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Sample records for valence band x-ray

  1. Crossover and valence bandX-rays of chromium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazinic, Stjepko; Mandic, Luka; Kavcic, Matjaz; Bozicevic, Iva

    2011-01-01

    X-ray spectra of chromium metal and selected chromium oxides were measured twice using medium resolution flat crystal spectrometer and high resolution spectrometer employing Johansson geometry after excitation with 2 MeV proton beams. The positions and intensities of crossover (Kβ'') and valence (Kβ 2,5 ) band X-rays relative to the primary Kβ X-ray components were extracted in a consistent way. The results were compared with the existing data obtained by proton and photon induced ionization mechanisms and theoretical predictions. The obtained results in peak relative positions and intensities were analyzed in order to study dependence on the chromium oxidation states and chromium-oxygen bond lengths in selected chromium oxides. Our results obtained by both spectrometers confirm that the linear trend observed for the valence peak relative energy shift as a function of chromium oxidation number does not depend on the experimental resolution. Experimental results for normalized intensities (i.e. relative intensities divided with the number of chromium-oxygen pairs) of crossover and valence band X-rays obtained by both spectrometers are in very good agreement, and follow exponential relationship with the average Cr-O bond lengths in corresponding chromium oxides. The observed trends in crossover and valence X-rays normalized intensities could be used to measure the average chromium-oxygen bond length in various chromium oxides, with the sum of both crossover and valence X-ray normalized intensities being the most sensitive measure.

  2. Valence band offset of wurtzite InN/SrTiO3 heterojunction measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The valence band offset (VBO of wurtzite indium nitride/strontium titanate (InN/SrTiO3 heterojunction has been directly measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The VBO is determined to be 1.26 ± 0.23 eV and the conduction band offset is deduced to be 1.30 ± 0.23 eV, indicating the heterojunction has a type-I band alignment. The accurate determination of the valence and conduction band offsets paves a way to the applications of integrating InN with the functional oxide SrTiO3.

  3. Valence band offset of β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Qin, Zhixin; Fan, Shunfei; Li, Zhiwei; Shi, Kai; Zhu, Qinsheng; Zhang, Guoyi

    2012-10-10

    A sample of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure has been grown by dry thermal oxidation of GaN on a sapphire substrate. X-ray diffraction measurements show that the β-Ga2O3 layer was formed epitaxially on GaN. The valence band offset of the β-Ga2O3/wurtzite GaN heterostructure is measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the valence band of the β-Ga2O3/GaN structure is 1.40 ± 0.08 eV.

  4. Electronic properties and bonding in Zr Hx thin films investigated by valence-band x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Martin; Schmidt, Susann; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans

    2017-11-01

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding in reactively magnetron sputtered Zr Hx (x =0.15 , 0.30, 1.16) thin films with oxygen content as low as 0.2 at.% are investigated by 4d valence band, shallow 4p core-level, and 3d core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With increasing hydrogen content, we observe significant reduction of the 4d valence states close to the Fermi level as a result of redistribution of intensity toward the H 1s-Zr 4d hybridization region at ˜6 eV below the Fermi level. For low hydrogen content (x =0.15 , 0.30), the films consist of a superposition of hexagonal closest-packed metal (α phase) and understoichiometric δ -Zr Hx (Ca F2 -type structure) phases, while for x =1.16 , the films form single-phase Zr Hx that largely resembles that of stoichiometric δ -Zr H2 phase. We show that the cubic δ -Zr Hx phase is metastable as thin film up to x =1.16 , while for higher H contents the structure is predicted to be tetragonally distorted. For the investigated Zr H1.16 film, we find chemical shifts of 0.68 and 0.51 eV toward higher binding energies for the Zr 4 p3 /2 and 3 d5 /2 peak positions, respectively. Compared to the Zr metal binding energies of 27.26 and 178.87 eV, this signifies a charge transfer from Zr to H atoms. The change in the electronic structure, spectral line shapes, and chemical shifts as a function of hydrogen content is discussed in relation to the charge transfer from Zr to H that affects the conductivity by charge redistribution in the valence band.

  5. Determination of the impact of Bi content on the valence band energy of GaAsBi using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Collar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the change of the valence band energy of GaAs1-xBix (0x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The change in the valence band energy per addition of 1 % Bi is determined for strained and unstrained thin films using a linear approximation applicable to the dilute regime. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE was used as a complementary technique to determine the change in GaAsBi bandgap resulting from Bi addition. Analysis of SE and XPS data together supports the conclusion that ∼75% of the reduction in the bandgap is in the valence band for a compressively strained, dilute GaAsBi thin film at room temperature.

  6. Measurement of the valence band-offset in a PbSe/ZnO heterojunction by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Lin; Qiu Jijun; Weng Binbin; Yuan Zijian; Shi Zhisheng [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Li Xiaomin; Gan Xiaoyan [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Sellers, Ian R. [Deparment of Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2012-12-24

    A heterojunction of PbSe/ZnO has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to directly measure the valence-band offset (VBO) of the heterojunction. The VBO, {Delta}E{sub V}, was determined as 2.51 {+-} 0.05 eV using the Pb 4p{sup 3/2} and Zn 2p{sup 3/2} core levels as a reference. The conduction-band offset, {Delta}E{sub C}, was, therefore, determined to be 0.59 {+-} 0.05 eV based on the above {Delta}E{sub V} value. This analysis indicates that the PbSe/ZnO heterojunction forms a type I (Straddling Gap) heterostructure.

  7. Valence-band discontinuities of wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions measured by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Botchkarev, A.; Rockett, A.; Morkoc, H.

    1996-01-01

    The valence-band discontinuities at various wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN heterojunctions were measured by means of x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A significant forward endash backward asymmetry was observed in the InN/GaN endash GaN/InN and InN/AlN endash AlN/InN heterojunctions. The asymmetry was understood as a piezoelectric strain effect. We report the valence band discontinuities for InN/GaN=1.05±0.25 eV, GaN/AlN=0.70±0.24 eV, and InN/AlN=1.81±0.20 eV, all in the standard type I lineup. These values obey transitivity to within the experimental accuracy. Tables of photoemission core level binding energies are reported for wurtzite GaN, AlN, and InN. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  8. Valence-to-core-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Eleanor R.; Pollock, Christopher J.; Bendix, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can provide detailed insight into the electronic and geometric structures of transition-metal active sites in metalloproteins and chemical catalysts. However, standard XAS spectra inherently represent an average contribution from the entire coordination...... environment with limited ligand selectivity. To address this limitation, we have investigated the enhancement of XAS features using valence-to-core (VtC)-detected XAS, whereby XAS spectra are measured by monitoring fluorescence from valence-to-core X-ray emission (VtC XES) events. VtC emission corresponds...... to transitions from filled ligand orbitals to the metal 1s core hole, with distinct energetic shifts for ligands of differing ionization potentials. VtC-detected XAS data were obtained from multiple valence emission features for a series of well-characterized Mn model compounds; taken together, these data...

  9. Deduction of the chemical state and the electronic structure of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy core-level and valence-band spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing; Liang, Le [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Lanting, E-mail: lantingzh@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lmsun@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hirano Institute for Materials Innovation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sun, Limin, E-mail: lantingzh@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: lmsun@sjtu.edu.cn [Instrumental Analysis Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hirano, Shinichi [Hirano Institute for Materials Innovation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-10-28

    Characterization of chemical state and electronic structure of the technologically important Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is attractive for understanding the physical nature of its excellent magnetic properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of such rare-earth compound is important and also challenging due to the easy oxidation of surface and small photoelectron cross-sections of rare-earth 4f electrons and B 2p electrons, etc. Here, we reported an investigation based on XPS spectra of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound as a function of Ar ion sputtering time. The chemical state of Fe and that of B in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound can be clearly determined to be 0 and −3, respectively. The Nd in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is found to have the chemical state of close to +3 instead of +3 as compared with the Nd in Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, by comparing the valence-band spectrum of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound to that of the pure Fe, the contributions from Nd, Fe, and B to the valence-band structure of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound is made more clear. The B 2p states and B 2s states are identified to be at ∼11.2 eV and ∼24.6 eV, respectively, which is reported for the first time. The contribution from Nd 4f states can be identified both in XPS core-level spectrum and XPS valence-band spectrum. Although Nd 4f states partially hybridize with Fe 3d states, Nd 4f states are mainly localized in Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound.

  10. Galaxies in the X-ray Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2008-01-01

    This talk will provide a brief review of progress on X-ray emission from normal (non-AGN) galaxy populations, including important constraints on the evolution of accreting binary populations over important cosmological timescales. We will also look to the future, anticipating constraints from near-term imaging hard X-ray missions such as NuSTAR, Simbol-X and NeXT and then the longer-term prospects for studying galaxies with the Generation-X mission.

  11. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity...... of the multilayer is found to agree extraordinarily well with theory (assuming an interface roughness of 4.5 Angstrom), while the agreement for the gold film is less, The overall performance of the supermirror is superior to that of gold, extending the band of reflection at least a factor of 2.8 beyond...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....

  12. Probing Transient Valence Orbital Changes with Picosecond Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    March, Anne Marie; Assefa, Tadesse A.; Boemer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    We probe the dynamics of valence electrons in photoexcited [Fe(terpy)2]2+ in solution to gain deeper insight into the Fe ligand bond changes. We use hard X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), which combines element specificity and high penetration with sensitivity to orbital structure, making...... valence orbitals to the nascent core-hole. Vtc-XES offers particular insight into the molecular orbitals directly involved in the light-driven dynamics; a change in the metal ligand orbital overlap results in an intensity reduction and a blue energy shift in agreement with our theoretical calculations...... and more subtle features at the highest energies reflect changes in the frontier orbital populations....

  13. Strongly correlated impurity band superconductivity in diamond: X-ray spectroscopic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Baskaran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent X-ray absorption study in boron doped diamond, Nakamura et al. have seen a well isolated narrow boron impurity band in non-superconducting samples and an additional narrow band at the chemical potential in a superconducting sample. We interpret the beautiful spectra as evidence for upper Hubbard band of a Mott insulating impurity band and an additional metallic 'mid-gap band' of a conducting 'self-doped' Mott insulator. This supports the basic framework of a recent theory of the present author of strongly correlated impurity band superconductivity (impurity band resonating valence bond, IBRVB theory in a template of a wide-gap insulator, with no direct involvement of valence band states.

  14. Soft x-ray spectroscopy optimisation for the direct determination of valence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wison, N.C.; MacRae, C.M.; Nelson, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Measuring the valence of elements and mapping their occurrence throughout a sample can give important insights into the chemistry of complex systems. The toxic nature of Cr 6+ gives great concern over its disposal in the environment. Being able to resolve Cr 6+ from Cr 3+ allows us to tackle these important problems. The electron probe micro-analyser (EPMA) is routinely used to provide micron resolution chemical analysis. However it is often possible to resolve changes in soft X-ray peak shape and position that reflect changes in the chemical state and crystal structure. A soft x-rays is usually considered to be one of less than 1.5 keV in energy In this study we have compared a range of Cr containing compounds, and measured the differences in the Cr Lα line. In some samples, the Cr L line can be 'relatively weak, so to maximise its excitation probability, a set of Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the CASINO V2.0 package and the most efficient excitation voltage was determined. We also investigate the soft x-ray spectroscopy using electronic structure calculations to produce theoretical Density of States (DOS) for comparison with the measured spectra. The theoretical calculations can aid in understanding spectrum shape and polarisation of the soft x-ray signal in unknown samples, when a full range of standards is not available. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  15. Band structure of TiO sub 2 -doped yttria-stabilized zirconia probed by soft-x-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Higuchi, T; Kobayashi, K; Yamaguchi, S; Fukushima, A; Shin, S

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structure of TiO sub 2 -doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has been studied by soft-X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The valence band is mainly composed of the O 2p state. The O 1s XAS spectrum exhibits the existence of the Ti 3d unoccupied state under the Zr 4d conduction band. The intensity of the Ti 3d unoccupied state increases with increasing TiO sub 2 concentration. The energy separation between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the Ti 3d unoccupied state is in accord with the energy gap, as expected from dc-polarization and total conductivity measurements. (author)

  16. Measurement of ZnO/Al2O3 Heterojunction Band Offsets by in situ X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Hong-Wen; Zhang Hong; Wang Xue-Min; Zhao Yan; Yan Da-Wei; Jiang Zhong-Qian; Yao Gang; Zeng Ti-Xian; Wu Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    ZnO films are grown on c-sapphire substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. The band offsets of the ZnO/Al 2 O 3 heterojunction are studied by in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band of Al 2 O 3 is found to be 3.59±0.05eV below that of ZnO. Together with the resulting conduction band offset of 2.04±0.05eV, this indicates that a type-I staggered band line exists at the ZnO/Al 2 O 3 heterojunction

  17. Quadrupole effects in core and valence photoelectron emission from crystalline germanium measured via a spatially modulated x-ray interference field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.J.; Woicik, J.C.; Pianetta, P.; Vartanyants, I.A.; Cooper, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    Near a crystal x-ray Bragg reflection, the incident and reflected x-ray beams that travel with opposite wave vectors create an x-ray standing-wave (XSW) interference field. The quadrupole (and higher order nondipole) contributions to the photoelectron emission matrix element differ for these two beams due to their different wave vectors. By monitoring the angle-resolved photoelectron yield as a function of photon energy near the (11-1) Bragg back-reflection condition of crystalline Ge, we measure the contribution of nondipole effects to Ge 3p, Ge 3d, and Ge valence-band (4s and 4p) XSW photoelectron emission. Significant changes due to nondipole emission are measured in both the apparent amplitude and phase of the Ge structure factor relative to the true Ge atomic distribution, and compared to theory

  18. Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering: From band mapping to inter-orbital excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning, J.; Hague, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (also known as resonant X-ray Raman spectroscopy when only valence and conduction states are involved in the final state excitation) has developed into a major tool for understanding the electronic properties of complex materials. Presently it provides access to electron excitations in the few hundred meV range with element and bulk selectivity. Recent progress in X-ray optics and synchrotron radiation engineering have opened up new perspectives for this powerful technique to improve resolving power and efficiency. We briefly present the basics of the method and illustrate its potential with examples chosen from the literature. (authors)

  19. A triboelectric closed loop band system for the generation of x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleve, E.; Lucas, B.; Ganlieli, Z.; Wong, E. W.; Cortes, P.; Mehta, N.; Cuadra, D.; Fong, J.; Hansen, S.; Kotowski, A.; Camara, C. G.

    2015-08-01

    X-ray have been commercially produced using the same basic design since their discovery by Wilhelm Roentgen in 1895, for which he was awarded the first Nobel prize in physics. This technology requires high voltage elements, ultra high vacuum tubes, and high voltage electronics. The vacuum and high voltage drive up the price of x-ray technology and in order to bring down the cost, a brand new way to produce x-rays is needed. In 2008 Carlos Camara, Juan Escobar, Jonathan R. Hird, and Seth Putterman1 discovered that by pealing scotch tape in a vacuum you could create enough x-rays to take an x-ray radiograph of a finger. This lead to the formation of Tribogenics and the development of the rod and band x-ray architecture.

  20. Influence of changes in the valence electronic configuration on the structure of L-X-ray spectra of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polasik, M; Koziol, K; Slabkowska, K; Czarnota, M; Pajek, M

    2009-01-01

    Extensive multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculations with the inclusion of the transverse (Breit) interaction and QED corrections have been carried out on molybdenum to explain the dependence of the structure of Lα 1,2 and Lβ 1 lines on the changes in configurations of the valence electrons belonging to two different configuration types: three open-shell 4d 6-r 5s r (r = 2,1,0) configurations and one closed-shell 4d 4 3/2 5s 2 configuration. It has been found that the MCDF predictions for open-shell valence configurations (4d 4 5s 2 , 4d 5 5s 1 , 4d 6 5s 0 ) much better reproduce observed structure of Lα 1,2 lines in X-ray spectra of molybdenum than closed-shell 4d 4 3/2 5s 2 valence configuration. The influence of changes in the valence electronic configuration on the structure of L-X-ray spectra of molybdenum is noticeable. Moreover, the observation of the shapes of L-X-ray spectra seems to be very good method to investigate the changes of the valence electronic configuration caused by the chemical environment.

  1. Band alignment of TiO{sub 2}/FTO interface determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Effect of annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Haibo, E-mail: hbfan@nwu.edu.cn, E-mail: liusz@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Yang, Zhou; Ren, Xianpei; Gao, Fei [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); Yin, Mingli [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); School of Science, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710062 (China); Liu, Shengzhong, E-mail: hbfan@nwu.edu.cn, E-mail: liusz@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, National Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Engineering Lab for Advanced Energy Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119 (China); Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, 116023 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The energy band alignment between pulsed-laser-deposited TiO{sub 2} and FTO was firstly characterized using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A valence band offset (VBO) of 0.61 eV and a conduction band offset (CBO) of 0.29 eV were obtained across the TiO{sub 2}/FTO heterointerface. With annealing process, the VBO and CBO across the heterointerface were found to be -0.16 eV and 1.06 eV, respectively, with the alignment transforming from type-I to type-II. The difference in the band alignment is believed to be dominated by the core level down-shift of the FTO substrate, which is a result of the oxidation of Sn. Current-voltage test has verified that the band alignment has a significant effect on the current transport of the heterojunction.

  2. Band alignment of TiO2/FTO interface determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Effect of annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy band alignment between pulsed-laser-deposited TiO2 and FTO was firstly characterized using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A valence band offset (VBO of 0.61 eV and a conduction band offset (CBO of 0.29 eV were obtained across the TiO2/FTO heterointerface. With annealing process, the VBO and CBO across the heterointerface were found to be -0.16 eV and 1.06 eV, respectively, with the alignment transforming from type-I to type-II. The difference in the band alignment is believed to be dominated by the core level down-shift of the FTO substrate, which is a result of the oxidation of Sn. Current-voltage test has verified that the band alignment has a significant effect on the current transport of the heterojunction.

  3. Experimental observation of G banding verifying X-ray workers' chromosome translocation detected by FISH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuanming; Li Jin; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Wang Zhiquan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: FISH is the most effective way of detecting chromosome aberration and many factors affect its accuracy. G-banding is used to verify the results of early X-ray workers' chromosome translocation examined by FISH. Methods: The chromosome translocations of early X-ray workers have been analysed by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) and G-banding, yields of translocation treated with statistics. Results: The chromosome aberrations frequencies by tow methods are closely related. Conclusion: FISH is a feasible way to analyse chromosome aberrations of X-ray workers and reconstruct dose

  4. Thermal evolution of the band edges of 6H-SiC: X-ray methods compared to the optical band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miedema, P.S.; Beye, M.; Könnecke, R.; Schiwietz, G.; Föhlisch, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Conduction band minima (CBM) of 6H-SiC are estimated with Si 2p XAS. • Valence band maxima (VBM) of 6H-SiC are estimated with non-resonant Si 2p XES. • Temperature-dependent VBM and CBM of 6H-SiC show asymmetric band gap closing. • XAS, XES and RIXS band gap estimates are compared with the optical band gap. • XAS + XES versus optical band gap provides core-excitonic screening energies. - Abstract: The band gap of semiconductors like silicon and silicon carbide (SiC) is the key for their device properties. In this research, the band gap of 6H-SiC and its temperature dependence were analyzed with silicon 2p X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) allowing for a separate analysis of the conduction-band minimum (CBM) and valence-band maximum (VBM) components of the band gap. The temperature-dependent asymmetric band gap shrinking of 6H-SiC was determined with a valence-band slope of +2.45 × 10 −4 eV/K and a conduction-band slope of −1.334 × 10 −4 eV/K. The apparent asymmetry, e.g., that two thirds of the band-gap shrinking with increasing temperature is due to the VBM evolution in 6H-SiC, is similar to the asymmetry obtained for pure silicon before. The overall band gap temperature-dependence determined with XAS and non-resonant XES is compared to temperature-dependent optical studies. The core-excitonic binding energy appearing in the Si 2p XAS is extracted as the main difference. In addition, the energy loss of the onset of the first band in RIXS yields to values similar to the optical band gap over the tested temperature range

  5. Probing the graphite band structure with resonant soft-x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Shirley, E.L.; Hudson, E.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation offers several advantages over surface sensitive spectroscopies for probing the electronic structure of complex multi-elemental materials. Due to the long mean free path of photons in solids ({approximately}1000 {angstrom}), SXF is a bulk-sensitive probe. Also, since core levels are involved in absorption and emission, SXF is both element- and angular-momentum-selective. SXF measures the local partial density of states (DOS) projected onto each constituent element of the material. The chief limitation of SXF has been the low fluorescence yield for photon emission, particularly for light elements. However, third generation light sources, such as the Advanced Light Source (ALS), offer the high brightness that makes high-resolution SXF experiments practical. In the following the authors utilize this high brightness to demonstrate the capability of SXF to probe the band structure of a polycrystalline sample. In SXF, a valence emission spectrum results from transitions from valence band states to the core hole produced by the incident photons. In the non-resonant energy regime, the excitation energy is far above the core binding energy, and the absorption and emission events are uncoupled. The fluorescence spectrum resembles emission spectra acquired using energetic electrons, and is insensitive to the incident photon`s energy. In the resonant excitation energy regime, core electrons are excited by photons to unoccupied states just above the Fermi level (EF). The absorption and emission events are coupled, and this coupling manifests itself in several ways, depending in part on the localization of the empty electronic states in the material. Here the authors report spectral measurements from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  6. S-band linac-based X-ray source with {pi}/2-mode electron linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Abhay, E-mail: abhay@post.kek.jp [Department of Accelerator Science, School of High Energy Accelerator Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan International Village, Hayama, Miura, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Araki, Sakae [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Dixit, Tanuja [Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Fukuda, Masafumi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Krishnan, R; Pethe, Sanjay [Society for Applied Microwave Electronic Engineering and Research (SAMEER), R and D Laboratory of the Government of India, IIT Campus, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Sakaue, Kazuyuki [Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Washio, Masakazu [Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2011-05-01

    The activities with the compact X-ray source are attracting more attention, particularly for the applications of the source in medical fields. We propose the fabrication of a compact X-ray source using the SAMEER electron linear accelerator and the KEK laser undulator X-ray source (LUCX) technologies. The linac developed at SAMEER is a standing wave side-coupled S-band linac operating in the {pi}/2 mode. In the proposed system, a photocathode RF gun will inject bunches of electrons in the linac to accelerate and achieve a high-energy, low-emittance beam. This beam will then interact with the laser in the laser cavity to produce X-rays of a type well suited for various applications. The side-coupled structure will make the system more compact, and the {pi}/2 mode of operation will enable a high repetition rate operation, which will help to increase the X-ray yield.

  7. Band-gap measurements of bulk and nanoscale hematite by soft x-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, B.; Frandsen, Cathrine; Maxey, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and photochemical processes at semiconductor surfaces are highly influenced by the size of the band gap, and ability to control the band gap by particle size in nanomaterials is part of their promise. The combination of soft x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies provides band......-gap determination in bulk and nanoscale itinerant electron semiconductors such as CdS and ZnO, but this approach has not been established for materials such as iron oxides that possess band-edge electronic structure dominated by electron correlations. We performed soft x-ray spectroscopy at the oxygen K...

  8. Effect of Pressure on Valence and Structural Properties of YbFe2Ge2 Heavy Fermion Compound A Combined Inelastic X-ray Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, and Theoretical Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ravhi S.; Svane, Axel; Vaitheeswaran; #8741; , Ganapathy; Kanchana, Venkatakrishnan; Antonio, Daniel; Cornelius, Andrew L.; Bauer, Eric D.; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul (Aarhus); (CIW); (Hyderabad - India); (IIT-India); (LANL); (UNLV)

    2016-06-03

    The crystal structure and the Yb valence of the YbFe2Ge2 heavy fermion compound was measured at room temperature and under high pressures using high-pressure powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy via both partial fluorescence yield and resonant inelastic X-ray emission techniques. Furthermore, the measurements are complemented by first-principles density functional theoretical calculations using the self-interaction corrected local spin density approximation investigating in particular the magnetic structure and the Yb valence. While the ThCr2Si2-type tetragonal (I4/mmm) structure is stable up to 53 GPa, the X-ray emission results show an increase of the Yb valence from v = 2.72(2) at ambient pressure to v = 2.93(3) at ~9 GPa, where at low temperature a pressure-induced quantum critical state was reported.

  9. Valence change detection in memristive oxide based heterostructure cells by hard X-ray photoelectron emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsmüller, A.; Schmitz, C.; Wiemann, C.; Skaja, K.; Wouters, D. J.; Waser, R.; Schneider, C. M.; Dittmann, R.

    2018-04-01

    The switching mechanism of valence change resistive memory devices is widely accepted to be an ionic movement of oxygen vacancies resulting in a valence change of the metal cations. However, direct experimental proofs of valence changes in memristive devices are scarce. In this work, we have employed hard X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) to probe local valence changes in Pt/ZrOx/Ta memristive devices. The use of hard X-ray radiation increases the information depth, thus providing chemical information from buried layers. By extracting X-ray photoelectron spectra from different locations in the PEEM images, we show that zirconia in the active device area is reduced compared to a neighbouring region, confirming the valence change in the ZrOx film during electroforming. Furthermore, we succeeded in measuring the Ta 4f spectrum for two different resistance states on the same device. In both states, as well as outside the device region, the Ta electrode is composed of different suboxides without any metallic contribution, hinting to the formation of TaOx during the deposition of the Ta thin film. We observed a reduction of the Ta oxidation state in the low resistance state with respect to the high resistive state. This observation is contradictory to the established model, as the internal redistribution of oxygen between ZrOx and the Ta electrode during switching would lead to an oxidation of the Ta layer in the low resistance state. Instead, we have to conclude that the Ta electrode takes an active part in the switching process in our devices and that oxygen is released and reincorporated in the ZrOx/TaOx bilayer during switching. This is confirmed by the degradation of the high resistance state during endurance measurements under vacuum.

  10. Band offsets in HfTiO/InGaZnO4 heterojunction determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, G.; Chen, X.F.; Lv, J.G.; Fang, Z.B.; Liu, Y.M.; Zhu, K.R.; Sun, Z.Q.; Liu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Band offsets in HfTiO/InGaZnO 4 heterojunction were determined by XPS. • Valence band offset of HfTiO/IGZO heterojunction is determined to be 0.35 eV. • Conduction band offset of 1.61 eV is deduced for HfTiO/IGZO heterojunction. - Abstract: In current report, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been pursued to obtain the valence band discontinuity (ΔE v ) of sputter deposited HfTiO/InZnGaO 4 (IGZO) heterostructures. A ΔE v value of 0.32 ± 0.1 eV was obtained by using the Ga 2p3/2, Zn 2p3/2, and In 3d5/2 energy levels as references. Taking into consideration the experimental band gaps of 5.35 eV and 3.39 eV for HfTiO and IGZO thin films measured by absorption method, respectively, this would result in a conduction band offset of 1.64 eV in this heterostructure

  11. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyukhin, S.; Golovchak, R.; Kovalskiy, A.; Shpotyuk, O.; Jain, H.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As x Se 100−x , As x S 100−x , Ge x Se 100−x and Ge x S 100−x chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  12. Valence band structure of binary chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors by high-resolution XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyukhin, S., E-mail: sergkoz@igic.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Golovchak, R. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Kovalskiy, A. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States); Shpotyuk, O. [Lviv Scientific Research Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' (Ukraine); Jain, H. [Lehigh University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (United States)

    2011-04-15

    High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to study regularities in the formation of valence band electronic structure in binary As{sub x}Se{sub 100-x}, As{sub x}S{sub 100-x}, Ge{sub x}Se{sub 100-x} and Ge{sub x}S{sub 100-x} chalcogenide vitreous semiconductors. It is shown that the highest occupied energetic states in the valence band of these materials are formed by lone pair electrons of chalcogen atoms, which play dominant role in the formation of valence band electronic structure of chalcogen-rich glasses. A well-expressed contribution from chalcogen bonding p electrons and more deep s orbitals are also recorded in the experimental valence band XPS spectra. Compositional dependences of the observed bands are qualitatively analyzed from structural and compositional points of view.

  13. Relaxation and cross section effects in valence band photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFeely, F.R.

    1976-09-01

    Various problems relating to the interpretation of valence band x-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra of solids are discussed. The experiments and calculations reported herein deal with the following questions: (1) To what extent do many-body effects manifest themselves in an XPS valence band spectrum, and thus invalidate a direct comparison between the photoemission energy distribution, I(E), and the density of states, N(E), calculated on the basis of ground-state one-electron theory. (2) The effect of the binding-energy-dependent photoemission cross section on I(E) at XPS energies. (3) In favorable cases indicated by (1) and (2) we examine the effect of the interaction of the crystal field with the apparent spin-orbit splittings of core levels observed in XPS spectra. (4) The use of tight binding band structure calculations to parameterize the electronic band structure from XPS and other data is described. (5) The use of high energy angle-resolved photoemission on oriented single crystals to gain orbital symmetry information is discussed. (6) The evolution of the shape of the photoemission energy distribution (of polycrystalline Cu) as a function of photon energy from 50 less than or equal h ω less than or equal 175 is discussed

  14. RESONANT MAGNETIC-X-RAY SCATTERING FROM MIXED-VALENCE TMSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MCWHAN, DB; ISAACS, ED; CARRA, P; SHAPIRO, SM; THOLE, BT; HOSHINO, S

    1993-01-01

    The mixed-valent compound TmSe has been studied in its antiferromagnetic state (T x-ray scattering. The (003) magnetic reflection shows two peaks as a function of incident energy corresponding to the L(III) absorption edges of its Tm2+ and Tm2+ configurations. This

  15. Diffracted X-ray tracking for monitoring intramolecular motion in individual protein molecules using broad band X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Sasaki, Yuji C. [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 609 Kiban Building 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kahiwashi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, CREST, Sasaki-Team, 609 Kiban Building, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Masato; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Senba, Yasunori; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Ohta, Noboru [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Hoshisashi, Kentaro; Jae-won, Chang; Tokue, Maki; Matsushita, Yufuku [Department of Advanced Materials Science, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 609 Kiban Building 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kahiwashi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Nishijima, Masaki; Inoue, Yoshihisa [Department of Applied Chemistry and Office for University-Industry Collaboration, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yagi, Naoto [Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, CREST, Sasaki-Team, 609 Kiban Building, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Diffracted X-ray tracking (DXT) enables the tilting and twisting motions of single protein molecules to be monitored with micro- to milliradian resolution using a highly brilliant X-ray source with a wide energy bandwidth. We have developed a technique to monitor single molecules using gold nanocrystals attached to individual protein molecules using the BL28B2 beamline at SPring-8. In this paper we present the installation of a single toroidal X-ray mirror at BL28B2 to focus X-rays in an energy range of 10–20 keV (△E/E = 82% for an X-ray with a wide energy bandwidth). With this beamline we tracked diffraction spots from gold nanocrystals over a wide angle range than that using quasi-monochromatic X-rays. Application of the wide angle DXT technique to biological systems enabled us to observe the on-site motions of single protein molecules that have been functionalized in vivo. We further extend the capability of DXT by observing the fractional tilting and twisting motions of inner proteins under various conditions. As a proof of this methodology and to determine instrumental performance the intramolecular motions of a human serum albumin complex with 2-anthracenecarboxylic acid was investigated using the BL28B2 beamline. The random tilting and twisting intramolecular motions are shown to be directly linked to the movement of individual protein molecules in the buffer solution.

  16. X-Band Linac Beam-Line for Medical Compton Scattering X-Ray Source

    CERN Document Server

    Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Ebina, Futaro; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Hayano, Hitoshi; Higo, Toshiyasu; Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Ogino, Haruyuki; Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Urakawa, Junji; Yamamoto, Tomohiko

    2005-01-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10~80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U. Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard ( 10-80

  17. Bulk band gaps in divalent hexaborides: A soft x-ray emission study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Allen, James W.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Fisk, Zachary

    2001-01-01

    Boron K-edge soft x-ray emission and absorption are used to address the fundamental question of whether divalent hexaborides are intrinsic semimetals or defect-doped bandgap insulators. These bulk sensitive measurements, complementary and consistent with surface-sensitive angle-resolved photoemission experiments, confirm the existence of a bulk band gap and the location of the chemical potential at the bottom of the conduction band

  18. X-ray photoelectron spectra structure of actinide compounds stipulated by electrons of the inner valence molecular orbitals (IVMO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterin, Yu. A.; Ivanov, K. E.

