather violent discussion about the introduction of nuclear power into the energy supply system it is often alleged that even experts disagree about many aspects, which is interpreted to prove the existence of a scientific controversy in these points. This study about the existence or in existence of such controversy critically reviews both the different collections of signatures organized by scientists and the statements published in specific areas of science. Important partial aspects are the energy requirement and the ways and means available to meet it, the safety and the risks of nuclear technology, radiation exposure and biological effects, the misuse of plutonium, and reprocessing and the ultimate storage of radioactive waste. The study concludes that there is no scientific controversy about the peaceful uses of nuclear power in the sense of the term used here. (orig.) [de

  18. 'Mysticism' in quantum mechanics: the forgotten controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Juan Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that a European controversy over a 'mystical' hypothesis, one assigning the mind a role to play at the material level of reality, shaped much of the debate over the interpretation of the quantum equations. It traces back the controversy to the past two decades, beginning in the late 1920s-birth of quantum theory-and concluding with Erwin Schroedinger's lectures published as 'Mind and Matter'. Becoming aware of the issues at stake can help us understand the historical, philosophical and cultural background from which today's physics emerged

  19. Varicocele: Management and the continuing controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Agbo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicoceles have long been associated with infertility. Despite this long history, there remains much controversy regarding their aetiology and management. The aim of this review is to present the most current information on the management of varicoceles and to highlight some of the management controversies: Association of varicocele with male infertility; Management of varicocele in adolescent; safety and effectiveness of varicocele embolization and management of subclinical varicoceles. It is hoped that this review study will stimulate further research into this condition in order to find a more common ground regarding its management.

  20. Biodiversity offsets and the challenge of achieving no net loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Toby A; VON Hase, Amrei; Brownlie, Susie; Ekstrom, Jonathan M M; Pilgrim, John D; Savy, Conrad E; Stephens, R T Theo; Treweek, Jo; Ussher, Graham T; Ward, Gerri; Ten Kate, Kerry

    2013-12-01

    Businesses, governments, and financial institutions are increasingly adopting a policy of no net loss of biodiversity for development activities. The goal of no net loss is intended to help relieve tension between conservation and development by enabling economic gains to be achieved without concomitant biodiversity losses. biodiversity offsets represent a necessary component of a much broader mitigation strategy for achieving no net loss following prior application of avoidance, minimization, and remediation measures. However, doubts have been raised about the appropriate use of biodiversity offsets. We examined what no net loss means as a desirable conservation outcome and reviewed the conditions that determine whether, and under what circumstances, biodiversity offsets can help achieve such a goal. We propose a conceptual framework to substitute the often ad hoc approaches evident in many biodiversity offset initiatives. The relevance of biodiversity offsets to no net loss rests on 2 fundamental premises. First, offsets are rarely adequate for achieving no net loss of biodiversity alone. Second, some development effects may be too difficult or risky, or even impossible, to offset. To help to deliver no net loss through biodiversity offsets, biodiversity gains must be comparable to losses, be in addition to conservation gains that may have occurred in absence of the offset, and be lasting and protected from risk of failure. Adherence to these conditions requires consideration of the wider landscape context of development and offset activities, timing of offset delivery, measurement of biodiversity, accounting procedures and rule sets used to calculate biodiversity losses and gains and guide offset design, and approaches to managing risk. Adoption of this framework will strengthen the potential for offsets to provide an ecologically defensible mechanism that can help reconcile conservation and development. Balances de Biodiversidad y el Reto de No Obtener P

  1. How economic contexts shape calculations of yield in biodiversity offsetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, L; Sullivan, S

    2017-10-01

    We examined and analyzed methods used to create numerical equivalence between sites affected by development and proposed conservation offset sites. Application of biodiversity offsetting metrics in development impact and mitigation assessments is thought to standardize biodiversity conservation outcomes, sometimes termed yield by those conducting these calculations. The youth of biodiversity offsetting in application, however, means little is known about how biodiversity valuations and offset contracts between development and offset sites are agreed on in practice or about long-term conservation outcomes. We examined how sites were made commensurable and how biodiversity gains or yields were calculated and negotiated for a specific offset contract in a government-led pilot study of biodiversity offsets in England. Over 24 months, we conducted participant observations of various stages in the negotiation of offset contracts through repeated visits to 3 (anonymized) biodiversity offset contract sites. We conducted 50 semistructured interviews of stakeholders in regional and local government, the private sector, and civil society. We used a qualitative data analysis software program (DEDOOSE) to textually analyze interview transcriptions. We also compared successive iterations of biodiversity-offsetting calculation spreadsheets and planning documents. A particular focus was the different iterations of a specific biodiversity impact assessment in which the biodiversity offsetting metric developed by the U.K.'s Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs was used. We highlight 3 main findings. First, biodiversity offsetting metrics were amended in creative ways as users adapted inputs to metric calculations to balance and negotiate conflicting requirements. Second, the practice of making different habitats equivalent to each other through the application of biodiversity offsetting metrics resulted in commensuration outcomes that may not provide projected

  2. Domestic offset projects in the built environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V.; Spijker, E.; Van der Gaast, W. [Joint Implementation Network, Laan Corpus den Hoorn 300, 9728JT Groningen (Netherlands); Flamos, A.; Spyridaki, N.A. [Department of Industrial Management, University of Piraeus, Karaoli and Dimitriou 80 Str, 185 34 Piraeus (Greece)

    2012-08-15

    Emission reduction activities in the European Union (EU) in- and outside the European Trading System (ETS) thus far have largely taken place separately. One possibility to combine the two is through linking Non-ETS offset project-based crediting schemes in the form of Joint Implementation or domestic offset (DO) projects with the EU ETS. Linking would allow non-ETS offset project-based CO2 credits to be traded within the ETS market. This paper discusses the merits and drawbacks of the implementation of a DO scheme in the built environment in the Netherlands. The built environment can be characterised as a sector with a great diversity and significant energy savings potential. Emphasis is paid on the modalities for estimating energy savings under DO projects. The authors discuss if next to existing EU, national or regional policies in the Netherlands, DO could spur initiatives in sub-sectors or market areas that are difficult to reach with conventional policy instruments. Thus, despite the existing policy framework in this sector, there could be still space for DO to reach the untapped energy savings potential. DO can support activities and technologies that are not covered by other policy instruments, either because they are not part of the instruments focus or are above the minimum requirements of the incumbent policy targets. It is expected that some lessons from this study in the Netherlands can be taken into account also by other countries facing similar market circumstances, which have implemented several policy instruments and are considering DO schemes as an alternative for capturing part of the untapped energy saving potential in their end use sectors. Another possible advantage of DO is that it has the potential to reduce public spending on existing policy goals, when it is considered in conjunction with existing public financing instruments. In order to tap into this potential, there are a series of hurdles in place, like additionality and the current CO2

  3. Noise Prediction Module for Offset Stream Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda S.

    2011-01-01

    A Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE) analysis of data acquired for an offset stream technology was presented. The data acquisition and concept development were funded under a Supersonics NRA NNX07AC62A awarded to Dimitri Papamoschou at University of California, Irvine. The technology involved the introduction of airfoils in the fan stream of a bypass ratio (BPR) two nozzle system operated at transonic exhaust speeds. The vanes deflected the fan stream relative to the core stream and resulted in reduced sideline noise for polar angles in the peak jet noise direction. Noise prediction models were developed for a range of vane configurations. The models interface with an existing ANOPP module and can be used or future system level studies.

  4. Apraxia of Speech: Concepts and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Wolfram; Aichert, Ingrid; Staiger, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article was written as an editorial to a collection of original articles on apraxia of speech (AOS) in which some of the more recent advancements in the understanding of this syndrome are discussed. It covers controversial issues concerning the theoretical foundations of AOS. Our approach was motivated by a change of perspective on…

  5. The first Pico-Ficino Controversy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasdalen, Unn Irene

    2011-01-01

    -scale conflict regarding how to live and die according to Platonic ideals. The themes of the controversy are firstly the interpretation of Plato’s Symposium, in particular Diotima’s speech, and secondly the practical conclusions one should draw from Plato’s fictional banquet. Ficino’s position is presented...

  6. Controversies in watermanagement : Frames and mental models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, Rien; van der Veen, A.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Controversies in decision and policy-making processes can be analysed using frame reflection and mental model mapping techniques. The purpose of the method presented in this paper is to improve the quality of the information and interpretations available to decision makers, by surfacing and

  7. Atomic weight versus atomic mass controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    A problem for the Atomic Weights Commission for the past decade has been the controversial battle over the names ''atomic weight'' and ''atomic mass''. The Commission has considered the arguments on both sides over the years and it appears that this meeting will see more of the same discussion taking place. In this paper, I review the situation and offer some alternatives

  8. Breast cancer radiotherapy: controversies and prospectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-ming; WANG Yong-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Despite consensus on breast cancer radiotherapy, there are still some controversies over post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), appropriate sequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment, and radiotherapy after preoperative systemic therapy.

  9. Controversy, Trials, and Crime--Oh My!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rott, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Teenagers' innate interest with the justice system is one of the reasons that so many high school literary classics teem with criminals, controversial issues, and trials. Novels such as "To Kill a Mockingbird," "A Separate Peace," "The Crucible," and "Twelve Angry Men" feature high-impact trials. In the author's desire to tap into this interest,…

  10. Federal Judge Orders Showing of Controversial Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a recent court decision in Nebraska regarding the cancellation of a controversial film on the University of Nebraska campus. The film was cancelled after a state senator threatened to close the theater if the movie was shown. The lawsuit alleged the university violated the First Amendment in cancelling the film; the judge ruled for the…

  11. The Saga of the HIV Controversy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 5. The Saga of the HIV Controversy - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - 2008. Udaykumar Ranga. General Article Volume 14 Issue 5 May 2009 pp 472-498. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Controversial Novels and Censorship in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, John Stuart

    The legal history of censorship in general in the United States as well as the legal context in particular of the censorship of novels from schools is discussed. This thesis deals with four novels which have aroused substantial controversy when taught in the schools. The novels are: "The Catcher in the Rye," by J. D. Salinger, "The Adventures of…

  13. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  14. Net present biodiversity value and the design of biodiversity offsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Jacob McC; Stephens, R T Theo; Ferrier, Simon

    2013-02-01

    There is an urgent need to develop sound theory and practice for biodiversity offsets to provide a better basis for offset multipliers, to improve accounting for time delays in offset repayments, and to develop a common framework for evaluating in-kind and out-of-kind offsets. Here, we apply concepts and measures from systematic conservation planning and financial accounting to provide a basis for determining equity across type (of biodiversity), space, and time. We introduce net present biodiversity value (NPBV) as a theoretical and practical measure for defining the offset required to achieve no-net-loss. For evaluating equity in type and space we use measures of biodiversity value from systematic conservation planning. Time discount rates are used to address risk of non-repayment, and loss of utility. We illustrate these concepts and measures with two examples of biodiversity impact-offset transactions. Considerable further work is required to understand the characteristics of these approaches.

  15. Offset Implementations for Turkey’s International Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    has been a source of confusion in the field of offsets and countertrade (Schmidt, 1989, p. 4) Compensatory trade agreements — or reciprocal trade...complementary policy instruments. Countertrade and offset terms have usually been overall terms to define and classify reciprocal trade agreements...motives and characteristics in nature. Author Grant T. Hammond classifies reciprocal trade as countertrade , offsets and barter — which involve all

  16. Success Factors in Offset Deals: A Case Study Based Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz Kirchwehm

    2014-01-01

    The requests for offset obligations occurs primarily in the area of arms imports and covers the full range of industrial and commercial benefits that companies provide to foreign governments as inducements or conditions for the purchase of military goods and services. Increasingly, all major contracts ask for offset obligations. They are now key differentiators in major contracts and it is a fast growing market. For the suppliers, offsets are a key differentiator in earning new business and t...

  17. Economic and ecological outcomes of flexible biodiversity offset systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Thomas J; Farr, Daniel R; Schneider, Richard R; Boutin, Stan

    2013-12-01

    The commonly expressed goal of biodiversity offsets is to achieve no net loss of specific biological features affected by development. However, strict equivalency requirements may complicate trading of offset credits, increase costs due to restricted offset placement options, and force offset activities to focus on features that may not represent regional conservation priorities. Using the oil sands industry of Alberta, Canada, as a case study, we evaluated the economic and ecological performance of alternative offset systems targeting either ecologically equivalent areas (vegetation types) or regional conservation priorities (caribou and the Dry Mixedwood natural subregion). Exchanging dissimilar biodiversity elements requires assessment via a generalized metric; we used an empirically derived index of biodiversity intactness to link offsets with losses incurred by development. We considered 2 offset activities: land protection, with costs estimated as the net present value of profits of petroleum and timber resources to be paid as compensation to resource tenure holders, and restoration of anthropogenic footprint, with costs estimated from existing restoration projects. We used the spatial optimization tool MARXAN to develop hypothetical offset networks that met either the equivalent-vegetation or conservation-priority targets. Networks that required offsetting equivalent vegetation cost 2-17 times more than priority-focused networks. This finding calls into question the prudence of equivalency-based systems, particularly in relatively undeveloped jurisdictions, where conservation focuses on limiting and directing future losses. Priority-focused offsets may offer benefits to industry and environmental stakeholders by allowing for lower-cost conservation of valued ecological features and may invite discussion on what land-use trade-offs are acceptable when trading biodiversity via offsets. Resultados Económicos y Ecológicos de Sistemas de Compensación de

  18. Attention-dependent sound offset-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, János

    2016-05-01

    When performing sensory tasks, knowing the potentially occurring goal-relevant and irrelevant stimulus events allows the establishment of selective attention sets, which result in enhanced sensory processing of goal-relevant events. In the auditory modality, such enhancements are reflected in the increased amplitude of the N1 ERP elicited by the onsets of task-relevant sounds. It has been recently suggested that ERPs to task-relevant sound offsets are similarly enhanced in a tone-focused state in comparison to a distracted one. The goal of the present study was to explore the influence of attention on ERPs elicited by sound offsets. ERPs elicited by tones in a duration-discrimination task were compared to ERPs elicited by the same tones in not-tone-focused attentional setting. Tone offsets elicited a consistent, attention-dependent biphasic (positive-negative--P1-N1) ERP waveform for tone durations ranging from 150 to 450 ms. The evidence, however, did not support the notion that the offset-related ERPs reflected an offset-specific attention set: The offset-related ERPs elicited in a duration-discrimination condition (in which offsets were task relevant) did not significantly differ from those elicited in a pitch-discrimination condition (in which the offsets were task irrelevant). Although an N2 reflecting the processing of offsets in task-related terms contributed to the observed waveform, this contribution was separable from the offset-related P1 and N1. The results demonstrate that when tones are attended, offset-related ERPs may substantially overlap endogenous ERP activity in the postoffset interval irrespective of tone duration, and attention differences may cause ERP differences in such postoffset intervals. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  19. Global Banning of a Diffused Controversial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurses, Kerem; Giones, Ferran; Mehta, Kandarpkumar

    2017-01-01

    We study the deinstitutionalization of a controversial practice that had previously reached a level of international diffusion. We draw on international diffusion and deinstitutionalization theory to study the emergence and diffusion of the third-party ownership practice in the soccer industry. We...... use an inductive case study combining archival and interview data to study the determinants of the international diffusion of a controversial practice at a global scale, the contestation, and finally the deinstitutionalization process that resulted from the ban of the practice. We find...... that the opacity of the practice can be a diffusion driver, locally and at the international level, nevertheless the opacity also may lead to different meaning creation attempts and potential discursive battles between actors, and eventually to deinstitutionalization of the practice. This article advances our...

  20. Epistemic Authority and Genuine Ethical Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Adam James

    2017-05-01

    In 'Professional Hubris and its Consequences', Eric Vogelstein claims that 'that there are no good arguments in favor of professional organizations taking genuinely controversial positions on issues of professional ethics'. In this response, I defend two arguments in favour of organisations taking such positions: that their stance-taking may lead to better public policy, and that it may lead to better practice by medical professionals. If either of those defences succeeds, then Vogelstein's easy path to his conclusion - that professional organisations should not take such stances - is blocked. He or others must instead look to establish that the reasons against stance-taking on genuine ethical controversies are more compelling than those for it: plausibly a more challenging task. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. History of the Belgian nuclear power controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laes, E.

    2009-01-01

    Partly because nuclear energy technology continues to provoke profound controversy, the Flemish institute for technology assessment (viWTA) took the initiative to order a study aimed at mapping out the historical dynamics of the societal debate on nuclear energy. This study was carried out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN, under the research programme PISA) together with the Free university of Brussels (VUB, research group MEKO) in 2004. In 2007, the report was updated and published by Acco (Leuven) under the title Kernenergie (on)besproken. This study had three main objectives: 1) to discuss the societal debate on nuclear energy in Belgium in relation to major events (Chernobyl, TMI, etc.); 2) to elucidate the role of social actors in the controversy on both a national and international level and 3) to discuss possible alternatives for a better structuring of the debate in the future, building on existing approaches

  2. Gossip in organisations: Contexts, consequences and controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Michelson, G.; van Iverson, A.; Waddington, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the key themes surrounding gossip including its contexts, the various outcomes (positive and negative) of gossip as well as a selection of challenges and controversies. The challenges which are highlighted revolve around definitional issues, methodological approaches, and ethical considerations. Our analysis suggests that the characteristics and features of gossip lend itself to a process-oriented approach whereby the beginning and, particularly, end points of gossip are...

  3. Climatic change science, experience and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Treut, H.; Van Ypersele, J.P.; Hallegatte, St.; Hourcade, J.Ch.

    2004-01-01

    The international scientific community, gathered in the framework of the inter-governmental group for climate evolution (Giec), has confirmed the influence of human activities on climate and on the global warming. However, this diagnosis is sometimes questioned in the press. This book, published by the institute of sustainable development, gathers a series of articles written by scientists who make comments on the last Giec reports and who outline the knowledge gained, the remaining uncertainties and the controversies. (J.S.)

  4. Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: concepts and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Beverley

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the scope, etiology, important associations and imaging features of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Etiologic concepts, including airway obstruction and vascular anomalies, are highlighted. Technical imaging advances, especially CT and MR, have greatly enhanced our diagnostic abilities in evaluating these lesions; however, thorough and careful assessment of all aspects of the malformation is still necessary. Several specific lesions are discussed in more detail, particularly regarding controversial issues in classification, understanding, imaging and management. (orig.)

  5. Congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations: concepts and controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Beverley [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2006-08-15

    This article addresses the scope, etiology, important associations and imaging features of congenital bronchopulmonary foregut malformations. Etiologic concepts, including airway obstruction and vascular anomalies, are highlighted. Technical imaging advances, especially CT and MR, have greatly enhanced our diagnostic abilities in evaluating these lesions; however, thorough and careful assessment of all aspects of the malformation is still necessary. Several specific lesions are discussed in more detail, particularly regarding controversial issues in classification, understanding, imaging and management. (orig.)

  6. E-cigarettes: scientific and political controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Yussuf Saloojee

    2018-01-01

    Background and challenges to implementation The e-cigarette is touted as a disruptive technology that could make combustible cigarettes obsolete. The product, its science and politics though are controversial. Intervention or response Published journal articles, reports and conference presentations on e-cigarettes were located using PubMed, plus conference, industry and other websites. These were critically reviewed. Results and lessons learnt A number of contenti...

  7. Controversies in faith and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Andrew; Duff, Jean; Fitzgibbon, Atallah; Karam, Azza; Mills, Edward J; Munnings, Keith; Smith, Sally; Seshadri, Shreelata Rao; Steinberg, Avraham; Vitillo, Robert; Yugi, Philemon

    2015-10-31

    Differences in religious faith-based viewpoints (controversies) on the sanctity of human life, acceptable behaviour, health-care technologies and health-care services contribute to the widespread variations in health care worldwide. Faith-linked controversies include family planning, child protection (especially child marriage, female genital mutilation, and immunisation), stigma and harm reduction, violence against women, sexual and reproductive health and HIV, gender, end-of-life issues, and faith activities including prayer. Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, and traditional beliefs have similarities and differences in their viewpoints. Improved understanding by health-care providers of the heterogeneity of viewpoints, both within and between faiths, and their effect on health care is important for clinical medicine, public-health programmes, and health-care policy. Increased appreciation in faith leaders of the effect of their teachings on health care is also crucial. This Series paper outlines some faith-related controversies, describes how they influence health-care provision and uptake, and identifies opportunities for research and increased interaction between faith leaders and health-care providers to improve health care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Workshop Papers: CERI's Alberta Offset Development Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    New and innovative policy approaches are necessary to help Canada achieve its target for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, since it is becoming clear that the voluntary action plans that are currently in place are not adequate to address climate change. The use of economic instruments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions was the focus of this conference. Topics included various forms of greenhouse gas emissions trading, taxation instruments, and hybrid instruments which make use of both emissions trading and emissions charges. The three forms of emission trading - carbon content trading, allowance trading, and credit trading - which have the potential to beneficially influence climate change were explored by several participants. Technical and policy related issues were explored in detail and the manner in which offsets fit into global, regional and local scenarios were reviewed. It was emphasized that clear and consistent policy signals and a flexible attitude from government is necessary to interest greenhouse gas emitters in taking action to reduce emissions without sacrificing the economy. Under a joint implementation framework recently agreed to at Kyoto, developed countries could earn credits for limiting emissions or enhancing carbon sinks in other countries by taking advantage of the low costs of emission reductions in developing countries. To date, this is the most fertile area for innovative action for effecting a global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. refs., tabs., figs

  9. 22 CFR 213.21 - Employee salary offset-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee salary offset-general. 213.21 Section... § 213.21 Employee salary offset—general. (a) Purpose. This section establishes USAID's policies and... account of an employee. (b) Scope. The provisions of this section apply to collection by salary offset...

  10. 45 CFR 1179.8 - Procedures for salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for salary offset. 1179.8 Section 1179... AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES SALARY OFFSET § 1179.8 Procedures for salary... to final salary payment or leave in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 3716. ...

  11. 6 CFR 13.44 - Right to administrative offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 13.44 Section 13.44 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.44 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or assessment that has become...

  12. 38 CFR 3.658 - Offsets; dependency and indemnity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsets; dependency and... AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Adjustments and Resumptions § 3.658 Offsets; dependency and indemnity compensation. (a) When an award of dependency and...

  13. Carbon offset potentials and design: Anticipating future public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trexler, M.C.; Kosloff, L.H.; Gowen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon offsets offer CO 2 emitters the opportunity to compensate for some proportion of their CO 2 emissions through the pursuit of emissions reduction or carbon sequestration projects beyond their own operational boundaries. The flexibility to pursue carbon offsets ''off-site'' can dramatically reduce the costs of achieving a given net emissions reduction. The future role of carbon offsets, however, continues to be a topic of considerable debate. Several processes are currently under way nationally and internationally that will help shape this role. This paper discusses how alternative policy outcomes could encourage or restrict the viability of carbon offsets as a component of corporate climate change mitigation portfolios and proposes criteria by which projects should be evaluated prior to the finalization of national or international policy frameworks. Based on these outcomes, the potential for offsets could be very large or very modest. It is vital that policy development in the offset arena account for the still voluntary nature of mitigation efforts and that the objective of climate change mitigation not be forgotten in the push for offset rules and regulations. At the same time, carbon offsets are far from a panacea for climate change mitigation and should be evaluated in the context of a larger global mitigation portfolio

  14. BPM Offset Determination by Sinusoidal Quadrupole K-modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Wenninger, J

    2011-01-01

    To ensure an adequate orbit steering that maximizes the machine aperture, a good knowledge of the BPM measurement offsets is crucial. During this MD, a sinusoidal k-modulation of individually powered quadrupoles was performed to determine the offsets of the nearby BPMs. An accuracy of 10µm for the determination of the absolute beam position is reached.