    1997-01-01

    Development of precise X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using X-ray radiation hν< 1.5 KeV allowed to carry out immediate investigations of fine spectra structure of both weakly bond and deep electrons. Based on the experiments and the obtained results it may be concluded: 1. Under favourable conditions the inner valence molecular orbitals (IVMO) may form in all actinide compounds. 2. The XPS spectra fine structure stipulated by IVMO electrons allows to judge upon the degree of participation of the filled AO electrons in the chemical bond, on the structure o considered atom close environment and the bond lengths in compounds. For amorphous compounds the obtaining of such data based on X-ray structure analysis is restricted. 3. The summary contribution of IVMO electrons to the absolute value of the chemical bonding is comparable with the corresponding value of OMO electrons contribution to the atomic bonding. This fact is very important and new in chemistry. (author)

  19. X-band RF gun and linac for medical Compton scattering X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobashi, Katsuhito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumito; Ebina, Futaro; Ogino, Haruyuki; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Hayano, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2004-12-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10-80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U.Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard (10-80 keV) X-rays with the intensities of 108-1010 photons/s (at several stages) and the table-top size. Second important aspect is to reduce noise radiation at a beam dump by adopting the deceleration of electrons after the Compton scattering. This realizes one beamline of a 3rd generation SR source at small facilities without heavy shielding. The final goal is that the linac and laser are installed on the moving gantry. We have designed the X-band (11.424 GHz) traveling-wave-type linac for the purpose. Numerical consideration by CAIN code and luminosity calculation are performed to estimate the X-ray yield. X-band thermionic-cathode RF-gun and RDS(Round Detuned Structure)-type X-band accelerating structure are applied to generate 50 MeV electron beam with 20 pC microbunches (104) for 1 microsecond RF macro-pulse. The X-ray yield by the electron beam and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser of 2 J/10 ns is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec at 10 pps). We design to adopt a technique of laser circulation to increase the X-ray yield up to 109 photons/pulse (1010 photons/s). 50 MW X-band klystron and compact modulator have been constructed and now under tuning. The construction of the whole system has started. X-ray generation and medical application will be performed in the early next year.

  20. X-band RF gun and linac for medical Compton scattering X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobashi, Katsuhito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumito; Ebina, Futaro; Ogino, Haruyuki; Urakawa, Junji; Higo, Toshiyasu; Akemoto, Mitsuo; Hayano, Hitoshi; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2004-01-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10-80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U.Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard (10-80 keV) X-rays with the intensities of 108-1010 photons/s (at several stages) and the table-top size. Second important aspect is to reduce noise radiation at a beam dump by adopting the deceleration of electrons after the Compton scattering. This realizes one beamline of a 3rd generation SR source at small facilities without heavy shielding. The final goal is that the linac and laser are installed on the moving gantry. We have designed the X-band (11.424 GHz) traveling-wave-type linac for the purpose. Numerical consideration by CAIN code and luminosity calculation are performed to estimate the X-ray yield. X-band thermionic-cathode RF-gun and RDS(Round Detuned Structure)-type X-band accelerating structure are applied to generate 50 MeV electron beam with 20 pC microbunches (104) for 1 microsecond RF macro-pulse. The X-ray yield by the electron beam and Q-switch Nd:YAG laser of 2 J/10 ns is 107 photons/RF-pulse (108 photons/sec at 10 pps). We design to adopt a technique of laser circulation to increase the X-ray yield up to 109 photons/pulse (1010 photons/s). 50 MW X-band klystron and compact modulator have been constructed and now under tuning. The construction of the whole system has started. X-ray generation and medical application will be performed in the early next year

  1. Band alignment of HfO{sub 2}/AlN heterojunction investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Gang [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, Hong, E-mail: ewanghong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); CNRS-International-NTU-THALES Research Alliances/UMI 3288, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553 (Singapore); Ji, Rong [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science Technology and Research (A-STAR), Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2016-04-18

    The band alignment between AlN and Atomic-Layer-Deposited (ALD) HfO{sub 2} was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The shift of Al 2p core-levels to lower binding energies with the decrease of take-off angles θ indicated upward band bending occurred at the AlN surface. Based on the angle-resolved XPS measurements combined with numerical calculations, valence band discontinuity ΔE{sub V} of 0.4 ± 0.2 eV at HfO{sub 2}/AlN interface was determined by taking AlN surface band bending into account. By taking the band gap of HfO{sub 2} and AlN as 5.8 eV and 6.2 eV, respectively, a type-II band line-up was found between HfO{sub 2} and AlN.

  2. Band alignment of ZnO/multilayer MoS{sub 2} interface determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinke, E-mail: xkliu@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: liuwj@szu.edu.cn; He, Jiazhu; Chen, Le; Li, Kuilong; Jia, Fang; Zeng, Yuxiang; Lu, Youming; Zhu, Deliang; Liu, Wenjun, E-mail: xkliu@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: liuwj@szu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanshan District Key Lab for Biopolymer and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen University, 3688 Nanhai Ave, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Zhang, Yuan [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Hua Bei Normal University, 100 Dongshan Road, Huai Bei 235000 (China); Liu, Qiang; Yu, Wenjie [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, CAS, 865 Chang Ning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wu, Jing [Institute of Materials research and Engineering (IMRE), 2 Fusionopolis Way, Innovis, #08-03, 138634 Singapore (Singapore); He, Zhubing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, 1088 Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Ang, Kah-Wee [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, 117583 Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-08-15

    The energy band alignment between ZnO and multilayer (ML)-MoS{sub 2} was characterized using high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ZnO film was deposited using an atomic layer deposition tool, and ML-MoS{sub 2} was grown by chemical vapor deposition. A valence band offset (VBO) of 3.32 eV and a conduction band offset (CBO) of 1.12 eV were obtained for the ZnO/ML-MoS{sub 2} interface without any treatment. With CHF{sub 3} plasma treatment, a VBO and a CBO across the ZnO/ML-MoS{sub 2} interface were found to be 3.54 eV and 1.34 eV, respectively. With the CHF{sub 3} plasma treatment, the band alignment of the ZnO/ML-MoS{sub 2} interface has been changed from type II or staggered band alignment to type III or misaligned one, which favors the electron-hole pair separation. The band alignment difference is believed to be dominated by the down-shift in the core level of Zn 2p or the interface dipoles, which is caused by the interfacial layer rich in F.

  3. The Synthesis of NiO/TiO2 Heterostructures and Their Valence Band Offset Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Ibupoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a heterojunction based on p-type NiO/n-type TiO2 nanostructures has been prepared on the fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO glass substrate by hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-Ray diffraction techniques were used for the morphological and crystalline arrays characterization. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to determine the valence-band offset (VBO of the NiO/TiO2 heterojunction prepared on FTO glass substrate. The core levels of Ni 2p and Ti 2p were utilized to align the valence-band offset of p-type NiO/n-type TiO2 heterojunction. The valence band offset was found to be ∼0.41 eV and the conduction band was calculated about ∼0.91 eV. The ratio of conduction band offset and the valence-band offset was found to be 2.21.

  4. Core and Valence Structures in K beta X-ray Emission Spectra of Chromium Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Deluigi, Maria; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Lopez-Diaz, Gaston; Tirao, German; Stutz, Guillermo; Riveros de la Vega, Jose

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the core and valence transitions in chromium in a series of materials with a number of different ligands and including the oxidation states: Cr-II, Cr-III, Cr-IV, and Cr-VI. To study the core-to-core transitions we employ the CTM4XAS program and investigate the shapes, widths,

  5. Attempt at interpreting some optical absorption bands in X-ray irradiated fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, Yves

    1959-01-01

    According to the results of one of our experiments, the 575 mμ absorption band of fluorine irradiated with X-Rays seams due to F - ion vacancies. Our goal has been to find a color centers model in fluorine colored in various conditions. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 248, p. 2318-2320, sitting of Aril 20, 1959 [fr

  6. X-ray absorption studies of chlorine valence and local environments in borosilicate waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, David A.; Gan, Hao; Pegg, Ian L.; Stolte, W.C.; Demchenko, I.N.

    2011-01-01

    Chlorine (Cl) is a constituent of certain types of nuclear wastes and its presence can affect the physical and chemical properties of silicate melts and glasses developed for the immobilization of such wastes. Cl K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) were collected and analyzed to characterize the unknown Cl environments in borosilicate waste glass formulations, ranging in Cl-content from 0.23 to 0.94 wt.%. Both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data for the glasses show trends dependent on calcium (Ca) content. Near-edge data for the Ca-rich glasses are most similar to the Cl XANES of CaCl 2 , where Cl - is coordinated to three Ca atoms, while the XANES for the Ca-poor glasses are more similar to the mineral davyne, where Cl is most commonly coordinated to two Ca in one site, as well as Cl and oxygen nearest-neighbors in other sites. With increasing Ca content in the glass, Cl XANES for the glasses approach that for CaCl 2 , indicating more Ca nearest-neighbors around Cl. Reliable structural information obtained from the EXAFS data for the glasses is limited, however, to Cl-Cl, Cl-O, and Cl-Na distances; Cl-Ca contributions could not be fit to the glass data, due to the narrow k-space range available for analysis. Structural models that best fit the glass EXAFS data include Cl-Cl, Cl-O, and Cl-Na correlations, where Cl-O and Cl-Na distances decrease by approximately 0.16 A as glass Ca content increases. XAS for the glasses indicates Cl - is found in multiple sites where most Cl-sites have Ca neighbors, with oxygen, and possibly, Na second-nearest neighbors. EXAFS analyses suggest that Cl-Cl environments may also exist in the glasses in minor amounts. These results are generally consistent with earlier findings for silicate glasses, where Cl - was associated with Ca 2+ and Na + in network modifier sites.

  7. Tin Valence and Local Environments in Silicate Glasses as Determined From X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, D.; Buechele, A.; Gan, H.; Pegg, I.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to characterize the tin (Sn) environments in four borosilicate glass nuclear waste formulations, two silicate float glasses, and three potassium aluminosilicate glasses. Sn K-edge XAS data of most glasses investigated indicate Sn4+O6 units with average Sn-O distances near 2.03 Angstroms. XAS data for a float glass fabricated under reducing conditions show a mixture of Sn4+O6 and Sn2+O4 sites. XAS data for three glasses indicate Sn-Sn distances ranging from 3.43 to 3.53 Angstroms, that suggest Sn4+O6 units linking with each other, while the 4.96 Angstroms Sn-Sn distance for one waste glass suggests clustering of unlinked Sn4+O6 units.

  8. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of band offsets in Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO heterojunction for UV photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karmvir; Rawal, Ishpal; Punia, Rajesh; Dhar, Rakesh

    2017-10-01

    Here, we report the valence and conduction band offset measurements in pure ZnO and the Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO heterojunction by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies for UV photodetector applications. For detailed investigations on the band offsets and UV photodetection behavior of Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO heterostructures, thin films of pristine ZnO, Ga-doped ZnO (Ga0.02Zn0.98O), and heterostructures of Ga-doped ZnO with ZnO (Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO) were deposited using a pulsed laser deposition technique. The deposited thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies were carried out on all the thin films for the investigation of valence and conduction band offsets. The valence band was found to be shifted by 0.28 eV, while the conduction band has a shifting of -0.272 eV in the Ga0.02Zn0.98O/ZnO heterojunction as compared to pristine ZnO thin films. All the three samples were analyzed for photoconduction behavior under UVA light of the intensity of 3.3 mW/cm2, and it was observed that the photoresponse of pristine ZnO (19.75%) was found to increase with 2 wt. % doping of Ga (22.62%) and heterostructured thin films (29.10%). The mechanism of UV photodetection in the deposited samples has been discussed in detail, and the interaction of chemisorbed oxygen on the ZnO surface with holes generated by UV light exposure has been the observed mechanism for the change in electrical conductivity responsible for UV photoresponse on the present deposited ZnO films.

  9. Valence electronic structure of Ni in Ni Si alloys from relative K X-ray intensity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Y.; Aydinuraz, A.; Tugluoglu, B.; Mutlu, R. H.

    2007-02-01

    The Kβ-to-Kα X-ray intensity ratio of Ni in Ni 3Si, Ni 2Si and NiSi has been determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. It is found that the intensity ratio of Ni decreases from pure Ni to Ni 2Si and then increases from Ni 2Si to NiSi, in good agreement with the electronic structure calculations cited in the literature. We have also performed band structure calculations for pure Ni in various atomic configurations by means of linear muffin-tin orbital method and used this data with the normalized theoretical intensity ratios cited in the literature to estimate the 3d-occupation numbers of Ni in Ni-Si alloys. It is emphasized that investigation of alloying effect in terms of X-ray intensity ratios should be carried out for the stoichiometric alloys in order to make reliable and quantitative comparisons between theory and experiment in transition metal alloys.

  10. Band offsets of non-polar A-plane GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterostructures measured by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ling; Zhu, Qin Sheng; Yang, Shao Yan; Liu, Gui Peng; Li, Hui Jie; Wei, Hong Yuan; Jiao, Chun Mei; Liu, Shu Man; Wang, Zhan Guo; Zhou, Xiao Wei; Mao, Wei; Hao, Yue; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The band offsets of non-polar A-plane GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions are measured by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A large forward-backward asymmetry is observed in the non-polar GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions. The valence-band offsets in the non-polar A-plane GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions are determined to be 1.33 ± 0.16 and 0.73 ± 0.16 eV, respectively. The large valence-band offset difference of 0.6 eV between the non-polar GaN/AlN and AlN/GaN heterojunctions is considered to be due to piezoelectric strain effect in the non-polar heterojunction overlayers.

  11. Valence band photoemission studies of clean metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, P.S.

    1978-04-01

    The application of Angle-Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARPES) to crystalline solids and the utilization of such studies to illuminate several questions concerning the detailed electronic structure of such materials, are discussed. Specifically, by construction of a Direct Transition (DT) model and the utilization of energy-dependent angle-resolved normal photoemission in the photon energy range 32 eV < or = hν < or = 200 eV, the bulk band structure of copper is experimentally mapped out along three different directions in the Brillouin Zone; GAMMA to K, GAMMA to L, and GAMMA to X. In addition, various effects which influence the obtainable resolution in vector k-space, namely, thermal disorder, momentum broadening, and band mixing, are discussed and are shown to place severe limitations on the applicability of the DT model. Finally, a model for Angle-Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) based on the symmetry of the initial-state wavefunctions is presented and compared to experimental results obtained from copper single crystals

  12. Temperature-induced valence transition in EuNi2(Si0.20Ge0.80)2 studied by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuya; Kamakura, Nozomu; Taguchi, Munetaka; Chainani, Ashish; Takata, Yasutaka; Horiba, Koji; Shin, Shik; Ikenaga, Eiji; Mimura, Kojiro; Shiga, Masayuki; Wada, Hirofumi; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Awaji, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Nishino, Yoshinori; Miwa, Daigo; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2005-01-01

    The temperature-induced mixed valence transition in EuNi 2 (Si 0.20 Ge 0.80 ) 2 has been investigated by hard X-ray (5940 eV) photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES) for fractured surfaces, with a probing depth larger than 5 nm. The Eu 3d core-level states are studied below and above the critical valence transition temperature, T v = 80 K. The HX-PES spectra at 40 and 120 K show the mixed valence transition, with clear changes in the divalent and trivalent Eu 3d chemically shifted features. The Eu 3d HX-PES spectra indicate a mean valence of 2.70 ± 0.03 at 40 K which changes to 2.40 ± 0.03 at 120 K, in good accordance with the results of bulk Eu III -edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements

  13. Evaluation of band alignment of α-Ga2O3/α-(Al x Ga1‑ x )2O3 heterostructures by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Takayuki; Jinno, Riena; Takemoto, Shu; Kaneko, Kentaro; Fujita, Shizuo

    2018-04-01

    The band alignment at an α-Ga2O3/α-(Al x Ga1‑ x )2O3 heterointerface, with different Al compositions (x), grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimental results show that the heterointerface has the type-I band discontinuity with the valence band offsets of 0.090, 0.12, and 0.14 eV, and the conduction band offsets of 0.34, 0.79, and 1.87 eV, for x values of 0.1, 0.4, and 0.8, respectively. The small band offset for the valence band is attributed to the fact that the valence band of oxides is constituted by the localized O 2p level, which is dominated by the nature of oxygen atoms. The type-I band discontinuity is desirable for a variety of heterostructure devices.

  14. Development of hard X-ray photoelectron SPLEED-based spectrometer applicable for probing of buried magnetic layer valence states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozina, Xeniya, E-mail: kozina@uni-mainz.de [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ikenaga, Eiji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Viol Barbosa, Carlos Eduardo; Ouardi, Siham; Karel, Julie [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Yamamoto, Masafumi [Division of Electronics for Informatics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Kobayashi, Keisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, SPring-8, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Elmers, Hans Joachim; Schönhense, Gerd [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg – Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Felser, Claudia [Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A high-voltage compatible spin-HAXPES detector based on SPLEED from W(001) has been developed. • Magnetic properties of a TMR device were studied by core-level photoemission on the Fe 2p{sub 3/2} states. • The developed instrument enabled probing of buried layers in the region of the valence states. - Abstract: A novel design of high-voltage compatible polarimeter for spin-resolved hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (Spin-HAXPES) went into operation at beamline BL09XU of SPring-8 in Hyogo, Japan. The detector is based on the well-established principle of electron diffraction from a W(001) single-crystal at a scattering energy of 103.5 eV. It's special feature is that it can be operated at a high negative bias potential up to 10 kV, necessary to access the HAXPES range. The polarimeter is operated behind a large hemispherical analyzer (Scienta R-4000). It was optimized for high transmission of the transfer optics. A delay-line detector (20 mm dia.) is positioned at the exit plane of the analyzer enabling conventional multichannel intensity spectroscopy simultaneously with single-channel spin analysis. The performance of the combined setup is demonstrated by the spin-resolved data for the valence-region of a FeCo functional layer of a tunneling device, buried beneath 3 nm of oxidic material. The well-structured spin polarization spectrum validates Spin-HAXPES in the valence energy range as powerful method for bulk electronic structure analysis. The spin polarization spectrum exhibits a rich structure, originating from clearly discernible transitions in the majority and minority partial spin spectra.

  15. Microscopic bosonization of band structures: x-ray processes beyond the Fermi edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyman, Izak; Florens, Serge

    2017-11-01

    Bosonization provides a powerful analytical framework to deal with one-dimensional strongly interacting fermion systems, which makes it a cornerstone in quantum many-body theory. However, this success comes at the expense of using effective infrared parameters, and restricting the description to low energy states near the Fermi level. We propose a radical extension of the bosonization technique that overcomes both limitations, allowing computations with microscopic lattice Hamiltonians, from the Fermi level down to the bottom of the band. The formalism rests on the simple idea of representating the fermion kinetic term in the energy domain, after which it can be expressed in terms of free bosonic degrees of freedom. As a result, one- and two-body fermionic scattering processes generate anharmonic boson-boson interactions, even in the forward channel. We show that up to moderate interaction strengths, these non-linearities can be treated analytically at all energy scales, using the x-ray emission problem as a showcase. In the strong interaction regime, we employ a systematic variational solution of the bosonic theory, and obtain results that agree quantitatively with an exact diagonalization of the original one-particle fermionic model. This provides a proof of the fully microscopic character of bosonization, on all energy scales, for an arbitrary band structure. Besides recovering the known x-ray edge singularity at the emission threshold, we find strong signatures of correlations even at emission frequencies beyond the band bottom.

  16. Band alignment study of lattice-matched In{sub 0.49}Ga{sub 0.51}P and Ge using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Man Hon Samuel, E-mail: m.owen.sg@ieee.org, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org; Zhou, Qian; Gong, Xiao; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: m.owen.sg@ieee.org, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Ji Sheng [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Loke, Wan Khai; Wicaksono, Satrio; Yoon, Soon Fatt [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2014-09-08

    Lattice-matched In{sub 0.49}Ga{sub 0.51}P was grown on a p-type Ge(100) substrate with a 10° off-cut towards the (111) by low temperature molecular beam epitaxy, and the band-alignment of In{sub 0.49}Ga{sub 0.51}P on Ge substrate was obtained by high resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band offset for the InGaP/Ge(100) interface was found to be 0.64 ± 0.12 eV, with a corresponding conduction band offset of 0.60 ± 0.12 eV. The InGaP/Ge interface is found to be of the type I band alignment.

  17. Determination of the surface band bending in InxGa1−xN films by hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickael Lozac'h, Shigenori Ueda, Shitao Liu, Hideki Yoshikawa, Sang Liwen, Xinqiang Wang, Bo Shen, Kazuaki Sakoda, Keisuke Kobayashi and Masatomo Sumiya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Core-level and valence band spectra of InxGa1−xN films were measured using hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES. Fine structure, caused by the coupling of the localized Ga 3d and In 4d with N 2s states, was experimentally observed in the films. Because of the large detection depth of HX-PES (~20 nm, the spectra contain both surface and bulk information due to the surface band bending. The InxGa1−xN films (x = 0–0.21 exhibited upward surface band bending, and the valence band maximum was shifted to lower binding energy when the mole fraction of InN was increased. On the other hand, downward surface band bending was confirmed for an InN film with low carrier density despite its n-type conduction. Although the Fermi level (EF near the surface of the InN film was detected inside the conduction band as reported previously, it can be concluded that EF in the bulk of the film must be located in the band gap below the conduction band minimum.

  18. Band offsets of novel CoTiO{sub 3}/Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} heterojunction measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangkawong, Kanlayawat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Tantraviwat, Doldet [Thai Microelectronics Center (TMEC), National Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), Chachoengsao 24000 (Thailand); Phanichphant, Sukon [Materials Science Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Inceesungvorn, Burapat, E-mail: binceesungvorn@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Band lineup of novel CoTiO{sub 3}/Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} composite is determined by semidirect XPS method. • The composite forms a type-II staggered heterojunction. • Valence and conduction-band offsets are 0.2 ± 0.3 and −0.6 ± 0.3 eV, respectively. • Band lineup determination is needed for understanding charge transfer at interfaces. - Abstract: The energy band diagram and band offsets of the novel CoTiO{sub 3}/Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} heterojunction photocatalyst are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for the first time. Excluding the strain effect, the valence-band and conduction-band offsets are determined to be 0.2 ± 0.3 eV and −0.6 ± 0.3 eV, respectively. The CoTiO{sub 3}/Ag{sub 3}VO{sub 4} composite forms a type-II heterojunction, for which the photogenerated charge carriers could be effectively separated. The results suggest that determination of the energy band structure is crucial for understanding the photogenerated charge transfer mechanism at the interfaces, hence the corresponding photocatalytic activity and would also be beneficial to the design of new and efficient heterostructure-based photocatalysts.

  19. Manganese L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of manganese catalase from Lactobacillus plantarum and mixed valence manganese complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grush, M.M.; Chen, J.; George, S.J. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-10

    The first Mn L-edge absorption spectra of a Mn metalloprotein are presented in this paper. Both reduced and superoxidized Mn catalase have been examined by fluorescence-detected soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and their Mn L-edge spectra are dramatically different. The spectrum of reduced Mn(II)Mn(II) catalase has been interpreted by ligand field atomic multiplet calculations and by comparison to model compound spectra. The analysis finds a 10 Dq value of nearly 1.1 eV, consistent with coordination by predominately nitrogen and oxygen donor ligands. For interpretation of mixed valence Mn spectra, an empirical simulation procedure based on the addition of homovalent model compound spectra has been developed and was tested on a variety of Mn complexes and superoxidized Mn catalase. This routine was also used to determine the oxidation state composition of the Mn in [Ba{sub 8}Na{sub 2}ClMn{sub 16}(OH){sub 8}(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}L{sub 8}] .53 H{sub 2}O (L=1,3-diamino-2-hydroxypropane-N,N,N`N`-tetraacetic acid). 27 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Band alignment of InGaZnO4/Si interface by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyeongmi; Kamiya, Toshio; Nomura, Kenji; Yanagi, Hiroshi; Ikenaga, Eiji; Sugiyama, Takeharu; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Hosono, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    Although amorphous InGaZnO 4 has intensively been studied for a semiconductor channel material of thin-film transistors in next-generation flat-panel displays, its electronic structure parameters have not been reported. In this work, the electron affinities (χ) and the ionization potentials (I p ) of crystalline and amorphous InGaZnO 4 (c-IGZO and a-IGZO) were measured using bulk-sensitive hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. First, the χ and I p values of c-IGZO and a-IGZO thin films were estimated by aligning the Zn 2p 3/2 core level energies to a literature value for ZnO, which provided χ = 3.90 eV and I p = 7.58 eV for c-IGZO and 4.31 eV and 7.41 eV for a-IGZO. It was also confirmed that the escape depth of the photoelectrons excited by the photon energy of 5950.2 eV is 3.3 nm for a-IGZO and large enough for directly measuring the interface electronic structure using a-IGZO/c-Si heterojunctions. It provided the valence band offset of ∼2.3 eV, which agrees well with the above data. The present results substantiate that the a-IGZO/c-Si interface follows well the Schottky-Mott rule.

  1. Simulating Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy of Transition Metal Complexes with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Mukamel, Shaul; Khalil, Munira; Govind, Niranjan

    2015-12-08

    Valence-to-core (VtC) X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has emerged as a powerful technique for the structural characterization of complex organometallic compounds in realistic environments. Since the spectrum represents electronic transitions from the ligand molecular orbitals to the core holes of the metal centers, the approach is more chemically sensitive to the metal-ligand bonding character compared with conventional X-ray absorption techniques. In this paper we study how linear-response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT) can be harnessed to simulate K-edge VtC X-ray emission spectra reliably. LR-TDDFT allows one to go beyond the single-particle picture that has been extensively used to simulate VtC-XES. We consider seven low- and high-spin model complexes involving chromium, manganese, and iron transition metal centers. Our results are in good agreement with experiment.

  2. Band offsets in HfTiO/InGaZnO{sub 4} heterojunction determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, G., E-mail: ganghe01@issp.ac.cn [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials & Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Chen, X.F. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials & Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Lv, J.G., E-mail: jglv@hftc.edu.cn [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230601 (China); Fang, Z.B., E-mail: csfzb@usx.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Liu, Y.M.; Zhu, K.R.; Sun, Z.Q. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials & Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Liu, M., E-mail: mliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanostructure, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Band offsets in HfTiO/InGaZnO{sub 4} heterojunction were determined by XPS. • Valence band offset of HfTiO/IGZO heterojunction is determined to be 0.35 eV. • Conduction band offset of 1.61 eV is deduced for HfTiO/IGZO heterojunction. - Abstract: In current report, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been pursued to obtain the valence band discontinuity (ΔE{sub v}) of sputter deposited HfTiO/InZnGaO{sub 4} (IGZO) heterostructures. A ΔE{sub v} value of 0.32 ± 0.1 eV was obtained by using the Ga 2p3/2, Zn 2p3/2, and In 3d5/2 energy levels as references. Taking into consideration the experimental band gaps of 5.35 eV and 3.39 eV for HfTiO and IGZO thin films measured by absorption method, respectively, this would result in a conduction band offset of 1.64 eV in this heterostructure.

  3. Determination of a natural valence-band offset - The case of HgTe and CdTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C. K.; Spicer, W. E.

    1987-01-01

    A method to determine a natural valence-band offset (NVBO), i.e., the change in the valence-band maximum energy which is intrinsic to the bulk band structures of semiconductors is proposed. The HgTe-CdTe system is used as an example in which it is found that the valence-band maximum of HgTe lies 0.35 + or - 0.06 eV above that of CdTe. The NVBO of 0.35 eV is in good agreement with the X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurement of the heterojunction offset. The procedure to determine the NVBO between semiconductors, and its implication on the heterojunction band lineup and the electronic structures of semiconductor alloys, are discussed.

  4. Band offset in zinc oxy-sulfide/cubic-tin sulfide interface from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanal, K.C.; Nair, P.K.; Nair, M.T.S., E-mail: mtsn@ier.unam.mx

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Zinc oxy-sulfide thin films, 175–240 nm, deposited by rf-sputtering from targets of ZnO + ZnS. • Oxygen content in thin films is enhanced 3–4 times compared with that in ZnO:ZnS targets. • Thin film ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} with x = 0.88–0.27 and optical band gap 2.8–3.2 eV is suitable for solar cells. • The conduction band offset with SnS of cubic structure studied by XPS are +0.41 to −0.28 eV. - Abstract: Zinc oxy-sulfide, ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x}, has been found to provide better band alignment in thin film solar cells of tin sulfide of orthorhombic crystalline structure. Here we examine ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x}/SnS-CUB interface, in which the ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} thin film was deposited by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering on SnS thin film of cubic (CUB) crystalline structure with a band gap (E{sub g}) of 1.72 eV, obtained via chemical deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provides the valence band maxima of the materials and hence places the conduction band offset of 0.41 eV for SnS-CUB/ZnO{sub 0.27}S{sub 0.73} and −0.28 eV for SnS-CUB/ZnO{sub 0.88}S{sub 0.12} interfaces. Thin films of ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} with 175–240 nm in thickness were deposited from targets prepared with different ZnO to ZnS molar ratios. With the target of molar ratio of 1:13.4, the thin films are of composition ZnO{sub 0.27}S{sub 0.73} with hexagonal crystalline structure and with that of 1:1.7 ratio, it is ZnO{sub 0.88}S{sub 0.12}. The optical band gap of the ZnO{sub x}S{sub 1−x} thin films varies from 2.90 eV to 3.21 eV as the sulfur to zinc ratio in the film increases from 0.12:1 to 0.73:1 as determined from X-ray diffraction patterns. Thus, band offsets sought for absorber materials and zinc oxy-sulfide in solar cells may be achieved through a choice of ZnO:ZnS ratio in the sputtering target.

  5. X-ray absorption and reflection as probes of the GaN conduction bands: Theory and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, W.R.L.; Rashkeev, S.N.; Segall, B. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    X-ray absorption measurements are a well-known probe of the unoccupied states in a material. The same information can be obtained by using glancing angle X-ray reflectivity. In spite of several existing band structure calculations of the group III nitrides and previous optical studies in UV range, a direct probe of their conduction band densities of states is of interest. The authors performed a joint experimental and theoretical investigation using both of these experimental techniques for wurtzite GaN.

  6. Hole energy and momentum distributions in valence bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, G. van der.

    1982-01-01

    In order to understand the electrical and magnetic properties of solids, the knowledge of the density of states and the dispersion relation of the valence bands is indispensable. This thesis offers some alternative methods to obtain information about the nature of the valence band. Part A deals with the energy distribution of the photoelectrons. A simple model, which explains the core hole satellite structure in compounds with large correlation effects between the valence band holes and the created photo-hole, is outlined. CuCl, CuX 2 (X = F Cl and Br) are studied, by photoemission and Auger electron spectroscopies in determining the valence band properties. Part B deals with the simultaneous measurement of the energy and the wave vector of the emitted electrons. A practical example is given for the determination of the dispersion relation in copper. The measurements of a surface resonance band and the distribution of the secondary electrons are also reported. (Auth.)

  7. Super-Eddington accretion on to the neutron star NGC 7793 P13: Broad-band X-ray spectroscopy and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Fürst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Middleton, M. J.; Ptak, A.; Tao, L.

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed, broad-band X-ray spectral analysis of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 7793 P13, a known super-Eddington source, utilizing data from the XMM-Newton, NuSTAR and Chandra observatories. The broad-band XMM-Newton+NuSTAR spectrum of P13 is qualitatively similar to the rest of the ULX sample with broad-band coverage, suggesting that additional ULXs in the known population may host neutron star accretors. Through time-averaged, phase-resolved and multi-epoch studies, we find that two non-pulsed thermal blackbody components with temperatures ∼0.5 and 1.5 keV are required to fit the data below 10 keV, in addition to a third continuum component which extends to higher energies and is associated with the pulsed emission from the accretion column. The characteristic radii of the thermal components appear to be comparable, and are too large to be associated with the neutron star itself, so the need for two components likely indicates the accretion flow outside the magnetosphere is complex. We suggest a scenario in which the thick inner disc expected for super-Eddington accretion begins to form, but is terminated by the neutron star's magnetic field soon after its onset, implying a limit of B ≲ 6 × 1012 G for the dipolar component of the central neutron star's magnetic field. Evidence of similar termination of the disc in other sources may offer a further means of identifying additional neutron star ULXs. Finally, we examine the spectrum exhibited by P13 during one of its unusual 'off' states. These data require both a hard power-law component, suggesting residual accretion on to the neutron star, and emission from a thermal plasma, which we argue is likely associated with the P13 system.

  8. Band alignments in Fe/graphene/Si(001) junctions studied by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Breton, J.-C.; Tricot, S.; Delhaye, G.; Lépine, B.; Turban, P.; Schieffer, P.

    2016-08-01

    The control of tunnel contact resistance is of primary importance for semiconductor-based spintronic devices. This control is hardly achieved with conventional oxide-based tunnel barriers due to deposition-induced interface states. Manipulation of single 2D atomic crystals (such as graphene sheets) weakly interacting with their substrate might represent an alternative and efficient way to design new heterostructures for a variety of different purposes including spin injection into semiconductors. In the present paper, we study by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy the band alignments and interface chemistry of iron-graphene-hydrogenated passivated silicon (001) surfaces for a low and a high n-doping concentration. We find that the hydrogen passivation of the Si(001) surface remains efficient even with a graphene sheet on the Si(001) surface. For both doping concentrations, the semiconductor is close to flat-band conditions which indicates that the Fermi level is unpinned on the semiconductor side of the Graphene/Si(001):H interface. When iron is deposited on the graphene/Si(001):H structures, the Schottky barrier height remains mainly unaffected by the metallic overlayer with a very low barrier height for electrons, a sought-after property in semiconductor based spintronic devices. Finally, we demonstrate that the graphene layer intercalated between the metal and semiconductor also serves as a protection against iron-silicide formation even at elevated temperatures preventing from the formation of a Si-based magnetic dead layer.

  9. Band alignments in Fe/graphene/Si(001) junctions studied by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Breton, J.-C.; Tricot, S.; Delhaye, G.; Lépine, B.; Turban, P.; Schieffer, P.

    2016-01-01

    The control of tunnel contact resistance is of primary importance for semiconductor-based spintronic devices. This control is hardly achieved with conventional oxide-based tunnel barriers due to deposition-induced interface states. Manipulation of single 2D atomic crystals (such as graphene sheets) weakly interacting with their substrate might represent an alternative and efficient way to design new heterostructures for a variety of different purposes including spin injection into semiconductors. In the present paper, we study by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy the band alignments and interface chemistry of iron–graphene-hydrogenated passivated silicon (001) surfaces for a low and a high n-doping concentration. We find that the hydrogen passivation of the Si(001) surface remains efficient even with a graphene sheet on the Si(001) surface. For both doping concentrations, the semiconductor is close to flat-band conditions which indicates that the Fermi level is unpinned on the semiconductor side of the Graphene/Si(001):H interface. When iron is deposited on the graphene/Si(001):H structures, the Schottky barrier height remains mainly unaffected by the metallic overlayer with a very low barrier height for electrons, a sought-after property in semiconductor based spintronic devices. Finally, we demonstrate that the graphene layer intercalated between the metal and semiconductor also serves as a protection against iron-silicide formation even at elevated temperatures preventing from the formation of a Si-based magnetic dead layer.

  10. Band alignment of atomic layer deposited MgO/Zn0.8Al0.2O heterointerface determined by charge corrected X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Yang, Yuzhen; Heng, Yuekun

    2016-05-01

    Pure magnesium (MgO) and zinc oxide doped with aluminum oxide (Zn0.8Al0.2O) were prepared via atomic layer deposition. We have studied the structure and band gap of bulk Zn0.8Al0.2O material by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Tauc method, and the band offsets and alignment of atomic layer deposited MgO/Zn0.8Al0.2O heterointerface were investigated systematically using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in this study. Different methodologies, such as neutralizing electron gun, the use of C 1s peak recalibration and zero charging method, were applied to recover the actual position of the core levels in insulator materials which were easily influenced by differential charging phenomena. Schematic band alignment diagram, valence band offset (ΔEV) and conduction band offset (ΔEC) for the interface of the MgO/Zn0.8Al0.2O heterostructure have been constructed. An accurate value of ΔEV = 0.72 ± 0.11 eV was obtained from various combinations of core levels of heterojunction with varied MgO thickness. Given the experimental band gaps of 7.83 eV for MgO and 5.29 eV for Zn0.8Al0.2O, a type-II heterojunction with a ΔEC of 3.26 ± 0.11 eV was found. Band offsets and alignment studies of these heterojunctions are important for gaining deep consideration to the design of various optoelectronic devices based on such heterointerface.

  11. Valence-electron configuration of Fe, Cr, and Ni in binary and ternary alloys from Kβ -to- Kα x-ray intensity ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, I.; Demir, L.

    2009-11-01

    Kβ -to- Kα x-ray intensity ratios of Fe, Cr, and Ni have been measured in pure metals and in alloys of FexNi1-x ( x=0.8 , 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, and 0.2), NixCr1-x ( x=0.8 , 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, and 0.2), FexCr1-x ( x=0.9 , 0.7, and 0.5), and FexCryNi1-(x+y) ( x=0.7-y=0.1 , x=0.5-y=0.2 , x=0.4-y=0.3 , x=0.3-y=0.3 , x=0.2-y=0.2 , and x=0.1-y=0.2 ) following excitation by 22.69 keV x rays from a 10 mCi C109d radioactive point source. The valence-electron configurations of these metals were determined by corporation of measured Kβ -to- Kα x-ray intensity ratios with the results of multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculation for various valence-electron configurations. Valence-electron configurations of 3d transition metals in alloys indicate significant differences with respect to the pure metals. Our analysis indicates that these differences arise from delocalization and/or charge transfer phenomena in alloys. Namely, the observed change of the valence-electron configurations of metals in alloys can be explained with the transfer of 3d electrons from one element to the other element and/or the rearrangement of electrons between 3d and 4s,4p states of individual metal atoms.

  12. Development of wave length-dispersive soft x-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes - an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Masami; Koike, Masato; Fukushima, Kurio; Kimura, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Two types of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray spectrometers, a high-dispersion type and a conventional one, for transmission electron microscopes were constructed. Those spectrometers were used to study the electronic states of valence electrons (bonding electrons). Both spectrometers extended the acceptable energy regions to higher than 2000 eV. The best energy resolution of 0.08 eV was obtained for an Al L-emission spectrum by using the high-dispersion type spectrometer. By using the spectrometer, C K-emission of carbon allotropes, Cu L-emission of Cu 1-x Zn x alloys and Pt M-emission spectra were presented. The FWHM value of 12 eV was obtained for the Pt Mα-emission peak. The performance of the conventional one was also presented for ZnS and a section specimen of a multilayer device. W-M and Si-K emissions were clearly resolved. Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has an advantage for obtaining spectra from a single crystalline specimen with a defined crystal setting. As an example of anisotropic soft X-ray emission, C K-emission spectra of single crystalline graphite with different crystal settings were presented. From the spectra, density of states of π- and σ-bondings were separately derived. These results demonstrated a method to analyse the electronic states of valence electrons of materials in the nanometre scale based on TEM. (author)

  13. A Compact 5 MeV S-Band Electron Linac Based X-Ray Source for Industrial Radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Auditore, Lucrezia; De Pasquale, Domenico; Emanuele, Umberto; Italiano, Antonio; Trifirò, Antonio; Trimarchi, Marina

    2005-01-01

    A compact and reliable X-ray source, based on a 5 MeV, 1 kW, S-band electron linac, has been set up at the Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit\\'a di Messina. This source, coupled with a GOS scintillator screen and a CCD camera, represents an innovative transportable system for industrial radiography and X-ray tomography. Optimization of the parameters influencing the e-gamma conversion and the X-ray beam characteristics have been studied by means of the MCNP-4C2 code. The converter choice is the result of the study of the e-gamma conversion performances for different materials and materials thicknesses. Also the converter position with respect to the linac exit window was studied. The chosen converter consists in a Ta-Cu target inserted close to the linac window. The Cu layer acts as a filter both on the electrons from the source and on the low energy X-rays. The X-ray beam angular profile was studied by means of GafChromic films with and without collimation. In the final source project, a collimation system pr...

  14. Characteristics of charge coupled devices over X-ray spectral band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishenskij, V O; Volkov, G S; Zajtsev, V I; Zazhivikhin, V V [Troitsk Institute for Thermonuclear and Innovation Investigations (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of the sensitivity and spatial resolution of charge coupled devices (CCD) influenced by X-ray quanta are reported. Both a calculation model of the interaction process between the X-ray radiation and the CCD-structure and experimental results of investigation of the CCD characteristics are presented. The theoretical model of interaction between X-ray radiation and CCD is suggested. In accordance with the model, the calculations of CCD sensitivity and spatial resolution, depending on the X-ray energy, are performed. The results of comparison of the calculated and experimental data obtained for linear CCD (LCCD) are presented. The CCD has a maximum sensitivity of approx. (1-2.5) . 10{sup 7} V.cm{sup 2}/J for quanta of energies of 0.5-8 keV. The CCD spatial resolution varies from 15-20 {mu}m (CCD gate size) for quanta of energies less then 4 keV and deteriorates up to 150 {mu}m for harder radiation (20-50 keV). CCD usage as space-resolving detectors for high-power installation diagnostics is presented. Other fields of CCD application for X-ray detection are discussed. Advantages of CCD in comparison with the traditional X-ray films is discussed from this point of view. (author). 4 figs., 3 refs.

  15. Hard x-ray photoemission study of the temperature-induced valence transition system EuNi2(Si1-xGex) 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiki, Katsuya; Mimura, Kojiro; Anzai, Hiroaki; Uozumi, Takayuki; Sato, Hitoshi; Utsumi, Yuki; Ueda, Shigenori; Mitsuda, Akihiro; Wada, Hirofumi; Taguchi, Yukihiro; Shimada, Kenya; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the bulk-derived electronic structure of the temperature-induced valence transition system EuNi2(Si1 -xGex )2 (x =0.70 , 0.79, and 0.82) by means of hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES). The HAXPES spectra clearly show distinct temperature dependencies in the spectral intensities of the Eu2 + and Eu3 +3 d components. For x =0.70 , the changes in the Eu2 + and Eu3 +3 d spectral components with temperature reflect a continuous valence transition, whereas the sudden changes for x =0.79 and 0.82 reflect first-order valence transitions. The Eu 3 d spectral shapes for all x and particularly the drastic changes in the Eu3 +3 d feature with temperature are validated by a theoretical calculation based on the single-impurity Anderson model (SIAM). SIAM analysis reveals that the valence transition for each x is controlled by the c -f hybridization strength and the charge-transfer energy. Furthermore, the c -f hybridization strength governs the valence transition of this system, which is either first order or continuous, consistent with Kondo volume collapse.

  16. Dual-array valence emission spectrometer (DAVES): A new approach for hard x-ray photon-in photon-out spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, K. D., E-mail: kdf1@cornell.edu; Lyndaker, A.; Krawcyk, T.; Conrad, J. [CHESS Wilson Lab, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Pollock, C. J. [Dept. of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    CHESS has developed and successfully deployed a novel Dual Array Valence Emission Spectrometer (DAVES) for high energy resolution, hard x-ray spectroscopy. DAVES employs the simplest method for scanning multiple spherical crystals along a Rowland Circle. The new design achieves unique 2-color collection capability and is built to take special advantage of pixel array detectors. Our initial results show why these detectors greatly improve data quality. The presentation emphasizes flexibility of experimental design offered by DAVES. Prospects and benefits of 2-color spectroscopy are illustrated and discussed.

  17. Structural, electronic structure, and band alignment properties at epitaxial NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterojunction evaluated from synchrotron based X-ray techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S. D., E-mail: devsh@rrcat.gov.in; Das, Arijeet; Ajimsha, R. S.; Upadhyay, Anuj; Kamparath, Rajiv; Mukherjee, C.; Misra, P.; Rai, S. K.; Sinha, A. K.; Ganguli, Tapas [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Nand, Mangla; Jha, S. N. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400085 (India); Shukla, D. K.; Phase, D. M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Khandwa Road, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452017 (India)

    2016-04-28

    The valence band offset value of 2.3 ± 0.2 eV at epitaxial NiO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterojunction is determined from photoelectron spectroscopy experiments. Pulsed laser deposited thin film of NiO on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate is epitaxially grown along [111] direction with two domain structures, which are in-plane rotated by 60° with respect to each other. Observation of Pendellosung oscillations around Bragg peak confirms high interfacial and crystalline quality of NiO layer deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. Surface related feature in Ni 2p{sub 3/2} core level spectra along with oxygen K-edge soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicates that the initial growth of NiO on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate is in the form of islands, which merge to form NiO layer for the larger coverage. The value of conduction band offset is also evaluated from the measured values of band gaps of NiO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. A type-I band alignment at NiO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterojunction is also obtained. The determined values of band offsets can be useful in heterojunction based light emitting devices.

  18. A broad band X-ray imaging spectrophotometer for astrophysical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Kenneth S. K.; Lee, Dong Hwan; Ku, William H.-M.

    1988-01-01

    A broadband X-ray imaging spectrophotometer (BBXRIS) has been built for astrophysical studies. The BBXRIS is based on a large-imaging gas scintillation proportional counter (LIGSPC), a combination of a gas scintillation proportional counter and a multiwire proportional counter, which achieves 8 percent (FWHM) energy resolution and 1.5-mm (FWHM) spatial resolution at 5.9 keV. The LIGSPC can be integrated with a grazing incidence mirror and a coded aperture mask to provide imaging over a broad range of X-ray energies. The results of tests involving the LIGSPC and a coded aperture mask are presented, and possible applications of the BBXRIS are discussed.

  19. Fluorescence imaging as a diagnostic of M-band x-ray drive condition in hohlraum with fluorescent Si targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qi; Hu, Zhimin; Yao, Li; Huang, Chengwu; Yuan, Zheng; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Gang; Qing, Bo; Lv, Min; Zhu, Tuo; Deng, Bo; Li, Jin; Wei, Minxi; Zhan, Xiayu; Li, Jun; Yang, Yimeng; Su, Chunxiao; Yang, Guohong; Zhang, Jiyan; Li, Sanwei

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging of surrogate Si-doped CH targets has been used to provide a measurement for drive condition of high-energy x-ray (i.e. M-band x-ray) drive symmetry upon the capsule in hohlraum on Shenguang-II laser facility. A series of experiments dedicated to the study of photo-pumping and fluorescence effect in Si-plasma are presented. To investigate the feasibility of fluorescence imaging in Si-plasma, an silicon plasma in Si-foil target is pre-formed at ground state by the soft x-ray from a half-hohlraum, which is then photo-pumped by the K-shell lines from a spatially distinct laser-produced Si-plasma. The resonant Si photon pump is used to improve the fluorescence signal and cause visible image in the Si-foil. Preliminary fluorescence imaging of Si-ball target is performed in both Si-doped and pure Au hohlraum. The usual capsule at the center of the hohlraum is replaced with a solid Si-doped CH-ball (Si-ball). Since the fluorescence is proportional to the photon pump upon the Si-plasma, high-energy x-ray drive symmetry is equal to the fluorescence distribution of the Si-ball. (paper)

  20. Band offsets and growth mode of molecular beam epitaxy grown MgO (111) on GaN (0002) by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. S.; Collazo, R.; Losego, M. D.; Mita, S.; Sitar, Z.; Maria, J.-P.

    2007-10-01

    MgO is a proposed dielectric for use as a tunneling barrier in devices integrating GaN and ferroelectric oxides. In this study, we present data regarding the growth mode and band offsets of MgO grown epitaxially on GaN (0002) surfaces using molecular beam epitaxy. Using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and molecular beam epitaxy, we determine, from sequential growth experiments, that the growth of MgO proceeds via the Volmer-Weber (three-dimensional) mode, and full coalescence of the film does not occur until approximately 12nm of MgO has been deposited. The observation of a three-dimensional growth mode is in agreement with previously published data. For the valence band offset, we find a value of 1.2±0.2eV, which corresponds to a 3.2eV conduction band offset. XPS measurements suggest a chemically abrupt interface and no effect on band lineup due to the slow coalescence behavior.

  1. Band offsets and growth mode of molecular beam epitaxy grown MgO (111) on GaN (0002) by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, H. S.; Collazo, R.; Losego, M. D.; Mita, S.; Sitar, Z.; Maria, J.-P.

    2007-01-01

    MgO is a proposed dielectric for use as a tunneling barrier in devices integrating GaN and ferroelectric oxides. In this study, we present data regarding the growth mode and band offsets of MgO grown epitaxially on GaN (0002) surfaces using molecular beam epitaxy. Using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and molecular beam epitaxy, we determine, from sequential growth experiments, that the growth of MgO proceeds via the Volmer-Weber (three-dimensional) mode, and full coalescence of the film does not occur until approximately 12 nm of MgO has been deposited. The observation of a three-dimensional growth mode is in agreement with previously published data. For the valence band offset, we find a value of 1.2±0.2 eV, which corresponds to a 3.2 eV conduction band offset. XPS measurements suggest a chemically abrupt interface and no effect on band lineup due to the slow coalescence behavior

  2. Kaolinite: Defect defined material properties – A soft X-ray and first principles study of the band gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietzsch, A., E-mail: annette.pietzsch@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research G-ISRR, Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Nisar, J. [Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 2151, Islamabad (Pakistan); Jämstorp, E. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Gråsjö, J. [Department of Pharmacy, Uppsala University, Box 580, 75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Århammar, C. [Coromant R& D, S-126 80 Stockholm (Sweden); Ahuja, R.; Rubensson, J.-E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The respective electronic structure of synthetic and natural kaolinite is compared. • The size of the band gap and thus many important material properties are defined by defect states in the band gap. • The oxygen-based defect states are identified and analyzed. • The band gap of kaolinite decreases significantly due to the forming of defects. - Abstract: By combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first principles calculations we have determined the electronic structure of synthetic and natural kaolinite as a model system for engineered and natural clay materials. We have analyzed defect states in the band gap and find that both natural and synthetic kaolinite contain defects where oxygen replaces hydrogen in one of the Al (0 0 1)-hydroxyl groups of the kaolinite clay sheets. The band gap of both synthetic and natural kaolinite is found to decrease by about 3.2 eV as this defect is formed.

  3. Kaolinite: Defect defined material properties – A soft X-ray and first principles study of the band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietzsch, A.; Nisar, J.; Jämstorp, E.; Gråsjö, J.; Århammar, C.; Ahuja, R.; Rubensson, J.-E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The respective electronic structure of synthetic and natural kaolinite is compared. • The size of the band gap and thus many important material properties are defined by defect states in the band gap. • The oxygen-based defect states are identified and analyzed. • The band gap of kaolinite decreases significantly due to the forming of defects. - Abstract: By combining X-ray absorption spectroscopy and first principles calculations we have determined the electronic structure of synthetic and natural kaolinite as a model system for engineered and natural clay materials. We have analyzed defect states in the band gap and find that both natural and synthetic kaolinite contain defects where oxygen replaces hydrogen in one of the Al (0 0 1)-hydroxyl groups of the kaolinite clay sheets. The band gap of both synthetic and natural kaolinite is found to decrease by about 3.2 eV as this defect is formed

  4. Optical verification of the valence band structure of cadmium arsenide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelten, M.J.; Es, van C.M.; Blom, F.A.P.; Jongeneelen, J.W.F.

    1980-01-01

    Optical absorption measurements were performed on thin single crystalline samples of Cd3As2 at temperatures of 300 K and 10 K. At low temperature the interband absorption coefficient shows clearly two steps due to direct transitions from the heavy hole and light hole valence bands to the conduction

  5. single crystal growth, x-ray structure analysis, optical band gap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... Hg...Hgand Cl...Cl interactions are stabilizing the structures in 3D pattern. UV-vis absorption spectra illustrate the change in opticalband gap from 3.01eVto 3.42eV on replacing the metal halide group.Raman and Hyper-Raman tensors calculations were performed based on single crystal X-ray data and the ...

  6. Chemical and valence reconstruction at the surface of SmB6 revealed by means of resonant soft x-ray reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotnyy, V. B.; Fürsich, K.; Green, R. J.; Lutz, P.; Treiber, K.; Min, Chul-Hee; Dukhnenko, A. V.; Shitsevalova, N. Y.; Filipov, V. B.; Kang, B. Y.; Cho, B. K.; Sutarto, R.; He, Feizhou; Reinert, F.; Inosov, D. S.; Hinkov, V.

    2018-05-01

    Samarium hexaboride (SmB6), a Kondo insulator with mixed valence, has recently attracted much attention as a possible host for correlated topological surface states. Here, we use a combination of x-ray absorption and reflectometry techniques, backed up with a theoretical model for the resonant M4 ,5 absorption edge of Sm and photoemission data, to establish laterally averaged chemical and valence depth profiles at the surface of SmB6. We show that upon cleaving, the highly polar (001) surface of SmB6 undergoes substantial chemical and valence reconstruction, resulting in boron termination and a Sm3 + dominated subsurface region. Whereas at room temperature, the reconstruction occurs on a timescale of less than 2 h, it takes about 24 h below 50 K. The boron termination is eventually established, irrespective of the initial termination. Our findings reconcile earlier depth resolved photoemission and scanning tunneling spectroscopy studies performed at different temperatures and are important for better control of surface states in this system.

  7. Measurement of valence band structure in arbitrary dielectric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Choi, Eun H.

    2012-01-01

    A new way of measuring the band structure of various dielectric materials using the secondary electron emission from Auger neutralization of ions is introduced. The first example of this measurement scheme is the magnesium oxide (MgO) films with respect to the application of the films in the display industries. The density of state in the valence bands of MgO film and MgO film with a functional layer (FL) deposited over a dielectric surface reveals that the density peak of film with a FL is considerably less than that of film, thereby indicating a better performance of MgO film with functional layer in display devices. The second example of the measurement is the boron-zinc oxide (BZO) films with respect to the application of the films to the development of solar cells. The measurement of density of state in BZO film suggests that a high concentration of boron impurity in BZO films may enhance the transition of electrons and holes through the band gap from the valence to the conduction band in zinc oxide crystals; thereby improving the conductivity of the film. Secondary electron emission by the Auger neutralization of ions is highly instrumental for the determination of the density of states in the valence band of dielectric materials.

  8. A quantitative study of valence electron transfer in the skutterudite compound CoP3 by combining x-ray induced Auger and photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diplas, S; Prytz, Oe; Karlsen, O B; Watts, J F; Taftoe, J

    2007-01-01

    We use the sum of the ionization and Auger energy, the so-called Auger parameter, measured from the x-ray photoelectron spectrum, to study the valence electron distribution in the skutterudite CoP 3 . The electron transfer between Co and P was estimated using models relating changes in Auger parameter values to charge transfer. It was found that each P atom gains 0.24 e - , and considering the unit formula CoP 3 this is equivalent to a donation of 0.72 e - per Co atom. This is in agreement with a recent electron energy-loss spectroscopy study, which indicates a charge transfer of 0.77 e - /atom from Co to P

  9. X-ray Emitting GHz-Peaked Spectrum Galaxies: Testing a Dynamical-Radiative Model with Broad-Band Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostorero, L.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Diaferio, A.; Kowalska, I.; Cheung, C.C.; Kataoka, J.; Begelman, M.C.; Wagner, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the GPS spectral energy distribution (SED) with the source expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the γ-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broad-band SEDs of a sample of eleven X-ray emitting GPS galaxies with Compact-Symmetric-Object (CSO) morphology, and show that: (i) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism; (ii) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N H ) and radio (N HI ) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  10. The study on cytogenetic analysis and dosimetry reconstruction for medical diagnostic X-ray workers using G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin; Wang Qin; Tang Weisheng; Sun Yuanming; Wang Zhiquan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the dose of medical diagnostic X-ray workers. Methods: The chromosome aberrations were analyzed by G-banding or FISH in medical diagnostic X-ray workers with different calendar years of entry. Results: The biological doses estimated by the two methods were in agreement with the doses evaluated by physical methods. Conclusion: G-banding and FISH are effective ways to analyse the chromosome translocations

  11. New solar broad-band hard X-ray spectrometer: first results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fárník, František; Garcia, H.; Karlický, Marian

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 201, č. 2 (2001), s. 357-372 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/00/1726; GA AV ČR IAA3003003; GA AV ČR IBS1003006; GA AV ČR KSK2043105; GA AV ČR IAA303108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : X-ray * spectrometer * solar flare * radio emission Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.103, year: 2001

  12. Variable Energy 2-MeV S-Band Linac for X-ray and Other Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard Bender; Dave Schwellenbach; Ron Sturges; Rusty Trainham

    2008-01-01

    We will describe the design and operation of a compact, 2-MeV, S-band linear accelerator (linac) with variable energy tuning and short-pulse operation down to 15 ps with 100-A peak current. The design consists of a buncher cavity for short-pulse operation and two coupled resonator sections for acceleration. Single-pulse operation is accomplished through a fast injector system with a 219-MHz subharmonic buncher. The machine is intended to support a variety of applications, such as X-ray and electron beam diagnostic development and, recently, electron diffraction studies of phase transitions in shocked materials

  13. Variable Energy 2-MeV S-Band Linac for X-ray and Other Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Bender; D. Schwellenbach; R. Sturges; R. Trainham

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a compact, 2-MeV, S-band linear accelerator (linac) with variable energy tuning and short-pulse operation down to 15 ps with 100-A peak current. The design consists of a buncher cavity for short-pulse operation and two coupled resonator sections for acceleration. Single-pulse operation is accomplished through a fast injector system with a 219-MHz subharmonic buncher. The machine is intended to support a variety of applications, such as x-ray and electron beam diagnostic development, and recently, electron diffraction studies of phase transitions in shocked materials

  14. Spectroscopic determination of valence band parameters in InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.A.; Lough, B.C.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The general form of the Hamiltonian for an electron or hole in a semiconductor has been given by Luttinger. The valence band is characterised by three parameters - γ 1 , γ 2 , γ 3 -now commonly known as the Luttinger parameters. Despite many investigations there is still considerable uncertainty regarding the Luttinger parameters of InP. The situation has been reviewed by Hackenberg et al. These authors themselves sought to determine the Luttinger parameters by hot-electron luminescence and discovered that many Luttinger parameter triplets were consistent with their data. We employ a spectroscopic approach to estimating valence-band parameters in InP. Calculations have been made for both the unperturbed energy levels and the energy levels in a magnetic field of acceptor impurities in semiconductors characterised by different Luttinger parameters. We compare our recent experimental data for the transitions associated with the Zn acceptor impurity in InP in magnetic fields up to 30 T to determine the most appropriate set of valence-band parameters for InP

  15. Clustering of germanium atoms in silica glass responsible for the 3.1 eV emission band studied by optical absorption and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomoko; Muto, Shunsuke; Yuliati, Leny; Yoshida, Hisao; Inada, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Correlation between the 3.1 eV emission band and local atomic configuration was systematically examined for Ge + implanted silica glass by UV-vis optical absorption spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. The 2.7 eV emission band, commonly observed in defective silica, was replaced by the sharp and intense 3.1 eV emission band for the Ge + fluence > 2 x 10 16 cm -2 , in which UV-vis absorption spectra suggested clustering of Ge atoms with the size ∼1 nm. XAFS spectroscopy indicated that the Ge atoms were under coordinated with oxygen atoms nearly at a neutral valence state on average. The present results are consistent with the previous ESR study but imply that the small Ge clusters rather than the O=Ge: complexes (point defects) are responsible for the 3.1 eV emission band.

  16. Simulating Ru L3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy with time-dependent density functional theory: model complexes and electron localization in mixed-valence metal dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kuiken, Benjamin E; Valiev, Marat; Daifuku, Stephanie L; Bannan, Caitlin; Strader, Matthew L; Cho, Hana; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W; Govind, Niranjan; Khalil, Munira

    2013-05-30

    Ruthenium L3-edge X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy probes unoccupied 4d orbitals of the metal atom and is increasingly being used to investigate the local electronic structure in ground and excited electronic states of Ru complexes. The simultaneous development of computational tools for simulating Ru L3-edge spectra is crucial for interpreting the spectral features at a molecular level. This study demonstrates that time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a viable and predictive tool for simulating ruthenium L3-edge XA spectroscopy. We systematically investigate the effects of exchange correlation functional and implicit and explicit solvent interactions on a series of Ru(II) and Ru(III) complexes in their ground and electronic excited states. The TDDFT simulations reproduce all of the experimentally observed features in Ru L3-edge XA spectra within the experimental resolution (0.4 eV). Our simulations identify ligand-specific charge transfer features in complicated Ru L3-edge spectra of [Ru(CN)6](4-) and Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes illustrating the advantage of using TDDFT in complex systems. We conclude that the B3LYP functional most accurately predicts the transition energies of charge transfer features in these systems. We use our TDDFT approach to simulate experimental Ru L3-edge XA spectra of transition metal mixed-valence dimers of the form [(NC)5M(II)-CN-Ru(III)(NH3)5](-) (where M = Fe or Ru) dissolved in water. Our study determines the spectral signatures of electron delocalization in Ru L3-edge XA spectra. We find that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules is necessary for reproducing the spectral features and the experimentally determined valencies in these mixed-valence complexes. This study validates the use of TDDFT for simulating Ru 2p excitations using popular quantum chemistry codes and providing a powerful interpretive tool for equilibrium and ultrafast Ru L3-edge XA spectroscopy.

  17. Band alignment and interfacial chemical structure of the HfLaO/InGaZnO4 heterojunction investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Ling-Xuan; Wu, Ze-Han; Zhang, Yi-Yu; Liu, Xing-Zhao; Li, Yan-Rong; Liu, Yuan; Song, Jia-Qi

    2017-01-01

    Amorphous InGaZnO 4 thin film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) with HfLaO gate dielectrics have been widely demonstrated to possess extremely excellent electrical characteristics, and thus show great potential for applications in various next-generation electronic products. Nevertheless, the in-depth understanding of HfLaO/IGZO interfacial features is still lacking, which makes further device optimization lack clear guidance. In this work, the band alignment and interfacial chemical structure of a sputtering-prepared HfLaO/IGZO heterojunction was investigated through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence and conduction band offsets (Δ E v and Δ E c ) at the interface were determined to be 0.57 eV and 1.48 eV, respectively. The relatively large Δ E v is mainly attributed to the formation of the interfacial layer (IL) and thus the upward band bending from IGZO to the surface of HfLaO. Furthermore, it was found that the oxygen vacancies on the surface of IGZO were significantly suppressed upon the deposition of HfLaO, which not only explained the previously reported ultrahigh performance of a-IGZO/HfLaO TFTs to some extent, but also additionally validated the formation of the IL. Our findings have successfully revealed the importance of ILs in modifying the band alignment and interfacial trap states of HfLaO/IGZO heterojunctions, thus suggesting a potential route to further optimizing a-IGZO/HfLaO TFTs so as to satisfy the requirements of next-generation technologies. (paper)

  18. Compaction bands in shale revealed through digital volume correlation of time-resolved X-ray tomography scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, J.; Kobchenko, M.; Hall, S.; Tudisco, E.; Cordonnier, B.; Renard, F.