  15. Measuring coseismic displacements with point-like targets offset tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Xie; Wang, Teng; Liao, Mingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Offset tracking is an important complement to measure large ground displacements in both azimuth and range dimensions where synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry is unfeasible. Subpixel offsets can be obtained by searching for the cross-correlation peak calculated from the match patches uniformly distributed on two SAR images. However, it has its limitations, including redundant computation and incorrect estimations on decorrelated patches. In this letter, we propose a simple strategy that performs offset tracking on detected point-like targets (PT). We first detect image patches within bright PT by using a sinc-like template from a single SAR image and then perform offset tracking on them to obtain the pixel shifts. Compared with the standard method, the application on the 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake shows that the proposed PT offset tracking can significantly increase the cross-correlation and thus result in both efficiency and reliability improvements. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Quadrupole to BPM offset determination in Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Saroj; Ghodke, A.D.; Singh, G.

    2009-01-01

    A feasibility of finding the quadrupole to BPM offset using beam based alignment (BBA) technique in Indus-2 has been studied. The measurements of the offsets between BPM and quadrupoles could be performed by using quadratic fitting for the minima of the orbit response w. r. t. changes in the quadrupole strengths. These offsets will be integrated to the orbit data during closed orbit correction. There are 72 quadrupoles and 56 BPMs in Indus-2. However the assessment of Quad-BPM offsets is not feasible in some cases due to non-availability of BPM adjacent to quadrupole and also in some cases because of a large phase advance between quadrupole and nearby BPM. Here single corrector method is used to obtain these offsets and assumed the current of each quadrupole can be varied independently. A graphical user interface (GUI) is developed in MATLAB for the use of BBA in Indus-2. (author)

  17. Valence band photoemission from in-situ grown GaAs(100)-c(4 x 4)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiříček, Petr; Cukr, Miroslav; Bartoš, Igor; Adell, M.; Strasser, T.; Schattke, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2006), s. 21-26 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Surface Physics /10./. Praha, 11.07.2005-15.07.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : GaAs(100)-c(4X4) * surface states * band structure * structure plot Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  18. Multiband model of the valence-band electronic structure in cylindrical GaAs nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čukarić Nemanja A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We compute the hole states in the GaAs free-standing nanowires, and in the GaAs/(Al,GaAs core-shell nanowires of type I-s, which are grown along the [100] direction. The hole states are extracted from the 4-band Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian, which explicitly takes into account mixing between the light and heavy holes. The axial aproximation is adopted, which allowed classification of states according to the total angular monentum (fz when expressed in units of the Planck constant. The envelope functions are expanded in Bessel functions of the first kind. The dispersion relations of the subbands E(kz obtained by the devised method do not resemble parabolas, which is otherwise a feature of the dispersion relations of the conduction subbands. Furthermore, the energy levels of holes whose total orbital momentum is fz=1/2 are shown to cross for a free-standing wire. The low energy fz=1/2 states are found to anticross, but these anticrossings turn into crossings when the ratio of the inner and outer radius of the core-shell wire takes a certain value. The influence of the geometric parameters on the dispersion relations is considered for both free standing and core-shell nanowires.

  19. Valence band states in Si-based p-type delta-doped field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Orozco, J C; Vlaev, Stoyan J

    2009-01-01

    We present tight-binding calculations of the hole level structure of δ-doped Field Effect Transistor in a Si matrix within the first neighbors sp 3 s* semi-empirical tight-binding model including spin. We employ analytical expressions for Schottky barrier potential and the p-type δ-doped well based on a Thomas-Fermi approximation, we consider these potentials as external ones, so in the computations they are added to the diagonal terms of the tight-binding Hamiltonian, by this way we have the possibility to study the energy levels behavior as we vary the backbone parameters in the system: the two-dimensional impurity density (p 2d ) of the p-type δ-doped well and the contact voltage (V c ). The aim of this calculation is to demonstrate that the tight-binding approximation is suitable for device characterization that permits us to propose optimal values for the input parameters involved in the device design.

  20. Pressure variation of the valence band width in Ge: A self-consistent GW study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modak, Paritosh; Svane, Axel; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2009-01-01

    . In the present work we report results of quasiparticle self-consistent GW  (QSGW) band calculations for diamond- as well as β-tin-type Ge under pressure. For both phases we find that the band width increases with pressure. For β-tin Ge this agrees with experiment and density-functional theory, but for diamond Ge...

  1. Microscopic analysis of the valence band and impurity band theories of (Ga,Mn)As

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašek, Jan; Máca, František; Kudrnovský, Josef; Makarovský, O.; Eaves, L.; Campion, R. P.; Edmonds, K. W.; Rushforth, A.W.; Foxon, C. T.; Gallagher, B. L.; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 22 (2010), 227202/1-227202/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0456; GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR KAN400100652 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet; European Commission(XE) 214499 - NAMASTE Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : gallium arsenide * semiconductors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.621, year: 2010

  2. State density of valence-band tail and photoconductivity amorphous hydrogenated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikova, O.A.; Domashevskaya, Eh.P.; Mezdrogina, M.M.; Sorokina, K.L.; Terekhov, V.A.; Trostyanskij, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    Relation between photoconductivity and g(ε) mobility gap within the range adjoining to the top (mobility end) of valent zone (VZ tail) in a-Si:H film is studied. Stationary photoconductivity within spectral maximum range (χ=0.63μm) at Φ=10 17 photxcm -2 s -1 flow is measured. Density of g(ε) states are controlled using ultrasoft X-ray emission spectroscopy. It is shown, that correlation between photoconductivity and width of VZ tail may reflect the fact of their similar dependence o film heterogeneity: at the increase of share of microholes there occur both expansion of VZ tail and growth of number of respective hydrogen complexes and torn relations which results in drop of photoconductivity

  3. Ab-initio valence band spectra of Al, In doped ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, P.; Sanchez, K.; Wahnon, P.

    2009-01-01

    We present the structural and electronic characterization of n-doped (Aluminium or Indium) ZnO and the effect of the doping on the calculated photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) spectra. The fully-relaxed calculations have been made using the density functional theory, including a Hubbard correlation term that increases the Zn-3d states binding energy, and which matches the experimental values. The effect of Oxygen vacancies is also included in our study. Our results show that the new Al or In-donor levels appearing in the conduction band hybridize with the Oxygen-2p states and help decrease the resistivity of these doped systems as was found experimentally. The calculated PES spectra show a small enhancement in the intensity close to the chemical potential as a result of these new Al or In levels

  4. Magnetic dichroism in UV photoemission at off-normal emission: Study of the valence bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venus, D.; Kuch, W.; Lin, M.; Schneider, C.M.; Ebert, H.; Kirschner, J.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic dichroism of angle-resolved UV photoemission from fcc Co/Cu(001) thin films has been measured using linearly p-polarized light, and a coplanar geometry where the light and photoelectron wave vectors are antiparallel, and both are perpendicular to the in-plane sample magnetization. This geometry emphasizes information about state dispersion due to the crystalline symmetry. An orderly dispersion of the features in the magnetic dichroism over a wide range of off-normal angles of electron emission is related in detail to the bulk band structure of fcc Co. The measurements confirm the practical utility of magnetic dichroism experiments as a relatively simple complement to spin-resolved photoemission. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Photoemission intensity oscillations in the valence bands of C70 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanjun; Wang Peng; Ni Jingfu; Meng Liang; Wang Xiaobo; Sheng Chunqi; Li Hongnian; Zhang Wenhua; Xu Yang; Xu Faqiang; Zhu Junfa

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The article develops a procedure for obtaining the accurate spectral intensities in the studies of the photoionization cross-section oscillation of C 70 . → The article fulfills the observation of all oscillating periods of the cross-section oscillation of C 70 . → The article reports the oscillating data for more molecular orbitals (feature C in the article) as compared with the published works. → The article reveals that some simple theoretical models based on the spherical symmetric approximation survive for the ellipsoidally shaped C 70 . - Abstract: We have measured and analyzed the photoemission spectra (PES) of a C 70 film in the photon energy region from 13.4 eV to 98.4 eV. The photoelectron intensities of two C 2p π-derived features (denoted by A and B) oscillate regularly in the whole energy region with some fine structures below ∼30 eV. To obtain the detailed information of the oscillations, we have developed a sophisticated but practical procedure for intensity calculation. The procedure consists of two core concepts. The first is ascribing the PES features to their corresponding molecular orbitals with the help of density functional calculations. The second is a background subtraction algorithm. With this procedure, we obtained the oscillating behavior for individual features (A and B), which is by and large consistent with the predictions based on the spherical symmetric approximation although C 70 has the ellipsoidal shape. Owing to the solid state effect, the oscillating amplitudes of the A/B intensity ratios are smaller than those of gas phase C 70 , but an orbital shift reported recently was not observed on our sample. The oscillating curve of a deeper feature, which consists of both σ and π states, are also reported.

  6. Valence band states in Si-based p-type delta-doped field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Orozco, J C; Vlaev, Stoyan J, E-mail: jcmover@correo.unam.m [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    We present tight-binding calculations of the hole level structure of delta-doped Field Effect Transistor in a Si matrix within the first neighbors sp{sup 3}s* semi-empirical tight-binding model including spin. We employ analytical expressions for Schottky barrier potential and the p-type delta-doped well based on a Thomas-Fermi approximation, we consider these potentials as external ones, so in the computations they are added to the diagonal terms of the tight-binding Hamiltonian, by this way we have the possibility to study the energy levels behavior as we vary the backbone parameters in the system: the two-dimensional impurity density (p{sub 2d}) of the p-type delta-doped well and the contact voltage (V{sub c}). The aim of this calculation is to demonstrate that the tight-binding approximation is suitable for device characterization that permits us to propose optimal values for the input parameters involved in the device design.

  7. 15 CFR 19.10 - How will Commerce entities use administrative offset (offset of non-tax Federal payments) to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities use administrative offset (offset of non-tax Federal payments) to collect a Commerce debt? 19.10 Section 19.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To...

  8. New Reproductive Conception Technologies: Bioethics and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Tamanini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns some of the multiple ethical-bioethical and gender issues in the field of new reproductive and contraceptive technologies. The literature presented points to the plurality of possible situations and approaches in a multidimensional and controversial field. It presents some ethical-bioethical principals of biomedical action found in the study of heterosexual couples who use assisted reproduction. and of medical specialists in human reproduction in southern Brazil. It presents the ethical-bioethical presumptions that sanction medical behavior and the continuity of the so-called impregnation treatments, and analyzes the mechanisms used to raise the expectations of couples who lack confidence or success.

  9. PET in cancer screening: a controversial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Minggang; Tan Tianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy has been one of the most dangerous threats to human health. Early diagnosis and treatment are key factors for improving prognosis. Cancer screening is an important way to detect early stage cancer and precancerous lesion. PET has been used increasingly in cancer screening in accordance with the requirement of the public. Though a great number of data show that PET can find some subclinical malignancy, yet as a cancer screening modality, PET is still controversial in contemporary medical practice. The aim of this article is to review the application status and existing problem of PET in cancer screening, and to offer some recognition and view about cancer srceening. (authors)

  10. Dissociative identity disorder: a controversial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2009-03-01

    A brief description of the controversies surrounding the diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder is presented, followed by a discussion of the proposed similarities and differences between dissociative identity disorder and borderline personality disorder. The phenomenon of autohypnosis in the context of early childhood sexual trauma and disordered attachment is discussed, as is the meaning of alters or alternate personalities. The author describes recent neurosciences research that may relate the symptoms of dissociative identity disorder to demonstrable disordered attention and memory processes. A clinical description of a typical patient presentation is included, plus some recommendations for approaches to treatment.

  11. Fetal abuse and neglect: an emerging controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwirth, J

    1987-04-01

    Advances in fetal medicine have expanded opportunities for protection of fetal health and intrauterine management of an increasing number of fetal disorders. The legal rights and duties of parents to provide necessary medical treatment for the child may extend to the prenatal period. Resolution of the conflict between the rights of the fetus to be born healthy and the pregnant woman's right of privacy is difficult and controversial. It is suggested that intrusion into a woman's individual fundamental rights for the potential benefit of her fetus should be permissible only in narrowly defined circumstances.

  12. Lessons learnt from the organ retention controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the lessons to be learnt from the organ retention controversy in the Republic of Ireland. The paper emphasises the importance of good communication between clinicians and families of deceased persons and a move away from a medical culture based on paternalism to a partnership approach between clinicians and patients based on mutual trust and understanding. A model of authorisation rather than consent is proposed as the way forward for dealing with the difficult and traumatic experience of asking families for permission to carry out a post mortem examination on their deceased child. (authors)

  13. Achieving biodiversity benefits with offsets: Research gaps, challenges, and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelcich, Stefan; Vargas, Camila; Carreras, Maria Jose; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Donlan, C Josh

    2017-03-01

    Biodiversity offsets are becoming increasingly common across a portfolio of settings: national policy, voluntary programs, international lending, and corporate business structures. Given the diversity of ecological, political, and socio-economic systems where offsets may be applied, place-based information is likely to be most useful in designing and implementing offset programs, along with guiding principles that assure best practice. We reviewed the research on biodiversity offsets to explore gaps and needs. While the peer-reviewed literature on offsets is growing rapidly, it is heavily dominated by ecological theory, wetland ecosystems, and U.S.-based research. Given that majority of offset policies and programs are occurring in middle- and low-income countries, the research gaps we identified present a number of risks. They also present an opportunity to create regionally based learning platforms focused on pilot projects and institutional capacity building. Scientific research should diversify, both topically and geographically, in order to support the successful design, implementation, and monitoring of biodiversity offset programs.

  14. An intercomparison of the thermal offset for different pyranometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.

    2016-07-01

    An unprecedented intensive intercomparison campaign focused on the experimental measurement of the thermal offset of pyranometers has been conducted at Badajoz (Spain) with the participation of three main manufacturers. The purpose of this study is to compare the thermal offset of six commercially available pyranometers, being some of them widely used and others recently commercialized. In this campaign, the capping methodology has been used to experimentally measure the daytime thermal offset of the pyranometers. Thus, a short but intense campaign has been conducted in two selected summer days under clear-sky conditions, covering a large range of solar zenith angle, irradiance, and temperature. Along the campaign, a total of 305 capping events have been performed, 61 for each pyranometer. The daytime thermal offset obtained for different pyranometers ranges between 0 and -16.8 W/m2 depending on the environmental conditions, being sometimes notably higher than values estimated indoors by manufacturers. The thermal offset absolute value of all instruments shows a diurnal cycle, increasing from sunrise to central hours of the day and decreasing from midafternoon to sunset. The analysis demonstrates that thermal offset is notably higher and more variable during daytime than during nighttime, requiring specific daytime measurements. Main results emphasize the key role played by wind speed in modulating the thermal offset.

  15. DFT-based offset-QAM OFDM for optical communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian

    2014-01-13

    We experimentally demonstrate and numerically investigate a discrete-Fourier-transform (DFT) based offset quadrature-amplitude-modulation (offset-QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. We investigate the scheme using a set of square-root-raised-cosine functions and a set of super-Gaussian functions as signal spectra. It is shown that offset-QAM OFDM exhibits negligible penalty for all investigated spectra, in contrast to rectangular-function based Nyquist FDM (N-FDM) and sinc-function based conventional OFDM (C-OFDM). The required guard interval (GI) length for dispersion compensation in offset-QAM OFDM is analyzed and shown to scale with twice the subcarrier spacing rather than the full OFDM bandwidth. Experimental results show that 38-Gb/s offset-16QAM OFDM supports 600-km fiber transmission with negligible penalty in the absence of GI while a GI length of eight is required in C-OFDM. Further numerical simulations show that by avoiding the GI, 112-Gb/s polarization multiplexed offset-4QAM OFDM can achieve 23% increase in net data rate over C-OFDM under the same transmission reach. We also discuss the design of the pulse-shaping filter in the DFT-based implementation and show that when compared to N-FDM, the required memory length of the filter for pulse shaping can be reduced from 60 to 2 in offset-QAM OFDM regardless of the fiber length.

  16. Temperature Induced Voltage Offset Drifts in Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Nguyen, Vu; Savrun, Ender

    2012-01-01

    We report the reduction of transient drifts in the zero pressure offset voltage in silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors when operating at 600 C. The previously observed maximum drift of +/- 10 mV of the reference offset voltage at 600 C was reduced to within +/- 5 mV. The offset voltage drifts and bridge resistance changes over time at test temperature are explained in terms of the microstructure and phase changes occurring within the contact metallization, as analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results have helped to identify the upper temperature reliable operational limit of this particular metallization scheme to be 605 C.

  17. Paleomagnetism of Cretaceous limestones from western Tarim basin suggests negligible latitudinal offset yet significant clockwise rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X.; Gilder, S.; Chen, Y.; Cogné, J. P.; Courtillot, V. E.; Cai, J.

    2017-12-01

    Large northward translation of central Asian crustal blocks has been reported from paleomagnetism of Cretaceous and Tertiary terrestrial sediments. This motion was initially taken as evidence of deformation occurred in the Asian interior as a result of indentation of the Indian Plate. However, because the amount of motion is far greater than geological observations, accuracy of the paleomagnetic record has become a controversial issue. To solve the problem, it has been shown that the latitudinal offset can be entirely attributed to inclination shallowing during deposition and compaction processes (Tan et al., 2003; Tauxe and Kent, 2004). On the other hand, coeval volcanic rocks from central Asia did record steeper paleomagnetic inclinations than terrestrial rocks (Gilder et al., 2003). To extend the effort of solving the controversy, we report paleomagnetic results of Cretaceous limestones from western Tarim basin. Our results show that the majority of our collections have been overprinted. Fortunately, a special type of limestones preserved stable characteristic remanence. Fold tests suggest a primary origin of the magnetization. Comparison of the paleomagnetic direction with the coeval expected direction from reference poles indicates a negligible amount of northward movement consistent with previous result of inclination correction based on magnetic fabrics, and a pattern of clockwise rotation symmetric with the style observed in the western flank of the Pamir ranges. Rock magnetic data will also be presented to support the accurate paleomagnetic record.

  18. Controversial Issues in Thyroid Cancer Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, R Michael

    2018-04-13

    The lack of prospective randomized clinical trials for most management topics in differentiated thyroid cancer force us to make management recommendations based on retrospective observational data which is often incomplete, subject to selection bias, and conflicting. Therefore, it is not surprising that many aspects of thyroid cancer management remain controversial and not well defined. This review will examine the controversies surrounding three important topics in thyroid cancer management: (1) the option of thyroid lobectomy as initial therapy for thyroid cancer, (2) the proper use of preoperative neck imaging to optimize the completeness of the initial surgical procedure, and (3) the selective use RAI therapy as remnant ablation, adjuvant treatment or treatment of known persistent/recurrent disease. As thyroid cancer management moves toward a much more risk adapted approach to personalized management recommendations, clinicians and patients must balance the risks and benefits of the potential management options to arrive at a management plan that is optimized based on both patient preferences/values and the philosophy/experience of the local disease management team. Copyright © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  19. Datasprints as a method for Controversy Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Elgaard; Munk, Anders Kristian; Bach, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A datasprint is an intensive 3-5 day workshop that brings together humanistic researchers, data experts, and stakeholders from a selected field. Together, the participants visualize and analyse a collection of data sets, which have been prepared before the datasprint. In the beginning of a datasp......A datasprint is an intensive 3-5 day workshop that brings together humanistic researchers, data experts, and stakeholders from a selected field. Together, the participants visualize and analyse a collection of data sets, which have been prepared before the datasprint. In the beginning...... of a datasprint, stakeholders present their understandings and views of the field in question. Following this, the workshop participants explore how the prepared data may shed new light on the field. The final products of a datasprint are prototypes of analyses or digital products that forms the basis for future...... collaboration between the partners. Since 2015, DIGHUMLAB has sponsored a special interest group in controversy mapping. Datasprints have proved to be a very productive format for controversy making and for creating dialogue and joint projects between humanistic researchers....

  20. Glaciers in Patagonia: Controversy and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Alho, P.; Buytaert, W.; Célleri, R.; Cogley, J. G.; Dussaillant, A.; Guido, Z.; Haeberli, W.; Harrison, S.; Leonard, G.; Maxwell, A.; Meier, C.; Poveda, G.; Reid, B.; Reynolds, J.; Rodríguez, C. A. Portocarrero; Romero, H.; Schneider, J.

    2012-05-01

    Lately, glaciers have been subjects of unceasing controversy. Current debate about planned hydroelectric facilities—a US7- to 10-billion megaproject—in a pristine glacierized area of Patagonia, Chile [Romero Toledo et al., 2009; Vince, 2010], has raised anew the matter of how glaciologists and global change experts can contribute their knowledge to civic debates on important issues. There has been greater respect for science in this controversy than in some previous debates over projects that pertain to glaciers, although valid economic motivations again could trump science and drive a solution to the energy supply problem before the associated safety and environmental problems are understood. The connection between glaciers and climate change—both anthropogenic and natural—is fundamental to glaciology and to glaciers' practical importance for water and hydropower resources, agriculture, tourism, mining, natural hazards, ecosystem conservation, and sea level [Buytaert et al., 2010; Glasser et al., 2011]. The conflict between conservation and development can be sharper in glacierized regions than almost anywhere else. Glaciers occur in spectacular natural landscapes, but they also supply prodigious exploitable meltwater.

  1. The Reviewing of Controversial Juvenile Books: A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Sherry R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study which examined reviewers' treatment of controversial juvenile books in Booklist, Bulletin of Center for Children's Books, Horn Book, and School Library Journal. The total number of controversial books reviewed by each journal, promptness of reviews, and extent of discussion of controversial features are discussed. (MBR)

  2. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  3. Public Budget Database - Outlays and offsetting receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical outlays and offsetting receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to...

  4. Defense Trade: Data Collection and Coordination on Offsets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... on the U.S. economy and national security. Defense offsets are the full range of industrial and commercial benefits that firms provide to foreign governments as inducements or conditions for the purchase of military goods and services...

  5. Offset Trace-Based Video Quality Evaluation Network Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeling, P.; Reisslein, M.; Fitzek, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Video traces contain information about encoded video frames, such as frame sizes and qualities, and provide a convenient method to conduct multimedia networking research. Although wiedely used in networking research, these traces do not allow to determine the video qaulityin an accurate manner...... after networking transport that includes losses and delays. In this work, we provide (i) an overview of frame dependencies that have to be taken into consideration when working with video traces, (ii) an algorithmic approach to combine traditional video traces and offset distortion traces to determine...... the video quality or distortion after lossy network transport, (iii) offset distortion and quality characteristics and (iv) the offset distortion trace format and tools to create offset distortion traces....

  6. Simple UHV offset manipulator with independent theta and phi rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, K.D.; Dunning, F.B.

    1984-01-01

    A simple UHV offset manipulator is described that not only allows a target crystal to be moved to any point on a circle centered on the manipulator axis but also provides indepedent theta and phi rotations at each position

  7. The Determinants Of United States Government Policy And Practice Towards Offsets In International Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milligan, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    .... Offsets are increasing as a percentage of defense exports. Because US industry leads worldwide defense exports, US offsets policy and the potential impact of offsets on US national security are highly significant...

  8. Common-image gathers in the offset domain from reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge; Zhang, Minyu

    2014-01-01

    Kirchhoff migration is flexible to output common-image gathers (CIGs) in the offset domain by imaging data with different offsets separately. These CIGs supply important information for velocity model updates and amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO

  9. Offsets in International Weapons Acquisitions: The Turkish Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Countertrade : In addition to the types of offsets defined above, various types of commercial countertrade arrangements may be required. A contract may...Offsets, Industrial Participation and Countertrade ,” A Compendium of Developments in the Military and Civil Sectors 1995-2000, Presidential Commission...www.ssm.gov.tr/english/projekriterlering.htm ) Internet accessed 14 January 2002b. Schaffer, Lindsey. Winning The Countertrade War, (New York, John Wiley

  10. Impacts of GNSS position offsets on global frame stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jake; Ray, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Positional offsets appear in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) time series for a variety of reasons. Antenna or radome changes are the most common cause for these discontinuities. Many others are from earthquakes, receiver changes, and different anthropogenic modifications at or near the stations. Some jumps appear for unknown or undocumented reasons. The accurate determination of station velocities, and therefore geophysical parameters and terrestrial reference frames, requires that positional offsets be correctly found and compensated. Williams (2003) found that undetected offsets introduce a random walk error component in individual station time series. The topic of detecting positional offsets has received considerable attention in recent years (e.g., Detection of Offsets in GPS Experiment; DOGEx), and most research groups using GNSS have adopted a combination of manual and automated methods for finding them. The removal of a positional offset is usually handled by estimating the average station position on both sides of the discontinuity, assuming a constant, continuous velocity. This is sufficient in the absence of time-correlated errors. However, GNSS time series contain systematic and power-law errors (white to random walk noise). In this paper, we aim to evaluate the impact to both individual station results and the overall stability of the global reference frame from adding increasing numbers of positional discontinuities. We use the International GNSS Service (IGS) weekly SINEX files, and iteratively insert positional offset parameters at the midpoint of each data segment. Each iteration includes a restacking of the modified SINEX files using the CATREF software from Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) to estimate: regularized station positions, secular velocities, Earth orientation parameters, Helmert frame alignment parameters, and the empirical shifts across all positional discontinuities. A comparison of the

  11. Characteristics and structure of turbulent 3D offset jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agelin-Chaab, M.; Tachie, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated three-dimensional turbulent offset jets using particle image velocimetry. → We examined the effects of offset height and Reynolds number on the structure of 3D offset jets. → Effects of Reynolds number and offset height on the decay and growth rates exist close to the exit. → This study provides additional insight and comprehensive data for validating numerical models. - Abstract: Three-dimensional turbulent offset jets were investigated using a particle image velocimetry technique. The measurements were performed at three different exit Reynolds numbers and for four offset heights. The results in the early region of flow development clearly show significant effects of Reynolds number and offset height on the decay of maximum mean velocity and growth of the shear layer. On the contrary, the decay and spread rates were found to be nearly independent of offset height at larger downstream distances. The decay rates of 1.18 ± 0.03 as well as the spread rates of 0.055 ± 0.001 and 0.250 ± 0.005 obtained, respectively, in the wall-normal and lateral directions fall in the range of values reported in previous studies. The locations of the maximum mean velocities increased nearly linearly with streamwise distance in the self-similar region. Analysis from two-point velocity correlations revealed substantially larger structures in the outer layer and self-similar region than in the inner layer and developing region. It was also observed that the hairpin vortices in the inner regions of the wall jets are inclined at angles of 11.2 o ± 0.6 o , which are in good agreement with reported values in boundary layer studies.

  12. The Controversies over Bioenergy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Andersen, Bente Hessellund

    2012-01-01

    convert coal fired power plants to biomass in order to sustain the role of these power plants. Their increasing use of imported wood pellets is criticized for increasing greenhouse gas emissions because of fast logging of years of forest growth. A Danish biotech company is developing enzymes...... a prominent role in several Danish climate and energy plans, alongside with wind and solar energy, and energy savings. There are major controversies about targets for bioenergy with respect to acceptable types, sources and amounts of biomass. Strong path dependency is identified. Energy companies in Denmark...... for processing of biomass for biofuels. The alignment with the private car regime is strong, because biofuel enables continuation of fuel-driven vehicles as dominating transportation mode. Danish farmers see manure as important source for biogas while arguing for reduction of climate impact and nuisances from...

  13. Can we resolve the radiation controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    The past 20 years has seen an intensification of anxieties about potential harm, specifically cancer, from low levels of x or gamma rays. The idea that radiation is more damaging than previously estimated, says the author, is a central theme in current radiation phobia and probably the principal prop of the antinuclear movement. A current law-suit decision in Salt Lake City will settle the issue for the present. Historical data from Japanese A-bomb survivors and other studies are reviewed, the need for further epidemiologic work pointed out, and 20 years more of data collection from the Japanese survivors indicated as the final arbiter of the controversy. 18 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  14. Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden,N.E.

    2008-08-11

    Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

  15. [On controversies around the Oedipus Complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drwiega, Marek

    2002-01-01

    In the article the author would like to draw the readers' attention to one of the central issues of psychoanalysis, i.e. Oedipus complex. In the development of the psychoanalysis the classical conception of Oedipus complex presented by Freud gave rise to a severe criticism both on the part of some psychoanalysts, especially women such as e.g. Melanie Klein, and on the part of ethnographers such as B. Malinowski. In the paper the author presents the main controversies concerning this interesting discussion. The fact of the matter is that the Oedipus complex is a hotly debated subject, not only from the cultural point of view but also within the psychoanalytical movement.

  16. Predicted supplies of oil: a controversy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation had two objectives. The first was to consider future problems of the oil industry, as envisaged at the time of the impending 1973-74 unit-oil-price crisis. To this end, selected early 1970's pertinent published papers have been analysed and their conclusions now assessed in hindsight. The chosen published articles were considered then to be in part controversial, visionary and simultaneously, often predicting very different outcomes for the future supply, demand and unit cost of crude oil. The second objective was to assess pertinent recent research, and compare what we at present believe to be the status quo for the oil industry, with the perception of how the industry would have developed as portrayed by the early 1970's oil publications. (author)

  17. Management of endometrial cancer: issues and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, G; Dowdy, S C; Cliby, W A; Ghezzi, F; Rossetti, D; Frigerio, L; Mariani, A

    2016-01-01

    Although endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic cancer in developed countries, several aspects of its management are still controversial. In particular, the need to perform lymphadenectomy represents an important matter of discussion. Because of the discordant results in the literature, it is still not possible to draft any definitive conclusions regarding the therapeutic value of lymph node dissection. The present review discusses the role of lymphadenectomy in the setting of EC, risk factors for lymphatic spread, identification of patients at risk for lymph node dissemination, and the current evidence for adjuvant therapies in patients with positive nodes. Reasons for the difficulty in demonstrating any therapeutic value of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy are also discussed.

  18. Status Report: Black Hole Complementarity Controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    Black hole complementarity was a consensus among string theorists for the interpretation of the information loss problem. However, recently some authors find inconsistency of black hole complementarity: large N rescaling and Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski and Sully (AMPS) argument. According to AMPS, the horizon should be a firewall so that one cannot penetrate there for consistency. There are some controversial discussions on the firewall. Apart from these papers, the authors suggest an assertion using a semi-regular black hole model and we conclude that the firewall, if it exists, should affect to asymptotic observer. In addition, if any opinion does not consider the duplication experiment and the large N rescaling, then the argument is difficult to accept

  19. Epistemological depth in a GM crops controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the scientific controversy over the yields of genetically modified [GM] crops as a case study in epistemologically deep disagreements. Appeals to "the evidence" are inadequate to resolve such disagreements; not because the interlocutors have radically different metaphysical views (as in cases of incommensurability), but instead because they assume rival epistemological frameworks and so have incompatible views about what kinds of research methods and claims count as evidence. Specifically, I show that, in the yield debate, proponents and opponents of GM crops cite two different sets of claims as evidence, which correspond to two rival epistemological frameworks, classical experimental epistemology and Nancy Cartwright's evidence for use. I go on to argue that, even if both sides of the debate accepted Cartwright's view, they might still disagree over what counts as evidence, because evidence for use ties standards of evidence to what is sometimes called the "context of application." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Drug safety: Pregnancy rating classifications and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Erin; Chai, Sandy; Kroumpouzos, George

    2016-01-01

    This contribution consolidates data on international pregnancy rating classifications, including the former US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Swedish, and Australian classification systems, as well as the evidence-based medicine system, and discusses discrepancies among them. It reviews the new Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling Rule (PLLR) that replaced the former FDA labeling system with narrative-based labeling requirements. PLLR emphasizes on human data and highlights pregnancy exposure registry information. In this context, the review discusses important data on the safety of most medications used in the management of skin disease in pregnancy. There are also discussions of controversies relevant to the safety of certain dermatologic medications during gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Social Life of Data (Prototyping Controversies)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tobias Bornakke; Birkbak, Andreas; Petersen, Morten Krogh

    are out, which leaves it to the public to stumble upon the webpages and explore the results. This unspecified public, however, often seems to have more similarities to a void of non-engagement than a receptive social room. In this paper we take two related steps to counter the lack of public engagement...... that makes available a large relational data set on the Danish power elite (Ellersgaard et al. 2015) through an interactive data navigation tool. The tool allows visitors to explore a data set that is potentially controversial but difficult to navigate. Further, Google Analytics and a simple survey allows us...... to examine how visitors to the website were led to the site in the first place, how they made use of the data navigation tool and how customized maps from the webpage travelled into new and unpredictable arenas. The experiment thus explores the tension between publishing and making things public...

  2. An overview of the Hanford controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    In 1964, the Atomic Energy Commission agreed to sponsor 'a study of the lifetime health and mortality experiences of all employees of AEC contractors.' The commission put in charge of this study a physician (Thomas Mancuso) who had recently shown how the U.S. Social Security system could be used to identify the dates and causes of death of all insured workers. As director of the AEC project, Mancuso was at liberty to include any or all the postwar offshoots of the Manhattan Project. His master plan included workers from Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, and Hanford, but it soon became apparent that his attempts to link radiation exposures to subsequent events were proving more successful at Hanford than elsewhere. The authors of this paper, who participated in the study, review the controversy surrounding its eventual publication.22 references

  3. Ibuprofen in paediatrics: pharmacology, prescribing and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Camilla; Carroll, Will

    2016-12-01

    Ibuprofen, a propionic acid derivative, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The oral formulation is widely used in paediatric practice and after paracetamol it is one of the most common drugs prescribed for children in hospital. The treatment of fever with antipyretics such as ibuprofen is controversial as fever is the normal response of the body to infection and unless the child becomes distressed or symptomatic, fever alone should not be routinely treated. Combined treatment with paracetamol and ibuprofen is commonly undertaken but almost certainly is not helpful. This article aims to describe the indications and mode of action of the drug, outline its pharmacokinetics and highlight the important key messages regarding its use in clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. The controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zamboni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze the actual scientific controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI and its association with both neurodegenerative disorders and multiple sclerosis (MS. We revised all published studies on prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients, including ultrasound and catheter venography series. Furthermore, we take into consideration other publications dealing with the pathophysiologic consequences of CCSVI in the brain, as well as ecent data characterizing the pathology of the venous wall in course of CCSVI. Finally, safety and pilot data on effectiveness of endovascular CCSVI treatment were further updated. Studies of prevalence show a big variability in prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients assessed by established ultrasonographic criteria. This could be related to high operator dependency of ultrasound. However, 12 studies, by the means of more objective catheter venography, show a prevalence >90% of CCSVI in MS. Global hypo-hypoperfusion of the brain, and reduced cerebral spinal fluid dynamics in MS was shown to be related to CCSVI. Postmortem studies and histology corroborate the 2009 International Union of Phlebology (UIP Consensus decision to insert CCSVI among venous malformations. Finally, safety of balloon angioplasty of the extracranial veins was certainly demonstrated, while prospective data on the potential effectiveness of endovascular treatment of CCSVI support to increase the level of evidence by proceeding with a randomized control trial (RCT. Taking into account the current epidemiological data, including studies on catheter venography, the autoptic findings, and the relationship between CCSVI and both hypo-perfusion and cerebro-spinal fluid flow, we conclude that CCSVI can be definitively inserted among the medical entities. Research is still inconclusive in elucidating the CCSVI role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. The controversy between the vascular and the

  5. Six controversial issues on subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, Iacopo; Albani, Adriana; Ambrogio, Alberto Giacinto; Campo, Michela; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Marcelli, Giorgia; Morelli, Valentina; Zampetti, Benedetta; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2017-05-01

    Subclinical Cushing's syndrome is a condition of hypercortisolism in the absence of signs specific of overt cortisol excess, and it is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, fragility fractures, cardiovascular events and mortality. The subclinical Cushing's syndrome is not rare, being estimated to be between 0.2-2 % in the adult population. Despite the huge number of studies that have been published in the recent years, several issues remain controversial for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome screening, diagnosis and treatment. The Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome Group was founded in 2012 for bringing together the leading Italian experts in the hypercortisolism-related diseases. This document represents the Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome viewpoint regarding the following controversial issues on Subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS): (1) Who has to be screened for subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (2) How to screen the populations at risk? (3) How to diagnose subclinical Cushing's syndrome in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma? (4) Which consequence of subclinical Cushing's syndrome has to be searched for? (5) How to address the therapy of choice in AI patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome? (6) How to follow-up adrenal incidentaloma patients with subclinical Cushing's syndrome surgically or conservatively treated? Notwithstanding the fact that most studies that faced these points may have several biases (e.g., retrospective design, small sample size, different criteria for the subclinical Cushing's syndrome diagnosis), we believe that the literature evidence is sufficient to affirm that the subclinical Cushing's syndrome condition is not harmless and that the currently available diagnostic tools are reliable for identifying the majority of individuals with subclinical Cushing's syndrome.

  6. Formation of Offset and Dual Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Scott; Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2018-06-01

    Galaxy mergers are effective mechanisms for triggering accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and thereby powering active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the merger scenario, when the SMBH from only one galaxy is accreting we observe a spatially offset AGN, and when the SMBHs from both galaxies are accreting we observe a dual AGN. Understanding the merger conditions that lead to the formation of offset AGN versus dual AGN is fundamental to informing models of hierarchical SMBH growth and the physics leading to the accretion of matter onto SMBHs. However, while the role of galaxy mergers for AGN triggering has been well-studied, the efficiency with which these events trigger offset AGN versus dual AGN is currently unclear. One reason for this gap in knowledge can be attributed to the observational difficulties in distinguishing between offset and dual AGN since doing so requires high spatial resolution, especially in the small separation regime where merger-driven AGN triggering is most likely to occur. To overcome this hurdle, we have utilized the spatial resolution of the Chandra X-ray Observatory to develop a unique sample of AGN hosted by late-stage galaxy mergers. Moreover, we have recently acquired Hubble Space Telescope imaging for a subset of these systems to examine the role that their merger morphologies play in SMBH growth and the formation of offset and dual AGN. We find that offset AGN are predominately found in minor mergers, whereas dual AGN are usually hosted by major mergers and galaxies with large morphological asymmetries. Furthermore, in both offset and dual AGN, the rate of SMBH growth increases toward more major mergers and larger morphological asymmetries. These results are in agreement with numerical simulations predicting that merger morphology is a relevant parameter governing SMBH merger-driven growth, and these results are the first to observationally confirm these trends at small pair separations.

  7. Common-image gathers in the offset domain from reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Ge

    2014-04-01

    Kirchhoff migration is flexible to output common-image gathers (CIGs) in the offset domain by imaging data with different offsets separately. These CIGs supply important information for velocity model updates and amplitude-variation-with-offset (AVO) analysis. Reverse-time migration (RTM) offers more insights into complex geology than Kirchhoff migration by accurately describing wave propagation using the two-way wave equation. But, it has difficulty to produce offset domain CIGs like Kirchhoff migration. In this paper, we develop a method for obtaining offset domain CIGs from RTM. The method first computes the RTM operator of an offset gather, followed by a dot product of the operator and the offset data to form a common-offset RTM image. The offset domain CIGs are then achieved after separately migrating data with different offsets. We generate offset domain CIGs on both the Marmousi synthetic data and 2D Gulf of Mexico real data using this approach. © 2014.

  8. Offset-electrode profile acquisition strategy for electrical resistivity tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Austin R.; Plattner, Alain

    2018-04-01

    We present an electrode layout strategy that allows electrical resistivity profiles to image the third dimension close to the profile plane. This "offset-electrode profile" approach involves laterally displacing electrodes away from the profile line in an alternating fashion and then inverting the resulting data using three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography software. In our synthetic and field surveys, the offset-electrode method succeeds in revealing three-dimensional structures in the vicinity of the profile plane, which we could not achieve using three-dimensional inversions of linear profiles. We confirm and explain the limits of linear electrode profiles through a discussion of the three-dimensional sensitivity patterns: For a homogeneous starting model together with a linear electrode layout, all sensitivities remain symmetric with respect to the profile plane through each inversion step. This limitation can be overcome with offset-electrode layouts by breaking the symmetry pattern among the sensitivities. Thanks to freely available powerful three-dimensional resistivity tomography software and cheap modern computing power, the requirement for full three-dimensional calculations does not create a significant burden and renders the offset-electrode approach a cost-effective method. By offsetting the electrodes in an alternating pattern, as opposed to laying the profile out in a U-shape, we minimize shortening the profile length.

  9. Offsets : An innovative approach to reducing greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, B.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most innovative ways to address climate change is the use of offsets, which refers to actions taken outside of a company's operations, domestically and internationally, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper is devoted to a discussion of Suncor Energy's action plan for greenhouse gases which include offsets, and to an explanation of the reasons why offsets are fundamental to successful greenhouse gas management. Suncor Energy Inc., has developed a plan with seven elements to meet their target of stabilizing their greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000. The seven elements include: (1) energy efficiency and process improvements at their oil sands facility, (2) the development of alternative and renewable sources of energy, such as ethanol blended gasolines and the use of wind turbines to generate electricity, (3) promoting environmental and economic research to develop more advanced oil and gas technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, (4) implementing a constructive public policy input in support of sustainable development, (5) educating employees, customers and communities on global climate change, (6) measuring and reporting the company's environmental progress, and (7) pursuing domestic and international offset opportunities such as transfer of technology to developing countries, cogeneration of energy using natural gas, energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, emission reduction purchases and forest conservation. Of these proposed measures, offsets are the critical element which could spell the difference between success and failure in managing greenhouse gas emissions and the difference between economic hardship and economic opportunity

  10. Cognitive styles: Controversial issues and research problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Volkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analytical review of cognitive styles research, considering the problems of its theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. Issues concerning the prospects, as well as theoretical and practical relevance of cognitive styles research, are discussed. We examine the main causes leading to researchers’ declining interest to study of cognitive styles, related to theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. The main problems discussed relate to lack of clear definition and common theoretical framework. Moreover, the number of empirical studies prevails over the one aimed at theoretical generalization of empirical results and findings, and therefore the primacy of empirics appears. We analyze the possible ways of advancing the field, suggested research programs and potential perspectives for future research. We pose questions of the relationship between cognitive styles and other psychological constructs, such as abilities and cognitive strategies. We emphasize the need to develop integrative models of cognitive styles in order to systematize and organize a large number of existing cognitive styles dimensions. The main controversial issues concerning cognitive styles’ stability and value are considered. We suggest that cognitive style is a psychological mean of cognitive tasks solving, based on both situation circumstances and subject’s current cognitive resources. Issues concerning cognitive styles may answer the question on the nature of individual differences and clarify psychological mechanisms of personality-situation interaction. Furthermore, it may serve as a basis for integrated studies at the areas of personality and cognitive psychology.

  11. Silica and lung cancer: a controversial issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairon, J C; Brochard, P; Jaurand, M C; Bignon, J

    1991-06-01

    The role of crystalline silica in lung cancer has long been the subject of controversy. In this article, we review the main experimental and epidemiological studies dealing with this problem. Some evidence for a genotoxic potential of crystalline silica has been obtained in the rare in vitro studies published to date. In vivo studies have shown that crystalline silica is carcinogenic in the rat; the tumour types appear to vary according to the route of administration. In addition, an association between carcinogenic and fibrogenic potency has been observed in various animal species exposed to crystalline silica. An excess of lung cancer related to occupational exposure to crystalline silica is reported in many epidemiological studies, regardless of the presence of silicosis. However, most of these studies are difficult to interpret because they do not correctly take into account associated carcinogens such as tobacco smoke and other occupational carcinogens. An excess of lung cancer is generally reported in studies based on silicosis registers. Overall, experimental and human studies suggest an association between exposure to crystalline silica and an excess of pulmonary malignancies. Although the data available are not sufficient to establish a clear-cut causal relationship in humans, an association between the onset of pneumoconiosis and pulmonary malignancies is probable. In contrast, experimental observations have given rise to a pathophysiological mechanism that might account for a putative carcinogenic potency of crystalline silica.

  12. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramania Iyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented.

  13. Maxillary reconstruction: Current concepts and controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Subramania; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    2014-01-01

    Maxillary reconstruction is still an evolving art when compared to the reconstruction of the mandible. The defects of maxilla apart from affecting the functions of the speech, swallowing and mastication also cause cosmetic disfigurement. Rehabilitation of the form and function in patients with maxillary defects is either by using an obturator prosthesis or by a surgical reconstruction. Literature is abundant with a variety of reconstructive methods. The classification systems are also varied, with no universal acceptance of any one of them. The oncologic safety of these procedures is still debated, and conclusive evidence in this regard has not emerged yet. Management of the orbit is also not yet addressed properly. Tissue engineering, that has been hyped to be one of the possible solutions for this vexing reconstructive problem, has not come out with reliable and reproducible results so far. This review article discusses the rationale and oncological safety of the reconstructing the maxillary defects, critically analyzes the classification systems, offers the different reconstructive methods and touches upon the controversies in this subject. The management of the retained and exenterated orbit associated with maxillectomy is reviewed. The surgical morbidity, complications and the recent advances in this field are also looked into. An algorithm, based on our experience, is presented. PMID:24987199

  14. Controversial Embodiment: Sport, Masculinity, Dis/Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Parlati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an attempt at investigating visible forms of complex, indeed controversial embodiment, with the specific intention of concentrating on the ways they interrogate delicate issues such as disability, masculinity and prosthetic sport performance. I intend to sound the shifting boundaries between dis-ability and super-ability as manifested in iconic figures such as Stelarc and, in other fields, Oscar Pistorius, whose unsteady position as privileged/disabled bladerunner seems to require – and indeed to gather – particularly intense scrutiny. I shall introduce a few contemporary discourses on corporeality and embodiment, which focus on the ‘troubling’ nature of auxiliary organs Freud refers to in the much contended paragraph I adopt as epigraph and guiding procedural light; I shall move from Butler and Giddens to Jean-Luc Nancy’s work on transplants and/as prostheses to include theoretical debates on disintegrating embodiment and disability studies, in order to proceed towards an analysis of the short-circuiting of allegedly secure practices of (masculine embodiment in sport culture and theory.