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have identified compaction bands primarily within sandstones, and in fewer instances, within other porous rocks and sediments. Using Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) of X-ray microtomography scans, we find evidence of localized zones of high axial contraction that form tabular structures sub-perpendicular to maximum compression, σ1, in Green River shale. To capture in situ strain localization throughout loading, two shale cores were deformed in the HADES triaxial deformation apparatus installed on the X-ray microtomography beamline ID19 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. In these experiments, we increase σ1 in increments of two MPa, with constant confining pressure (20 MPa), until the sample fails in macroscopic shear. After each stress step, a 3D image of the sample inside the rig is acquired at a voxel resolution of 6.5 μm. The evolution of lower density regions within 3D reconstructions of linear attenuation coefficients reveal the development of fractures that fail with some opening. If a fracture produces negligible dilation, it may remain undetected in image segmentation of the reconstructions. We use the DVC software TomoWarp2 to identify undetected fractures and capture the 3D incremental displacement field between each successive pair of microtomography scans acquired in each experiment. The corresponding strain fields reveal localized bands of high axial contraction that host minimal shear strain, and thus match the kinematic definition of compaction bands. The bands develop sub-perpendicular to σ1 in the two samples in which pre-existing bedding laminations were oriented parallel and perpendicular to σ1. As the shales deform plastically toward macroscopic shear failure, the number of bands and axial contraction within the bands increase, while the spacing between the bands decreases. Compaction band development accelerates the rate of overall axial contraction, increasing the mean axial contraction throughout the sample

  19. Band alignment of HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N determined by angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Man Hon Samuel, E-mail: m.owen.sg@ieee.org, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org; Bhuiyan, Maruf Amin; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: m.owen.sg@ieee.org, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Ji Sheng [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2014-07-21

    The band-alignment of atomic layer deposited (ALD)-HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N was studied by high resolution angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The band bending near the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N interface was investigated, and the potential variation across the interface was taken into account in the band alignment calculation. It is observed that the binding energies for N 1s and Al 2p in In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N decreases and the corresponding extracted valence band offsets increases with increasing θ (i.e., closer to the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N interface), as a result of an upward energy band bending towards the HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N interface. The resultant valence band offset and the conduction band offset for the ALD-HfO{sub 2}/In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N interface calculated was found to be 0.69 eV and 1.01 eV, respectively.

  20. X-ray and photoelectron spectroscopy of light rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuggle, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Core level photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, bremsstrahlung isochromat spectroscopy and valence band studies are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on cerium. Correlation effects, multiplet structure, screening effects and the dynamics of the processes involved are illustrated with selected examples. (Auth.)

  1. Band alignment of atomic layer deposited MgO/Zn{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}O heterointerface determined by charge corrected X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Baojun, E-mail: yanbj@ihep.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing P. O. Box 100049 (China); Liu, Shulin [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing P. O. Box 100049 (China); Yang, Yuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing P. O. Box 100049 (China); Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing P. O. Box 210093 (China); Heng, Yuekun [State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics, Institute of High Energy Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing P. O. Box 100049 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Band alignment of MgO/Zn{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}O heterojunction were investigated systematically using charge corrected X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. • Differential charging phenomenon is observed in determination VBOs of insulator/semiconductor heterojunction. • Valence and conduction band offsets have been determined to be 0.72 ± 0.11 eV and 3.26 ± 0.11 eV, respectively, with a type-II band line-up. - Abstract: Pure magnesium (MgO) and zinc oxide doped with aluminum oxide (Zn{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}O) were prepared via atomic layer deposition. We have studied the structure and band gap of bulk Zn{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}O material by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Tauc method, and the band offsets and alignment of atomic layer deposited MgO/Zn{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}O heterointerface were investigated systematically using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in this study. Different methodologies, such as neutralizing electron gun, the use of C 1s peak recalibration and zero charging method, were applied to recover the actual position of the core levels in insulator materials which were easily influenced by differential charging phenomena. Schematic band alignment diagram, valence band offset (ΔE{sub V}) and conduction band offset (ΔE{sub C}) for the interface of the MgO/Zn{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}O heterostructure have been constructed. An accurate value of ΔE{sub V} = 0.72 ± 0.11 eV was obtained from various combinations of core levels of heterojunction with varied MgO thickness. Given the experimental band gaps of 7.83 eV for MgO and 5.29 eV for Zn{sub 0.8}Al{sub 0.2}O, a type-II heterojunction with a ΔE{sub C} of 3.26 ± 0.11 eV was found. Band offsets and alignment studies of these heterojunctions are important for gaining deep consideration to the design of various optoelectronic devices based on such heterointerface.

  2. Analyzing shear band formation with high resolution X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagan, Darren C.; Obstalecki, Mark; Park, Jun-Sang; Miller, Matthew P.

    2018-04-01

    Localization of crystallographic slip into shear bands during uniaxial compression of a copper single crystal is studied using very far-field high-energy diffraction microscopy (vff-HEDM). Diffracted intensity was collected in-situ as the crystal deformed using a unique mobile detector stage that provided access to multiple diffraction peaks with high-angular resolution. From the diffraction data, single crystal orientation pole figures (SCPFs) were generated and are used to track the evolution of the distribution of lattice orientation that develops as slip localizes. To aid the identification of 'signatures' of shear band formation and analyze the SCPF data, a model of slip-driven lattice reorientation within shear bands is introduced. Confidence is built in conclusions drawn from the SCPF data about the character of internal slip localization through comparisons with strain fields on the sample surface measured simultaneously using digital image correlation. From the diffraction data, we find that the active slip direction and slip plane are not directly aligned with the orientation of the shear bands that formed. In fact, by extracting the underlying slip system activity from the SCPF data, we show that intersecting shear bands measured on the surface of the sample arise from slip primarily on the same underlying single slip system. These new vff-HEDM results raise significant questions on the use of surface measurements for slip system activity estimation. (C) 2018 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of valence band parameters in ZnTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, D.; Noethe, A.; Reimann, K. (Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst. - Lehrstuhl 2)

    1984-10-01

    The fine structure of the 2P exciton in ZnTe is studied by two-photon-absorption. The energy splitting into four states, caused by the envelope-hole coupling, allows the determination of the Luttinger parameters ..gamma../sub 2/ and ..gamma../sub 3/, which describe the complex valence band. ..gamma../sub 2/ = 0.8 and ..gamma../sub 3/ = 1.7 are obtained. These values are compared to results of other experiments mainly on 1S excitons.

  4. Valence and conduction band offsets of β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiding; Torres Castanedo, C. G.; Liu, Kaikai; Li, Kuang-Hui; Guo, Wenzhe; Lin, Ronghui; Liu, Xinwei; Li, Jingtao; Li, Xiaohang

    2017-10-01

    Both β-Ga2O3 and wurtzite AlN have wide bandgaps of 4.5-4.9 and 6.1 eV, respectively. We calculated the in-plane lattice mismatch between the (-201) plane of β-Ga2O3 and the (0002) plane of AlN, which was found to be 2.4%. This is the smallest mismatch between β-Ga2O3 and binary III-nitrides which is beneficial for the formation of a high quality β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction. However, the valence and conduction band offsets (VBO and CBO) at the β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction have not yet been identified. In this study, a very thin (less than 2 nm) β-Ga2O3 layer was deposited on an AlN/sapphire template to form the heterojunction by pulsed laser deposition. High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the core-level (CL) binding energies of Ga 3d and Al 2p with respect to the valence band maximum in individual β-Ga2O3 and AlN layers, respectively. The separation between Ga 3d and Al 2p CLs at the β-Ga2O3/AlN interface was also measured. Eventually, the VBO was found to be -0.55 ± 0.05 eV. Consequently, a staggered-gap (type II) heterojunction with a CBO of -1.75 ± 0.05 eV was determined. The identification of the band alignment of the β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction could facilitate the design of optical and electronic devices based on these and related alloys.

  5. Valence and conduction band offsets of β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haiding

    2017-10-16

    Both β-Ga2O3 and wurtzite AlN have wide bandgaps of 4.5–4.9 and 6.1 eV, respectively. We calculated the in-plane lattice mismatch between the (−201) plane of β-Ga2O3 and the (0002) plane of AlN, which was found to be 2.4%. This is the smallest mismatch between β-Ga2O3 and binary III-nitrides which is beneficial for the formation of a high quality β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction. However, the valence and conduction band offsets (VBO and CBO) at the β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction have not yet been identified. In this study, a very thin (less than 2 nm) β-Ga2O3 layer was deposited on an AlN/sapphire template to form the heterojunction by pulsed laser deposition. High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the core-level (CL) binding energies of Ga 3d and Al 2p with respect to the valence band maximum in individual β-Ga2O3 and AlN layers, respectively. The separation between Ga 3d and Al 2p CLs at the β-Ga2O3/AlN interface was also measured. Eventually, the VBO was found to be −0.55 ± 0.05 eV. Consequently, a staggered-gap (type II) heterojunction with a CBO of −1.75 ± 0.05 eV was determined. The identification of the band alignment of the β-Ga2O3/AlN heterojunction could facilitate the design of optical and electronic devices based on these and related alloys.

  6. Theory-driven design of high-valence metal sites for water oxidation confirmed using in situ soft X-ray absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xueli; Zhang, Bo; de Luna, Phil; Liang, Yufeng; Comin, Riccardo; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Han, Lili; García de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Liu, Min; Dinh, Cao Thang; Regier, Tom; Dynes, James J.; He, Sisi; Xin, Huolin L.; Peng, Huisheng; Prendergast, David; Du, Xiwen; Sargent, Edward H.

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency with which renewable fuels and feedstocks are synthesized from electrical sources is limited at present by the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in pH-neutral media. We took the view that generating transition-metal sites with high valence at low applied bias should improve the activity of neutral OER catalysts. Here, using density functional theory, we find that the formation energy of desired Ni4+ sites is systematically modulated by incorporating judicious combinations of Co, Fe and non-metal P. We therefore synthesized NiCoFeP oxyhydroxides and probed their oxidation kinetics with in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). In situ sXAS studies of neutral-pH OER catalysts indicate ready promotion of Ni4+ under low overpotential conditions. The NiCoFeP catalyst outperforms IrO2 and retains its performance following 100 h of operation. We showcase NiCoFeP in a membrane-free CO2 electroreduction system that achieves a 1.99 V cell voltage at 10 mA cm-2, reducing CO2 into CO and oxidizing H2O to O2 with a 64% electricity-to-chemical-fuel efficiency.

  7. Theory-driven design of high-valence metal sites for water oxidation confirmed using in situ soft X-ray absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xueli; Zhang, Bo; De Luna, Phil; Liang, Yufeng; Comin, Riccardo; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Han, Lili; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Liu, Min; Dinh, Cao Thang; Regier, Tom; Dynes, James J; He, Sisi; Xin, Huolin L; Peng, Huisheng; Prendergast, David; Du, Xiwen; Sargent, Edward H

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency with which renewable fuels and feedstocks are synthesized from electrical sources is limited at present by the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in pH-neutral media. We took the view that generating transition-metal sites with high valence at low applied bias should improve the activity of neutral OER catalysts. Here, using density functional theory, we find that the formation energy of desired Ni 4+ sites is systematically modulated by incorporating judicious combinations of Co, Fe and non-metal P. We therefore synthesized NiCoFeP oxyhydroxides and probed their oxidation kinetics with in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). In situ sXAS studies of neutral-pH OER catalysts indicate ready promotion of Ni 4+ under low overpotential conditions. The NiCoFeP catalyst outperforms IrO 2 and retains its performance following 100 h of operation. We showcase NiCoFeP in a membrane-free CO 2 electroreduction system that achieves a 1.99 V cell voltage at 10 mA cm -2 , reducing CO 2 into CO and oxidizing H 2 O to O 2 with a 64% electricity-to-chemical-fuel efficiency.

  8. X-band RF Photoinjector for Laser Compton X-ray and Gamma-ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, G. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gibson, D. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Barty, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-06

    Extremely bright narrow bandwidth gamma-ray sources are expanding the application of accelerator technology and light sources in new directions. An X-band test station has been commissioned at LLNL to develop multi-bunch electron beams. This multi-bunch mode will have stringent requirements for the electron bunch properties including low emittance and energy spread, but across multiple bunches. The test station is a unique facility featuring a 200 MV/m 5.59 cell X-band photogun powered by a SLAC XL4 klystron driven by a Scandinova solid-state modulator. This paper focuses on its current status including the generation and initial characterization of first electron beam. Design and installation of the inverse-Compton scattering interaction region and upgrade paths will be discussed along with future applications.

  9. Valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohani, H. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, P. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Goyal, R.; Awana, V.P.S. [National Physical Laboratory(CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi 110012 (India); Sekhar, B.R., E-mail: sekhar@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • VB Photoemission study and DFT calculations on Pd based ternary superconductors are presented. • Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} shows a temperature dependent pseudogap. • VB spectral features of ternary superconductors are correlated to their structural geometry. - Abstract: We present a comparative study of the valence band electronic structure of Pd based ternary chalcogenide superconductors Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}Te{sub 6} using experimental photoemission spectroscopy and density functional based theoretical calculations. We observe a qualitatively similarity between valence band (VB) spectra of Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} and Ta{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.97}S{sub 6}. Further, we find a pseudogap feature in Nb{sub 2}Pd{sub 0.95}S{sub 5} at low temperature, unlike other two compounds. We have correlated the structural geometry with the differences in VB spectra of these compounds. The different atomic packing in these compounds could vary the strength of inter-orbital hybridization among various atoms which leads to difference in their electronic structure as clearly observed in our DOS calculations.

  10. Huge operation by energy gap of novel narrow band gap Tl1-x In1-x B x Se2 (B = Si, Ge): DFT, x-ray emission and photoconductivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, M.; Myronchuk, G. L.; Zamurueva, O. V.; Khyzhun, O. Y.; Parasyuk, O. V.; Fedorchuk, A. O.; Albassam, A.; El-Naggar, A. M.; Kityk, I. V.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that narrow band gap semiconductors Tl1-x In1-x GexSe2 are able effectively to vary the values of the energy gap. DFT simulations of the principal bands during the cationic substitutions is done. Changes of carrier transport features is explored. Relation with the changes of the near the surface states is explored . Comparison on a common energy scale of the x-ray emission Se Kβ 2 bands, representing energy distribution of the Se 4p states, indicates that these states contribute preliminary to the top of the valence band. The temperature dependence of electrical conductivity and spectral dependence photoconductivity for the Tl1-x In1-x Ge x Se2 and Tl1-x In1-x Si x Se2 single crystals were explored and compared with previously reported Tl1-x In1-x Sn x Se2. Based on our investigations, a model of centre re-charging is proposed. Contrary to other investigated crystals in Tl1-x In1-x Ge x Se2 single crystals for x = 0.1 we observe extraordinarily enormous photoresponse, which exceed more than nine times the dark current. X-ray photoelectron core-level and valence-band spectra for pristine and Ar+-ion irradiated surfaces of Tl1-x In1-x GexSe2 (x = 0.1 and 0.2) single crystals have been studied. These results indicate that the relatively low hygroscopicity of the studied single crystals is typical for the Tl1-x In1-x Ge x Se2 crystals, a property that is very important for handling these quaternary selenides as infrared materials operating at ambient conditions.

  11. Interfacial chemistry and energy band alignment of TiAlO on 4H-SiC determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qian; Cheng, Xinhong; Zheng, Li; Ye, Peiyi; Li, Menglu; Shen, Lingyan; Li, Jingjie; Zhang, Dongliang; Gu, Ziyue; Yu, Yuehui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Composite TiAlO rather than TiO_2-Al_2O_3 laminations is deposited on 4H-SiC by PEALD. • An interfacial layer composed of Ti, Si, O and C forms between TiAlO and 4H-SiC. • TiAlO offers competitive barrier heights (>1 eV) for both electrons and holes. - Abstract: Intermixing of TiO_2 with Al_2O_3 to form TiAlO films on 4H-SiC is expected to simultaneously boost the dielectric constant and achieve sufficient conduction/valence band offsets (CBO/VBO) between dielectrics and 4H-SiC. In this work, a composite TiAlO film rather than TiO_2-Al_2O_3 laminations is deposited on 4H-SiC by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is performed to systematically analyze the interfacial chemistry and energy band alignment between TiAlO and 4H-SiC. An interfacial layer composed of Ti, Si, O and C forms between TiAlO and 4H-SiC during PEALD process. The VBO and CBO between TiAlO and 4H-SiC are determined to be 1.45 eV and 1.10 eV, respectively, which offer competitive barrier heights (>1 eV) for both electrons and holes and make it suitable for the fabrication of 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs).

  12. Interfacial chemistry and energy band alignment of TiAlO on 4H-SiC determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-System & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng, Xinhong, E-mail: xh_cheng@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-System & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zheng, Li, E-mail: zhengli@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-System & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ye, Peiyi; Li, Menglu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095 (United States); Shen, Lingyan; Li, Jingjie; Zhang, Dongliang; Gu, Ziyue [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-System & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-System & Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changning Road 865, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Composite TiAlO rather than TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} laminations is deposited on 4H-SiC by PEALD. • An interfacial layer composed of Ti, Si, O and C forms between TiAlO and 4H-SiC. • TiAlO offers competitive barrier heights (>1 eV) for both electrons and holes. - Abstract: Intermixing of TiO{sub 2} with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to form TiAlO films on 4H-SiC is expected to simultaneously boost the dielectric constant and achieve sufficient conduction/valence band offsets (CBO/VBO) between dielectrics and 4H-SiC. In this work, a composite TiAlO film rather than TiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} laminations is deposited on 4H-SiC by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is performed to systematically analyze the interfacial chemistry and energy band alignment between TiAlO and 4H-SiC. An interfacial layer composed of Ti, Si, O and C forms between TiAlO and 4H-SiC during PEALD process. The VBO and CBO between TiAlO and 4H-SiC are determined to be 1.45 eV and 1.10 eV, respectively, which offer competitive barrier heights (>1 eV) for both electrons and holes and make it suitable for the fabrication of 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs).

  13. Characterization of MBE-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructure valence band offsets with varying In composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Wenyuan, E-mail: wyjiaonju@gmail.com; Kong, Wei; Li, Jincheng; Kim, Tong-Ho; Brown, April S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708 (United States); Collar, Kristen [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708 (United States); Losurdo, Maria [CNR-NANOTEC, Istituto di Nanotecnologia, via Orabona, 4-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used in this work to experimentally determine the valence band offsets of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructures with varying indium composition. We find that the internal electric field resulting from polarization must be taken into account when analyzing the XPS data. Valence band offsets of 0.12 eV for In{sub 0.18}Al{sub 0.82}N, 0.15 eV for In{sub 0.17}Al{sub 0.83}N, and 0.23 eV for In{sub 0.098}Al{sub 0.902}N with GaN are obtained. The results show that a compositional-depended bowing parameter is needed in order to estimate the valence band energies of InAlN as a function of composition in relation to those of the binary endpoints, AlN and InN.

  14. Characterization of MBE-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructure valence band offsets with varying In composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyuan Jiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS is used in this work to experimentally determine the valence band offsets of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE-grown InAlN/GaN heterostructures with varying indium composition. We find that the internal electric field resulting from polarization must be taken into account when analyzing the XPS data. Valence band offsets of 0.12 eV for In0.18Al0.82N, 0.15 eV for In0.17Al0.83N, and 0.23 eV for In0.098Al0.902N with GaN are obtained. The results show that a compositional-depended bowing parameter is needed in order to estimate the valence band energies of InAlN as a function of composition in relation to those of the binary endpoints, AlN and InN.

  15. Persistence of Mixed and Non-intermediate Valence in the High-Pressure Structure of Silver(I,III) Oxide, AgO: A Combined Raman, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Adam; Gawraczyński, Jakub; Jaroń, Tomasz; Somayazulu, Maddury; Derzsi, Mariana; Struzhkin, Viktor; Grochala, Wojciech

    2017-05-15

    The X-ray diffraction data collected up to ca. 56 GPa and the Raman spectra measured up to 74.8 GPa for AgO, or Ag I Ag III O 2 , which is a prototypical mixed valence (disproportionated) oxide, indicate that two consecutive phase transitions occur: the first-order phase transition occurs between 16.1 GPa and 19.7 GPa, and a second-order phase transition occurs at ca. 40 GPa. All polymorphic forms host the square planar [Ag III O 4 ] units typical of low-spin Ag III . The disproportionated Imma form persists at least up to 74.8 GPa, as indicated by Raman spectra. Theoretical hybrid density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the first-order transition is phonon-driven. AgO stubbornly remains disproportionated up to at least 100 GPa-in striking contrast to its copper analogue-and the fundamental band gap of AgO is ∼0.3 eV at this pressure and is weakly pressure-dependent. Metallization of AgO is yet to be achieved.

  16. TlHgInS 3 : An Indirect-Band-Gap Semiconductor with X-ray Photoconductivity Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao; Malliakas, Christos D.; Han, Fei; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-08-11

    The quaternary compound TlHgInS3 crystallizes in a new structure type of space group, C2/c, with cell parameters a = 13.916(3) angstrom, b = 3.9132(8) angstrom, c = 21.403(4) angstrom, beta = 104.16(3)degrees, V = 1130.1(8) angstrom(3), and rho = 7.241 g/cm(3). The structure is a unique three-dimensional framework with parallel tunnels, which is formed by (1)(infinity)[InS33-] infinite chains bridged by linearly coordinated Hg2+ ions. TlHgInS3 is a semiconductor with a band gap of 1.74 eV and a resistivity of similar to 4.32 G Omega cm. TlHgInS3 single crystals exhibit photocurrent response when exposed to Ag X-rays. The mobility-lifetime product (mu tau) of the electrons and holes estimated from the photocurrent measurements are (mu tau)(e) approximate to 3.6 x 10(-4) cm(2)/V and (mu tau)(h) approximate to 2.0 x 10(-4) cm(2)/V. Electronic structure calculations at the density functional theory level indicate an indirect band gap and a relatively small effective mass for both electrons and holes. Based on the photoconductivity data, TlHgInS3 is a potential material for radiation detection applications.

  17. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectra of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrie, A.; Christensen, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    An electron spectrometer fitted with an x-ray monochromator for Al Kα1,2 radiation (1486.6 eV) has been used to record high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectra for the 4d valence band as well as the 3d spin doublet in silver. The core-level spectrum has a line shape that can be described...... successfully in terms of the many-body theory of Mahan, Nozières, and De Dominicis. The 4d spectrum agrees well with predictions based on a relativistic-augmented-plane-wave band-structure calculation....

  18. Valence band structure of PDMS surface and a blend with MWCNTs: A UPS and MIES study of an insulating polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmerl, Natalya M.; Khodakov, Dmitriy A.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Andersson, Gunther G., E-mail: gunther.andersson@flinders.edu.au

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Valence electron spectroscopy was performed on an insulating polymer using different charge compensation methods. • MWCNT were embedded in PDMS and found to be the most effective method for reducing the charging of the insulating polymer. • The valence band spectrum of PDMS was obtained via MIES and UPS. • Ion scattering spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration depth profile of the PDMS in the sample. - Abstract: The use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is increasing with new technologies working toward compact, flexible and transparent devices for use in medical and microfluidic systems. Electronic characterization of PDMS and other insulating materials is difficult due to charging, yet necessary for many applications where the interfacial structure is vital to device function or further modification. The outermost layer in particular is of importance as this is the area where chemical reactions such as surface functionalization will occur. Here, we investigate the valence band structure of the outermost layer and near surface area of PDMS through the use of metastable induced photoelectron spectroscopy (MIES) paired with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The chemical composition of the samples under investigation were measured via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the vertical distribution of the polymer was shown with neutral impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (NICISS). Three separate methods for charge compensation are used for the samples, and their effectiveness is compared.

  19. Characterization of the Valence and Conduction Band Levels of n = 1 2D Perovskites: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Silver, Scott

    2018-02-13

    This study presents a combined experimental and theoretical study of the electronic structure of two 2D metal halide perovskite films. Ultraviolet and inverse photoemission spectroscopies are performed on solution-processed thin films of the n = 1 layered perovskite butylammonium lead iodide and bromide, BA2PbI4 and BA2PbBr4, characterized by optical absorption and X-ray diffraction, to determine their valence and conduction band densities of states, transport gaps, and exciton binding energies. The electron spectroscopy results are compared with the densities of states determined by density functional theory calculations. The remarkable agreement between experiment and calculation enables a detailed identification and analysis of the organic and inorganic contributions to the valence and conduction bands of these two hybrid perovskites. The electron affinity and ionization energies are found to be 3.1 and 5.8 eV for BA2PbI4, and 3.1 and 6.5 eV for BA2PbBr4. The exciton binding energies are estimated to be 260 and 300 meV for the two materials, respectively. The 2D lead iodide and bromide perovskites exhibit significantly less band dispersion and a larger density of states at the band edges than the 3D analogs. The effects of using various organic ligands are also discussed.

  20. A redox equilibrator for the preparation of cytochrome oxidase of mixed valence states and intermediate compounds for x-ray synchrotron studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chance, B.; Moore, J.; Powers, L.; Ching, Y.

    1982-01-01

    A redox titrator for the preparation of small volumes of highly concentrated biological samples of X-ray synchrotron studies provides for the redox equilibration at temperatures of 40 to -30 0 C. Anaerobic transfer directly to the X-ray sample chamber and mixing of an additional reagent just prior to freeze-trapping of the redox-equilibrated sample are provided

  1. Influence of LaSiOx passivation interlayer on band alignment between PEALD-Al2O3 and 4H-SiC determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Cheng, Xinhong; Zheng, Li; Shen, Lingyan; Zhang, Dongliang; Gu, Ziyue; Qian, Ru; Cao, Duo; Yu, Yuehui

    2018-01-01

    The influence of lanthanum silicate (LaSiOx) passivation interlayer on the band alignment between plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD)-Al2O3 films and 4H-SiC was investigated by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An ultrathin in situ LaSiOx interfacial passivation layer (IPL) was introduced between the Al2O3 gate dielectric and the 4H-SiC substrate to enhance the interfacial characteristics. The valence band offset (VBO) and corresponding conduction band offset (CBO) for the Al2O3/4H-SiC interface without any passivation were extracted to be 2.16 eV and 1.49 eV, respectively. With a LaSiOx IPL, a VBO of 1.79 eV and a CBO of 1.86 eV could be obtained across the Al2O3/4H-SiC interface. The difference in the band alignments was dominated by the band bending or band shift in the 4H-SiC substrate as a result of different interfacial layers (ILs) formed at the interface. This understanding of the physical details of the band alignment could be a good foundation for Al2O3/LaSiOx/4H-SiC heterojunctions applied in the 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs).

  2. Valence band electronic structure and band alignment of LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}(111) heterointerfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabel, J.; Scheiderer, P.; Zapf, M.; Schuetz, P.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R. [Physikalisches Institut and Roentgen Center for Complex Material Systems (RCCM), Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schlueter, C.; Lee, T.L. [Diamond Light Source, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    As in the famous LaAlO{sub 3}(LAO)/SrTiO{sub 3}(STO) (001) a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) also forms at the interface between LAO and STO in (111) orientation. A distinct feature of the (111) interface is its peculiar real space topology. Each bilayer represents a buckled honeycomb lattice similar to graphene which is known theoretically to host various topologically non-trivial states. Bilayer STO in proximity to the interface can be regarded as a three-orbital generalization of graphene with enhanced electron correlations making it a promising candidate for the realization of strongly correlated topological phases. We have investigated the electronic structure of the LAO/STO (111) heterostructure in relation to the oxygen vacancy concentration which we can control by synchrotron light irradiation and oxygen dosing. With hard X-ray photoemission we study the core levels, whereas resonant soft X-ray photoemission is used to probe the interfacial valence band (VB) states. Two VB features are found: a peak at the Fermi level associated with the 2DES and in-gap states at higher binding energies attributed to oxygen vacancies. By varying the oxygen vacancy contribution we can tune the emergence of the VB states and engineer the interfacial band alignment.

  3. X-ray photoemission study of plutonium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptist, R.

    1982-01-01

    The x-ray induced photoemission from clean pure plutonium metal is described and the results for both core and valence levels are compared with previous measurements on light actinides. It is found that, as in thorium and urnaium, the configuration interaction plays an important role for core levels, in particular for those of the n=5 shell. The experimental valence-band spectrum confirms the existence of 5f states at the Fermi level and is compared with a density of states of FCC Pu derived from a recent relativistic band structure calculation. (author)

  4. Band Offset Measurements in Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3/Zn0.8Al0.2O Heterojunction Studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Baojun; Liu, Shulin; Heng, Yuekun; Yang, Yuzhen; Yu, Yang; Wen, Kaile

    2017-12-01

    Pure aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) and zinc aluminum oxide (Zn x Al 1-x O) thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The microstructure and optical band gaps (E g ) of the Zn x Al 1-x O (0.2 ≤ x ≤ 1) films were studied by X-ray diffractometer and Tauc method. The band offsets and alignment of atomic-layer-deposited Al 2 O 3 /Zn 0.8 Al 0.2 O heterojunction were investigated in detail using charge-corrected X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In this work, different methodologies were adopted to recover the actual position of the core levels in insulator materials which were easily affected by differential charging phenomena. Valence band offset (ΔE V ) and conduction band offset (ΔE C ) for the interface of the Al 2 O 3 /Zn 0.8 Al 0.2 O heterojunction have been constructed. An accurate value of ΔE V  = 0.82 ± 0.12 eV was obtained from various combinations of core levels of heterojunction with varied Al 2 O 3 thickness. Given the experimental E g of 6.8 eV for Al 2 O 3 and 5.29 eV for Zn 0.8 Al 0.2 O, a type-I heterojunction with a ΔE C of 0.69 ± 0.12 eV was found. The precise determination of the band alignment of Al 2 O 3 /Zn 0.8 Al 0.2 O heterojunction is of particular importance for gaining insight to the design of various electronic devices based on such heterointerface.

  5. Effects of surface condition on the work function and valence-band position of ZnSnN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Amanda M.; Tolstova, Yulia; Lewis, Nathan S.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2017-12-01

    ZnSnN2 is an emerging wide band gap earth-abundant semiconductor with potential applications in photonic devices such as solar cells, LEDs, and optical sensors. We report the characterization by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of reactively radio-frequency sputtered II-IV-nitride ZnSnN2 thin films. For samples transferred in high vacuum, the ZnSnN2 surface work function was 4.0 ± 0.1 eV below the vacuum level, with a valence-band onset of 1.2 ± 0.1 eV below the Fermi level. The resulting band diagram indicates that the degenerate bulk Fermi level position in ZnSnN2 shifts to mid-gap at the surface due to band bending that results from equilibration with delocalized surface states within the gap. Brief (< 10 s) exposures to air, a nitrogen-plasma treatment, or argon-ion sputtering caused significant chemical changes at the surface, both in surface composition and interfacial energetics. The relative band positioning of the n-type semiconductor against standard redox potentials indicated that ZnSnN2 has an appropriate energy band alignment for use as a photoanode to effect the oxygen-evolution reaction.

  6. Determination of the valence-band offset of CdS/CIS solar cell devices by target factor analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niles, D.W.; Contreras, M.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) is used to determine and compare the valence-band offsets ({Delta}E{sub v}) for CdS grown by chemical bath deposition on single-crystal and thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS). The thin-film CIS device was suitable for photovoltaic energy production. By sputtering through the CdS/CIS interface and reducing the depth profile with target factor analysis, the magnitude of {Delta}E{sub v} was determined to be {Delta}E{sub v} = 1.06 {+-} 0.15 eV for both the single-crystal and thin-film interfaces. This determination of {Delta}E{sub v} is about 0.25 eV larger than many previously reported estimations CdS grown by physical vapor deposition on CIS and helps explain the record performance of CdS/CIS photovoltaic devices.

  7. Natural and laboratory compaction bands in porous carbonates: a three-dimensional characterization using synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilona, A.; Arzilli, F.; Mancini, L.; Emanuele, T.