  15. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles. PMID:24910577

  16. Treatment and Controversies in Paraesophageal Hernia Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marco eFisichella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically all paraesophageal hernias were repaired surgically, today intervention is reserved for symptomatic paraesophageal hernias. In this review, we describe the indications for repair and explore the controversies in paraesophageal hernia repair, which include a comparison of open to laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair, the necessity of complete sac excision, the routine performance of fundoplication, and the use of mesh for hernia repair.Methods: We searched Pubmed for papers published between 1980 and 2015 using the following keywords: hiatal hernias, paraesophageal hernias, regurgitation, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, aspiration, GERD, endoscopy, manometry, pH monitoring, proton pump inhibitors, anemia, iron deficiency anemia, Nissen fundoplication, sac excision, mesh, mesh repair. Results: Indications for paraesophageal hernia repair have changed, and currently symptomatic paraesophageal hernias are recommended for repair. In addition, it is important not to overlook iron-deficiency anemia and pulmonary complaints, which tend to improve with repair. Current practice favors a laparoscopic approach, complete sac excision, primary crural repair with or without use of mesh, and a routine fundoplication.

  17. Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles: concept, controversy and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Azamal; Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an exciting and powerful discipline of science; the altered properties of which have offered many new and profitable products and applications. Agriculture, food and medicine sector industries have been investing more in nanotechnology research. Plants or their extracts provide a biological synthesis route of several metallic nanoparticles which is more eco-friendly and allows a controlled synthesis with well-defined size and shape. The rapid drug delivery in the presence of a carrier is a recent development to treat patients with nanoparticles of certain metals. The engineered nanoparticles are more useful in increasing the crop production, although this issue is still in infancy. This is simply due to the unprecedented and unforeseen health hazard and environmental concern. The well-known metal ions such as zinc, iron and copper are essential constituents of several enzymes found in the human system even though the indiscriminate use of similar other metal nanoparticle in food and medicine without clinical trial is not advisable. This review is intended to describe the novel phytosynthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles with regard to their shape, size, structure and diverse application in almost all fields of medicine, agriculture and technology. We have also emphasized the concept and controversial mechanism of green synthesis of nanoparticles.

  18. VIRTUAL CURRENCY "BITCOIN" – CHALLENGES AND CONTROVERSIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOAVĂ GEORGETA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge society, when there is a rapidly evolving information technology, the virtual markets, namely the online transactions, have created the premises emergence and development of new technologies of using of finances, namely virtual coin (Bitcoin. Use of this coin appears as an alternative to traditional currencies, but they are not under the control of no body, are devoid of inflation and maintain the anonymity of users. Following the evolution of this new type of coin, we proposed in this paper to present some general aspects of this coin focusing on global controversies on using Bitcoin. We have reviewed several myths that have arisen with the development and penetration of its on market and because it is a volatile coin can generate huge gains but and huge losses, we have studied fluctuation and implications for users and investors and the attraction of the drug dealers and criminals for using virtual currency, Bitcoin. At the end of the paper, based on the analysis we have tried to outline the future of this modern payment system. Thus, we found that lately, in that its value has fluctuated strongly, and increased buyer confidence, but appeared and increased cyber attacks, and the fear that if the state has no a role in protecting citizens from fraud, we can assist at the development of financial schemes extremely dangerous. The financial experts believe that if the world banks would jointly solve all the problems, the virtual money will have a real chance of life.

  19. Lyme disease: diagnostic issues and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguero-Rosenfeld, Maria E; Wormser, Gary P

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Lyme disease is a controversial topic. Most practitioners and scientists recognize that Lyme disease is associated with certain objective clinical manifestations supported by laboratory evidence of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the etiologic agent). There are others, however, who believe that patients with Lyme disease may have a wide variety of entirely nonspecific symptoms without any objective clinical manifestation and that laboratory evidence of infection by B. burgdorferi is not required to support the diagnosis. In reality, this perspective is not evidence based and would inevitably lead to innumerable misdiagnoses, given the high frequency of medically unexplained symptoms, such as fatigue and musculoskeletal pains, in the general population. Although those espousing this viewpoint do not believe that a positive laboratory test is required, nevertheless, they often seek out and promote alternative, unapproved testing methods that frequently provide false-positive results to justify their diagnosis. Herein, we provide a brief overview of Lyme disease testing, emphasizing current usage and limitations. We also discuss the use of nonvalidated procedures and the prospects for a reduction in such testing practices in the future.

  20. Energy controversy: the role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.H.; Bodansky, D.

    1975-02-01

    The objective of the paper presented is to show that nuclear fission power is the best, and maybe the only, alternative source of energy. It is written for a wide range of readers, including non-scientists and scientists who are not particularly informed on the issues involved. The first question considered concerns man's need for energy; it is concluded that conservation measures alone cannot suffice. Next, the earth's energy sources are examined, and the extent of each is estimated in the simple context of the length of time it could last at present use rates. Only nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and solar energy can provide for future time scales commensurate with man's historic past, while avoiding the possibility of catastrophic social upheaval. Fusion and solar energy are rejected on technological grounds because the world energy problem is so pressing that one cannot gamble on hopes for future technological breakthroughs. Thus, only nuclear fission meets the twin criteria of technological feasibility and adequate resource base. Each of the controversial issues surrounding nuclear fission energy is examined in some detail. The conclusion is reached that none is serious, and that nuclear fission offers by far the best energy source from environmental, economic, longevity, and overall safety standpoints

  1. The nuclear energy controversy in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oszuszky, F.; Szeless, A.

    1981-01-01

    The sociological aspects of the energy issue have become of overwhelming importance in the last few years. As a result, traditional considerations such as the importance of adequate and cheap energy supplies as the basis for growth, and the necessity, in a time of politically uncertain oil supplies, of energy supply security and diversity, have been equalled in importance, and sometimes replaced, by arguments about the social goals to be achieved. Nuclear energy has been selected as the vehicle for a socio-political debate on the controversial issue of the application of large-scale technology. Beyond that it has acquired a symbolic role in what is really an emotional attack on the political systems, economy and culture of present day civilization. It stands for the concentration of power, the centralization of technology and society, and man's dependence on the products of that centralization. Nuclear power is seen as one of the motors of further economic growth and thus an apparent pioneer of the further destruction of our natural and social environment. (author)

  2. Some controversy about law on private security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Ljubomir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Serbia is one of the last countries that legally regulate the private security sector, which is a new conceptual system of the national security system. Since the law is expected to solve many issues and dilemmas, and bring order to the area, which by some accounts is a very profitable branch of economy. Expectations were that by the end to regulate issues such as: 1 the need for institutionalization of partnership between the public and private sectors for mutual benefit, 2 the need of expressing mutual interest to establish the desired condition of security in the entire society and 3 the need to define the mechanisms and authority to achieve mentioned above. Based on this, legal framework of private security should explicitly provide: 1 a new role of the private sector, 2 communication and data exchange between the public and private sector, 3 mandatory notification about prepared or committed criminal acts on which there is information, 4 cooperation in the tasks of necessarily protected facilities, 4 cooperation in crisis situations including natural disasters, traffic accidents, strikes, sabotage, terrorist attacks, etc., 5 cooperate in the selection and training of staff and 6 cooperation in planning activities and project design of security. This paper presents a critical review of some theoretical and professional controversies in the solutions provided by law, for the purpose of answering whether it is achieving the purpose of passing of such a legal act.

  3. Tracing Supermassive Black Hole Growth with Offset and Dual AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Julia

    The growth of supermassive black holes is tied to the evolution of their host galaxies, but we are still missing a fundamental understanding of how and when supermassive black holes build up their mass. Black hole mass growth can be traced when the black holes are powered as active galactic nuclei (AGN), and AGN activity can be triggered by the stochastic accretion of gas or by gas inflows driven by galaxy mergers. Galaxy merger simulations make a series of predictions about the AGN that are triggered by mergers: (1) major mergers preferentially trigger higher-luminosity AGN, (2) minor mergers more often trigger AGN activity in one supermassive black hole while major mergers more often trigger AGN activity in both black holes in a merger, and (3) black hole mass growth peaks when the black holes approach the center (theory have been limited by the difficulty in defining a clean observational sample of AGN in galaxy mergers and the observational challenge of spatially resolving two AGN with small (dual AGN as a new observational tool that can be used to address how and when supermassive black hole mass growth occurs. A merger of two galaxies brings two supermassive black holes together, and the two black holes exist at kpc-scale separations for 100 Myr before ultimately merging. While the black holes are at kpc-scale separations, they are known as dual AGN when both of them are fueled as AGN and offset AGN when only one is fueled as an AGN. Since offset and dual AGN only occur in galaxy mergers, by their very definition, they provide a clean observational sample of black hole mass growth in galaxy mergers. The small, kpc-scale separations of offset and dual AGN also enable an observational test of black hole fueling near the centers of merger-remnant galaxies. The full potential of offset and dual AGN for such studies of black hole mass growth has not yet been realized, due to the small number of such systems known. To date, only 13 confirmed offset and dual AGN are

  4. Localisation of beam offset jitter sources at ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, J; Patecki, M; Schulte, D; Tomás, R

    2014-01-01

    For the commissioning and operation of modern particle accelerators, automated error detection and diagnostics methods are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we present two such methods, which are capable of localising sources of beam offset jitter with a combination of correlation studies and so called degree of freedom plots. The methods were applied to the ATF2 beam line at KEK, where one of the major goals is the reduction of the beam offset jitter. Results of this localisation are shown in this paper. A big advantage of the presented method is its high robustness especially to varying optics parameters. Therefore, we believe that the developed beam offset jitter localisation methods can be easily applied to other accelerators.

  5. 12 CFR 313.49 - Coordinating salary offset with other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordinating salary offset with other agencies... PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.49 Coordinating salary offset with... employee has consented to the salary offset in writing or has signed a statement acknowledging receipt of...

  6. 22 CFR 213.22 - Salary offset when USAID is the creditor agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary offset when USAID is the creditor agency... Administrative Offset § 213.22 Salary offset when USAID is the creditor agency. (a) Due process requirements... through salary offset, USAID will first provide the employee with the opportunity to pay in full the...

  7. 45 CFR 33.8 - Voluntary repayment agreement in lieu of salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voluntary repayment agreement in lieu of salary... SALARY OFFSET § 33.8 Voluntary repayment agreement in lieu of salary offset. (a)(1) In response to the... notice of intent to offset. An employee who wishes to repay the debt without salary offset shall also...

  8. 7 CFR 3.80 - Written agreement to repay debts as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... salary offset. 3.80 Section 3.80 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.80 Written agreement to repay debts as alternative to salary offset. (a) Notification by employee. The employee may propose, in response to a Notice of Intent to Offset Salary, a...

  9. 7 CFR 3.81 - Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may... Salary Offset § 3.81 Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin. (a) Deductions to liquidate... Offset Salary to collect from the employee's current pay. (b) If the employee filed a petition for a...

  10. 40 CFR 13.22 - Salary offset when EPA is the creditor agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary offset when EPA is the creditor... COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 13.22 Salary offset when EPA is the creditor agency. (a... through salary offset, EPA will first provide the employee with the opportunity to pay in full the amount...

  11. 22 CFR 213.23 - Salary offset when USAID is not the creditor agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary offset when USAID is not the creditor... Administrative Offset § 213.23 Salary offset when USAID is not the creditor agency. (a) USAID will use salary... installment, if a date other than the next established pay period. (b) Requests for salary offset must be sent...

  12. 5 CFR 179.213 - Coordinating salary offset with other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordinating salary offset with other... REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.213 Coordinating salary offset with other agencies... intent of this regulation. (2) The designated salary offset coordinator will be responsible for: (i...

  13. Spatially Offset Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Triggering in Galaxy Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, R. Scott; Comerford, Julia M. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Pooley, David, E-mail: Robert.Barrows@Colorado.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX 78212 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Galaxy mergers are likely to play a role in triggering active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the conditions under which this process occurs are poorly understood. In Paper I, we constructed a sample of spatially offset X-ray AGNs that represent galaxy mergers hosting a single AGN. In this paper, we use our offset AGN sample to constrain the parameters that affect AGN observability in galaxy mergers. We also construct dual-AGN samples with similar selection properties for comparison. We find that the offset AGN fraction shows no evidence for a dependence on AGN luminosity, while the dual-AGN fractions show stronger evidence for a positive dependence, suggesting that the merger events forming dual AGNs are more efficient at instigating accretion onto supermassive black holes than those forming offset AGNs. We also find that the offset and dual-AGN fractions both have a negative dependence on nuclear separation and are similar in value at small physical scales. This dependence may become stronger when restricted to high AGN luminosities, although a larger sample is needed for confirmation. These results indicate that the probability of AGN triggering increases at later merger stages. This study is the first to systematically probe down to nuclear separations of <1 kpc (∼0.8 kpc) and is consistent with predictions from simulations that AGN observability peaks in this regime. We also find that the offset AGNs are not preferentially obscured compared to the parent AGN sample, suggesting that our selection may be targeting galaxy mergers with relatively dust-free nuclear regions.

  14. Pulsar Pair Cascades in Magnetic Fields with Offset Polar Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2012-01-01

    Neutron star magnetic fields may have polar caps (PC) that are offset from the dipole axis, through field-line sweepback near the light cylinder or non-symmetric currents within the star. The effects of such offsets on electron-positron pair cascades are investigated, using simple models of dipole magnetic fields with small distortions that shift the PCs by different amounts or directions. Using a Monte Carlo pair cascade simulation, we explore the changes in the pair spectrum, multiplicity and energy flux across the PC, as well as the trends in pair flux and pair energy flux with spin-down luminosity, L(sub sd). We also give an estimate of the distribution of heating flux from returning positrons on the PC for different offsets. We find that even modest offsets can produce significant increases in pair multiplicity, especially for pulsars that are near or beyond the pair death lines for centered PCs, primarily because of higher accelerating fields. Pair spectra cover several decades in energy, with the spectral range of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) two orders of magnitude higher than for normal pulsars, and PC offsets allow significant extension of all spectra to lower pair energies. We find that the total PC pair luminosity L(sub pair) is proportional to L(sub sd), with L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -3) L(sub sd) for normal pulsars and L(sub pair) approximates 10(exp -2) L(sub sd) for MSPs. Remarkably, the total PC heating luminosity for even large offsets increases by less than a factor of two, even though the PC area increases by much larger factors, because most of the heating occurs near the magnetic axis.

  15. Spatially Offset Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Triggering in Galaxy Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, R. Scott; Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.; Pooley, David

    2017-04-01

    Galaxy mergers are likely to play a role in triggering active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the conditions under which this process occurs are poorly understood. In Paper I, we constructed a sample of spatially offset X-ray AGNs that represent galaxy mergers hosting a single AGN. In this paper, we use our offset AGN sample to constrain the parameters that affect AGN observability in galaxy mergers. We also construct dual-AGN samples with similar selection properties for comparison. We find that the offset AGN fraction shows no evidence for a dependence on AGN luminosity, while the dual-AGN fractions show stronger evidence for a positive dependence, suggesting that the merger events forming dual AGNs are more efficient at instigating accretion onto supermassive black holes than those forming offset AGNs. We also find that the offset and dual-AGN fractions both have a negative dependence on nuclear separation and are similar in value at small physical scales. This dependence may become stronger when restricted to high AGN luminosities, although a larger sample is needed for confirmation. These results indicate that the probability of AGN triggering increases at later merger stages. This study is the first to systematically probe down to nuclear separations of <1 kpc (˜0.8 kpc) and is consistent with predictions from simulations that AGN observability peaks in this regime. We also find that the offset AGNs are not preferentially obscured compared to the parent AGN sample, suggesting that our selection may be targeting galaxy mergers with relatively dust-free nuclear regions.

  16. Addressing the nuclear controversy on university campuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, G.B.; Poncelet, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    A strong anti-nuclear sentiment exists on many university campuses. Young minds are eager to adopt causes which purport to reflect new intellectual approaches to social, political, and economic issues. Hence, the opposition to nuclear power can be made to seem to be based on: 1) technical study of nuclear plants; 2) concern for the environment; 3) concern for public health and safety; 4) requirements for an improved economic order; and 5) demand for public decision on technical issues. All of these elements have the potential of attracting student and faculty interest and support. To contend with this problem, our company decided to attempt to achieve a dialogue with the student and faculty audiences. A small group of young nuclear engineers was chosen to undergo comprehensive training on the controversy and contemporary campus issues in the states to be visited. The selection and training emphasized the ability of the engineers to relate to the students as their peers. They were encouraged to speak candidly and for themselves. Thus, they were not burdened with the image of being viewed merely as typical corporate spokesmen. The rapport made possible by this approach is a very important element in the success of such an effort. Invitations to debate before student audiences were issued to leading opposition groups; also, to the news media to report the events. Response by the media has been outstandingly favorable: not only has the coverage been extensive, but it has carried the pro-nuclear arguments to large audiences on a scale and with a credibility not otherwise achievable. The results to date have been extremely encouraging. Other countries are invited to learn more about the ''Campus America'' program in order to evaluate whether or not such an approach, with appropriate modification, could prove effective in their own situations

  17. Child injury control: trends, themes, and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian D; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-01-01

    Injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among US children, and an important driver of health status globally. Despite its enormous burden, injury is preventable. Over the last 10 years, significant progress has been made in the reduction of unintentional injury among US children. However, aggregate trends mask important disparities by age group, region, and injury mechanism. Basic and translation research is needed to develop and test prevention strategies to address these new or recalcitrant problems. Motor vehicle occupant injury has fallen to historic lows, but challenges remain in protecting novice drivers and managing the distraction of new technologies. Injury to pedestrians has also declined, but likely as a result of decreased exposure as fewer children walk. This calls for a broader public health perspective to promote activity while enhancing safety. Deaths due to drowning are common and illustrate the difficulty in measuring and promoting appropriate supervision. Environmental modification and use of protective products may be a more appropriate response. Concussion in sport is another challenging issue: public health laws promote identification and appropriate management of concussed athletes, but less progress has been made on primary prevention of these injuries. Unintentional poisoning is on the rise, attributable to misuse of, and overdose with, prescription opioids. Injury deaths to infants are also increasing. This trend is driven in part by better death investigation that classifies more sleep-related deaths as suffocation events. Finally, we examine a sample of cross-cutting themes and controversies in injury control that might be amenable to empiric evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-06

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years.

  19. Addressing the nuclear controversy on university campuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, G.B.; Poncelet, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    A strong anti-nuclear sentiment exists on many university campuses. Young minds are eager to adopt causes which purport to reflect new intellectual approaches to social, political and economic issues. Hence, the opposition to nuclear power can be made to seem to be based on: (1) technical study of nuclear plants; (2) concern for the environment; (3) concern for public health and safety; (4) requirements for an improved economic order; and (5) demand for public decision on technical issues. All these elements could attract student and faculty interest and support. To contend with this problem in the USA, Westinghouse Electric Corporation attempted to achieve a dialogue with the student and faculty audiences. The development and results of the programme up to mid-1977 are reported in this paper. A small group of young nuclear engineers was chosen to undergo comprehensive training on the controversy and contemporary campus issues in the States to be visited. Selection and training emphasized the ability of the engineers to relate to the students as their peers. They were encouraged to speak candidly and for themselves. Thus, they did not give the impression of being merely typical corporate spokesmen. The rapport made possible by this approach is very important to the success of such an effort. Invitations to debate before student audiences were issued to leading opposition groups and to the news media. Response by the media has been outstandingly favourable: not only has the coverage been extensive, but it has carried the pro-nuclear arguments to large audiences on a scale and with a credibility not otherwise achievable. The results up to May 1977, in eight States, have been extremely encouraging. Other countries are invited to learn more about the ''Campus America'' programme in order to evaluate whether or not such an approach, with appropriate modification, could prove effective in their own situations. (author)

  20. Automated discovery systems and the inductivist controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giza, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    The paper explores possible influences that some developments in the field of branches of AI, called automated discovery and machine learning systems, might have upon some aspects of the old debate between Francis Bacon's inductivism and Karl Popper's falsificationism. Donald Gillies facetiously calls this controversy 'the duel of two English knights', and claims, after some analysis of historical cases of discovery, that Baconian induction had been used in science very rarely, or not at all, although he argues that the situation has changed with the advent of machine learning systems. (Some clarification of terms machine learning and automated discovery is required here. The key idea of machine learning is that, given data with associated outcomes, software can be trained to make those associations in future cases which typically amounts to inducing some rules from individual cases classified by the experts. Automated discovery (also called machine discovery) deals with uncovering new knowledge that is valuable for human beings, and its key idea is that discovery is like other intellectual tasks and that the general idea of heuristic search in problem spaces applies also to discovery tasks. However, since machine learning systems discover (very low-level) regularities in data, throughout this paper I use the generic term automated discovery for both kinds of systems. I will elaborate on this later on). Gillies's line of argument can be generalised: thanks to automated discovery systems, philosophers of science have at their disposal a new tool for empirically testing their philosophical hypotheses. Accordingly, in the paper, I will address the question, which of the two philosophical conceptions of scientific method is better vindicated in view of the successes and failures of systems developed within three major research programmes in the field: machine learning systems in the Turing tradition, normative theory of scientific discovery formulated by Herbert Simon

  1. Lichen Planus Pigmentosus: The Controversial Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Coondoo, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    A pigmented variant of lichen planus (LP) was first reported from India in 1974 by Bhutani et al. who coined the term LP pigmentosus (LPP) to give a descriptive nomenclature to it. LP has a number of variants, one of which is LPP. This disease has also later been reported from the Middle East, Latin America, Korea, and Japan, especially in people with darker skin. It has an insidious onset. Initially, small, black or brown macules appear on sun-exposed areas. They later merge to form large hyperpigmented patches. The disease principally affects the sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, trunk, and upper extremities. The oral mucosa may rarely be involved. However, the palms, soles, and nails are not affected. Histologically, the epidermis is atrophic along with vacuolar degeneration of basal cell layer. The dermis exhibits incontinence of pigment with scattered melanophages and a sparse follicular or perivascular infiltrate. There is a considerable similarity in histopathological findings between LPP and erythema dyschromicum perstans. However, there are immunologic and clinical differences between the two. These observations have led to a controversy regarding the identity of the two entities. While some dermatologists consider them to be the same, others have opined that the two should be considered as distinctly different diseases. A number of associations such as hepatitis C virus infection, frontal fibrosing alopecia, acrokeratosis of Bazex and nephrotic syndrome have been reported with LPP. A rare variant, LPP inversus, with similar clinical and histopathological findings was reported in 2001. As opposed to LPP, this variant occurs in covered intertriginous locations such as groins and axillae and mostly affects white-skinned persons. PMID:27688435

  2. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE... other action when the alleged violation of law is merely a matter of private controversy and does not...

  3. From Classroom to Controversy: Conflict in the Teaching of Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Lynn S.

    2013-01-01

    What happens when a class assignment becomes a source of controversy? How do we respond? What do we learn? By describing the controversy surrounding an assignment on religion and representation, this article examines conflict's productive role in teaching about New Religious Movements (NRMs) and religion. It suggests that we consider how our…

  4. Current controversies and future perspectives in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustí, Alvar; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been much research and interest in COPD. As a result, the understanding and management of the disease has improved significantly. Yet, there are many uncertainties and controversies that require further work. This review discusses these controversies and anticipates...... some of the changes that may occur in the near future in the field of COPD....

  5. Covering Conflict and Controversy: Measuring Balance, Fairness, Defamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Todd F.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Measures balance, fairness, and defamation in local stories containing controversy and covering law enforcement, education, local government, and business. Finds that most stories lack balance and that the opposing side of the controversy was not contacted in 28 percent of the instances. (RS)

  6. Current controversies and future perspectives in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustí, Alvar; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been much research and interest in COPD. As a result, the understanding and management of the disease has improved significantly. Yet, there are many uncertainties and controversies that require further work. This review discusses these controversies and anticipates...