    2014-12-01

    Porous carbonates form important reservoirs for water and hydrocarbons. The fluid flow properties of carbonate reservoirs may be affected by post-depositional processes (e.g., mechanical and chemical), which need to be quantified. Field-based studies described bed-parallel compaction bands (CBs) within carbonates with a wide range of porosities. These burial-related structures accommodate volumetric strain by grain rotation, translation, pore collapse and pressure solution. Recently, the same structures have been reproduced for the first time in the laboratory by performing triaxial compaction experiments on porous grainstones. These laboratory studies characterized and compared the microstructures of natural and laboratory CBs, but no analysis of pore connectivity has been performed. In this paper, we use an innovative approach to characterize the pore networks (e.g. porosity, connectivity) of natural and laboratory CBs and compare them with the host rock one. We collected the data using the synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography technique at the SYRMEP beamline of the Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste Laboratory (Italy). Quantitative analyses of the samples were performed with the Pore3D software library. The porosity was calculated from segmented 3D images of pristine and deformed carbonates. A process of skeletonization was then applied to quantify the number of connected pores within the rock volume. The analysis of the skeleton allowed us to highlight the differences between natural and laboratory CBs, and to investigate how pore connectivity evolves as a function of different deformation pathways. Both pore volume and connectivity are reduced within the CBs respect to the pristine rock and the natural CB has a lower porosity with respect to the laboratory one. The grain contacts in the natural CB are welded, whereas in the laboratory one they have more irregular shapes and grain crushing is the predominant process.

  8. Valence-band and core-level photoemission study of single-crystal Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Z.; Lindberg, P.A.P.; Wells, B.O.; Mitzi, D.B.; Lindau, I.; Spicer, W.E.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1988-01-01

    High-quality single crystals of Bi 2 CaSr 2 Cu 2 O 8 superconductors have been prepared and cleaved in ultrahigh vacuum. Low-energy electron diffraction measurements show that the surface structure is consistent with the bulk crystal structure. Ultraviolet photoemission and x-ray photoemission experiments were performed on these well-characterized sample surfaces. The valence-band and the core-level spectra obtained from the single-crystal surfaces are in agreement with spectra recorded from polycrystalline samples, justifying earlier results from polycrystalline samples. Cu satellites are observed both in the valence band and Cu 2p core level, signaling the strong correlation among the Cu 3d electrons. The O 1s core-level data exhibit a sharp, single peak at 529-eV binding energy without any clear satellite structures

  9. Chemical state analysis of heat-treated 6, 13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene investigated by XPS valence band spectra, XANES spectra and first-principles calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, Maiko; Natsume, Yutaka; Kikuma, Jun; Setoyama, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) valence band spectra reflect the chemical bonding states. To take this advantage, we tried to interpret experimental spectra by the occupied density of states (DOS) based on first principles calculation. In this work, we discussed XPS and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra of 6, 13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-Pen), which is well known as an organic semiconductor. We studied chemical structure change of TIPS-Pen caused by heat-treatment at 300degC under nitrogen and under the air. It has been suggested that the structural change of pentacene skeleton by Diels-Alder type reaction occurs in both cases. In addition, the sample heat-treated under the air showed desorption of the isopropyl group and increase of oxygen concentration. (author)

  10. The broad-band X-ray spectrum of IC 4329A from a joint NuSTAR/Suzaku observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenneman, L. W.; Elvis, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 60 Garden St., MS-67, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Madejski, G. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Rivers, E.; Walton, D. J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Matt, G.; Marinucci, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Boggs, S. E. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, W. W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We have obtained a deep, simultaneous observation of the bright, nearby Seyfert galaxy IC 4329A with Suzaku and NuSTAR. Through a detailed spectral analysis, we are able to robustly separate the continuum, absorption, and distant reflection components in the spectrum. The absorbing column is found to be modest (∼6×10{sup 21} cm{sup −2} ), and does not introduce any significant curvature in the Fe K band. We are able to place a strong constraint on the presence of a broadened Fe Kα line (E{sub rest}=6.46{sub −0.07}{sup +0.08} keV with σ=0.33{sub −0.07}{sup +0.08} keV and EW=34{sub −7}{sup +8} eV), though we are not able to constrain any of the parameters of a relativistic reflection model. These results highlight the range in broad Fe K line strengths observed in nearby, bright, active galactic nuclei (roughly an order of magnitude), and imply a corresponding range in the physical properties of the inner accretion disk in these sources. We have also updated our previously reported measurement of the high-energy cutoff of the hard X-ray emission using both observatories rather than just NuSTAR alone: E {sub cut} = 186 ± 14 keV. This high-energy cutoff acts as a proxy for the temperature of the coronal electron plasma, enabling us to further separate this parameter from the plasma's optical depth and to update our results for these parameters as well. We derive kT=50{sub −3}{sup +6} keV with τ=2.34{sub −0.11}{sup +0.16} using a spherical geometry, kT = 61 ± 1 keV with τ = 0.68 ± 0.02 for a slab geometry, with both having an equivalent goodness-of-fit.

  11. Band alignment of HfO{sub 2}/multilayer MoS{sub 2} interface determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Effect of CHF{sub 3} treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinke; He, Jiazhu; Tang, Dan; Jia, Fang; Lu, Youming, E-mail: ymlu@szu.edu.cn; Zhu, Deliang; Liu, Wenjun; Cao, Peijiang; Han, Sun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Technology of Ceramics, Nanshan District Key Lab for Biopolymer and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen University, 3688 Nanhai Ave, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Qiang; Wen, Jiao; Yu, Wenjie, E-mail: casan@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, CAS,865 Chang Ning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Pan, Jisheng [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Agency for Science Technology and Research, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); He, Zhubing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, 1088 Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Ang, Kah-Wee [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2015-09-07

    The energy band alignment between HfO{sub 2}/multilayer (ML)-MoS{sub 2} was characterized using high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The HfO{sub 2} was deposited using an atomic layer deposition tool, and ML-MoS{sub 2} was grown by chemical vapor deposition. A valence band offset (VBO) of 1.98 eV and a conduction band offset (CBO) of 2.72 eV were obtained for the HfO{sub 2}/ML-MoS{sub 2} interface without any treatment. With CHF{sub 3} plasma treatment, a VBO and a CBO across the HfO{sub 2}/ML-MoS{sub 2} interface were found to be 2.47 eV and 2.23 eV, respectively. The band alignment difference is believed to be dominated by the down-shift in the core level of Hf 4d and up-shift in the core level of Mo 3d, or the interface dipoles, which caused by the interfacial layer in rich of F.

  12. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  13. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  14. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapilashrami, M.; Zegkinoglou, I. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Fadley, C. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Törndahl, T.; Fjällström, V. [Ångström Solar Center, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Lischner, J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Louie, Steven G. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Guo, J.-H. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Himpsel, F. J., E-mail: fhimpsel@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO=VBM{sub CIGS} – VBM{sub diamond}=0.3 eV±0.1 eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0 eV±0.1 eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  15. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapilashrami, M.; Zegkinoglou, I.; Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Fadley, C. S.; Törndahl, T.; Fjällström, V.; Lischner, J.; Louie, Steven G.; Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L.; Guo, J.-H.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO = VBM CIGS – VBM diamond  = 0.3 eV ± 0.1 eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0 eV ± 0.1 eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  16. Valence and magnetic state of transition-metal and rare-earth ions in single-crystal multiferroics RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} (R = Y, Bi, Eu, Gd) from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozakov, A.T. [Scientific-Research Institute of Physics at Southern Federal University, 194 Stachki, Rostov-na-Donu 344194 (Russian Federation); Kochur, A.G., E-mail: agk@rgups.ru [Rostov State University of Transport Communication, 2 Narodnogo Opolcheniya, Rostov-na-Donu 344038 (Russian Federation); Nikolsky, A.V.; Googlev, K.A.; Smotrakov, V.G.; Eremkin, V.V. [Scientific-Research Institute of Physics at Southern Federal University, 194 Stachki, Rostov-na-Donu 344194 (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Single crystals RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} (R = Y, Bi, Eu, Gd) and YMnO{sub 3} are grown. {yields} Core level XPS are measured and calculated with inclusion of temperature effect. {yields} Mn2p, Mn3s, R4s, and R4d (R = Eu, Gd) XPS are sensitive to valence and spin state. {yields} Paramagnetic moments per structural cell are estimated. - Abstract: Single crystals of orthorhombic multiferroics RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} (R = Y, Bi, Eu, Gd), and of hexagonal manganite YMnO{sub 3} are grown. X-ray photoelectron spectra of the core levels of the Mn, Y, Bi, Eu, Gd, and O atoms in multiferroics are obtained at room temperature with the ESCALAB 250 microprobe system with monochromatization of the exciting X-ray radiation. X-ray photoelectron spectra of Mn2p, Mn3s, R4s, and R4d (R = Eu, Gd) levels are assigned based on one-configuration isolated-ion approximation calculations with taking the temperature effect into account. It is shown using the photoelectron spectroscopy methods that both Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions are present in orthorhombic multiferroics, while Eu and Gd are in trivalent state. Paramagnetic moments per structural unit are calculated and compared with those determined from our spectroscopic data and with the data from other authors.

  17. The X-ray electronic spectra of TiC-NbC solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkashenko, V.M.; Ezhov, A.V.; Nazarova, S.Z.; Kurmaev, Eh.Z.; Nojmann, M.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray photoelectronic spectra of inner levels and valency lands in TiC-NbC solid solutions were studied. Results of combining TiL α -, NbL β2.15 -, CK α - X-ray emission spectra and photoelectronic spectra of valency bands in one energy scale in reference to the Fermi level were analyzed. It is shown that a change in crystal lattice parameters, as well as charge redistribution between titanium and niobium atoms, produce a strong effect on electronic structure formation in the mixed carbides mentioned [ru

  18. X-ray photoelectron and x-ray-induced Auger electron spectroscopic data, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Yuji; Sasaki, T.A.

    1984-02-01

    The intrinsic data of the X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and X-ray-induced Auger electron spectra (XAES) for 3d transition-metals and related oxides were presented. The clean surfaces of the metals were obtained by two different methods ; mechanical filings and Ar + ion etchings. The oxides examined are typical compounds such as Sc 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , V 2 O 5 and NiO. The report consists of 4 wide scans, 26 core-line spectra, 10 valence-band spectra and 20 XAES spectra. The peak positions of the core-lines and the Auger lines were summarized in 8 tables together with their chemical shifts. (author)

  19. X-ray absorption intensity at high-energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically discuss X-ray absorption intensity in high-energy region far from the deepest core threshold to explain the morphology-dependent mass attenuation coefficient of some carbon systems, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and fullerenes (C 60 ). The present theoretical approach is based on the many-body X-ray absorption theory including the intrinsic losses (shake-up losses). In the high-energy region the absorption coefficient has correction term dependent on the solid state effects given in terms of the polarization part of the screened Coulomb interaction W p . We also discuss the tail of the valence band X-ray absorption intensity. In the carbon systems C 2s contribution has some influence on the attenuation coefficient even in the high energy region at 20 keV.

  20. Electronic structure of multiferroic BiFeO3 by resonant soft-x-ray emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Tohru; Higuchi, T.; Liu, Y.-S.; Yao, P.; Glans, P.-A.; Guo, Jinghua; Chang, C.; Wu, Z.; Sakamoto, W.; Itoh, N.; Shimura, T.; Yogo, T.; Hattori, T.

    2008-07-11

    The electronic structure of multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} has been studied using soft-X-ray emission spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra exhibit that the valence band is mainly composed of O 2p state hybridized with Fe 3d state. The band gap corresponding to the energy separation between the top of the O 2p valence band and the bottom of the Fe 3d conduction band is 1.3 eV. The soft-X-ray Raman scattering reflects the features due to charge transfer transition from O 2p valence band to Fe 3d conduction band. These findings are similar to the result of electronic structure calculation by density functional theory within the local spin-density approximation that included the effect of Coulomb repulsion between localized d states.

  1. The broad-band X-ray spectrum of IC 4329A from a joint NuSTAR/Suzaku observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenneman, L. W.; Madejski, G.; Fuerst, F.

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained a deep, simultaneous observation of the bright, nearby Seyfert galaxy IC 4329A with Suzaku andNuSTAR. Through a detailed spectral analysis, we are able to robustly separate the continuum, absorption, and distant reflection components in the spectrum. The absorbing column is found...... also updated our previously reported measurement of the high-energy cutoff of the hard X-ray emission using both observatories rather than justNuSTAR alone: Ecut = 186±14 keV. This high-energy cutoff acts as a proxy for the temperature of the coronal electron plasma, enabling us to further separate...

  2. Characterization of the electronic structure of C50Cl10 by means of soft x-ray spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brena, Barbara; Luo Yi

    2005-01-01

    The electronic structure of the last synthesized fullerene molecule, the C 50 Cl 10 , has been characterized by theoretical simulation of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure. All the calculations were performed at the gradient-corrected and hybrid density-functional theory levels. The combination of these techniques provides detailed information about the valence band and the unoccupied molecular orbitals, as well as about the carbon core orbitals

  3. Theory of two-photon absorption by exciton states in cubic semiconductors with degenerate valence bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ai Viet; Nguyen Toan Thang.

    1987-06-01

    The coefficient of the absorption of two polarized photons is calculated for direct band gap semiconductors with degenerate valence bands. Wannier-Mott exciton states are included in both the intermediate and final states. Numerical calculations are performed for ZnSe and are compared with Sondergeld's experimental and theoretical results. (author). 11 refs, 2 tabs

  4. Determination of conduction and valence band electronic structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    shifts in the rutile Ti d-band to lower energy with respect to anatase, i.e., ... requires excitation with UV light due to its wide band ... RIXS maps were compared to the theoretical results .... optical methods are insufficient, such as dark samples.

  5. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  6. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  7. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the ... treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray ...

  8. The Cryogenic AntiCoincidence detector for ATHENA X-IFU: a scientific assessment of the observational capabilities in the hard X-ray band

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, M.; Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Piro, L.; Argan, A.; Gatti, F.

    2017-12-01

    ATHENA is a large X-ray observatory, planned to be launched by ESA in 2028 towards an L2 orbit. One of the two instruments of the payload is the X-IFU: a cryogenic spectrometer based on a large array of TES microcalorimeters, able to perform integral field spectrography in the 0.2-12 keV band (2.5 eV FWHM at 6 keV). The X-IFU sensitivity is highly degraded by the particle background expected in the L2 orbit, which is induced by primary protons of both galactic and solar origin, and mostly by secondary electrons. To reduce the particle background level and enable the mission science goals, the instrument incorporates a Cryogenic AntiCoincidence detector (CryoAC). It is a 4 pixel TES based detector, placed 10 keV). The aim of the study has been to understand if the present detector design can be improved in order to enlarge the X-IFU scientific capability on an energy band wider than the TES array. This is beyond the CryoAC baseline, being this instrument aimed to operate as anticoincidence particle detector and not conceived to perform X-ray observations.

  9. Transition to intermediate valence state and x-ray photoemission in Sm/sub 1-x/Gd/sub x/S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campagna, M.; Chui, S.T.; Wertheim, G.K.; Tosatti, E.

    1976-01-01

    We report a systematic x-ray photoemission study of the alloys Sm 1 /sub -//subx/Gd/subx/S for 0 2+ → Sm 3+ photoemission line shape using a model which has some similarities with the Jaccarino-Walker model for magnetic alloys. It assumes the existence of only two different kinds of Sm 2+ ions in Sm 1 /sub -//subx/Gd/subx/S for x approximately-less-than 16%. We discuss possible reasons for the fact that Gd does not show the usual clustering effects known to occur in many substitutional rare-earth alloys. Lattice-constant measurements for various substituents further illustrate the importance of electronic effects in the phase transition

  10. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  11. Electronic structures and valence band splittings of transition metals doped GaNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Cheol; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Lee, Kyu-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    For a practical viewpoint, presence of spin splitting of valence band in host semiconductors by the doping of transition metal (TM) ions is an essential property when designing a diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) material. The first principle calculations were performed on the electronic and magnetic structure of 3d transition metal doped GaN. V, Cr, and Mn doped GaNs could not be candidates for DMS materials since most of their magnetic moments is concentrated on the TM ions and the splittings of valence band were negligible. In the cases of Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu doped GaNs, on the contrary, long-ranged spin splitting of valence band was found, which could be candidates for DMS materials

  12. X-ray short-time lags in the Fe-K energy band produced by scattering clouds in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Misaki; Done, Chris; Hagino, Kouichi; Ebisawa, Ken; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Odaka, Hirokazu

    2018-05-01

    X-rays illuminating the accretion disc in active galactic nuclei give rise to an iron K line and its associated reflection spectrum which are lagged behind the continuum variability by the light-travel time from the source to the disc. The measured lag timescales in the iron band can be as short as ˜Rg/c, where Rg is the gravitational radius, which is often interpreted as evidence for a very small continuum source close to the event horizon of a rapidly spinning black hole. However, the short lags can also be produced by reflection from more distant material, because the primary photons with no time-delay dilute the time-lags caused by the reprocessed photons. We perform a Monte-Carlo simulation to calculate the dilution effect in the X-ray reverberation lags from a half-shell of neutral material placed at 100 Rg from the central source. This gives lags of ˜2 Rg/c, but the iron line is a distinctly narrow feature in the lag-energy plot, whereas the data often show a broader line. We show that both the short lag and the line broadening can be reproduced if the scattering material is outflowing at ˜0.1c. The velocity structure in the wind can also give shifts in the line profile in the lag-energy plot calculated at different frequencies. Hence we propose that the observed broad iron reverberation lags and shifts in profile as a function of frequency of variability can arise from a disc wind at fairly large distances from the X-ray source.

  13. Atomic contributions to the valence band photoelectron spectra of metal-free, iron and manganese phthalocyanines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidermane, I., E-mail: ieva.bidermane@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7588, F-75005 Paris (France); Brumboiu, I.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Totani, R. [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, I-67010 L’Aquila (Italy); Grazioli, C. [CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, ss. 14 km. 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Departement of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste (Italy); Shariati-Nilsson, M.N.; Herper, H.C.; Eriksson, O.; Sanyal, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Ressel, B. [University of Nova Gorica, Vipavska Cesta 11c, 5270 Ajdovščina (Slovenia); Simone, M. de [CNR-IOM, Laboratorio TASC, ss. 14 km. 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Lozzi, L. [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, Coppito, I-67010 L’Aquila (Italy); Brena, B.; Puglia, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box-516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • In detail comparison between the valence band structure of H{sub 2}Pc, FePc and MnPc. • Comparison between the gas phase samples and thin evaporated films on Au (1 1 1). • Detailed analysis of the atomic orbital contributions to the valence band features. • DFT/HSE06 study of the valence band electronic structure of H{sub 2}Pc, FePc and MnPc. - Abstract: The present work reports a photoelectron spectroscopy study of the low-energy region of the valence band of metal-free phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}Pc) compared with those of iron phthalocyanine (FePc) and manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc). We have analysed in detail the atomic orbital composition of the valence band both experimentally, by making use of the variation in photoionization cross-sections with photon energy, and theoretically, by means of density functional theory. The atomic character of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO), reflected on the outermost valence band binding energy region, is different for MnPc as compared to the other two molecules. The peaks related to the C 2p contributions, result in the HOMO for H{sub 2}Pc and FePc and in the HOMO-1 for MnPc as described by the theoretical predictions, in very good agreement with the experimental results. The DFT simulations, discerning the atomic contribution to the density of states, indicate how the central metal atom interacts with the C and N atoms of the molecule, giving rise to different partial and total density of states for these three Pc molecules.

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  15. Location of the valence band maximum in the band structure of anisotropic 1 T'-ReSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickholt, P.; Noky, J.; Schwier, E. F.; Shimada, K.; Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, T.; Datzer, C.; Drüppel, M.; Krüger, P.; Rohlfing, M.; Donath, M.

    2018-04-01

    Transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are a focus of current research due to their fascinating optical and electronic properties with possible technical applications. ReSe2 is an interesting material of the TMDC family, with unique anisotropic properties originating from its distorted 1 T structure (1 T '). To develop a fundamental understanding of the optical and electric properties, we studied the underlying electronic structure with angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) as well as band-structure calculations within the density functional theory (DFT)-local density approximation (LDA) and GdW approximations. We identified the Γ ¯M¯1 direction, which is perpendicular to the a axis, as a distinct direction in k space with the smallest bandwidth of the highest valence band. Using photon-energy-dependent ARPES, two valence band maxima are identified within experimental limits of about 50 meV: one at the high-symmetry point Z , and a second one at a non-high-symmetry point in the Brillouin zone. Thus, the position in k space of the global valence band maximum is undecided experimentally. Theoretically, an indirect band gap is predicted on a DFT-LDA level, while quasiparticle corrections lead to a direct band gap at the Z point.

  16. X-ray spectra and electronic structure of the Ca3Ga2Ge3О12 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherba, I. D.; Kostyk, L. V.; Noga, H.; Bekenov, L. V.; Uskokovich, D.; Jatsyk, B. M.

    2017-09-01

    The band structure of Ca3Ga2Ge3О12 with the garnet structure has been determined for the first time by X-ray emission and photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been established that the bottom of the valence band is formed by Ge d states, which are not dominant in the chemical bonding. Strong hybridization of oxygen 2s states with 4p states of Ga and Ge revealed by the presence of an extra structure in the X-ray emission spectra has been found. The middle of the valence band has been demonstrated to be occupied by d states of Ga, while Ga and Ge 4рstates with a considerable admixture of oxygen 2p states form the top of the valence band.

  17. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  18. Electron band bending and surface sensitivity: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of polar GaN surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Igor; Romanyuk, Olexandr; Paskova, T.; Jiříček, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 664, Oct (2017), s. 241-245 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015088 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : GaN * XPS * band banding Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.062, year: 2016

  19. Valence band variation in Si (110) nanowire induced by a covered insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Hua, Xu; Xiao-Yan, Liu; Yu-Hui, He; Gang, Du; Ru-Qi, Han; Jin-Feng, Kang; Chun, Fan; Ai-Dong, Sun

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we investigate strain effects induced by the deposition of gate dielectrics on the valence band structures in Si (110) nanowire via the simulation of strain distribution and the calculation of a generalized 6×6k·p strained valence band. The nanowire is surrounded by the gate dielectric. Our simulation indicates that the strain of the amorphous SiO 2 insulator is negligible without considering temperature factors. On the other hand, the thermal residual strain in a nanowire with amorphous SiO 2 insulator which has negligible lattice misfit strain pushes the valence subbands upwards by chemical vapour deposition and downwards by thermal oxidation treatment. In contrast with the strain of the amorphous SiO 2 insulator, the strain of the HfO 2 gate insulator in Si (110) nanowire pushes the valence subbands upwards remarkably. The thermal residual strain by HfO 2 insulator contributes to the up-shifting tendency. Our simulation results for valence band shifting and warping in Si nanowires can provide useful guidance for further nanowire device design. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  20. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and photoemission measurement of O2: Direct evidence for dependence of Rydberg-valence mixing on vibrational states in O 1s → Rydberg states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gejo, T.; Oura, M.; Tokushima, T.; Horikawa, Y.; Arai, H.; Shin, S.; Kimberg, V.; Kosugi, N.

    2017-07-01

    High-resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) and low-energy photoemission spectra of oxygen molecules have been measured for investigating the electronic structure of Rydberg states in the O 1s → σ* energy region. The electronic characteristics of each Rydberg state have been successfully observed, and new assignments are made for several states. The RIXS spectra clearly show that vibrational excitation is very sensitive to the electronic characteristics because of Rydberg-valence mixing and vibronic coupling in O2. This observation constitutes direct experimental evidence that the Rydberg-valence mixing characteristic depends on the vibrational excitation near the avoided crossing of potential surfaces. We also measured the photoemission spectra of metastable oxygen atoms (O*) from O2 excited to 1s → Rydberg states. The broadening of the 4p Rydberg states of O* has been found with isotropic behavior, implying that excited oxygen molecules undergo dissociation with a lifetime of the order of 10 fs in 1s → Rydberg states.

  1. The NuSTAR  Extragalactic Surveys: X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of the Bright Hard-band Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, L.; Comastri, A.; Civano, F.; Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; Aird, J.; Del Moro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Lanzuisi, G.; Goulding, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Stern, D.; Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Gandhi, P.; Lanz, L.; Masini, A.; Marchesi, S.; Ricci, C.; Treister, E.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the spectral analysis of a sample of 63 active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected above a limiting flux of S(8{--}24 {keV})=7× {10}-14 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 in the multi-tiered NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The sources span a redshift range z=0{--}2.1 (median =0.58). The spectral analysis is performed over the broad 0.5–24 keV energy range, combining NuSTAR with Chandra and/or XMM-Newton data and employing empirical and physically motivated models. This constitutes the largest sample of AGN selected at > 10 {keV} to be homogeneously spectrally analyzed at these flux levels. We study the distribution of spectral parameters such as photon index, column density ({N}{{H}}), reflection parameter ({\\boldsymbol{R}}), and 10–40 keV luminosity ({L}{{X}}). Heavily obscured ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 23) and Compton-thick (CT; {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 24) AGN constitute ∼25% (15–17 sources) and ∼2–3% (1–2 sources) of the sample, respectively. The observed {N}{{H}} distribution agrees fairly well with predictions of cosmic X-ray background population-synthesis models (CXBPSM). We estimate the intrinsic fraction of AGN as a function of {N}{{H}}, accounting for the bias against obscured AGN in a flux-selected sample. The fraction of CT AGN relative to {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=20{--}24 AGN is poorly constrained, formally in the range 2–56% (90% upper limit of 66%). We derived a fraction (f abs) of obscured AGN ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=22{--}24) as a function of {L}{{X}} in agreement with CXBPSM and previous zvalues.

  2. Polarization Dependent Bulk-sensitive Valence Band Photoemission Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Calculations: Part I. 3d Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shigenori; Hamada, Ikutaro

    2017-12-01

    The X-ray polarization dependent valence band HAXPES spectra of 3d transition metals (TMs) of Ti-Zn were measured to investigate the orbital resolved electronic structures by utilizing that the fact the photoionization cross-section of the atomic orbitals strongly depends on the experimental geometry. We have calculated the HAXPES spectra, which correspond to the cross-section weighted densities of states (CSW-DOSs), where the DOSs were obtained by the density functional theory calculations, and we have determined the relative photoionization cross-sections of the 4s and 4p orbitals to the 3d orbital in the 3d TMs. The experimentally obtained bulk-sensitive 3d and 4s DOSs were good agreement with the calculated DOSs in Ti, V, Cr, and Cu. In contrast, the deviations between the experimental and calculated 3d DOSs for Mn, Fe, Co, Ni were found, suggesting that the electron correlation plays an important role in the electronic structures for these materials.

  3. Rotational bands terminating at maximal spin in the valence space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragnarsson, I.; Afanasjev, A.V. [Lund Institute of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    For nuclei with mass A {le} 120, the spin available in {open_quotes}normal deformation configurations{close_quotes} is experimentally accessible with present detector systems. Of special interest are the nuclei which show collective features at low or medium-high spin and where the corresponding rotational bands with increasing spin can be followed in a continuous way to or close to a non-collective terminating state. Some specific features in this context are discussed for nuclei in the A = 80 region and for {sup 117,118}Xe.

  4. Anisotropic emission of the X-ray K-emission band of nitrogen in hexagonal boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegeler, E.; Kosuch, N.; Wiech, G.; Faessler, A.

    1977-05-01

    The intensity distribution of the N K-emission band of hexagonal boron nitride samples with partially orientated crystallites was found to be strongly dependent upon the take-off angle of the emitted radiation. The observed emission bands can be separated unambiguously into a sigma- and a π-subband. On the basis of the directional characteristic of radiating dipoles within the layers (sigma-bondings) and perpendicular to the layers (π-bonding) the angular dependence of the intensity of the subbands is quantitatively explained. In addition the degree of orientation of the crystallites on the sample can be determined. The intensity distributions of the emission bands to be expected for single crystals and for samples without any texture are determined; in the latter case the results are found to be in good agreement with experimental results. (orig.) [de

  5. Simulating Ru L 3 -Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Model Complexes and Electron Localization in Mixed-Valence Metal Dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kuiken, Benjamin E.; Valiev, Marat; Daifuku, Stephanie L.; Bannan, Caitlin; Strader, Matthew L.; Cho, Hana; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Govind, Niranjan; Khalil, Munira

    2013-05-30

    Ruthenium L3-edge X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy probes unoccupied 4d orbitals of the metal atom and is increasingly being used to investigate the local electronic structure in ground and excited electronic states of Ru complexes. The simultaneous development of computational tools for simulating Ru L3-edge spectra is crucial for interpreting the spectral features at a molecular level. This study demonstrates that time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a viable and predictive tool for simulating ruthenium L3-edge XA spectroscopy. We systematically investigate the effects of exchange correlation functional and implicit and explicit solvent interactions on a series of RuII and RuIII complexes in their ground and electronic excited states. The TDDFT simulations reproduce all of the experimentally observed features in Ru L3-edge XA spectra within the experimental resolution (0.4 eV). Our simulations identify ligand-specific charge transfer features in complicated Ru L3-edge spectra of [Ru(CN)6]4- and RuII polypyridyl complexes illustrating the advantage of using TDDFT in complex systems. We conclude that the B3LYP functional most accurately predicts the transition energies of charge transfer features in these systems. We use our TDDFT approach to simulate experimental Ru L3-edge XA spectra of transition metal mixed-valence dimers of the form [(NC)5MII-CN-RuIII(NH3)5] (where M = Fe or Ru) dissolved in water. Our study determines the spectral signatures of electron delocalization in Ru L3-edge XA spectra. We find that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules is necessary for reproducing the spectral features and the experimentally determined valencies in these mixed-valence complexes. This study validates the use of TDDFT for simulating Ru 2p excitations using popular quantum chemistry codes and providing a powerful interpretive tool for equilibrium and ultrafast Ru L3-edge XA spectroscopy.

  6. Giant Cu 2p Resonances in CuO Valence-Band Photoemission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeng, L.H.; Chen, C.T.; Ghijsen, J.; Rudolf, P.; Sette, F.

    1991-01-01

    We report the observation of a giant resonance in the Cu 2p resonant-photoemission spectra of CuO. The study allows the unambiguous identification of the local Cu 3d8 configuration in the valence-band photoemission spectrum, providing conclusive evidence for the charge-transfer nature of the

  7. Tunneling emission of electrons from semiconductors' valence bands in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalganov, V. D.; Mileshkina, N. V.; Ostroumova, E. V.

    2006-01-01

    Tunneling emission currents of electrons from semiconductors to vacuum (needle-shaped GaAs photodetectors) and to a metal (silicon metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes with a tunneling-transparent insulator layer) are studied in high and ultrahigh electric fields. It is shown that, in semiconductors with the n-type conductivity, the major contribution to the emission current is made by the tunneling emission of electrons from the valence band of the semiconductor, rather than from the conduction band

  8. Valence Band Structure of InAs1-xBix and InSb1-xBix Alloy Semiconductors Calculated Using Valence Band Anticrossing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Samajdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The valence band anticrossing model has been used to calculate the heavy/light hole and spin-orbit split-off energies in InAs1-xBix and InSb1-xBix alloy systems. It is found that both the heavy/light hole, and spin-orbit split E+ levels move upwards in energy with an increase in Bi content in the alloy, whereas the split E− energy for the holes shows a reverse trend. The model is also used to calculate the reduction of band gap energy with an increase in Bi mole fraction. The calculated values of band gap variation agree well with the available experimental data.

  9. Systematic study on intermolecular valence-band dispersion in molecular crystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Intermolecular valence-band dispersion of crystalline films of phthalocyanines. • Intermolecular transfer integral versus lattice constant. • Site-specific intermolecular interaction and resultant valence-band dispersion. • Band narrowing effect induced by elevated temperature. - Abstract: Functionalities of organic semiconductors are governed not only by individual properties of constituent molecules but also by solid-state electronic states near the Fermi level such as frontier molecular orbitals, depending on weak intermolecular interactions in various conformations. The individual molecular property has been widely investigated in detail; on the other hand, the weak intermolecular interaction is difficult to investigate precisely due to the presence of the structural and thermal energy broadenings in organic solids. Here we show quite small but essential intermolecular valence band dispersions and their temperature dependence of sub-0.1-eV scale in crystalline films of metal phthalocyanines (H_2Pc, ZnPc, CoPc, MnPc, and F_1_6ZnPc) by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with synchrotron radiation. The observed bands show intermolecular and site dependent dispersion widths, phases, and periodicities, for different chemical substitution of terminal groups and central metals in the phthalocyanine molecule. The precise and systematic band-dispersion measurement would be a credible approach toward the comprehensive understanding of intermolecular interactions and resultant charge transport properties as well as their tuning by substituents in organic molecular systems.