  7. Ego Involvement and Topic Controversiality as Related to Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledden, Elizabeth A.; Fernandez, Katherine A.

    Attitude change was measured on four different topics before and immediately after a persuasion was presented in order to compare the degree of change with the level of ego involvement as it relates to topic controversiality. Ego involvement was based on self-ratings of concern for each topic. Objective topic controversiality was based on the…

  8. Predicting Public Acceptability in Controversial Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, Donald M.

    2003-01-01

    Technology and society have a synergic relationship. New technologies are a product of the values and aspirations of the culture in which they emerge. In turn, each new technology shapes and alters these values and aspirations, to a greater or lesser degree. The acceptance by society of any particular technology depends, however, on how far the values embodied in the technology reflect those of the wider society, or only those of some privileged sector - perhaps a ruling elite, a group of academic researchers, a commercial company, or even a special interest group. As public disquiet about controversial technologies has grown, their acceptance can no longer be taken for granted. It is now becoming more important to evaluate in advance the degree of likely mismatch between the aspirations of the technologists and the values of society. This paper explores one approach to making this evaluation, based on the notion of a conditional social contract between technology and society. A given society may be prepared to embrace a new technology to deliver certain benefits, and may accept a certain degree of risk and adaptation of life styles, provided certain basic conditions are fulfilled. These conditions include the upholding of basic values, familiarity, how it compares with similar technologies, the degree of control and choice, trust in those in control, the nature of any risks, the tangible benefits, and the media profile given to the new area. If several of these factors are not fulfilled, the technology is unlikely to be accepted. This was dramatically illustrated in the UK public reaction to food products derived from imported US GM soya and maize. These failed nearly all the conditions, so that public rejection should have been seen as a foregone conclusion. In the light of this, the likely public reaction to a number of future biotechnological innovations is assessed, based on the same conditions. Some examples taken from the energy sector are also compared. The

  9. Why Map Issues? On Controversy Analysis as a Digital Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marres, Noortje

    2015-09-01

    This article takes stock of recent efforts to implement controversy analysis as a digital method in the study of science, technology, and society (STS) and beyond and outlines a distinctive approach to address the problem of digital bias. Digital media technologies exert significant influence on the enactment of controversy in online settings, and this risks undermining the substantive focus of controversy analysis conducted by digital means. To address this problem, I propose a shift in thematic focus from controversy analysis to issue mapping. The article begins by distinguishing between three broad frameworks that currently guide the development of controversy analysis as a digital method, namely, demarcationist, discursive, and empiricist. Each has been adopted in STS, but only the last one offers a digital "move beyond impartiality." I demonstrate this approach by analyzing issues of Internet governance with the aid of the social media platform Twitter.

  10. KNOW NUKES: a model for teaching controversial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomashow, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation articulates elements of an educational strategy derived from the experience of the KNOW NUKES program, a teacher training project designed to introduce the nuclear power controversy in the high school classroom. This strategy can be used as means of furthering the effectiveness of controversial issues education, not only in the area of nuclear power, but in teaching about any environmental issue. This is specifically achieved by (2) placing the KNOW NUKES institute in the broader context of controversial issues education; (2) describing in detail KNOW NUKES project planning; (3) reviewing the structure and content of the various teaching techniques and materials that have been developed for the KNOW NUKES institute; (4) utilizing a particular technique developed by the institute that reveals varying perspectives on controversial issues, in this case, an instrumental for decoding the controversial issues that are explicit and implicit in corporate image advertisements; and (5) qualitatively evaluating the practical implementation of the KNOW NUKES model

  11. 20 CFR 404.525 - Suspension of offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of offset. 404.525 Section 404.525 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950....521, the overpaid individual notifies us that he or she is exercising a right described in § 404.522(a...

  12. Imagining Another Context during Encoding Offsets Context-Dependent Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masicampo, E. J.; Sahakyan, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether imagining another context during encoding would offset context-dependent forgetting. All participants studied a list of words in Context A. Participants who remained in Context A during the test recalled more than participants who were tested in another context (Context B), demonstrating the standard context-dependent forgetting…

  13. Forest Carbon Offsets Revisited: Shedding Light on Darkwoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Bogle, T.; Vries, de F.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the viability of carbon offset credits created through forest conservation and preservation. A detailed forest management model based on a case study of a forest estate in southeastern British Columbia, owned by The Nature Conservancy of Canada (NCC) is used to demonstrate

  14. 76 FR 24406 - Collection by Offset From Indebted Government Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... alternative dispute resolution methods if they are not inconsistent with agency-specific laws and regulations... by offset and allows the debtor additional opportunities to dispute the debt, enter into a repayment... is proposing to revise the definition of FCCS to include a reference to 31 CFR parts 900 through 904...

  15. Subsurface offset behaviour in velocity analysis with extended reflectivity images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Migration velocity analysis with the wave equation can be accomplished by focusing of extended migration images, obtained by introducing a subsurface offset or shift. A reflector in the wrong velocity model will show up as a curve in the extended image. In the correct model, it should collapse to a

  16. 75 FR 62348 - Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care or Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN55 Reimbursement Offsets for Medical Care... Veterans Affairs (VA) proposes to amend its regulations concerning the reimbursement of medical care and... situations where third-party payers are required to reimburse VA for costs related to care provided by VA to...

  17. Performance and Vibration Analyses of Lift-Offset Helicopters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-In Go

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A validation study on the performance and vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter is conducted to establish techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters. This study considers the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter using a rigid coaxial rotor system as a verification model. CAMRAD II (Comprehensive Analytical Method of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics II, a comprehensive analysis code, is used as a tool for the performance, vibration, and loads analyses. A general free wake model, which is a more sophisticated wake model than other wake models, is used to obtain good results for the comprehensive analysis. Performance analyses of the XH-59A helicopter with and without auxiliary propulsion are conducted in various flight conditions. In addition, vibration analyses of the XH-59A compound helicopter configuration are conducted in the forward flight condition. The present comprehensive analysis results are in good agreement with the flight test and previous analyses. Therefore, techniques for the comprehensive analysis of lift-offset compound helicopters are appropriately established. Furthermore, the rotor lifts are calculated for the XH-59A lift-offset compound helicopter in the forward flight condition to investigate the airloads characteristics of the ABC™ (Advancing Blade Concept rotor.

  18. Positron annihilation imaging device using multiple offset rings of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to a positron annihilation imaging device comprising two or more coaxial circular arrays of detectors (2,2'), with the detectors in one array angularly offset with respect to the detectors in the adjacent array to detect more than one tomographic image simultaneously through different cross-sections of a patient. (author)

  19. Model Predictive Control for Offset-Free Reference Tracking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belda, Květoslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2016), s. 8-13 ISSN 1805-3386 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : offset-free reference tracking * predictive control * ARX model * state-space model * multi-input multi-output system * robotic system * mechatronic system Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/belda-0458355.pdf

  20. The design of an enzyme: a chronology on the controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buc, Henri

    2013-05-13

    After the publication of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model, a controversy arose between Jacques Monod, Francis Crick and Jeffries Wyman about the comparison of the regulatory performances of an oligomer undergoing a concerted transition between two states and a monomer having the same composition and subjected to a similar conformational equilibrium. The controversy took place between September 1965 and March 1966. It gave rise to several unpublished notes. Numerous misunderstandings between the participants were not fully dissipated as the controversy abruptly ended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Life cycle assessment of offset printed matter with EDIP97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2009-01-01

    warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment. Ecotoxicity and human toxicity, which are related to emissions of chemicals etc., are only included to a limited degree or not at all. In this paper we include the impacts from chemicals emitted during the life cycle of sheet fed offset printed matter....... This is done by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used. In cases with available data also upstream emissions from the production of printing materials are included....... The results show that inclusion of the chemical emission-related impacts makes the EDIP97 impact profile of sheet fed offset products much more varied, as well for the normalised profiles as for the profiles weighted by distance to political environmental targets. Especially the ecotoxicity impact potential...

  2. REAL TIME QUALITY CONTROL OF THE HEATSET OFFSET PRINTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan-George RĂCHERU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Offset lithography is one of the most common ways of creating printed materials. Compared to other printing methods, offset printing is best suited for economically producing large volumes of high quality prints in a manner that requires little maintenance. Because of the high speed and the high volume of the printing press, we have to rely on automation for press control and not just to the printer’s eye. When printing an image that has more than one color, it is necessary to print each color separately and ensure each color overlaps the others precisely. If this is not done, the finished image will look fuzzy, blurred or "out of register". To help line the colors up correctly, a system of registration is necessary. Therefore, the use of an automated real time quality control system will result in a more consistent color for the customer and less waste for the printer.

  3. Axial offset anomalies and local pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarin, F.; Montes, M.; Izquierdo, J.; Garcia-Sanchez, J.

    2001-01-01

    Small radial and axial offset anomalies (AOA) in some Spanish PWR-type NPP's, in addition to the knowledge of the existence of similar anomalies in U.S. PWR's, led us in 1993 to study this problem. Important parameters were correlated for a database of plant operating data consisting of six cycles of five different PWR plants (all of them of the Westinghouse 3-loop, 12 ft., 17 x 17 fuel design). One of these cycles (the oldest one) followed the standard constant pH 308 = 7.0, and the remaining ones followed a modified elevated pH control strategy (the pH at EOC is typically 7.4). Only for the oldest cycle that used the standard pH control was the in-core and ex-core axial offset values found to be in good agreement with the predictions, and an anomalous soluble boron curve behavior not observed. (author)

  4. Force-deflection analysis of offset indentations on pressurised pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, T.H.; Luo, R.; Becker, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The indenter force vs. deflection characteristics of pressurised pipes with long offset indentations under plane strain conditions have been investigated using finite element (FE) and analytical methods with four experimental tests performed on aluminium rings. Two different materials and five different geometries were used to investigate their effects on the elastic-plastic behaviour. A comparison of the experimental, FE and the analytical results indicates that the analytical formulation developed in this paper, for predicting the force-deflection curves for pressurised pipes with offset indenters, is reasonably accurate. Also, all of the analyses presented in this paper indicate that by using a representative flow stress, which is defined as the average of the yield and ultimate tensile stresses, the analytical method can accurately predict the force-deflection curves

  5. Offset Free Tracking Predictive Control Based on Dynamic PLS Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an offset free tracking model predictive control based on a dynamic partial least square (PLS framework. First, state space model is used as the inner model of PLS to describe the dynamic system, where subspace identification method is used to identify the inner model. Based on the obtained model, multiple independent model predictive control (MPC controllers are designed. Due to the decoupling character of PLS, these controllers are running separately, which is suitable for distributed control framework. In addition, the increment of inner model output is considered in the cost function of MPC, which involves integral action in the controller. Hence, the offset free tracking performance is guaranteed. The results of an industry background simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed method.

  6. Optimization based tuning approach for offset free MPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Daniel Haugård; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    We present an optimization based tuning procedure with certain robustness properties for an offset free Model Predictive Controller (MPC). The MPC is designed for multivariate processes that can be represented by an ARX model. The advantage of ARX model representations is that standard system...... identifiation techniques using convex optimization can be used for identification of such models from input-output data. The stochastic model of the ARX model identified from input-output data is modified with an ARMA model designed as part of the MPC-design procedure to ensure offset-free control. The ARMAX...... model description resulting from the extension can be realized as a state space model in innovation form. The MPC is designed and implemented based on this state space model in innovation form. Expressions for the closed-loop dynamics of the unconstrained system is used to derive the sensitivity...

  7. Automatic WEMVA by Focusing Subsurface Offset Virtual Sources

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Bingbing

    2017-05-26

    Macro velocity building is important for subsequent prestack depth migration and full waveform inversion. Wave equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) utilizes band-limited waveform to invert the velocity in an automatic manner. Normally, inversion would be implemented by focusing the subsurface offset common image gathers(SOCIGs). We re-examine it with a different perspective and propose to view the SOCIGs and the background wavefield together as subsurface offset virtual sources(SOVS). A linear system connecting the perturbation of the position of those SOVS and velocity is derived and solved subsequently using a conjugate gradient method. Both synthetic and real dataset examples verify the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Pension Reform Act 2004 and its Controversies: Repeating or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pension Reform Act 2004 and its Controversies: Repeating or Learning from Past Mistakes? ... Journal of Research in National Development ... and discusses how the present pension reform will affect active employees when they retire.

  9. Electrical stimulation in dysphagia treatment: a justified controversy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, H. C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical stimulation in dysphagia treatment: a justified controversy? Neuromuscular electrostimulation (LAMES) is a method for stimulating muscles with short electrical pulses. Neuromuscular electrostimulation is frequently used in physiotherapy to strengthen healthy muscles (as in sports

  10. Understanding and Developing Controversial Issues in College Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.; Gainey, Randy R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses common controversial issues in different college disciplines, such as the death penalty and drug legalization. Also suggests useful methods for encouraging enlightening discussions, such as verbal and physical cues, student-centered activities, and text selection. (SLD)

  11. Social reporting, engagements, controversies and conflict in an arena context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgakopoulos, G.; Thomson, I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - To empirically investigate relationships between engagement activities and social reporting practices in a controversial and environmentally sensitive industry. The interactions investigated were not restricted to stakeholder relationships but included other communications between

  12. Coherence between geophysical excitations and celestial pole offsets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ron, Cyril; Vondrák, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 243-247 ISSN 1214-9705. [Czech-Polish Workshop on Recent Geodynamics of the Sudeten and Adjacent Areas. Třešť, 04.11.2010-06.11. 2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : geophysical excitations * celestial pole offsets * coherence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011

  13. Improved stove programs need robust methods to estimate carbon offsets

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Michael; Edwards, Rufus; Masera, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Current standard methods result in significant discrepancies in carbon offset accounting compared to approaches based on representative community based subsamples, which provide more realistic assessments at reasonable cost. Perhaps more critically, neither of the currently approved methods incorporates uncertainties inherent in estimates of emission factors or non-renewable fuel usage (fNRB). Since emission factors and fNRB contribute 25% and 47%, respectively, to the overall uncertainty in ...

  14. Improved SAR Image Coregistration Using Pixel-Offset Series

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng

    2014-03-14

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image coregistration is a key procedure before interferometric SAR (InSAR) time-series analysis can be started. However, many geophysical data sets suffer from severe decorrelation problems due to a variety of reasons, making precise coregistration a nontrivial task. Here, we present a new strategy that uses a pixel-offset series of detected subimage patches dominated by point-like targets (PTs) to improve SAR image coregistrations. First, all potentially coherent image pairs are coregistered in a conventional way. In this step, we propose a coregistration quality index for each image to rank its relative “significance” within the data set and to select a reference image for the SAR data set. Then, a pixel-offset series of detected PTs is made from amplitude maps to improve the geometrical mapping functions. Finally, all images are resampled depending on the pixel offsets calculated from the updated geometrical mapping functions. We used images from a rural region near the North Anatolian Fault in eastern Turkey to test the proposed method, and clear coregistration improvements were found based on amplitude stability. This enhanced the fact that the coregistration strategy should therefore lead to improved InSAR time-series analysis results.

  15. Improved SAR Image Coregistration Using Pixel-Offset Series

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Teng; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image coregistration is a key procedure before interferometric SAR (InSAR) time-series analysis can be started. However, many geophysical data sets suffer from severe decorrelation problems due to a variety of reasons, making precise coregistration a nontrivial task. Here, we present a new strategy that uses a pixel-offset series of detected subimage patches dominated by point-like targets (PTs) to improve SAR image coregistrations. First, all potentially coherent image pairs are coregistered in a conventional way. In this step, we propose a coregistration quality index for each image to rank its relative “significance” within the data set and to select a reference image for the SAR data set. Then, a pixel-offset series of detected PTs is made from amplitude maps to improve the geometrical mapping functions. Finally, all images are resampled depending on the pixel offsets calculated from the updated geometrical mapping functions. We used images from a rural region near the North Anatolian Fault in eastern Turkey to test the proposed method, and clear coregistration improvements were found based on amplitude stability. This enhanced the fact that the coregistration strategy should therefore lead to improved InSAR time-series analysis results.

  16. Guidance document to the BC emission offsets regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    British Columbia's (BC) emission offset regulations were established under the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets Act passed in 2007. Targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions included a 6 percent reduction by 2012; an 18 percent reduction by 2016; a 33 percent reduction by 2020; and an 80 percent reduction by 2050. Carbon neutral agreements began in 2008, and covered emissions produced from government business travel and by provincial government ministries and agencies. This report presented a list of key recommendations developed by the Pacific Carbon Trust for use in future carbon offset projects. Recommendations included the use of correct emission factors when quantifying projected emission reductions from an offset project; the use of a robust data management system; and the use of evidence in supporting additionality arguments. The document outlined planning procedures for project baseline selection processes, protocol selections, and the identification of sources sinks and reservoirs. Issues related to quantification and measurements, emissions factors, and accuracy and uncertainty were also addressed. Validation, verification, and contracting options were also presented. 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  17. Multi-offset GPR methods for hyporheic zone investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosten, T.R.; Bradford, J.H.; McNamara, J.P.; Gooseff, M.N.; Zarnetske, J.P.; Bowden, W.B.; Johnston, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Porosity of stream sediments has a direct effect on hyporheic exchange patterns and rates. Improved estimates of porosity heterogeneity will yield enhanced simulation of hyporheic exchange processes. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) velocity measurements are strongly controlled by water content thus accurate measures of GPR velocity in saturated sediments provides estimates of porosity beneath stream channels using petrophysical relationships. Imaging the substream system using surface based reflection measurements is particularly challenging due to large velocity gradients that occur at the transition from open water to saturated sediments. The continuous multi-offset method improves the quality of subsurface images through stacking and provides measurements of vertical and lateral velocity distributions. We applied the continuous multi-offset method to stream sites on the North Slope, Alaska and the Sawtooth Mountains near Boise, Idaho, USA. From the continuous multi-offset data, we measure velocity using reflection tomography then estimate water content and porosity using the Topp equation. These values provide detailed measurements for improved stream channel hydraulic and thermal modelling. ?? 2009 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  18. Temperature and Voltage Offsets in High-ZT Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, George S.

    2017-10-01

    Thermodynamic temperature can take on different meanings. Kinetic temperature is an expectation value and a function of the kinetic energy distribution. Statistical temperature is a parameter of the distribution. Kinetic temperature and statistical temperature, identical in Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, can differ in other statistics such as those of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein when a field is present. Thermal equilibrium corresponds to zero statistical temperature gradient, not zero kinetic temperature gradient. Since heat carriers in thermoelectrics are fermions, the difference between these two temperatures may explain voltage and temperature offsets observed during meticulous Seebeck measurements in which the temperature-voltage curve does not go through the origin. In conventional semiconductors, temperature offsets produced by fermionic electrical carriers are not observable because they are shorted by heat phonons in the lattice. In high-ZT materials, however, these offsets have been detected but attributed to faulty laboratory procedures. Additional supporting evidence for spontaneous voltages and temperature gradients includes data collected in epistatic experiments and in the plasma Q-machine. Device fabrication guidelines for testing the hypothesis are suggested including using unipolar junctions stacked in a superlattice, alternating n/n + and p/p + junctions, selecting appropriate dimensions, doping, and loading.

  19. Shielding analysis of the IEM cell offset adapter plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The adapter plate for the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell ten foot ceiling valve was modified so that the penetration through the valve is offset to the north side of the steel plate. The modifications required that the shielding effectiveness be evaluated for several operating conditions. The highest gamma ray dose rate (51 mrem/hr) occurs when a Core Component Container (CCC) with six high burn-up driver fuel assemblies is transferred into or out of Solid Waste Cask (SWC). The neutron dose rate at the same source location is 2.5 mrem/hr. The total dose rate during the transfer is less than the 200 mrem/hr limit. If the ten foot ceiling valve is closed, the dose rate with twelve DFA in the cell will be less than 0.1 mrem/hr. However, with the ceiling valve open the dose rate will be as high as 12 mrem/hr. The latter condition will require controlled access to the area around the offset adapter plate when the ceiling valve is open. It was found that gaps in the shield block around the SWC floor valve will allow contact dose rates as high as 350 mrem/hr during the transfer of a fully loaded CCC. Although this situation does not pertain to the offset adapter plate, it will require controlled access around the SWC valve during the transfer of a fully loaded CCC

  20. Temperature and Voltage Offsets in High- ZT Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, George S.

    2018-06-01

    Thermodynamic temperature can take on different meanings. Kinetic temperature is an expectation value and a function of the kinetic energy distribution. Statistical temperature is a parameter of the distribution. Kinetic temperature and statistical temperature, identical in Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, can differ in other statistics such as those of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein when a field is present. Thermal equilibrium corresponds to zero statistical temperature gradient, not zero kinetic temperature gradient. Since heat carriers in thermoelectrics are fermions, the difference between these two temperatures may explain voltage and temperature offsets observed during meticulous Seebeck measurements in which the temperature-voltage curve does not go through the origin. In conventional semiconductors, temperature offsets produced by fermionic electrical carriers are not observable because they are shorted by heat phonons in the lattice. In high- ZT materials, however, these offsets have been detected but attributed to faulty laboratory procedures. Additional supporting evidence for spontaneous voltages and temperature gradients includes data collected in epistatic experiments and in the plasma Q-machine. Device fabrication guidelines for testing the hypothesis are suggested including using unipolar junctions stacked in a superlattice, alternating n/ n + and p/ p + junctions, selecting appropriate dimensions, doping, and loading.

  1. Simulation on Vehicle Vibration Offset of NX70 Flatcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yanhui

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The current rolling stock gauge for standard gauge railway is a static gauge to check the vehicle frame. The contradiction of large construction gauge and small rolling stock gauge has always existed. It is important to set down the clearance requirements in respect of physical size for the safe passage of rail vehicles. Reasonably determining the maximum vibration offset can improve the efficiency of clearance. As an example, analyze the complex vibration of NX70 flat car by simulation test on the running track. Comprehensive considering the track model, loading plan, line conditions and running speed, then SIMPACK is used to present the vehicle system dynamics simulation model. After researching simulation result, respectively determine the maximum vehicle vibration offset for railroads of Class I, Class II and Class III on the height of the center of gravity 2000 mm and 2400 mm. According to the clearance between the structure gauge and the position of maximum vibration offset, analyze the safety of vehicle operation since the center of gravity is higher than before.

  2. Tax-Optimal Step-Up and Imperfect Loss Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Diller

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the field of mergers and acquisitions, German and international tax law allow for several opportunities to step up a firm's assets, i.e., to revaluate the assets at fair market values. When a step-up is performed the taxpayer recognizes a taxable gain, but also obtains tax benefits in the form of higher future depreciation allowances associated with stepping up the tax base of the assets. This tax-planning problem is well known in taxation literature and can also be applied to firm valuation in the presence of taxation. However, the known models usually assume a perfect loss offset. If this assumption is abandoned, the depreciation allowances may lose value as they become tax effective at a later point in time, or even never if there are not enough cash flows to be offset against. This aspect is especiallyrelevant if future cash flows are assumed to be uncertain. This paper shows that a step-up may be disadvantageous or a firm overvalued if these aspects are not integrated into the basic calculus. Compared to the standard approach, assets should be stepped up only in a few cases and - under specific conditions - at a later point in time. Firm values may be considerably lower under imperfect loss offset.

  3. Black-body anomaly: analysis of temperature offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, M.; Hofmann, R.; Schwarz, M.; Giacosa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the postulate that photon propagation is governed by a dynamically broken SU(2) gauge symmetry (scale ∝10 -4 eV) we make predictions for temperature offsets due to a low-temperature (a few times the present CMB temperature) spectral anomaly at low frequencies. Temperature offsets are extracted from least-square fits of the anomalous black-body spectra to their conventional counterparts. We discuss statistical errors, compare our results with those obtained from calibration data of the FIRAS instrument, and point out that our predicted offsets are screened by experimental errors given the frequency range used by FIRAS to perform their spectral fits. We also make contact with the WMAP observation by blueshifting their frequency bands. Although our results hint towards a strong dynamical component in the CMB dipole and an explanation of low-l suppression, it is important in view of its particle-physics implications that the above postulate be verified/falsified by an independent low-temperature black-body precision experiment. (orig.)

  4. LATERAL OFFSET OF THE CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM THE X-FLARE OF 2006 DECEMBER 13 AND ITS TWO PRECURSOR ERUPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Harra, Louise K.

    2011-01-01

    Two GOES sub-C-class precursor eruptions occurred within ∼10 hr prior to and from the same active region as the 2006 December 13 X4.3-class flare. Each eruption generated a coronal mass ejection (CME) with center laterally far offset (∼> 45°) from the co-produced bright flare. Explaining such CME-to-flare lateral offsets in terms of the standard model for solar eruptions has been controversial. Using Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data, and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) data, we find or infer the following. (1) The first precursor was a 'magnetic-arch-blowout' event, where an initial standard-model eruption of the active region's core field blew out a lobe on one side of the active region's field. (2) The second precursor began similarly, but the core-field eruption stalled in the side-lobe field, with the side-lobe field erupting ∼1 hr later to make the CME either by finally being blown out or by destabilizing and undergoing a standard-model eruption. (3) The third eruption, the X-flare event, blew out side lobes on both sides of the active region and clearly displayed characteristics of the standard model. (4) The two precursors were offset due in part to the CME originating from a side-lobe coronal arcade that was offset from the active region's core. The main eruption (and to some extent probably the precursor eruptions) was offset primarily because it pushed against the field of the large sunspot as it escaped outward. (5) All three CMEs were plausibly produced by a suitable version of the standard model.

  5. Mapping Controversies with Social Media: The Case for Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noortje Marres

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the usefulness for social media research of controversy analysis, an approach developed in Science and Technology Studies (STS and related fields. We propose that this approach can help to address an important methodological problem in social media research, namely, the tension between social media as resource for social research and as an empirical object in its own right. Initially developed for analyzing interactions between science, technology, and society, controversy analysis has in recent decades been implemented digitally to study public debates and issues dynamics online. A key feature of controversy analysis as a digital method, we argue, is that it enables a symmetrical approach to the study of media-technological dynamics and issue dynamics. It allows us to pay equal attention to the ways in which a digital platform like Twitter mediates public issues, and to how controversies mediate “social media” as an object of public attention. To sketch the contours of such a symmetrical approach, the article discusses examples from a recent social media research project in which we mapped issues of “privacy” and “surveillance” in the wake of the National Security Agency (NSA data leak by Edward Snowden in June 2013. Through a discussion of social media research practice, we then outline a symmetrical approach to analyzing controversy with social media. We conclude that the digital implementation of such an approach requires further exchanges between social media researchers and controversy analysts.

  6. The chilling effect: how do researchers react to controversy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kempner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can political controversy have a "chilling effect" on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Drawing on interview (n = 30 and survey data (n = 82, this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were "a waste of taxpayer money." The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events.

  7. The Chilling Effect: How Do Researchers React to Controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempner, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    Background Can political controversy have a “chilling effect” on the production of new science? This is a timely concern, given how often American politicians are accused of undermining science for political purposes. Yet little is known about how scientists react to these kinds of controversies. Methods and Findings Drawing on interview (n = 30) and survey data (n = 82), this study examines the reactions of scientists whose National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded grants were implicated in a highly publicized political controversy. Critics charged that these grants were “a waste of taxpayer money.” The NIH defended each grant and no funding was rescinded. Nevertheless, this study finds that many of the scientists whose grants were criticized now engage in self-censorship. About half of the sample said that they now remove potentially controversial words from their grant and a quarter reported eliminating entire topics from their research agendas. Four researchers reportedly chose to move into more secure positions entirely, either outside academia or in jobs that guaranteed salaries. About 10% of the group reported that this controversy strengthened their commitment to complete their research and disseminate it widely. Conclusions These findings provide evidence that political controversies can shape what scientists choose to study. Debates about the politics of science usually focus on the direct suppression, distortion, and manipulation of scientific results. This study suggests that scholars must also examine how scientists may self-censor in response to political events. PMID:19018657

  8. Estimates of Future Supply of International Greenhouse Gas Offsets: A Critical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Peter; Lazarus, Michael (Stockholm Environment Inst. (United States)), e-mail: mlaz@sei-us.org; Kelly, Alexia (World Resources Inst., (United States))

    2010-07-01

    This report reviews estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, evaluates the various methods used and outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. U.S. policymakers have relied on offsets from developing countries as a primary form of cost containment in proposed cap-and-trade legislation. These legislative proposals allow for emitters to use up to 1.5 billion tons CO{sub 2}e of offsets from developing countries to meet their annual compliance obligations. In this paper, we review estimates of the projected availability (i.e., supply) of international offsets, and evaluate the various methods used. We find that: (1) Estimates of supply of international offsets to global markets vary widely, with estimates differing by billions of tons CO{sub 2}e annually in 2020; (2) Despite the variation, existing studies suggest that by 2020 gross international offset supply will likely exceed U.S. demand for international offsets under current Congressional cap-and-trade designs; (3) Competition with governments and entities with emission reduction obligations (e.g. the EU), as well as with policies and measures undertaken by developing countries as part of their own mitigation contributions, could reduce the net offset supply available to U.S. entities; and (4) Several important offset program design and market factors that are central to future offset markets and credit issuance (e.g., sources of offset supply, program stringency and crediting methods, establishment of international governance and market structures) have yet to be systematically considered in offset supply assessments. This paper outlines factors that should be incorporated into future analyses of international offset supply and quality. 7 Such analyses could prove particularly germane as policy makers continue to deliberate on the role of international offsets, including whether and how to recognize credits

  9. 25 CFR 513.30 - When may the Commission use salary offset to collect debts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When may the Commission use salary offset to collect... GENERAL PROVISIONS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 513.30 When may the Commission use salary offset to... salary offset under the authority of: 5 U.S.C. 5514; 31 U.S.C. 3716; 5 CFR part 550, subpart K; 31 CFR...

  10. 38 CFR 1.990 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... repay debt as alternative to salary offset. 1.990 Section 1.990 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.990 Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. (a) Notification by employee. The employee may propose, in...

  11. 41 CFR 105-56.027 - Centralized salary offset computer match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Centralized salary... Services Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.027 Centralized salary offset...

  12. 22 CFR 309.18 - Voluntary repayment agreements as an alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to salary offset. 309.18 Section 309.18 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 309.18 Voluntary repayment agreements as an alternative to salary offset. (a) In response to a notice of intent, an employee may propose a written agreement to repay the debt as an alternative to salary...

  13. 36 CFR 1201.32 - What are NARA's procedures for salary offset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for salary offset? 1201.32 Section 1201.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES COLLECTION OF CLAIMS Salary Offset § 1201.32 What are NARA's procedures for salary offset? (a) NARA will coordinate salary deductions under this subpart as appropriate...

  14. 40 CFR 13.23 - Salary offset when EPA is not the creditor agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary offset when EPA is not the... CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 13.23 Salary offset when EPA is not the creditor... period. (4) Unless the employee has consented in writing to the salary deductions or signed a statement...

  15. 24 CFR 17.134 - Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin. 17.134 Section 17.134 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department... Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.134 Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin. (a...

  16. 5 CFR 1639.28 - Coordinating salary offset with other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordinating salary offset with other... CLAIMS COLLECTION Salary Offset § 1639.28 Coordinating salary offset with other agencies. (a... employee is in the process of separating and has not received a final salary check or other final payment(s...

  17. 20 CFR 361.11 - Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: When deductions... § 361.11 Procedures for salary offset: When deductions may begin. (a) Deductions to liquidate an... a debt is completed, offset shall be made from subsequent payments of any nature (e.g., final salary...

  18. 24 CFR 17.133 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative to salary offset. 17.133 Section 17.133 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... the Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.133 Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. (a) Notification by employee. The employee may propose, in response to a Notice of Intent...

  19. 5 CFR 179.209 - Voluntary repayment agreement as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alternative to salary offset. 179.209 Section 179.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.209 Voluntary repayment agreement as alternative to salary offset. (a)(1) In response to a notice of intent, an employee may propose...

  20. 12 CFR 1408.41 - Requesting current paying agency to offset salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... salary. 1408.41 Section 1408.41 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Offset Against Salary § 1408.41 Requesting current paying agency to offset salary. (a) To request a paying agency to impose a salary offset against amounts owed to the debtor, the...

  1. 7 CFR 3.83 - Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection. 3.83 Section 3.83 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.83 Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection. (a) General. A debt will be collected...

  2. 45 CFR 2506.33 - How will the Corporation coordinate salary offsets with other agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will the Corporation coordinate salary offsets... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COLLECTION OF DEBTS Salary Offset § 2506.33 How will the Corporation coordinate salary offsets with other agencies? (a) Responsibilities of the...

  3. 24 CFR 17.137 - Procedures for salary offset: imposition of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: imposition of interest. 17.137 Section 17.137 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... the Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.137 Procedures for salary offset: imposition of interest...

  4. 7 CFR 3.82 - Procedures for salary offset: types of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset: types of collection. 3.82 Section 3.82 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.82 Procedures for salary offset: types of collection. A debt will be collected in a lump-sum...

  5. 41 CFR 105-56.017 - Centralized salary offset computer match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Centralized salary... Services Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.017 Centralized salary offset...

  6. 24 CFR 17.136 - Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection. 17.136 Section 17.136 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... the Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.136 Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection...

  7. 24 CFR 17.135 - Procedures for salary offset: types of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: types of collection. 17.135 Section 17.135 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... the Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.135 Procedures for salary offset: types of collection. A...

  8. 12 CFR 1704.29 - Coordinating salary offset with other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordinating salary offset with other agencies... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT OFHEO ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 1704.29 Coordinating salary offset with other agencies. (a) Responsibility of OFHEO as the creditor agency. (1) OFHEO...

  9. 38 CFR 1.991 - Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for salary offset: when deductions may begin. 1.991 Section 1.991 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Salary Offset Provisions § 1.991 Procedures for salary offset...

  10. 20 CFR 361.10 - Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alternative to salary offset. 361.10 Section 361.10 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL... EMPLOYEES § 361.10 Written agreement to repay debt as alternative to salary offset. (a) Notification by... debt as an alternative to salary offset. Any employee who wishes to do this must submit a proposed...

  11. 12 CFR 608.841 - Requesting current paying agency to offset salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... salary. 608.841 Section 608.841 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Offset Against Salary § 608.841 Requesting current paying agency to offset salary. (a) To request a paying agency to impose a salary offset against amounts owed to...

  12. 36 CFR 1201.33 - How will NARA coordinate salary offsets with other agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... salary offsets with other agencies? 1201.33 Section 1201.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES COLLECTION OF CLAIMS Salary Offset § 1201.33 How will NARA coordinate salary offsets with other agencies? (a) Responsibilities of NARA as the creditor agency...

  13. 12 CFR 313.46 - Notice of salary offset where FDIC is the paying agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of salary offset where FDIC is the... AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.46 Notice of salary... shall send the employee a written notice of salary offset. Such notice shall advise the employee: (1...

  14. 12 CFR 1704.27 - Notice of salary offset where OFHEO is the paying agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of salary offset where OFHEO is the..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT OFHEO ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 1704.27 Notice of salary offset where OFHEO is the paying agency. (a) Notice. Upon issuance of a proper...

  15. Exploring residential energy consumers' willingness to accept and pay to offset their CO2-emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2015-01-01

    to pay for carbon offset. Finally, the ordered logit model is used in modelling willing to pay for carbon offset. Findings The results show that there is significant support from residential energy consumer to offset their CO2 emission from electricity consumption. The WTP is motivated by consumers...

  16. 7 CFR 400.141 - Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Tax Refund Offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Tax Refund Offset. 400...-Regulations for the 1986 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.141 Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Tax Refund Offset... debt owing to any Federal agency by offset against a taxpayer's Federal income tax refund. This section...

  17. Neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma: pitfalls and controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Sujan [University of Missouri-Kansas School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Obaldo, Ruby E. [The University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States); Walsh, Irene R. [The University of Missouri-Kansas City, Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Emergency Medicine, Kansas City, MO (United States); Lowe, Lisa H. [The University of Missouri-Kansas City, Children' s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Although certain neuroimaging appearances are highly suggestive of abuse, radiological findings are often nonspecific. The objective of this review is to discuss pitfalls, controversies, and mimics occurring in neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma in order to allow the reader to establish an increased level of comfort in distinguishing between nonaccidental and accidental head trauma. Specific topics discussed include risk factors, general biomechanics and imaging strategies in nonaccidental head trauma, followed by the characteristics of skull fractures, normal prominent tentorium and falx versus subdural hematoma, birth trauma versus nonaccidental head trauma, hyperacute versus acute on chronic subdural hematomas, expanded subarachnoid space versus subdural hemorrhage, controversy regarding subdural hematomas associated with benign enlarged subarachnoid spaces, controversy regarding hypoxia as a cause of subdural hematoma and/or retinal hemorrhages without trauma, controversy regarding the significance of retinal hemorrhages related to nonaccidental head trauma, controversy regarding the significance of subdural hematomas in general, and pitfalls of glutaric aciduria type 1 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis mimicking nonaccidental head trauma. (orig.)

  18. Studying a Controversy amongst Pashtuns of Torghar, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Bellon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Much has been written about the political structures of tribal groups. The present article looks at political dynamics amongst Pashtuns of Balochistan, through the prism of a controversy. The sociological interest of studying the arguments used during a controversy has been underlined by Boltanski and Thevenot. A controversy finishes by the establishment, through consensus, of a common agreement upon accepted norms, determined limits, redefinition of social values, etc. The advantage of focusing on the argumentation itself is to avoid taking the agreement as a pre-established social truth, a reference that concerned people would reluctantly challenge. To study a controversy is to study the social realities in the making, to study the archaeology of collective consensus, to reinstate history, contingencies and individual plurality within the social dynamics and to take seriously their performative actions alongside other social determinisms. This article shows that to study controversy is a way not only to set light on political dynamics and structures, but also to discuss the impact and definition of concepts such as segmentarity, equality, rights, interests, and their relevance within the Pashtun society which was observed.

  19. COOPERATIVE CONTROVERSY TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION IN ENGLISH DEBATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciati Suciati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many students do not like English debate. They argue that in the debate, they should apply four skills in English and should have appropriate matter, manner, and method. One of the reasons which make them do not like the debate is their lack of motivation. To solve this problem, teacher or lecturer should apply the appropriate technique in the teaching-learning process. Cooperative controversy technique is different with the traditional debate. In this technique, debaters change positions and try to reach a consensus at the end of the debate. By doing it before practicing the real English debate format, the students will get the basic knowledge about the debate so they do not directly practice the complicated one. Cooperative controversy increases the number of ideas, quality of ideas, feelings of stimulation, and enjoyment and originality of expression in creative problem solving. If it is compared to the group which does not use controversy, in controversy, the members get motivation and satisfaction in solving the problems.Keywords: English debate, students’ motivation, cooperative controversy

  20. Neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma: pitfalls and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, Sujan; Obaldo, Ruby E.; Walsh, Irene R.; Lowe, Lisa H.

    2008-01-01

    Although certain neuroimaging appearances are highly suggestive of abuse, radiological findings are often nonspecific. The objective of this review is to discuss pitfalls, controversies, and mimics occurring in neuroimaging of nonaccidental head trauma in order to allow the reader to establish an increased level of comfort in distinguishing between nonaccidental and accidental head trauma. Specific topics discussed include risk factors, general biomechanics and imaging strategies in nonaccidental head trauma, followed by the characteristics of skull fractures, normal prominent tentorium and falx versus subdural hematoma, birth trauma versus nonaccidental head trauma, hyperacute versus acute on chronic subdural hematomas, expanded subarachnoid space versus subdural hemorrhage, controversy regarding subdural hematomas associated with benign enlarged subarachnoid spaces, controversy regarding hypoxia as a cause of subdural hematoma and/or retinal hemorrhages without trauma, controversy regarding the significance of retinal hemorrhages related to nonaccidental head trauma, controversy regarding the significance of subdural hematomas in general, and pitfalls of glutaric aciduria type 1 and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis mimicking nonaccidental head trauma. (orig.)

  1. Digital Colour Printing on the Way to Offset Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Tribute

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital production colour printing is now more than ten years old. The first implementations of this technology from Indigo and Xeikon started the market but they suffered problems with reliability,quality and overall running costs. They produced a very good-looking printed image but it was notcomparable to offset. Quality problems were that tints often were streaky or banded, flat tints did notreproduce well, and the overall image had a somewhat harsh reflective look.Ongoing developments of digital colour printing mainly from Xerox and Canon developed the marketand improved the economics of the process. Certain elements of the quality also improved. Indigoand Xeikon also showed significant quality improvements and better economics. The improvedquality came closer to the look of offset, but in most cases was still obviously printed digitally.New developments are happening in what is termed "Digital Colour Lite." This is a range of new slower presses coming from Japan which run at around 30 pages/minute and cost well under 50.000 Euro. A few of these are getting almost offset quality through the use of new chemical toners that significantly improve printing quality.At the same time as the quality of digital colour printing has improved, so have the cost economics of running the presses. Potential buyers of presses will have to understand the different business models for running these presses. These are the "click" models from most suppliers, or the pay by usage model as offered by Heidelberg with the NexPress.

  2. Digital Offset Calibration of an OPAMP Towards Improving Static Parameters of 90 nm CMOS DAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arbet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an on-chip self-calibrated 8-bit R-2R digital-to-analog converter (DAC based on digitally compensated input offset of the operational amplifier (OPAMP is presented. To improve the overall DAC performance, a digital offset cancellation method was used to compensate deviations in the input offset voltage of the OPAMP caused by process variations. The whole DAC as well as offset compensation circuitry were designed in a standard 90 nm CMOS process. The achieved results show that after the self-calibration process, the improvement of 48% in the value of DAC offset error is achieved.

  3. Evolution of bias field and offset piezoelectric coefficient in bulk lead zirconate titanate with fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Baturin, Ivan S.; Aulbach, Emil; Lupascu, Doru C.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Roedel, Juergen

    2005-01-01

    Hysteresis loops of the piezoelectric coefficient, d 33 =f(E 3 ), are measured on virgin and fatigued lead zirconate titanate ceramics. Four parameters are directly extracted from the measurements: internal bias field E b , offset piezoelectric coefficient d offset , coercive field E c , and remnant piezoelectric coefficient d r . The reduction in d r displays the decreasing switchable polarization with fatigue cycling. E b and d offset are found to be linearly related. After thermal annealing, both offsets disappear, while the increase in E c and the reduction in d r withstand annealing. The microscopic entities responsible for the offsets are less stable than those for reduced switching

  4. Offsets and conservation of the species of the EU habitats and birds directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnery, Baptiste; Couvet, Denis; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Biodiversity offsets are intended to achieve no net loss of biodiversity due to economic and human development. A variety of biodiversity components are addressed by offset policies. It is required that loss of protected species due to development be offset under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives in Europe. We call this type of offset a species-equality offset because the offset pertains to the same species affected by the development project. Whether species equality can be achieved by offset design is unknown. We addressed this gap by reviewing derogation files (i.e., specific files that describe mitigation measures to ensure no net loss under the EU Habitats and Birds Directives) from 85 development projects in France (2009-2010). We collected information on type of effect (reversible vs. irreversible) and characteristics of affected and offset sites (i.e., types of species, total area). We analyzed how the type of effect and the affected-site characteristics influenced the occurrence of offset measures. The proportion of species targeted by offset measures (i.e., offset species) increased with the irreversibility of the effect of development and the conservation status of the species affected by development (i.e., affected species). Not all effects on endangered species (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List) were offset; on average, 82% of affected species would be offset. Twenty-six percent of species of least concern were offset species. Thirty-five percent of development projects considered all affected species in their offset measures. Species richness was much lower in offset sites than in developed sites even after offset proposals. For developed areas where species richness was relatively high before development, species richness at offset sites was 5-10 times lower. The species-equality principle appears to have been applied only partially in offset policies, as in the EU directives. We suggest the application of this principle

  5. Luminosity Optimization With Offset, Crossing Angle, and Distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao

    2005-01-01

    In a linear collider, sources of beam jitter due to kicker noise, quadrupole vibration and long-range transverse wakefields will lead to beam offsets and tilts at the Intersection Point (IP). In addition, sources of emittance dilution such as short-range transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will lead to internal beam distortions. When the IP disruption parameter is large, these beam imperfections will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. In this paper, we study the luminosity loss and then the optimization required to cancel the luminosity loss first analytically and then with simulation.

  6. Positron annihilation imaging device using multiple offset rings of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A means is provided for recording more than one tomographic image simultaneously through different cross-sections of a patient, using positron emission tomography. Separate rings of detectors are used to construct every odd-numbered slice, and coincident events that occur between adjacent rings of detectors provide a center or even-numbered slice. Detector rings are offset with respect to one another by half the angular separation of the detectors, allowing an image to be reconstructed from the central slice without the necessity of physically rotating the detector array while accumulating data

  7. Beam-based calibration system of BPM offset on BEPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chunliang

    2004-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for better performance from circular accelerators requires improved methods to calibrate beam position monitors (BPM). A beam based calibration system has been established to locate the centers of the BPM with respect to the magnetic center of quadrupole magnets. Additional windings are applied to the quadrupole magnets to make the quadrupole magnetic strength individually adjustable and the number of the power supply of all 32 additional windings is only one. Software system has been finished to automatically measure the offsets of BPMs. The effect of the beam-based calibration system shows that the calibration of BPM has been more quickly and accurately

  8. Using Audio-Derived Affective Offset to Enhance TV Recommendation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2014-01-01

    . First a user's mood profile is determined using 12-class audio-based emotion classifications . An initial TV content item is then displayed to the user based on the extracted mood profile. The user has the option to either accept the recommendation, or to critique the item once or several times......, by navigating the emotion space to request an alternative match. The final match is then compared to the initial match, in terms of the difference in the items' affective parameterization . This offset is then utilized in future recommendation sessions. The system was evaluated by eliciting three different...