  10. Observation of band bending of metal/high-k Si capacitor with high energy x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and its application to interface dipole measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushima, K.; Okamoto, K.; Tachi, K.; Song, J.; Sato, S.; Kawanago, T.; Tsutsui, K.; Sugii, N.; Ahmet, P.; Hattori, T.; Iwai, H.

    2008-11-01

    Band bendings of Si substrates have been observed using hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. With a capability of collecting photoelectrons generated as deep as 40 nm, the binding energy shift in a core level caused by the potential profile at the surface of the substrate results in a spectrum broadening. The broadening is found to be significant when heavily doped substrates are used owing to its steep potential profile. The surface potential of the substrate can be obtained by deconvolution of the spectrum. This method has been applied to observe the band bending profile of metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with high-k gate dielectrics. By comparing the band bending profiles of heavily-doped n+- and p+-Si substrates, the interface dipoles presented at interfaces can be estimated. In the case of W gated La2O3/La-silicate capacitor, an interface dipole to shift the potential of -0.45 V has been estimated at La-silicate/Si interface, which effectively reduces the apparent work function of W. On the other hand, an interface dipole of 0.03-0.07 V has been found to exist at Hf-silicate/SiO2 interface for W gated HfO2/Hf-silicate/SiO2 capacitor.

  11. Electronic Structures of Purple Bronze KMo6O17 Studied by X-Ray Photoemission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaokui; Wei, Junyin; Shi, Jing; Tian, Mingliang; Chen, Hong; Tian, Decheng

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy study has been performed for the purple bronze KMo6O17. The structures of conduction band and valence band are analogous to the results of ultraviolet photoemission spectra and are also consistent with the model of Travaglini et al., but the gap between conduction and valence band is insignificant. The shape of asymmetric and broadening line of O-1s is due to unresolved contributions from the many inequivalent oxygen sites in this crystal structure. Mo 3d core-level spectrum reveals that there are two kinds of valence states of Molybdenum (Mo+5 and Mo+6). The calculated average valence state is about +5.6, which is consistent with the expectation value from the composition of this material. The tail of Mo-3d spectrum toward higher binding energy is the consequence of the excitation of electron-hole pairs with singularity index of 0.21.

  12. Valence states and occupation sites in (Fe,Mn){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel oxides investigated by soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H J; Kim, G; Kim, D H; Kang, J-S [Department of Physics, Catholic University of Korea (CUK), Bucheon 420-743 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, C L; Cheong, S-W [Rutgers Center for Emergent Materials and Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Shim, J H; Lee, Soonchil [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hangil; Kim, J-Y [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B H; Min, B I [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kangjs@catholic.ac.kr

    2008-07-23

    The electronic structures of (Fe,Mn){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel oxides have been investigated by employing soft-x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). We have determined the valence states as well as the occupation sites of Mn and Fe ions in Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 2.1}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 2.1}O{sub 4} is found to be close to the inverse spinel (the inversion parameter y{approx}0.85), while MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is close to the normal spinel (y{approx}0.2). In Fe{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 2.1}O{sub 4}, Fe ions are mainly trivalent and the majority of Fe{sup 3+} ions occupy the octahedral B sites, while Mn ions are mixed-valent with approximately 45% Mn{sub A}{sup 2+} at the tetrahedral A sites and 55% Mn{sub B}{sup 3+} ions at the octahedral B sites. In MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, Mn ions are mainly divalent and the majority of Mn{sup 2+} ions occupy the tetrahedral A sites, while Fe ions are mainly trivalent and the majority of Fe{sup 3+} ions occupy the octahedral B sites.

  13. Nature of the valence band states in Bi2(Ca, Sr, La)3Cu2O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, B.O.; Lindberg, P.A.P.; Shen, Z.; Dessau, D.S.; Spicer, W.E.; Lindau, I.; Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have used photoemission spectroscopy to examine the symmetry of the occupied states of the valence band for the La doped superconductor Bi 2 (Ca, Sr, La) 3 Cu 2 O 8 . While the oxygen states near the bottom of the 7 eV wide valence band exhibit predominantly O 2p z symmetry, the states at the top of the valence band extending to the Fermi level are found to have primarily O 2p x and O 2p y character. We have also examined anomalous intensity enhancements in the valence band feature for photon energies near 18 eV. These enhancements, which occur at photon energies ranging from 15.8 to 18.0 eV for the different valence band features, are not consistent with either simple final state effects or direct O2s transitions to unoccupied O2p states

  14. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of β-BaB2O4 optical surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, V.V.; Kesler, V.G.; Kokh, A.E.; Pokrovsky, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study has been performed for (0 0 1) BaB 2 O 4 . The crystal surface has been polished mechanically and cleaned by chemical etching. In XPS observation, depth profiling has been produced by sputtering with Ar + 3 keV ions. Photoelectron binding energies of original element core levels and valence band have been measured as a function of sputtering time. The persistence of binding energies of barium and boron core levels and valence band structure has been found. For O 1 s core level the formation of new spectral components with lower binding energies has been revealed

  15. Polarity effects in the x-ray photoemission of ZnO and other wurtzite semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M. W.; Zemlyanov, D. Y.; Waterhouse, G. I. N.; Metson, J. B.; Veal, T. D.; McConville, C. F.; Durbin, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Significant polarity-related effects were observed in the near-surface atomic composition and valence band electronic structure of ZnO single crystals, investigated by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy using both Al K α (1486.6 eV) and synchrotron radiation (150 to 1486 eV). In particular, photoemission from the lowest binding energy valence band states was found to be significantly more intense on the Zn-polar face compared to the O-polar face. This is a consistent effect that can be used as a simple, nondestructive indicator of crystallographic polarity in ZnO and other wurtzite semiconductors.

  16. A study on relation between nitroxyl radical reduction potency and X-ray irradiation on mouse lung using L-band electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneike, Makoto; Sho, Keizen; Morita, Rikushi

    1999-01-01

    Changes in nitroxy radical reduction potency (''reduction potency''), caused by different doses and different number of fractions of X-ray irradiation were studied using a L-band electron spin resonance system on mouse lungs into which 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (hydroxy-TEMPO) was introduced through the trachea. The ''reduction potency'' lineally decreased as the irradiation dose increased from 1.0 to 5.0 Gy, but no further decrease was observed at higher doses of 7.5 and 10 Gy. The reduction potency'' dropped at 20 min after each irradiation, but it recovered to the control levels after 1 week in all 3 groups of single dose of 10 Gy, 3 fractions and 5 fractions in a similar manner. Although the levels of the ''reduction potency'' were kept high in the groups of fractionated irradiation through 1-4 weeks after irradiation, the levels dropped again in the single dose group at 1 week and the levels were kept significantly low until 4 weeks after irradiation. suggesting that the fractionation of X-ray irradiation would also be effective to prevent the deterioration of the ''reduction potency''. Pre-treatment with sufficient ascorbic acid inhibited the lowering effects of radiation on the ''reduction potency'' in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore the levels of the reduction potency'' ever elevated higher than those of controls with the large amount of ascorbic acid of 750 mg/kg or more, suggesting that the large amounts of ascorbic acid could prevent the adverse effects associated with radiation therapy for the lung malignancy. (author)

  17. Hard X-ray emission spectroscopy with pink beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Rossberg, Andre; Exner, Joerg; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures

    2017-06-01

    Valence-band X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) with a ''pink beam'', i.e. a beam with large energy bandwidth produced by a double-multilayer monochromator, is introduced here to overcome the weak count rate of monochromatic beams produced by conventional double-crystal monochromators. Our results demonstrate that - in spite of the large bandwidth in the order of 100 eV - the high spectral resolution of the Johann-type spectrometer is maintained, while the two orders of magnitude higher flux greatly reduces the required counting time. The short working distance Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer and multilayer monochromator is available at ROBL.

  18. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, D. (ed.)

    1986-04-01

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a ... posted: How to Obtain and Share ...

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey Rubin, a radiologist ... about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight Recently posted: ...

  1. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  2. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  3. A novel probe of intrinsic electronic structure: hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Nishino, Y.; Miwa, D.; Yabashi, M.; Ikenaga, E.; Horiba, K.; Arita, M.; Shimada, K.; Namatame, H.; Nohira, H.; Hattori, T.; Soedergren, S.; Wannberg, B.; Taniguchi, M.; Shin, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    We have realized hard X-ray (HX) photoemission spectroscopy (PES) with high throughput and high-energy resolution for core level and valence band studies using high-energy and high-brilliance synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. This is a brand new method because large escape depth of high-energy photoelectrons enables us to probe intrinsic bulk states free from surface condition. By use of a newly developed electron energy analyzer and well-focused X-rays, high-energy resolution of 75 meV (E/ΔE 79,000) was realized for 5.95 keV photoelectrons

  4. Broad-band monitoring tracing the evolution of the jet and disc in the black hole candidate X-ray binary MAXI J1659-152

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, A.J.; Curran, P.A.; Miller-Jonis, J.C.A.; Linford, J.D.; Gorosabel, J.; Russell, D.M.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Lundgren, A.A.; Taylor, G.B.; Maitra, D.; Guziy, S.; Belloni, T.M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Jonker, P.G.; Kamble, A.; Paragi, Z.; Homan, J.; Kuulkers, E.; Granot, J.; Altamirano, D.; Buxton, M.M.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Fender, R.P.; Garret, M.A.; Gehrels, N.; Hartmann, D.H.; Kennea, J.A.; Krimm, H.A.; Mangano, V.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Romano, P.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wijnands, R.; Yang, Y.J.

    2013-01-01

    MAXI J1659−152 was discovered on 2010 September 25 as a new X-ray transient, initially identified as a gamma-ray burst, but was later shown to be a new X-ray binary with a black hole as the most likely compact object. Dips in the X-ray light curves have revealed that MAXI J1659−152 is the shortest

  5. Band bending at the heterointerface of GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires monitored by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbabaee, B.; Bussone, G.; Knutsson, J. V.; Geijselaers, I.; Pryor, C. E.; Rieger, T.; Demarina, N.; Grützmacher, D.; Lepsa, M. I.; Timm, R.; Pietsch, U.

    2016-10-01

    Unique electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructured nanowires make them useful for future nano-electronic devices. Here, we present a study of the band bending effect at the heterointerface of GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires by means of synchrotron based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Different Ga, In, and As core-levels of the nanowire constituents have been monitored prior to and after cleaning from native oxides. The cleaning process mainly affected the As-oxides and was accompanied by an energy shift of the core-level spectra towards lower binding energy, suggesting that the As-oxides turn the nanowire surfaces to n-type. After cleaning, both As and Ga core-levels revealed an energy shift of about -0.3 eV for core/shell compared to core reference nanowires. With respect to depth dependence and in agreement with calculated strain distribution and electron quantum confinement, the observed energy shift is interpreted by band bending of core-levels at the heterointerface between the GaAs nanowire core and the InAs shell.

  6. High resolution hard X-ray photoemission using synchrotron radiation as an essential tool for characterization of thin solid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Ikenaga, E.; Kobata, M.; Takeuchi, A.; Awaji, M.; Makino, H.; Chen, P.P.; Yamamoto, A.; Matsuoka, T.; Miwa, D.; Nishino, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Yao, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using undulator X-rays at SPring-8 is quite feasible with both high resolution and high throughput. Here we report an application of hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to the characterization of electronic and chemical states of thin solid films, for which conventional PES is not applicable. As a typical example, we focus on the problem of the scatter in the reported band-gap values for InN. We show that oxygen incorporation into the InN film strongly modifies the valence and plays a crucial role in the band gap problem. The present results demonstrate the powerful applicability of high resolution photoemission spectroscopy with hard X-rays from a synchrotron source

  7. X-rays and magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques. (report on progress)

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most ... far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  10. Synthesis, Magnetism, and X-ray Molecular Structure of the Mixed-Valence Vanadium(IV/V)-Oxygen Cluster [VO(4) subset(V(18)O(45))](9-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Lorenza; Bonamico, Mario; Fares, Vincenzo

    1997-05-07

    Within the transition metal oxide systems, vanadium presents a unique chemistry due to its capacity to form a great number of mixed-valence oxo clusters which often have the peculiarity to incorporate species that function, for size, shape, and charge, as templates. Prismatic, lustrous dark brown crystals of [(n-C(4)H(9))NH(3)](9)[V(19)O(49)].7H(2)O are obtained by reacting (n-C(4)H(9)NH(3))VO(3), VOSO(4), and (n-C(4)H(9))NH(2) in H(2)O. The X-ray crystal structure shows an ellipsoidal metal-oxo cluster formed by 15 VO(5) and 3 VO(4) polyhedra surrounding an almost regular VO(4) tetrahedron located on the 3-fold axis of a trigonal cell of dimensions a = 19.113(5) Å and c = 13.743(5) Å with space group P&thremacr; and Z = 2. Exponentially weighted bond valence sum calculations, manganometric titration of the V(IV) centers, and magnetic measurements are consistent with the presence of three localized and three delocalized electrons. Variable-temperature solid-state susceptibility studies indicate antiferromagnetic coupling between V(IV) centers. Cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile shows a irreversible reduction at -1.24 V and a reversible oxidation at +0.17 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The title compound converts quantitatively to the metal oxide K(2)V(3)O(8) with an extended layered structure as soon as a potassium salt is added to a neutral aqueous solution of the polyoxoanion.

  11. The Soft X-Ray Spectra of Sulfur Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling

    1995-01-01

    The sulfur compounds including CdS, ZnS, rm MoS_2, WS_2, NiS, FeS, GaS, SnS, MgS and Alloy rm ZnS_{x }Se_{1-x} were investigated by using photon/e-beam excited soft x-ray spectroscopy through SXA, SXE, SXF and inelastic Resonant Raman scattering and resonant elastic scattering processes. For valence bands, the PDOS of S L_{2,3}, Zn M_{2,3}, Se M _{4,5}, bands locations, band gaps Eg, core level spin splitting, the lifetime broadening of valence band t_{1/2}, branching ratio of rm L_2/L_3 and shallow d level and exciton state were measured in some of these materials respectively. The excitation mechanism or threshold effects were studied for CdS, ZnS, MoS_2, WS_2, FeS, NiS, and alloy. In photon excited S L_ {2,3}^ectra, local core levels with spin splitting were found to charge threshold effects. The threshold effects are also found to be influenced by resonant elastic and inelastic scattering process. A simple model and the second order perturbation theory are used to explain the observed inelastic Raman scattering of Zn M _{2,3} spectra near d threshold. The d participation in the chemical bonding and interactions was studied. Atomiclike d bands were found in FeS and NiS from strong d-d and d-p couplings. Two groups of d bands were observed in Transitional Metal Sulfides (TMS) and the no-bonding group with a few d bands was found to across whole valence bands in TMS. The direct connection between valence bands and conduction bands is built and some conduction bands were studied. A study of alloy was included briefly. These experiments provide a rich information about TMS, and prove that Soft X-ray Spectroscopy is a powerful, precise and reliable tool in the study of fine electronic band structure in solids.

  12. Effect of Molecular Guest Binding on the d-d Transitions of Ni2+ of CPO-27-Ni: A Combined UV-Vis, Resonant-Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy, and Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Erik; Gorelov, Evgeny; Guda, Alexander A; Bugaev, Aram L; Bonino, Francesca; Borfecchia, Elisa; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Gianolio, Diego; Chavan, Sachin; Lamberti, Carlo

    2017-12-04

    We used Ni K-edge resonant-valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy (RVtC-XES, also referred to as direct RIXS), an element-selective bulk-sensitive synchrotron-based technique, to investigate the electronic structure of the CPO-27-Ni metal-organic framework (MOF) upon molecular adsorption of significant molecular probes: H 2 O, CO, H 2 S, and NO. We compare RVtC-XES with UV-vis spectroscopy, and we show that the element selectivity of RVtC-XES is of strategic significance to observe the full set of d-d excitations in Ni 2+ , which are partially overshadowed by the low-energy π-π* transitions of the Ni ligands in standard diffuse-reflectance UV-vis experiments. Our combined RVtC-XES/UV-vis approach provides access to the whole set of d-d excitations, allowing us a complete discussion of the changes undergone by the electronic configuration of the Ni 2+ sites hosted within the MOF upon molecular adsorption. The experimental data have been interpreted by multiplet ligand-field theory calculations based on Wannier orbitals. This study represents a step further in understanding the ability of the CPO-27-Ni MOFs in molecular sorption and separation applications.

  13. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Characterization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, T., E-mail: Teodora.Radu@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, 400293, Cluj Napoca (Romania); Iacovita, C. [Department of Pharmaceutical Physics-Biophysics, Faculty of Pharmacy, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 400349, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Benea, D. [Faculty of Physics, Babes Bolyai University, 400271, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Turcu, R. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, 400293, Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Characterization of three types of iron oxides magnetic nanoparticles. • A correlation between valence band XPS and the degree of iron oxidation is proposed. • Theoretical contributions of Fe in tetragonal and octahedral environment are shown. - Abstract: We report X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) synthesized using solvothermal reduction in the presence of polyethylene glycol. The magnetite obtained was employed as precursor for the synthesis of γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (by oxygen dissociation) which in turn was transformed into α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. We confirmed the magnetite, maghemite and hematite structure by Fourier Transformed Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analysis of the XPS core level and valence band (VB) photoemission spectra for all investigated samples is discussed in terms of the degree of iron oxidation. This is of fundamental importance to better understand the electronic structure of the obtained iron oxide nanoparticles in order to control and improve their quality for specific biomedical applications. Moreover, theoretical band structure calculations are performed for magnetite and the separate contributions of Fe in tetragonal and octahedral environment are shown.

  14. Thickness-dependent change in the valence band offset of the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface studied using synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, S., E-mail: toyoda.satoshi.4w@kyoto-u.ac.jp; Oshima, M. [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    We have studied the thickness-dependent change in the valence band offset (VBO) of the SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) interface using synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy with soft and hard X-rays. The SiO{sub 2}-film thickness (T{sub ox}) and X-ray irradiation time (t{sub irrad}) were systematically parameterized to distinguish between the “intrinsic” T{sub ox} effects in the VBOs and the “extrinsic” differential charging phenomena in SiO{sub 2} films on Si substrates. The results revealed that at a spontaneous time (t{sub irrad} ≈ 5 s) that suppresses the differential charging phenomena as much as possible, the experimental VBO abruptly increases as a function of T{sub ox} and gradually saturates to the traditional VBO value range determined by the internal photoemission and photoconduction measurements. This effect is not attributed to the differential charging phenomena, but rather it is attributed to the “intrinsic” T{sub ox}-dependent change in the VBO. The two possible physical behaviors include electronic polarization and image charge. We have derived the electronic polarization contribution from experimental data by carefully describing the effects of the long-range image charges based on the classical dielectric-screening model.

  15. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  16. Time-resolved x-ray laser induced photoelectron spectroscopy of isochoric heated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Dunn, J.; Hunter, J.; Widmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    Time-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to probe the nonsteady-state evolution of the valence band electronic structure of laser heated ultrathin (50 nm) copper. A metastable phase is studied using a 527 nm wavelength 400 fs laser pulse containing 0.1-2.5 mJ laser energy focused in a large 500x700 μm 2 spot to create heated conditions of 0.07-1.8x10 12 W cm -2 intensity. Valence band photoemission spectra are presented showing the changing occupancy of the Cu 3d level with heating are presented. These picosecond x-ray laser induced time-resolved photoemission spectra of laser-heated ultrathin Cu foil show dynamic changes in the electronic structure. The ultrafast nature of this technique lends itself to true single-state measurements of shocked and heated materials

  17. Instanton contributions to the valence band of the double Sine-Gordon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricotta, R.M.; Escobar, C.O.

    1982-01-01

    The energy dispersion relation for the valence band of the double sine-Gordon potential is calculated, approximating the tunneling amplitude by a sum of contributions of multi-instantons and anti-instatons trajectories. The interesting feature of this potential is that they have to deal with two types of instantons, as there are two different potential barriers within one period of the potential. The results with the standard WKB approximation are compared. (Author) [pt

  18. Accounting for many-body correlation effects in the calculation of the valence band photoelectron emission spectra of ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minar, J.; Chadov, S.; Ebert, H.; Chioncel, L.; Lichtenstein, A.; De Nadai, C.; Brookes, N.B.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of dynamical correlation effects on the valence band photoelectron emission of ferromagnetic Fe, Co and Ni has been investigated. Angle-resolved as well as angle-integrated valence band photoelectron emission spectra were calculated on the basis of the one-particle Green's function, which was obtained by using the fully relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. The correlation effects have been included in terms of the electronic self-energy which was calculated self-consistently within Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). In addition a theoretical approach to calculate high-energy angle-resolved valence band photoelectron emission spectra is presented

  19. On the theory of phonoriton in cubic semiconductors with a degenerate valence band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ai Viet; Nguyen Thi Que Huong; Le Qui Thong

    1992-10-01

    The ''phonoriton'' is an elementary excitation constructed from an exciton polariton and phonon in semiconductors under intense excitation by an electromagnetic wave near the exciton resonance (L.V. Keldysh and A.L. Ivanov, 1982). In this paper we develop a theory of phonoriton in direct band gap cubic semiconductor with a degenerate valence band using the simple model of J.L. Birman and B.S. Wang (1990). In addition to experimental proofs of the existence of phonoriton we propose an experiment to measure its flight time. (author). 33 refs

  20. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.; Sanford, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray astronomy has been established as a powerful means of observing matter in its most extreme form. The energy liberated by sources discovered in our Galaxy has confirmed that collapsed stars of great density, and with intense gravitational fields, can be studied by making observations in the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The astronomical objects which emit detectable X-rays include our own Sun and extend to quasars at the edge of the Universe. This book describes the history, techniques and results obtained in the first twenty-five years of exploration. Space rockets and satellites are essential for carrying the instruments above the Earth's atmosphere where it becomes possible to view the X-rays from stars and nebulae. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of X-ray astronomy; the nature of X-radiation; X-rays from the Sun; solar-flare X-rays; X-rays from beyond the solar system; supernovae and their remnants; X-rays from binary stars; white dwarfs and neutron stars; black holes; X-rays from galaxies and quasars; clusters of galaxies; the observatories of the future. (author)

  1. Band width and multiple-angle valence-state mapping of diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, I.; Terminello, L.J.; Sutherland, D.G.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The band width may be considered the single most important parameter characterizing the electronic structure of a solid. The ratio of band width and Coulomb repulsion determines how correlated or delocalized an electron system is. Some of the most interesting solids straddle the boundary between localized and delocalized, e.g. the high-temperature superconductors. The bulk of the band calculations available today is based on local density functional (DF) theory. Even though the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues from that theory do not represent the outcome of a band-mapping experiment, they are remarkably similar to the bands mapped via photoemission. Strictly speaking, one should use an excited state calculation that takes the solid`s many-body screening response to the hole created in photoemission into account. Diamond is a useful prototype semiconductor because of its low atomic number and large band width, which has made it a long-time favorite for testing band theory. Yet, the two experimental values of the band width of diamond have error bars of {+-}1 eV and differ by 3.2 eV. To obtain an accurate valence band width for diamond, the authors use a band-mapping method that collects momentum distributions instead of the usual energy distributions. This method has undergone extensive experimental and theoretical tests in determining the band width of lithium fluoride. An efficient, imaging photoelectron spectrometer is coupled with a state-of-the-art undulator beam line at the Advanced Light Source to allow collection of a large number of data sets. Since it takes only a few seconds to take a picture of the photoelectrons emitted into a 84{degrees} cone, the authors can use photon energies as high as 350 eV where the cross section for photoemission from the valence band is already quite low, but the emitted photoelectrons behave free-electron-like. This make its much easier to locate the origin of the inter-band transitions in momentum space.

  2. Band width and multiple-angle valence-state mapping of diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, I.; Terminello, L.J.; Sutherland, D.G.J.

    1997-01-01

    The band width may be considered the single most important parameter characterizing the electronic structure of a solid. The ratio of band width and Coulomb repulsion determines how correlated or delocalized an electron system is. Some of the most interesting solids straddle the boundary between localized and delocalized, e.g. the high-temperature superconductors. The bulk of the band calculations available today is based on local density functional (DF) theory. Even though the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues from that theory do not represent the outcome of a band-mapping experiment, they are remarkably similar to the bands mapped via photoemission. Strictly speaking, one should use an excited state calculation that takes the solid's many-body screening response to the hole created in photoemission into account. Diamond is a useful prototype semiconductor because of its low atomic number and large band width, which has made it a long-time favorite for testing band theory. Yet, the two experimental values of the band width of diamond have error bars of ±1 eV and differ by 3.2 eV. To obtain an accurate valence band width for diamond, the authors use a band-mapping method that collects momentum distributions instead of the usual energy distributions. This method has undergone extensive experimental and theoretical tests in determining the band width of lithium fluoride. An efficient, imaging photoelectron spectrometer is coupled with a state-of-the-art undulator beam line at the Advanced Light Source to allow collection of a large number of data sets. Since it takes only a few seconds to take a picture of the photoelectrons emitted into a 84 degrees cone, the authors can use photon energies as high as 350 eV where the cross section for photoemission from the valence band is already quite low, but the emitted photoelectrons behave free-electron-like. This make its much easier to locate the origin of the inter-band transitions in momentum space

  3. Soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of heavily boron-doped superconducting diamond films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yokoya, T. Nakamura, T. Matushita, T. Muro, H. Okazaki, M. Arita, K. Shimada, H. Namatame, M. Taniguchi, Y. Takano, M. Nagao, T. Takenouchi, H. Kawarada and T. Oguchi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have performed soft X-ray angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SXARPES of microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition diamond films with different B concentrations in order to study the origin of the metallic behavior of superconducting diamond. SXARPES results clearly show valence band dispersions with a bandwidth of ~23 eV and with a top of the valence band at gamma point in the Brillouin zone, which are consistent with the calculated valence band dispersions of pure diamond. Boron concentration-dependent band dispersions near the Fermi level (EF exhibit a systematic shift of EF, indicating depopulation of electrons due to hole doping. These SXARPES results indicate that diamond bands retain for heavy boron doping and holes in the diamond band are responsible for the metallic states leading to superconductivity at low temperature. A high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy spectrum near EF of a heavily boron-doped diamond superconductor is also presented.

  4. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  5. Optical gain and gain suppression of quantum-well lasers with valence band mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.; Chuang, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of valence band mixing on the nonlinear gains of quantum-well lasers are studied theoretically. The authors' analysis is based on the multiband effective-mass theory and the density matrix formalism with intraband relaxation taken into account. The gain and the gain-suppression coefficient of a quantum-well laser are calculated from the complex optical susceptibility obtained by the density matrix formulation with the theoretical dipole moments obtained from the multiband effective-mass theory. The calculated gain spectrum shows that there are remarkable differences (both in peak amplitude and spectral shape) between our model with valence band mixing and the conventional parabolic band model. The shape of the gain spectrum calculated by the authors' model becomes more symmetric due to intraband relaxation together with nonparabolic energy dispersions and is closer to the experimental observations when compared with the conventional method using the parabolic band model and the multiband effective-mass calculation without intraband relaxation. Both give quite asymmetric gain spectra. Optical intensity in the GaAs active region is estimated by solving rate equations for the stationary states with nonlinear gain suppression. The authors calculate the mode gain for the resonant mode including the gain suppression, which results in spectral hole burning of the gain spectrum

  6. Convergence of valence bands for high thermoelectric performance for p-type InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hai-Zhu; Li, Ruo-Ping; Liu, Jun-Hui; Huang, Ming-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Band engineering to converge the bands to achieve high valley degeneracy is one of effective approaches for designing ideal thermoelectric materials. Convergence of many valleys in the valence band may lead to a high Seebeck coefficient, and induce promising thermoelectric performance of p-type InN. In the current work, we have systematically investigated the electronic structure and thermoelectric performance of wurtzite InN by using the density functional theory combined with semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. Form the results, it can be found that intrinsic InN has a large Seebeck coefficient (254 μV/K) and the largest value of Z e T is 0.77. The transport properties of p-type InN are better than that of n-type one at the optimum carrier concentration, which mainly due to the large Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN, although the electrical conductivity of n-type InN is larger than that of p-type one. We found that the larger Seebeck coefficient for p-type InN may originate from the large valley degeneracy in the valence band. Moreover, the low minimum lattice thermal conductivity for InN is one key factor to become a good thermoelectric material. Therefore, p-type InN could be a potential material for further applications in the thermoelectric area.

  7. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  8. Effect of phase formation on valence band photoemission and photoresonance study of Ti/Ni multilayers using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Pramod; Chaudhari, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents investigation of Ti-Ni alloy phase formation and its effect on valence band (VB) photoemission and photoresonance study of as-deposited as well as annealed Ti/Ni multilayers (MLs) up to 600 deg. C using synchrotron radiation. For this purpose [Ti (50 A)/Ni (50 A)]X 10 ML structures were deposited by using electron-beam evaporation technique under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. Formation of different phases of Ti-Ni alloy due to annealing treatment has been confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The XRD pattern corresponding as-deposited ML sample shows crystalline nature of both Ti and Ni deposited layers, whereas 300 deg. C annealed ML sample show solid-state reaction (SSR) leading to amorphization and subsequent recrystallisation at higher temperatures of annealing (≥400 deg. C) with the formation of TiNi, TiNi 3 and Ti 2 Ni alloy phases. The survey scans corresponding to 400, 500 and 600 deg. C annealed ML sample shows interdiffusion and intermixing of Ni atoms into Ti layers leading to chemical Ti-Ni alloys phase formation at interface. The corresponding recorded VB spectra using synchrotron radiation at 134 eV on as-deposited ML sample with successive sputtering shows alternately photoemission bands due to Ti 3d and Ni 3d, respectively, indicating there is no mixing of the consequent layers and any phase formation at the interface during deposition. However, ML samples annealed at higher temperatures of annealing, particularly at 400, 500 and 600 deg. C show a clear shift in Ni 3d band and its satellite peak position to higher BE side indicates Ti-Ni alloy phase formation. In addition to this, reduction of satellite peak intensity and Ni 3d density of states (DOS) near Fermi level is also observed due to Ti-Ni phase formation with higher annealing temperatures. The variable photon energy VB measurements on as-deposited and ML samples annealed at 400 deg. C confirms existence and BE position of observed Ni 3d satellite

  9. X-ray photoelectron and x-ray-induced auger electron spectroscopic data, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Yuji; Sasaki, Teikichi

    1984-04-01

    The intrinsic data of the X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and X-ray-induced Auger electron spectra (XAES) for 4d transition-metals and related oxides were obtained by means of a spherical electron spectrometer. The metallic surfaces were cleaned by two different metheds : mechanical filing and Ar + ion etching. In the case of the Ar + io n bombarded Y, Zr, and Nb metals, the binding energies of the core-lines and the kinetic energies of the Auger lines shift from those for the mechanically filed surfaces. The energy shifts were interpreted in terms of the ion-induced lattice distortion of the metal surfaces. The oxides examined are typical compounds such as Y 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Nb 2 O 5 , MoO 3 and RuO 2 . The data consists of 4 wide scans, 33 core-line spectra, 10 valence-band spectra and 12 XAES spectra. The peak positions of the core-lines and the Auger lines were summarized in 6 tables together with their chemical shifts. (author)

  10. The X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, M.; Kelley, R.

    2017-10-01

    On 25 March 2016, the Japanese 6th X-ray astronomical satellite ASTRO-H (Hitomi), launched on February 17, lost communication after a series of mishap in its attitude control system. In response to the mishap the X-ray astronomy community and JAXA analyzed the direct and root cause of the mishap and investigated possibility of a recovery mission with the international collaborator NASA and ESA. Thanks to great effort of scientists, agencies, and governments, the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) are proposed. The recovery mission is planned to resume high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with imaging realized by Hitomi under the international collaboration in the shortest time possible, simply by focusing one of the main science goals of Hitomi Resolving astrophysical problems by precise high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy'. XARM will carry a 6 x 6 pixelized X-ray micro-calorimeter on the focal plane of an X-ray mirror assembly, and an aligned X-ray CCD camera covering the same energy band and wider field of view, but no hard X-ray or soft gamma-ray instruments are onboard. In this paper, we introduce the science objectives, mission concept, and schedule of XARM.

  11. Quantification of trace elements in protein bands by synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence after isoelectric focusing separation of human hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuxi; Chen Chunying; Li Bai; He Wei; Huang Yuying; Chai Zhifang

    2005-01-01

    The role and effects of a trace element in a particular organism strongly depend on its particular chemical forms in which the element is present. Therefore, the bulk content or concentration of an element in the organism of interest is often meaningless in judging its biological significance. To understand bioavailability, transportation, cell uptake, metabolism, toxicity, and other biological behaviors of trace elements in the body, information is needed about speciation of trace element, especially about distribution of metal-containing proteins. Development of appropriate methods for speciation analysis is therefore required. Synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) is a sensitive method for multielemental analysis with detection limit of 10 ng/g. It has been successfully used for imaging and quantifying trace elements in various pathological and healthy tissues, even in a single cell, to help understand the mechanism of diseases and the biochemistry of elements. In our previous work, the technique was combined with electrophoresis to study distribution of metalloproteins in biological samples, but the quantitative analysis of trace elements in protein bands after electrophoresis was still unrealized. In this study, a procedure has been proposed for quantification of Fe, Cu, and Zn in protein bands with SRXRF analysis after isoelectric focusing (IEF) separation. Calibration standards were prepared by adding certain amounts of metal ions and free-metal proteins to electrophoresis gel. Human hemoglobin was separated with IEF, and Fe, Cu, and Zn in protein bands were analyzed by SRXRF. The calibration curves can be obtained in a range of 0-8 mg/kg metals and a linear relationship between dosage of metals and fluorescent intensity can be observed (r 2 > 0.99). The method provides the detection limits of 2.43, 1.12, and 0.96 mg/kg for Fe, Cu and Zn, and the recoveries of 90.4 and 115.7 % for Fe and Zn, respectively. The hyphenated technique of SRXRF and IEF

  12. X-ray interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, A.

    1980-01-01

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  13. Extremity x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003461.htm Extremity x-ray To use the sharing features on this page, ... in the body Risks There is low-level radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the ...

  14. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  16. Band bending in Au/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Dependence on the initial state of the film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, Nicoleta G.; Stoflea, Laura E.; Lungu, George A.; Tanase, Liviu C.; Chirila, Cristina; Frunza, Ligia; Pintilie, Lucian; Teodorescu, Cristian M.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a systematic investigation by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the mechanisms of interface formation and band bending for Au/Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) layers grown on SrTiO 3 (001) with a SrRuO 3 buffer layer, as function on the initial state of the PZT surface. After isolating the chemical effects, such as the formation of metal Pb at some surfaces, the evolution of the core levels with Au deposition allows one to simultaneously investigate the Schottky barrier formation and the built-in potential effects (charging induced by the static ferroelectric polarization). Areas of the sample with outwards P (+) and no polarization perpendicular to the surface P (0) are identified for all samples. Only the freshly prepared sample exhibited inward polarization areas P (−) . The built-in potential is on the order of 0.9 eV, while the Schottky band bending ranges from 0.2 to 0.6 eV towards lower absolute energies, therefore indicating that the work function of PZT exceeds that of Au deposited. We report also a chemically differentiate value of the built-in potential, manifested by a preferential distribution of the charge accumulated at the surface on Ti and O atoms. The O 1s and Ti 2p core levels manifest quite strong variations with the Au thickness for freshly prepared samples, resulting in shifts on the order of 2 eV towards lower binding energies. Au deposited on areas with an outward polarization is positively charged by the same potential as atoms from the PZT film (0.8–0.9 eV), whereas Au deposited on areas with an inward polarization forms a continuous grounded layer, which progressively pumps the accumulated charge and removes the polarization of these areas. - Highlights: • Assessment by XPS of areas with different ferroelectric polarization. • Inwards polarized areas identified only on freshly prepared substrates. • Follow-up of the Schottky barrier formed at Au/PZT(001) interfaces. • Inwards polarized areas exhibit higher binding

  17. Size and alloying induced shift in core and valence bands of Pd-Ag and Pd-Cu nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengar, Saurabh K.; Mehta, B. R.; Govind

    2014-01-01

    In this report, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out on Pd, Ag, Cu, Pd-Ag, and Pd-Cu nanoparticles having identical sizes corresponding to mobility equivalent diameters of 60, 40, and 20 nm. The nanoparticles were prepared by the gas phase synthesis method. The effect of size on valence and core levels in metal and alloy nanoparticles has been studied by comparing the values to those with the 60 nm nanoparticles. The effect of alloying has been investigated by comparing the valence and core level binding energies of Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag alloy nanoparticles with the corresponding values for Pd, Ag, and Cu nanoparticles of identical sizes. These effects have been explained in terms of size induced lattice contractions, alloying induced charge transfer, and hybridization effects. The observation of alloying and size induced binding energy shifts in bimetallic nanoparticles is important from the point of view of hydrogen reactivity

  18. Itinerant ferromagnetism in the As 4p conduction band of Ba_{0.6}K_{0.4}Mn_{2}As_{2} identified by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, B G; Pandey, Abhishek; Lee, Y; Sapkota, A; Choi, Y; Haskel, D; Rosenberg, R A; Lang, J C; Harmon, B N; Johnston, D C; Kreyssig, A; Goldman, A I

    2015-05-29

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements on single-crystal and powder samples of Ba_{0.6}K_{0.4}Mn_{2}As_{2} show that the ferromagnetism below T_{C}≈100  K arises in the As 4p conduction band. No XMCD signal is observed at the Mn x-ray absorption edges. Below T_{C}, however, a clear XMCD signal is found at the As K edge which increases with decreasing temperature. The XMCD signal is absent in data taken with the beam directed parallel to the crystallographic c axis indicating that the orbital magnetic moment lies in the basal plane of the tetragonal lattice. These results show that the previously reported itinerant ferromagnetism is associated with the As 4p conduction band and that distinct local-moment antiferromagnetism and itinerant ferromagnetism with perpendicular easy axes coexist in this compound at low temperature.

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of {beta}-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} optical surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atuchin, V.V.; Kesler, V.G.; Kokh, A.E.; Pokrovsky, L.D

    2004-02-29

    An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study has been performed for (0 0 1) BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The crystal surface has been polished mechanically and cleaned by chemical etching. In XPS observation, depth profiling has been produced by sputtering with Ar{sup +} 3 keV ions. Photoelectron binding energies of original element core levels and valence band have been measured as a function of sputtering time. The persistence of binding energies of barium and boron core levels and valence band structure has been found. For O 1 s core level the formation of new spectral components with lower binding energies has been revealed.

  20. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  1. Valence band structures of InAs/GaAs quantum rings using the Fourier transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Boyong; Yu Zhongyuan; Liu Yumin

    2009-01-01

    The valence band structures of strained InAs/GaAs quantum rings are calculated, with the four-band k · p model, in the framework of effective-mass envelope function theory. When determining the Hamiltonian matrix elements, we develop the Fourier transform method instead of the widely used analytical integral method. Using Fourier transform, we have investigated the energy levels as functions of the geometrical parameters of the rings and compared our results with those obtained by the analytical integral method. The results show that the energy levels in the quantum rings change dramatically with the inner radius, outer radius, average radius, width, height of the ring and the distance between two adjacent rings. Our method can be adopted in low-dimensional structures with arbitrary shape. Our results are consistent with those in the literature and should be helpful for studying and fabricating optoelectronic devices

  2. Experimental determination of conduction and valence bands of semiconductor nanoparticles using Kelvin probe force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen; Chen Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    The ability to determine a semiconductor’s band edge positions is important for the design of new photocatalyst materials. In this paper, we introduced an experimental method based on Kelvin probe force microscopy to determine the conduction and valence band edge energies of semiconductor nanomaterials, which has rarely been demonstrated. We tested the method on six semiconductor nanoparticles (α-Fe 2 O 3 , CeO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , CuO, TiO 2 , and ZnO) with known electronic structures. The experimentally determined band edge positions for α-Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , and CuO well matched the literature values with no statistical difference. Except CeO 2 , all other metal oxides had a consistent upward bias in the experimental measurements of band edge positions because of the shielding effect of the adsorbed surface water layer. This experimental approach may outstand as a unique alternative way of probing the band edge energy positions of semiconductor materials to complement the current computational methods, which often find limitations in new synthetic or complex materials. Ultimately, this work provides scientific foundation for developing experimental tools to probe nanoscale electronic properties of photocatalytic materials, which will drive breakthroughs in the design of novel photocatalytic systems and advance the fundamental understanding of material properties.

  3. Optical and X-ray studies of Compact X-ray Binaries in NGC 5904

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalotia, Vanshree; Beck-Winchatz, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Due to their high stellar densities, globular cluster systems trigger various dynamical interactions, such as the formation of compact X-ray binaries. Stellar collisional frequencies have been correlated to the number of X-ray sources detected in various clusters and we hope to measure this correlation for NGC 5904. Optical fluxes of sources from archival HST images of NGC 5904 have been measured using a DOLPHOT PSF photometry in the UV, optical and near-infrared. We developed a data analysis pipeline to process the fluxes of tens of thousands of objects using awk, python and DOLPHOT. We plot color magnitude diagrams in different photometric bands in order to identify outliers that could be X-ray binaries, since they do not evolve the same way as singular stars. Aligning previously measured astrometric data for X-ray sources in NGC 5904 from Chandra with archival astrometric data from HST will filter out the outlier objects that are not X-ray producing, and provide a sample of compact binary systems that are responsible for X-ray emission in NGC 5904. Furthermore, previously measured X-ray fluxes of NGC 5904 from Chandra have also been used to measure the X-ray to optical flux ratio and identify the types of compact X-ray binaries responsible for the X-ray emissions in NGC 5904. We gratefully acknowledge the support from the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  4. X-ray lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  5. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Stagg, L.; Lambert, T.W.; Griswa, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  6. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of x-ray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes. 8 figures

  7. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray apparatus is described which has a shutter between the X-ray source and the patient. The shutter controls the level of radiation to which the patient is exposed instead of merely discontinuing the electric power supplied to the source. When the shutter is opened a radiation sensor senses the level of X-radiation. When a preset quantity of X-radiation has been measured an exposure control closes the shutter. Instead of using the radiation sensor, the integrated power supplied to the anode of the X-ray source may be measured. (author)

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  10. X-ray examination apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an X-ray apparatus which includes an adjustable X-ray filter. In order to adjust an intensity profile of the X-ray beam, an X-ray absorbing liquid is transported to filter elements of the X-ray filter. Such transport is susceptible to gravitational forces which lead to an

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  14. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  15. Valence-band splitting energies in wurtzite InP nanowires: Photoluminescence spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadret, E. G.; Dias, G. O.; Dacal, L. C. O.; de Lima, M. M., Jr.; Ruffo, C. V. R. S.; Iikawa, F.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Chiaramonte, T.; Cotta, M. A.; Tizei, L. H. G.; Ugarte, D.; Cantarero, A.

    2010-09-01

    We investigated experimentally and theoretically the valence-band structure of wurtzite InP nanowires. The wurtzite phase, which usually is not stable for III-V phosphide compounds, has been observed in InP nanowires. We present results on the electronic properties of these nanowires using the photoluminescence excitation technique. Spectra from an ensemble of nanowires show three clear absorption edges separated by 44 meV and 143 meV, respectively. The band edges are attributed to excitonic absorptions involving three distinct valence-bands labeled: A, B, and C. Theoretical results based on “ab initio” calculation gives corresponding valence-band energy separations of 50 meV and 200 meV, respectively, which are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  16. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  17. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  18. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  19. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breath, persistent cough, fever, chest pain or injury. It may also be useful to help diagnose and ... have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to ...

  20. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... An MRI Story Radiology and You Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray ... posted: How to Obtain and Share Your Medical Images Movement Disorders Video: The Basketball Game: An MRI ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot ... Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure current and accurate information, we do not permit copying but encourage linking ...

  2. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ... chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs ...

  4. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Pancreatic Cancer The Limitations of Online Dose Calculators Video: The ... of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  6. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masswig, I.

    1986-01-01

    The tkb market survey comparatively evaluates the X-ray sources and replacement tubes for stationary equipment currently available on the German market. It lists the equipment parameters of 235 commercially available X-ray sources and their replacement tubes and gives the criteria for purchase decisions. The survey has been completed with December 1985, and offers good information concerning medical and technical aspects as well as those of safety and maintenance. (orig.) [de

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray ( ... leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  13. Electronic structure simulation of chromium aluminum oxynitride by discrete variational-X{alpha} method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Youngmin; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Jae Do [Korea Research Inst. of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea); Kim, Eunah; No, Kwangsoo [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-09-01

    We use a first-principles discrete variational (DV)-X{alpha} method to investigate the electronic structure of chromium aluminum oxynitride. When nitrogen is substituted for oxygen in the Cr-Al-O system, the N2p level appears in the energy range between O2p and Cr3d levels. Consequently, the valence band of chromium aluminum oxynitride becomes broader and the band gap becomes smaller than that of chromium aluminum oxide, which is consistent with the photoelectron spectra for the valence band using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). We expect that this valence band structure of chromium aluminum oxynitride will modify the transmittance slope which is a requirement for photomask application. (author)

  14. Electronic structure simulation of chromium aluminum oxynitride by discrete variational-Xα method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Youngmin; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Jae Do; Kim, Eunah; No, Kwangsoo

    2002-01-01

    We use a first-principles discrete variational (DV)-Xα method to investigate the electronic structure of chromium aluminum oxynitride. When nitrogen is substituted for oxygen in the Cr-Al-O system, the N2p level appears in the energy range between O2p and Cr3d levels. Consequently, the valence band of chromium aluminum oxynitride becomes broader and the band gap becomes smaller than that of chromium aluminum oxide, which is consistent with the photoelectron spectra for the valence band using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). We expect that this valence band structure of chromium aluminum oxynitride will modify the transmittance slope which is a requirement for photomask application. (author)

  15. Photoionization cross-sections of ground and excited valence levels of actinides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarzhemsky Victor G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photoionization cross-sections of ground and excited atomic states of actinide atoms were calculated by the Dirac-Fock-Slater method for two excitation energies of X-ray radiation (1253.6 eV and 1486.6 eV. These data are required for calculations of intensities of X-ray photoelectron spectra of actinide compound valence bands and interpretation of experimental spectra.

  16. Spin-dependent electron-phonon coupling in the valence band of single-layer WS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinsche, Nicki Frank; Ngankeu, Arlette S.; Guilloy, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The absence of inversion symmetry leads to a strong spin-orbit splitting of the upper valence band of semiconducting single-layer transition-metal dichalchogenides such as MoS2 or WS2. This permits a direct comparison of the electron-phonon coupling strength in states that only differ by their spin....... Here, the electron-phonon coupling in the valence band maximum of single-layer WS2 is studied by first-principles calculations and angle-resolved photoemission. The coupling strength is found to be drastically different for the two spin-split branches, with calculated values of λK=0.0021 and 0.......40 for the upper and lower spin-split valence band of the freestanding layer, respectively. This difference is somewhat reduced when including scattering processes involving the Au(111) substrate present in the experiment but it remains significant, in good agreement with the experimental results....

  17. Auger electron emission initiated by the creation of valence-band holes in graphene by positron annihilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirayath, V A; Callewaert, V; Fairchild, A J; Chrysler, M D; Gladen, R W; Mcdonald, A D; Imam, S K; Shastry, K; Koymen, A R; Saniz, R; Barbiellini, B; Rajeshwar, K; Partoens, B; Weiss, A H

    2017-07-13

    Auger processes involving the filling of holes in the valence band are thought to make important contributions to the low-energy photoelectron and secondary electron spectrum from many solids. However, measurements of the energy spectrum and the efficiency with which electrons are emitted in this process remain elusive due to a large unrelated background resulting from primary beam-induced secondary electrons. Here, we report the direct measurement of the energy spectra of electrons emitted from single layer graphene as a result of the decay of deep holes in the valence band. These measurements were made possible by eliminating competing backgrounds by employing low-energy positrons (holes by annihilation. Our experimental results, supported by theoretical calculations, indicate that between 80 and 100% of the deep valence-band holes in graphene are filled via an Auger transition.

  18. Material Discriminated X-Ray CT System by Using New X-Ray Imager with Energy Discriminate Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Aoki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Material discriminated X-ray CT system has been constructed by using conventional X-ray tube (white X-ray source and photon-counting X-ray imager as an application with energy band detection. We have already reported material identify X-ray CT using K-shell edge method elsewhere. In this report the principle of material discrimination was adapted the separation of electron-density and atomic number from attenuation coefficient mapping in X-ray CT reconstructed image in two wavelength X-ray CT method using white X-ray source and energy discriminated X-ray imager by using two monochrome X-ray source method. The measurement phantom was prepared as four kinds material rods (Carbon(C, Iron(Fe, Copper(Cu, Titanium(Ti rods of 3mm-diameter inside an aluminum(Al rod of 20mm-diameter. We could observed material discriminated X-ray CT reconstructed image, however, the discrimination properties were not good than two monochrome X-ray CT method. This results was could be explained because X-ray scattering, beam-hardening and so on based on white X-ray source, which could not observe in two monochrome X-ray CT method. However, since our developed CdTe imager can be detect five energy-bands at the same time, we can use multi-band analysis to decrease the least square error margin. We will be able to obtain more high separation in atomic number mapping in X-ray CT reconstructed image by using this system.

  19. Soft-x-ray fluorescence study of buried silicides in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Multilayer films made by alternate deposition of two materials play an important role in electronic and optical devices such as quantum-well lasers and x-ray mirrors. In addition, novel phenomena like giant magnetoresistance and dimensional crossover in superconductors have emerged from studies of multilayers. While sophisticated x-ray techniques are widely used to study the morphology of multilayer films, progress in studying the electronic structure has been slower. The short mean-free path of low-energy electrons severely limits the usefulness of photoemission and related electron free path of low-energy electrons severely limit spectroscopies for multilayer studies. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) is a bulk-sensitive photon-in, photon-out method to study valence band electronic states. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) measured with partial photon yield can give complementary bulk-sensitive information about unoccupied states. Both these methods are element-specific since the incident x-ray photons excite electrons from core levels. By combining NEXAFS and SXF measurements on buried layers in multilayers and comparing these spectra to data on appropriate reference compounds, it is possible to obtain a detailed picture of the electronic structure. Results are presented for a study of a Fe/Si multilayer system.

  20. Soft-x-ray fluorescence study of buried silicides in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Si multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, J.A.; Chaiken, A.; Michel, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Multilayer films made by alternate deposition of two materials play an important role in electronic and optical devices such as quantum-well lasers and x-ray mirrors. In addition, novel phenomena like giant magnetoresistance and dimensional crossover in superconductors have emerged from studies of multilayers. While sophisticated x-ray techniques are widely used to study the morphology of multilayer films, progress in studying the electronic structure has been slower. The short mean-free path of low-energy electrons severely limits the usefulness of photoemission and related electron free path of low-energy electrons severely limit spectroscopies for multilayer studies. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) is a bulk-sensitive photon-in, photon-out method to study valence band electronic states. Near-edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) measured with partial photon yield can give complementary bulk-sensitive information about unoccupied states. Both these methods are element-specific since the incident x-ray photons excite electrons from core levels. By combining NEXAFS and SXF measurements on buried layers in multilayers and comparing these spectra to data on appropriate reference compounds, it is possible to obtain a detailed picture of the electronic structure. Results are presented for a study of a Fe/Si multilayer system

  1. Resonant photoemission at core-level shake-up thresholds: Valence-band satellites in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerneholm, O.; Andersen, J.N.; Wigren, C.; Nilsson, A.; Nyholm, R.; Ma; Ortensson, N.

    1990-01-01

    Three-hole satellites (3d 7 final-state configuration) in the nickel valence-band photoelectron spectrum have been identified at 13 and 18 eV binding energy with use of synchrotron radiation from the MAX storage ring. The three-hole satellites show resonances at photon energies close to the threshold for excitation of 3p 5 3d 9 core-hole shake-up states. The 13-eV satellite also shows a resonance directly at the 3p threshold. This is interpreted as an interference between the direct three-hole ionization and a shake-up transition in the Auger decay of the 3p hole. This shake-up process is also identified directly in the M 2,3 M 4,5 M 4,5 Auger spectrum

  2. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  3. A Comparison of the Valence Band Structure of Bulk and Epitaxial GeTe-based Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzyk, M.A.; Kowalski, B.J.; Orlowski, B.A.; Knoff, W.; Story, T.; Dobrowolski, W.; Slynko, V.E.; Slynko, E.I.; Johnson, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a comparison of the experimental results, which have been obtained by the resonant photoelectron spectroscopy for a set of selected diluted magnetic semiconductors based on GeTe, doped with manganese. The photoemission spectra are acquired for the photon energy range of 40-60 eV, corresponding to the Mn 3p → 3d resonances. The spectral features related to Mn 3d states are revealed in the emission from the valence band. The Mn 3d states contribution manifests itself in the whole valence band with a maximum at the binding energy of 3.8 eV. (authors)

  4. Valence and conduction band offsets at low-k a-SiO{sub x}C{sub y}:H/a-SiC{sub x}N{sub y}:H interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Sean W., E-mail: sean.king@intel.com; Brockman, Justin; French, Marc; Jaehnig, Milt; Kuhn, Markus [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); French, Benjamin [Ocotillo Materials Laboratory, Intel Corporation, Chandler, Arizona 85248 (United States)

    2014-09-21

    In order to understand the fundamental electrical leakage and reliability failure mechanisms in nano-electronic low-k dielectric/metal interconnect structures, we have utilized x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy to determine the valence and conduction band offsets present at interfaces between non-porous and porous low-k a-SiO{sub x}C{sub y}:H interlayer dielectrics and a-SiC{sub x}N{sub y}:H metal capping layers. The valence band offset for such interfaces was determined to be 2.7±0.2 eV and weakly dependent on the a-SiOC:H porosity. The corresponding conduction band offset was determined to be 2.1±0.2 eV. The large band offsets indicate that intra metal layer leakage is likely dominated by defects and trap states in the a-SiOC:H and a-SiCN:H dielectrics.

  5. X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webley, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The object of the invention described is to provide an X-ray tube providing a scanned X-ray output which does not require a scanned electron beam. This is obtained by an X-ray tube including an anode which is rotatable about an axis, and a source of a beam of energy, for example an electron beam, arranged to impinge on a surface of the anode to generate X-radiation substantially at the region of incidence on the anode surface. The anode is rotatable about the axis to move the region of incidence over the surface. The anode is so shaped that the rotation causes the region of incidence to move in a predetermined manner relative to fixed parts of the tube so that the generated X-radiation is scanned in a predetermined manner relative to the tube. (UK)

  6. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  7. Flash x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Q.; Pellinen, D.

    1976-01-01

    The complementary techniques of flash x-ray radiography (FXR) and flash x-ray diffraction (FXD) provide access to a unique domain in nondestructive materials testing. FXR is useful in studies of macroscopic properties during extremely short time intervals, and FXD, the newer technique, is used in studies of microscopic properties. Although these techniques are similar in many respects, there are some substantial differences. FXD generally requires low-voltage, line-radiation sources and extremely accurate timing; FXR is usually less demanding. Phenomena which can be profitably studied by FXR often can also be studied by FXD to permit a complete materials characterization

  8. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deployment of detectors outside the deleterious effects of the atmosphere by sending them in space vehicles, has been explained. This has thrown open the entire spectrum of the electromagnetic and particle radiation to direct observations, thus enlarging the vistas of the field of astronomy and astrophysics. The discovery of strong emitters of X-rays such as SCO X-1, NorX-2, transient sources such as Cen X-2, Cen X-4, Cen X-1, Supernova remnants Tan X-1, etc., are reported. The background of the X-ray spectrum as measured during two rocket flights over Thumba, India is presented. (K.B.)

  9. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  10. X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.; Whetten, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ionization chamber for use in determining the spatial distribution of x-ray photons in tomography systems comprises a plurality of substantially parallel, planar anodes separated by parallel, planar cathodes and enclosed in a gas of high atomic weight at a pressure from approximately 10 atmospheres to approximately 50 atmospheres. The cathode and anode structures comprise metals which are substantially opaque to x-ray radiation and thereby tend to reduce the resolution limiting effects of xray fluoresence in the gas. In another embodiment of the invention the anodes comprise parallel conductive bars disposed between two planar cathodes. Guard rings eliminate surface leakage currents between adjacent electrodes

  11. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  12. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  13. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  14. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  15. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  16. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  17. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  18. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  19. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  20. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  1. Simultaneous Conduction and Valence Band Quantization in Ultrashallow High-Density Doping Profiles in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, F.; Wells, J. W.; Pakpour-Tabrizi, A. C.; Jackman, R. B.; Thiagarajan, B.; Hofmann, Ph.; Miwa, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous quantization of conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) states in silicon using ultrashallow, high-density, phosphorus doping profiles (so-called Si:P δ layers). We show that, in addition to the well-known quantization of CB states within the dopant plane, the confinement of VB-derived states between the subsurface P dopant layer and the Si surface gives rise to a simultaneous quantization of VB states in this narrow region. We also show that the VB quantization can be explained using a simple particle-in-a-box model, and that the number and energy separation of the quantized VB states depend on the depth of the P dopant layer beneath the Si surface. Since the quantized CB states do not show a strong dependence on the dopant depth (but rather on the dopant density), it is straightforward to exhibit control over the properties of the quantized CB and VB states independently of each other by choosing the dopant density and depth accordingly, thus offering new possibilities for engineering quantum matter.

  2. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  3. X-ray electron density distribution of GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using ten X-ray structure amplitudes of strong reflections and nine weak reflections both, the valence electron and the difference electron density distribution of GaAs, are calculated. The experimental data are corrected for anomalous dispersion using a bond charge model. The calculated plots are compared with up to now published band structure-based and semiempirically calculated density plots. Taking into account the experimental data of germanium, measured on the same absolute scale, the difference density between GaAs and Ge is calculated. This exhibits the charge transfer between both the f.c.c.-sublattices as well as both, the shift and the decrease of the bond charge, quite closely connected to the theoretical results published by Baur et al. (author)

  4. Achromatic X-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, Marion

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents first results on the development of achromatic refractive X-ray lenses which can be used for scientific experiments at synchrotron sources. First of all the different requirements for achromatic X-ray lenses have been worked out. There are different types of lenses, one type can be used for monochromatized sources when the energy is scanned while the spot size should be constant. The other type can be used at beamlines providing a broad energy band. By a combination of focusing and defocusing elements we have developed a lens system that strongly reduces the chromatic aberration of a refractive lens in a given energy range. The great challenge in the X-ray case - in contrast to the visible range - the complex refractive index, which is very similar for the possible materials in the X-ray spectrum. For precise studies a numerical code has been developed, which calculates the different rays on their way through the lenses to the detector plane via raytracing. In this numerical code the intensity distribution in the detector plane has been analyzed for a chromatic and the corresponding achromatic system. By optimization routines for the two different fields of applications specific parameter combinations were found. For the experimental verification an achromatic system has been developed, consisting of biconcave SU-8 lenses and biconvex Nickel Fresnel lenses. Their fabrication was based on the LIGA-process, including a further innovative development, namely the fabrication of two different materials on one wafer. In the experiment at the synchrotron source ANKA the energy was varied in a specific energy range in steps of 0.1 keV. The intensity distribution for the different energies was detected at a certain focal length. For the achromatic system a reduction of the chromatic aberration could be clearly shown. Achromatic refractive X-ray lenses, especially for the use at synchrotron sources, have not been developed so far. As a consequence of the

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used to ...

  6. X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, U.

    1979-11-01

    The author describes several possibilities for the production of X-radiation. Especially he discusses the use of bremsstrahlung at electron impact on solid targets and the synchrotron radiation. He presents some equations for the calculation of X-ray intensities. Especially the X-radiation from the DORIS storage ring is discussed. (HSI)

  7. Medical x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz Mhd Ramli; Gui Ah Auu; Husaini Salleh; Idris Besar; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Muhammad Jamal Md Isa; Shaharuddin Mohd; Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader; Mahalatchimi Dave; Mohd Fazly Abdul Rahim; Ng Chee Moon; Ram Piari; Teoh Hoon Heng; Lee Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  8. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... change into a gown. You may have some concerns about chest x-rays. However, it’s important to ... You Sponsored by About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ...

  9. Decay of Wannier-Mott excitons interacting with acoustic phonon in semiconductors with a degenerate valence band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Toan Thang; Nguyen Ai Viet; Nguyen Hong Quang

    1987-06-01

    Decay probabilities of light and heavy excitons interacting with acoustic phonons in cubic semiconductors with a degenerate valence band are calculated. The numerical results for GaAs showed that the decay probability of the light exciton is much greater than that of the heavy one. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig

  10. X-ray clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    This work is in three chapters, of which the first is an introduction to clusters of galaxies. The second chapter describes the HEAO A-2 Survey of Abell Clusters. The 225 clusters of galaxies listed in Abell's (1958) catalog which are of distance class four or less, were surveyed for 2 to 10 keV x-ray emission. Thirty-two identifications of x-ray sources with the clusters were made, fluxes and error boxes were determined for these sources; twelve of the identifications are new. The x-ray luminosity function has been derived and analytical fits have been made, the best fit is f(L) = 26.9 x 10 -8 exp( - L 44 /1.7) per Mpc per 10 44 erg s -1 per 2 to 10 keV band pass. The relationship between x-ray luminosity, Bautz-Morgan type, Rood-Sastry type, and richness has also been examined. The contribution of clusters to the x-ray background has been calculated from the luminosity function and has been found to be 3.5%, and with 90% certainty, less than 8% in the 2 to 10 keV band pass, assuming that clusters were not brighter in the past than they are at present. If they were bright enough in the past to account for the x-ray background, the evolution must have scaled more rapidly than (1 + z) 7 if clusters formed at z = 3, or (1 + z) 5 if clusters formed at z = 10. Chapter Three examines x-ray emission from poor clusters of galaxies. Burns and Owens' (1979) sample of 25 4C radio sources which coincide with Zwicky clusters of galaxies has been searched for x-ray emission in the HEAO A-2 data base. X-ray emission was detected from five sources at the 3sigma level, two exceeded 5 sigma. The search for x-ray emission was prompted by the knowledge of the existence of distorted radio sources in the clusters. The distortion implies the presence of a relatively dense intracluster medium which is expected to produce thermal bremsstrahlung x-ray emission

  11. Multicolor tuning towards single red-emission band of upconversion nanoparticles for tunable optical component and optical/x-ray imaging agents via Ce"3"+ doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Zhigao; Zeng, Tianmei; Xu, Yaru; Qian, Chao; Liu, Hongrong; Zeng, Songjun; Lu, Wei; Hao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    A simple strategy of Ce"3"+ doping is proposed to realize multicolor tuning and predominant red emission in BaLnF_5:Yb"3"+/Ho"3"+ (Ln"3"+ = Gd"3"+, Y"3"+, Yb"3"+) systems. A tunable upconversion (UC) multicolor output from green/yellow to red can be readily achieved in a fixed Yb"3"+/Ho"3"+ composition by doping Ce"3"+, providing an effective route for multicolor tuning widely used for various optical components. Moreover, compared with Ce"3"+-free UC nanoparticles (UCNPs), a remarkable enhancement of the red-to-green (R/G) ratio is observed by doping 30% Ce"3"+, arising from the two largely promoted cross-relaxation (CR) processes between Ce"3"+ and Ho"3"+. UCNPs with pure red emission are selected as in vivo UC bioimaging agents, demonstrating the merits of deep penetration depth, the absence of autofluorescence and high contrast in small animal bioimaging. Moreover, such fluorescence imaging nanoprobes can also be used as contrast agents for three-dimensional (3D) x-ray bioimaging by taking advantage of the high K-edge values and x-ray absorption coefficients of Ba"2"+, Gd"3"+, and Ce"3"+ in our designed nanoprobes. Thus, the simultaneous realization of multicolor output, highly enhanced R/G ratio, and predominant red emission makes the Ce"3"+-doped UCNPs very useful for widespread applications in optical components and bioimaging. (paper)

  12. Multicolor tuning towards single red-emission band of upconversion nanoparticles for tunable optical component and optical/x-ray imaging agents via Ce(3+) doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhigao; Zeng, Tianmei; Xu, Yaru; Lu, Wei; Qian, Chao; Liu, Hongrong; Zeng, Songjun; Hao, Jianhua

    2015-09-25

    A simple strategy of Ce(3+) doping is proposed to realize multicolor tuning and predominant red emission in BaLnF5:Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) (Ln(3+) = Gd(3+), Y(3+), Yb(3+)) systems. A tunable upconversion (UC) multicolor output from green/yellow to red can be readily achieved in a fixed Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) composition by doping Ce(3+), providing an effective route for multicolor tuning widely used for various optical components. Moreover, compared with Ce(3+)-free UC nanoparticles (UCNPs), a remarkable enhancement of the red-to-green (R/G) ratio is observed by doping 30% Ce(3+), arising from the two largely promoted cross-relaxation (CR) processes between Ce(3+) and Ho(3+). UCNPs with pure red emission are selected as in vivo UC bioimaging agents, demonstrating the merits of deep penetration depth, the absence of autofluorescence and high contrast in small animal bioimaging. Moreover, such fluorescence imaging nanoprobes can also be used as contrast agents for three-dimensional (3D) x-ray bioimaging by taking advantage of the high K-edge values and x-ray absorption coefficients of Ba(2+), Gd(3+), and Ce(3+) in our designed nanoprobes. Thus, the simultaneous realization of multicolor output, highly enhanced R/G ratio, and predominant red emission makes the Ce(3+)-doped UCNPs very useful for widespread applications in optical components and bioimaging.