  9. Handbook of Carbon Offset Programs. Trading Systems, Funds, Protocols and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollmuss, Anja; Lazarus, Michael; Lee, Carrie; Polycarp, Clifford (SEI-US (United States)); LeFranc, Maurice (US EPA (United States))

    2010-03-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) offsets have long been promoted as an important element of a comprehensive climate policy approach. Offset programs can reduce the overall cost of achieving a given emission goal by enabling emission reductions to occur where costs are lower. Offsets have the potential to deliver sustainability co-benefits, through technology development and transfer. They can also develop human and institutional capacity for reducing emissions in sectors and locations not included in a cap and trade or a mandatory government policy. However, offsets can pose a risk to the environmental integrity of climate actions, especially if issues surrounding additionality, permanence, leakage, quantification and verification are not adequately addressed. The challenge is to design offset programs and policies that can maximize their potential benefits while minimizing their potential risks. This handbook provides a systematic and comprehensive review of existing offset programs. It looks are what offsets are, how offset mechanisms function, and the successes and pitfalls they have encountered. Coverage includes offset programs across the full swath of applications including mandatory and voluntary systems, government regulated and private markets, carbon offset funds, and accounting and reporting protocols such as the WBCSD/WRI GHG Protocol and ISO 14064. Learning from the successes and failures of these programs will be essential to crafting effective climate policy. A reference for regulators, policy makers, business leaders and NGOs concerned with the design and operation of GHG offset programs world-wide

  10. Review of the recent carbon dioxide-climate controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.; Cess, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Model calculations of the climatic impact of the increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration consistently suggest that a doubling of the CO 2 concentration would lead to a warming of global average surface air temperatures by as much as several degrees Celsius. In this appendix, this controversy about the effect of CO 2 on climate is reviewed. Because the surface energy balance approach to estimating climate sensitivity has been the source of much of the controversy, a review of this approach is presented. It is shown that prior applications of this approach violate the law of conservation of energy (the first law of thermodynamics); therefore, these results are incorrect. Empirical data indicating the relationship between atmospheric emittance and surface vapor pressure and surface air temperature are shown to be consistent with climate model calculations. Consequently, it is not the experimental data that are the basis of the controversy, but rather the analysis and interpretation of these data

  11. Teaching controversial issues in the secondary school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    1993-12-01

    A sample of fourteen secondary school biology teachers chosen from twelve schools were interviewed. The purpose was to determine their views on how controversial issues in science might be handled in the secondary school science classroom and whether the issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were suitable controversial issues for discussion in schools. In general, teachers indicated that controversial issues deserve a more prominent place in the science curriculum because they have the potential to foster thinking, learning, and interest in science. The issues of surrogacy and human embryo experimentation were seen as appropriate contexts for learning, provided that teachers were well informed and sensitive to both the students and to the school environment.

  12. Empowerment in healthcare policy making: three domains of substantive controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Tengland, Per-Anders

    2015-12-01

    This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment, namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals; (2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment processes.

  13. Chernobylsk: a 'cloud' crosses... the facts and the controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, B.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobylsk accident the effects are detailed by specialists, in radiobiology to judge the eventual sanitary injuries. It is a critical analysis that is made in this work, at the light of todays knowledge. The first part treats the question of communication, faults, late, silent. The second part is the time of controversy, the contamination in France, the radiation doses in France, thyroid cancers, the controversy of low doses effects, the controversy of sanitary consequences in USSR. The third part concerns the modernization of the nuclear world, the radiobiology, the public opinion. In annexes are: radioactivity, serious accidents, radiation doses (concepts and units), radiation protection and standards, the scientific bases of radiation protection, the figured conclusions of Chernobylsk forum, the European contamination map. (N.C.)

  14. Controversy and consensus nuclear beta decay 1911-1934

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    In 1920s, a long-lasting controversy on the interpretation of nuclear beta spectrum arose between Lise Meitner and Charles Drummond Ellis. This controversy, and the reactions from the contending parties when it was settled, reflect clearly the difference between the scientific communities in Berlin and Cambridge at that time. The Meitner-Ellis controversy ended in 1929, and it left an anomaly that attracted leading theoretical physicists. A new dispute, this time between Niels Bohr and Wolfgang Pauli, broke out. It concerned the explanation of the continuity of the primary beta particles and dominated the discussions for the next five years. Pauli argued for a new particle, and Bohr for a new theory; both suggestions were radical steps, but they reflected two different ways of doing physics.

  15. A Computer Simulation of the System-Wide Effects of Parallel-Offset Route Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Todd A.; Santiago, Confesor; Pankok, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Most aircraft managed by air-traffic controllers in the National Airspace System are capable of flying parallel-offset routes. This paper presents the results of two related studies on the effects of increased use of offset routes as a conflict resolution maneuver. The first study analyzes offset routes in the context of all standard resolution types which air-traffic controllers currently use. This study shows that by utilizing parallel-offset route maneuvers, significant system-wide savings in delay due to conflict resolution of up to 30% are possible. It also shows that most offset resolutions replace horizontal-vectoring resolutions. The second study builds on the results of the first and directly compares offset resolutions and standard horizontal-vectoring maneuvers to determine that in-trail conflicts are often more efficiently resolved by offset maneuvers.

  16. 36 CFR 1011.10 - How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal payments) to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will the Presidio Trust... Trust Debts § 1011.10 How will the Presidio Trust use administrative offset (offset of non-tax federal...) If not already transferred to the FMS under § 1011.9 of this part, the Presidio Trust will refer any...

  17. Offsetting the impacts of mining to achieve no net loss of native vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonter, L J; Barrett, D J; Soares-Filho, B S

    2014-08-01

    Offsets are a novel conservation tool, yet using them to achieve no net loss of biodiversity is challenging. This is especially true when using conservation offsets (i.e., protected areas) because achieving no net loss requires avoiding equivalent loss. Our objective was to determine if offsetting the impacts of mining achieves no net loss of native vegetation in Brazil's largest iron mining region. We used a land-use change model to simulate deforestation by mining to 2020; developed a model to allocate conservation offsets to the landscape under 3 scenarios (baseline, no new offsets; current practice, like-for-like [by vegetation type] conservation offsetting near the impact site; and threat scenario, like-for-like conservation offsetting of highly threatened vegetation); and simulated nonmining deforestation to 2020 for each scenario to quantify avoided deforestation achieved with offsets. Mines cleared 3570 ha of native vegetation by 2020. Under a 1:4 offset ratio, mining companies would be required to conserve >14,200 ha of native vegetation, doubling the current extent of protected areas in the region. Allocating offsets under current practice avoided deforestation equivalent to 3% of that caused by mining, whereas allocating under the threat scenario avoided 9%. Current practice failed to achieve no net loss because offsets did not conserve threatened vegetation. Explicit allocation of offsets to threatened vegetation also failed because the most threatened vegetation was widely dispersed across the landscape, making conservation logistically difficult. To achieve no net loss with conservation offsets requires information on regional deforestation trajectories and the distribution of threatened vegetation. However, in some regions achieving no net loss through conservation may be impossible. In these cases, other offsetting activities, such as revegetation, will be required. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. The cartoon controversy as a case of multiculturalrecognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2007-01-01

    The paper considers what ‘recognition' might mean in theory and which policies would in practice qualify as policies of recognition in relation to multicultural conflicts such as the ‘cartoon controversy' sparked by the publication of drawings of the Prophet Mohammad in the Danish Newspaper...... Jyllands-Posten. The paper provides a general theoretical account of recognition as a strictly political concept, including distinctions between different conceptions hereof, and asks whether the cartoon controversy can be described in these terms and what the relevant meaning of recognition might then be...

  19. Willingness to Pay of Air Passengers for Carbon-Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the air transport sector, which accounts for approximately 2% of global GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing GHG emissions from aircrafts has become a major challenge for transportation authorities worldwide. In recent years, much research has focused on tax ideas related to the CO2 emissions produced by air transport, such as the voluntary carbon offset (VCO. This study investigates the willingness of economy class air passengers to pay to compensate for the CO2 emissions produced during their journeys from Taiwan to Hong Kong. Together with the Spike model, a framework known as the contingent valuation (CV method offers a way to investigate how much the air passenger would be willing to pay to offset a journey’s airplane-generated CO2 emissions. The Spike model was applied to address the problem of zero willingness to pay (WTP. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the results found in previous studies and therefore can provide valuable insights into pricing strategies for airlines.

  20. Redefining RECs-Part 1: Untangling attributes and offsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Renewable energy and greenhouse gas emissions markets are currently in a state of confusion regarding the treatment of Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs). Should consumers buy RECs or emission offsets? After examining this question, the author concludes that RECs are not equivalent to emission offset credits, and as currently defined, the retiring of a REC may have no impact on emissions from electric power generation. Consumers who purchase RECs in voluntary green power markets are providing financial assistance to renewable generators in the form of a production subsidy. Generators that sell RECs are not transferring emission reductions, since they are unlikely to have ownership or the ability to quantify reductions using a commonly accepted standard. More importantly, RECs currently sold in voluntary markets do not pass credible additionality tests and can, at best, be expected to have a market demand effect, which will be less than the supply of RECs on the market. REC definitions that use the term 'environmental attributes' or 'environmental benefits' are almost universally ambiguous, providing the mistaken impression that consumers are purchasing a good instead of subsidizing a public good

  1. Neoclassical offset toroidal velocity and auxiliary ion heating in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, E., E-mail: lazzaro@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    In conditions of ideal axisymmetry, for a magnetized plasma in a generic bounded domain, necessarily toroidal, the uniform absorption of external energy (e.g., RF or any isotropic auxiliary heating) cannot give rise to net forces or torques. Experimental evidence on contemporary tokamaks shows that the near central absorption of RF heating power (ICH and ECH) and current drive in presence of MHD activity drives a bulk plasma rotation in the co-I{sub p} direction, opposite to the initial one. Also the appearance of classical or neoclassical tearing modes provides a nonlinear magnetic braking that tends to clamp the rotation profile at the q-rational surfaces. The physical origin of the torque associated with P{sub RF} absorption could be due the effects of asymmetry in the equilibrium configuration or in power deposition, but here we point out also an effect of the response of the so-called neoclassical offset velocity to the power dependent heat flow increment. The neoclassical toroidal viscosity due to internal magnetic kink or tearing modes tends to relax the plasma rotation to this asymptotic speed, which in absence of auxiliary heating is of the order of the ion diamagnetic velocity. It can be shown by kinetic and fluid calculations, that the absorption of auxiliary power by ions modifies this offset proportionally to the injected power thereby forcing the plasma rotation in a direction opposite to the initial, to large values. The problem is discussed in the frame of the theoretical models of neoclassical toroidal viscosity.

  2. Offset coil designs for superconducting magnets, a logical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, T.

    1986-03-01

    Dipoles and quadrupoles for any new, large proton ring must be stronger, smaller and have better field shape (systematic error) than those used in the Doubler. The present two-shell designs are rigid in that the coils are too thin but cannot be relatively fatter without destroying the field quality. An examination of the coil shapes for dipoles and quadrupoles which produce perfect fields from a uniform current density shows clearly that our persistent use of a circular form for the inner surface of the coils is a poor approximation. When this is corrected by ''offsets'' there is a striking improvement both in the strength of fields and in the field quality. The same analysis makes clear that the efficient use of superconductor and the overall magnet size is determined by the perfect coil shapes. Any reasonable magnet will not differ significantly from the ideal for these parameters. This will be particularly helpful in setting design goals for very large quadrupoles. The offset two-shell dipole design preserves the mechanical features of the highly successful, resilient doubler magnets while greatly extending the performance

  3. Irrigation offsets wheat yield reductions from warming temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Hendricks, Nathan

    2017-11-01

    Temperature increases due to climate change are expected to cause substantial reductions in global wheat yields. However, uncertainty remains regarding the potential role for irrigation as an adaptation strategy to offset heat impacts. Here we utilize over 7000 observations spanning eleven Kansas field-trial locations, 180 varieties, and 29 years to show that irrigation significantly reduces the negative impact of warming temperatures on winter wheat yields. Dryland wheat yields are estimated to decrease about eight percent for every one-degree Celsius increase in temperature, yet irrigation completely offsets this negative impact in our sample. As in previous studies, we find that important interactions exist between heat stress and precipitation for dryland production. Here, uniquely, we observe both dryland and irrigated trials side-by-side at the same locations and find that precipitation does not provide the same reduction in heat stress as irrigation. This is likely to be because the timing, intensity, and volume of water applications influence wheat yields, so the ability to irrigate—rather than relying on rainfall alone—has a stronger influence on heat stress. We find evidence of extensive differences of water-deficit stress impacts across varieties. This provides some evidence of the potential for adapting to hotter and drier climate conditions using optimal variety selection. Overall, our results highlight the critical role of water management for future global food security. Water scarcity not only reduces crop yields through water-deficit stress, but also amplifies the negative effects of warming temperatures.

  4. Non-Newtonian ink transfer in gravure-offset printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadiri, Fatemeh; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan; Sung, Hyung Jin; Shirani, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    The inks used in gravure-offset printing are non-Newtonian fluids with higher viscosities and lower surface tensions than Newtonian fluids. This paper examines the transfer of a non-Newtonian ink between a flat plate and a groove when the plate is moved upward with a constant velocity while the groove is held fixed. Numerical simulations were carried out with the Carreau model to explore the behavior of this non-Newtonian ink in gravure-offset printing. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was implemented to capture the interface during the ink transfer process. The effects of varying the contact angle of the ink on the flat plate and groove walls and geometrical parameters such as the groove angle and the groove depth on the breakup time of the liquid filament that forms between the plate and the groove and the ink transfer ratio were determined. Our results indicate that increasing the groove contact angle and decreasing the flat plate contact angle enhance the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time. However, increasing the groove depth and the groove angle decreases the transfer ratio and the breakup time. By optimizing these parameters, it is possible to achieve an ink transfer from the groove to the flat plate of approximately 92%. Moreover, the initial width and the vertical velocity of the neck of the ink filament have significant influences on the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time.

  5. From coseismic offsets to fault-block mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, George A.; Parsons, Tom

    2017-09-01

    In the Basin and Range extensional province of the western United States, coseismic offsets, under the influence of gravity, display predominantly subsidence of the basin side (fault hanging wall), with comparatively little or no uplift of the mountainside (fault footwall). A few decades later, geodetic measurements [GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR)] show broad (˜100 km) aseismic uplift symmetrically spanning the fault zone. Finally, after millions of years and hundreds of fault offsets, the mountain blocks display large uplift and tilting over a breadth of only about 10 km. These sparse but robust observations pose a problem in that the coesismic uplifts of the footwall are small and inadequate to raise the mountain blocks. To address this paradox we develop finite-element models subjected to extensional and gravitational forces to study time-varying deformation associated with normal faulting. Stretching the model under gravity demonstrates that asymmetric slip via collapse of the hanging wall is a natural consequence of coseismic deformation. Focused flow in the upper mantle imposed by deformation of the lower crust localizes uplift, which is predicted to take place within one to two decades after each large earthquake. Thus, the best-preserved topographic signature of earthquakes is expected to occur early in the postseismic period.

  6. "3D_Fault_Offsets," a Matlab Code to Automatically Measure Lateral and Vertical Fault Offsets in Topographic Data: Application to San Andreas, Owens Valley, and Hope Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, N.; Gaudemer, Y.; Manighetti, I.; Serreau, L.; Vincendeau, A.; Dominguez, S.; Mattéo, L.; Malavieille, J.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring fault offsets preserved at the ground surface is of primary importance to recover earthquake and long-term slip distributions and understand fault mechanics. The recent explosion of high-resolution topographic data, such as Lidar and photogrammetric digital elevation models, offers an unprecedented opportunity to measure dense collections of fault offsets. We have developed a new Matlab code, 3D_Fault_Offsets, to automate these measurements. In topographic data, 3D_Fault_Offsets mathematically identifies and represents nine of the most prominent geometric characteristics of common sublinear markers along faults (especially strike slip) in 3-D, such as the streambed (minimum elevation), top, free face and base of channel banks or scarps (minimum Laplacian, maximum gradient, and maximum Laplacian), and ridges (maximum elevation). By calculating best fit lines through the nine point clouds on either side of the fault, the code computes the lateral and vertical offsets between the piercing points of these lines onto the fault plane, providing nine lateral and nine vertical offset measures per marker. Through a Monte Carlo approach, the code calculates the total uncertainty on each offset. It then provides tools to statistically analyze the dense collection of measures and to reconstruct the prefaulted marker geometry in the horizontal and vertical planes. We applied 3D_Fault_Offsets to remeasure previously published offsets across 88 markers on the San Andreas, Owens Valley, and Hope faults. We obtained 5,454 lateral and vertical offset measures. These automatic measures compare well to prior ones, field and remote, while their rich record provides new insights on the preservation of fault displacements in the morphology.

  7. Effects of Carrier Frequency Offset, Timing Offset, and Channel Spread Factor on the Performance of Hexagonal Multicarrier Modulation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal multicarrier modulation (HMM system is the technique of choice to overcome the impact of time-frequency dispersive transmission channel. This paper examines the effects of insufficient synchronization (carrier frequency offset, timing offset on the amplitude and phase of the demodulated symbol by using a projection receiver in hexagonal multicarrier modulation systems. Furthermore, effects of CFO, TO, and channel spread factor on the performance of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR in hexagonal multicarrier modulation systems are further discussed. The exact SINR expression versus insufficient synchronization and channel spread factor is derived. Theoretical analysis shows that similar degradation on symbol amplitude and phase caused by insufficient synchronization is incurred as in traditional cyclic prefix orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CP-OFDM transmission. Our theoretical analysis is confirmed by numerical simulations in a doubly dispersive (DD channel with exponential delay power profile and U-shape Doppler power spectrum, showing that HMM systems outperform traditional CP-OFDM systems with respect to SINR against ISI/ICI caused by insufficient synchronization and doubly dispersive channel.

  8. Evidence-Based Management and Controversies in Blunt Splenic Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, D. C.; van der Vlies, C. H.; Goslings, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to describe the evidence-based management and controversies in blunt splenic trauma. A shift from operative management to non-operative management (NOM) has occurred over the past decades where NOM has now become the standard of care in haemodynamically stable patients with blunt

  9. Reading "Daddy's Roommate": Preservice Teachers Respond to a Controversial Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Shawyn

    2002-01-01

    Explores the responses of the author's 31 pre-service teachers to a controversial picture book. Begins by searching for a short text geared to elementary age children and suited for read-alouds. Notes that she believes that the majority of pre-service teachers at this stage in the program are still very impressionable and must be given multiple…

  10. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  11. Ethical Perspectives on the Current Controversy Regarding Openness in Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavis, Timothy M.

    This paper outlines current changes in American adoption practice and the controversies surrounding these changes. It includes a discussion of the role that neo-Kantian and utilitarian perspectives have played in American adoption policy and practice, and offers an alternative, the communitarian perspective, described by Sandel (1984). Adoption…

  12. 37 CFR 351.3 - Controversy and further proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., the contested amount of a claim is $10,000 or less, the Copyright Royalty Judges shall decide the... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.3 Controversy and further... negotiation period, the Copyright Royalty Judges will issue an order declaring that further proceedings are...

  13. Adolescent Controversial Status Brokers: A Double-Edged Sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sarah; Zeman, Janice; Carboni, Inga; Gilman, Rich; Thrash, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Using a 3-wave longitudinal, multidimensional approach, this study investigated the influence of social network position and social status on the psychosocial outcomes of 440 youth (45.1% girls; M[subscript age] = 16.1 years; 90.9% Caucasian) over 26 months, focusing on the controversial status classification (i.e., youth who are highly liked and…

  14. Allocative inefficiency and the capital-energy controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christopoulos, Dimitris K.; Tsionas, Efthymios G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to estimate a system of input demands for Greek manufacturing deviating from the standard practice of assuming strict cost minimization. The study allows for the presence of price distortions and allocative inefficiency in the decision process. This assumption affects parameter estimates and estimated elasticities materially, and throws new light on the capital-energy controversy in Greek manufacturing

  15. The Future Path of Organic Farming - Values, Standards and Controversy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...

  16. Should We Teach Homosexuality as a Controversial Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Philosophers of education disagree on how the question of the moral status of homosexual acts should be tackled in the classroom. Some argue that the question should be taught as a controversial issue, that we should present rival moral positions as even-handedly as possible; others maintain that we should actively promote the view that homosexual…

  17. D. W. Griffith's Controversial Film, "The Birth of a Nation."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Conrad

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that enables students to investigate race relations during the Progressive Era by analyzing D. W. Griffith's "The Birth of a Nation" and the controversy surrounding the release of the film. Explores the pros and cons of using motion pictures as teaching tool. Includes two student handouts. (CMK)

  18. Diversity in Information Technology Education: Issues and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Goran, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Diversity in Information Technology Education: Issues and Controversies" sheds light on the status of diversity in the field of IT education. It identifies a wide range of problems that educators face on a daily basis, and gives practical, applicable solutions, mainly by showcasing successful and replicable examples. The chapters in "Diversity in…

  19. The Legitimizing Function of Judicial Rhetoric in the Eugenics Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl

    1992-01-01

    Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)

  20. Some diagnostic and therapeutic controversies in glaucoma addressed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müskens, Rogier Peter Hendrik Maria

    2008-01-01

    In the five studies contained in this thesis, several controversies on the diagnosis of and therapy for glaucoma have been addressed. The first part of this thesis consisted of three studies that aimed tot improve existing technologies for diagnosing glaucoma. The latter part consisted of two

  1. The Animal Experimentation Controversy: Ethical Views of Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Rian

    2012-01-01

    Vivisection (live animal experimentation) is a controversial issue for many people. The purpose of this case study is to examine the attitudes of prospective teachers toward vivisection in education and research, to determine if gender has an influence on these attitudes, and to discuss the implications of these attitudes with regard to teaching…

  2. Controversial Therapies for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    This article examines reasons parents may choose a controversial alternative treatment for a child with developmental disabilities and reviews a few specific treatments--vitamin B-6 and magnesium, auditory integration training, megavitamins and minerals, Piracetam, intravenous immunoglobulin, and melatonin. Recommendations on talking with families…

  3. Integration of basic controversies in cross-cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses controversies in the field of cross-cultural psychology, including cultural psychology, with a view to possible integration.1 It briefly describes the indigenisation movement as a reaction against Western scientific ethnocentrism and mentions two methodological topics, that

  4. Teaching Controversy by Seminar: An Example in Quaternary Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Doug

    1987-01-01

    Describes how seminar work can be structured to help students develop skills of critical thinking and expression when discussing controversial issues in their chosen subject. Particular emphasis is given to methods of organizing instructional materials and appropriate roles for seminar leaders. The debate surrounding the existence of a prehistoric…

  5. Before We Were Us, We Were Them: Curating Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keri

    2014-01-01

    Prompted by the passage of Alabama House Bill 56, I organized the museum studies course I taught for Auburn University at Montgomery in the 2013 spring semester around an exhibition on immigration. The course offered the opportunity to engage students, faculty, and the community in discussion of an important, timely, and controversial topic.…

  6. Nuclear Deterrence in Cyber-ia: Challenges and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    54 | Air & Space Power Journal Nuclear Deterrence in Cyber-ia Challenges and Controversies © Dr. Stephen J. Cimbala* Disclaimer: The views and...into here. 11. Mazanec, “International Order in Cyberspace,” 83. 12. Joel Brenner, Glass Houses: Privacy , Secrecy, and Cyber Insecurity in a Transparent

  7. Taking One's Principles Seriously: A Teacher Confronts Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, William

    2010-01-01

    A teacher faces hostility from certain colleagues who view his decision to attend a controversial lecture as tantamount to the repudiation of the principle of inclusive education and the rights of students with disabilities. The teacher sees the proposed boycott of the lecture as a form of censorship threatening freedom of inquiry and critical…

  8. Race and Genetics: Controversies in Biomedical, Behavioral, and Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossorio, Pilar; Duster, Troy

    2005-01-01

    Among biomedical scientists, there is a great deal of controversy over the nature of race, the relevance of racial categories for research, and the proper methods of using racial variables. This article argues that researchers and scholars should avoid a binary-type argument, in which the question is whether to use race always or never.…

  9. Science and controversy a biography of Sir Norman Lockyer

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A

    2008-01-01

    Sir Norman Lockyer left Nature, the world''s leading scientific journal, as his lasting memorial. But his life, and controversial theories, are an important part of science history. His ideas were at the forefront of public debate, and ranged from brilliant to perverse. This entertaining book is a fascinating insight into his eventful life

  10. Japanese citizens’ preferences regarding voluntary carbon offsets: an experimental social survey of Yokohama and Kitakyushu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hidenori; Kato, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    This study uses an experimental social survey in two large Japanese cities to explore citizens’ attitudes toward international voluntary carbon offsetting that encourages low carbon development in developing countries. In particular, the study focuses on whether the offsetting is a contribution to meet national target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction under the Kyoto Protocol or reduction beyond the national target, using Kyoto credits generated from climate change mitigation projects in developing countries. The study finds that around 40% of the survey respondents chose real carbon offsetting over a gift certificate as compensation for their participation in the survey, around half of whom chose carbon offsetting contribution to the world. However, most of the current Japanese carbon offsetting providers utilise only the carbon offsetting contribution to the Japanese government. Thus, Japanese citizens have significant untapped potential for undertaking more carbon offsetting to meet targets other than national targets. However, the results also show that there is a general lack of understanding regarding the mechanism of carbon offsetting. Carbon offsetting providers in Japan and other countries that may have national self-imposed targets and allowing the usage of international carbon offsetting should therefore be considered, so as to provide individuals with the options of either contributing to their government to help it meet its national target or contributing to the world to help reduce GHG emissions beyond the national targets.

  11. Multi-analysis and modeling of asymmetry offset for Hall effect structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paun, Maria-Alexandra, E-mail: maria_paun2003@yahoo.com

    2017-03-15

    The topological (asymmetry) offset voltage of CMOS cross-like Hall cells is analyzed in this paper. In order to attain the stated objective, different approaches have been considered. Both circuit and three-dimensional models have been developed. Variation of the misalignment offset with the biasing current has been studied through physical and circuit models. The latter is a non-homogenous finite elements model, which relies on using parameterized resistances and current-controlled current sources, of CMOS Hall cells. The displacement offset for various asymmetries and the offset variation with the temperature were investigated through the circuit model developed. Various experimental results for the single and magnetic equivalent offset have also been provided. - Highlights: • In this paper both physical and circuit models have been proposed for the evaluation of Hall cells offset. • Variation of the misalignment offset with the biasing current has been studied. • The displacement offset for various asymmetries and the offset variation with the temperature were investigated. • Various experimental results for single and magnetic equivalent offset were provided. • The obtained simulation results are in accordance with the experimental data.

  12. Methodology to include a correction for offset in the calibration of a Diode-based 2D verification device; Metodologia para incluir una correccion por offset en la calibracion de un dispositivo de verificacion 2D basado en diodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Pamos Urena, M.; Jerez Sainz, M.; Lobato Munoz, M.; Jodar Lopez, C. A.; Ruiz Lopez, M. a.; Carrasco Rodriguez, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    We propose a methodology to correct doses of device verification 2D MapChek2 planes by offset. This methodology provides an array of correction by Offset applied to the calibration per dose due to the Offset of the diode Central as well as the correction of the Offset of each diode on each acquisition. (Author)

  13. Dynamics of Impurity and Valence Bands in Ga1-xMnxAs Within the Dynamical Mean-Field Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, M.A.; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark; Fishman, Randy Scott; Aryanpour, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the density-of-states and the spectral function of Ga 1-x Mn x As within the dynamical mean-field approximation. Our model includes the competing effects of the strong spin-orbit coupling on the J=3/2 GaAs hole bands and the exchange interaction between the magnetic ions and the itinerant holes. We study the quasiparticle and impurity bands in the paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases for different values of impurity-hole coupling J c at a Mn doping of x=0.05. By analyzing the anisotropic angular distribution of the impurity band carriers at T=0, we conclude that the carrier polarization is optimal when the carriers move along the direction parallel to the average magnetization.

  14. Size and alloying induced shift in core and valence bands of Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengar, Saurabh K.; Mehta, B. R.; Govind

    2014-01-01

    In this report, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out on Pd, Ag, Cu, Pd-Ag, and Pd-Cu nanoparticles having identical sizes corresponding to mobility equivalent diameters of 60, 40, and 20 nm. The nanoparticles were prepared by the gas phase synthesis method. The effect of size on valence and core levels in metal and alloy nanoparticles has been studied by comparing the values to those with the 60 nm nanoparticles. The effect of alloying has been investigated by comparing the valence and core level binding energies of Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag alloy nanoparticles with the corresponding values for Pd, Ag, and Cu nanoparticles of identical sizes. These effects have been explained in terms of size induced lattice contractions, alloying induced charge transfer, and hybridization effects. The observation of alloying and size induced binding energy shifts in bimetallic nanoparticles is important from the point of view of hydrogen reactivity

  15. Character of states near the Fermi level in (Ga,Mn)As: impurity to valence band crossover

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Sinova, J.; MacDonald, A. H.; Gallagher, B. L.; Novák, Vít; Edmonds, K. W.; Rushforth, A.W.; Campion, R. P.; Foxon, C. T.; Eaves, L.; Olejník, Kamil; Mašek, Jan; Yang, E. S. R.; Wunderlich, J.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Dietl, T.; Ohno, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 12 (2007), 125206/1-125206/8 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/0575; GA ČR GA202/04/1519; GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR GEFON/06/E001; GA ČR GEFON/06/E002 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 015728 - NANOSPIN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductors, * metal-insulator transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2007

  16. Fine structure and energy spectrum of exciton in direct band gap cubic semiconductors with degenerate valence bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Toan Thang; Nguyen Ai Viet; Nguyen Que Huong

    1987-06-01

    The influence of the cubic structure on the energy spectrum of direct exciton is investigated, using the new method suggested by Nguyen Van Hieu and co-workers. Explicit expressions of the exciton energy levels 1S, 2S and 2P are derived. A comparison with the experiments and the other theory is done for ZnSe. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Improved perfusion quantification in FAIR imaging by offset correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidaros, Karam; Andersen, Irene Klærke; Gesmar, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    Perfusion quantification using pulsed arterial spin labeling has been shown to be sensitive to the RF pulse slice profiles. Therefore, in Flow-sensitive Alternating-Inversion Recovery (FAIR) imaging the slice selective (ss) inversion slab is usually three to four times thicker than the imaging...... slice. However, this reduces perfusion sensitivity due to the increased transit delay of the incoming blood with unperturbed spins. In the present article, the dependence of the magnetization on the RF pulse slice profiles is inspected both theoretically and experimentally. A perfusion quantification...... model is presented that allows the use of thinner ss inversion slabs by taking into account the offset of RF slice profiles between ss and nonselective inversion slabs. This model was tested in both phantom and human studies. Magn Reson Med 46:193-197, 2001...

  18. Frequency offset estimation in OFDM systems using Bayesian filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yihua

    2011-10-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is sensitive to carrier frequency offset (CFO) that causes inter-carrier interference (ICI). In this paper, we present two schemes for the CFO estimation, which are based on rejection sampling (RS) and a form of particle filtering (PF) called kernel smoothing technique, respectively. The first scheme is offline estimation, where the observations contained in the OFDM training symbol are treated in the batch mode. The second scheme is online estimation, where the observations in the OFDM training symbol are treated in the sequential manner. Simulations are provided to illustrate the performances of the schemes. Performance comparisons of the two schemes and with other Bayesian methods are provided. Simulation results show that the two schemes are effective when estimating the CFO and can effectively combat the effect of ICI in OFDM systems.

  19. Phase ambiguity resolution for offset QPSK modulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A demodulator for Offset Quaternary Phase Shift Keyed (OQPSK) signals modulated with two words resolves eight possible combinations of phase ambiguity which may produce data error by first processing received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data in an integrated carrier loop/symbol synchronizer using a digital Costas loop with matched filters for correcting four of eight possible phase lock errors, and then the remaining four using a phase ambiguity resolver which detects the words to not only reverse the received I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data channels, but to also invert (complement) the I(sub R) and/or Q(sub R) data, or to at least complement the I(sub R) and Q(sub R) data for systems using nontransparent codes that do not have rotation direction ambiguity.

  20. Space and the Third Offset Symposium - Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahney, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    The Third Offset Workshop explored the nature of the challenges and opportunities facing the United States as it is increasingly forced to integrate space into defense strategy as well as deterrence and strategic stability frameworks. Participants broadly agreed that Washington’s deep ties to allies and partners, as well as its history of leveraging an innovative U.S private sector, will be enduring competitive advantages against potential rivals into the foreseeable future. Yet panelists also highlighted key challenges from Russia and China’s rapid integration of space capabilities into conventional and nuclear warfighting, the pronounced growth in Chinese and Russian counterspace capabilities, and tensions in the U.S.-Russia relationship.

  1. Application of electron beam curing in web-offset printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, A.M.; Newcomb, W.T.

    1984-01-01

    Four years ago, the first commercial installation of an electron beam processor, coupled with a high speed web offset printing press was described. This line has been in operation since and its success demonstrates the advantages and feasibility of such an application. Just recently, another company has announced that it is using electron beam curing in its printing lines. Judging from the amount of inquiries and opportunities being actively pursued one can state that the use of electron beam systems in printing applications has come of age. This paper describes the advantages of this process, the characteristics of the equipment that are important for industrial use in a multishift environment, and addresses its economics through analysis of some major cost elements

  2. Phase Offsets and the Energy Budgets of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joel C.; Kashner, Zane; Jovmir, Diana; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal phase curves of short-period planets on circular orbits provide joint constraints on the fraction of incoming energy that is reflected (Bond albedo) and the fraction of absorbed energy radiated by the night hemisphere (heat recirculation efficiency). Many empirical studies of hot Jupiters have implicitly assumed that the dayside is the hottest hemisphere and the nightside is the coldest hemisphere. For a given eclipse depth and phase amplitude, an orbital lag between a planet’s peak brightness and its eclipse—a phase offset—implies that planet’s nightside emits greater flux. To quantify how phase offsets impact the energy budgets of short-period planets, we compile all infrared observations of the nine planets with multi-band eclipse depths and phase curves. Accounting for phase offsets shifts planets to lower Bond albedo and greater day-night heat transport, usually by ≲1σ. For WASP-12b, the published phase variations have been analyzed in two different ways, and the inferred energy budget depends sensitively on which analysis one adopts. Our fiducial scenario supports a Bond albedo of {0.27}-0.13+0.12, significantly higher than the published optical geometric albedo, and a recirculation efficiency of {0.03}-0.02+0.07, following the trend of larger day-night temperature contrast with greater stellar irradiation. If instead we adopt the alternative analysis, then WASP-12b has a Bond albedo consistent with zero and a much higher recirculation efficiency. To definitively determine the energy budget of WASP-12b, new observational analyses will be necessary.

  3. What Issues Does the Czech Republic Face Concerning Offsets in the Context of Military Purchases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    of CZK 19.650 billion; approximately USD 0.9 billion)1. Countertrade is an immense, pervasive business practice, involving huge numbers of people...overwhelmed with various terms: direct and indirect offsets, countertrade , bilateral government trade, compensatory arrangements, clearing arrangements...34Coproduction, Barter, and Countertrade : Offsets in the International Arms Market," (Orbis, 1985), 29. 8 1. The Meaning of Offsets, Definitions and

  4. Echoic Memory: Investigation of Its Temporal Resolution by Auditory Offset Cortical Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Nishihara, Makoto; Inui, Koji; Morita, Tomoyo; Kodaira, Minori; Mochizuki, Hideki; Otsuru, Naofumi; Motomura, Eishi; Ushida, Takahiro; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the amplitude and latency of the auditory offset cortical response depended on the history of the sound, which implicated the involvement of echoic memory in shaping a response. When a brief sound was repeated, the latency of the offset response depended precisely on the frequency of the repeat, indicating that the brain recognized the timing of the offset by using information on the repeat frequency stored in memory. In the present study, we investigated the temp...

  5. Demonstrating biodiversity offset policy outcomes using the classic "trading in a pit market" classroom game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Strange, Niels

    2017-01-01

    , and subsequently, the provision of full ecological compensation measures elsewhere by the associated developer, e. g., habitat restoration. The objective is no net loss of biodiversity overall. Here, we develop an offset experiment in the style of a classic economic game (‘trading in a pit market’), which can...... the experiment, with and without a hypothetical biodiversity offset policy in place, revealed some key principles around offsetting which have been noted in real world policy outcomes....

  6. A SURVEY OF AUTOMATION TECHNIQUES COMING FORTH IN SHEET-FED OFFSET PRINTING ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Ramesh Kumar*, Mr. Bijender & Mr. Sandeep Boora

    2017-01-01

    Sheet-Fed offset is one of the premier processes in India as well as abroad. To cope up with customers large quantity demands automation has become mandatory. From prepress to post press a wide range of automation techniques exist and coming forth for sheet fed offset presses. Objective of this paper is to throw light on various sheet-fed offset automation techniques existing today and their futuristic implications. The data related to automation was collected with the help of survey conducte...

  7. Accounting for Uncertainty and Time Lags in Equivalency Calculations for Offsetting in Aquatic Resources Management Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    Biodiversity offset programs attempt to minimize unavoidable environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities by requiring offsetting measures in sufficient quantity to counterbalance losses due to the activity. Multipliers, or offsetting ratios, have been used to increase the amount of offsets to account for uncertainty but those ratios have generally been derived from theoretical or ad-hoc considerations. I analyzed uncertainty in the offsetting process in the context of offsetting for impacts to freshwater fisheries productivity. For aquatic habitats I demonstrate that an empirical risk-based approach for evaluating prediction uncertainty is feasible, and if data are available appropriate adjustments to offset requirements can be estimated. For two data-rich examples I estimate multipliers in the range of 1.5:1 - 2.5:1 are sufficient to account for the uncertainty in the prediction of gains and losses. For aquatic habitats adjustments for time delays in the delivery of offset benefits can also be calculated and are likely smaller than those for prediction uncertainty. However, the success of a biodiversity offsetting program will also depend on the management of the other components of risk not addressed by these adjustments.

  8. Correlation between centre offsets and gas velocity dispersion of galaxy clusters in cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hua; Zhu, Weishan; Zhao, Dong

    2018-05-01

    The gas is the dominant component of baryonic matter in most galaxy groups and clusters. The spatial offsets of gas centre from the halo centre could be an indicator of the dynamical state of cluster. Knowledge of such offsets is important for estimate the uncertainties when using clusters as cosmological probes. In this paper, we study the centre offsets roff between the gas and that of all the matter within halo systems in ΛCDM cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We focus on two kinds of centre offsets: one is the three-dimensional PB offsets between the gravitational potential minimum of the entire halo and the barycentre of the ICM, and the other is the two-dimensional PX offsets between the potential minimum of the halo and the iterative centroid of the projected synthetic X-ray emission of the halo. Haloes at higher redshifts tend to have larger values of rescaled offsets roff/r200 and larger gas velocity dispersion σ v^gas/σ _{200}. For both types of offsets, we find that the correlation between the rescaled centre offsets roff/r200 and the rescaled 3D gas velocity dispersion, σ _v^gas/σ _{200} can be approximately described by a quadratic function as r_{off}/r_{200} ∝ (σ v^gas/σ _{200} - k_2)2. A Bayesian analysis with MCMC method is employed to estimate the model parameters. Dependence of the correlation relation on redshifts and the gas mass fraction are also investigated.

  9. Possible Correlations between the Emission Properties of SGRBs and Their Offsets from the Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shuai; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Li, Xiang; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008 (China); Zhang, Fu-Wen, E-mail: jin@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn [College of Science, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2017-07-20

    Short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are widely believed to be from mergers of binary compact objects involving at least one neutron star and hence have a broad range of spatial offsets from their host galaxies. In this work, we search for possible correlations between the emission properties of 18 SGRBs and their offsets from the host galaxies. The SGRBs with and without extended emission do not show significant differences between their offset distributions, in agreement with some previous works. There are, however, possible correlations between the optical and X-ray afterglow emission and the offsets. The underlying physical origins are examined.

  10. Accounting for Uncertainty and Time Lags in Equivalency Calculations for Offsetting in Aquatic Resources Management Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Biodiversity offset programs attempt to minimize unavoidable environmental impacts of anthropogenic activities by requiring offsetting measures in sufficient quantity to counterbalance losses due to the activity. Multipliers, or offsetting ratios, have been used to increase the amount of offsets to account for uncertainty but those ratios have generally been derived from theoretical or ad-hoc considerations. I analyzed uncertainty in the offsetting process in the context of offsetting for impacts to freshwater fisheries productivity. For aquatic habitats I demonstrate that an empirical risk-based approach for evaluating prediction uncertainty is feasible, and if data are available appropriate adjustments to offset requirements can be estimated. For two data-rich examples I estimate multipliers in the range of 1.5:1 - 2.5:1 are sufficient to account for the uncertainty in the prediction of gains and losses. For aquatic habitats adjustments for time delays in the delivery of offset benefits can also be calculated and are likely smaller than those for prediction uncertainty. However, the success of a biodiversity offsetting program will also depend on the management of the other components of risk not addressed by these adjustments.

  11. The nuclear controversy as reflected in the daily newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buire, S. van.

    1980-01-01

    The development and utilization of nuclear energy has led to conflicts of larger dimensions in our society. What has been the role of the mass communication media in this discussion. Did they fulfill their duty to inform the public, did they actively foster discussions about the facts to be considered, and did they play their part in public opinion making by publishing critical analyses. These are questions answered by this book by presenting analyses of newspaper articles on the nuclear controversy, facts and figures on the opinions and information published in the daily newspapers on the subject of nuclear energy utilization, and analyses of tendencies pro or contra nuclear energy as expressed by the various articles. By an evaluation of the history of discussions, the development and modifications of the arguments put forward and the reactions shown by the various social groups involved in the process are illustrated and commented in the light of the controversy becoming more acute. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Using deliberation to address controversial issues: Developing Holocaust education curriculum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THOMAS MISCO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how a cross-cultural project responded to the need for new Holocaust educational materials for the Republic of Latvia through the method of curriculum deliberation. Analysis of interview, observational, and document data drawn from seven curriculum writers and numerous project members suggest that curriculum deliberation helped awaken a controversial and silenced history while attending to a wide range of needs and concerns for a variety of stakeholders. The findings highlight structural features that empowered the curriculum writers as they engaged in protracted rumination, reflected upon competing norms, and considered the nuances of the curriculum problem in relation to implementation. Understanding the process, challenges, and promises of cross-cultural curriculum deliberation holds significance for educators, curricularists, and educational researchers wishing to advance teaching and learning within silenced histories and controversial issues.

  13. Unconsciously against it. Psychological aspects of the nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuenschmann, A.

    1980-06-01

    The book deals with the psychological aspects of the nuclear controversy. An attempt is made to describe, in psychological terms, arrange, explain and, in this sense, 'comprehend' the phenomenon of the nuclear controversy in the light of the following facts: - individual and archetypal spectra of associations arising in the minds of many people in combination with the term 'nuclear power plant', the existence of different psychological types; the suggestion and psychological regression in the group. Especially the nuclear opponents, more or less successfully, have used the individual and archetypal association spectrum as an instrument to further their own ends and have thus contributed to the erection of psychological barriers against nuclear power in the minds of many people. (orig./RW) [de

  14. Resolving the controversy over beneficial effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttler, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In spite of the extensive research carried out during the past century, intense controversy continues over the health effects of low-level radiation. This controversy is largely due to political, social and economic issues among scientists and analysts in a variety of disciplines. These issues cloud objectivity and strengthen paradigms. Over the past ten years, in 14 universities and two research institutes, Japanese scientists have conducted exceptional research which clearly demonstrates beneficial effects of low-level radiation and cancer cures following therapy with low doses of radiation. Assessment, replication and extension of this work in North America could lead to greater appreciation of its significance. Cancer patients would demand such treatments, leading to universal acceptance of these bio-positive effects and reducing public fear of nuclear technology. (author)

  15. Understanding the agreements and controversies surrounding childhood psychopharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Josephine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of children in the US taking prescription drugs for emotional and behavioral disturbances is growing dramatically. This growth in the use of psychotropic drugs in pediatric populations has given rise to multiple controversies, ranging from concerns over off-label use and long-term safety to debates about the societal value and cultural meaning of pharmacological treatment of childhood behavioral and emotional disorders. This commentary summarizes the authors' eight main findings from the first of five workshops that seek to understand and produce descriptions of these controversies. The workshop series is convened by The Hastings Center, a bioethics research institute located in Garrison, New York, U.S.A.

  16. Behavioural controversy concerning homo economicus: a Humean perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandakar Elahi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In his monumental masterpiece, A Treatise on Human Nature, which explains the methodology of human reasoning concerning matters of fact and describes the roles that passions and morals play in it, Hume arrives at an enormously interesting maxim: An academic controversy cannot continue for long unless the disputants assign different meanings to the major terms employed in the debate. This theory has been applied in this paper to examine the behavioural criticisms about Homo Economicus (HE, the pivotal perception in the neoclassical microeconomic model.To achieve this objective, the paper discusses the origin and evolution of the concept, reviews behavioural criticisms, summarises the main tenets of Hume’s philosophy of human knowledge and finally examines the behavioural opinions from Hume’s perspective. The paper concludes that Hume’s theory convincingly explains the reason why the HE controversy is continuing for over half century- a fact that both the mainstream and behavioural economists are ignoring.

  17. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy as a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, the post-Cold War era, and the transition between the two. This provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified. (author)

  18. Nuclear energy: public controversies and the analysis of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Energy is a social concept, the product of social, economic, and political processes that define certain raw materials as resources and thus convert them into usable energy. Like all social concepts, energy is controversial. Out of a wide range of controversies, three are selected for analysis here: (1) the relationship of nuclear power systems to nuclear weapons proliferation; (2) the risks of terrorism and sabotage associated with the operation of nuclear power facilities, including threats to civil liberties; and (3) the problems associated with the long-term management of radioactive wastes. The final section of the paper describes various modes of analyzing risks and the perception of risks. It is concluded that it may take many decades to learn whether nuclear energy is as natural a source of electrical power as wells are of drinking water, or whether nuclear energy is a horror that mankind in the 1980s or 1990s took a hard look at and then backed away. (author)

  19. Mercury, vaccines, and autism: one controversy, three histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey P

    2008-02-01

    The controversy regarding the once widely used mercury-containing preservative thimerosal in childhood vaccines has raised many historical questions that have not been adequately explored. Why was this preservative incorporated in the first place? Was there any real evidence that it caused harm? And how did thimerosal become linked in the public mind to the "autism epidemic"? I examine the origins of the thimerosal controversy and their legacy for the debate that has followed. More specifically, I explore the parallel histories of three factors that converged to create the crisis: vaccine preservatives, mercury poisoning, and autism. An understanding of this history provides important lessons for physicians and policymakers seeking to preserve the public's trust in the nation's vaccine system.

  20. Autonomy, Respect, and Arrogance in the Danish Cartoon Controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    2009-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2009 Autonomy is increasingly rejected as a fundamental principle by liberal political theorists, because it is regarded as incompatible with respect for diversity. This article seeks, via an analysis of the Danish cartoon controversy, to show that the relationship between autonomy and diversity is more complex than often posited. Particularly, it asks whether the autonomy defense of freedom of expression encourages disrespect for religious feelings. Autonomy leads to disre...