  13. X-ray detector for a panoramic X-ray unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, D; Ensslin, F H

    1976-01-15

    The discovery deals with an X-ray detector suitable for the controlling of panoramic X-ray systems. It consists of a fluorescent image screen and a semiconductor photo cell. The output signal of the detector is proportional to the intensity of the X-radiation and the response time is large enough to follow the change of amplitude of the contours of the modulated X radiation. The detector with band-pass filter regulates, via a control system, the moving rate of the X-ray source and of the film opposite it in dependence of the intensity, so that a uniform exposure is ensured.

  14. A Combined Theoretical and Experimental View on Valence and Conduction Band Densities of States of Lead Halide Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronik, Leeor; Endres, James; Egger, David A.; Kulbak, Michael; Kerner, Ross A.; Zhao, Lianfeng; Silver, Scott H.; Hodes, Gary; Rand, Barry P.; Cahen, David; Kahn, Antoine

    We present results for the valence and conduction band density of states (DOS), measured via ultraviolet and inverse photoemission spectroscopies for three lead halide perovskites. Specifically, the DOS of MAPbI3, MAPbBr3, and CsPbBr3, grown on different substrates, are compared. Theoretical DOS, calculated via hybrid density functional theory and including spin-orbit coupling, are compared to experimental data. The agreement between experiment and theory, obtained after correcting the latter for quantitative discrepancies, leads to the identification of valence and conduction band spectral features. In particular, this comparison allows for precise determination of the energy position of the band edges, namely ionization energies and electron affinities of these materials. We find an unusually low DOS at the valence band maximum (VBM) of these systems, which confirms and generalizes previous findings of strong band dispersion and low DOS at the VBM of MAPbI3. This calls for special attention when using electron spectroscopy to determine the frontier electronic states of lead halide perovskites.

  15. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowotny, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-15

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4.

  16. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  17. Development of an ultrasmall C-band linear accelerator guide for a four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamino, Yuichiro; Miura, Sadao; Kokubo, Masaki; Yamashita, Ichiro; Hirai, Etsuro; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2007-05-01

    We are developing a four-dimensional image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head. It is capable of pursuing irradiation and delivering irradiation precisely with the help of an agile moving x-ray head on the gimbals. Requirements for the accelerator guide were established, system design was developed, and detailed design was conducted. An accelerator guide was manufactured and basic beam performance and leakage radiation from the accelerator guide were evaluated at a low pulse repetition rate. The accelerator guide including the electron gun is 38 cm long and weighs about 10 kg. The length of the accelerating structure is 24.4 cm. The accelerating structure is a standing wave type and is composed of the axial-coupled injector section and the side-coupled acceleration cavity section. The injector section is composed of one prebuncher cavity, one buncher cavity, one side-coupled half cavity, and two axial coupling cavities. The acceleration cavity section is composed of eight side-coupled nose reentrant cavities and eight coupling cavities. The electron gun is a diode-type gun with a cerium hexaboride (CeB6) direct heating cathode. The accelerator guide can be operated without any magnetic focusing device. Output beam current was 75 mA with a transmission efficiency of 58%, and the average energy was 5.24 MeV. Beam energy was distributed from 4.95 to 5.6 MeV. The beam profile, measured 88 mm from the beam output hole on the axis of the accelerator guide, was 0.7 mm X 0.9 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) width. The beam loading line was 5.925 (MeV)-Ib (mA) X 0.00808 (MeV/mA), where Ib is output beam current. The maximum radiation leakage of the accelerator guide at 100 cm from the axis of the accelerator guide was calculated as 0.33 cGy/min at the rated x-ray output of 500 cGy/min from the measured value. This leakage requires no radiation shielding for the accelerator guide itself per IEC 60601-2-1.

  18. X-ray absorption investigation of the valence state and electronic structure of La1−xCaxCoO3−δ in comparison with La1−xSrxCoO3−δ and La1−xSrxFeO3−δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, O.; Ludwig, Chr.; Bergmann, U.; Singh, R.N.; Braun, A.; Graule, T.

    2011-01-01

    3d metal K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of perovskites with the composition La 1−x Ca x CoO 3−δ (x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8), La 1−x Sr x CoO 3−δ (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) and La 1−x Sr x FeO 3−δ (x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8) are compared on the basis of pre-edges, white line features and extended fine structures. The measurements were performed at 300 K and for La 1−x Ca x CoO 3−δ also at temperatures as low as 10–20 K. Going to low-temperature the measurements indicate an increase in t 2g ⁎ and a decrease in e g ⁎ orbital occupancy, which is most accentuated in the LaCoO 3 sample. Virtually no Co K-edge shift was observed for the La 1−x Ca x CoO 3−δ and La 1−x Sr x CoO 3−δ compounds and the Co–O distances are also not significantly reduced when La 3+ is partially substituted by Ca 2+ or Sr 2+ . From the pre-edge features of these perovskites we are tended to conclude that the t 2g ⁎ orbitals are less, and the e g ⁎ orbitals are more occupied with increasing x in the Ca and Sr substituted compounds, whereas the total d-electron density is not changing. These results indicate that cobalt prefers a valence state of 3 + in these Co perovskites. This could also be confirmed with iodometric titrations. The Fe perovskites behave differently. In contrast to the Co perovskites, for La 1−x Sr x FeO 3−δ perovskites the Fe K-edge is shifted, the pre-edge features intensity is increasing and the Fe–O bond length is decreasing with increasing x. The valence states of the iron in the La 1−x Sr x FeO 3−δ perovskites in fact increase as much as x increases. - Graphical abstract: Co K and Fe K pre-edge of La 1−x Ca x CoO 3−δ and La 1−x Sr x FeO 3−δ perovskites one of the evidences in favor of δ=x/2 for the Co-perovskites and δ=0 for the Fe-perovskites. Highlights: ► XAS a valuable tool to evaluate the valence states of Co and Fe perovskites. ► For La 1−x Ca x CoO 3−δ and La 1−x Sr x CoO 3

  19. X-ray refractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tur'yanskij, A.G.; Pirshin, I.V.

    2001-01-01

    Paper introduces a new circuit of X-ray refractometer to study angular and spectral features of refracted radiation within hard X-ray range. Refractometer incorporates two goniometers, two crystal-analyzers and three radiation detectors. The maximum distance between radiation source focal point and a receiving slit of the second goniometer is equal to 1.4 m. For the first time one obtained refraction patterns of fine-film specimens including C/Si stressed structure. Paper describes a new technique of refractometry via specimen oscillation at fixed position of a detecting device. Paper presents the measurement results of oscillation refraction patterns for specimens of melted quartz and ZnSe single crystal [ru

  20. X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The most common form of radio therapy is X-ray therapy, where a beam of photons or their parent electrons break down hydrogen bonds within the body's cells and remove certain DNA information necessary for cell multiplication. This process can eradicate malignant cells leading to complete recovery, to the remission of some cancers, or at least to a degree of pain relief. The radiotherapy instrument is usually an electron linac, and the electrons are used either directly in 'electrotherapy' for some 10% of patients, or the electrons bombard a conversion target creating a broad beam of high energy photons or 'penetration X-rays'. The simplest machine consists of several accelerating sections at around 3 GHz, accelerating electrons to 6 MeV; a cooled tungsten target is used to produce a 4 Gray/min X-ray field which can be collimated into a rectangular shape at the patient position. This tiny linac is mounted inside a rotating isocentric gantry above the patient who must remain perfectly still. Several convergent beams can also be used to increase the delivered dose. More sophisticated accelerators operate at up to 18 MeV to increase penetration depths and decrease skin exposure. Alternatively, electrotherapy can be used with different energies for lower and variable penetration depths - approximately 0.5 cm per MeV. In this way surface tissue may be treated without affecting deeper and more critical anatomical regions. This type of linac, 1 to 2 metres long, is mounted parallel to the patient with a bending magnet to direct the beam to the radiotherapy system, which includes the target, thick movable collimator jaws, a beam field equalizer, dose rate and optical field simulation and energy controls. There are over 2000 acceleratorbased X-ray treatment units worldwide. Western countries have up to two units per million population, whereas in developing countries such as Bangladesh, the density is only one per 100 million. Several

  1. X-ray generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucarias, A; Shepherd, J W

    1982-09-08

    An X-ray tube has a tubular envelope with a cathode for directing an electron beam onto a focal spot area of a spaced anode target to generate X-rays. The target is mounted for axial rotation on one end of a rotor disposed in an end portion of the envelope and encircled by a stator of an alternating current induction motor. An annular shield of high permeability magnetic material extends transversely between the electron beam and the stator of the induction motor for shunting stray or fringe electromagnetic fields established by the stator away from the electron beam to avoid consequent lateral deflections of the electron and corresponding lateral movements of the focal spot area.

  2. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  3. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein, J.R.; Wei, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  4. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Chuji.

    1980-01-01

    A principal object of the present invention is to provide an X-ray apparatus which is such that the distance between the surface of the patient's table and the floor on which the apparatus is installed is sufficiently small in the horizontal position of the patient's table of the roentgenographical pedestal and that the rotation of the pedestal from the horizontal position to a tilted position and further to the vertical position of the table can be carried out smoothly. (auth)

  5. X-ray Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.; Zerlett, G.

    1983-01-01

    This commentary, presented as volume 2 of the Deutsches Strahlenschutzrecht (German legislation on radiation protection) deals with the legal provisions of the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of X-radiation (X-ray Ordinance - RoeV), of March 1, 1973 (announced in BGBl.I, page 173), as amended by the ordinance on the protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation, of October 13, 1976 (announced in BGBl. I, page 2905). Thus volume 2 completes the task started with volume 1, namely to present a comprehensive view and account of the body of laws governing radiation protection, a task which was thought useful as developments in the FRG led to regulations being split up into the X-ray Ordinance, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance. In order to present a well-balanced commentary on the X-ray Ordinance, it was necessary to discuss the provisions both from the legal and the medical point of view. This edition takes into account the Fourth Public Notice of the BMA (Fed. Min. of Labour and Social Affairs) concerning the implementation of the X-ray Ordinance of January 4, 1982, as well as court decisions and literature published in this field, until September 1982. In addition, the judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court, dated October 19, 1982, concerning the voidness of the law on government liability, and two decisions by the Federal High Court, dated November 23, 1982, concerning the right to have insight into medical reports - of great significance in practice - have been considered. This commentary therefore is up to date with current developments. (orig.) [de

  6. Producing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.; Jung, R.G.; Applebaum, D.C.; Fairand, B.P.; Gallagher, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method of producing x-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target is described. Conversion efficiency of at least about 3 percent is obtained by providing the radiant energy in a low-power precursor pulse of approximately uniform effective intensity focused onto the surface of the target for about 1 to 30 nanoseconds so as to generate an expanding unconfined coronal plasma having less than normal solid density throughout and comprising a low-density (underdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is less than the laser radiation frequency and a higher-density (overdense) region wherein the plasma frequency is greater than the laser radiation frequency and, about 1 to 30 nanoseconds after the precursor pulse strikes the target, a higher-power main pulse focused onto the plasma for about 10 -3 to 30 nanoseconds and having such power density and total energy that the radiant energy is absorbed in the underdense region and conducted into the overdense region to heat it and thus to produce x-rays therefrom with the plasma remaining substantially below normal solid density and thus facilitating the substantial emission of x-rays in the form of spectral lines arising from nonequilibrium ionization states

  7. Valence one-electron and shake-up ionization bands of fluorene, carbazole and dibenzofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Shojaei, S.H.; Morini, Filippo; Deleuze, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The photoelectron spectra of the title compounds are assigned in details. • Shake-up lines are found to severely contaminate both π- and σ-ionization bands. • σ-ionization onsets are subject to severe vibronic coupling complications. • We compare the results of OVGF, ADC(3) and TDDFT calculations. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of the He (I) ultra-violet photoelectron spectra of fluorene, carbazole and dibenzofuran is presented with the aid of one-particle Green’s Function calculations employing the outer-valence Green’s Function (OVGF) approach and the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)] scheme, along with Dunning’s correlation consistent basis sets of double and triple zeta quality (cc-pVDZ, cc-pVTZ). Extrapolations of the ADC(3) results for the outermost one-electron π-ionization energies to the cc-pVTZ basis set enable theoretical insights into He (I) measurements within ∼0.15 eV accuracy, up to the σ-ionization onset. The lower ionization energy of carbazole is the combined result of mesomeric and electronic relaxation effects. OVGF/cc-pVDZ or OVGF/cc-pVTZ pole strengths smaller than 0.85 systematically corroborate a breakdown of the orbital picture of ionization at the ADC(3) level. Comparison is made with calculations of the lowest doublet–doublet excitation energies of the radical cation of fluorene, by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)

  8. Actinide science with soft x-ray synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuh, D.

    2002-01-01

    Several workshops, some dating back more than fifteen years, recognised both the potential scientific impact and opportunities that would be made available by the capability to investigate actinide materials in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)/soft X-ray region of the synchrotron radiation (SR) spectrum. This spectral region revolutionized the approach to surface materials chemistry and physics nearly two decades ego. The actinide science community was unable to capitalize on these SR methodologies for the study of actinide materials until recently because of radiological safety concerns. ,The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBNL is a third-generation light source providing state-of-the-art performance in the VUV/soft X-ray region. Along with corresponding improvements in detector and vacuum technology, the ALS has rendered experiments with small amounts of actinide materials possible. In particular, it has been the emergence and development of micro-spectroscopic techniques that have enabled investigations of actinide materials at the ALS. The primary methods for the experimental investigation of actinide materials in the VUV/soft X-ray region are the complementary photoelectron spectroscopies, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) techniques. Resonant photo-emission is capable of resolving the 5f electron contributions to actinide bonding and can be used to characterise the electronic structure of actinide materials. This technique is clearly a most important methodology afforded by the tunable SR source. Core level and valence band photoelectron spectroscopies are valuable for the characterisation of the electronic properties of actinide materials, as well as for general analytical purposes. High-resolution core-level photo-emission and resonant photo-emission measurements from the a (monoclinic) and δ (FCC) allotropic phases of plutonium metal have been collected on beam line 7.0 at the ALS and the spectra show

  9. X-ray study of chemical bonding in actinides(IV) and lanthanides(III) hexa-cyanoferrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, T.

    2011-01-01

    Bimetallic cyanide molecular solids derived from Prussian blue are well known to foster long-range magnetic ordering and show an intense inter-valence charge transfer band resulting from an exchange interaction through the cyanide-bridge. For those reasons the ferrocyanide and ferricyanide building blocks have been chosen to study electronic delocalization and covalent character in actinide bonding using an experimental and theoretical approach based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In 2001, the actinide (IV) and early lanthanides (III) hexacyanoferrate have been found by powder X-ray diffraction to be isostructural (hexagonal, P6 3 /m group). Here, extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the iron K-edge and actinide L 3 -edge have been undertaken to probe the local environment of both actinides and iron cations. In an effort to describe the cyano bridge, a double edge fitting procedure including both iron and actinide edges and based on multiple scattering approach has been developed. We have also investigated the electronic properties of these molecular solids. Low energy electronic transitions have been used iron L 2,3 edge, nitrogen and carbon K-edge and also actinides N 4,5 edge to directly probe the valence molecular orbitals of the complex. Using a phenomenological approach, a clear distinctive behaviour between actinides and lanthanides has been shown. Then a theoretical approach using quantum chemistry calculation has shown more specifically the effect of covalency in the actinide-ferrocyanide bond. More specifically, π interactions were underlined by both theoretical and experimental methods. Finally, in agreement with the ionic character of the lanthanide bonding no inter-valence charge transfer has been observed in the corresponding optical spectra of these compounds. On the contrary, optical spectra for actinides adducts (except for thorium) show an intense inter-valence charge transfer band like in the transition metal cases which is

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the body. X-rays are the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone ... bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special preparation. You ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  14. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... changes seen in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray ...

  2. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies of silicate based glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, D.; Lam, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) technique to study the electronic structure and bonding of heavy metal oxides in alkali- and alkali-earth-silicate glasses had been demonstrated. The bonding characteristics of the iron oxide and uranium oxide in sodium silicate glasses were deduced from the changes in the oxygen 1s levels and the heavy metal core levels. It is reasonable to expect that the effect of leaching on the heavy metal ions can be monitored using the appropriate core levels of these ions. To study the effect of leaching on the glass forming network, the valence band structure of the bridging and nonbridging oxygens in sodium silicate glasses were investigated. The measurement of extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) is a relatively new analytical technique for obtaining short range (<5 A) structural information around atoms of a selected species in both solid and fluid systems. Experiments have recently begun to establish the feasibility of using EXAFS to study the bonding of actinides in silicate glasses. Because of the ability of EXAFS to yield specific structural data even in complex multicomponent systems, it could prove to be an invaluable tool in understanding glass structure

  3. Joint European x-ray monitor (JEM-X): x-ray monitor for ESA's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnopper, H.W.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1996-01-01

    JEM-X will extend the energy range of the gamma ray instruments on ESA's INTEGRAL mission (SPI, IBIS) to include the x-ray band. JEM-X will provide images with arcminute angular resolution in the 2 - 60 keV band. The baseline photon detection system consists of two identical, high pressure, imagi...

  4. X-ray electron charge density distribution in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.

    1986-01-01

    During the last two years new highly accurate X-ray structure amplitudes for silicon have been published. Also the scattering phases of some 'forbidden' reflections have been determined using the X-ray three-beam case. This allows the construction of most precise valence and difference electron density plots and the comparison with those calculated on the basis of the Aldret-Hart X-ray pendelloesung data or theoretically. The density plots are discussed in details of both, the bond and the atomic site. The contributions of various Fourier components and the influence of different temperature factors on the difference density are studied. (author)

  5. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Hip What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... X-rays are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  9. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: Ankle What's in this article? What It Is Why ... You Have Questions Print What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

  10. X-ray photoelectron spectra structure and chemical bonding in AmO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin Yury A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis was done of the X-ray photoelectron spectra structure in the binding energy range of 0 eV to ~35 eV for americium dioxide (AmO2 valence electrons. The binding energies and structure of the core electronic shells (~35 eV-1250 eV, as well as the relativistic discrete variation calculation results for the Am63O216 and AmO8 (D4h cluster reflecting Am close environment in AmO2 were taken into account. The experimental data show that the many-body effects and the multiplet splitting contribute to the spectral structure much less than the effects of formation of the outer (0-~15 eV binding energy and the inner (~15 eV-~35 eV binding energy valence molecular orbitals. The filled Am 5f electronic states were shown to form in the AmO2 valence band. The Am 6p electrons participate in formation of both the inner and the outer valence molecular orbitals (bands. The filled Am 6p3/2 and the O 2s electronic shells were found to make the largest contributions to the formation of the inner valence molecular orbitals. Contributions of electrons from different molecular orbitals to the chemical bond in the AmO8 cluster were evaluated. Composition and sequence order of molecular orbitals in the binding energy range 0-~35 eV in AmO2 were established. The experimental and theoretical data allowed a quantitative scheme of molecular orbitals for AmO2, which is fundamental for both understanding the chemical bond nature in americium dioxide and the interpretation of other X-ray spectra of AmO2.

  11. Superconductive junctions for x-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, J.B. le; Bruijn, M.P.; Frericks, M.; Korte, P.A.J. de; Houwman, E.P.; Flokstra, J.

    1992-01-01

    Biasing of SIS-junctions for the purpose of high energy resolution x-ray detection is complicated by the presence of a DC Josephson current and AC Josephson current resonances, so that a large magnetic field is normally used for the suppression of these Josephson features. A transimpedance amplifier is proposed for biasing and signal amplification at low magnetic field. X-ray spectroscopy detectors for astronomy require a high detection efficiency in the 0.5-10 keV energy band and a reasonable (∼1 cm 2 ) detector area. Calculations on absorber-junctions combinations which might meet these requirements are presented. (author) 9 refs.; 10 figs

  12. Internal-strain effect on the valence band of strained silicon and its correlation with the bond angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaoka, Takeshi, E-mail: inaoka@phys.u-ryukyu.ac.jp; Yanagisawa, Susumu; Kadekawa, Yukihiro [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)

    2014-02-14

    By means of the first-principles density-functional theory, we investigate the effect of relative atom displacement in the crystal unit cell, namely, internal strain on the valence-band dispersion of strained silicon, and find close correlation of this effect with variation in the specific bond angles due to internal strain. We consider the [111] ([110]) band dispersion for (111) ((110)) biaxial tensility and [111] ([110]) uniaxial compression, because remarkably small values of hole effective mass m* can be obtained in this dispersion. Under the practical condition of no normal stress, biaxial tensility (uniaxial compression) involves additional normal compression (tensility) and internal strain. With an increase in the internal-strain parameter, the energy separation between the highest and second-highest valence bands becomes strikingly larger, and the highest band with conspicuously small m* extends remarkably down to a lower energy region, until it intersects or becomes admixed with the second band. This is closely correlated with the change in the specific bond angles, and this change can reasonably explain the above enlargement of the band separation.

  13. SMM x ray polychromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  14. Obstetric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwachi, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Radiography of the pelvis should never be taken to diagnose early pregnancy, because of potential hazards of radiation damage to the growing foetus. the only indication occurs in the last week of pregnancy (37 weeks). Obstetric X-ray will help you answer like confirmation of malposition,multiple pregnancies; fetal abnormalities e.g. hydrocephalus, foetal disposition. The choice of radiographic projection will help give foetal presentation, disposition as well as foetal maturity. The search pattern helps you determine maternal and spine deformity, foetal spine and head , foetal presentation and any other anomalies

  15. X-ray film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, U.W.; Gilmore, D.J.; Wonacott, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The performance of film as an X-ray detector is discussed and its behaviour is compared with that of a perfect Poissonian detector. The efficiency of microdensitometry as a method of extracting the information recorded on the film is discussed. More emphasis is placed in the precision of microdensitometric measurements than on the more obvious characteristic of film speed. The effects of chemical fog and background on the precision of the measurements is considered and it is concluded that the final limit to precision is set by the chemical fog. (B.D.)

  16. X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  17. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jung, Jin-Ho; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb; Jeon, Insu

    2014-09-01

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  18. X-Ray Calorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites started a new era in x-ray astronomy, but there remains a need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band (around 6 keV) and can enable imaging spectroscopy of extended sources, such as supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. The instrumentation needed is a broad-band imaging spectrometer - basically an x-ray camera that can distinguish tens of thousands of x-ray colors. The potential benefits to astrophysics of using a low-temperature calorimeter to determine the energy of an incident x-ray photon via measurement of a small change in temperature was first articulated by S. H. Moseley over two decades ago. In the time since, technological progress has been steady, though full realization in an orbiting x-ray telescope is still awaited. A low-temperature calorimeter can be characterized by the type of thermometer it uses, and three types presently dominate the field. The first two types are temperature-sensitive resistors - semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a paramagnetic thermometer. These types can be considered the three generations of x-ray calorimeters; by now each has demonstrated a resolving power of 2000 at 6 keV, but only a semiconductor calorimeter system has been developed to spaceflight readiness. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2013, will use an array of silicon thermistors with I-IgTe x-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays, kilo-pixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are just now being produced, and it is anticipated that much larger arrays will require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetic thermometers.

  19. Room temperature Q-band electron magnetic resonance study of radicals in X-ray-irradiated L-threonine single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhaelewyn, Gauthier; Vrielinck, Henk; Callens, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    In the past, decennia radiation-induced radicals were successfully identified by electron magnetic resonance (EMR) in several solid-state amino acids and sugars. The authors present a room temperature (RT) EMR study of the stable radicals produced by X-ray-irradiation in the amino acid L-threonine (CH 3 CH(OH)CH(NH3 + )COO - ). Its chemical structure is similar to that of the well-known dosimetric material L-alanine (CH 3 CH(NH3 + )COO - ), and radiation defects in L-threonine may straightforwardly be compared with the extensively studied L-alanine radicals. The hyperfine coupling tensors of three different radicals were determined at RT using electron nuclear double resonance. These results indicate that the two most abundant radicals share the same basic structure CH 3 .C(OH)CH(NH3 + )COO - , obtained by H-abstraction, but are stabilised in slightly different conformations. The third radical is most probably obtained by deamination (CH 3 CH(OH).CHCOO - ), similar in structure to the stable alanine radical. (authors)

  20. Mössbauer spectroscopic and powder X-ray diffraction studies on incorporation of gaseous organic molecules into intermolecular nano-voids of mixed-valence trinuclear iron pentafluorobenzoate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yoichi; Onaka, Satoru; Ogiso, Ryo; Takayama, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakamoto, Tadahiro

    2013-01-01

    Incorporation of gaseous organic molecules into polycrystalline mixed-valence trinuclear iron (Fe 3+ ,Fe 3+ ,Fe 2+ ) pentafluorobenzoate complex Fe 3 O(C 6 F 5 COO) 6 (C 5 H 5 N) 3 with intermolecular nano-voids was studied by 57 Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopic and powder XRD measurements. Organic-molecule incorporation was mainly chased by using iron-valence fluctuation observed in a Mössbauer spectrum, and also researched supportively by a powder XRD technique. (author)

  1. Energy shift and conduction-to-valence band transition mediated by a time-dependent potential barrier in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Andrey; da Costa, D. R.; de Sousa, G. O.; Pereira, J. M.; Farias, G. A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the scattering of a wave packet describing low-energy electrons in graphene by a time-dependent finite-step potential barrier. Our results demonstrate that, after Klein tunneling through the barrier, the electron acquires an extra energy which depends on the rate of change of the barrier height with time. If this rate is negative, the electron loses energy and ends up as a valence band state after leaving the barrier, which effectively behaves as a positively charged quasiparticle.

  2. Preliminary soft x-ray studies of beta-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shek, M.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Miyano, K.E.; Ederer, D.L. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dong, Q.Y.; Callcott, T.A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1994-06-01

    We have looked at beta-SiC with soft x-ray emission and photoemission spectroscopy. From the Si L{sub 23} and C K emissions, the Si s+d-like and C p partial density of states in the bulk valence band are identified, and compared with valence band photoemission. In addition to bulk electronic structural features, photoemission from a (3 {times} 2) Si-rich surface shows two surface-derived valence features at {approximately}{minus}2.6 and {approximately}{minus}1.6 eV relative to the Fermi level. The intensities of these valence features vary as those of surface Si 2p core level components shifted by {minus}0.5 eV and {minus}1.4 eV from the bulk-like SiC Si 2p core level. We have also used the Si L{sub 23} absorption edge as a probe of the unfilled states near the conduction, band minimum.

  3. Characteristics of soft X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yi

    2007-12-01

    A soft X-lens was devised with waveguide X-ray optics of total external reflection (TER). The lens consists of a stack of 1 387 TER waveguides with inner diameter of 0.45 mm and outer diameter of 0.60 mm. With the help of plasma sources of soft X-ray radiation, high density of pure soft X-ray radiation (without plasma expansion fragments) with broad-band spectral range can be obtained at the focus of the lens. As laser-plasma is considered, the radiation density of 1.3 x 10 5 W/cm 2 is obtained, the transmission coefficient is 18.6%, the ratio of the density at the focus with and without the lens is 1000 and the radiation capture is 28.9 degree. The density of 0.5 TW/cm 2 can be obtained as far as Qiang-Guang I facility is considered. (authors)

  4. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  5. X-Ray and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Dim X-Ray Point Sources Constituting the Galactic Ridge X-Ray Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Morihana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of X-ray and Near-Infrared observations of the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE. We extracted 2,002 X-ray point sources in the Chandra Bulge Field (l =0°.113, b = 1°.424 down to ~10-14.8 ergscm-2s-1 in 2-8 keV band with the longest observation (900 ks of the GRXE. Based on X-ray brightness and hardness, we classied the X-ray point sources into three groups: A (hard, B (soft and broad spectrum, and C (soft and peaked spectrum. In order to know populations of the X-ray point sources, we carried out NIR imaging and spectroscopy observation. We identied 11% of X-ray point sources with NIR and extracted NIR spectra for some of them. Based on X-ray and NIR properties, we concluded that non-thermal sources in the group A are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf binaries such as cataclysmic variables (CVs and Pre-CVs. We concluded that the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flare and quiescence, respectively.

  6. X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowicz, A.A.; Van Grieken, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the period under review, i.e, through 1984 and 1985, some 600 articles on XRS (X-ray spectrometry) were published; most of these have been scanned and the most fundamental ones are discussed. All references will refer to English-language articles, unless states otherwise. Also general books have appeared on quantitative EPXMA (electron-probe X-ray microanalysis) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) as well as an extensive review on the application of XRS to trace analysis of environmental samples. In the period under review no radically new developments have been seen in XRS. However, significant improvements have been made. Gain in intensities has been achieved by more efficient excitation, higher reflectivity of dispersing media, and better geometry. Better understanding of the physical process of photon- and electron-specimen interactions led to complex but more accurate equations for correction of various interelement effects. Extensive use of micro- and minicomputers now enables fully automatic operation, including qualitative analysis. However, sample preparation and presentation still put a limit to further progress. Although some authors find XRS in the phase of stabilization or even stagnation, further gradual developments are expected, particularly toward more dedicated equipment, advanced automation, and image analysis systems. Ways are outlined in which XRS has been improved in the 2 last years by excitation, detection, instrumental, methodological, and theoretical advances. 340 references

  7. The superconducting high-resolution soft X-ray spectrometer at the advanced biological and environmental X-ray facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-188, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: Friedrich1@llnl.gov; Drury, O.B. [Advanced Detector Group, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, L-188, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Biophysics Group, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, EU-III, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); George, S.J. [Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cramer, S.P. [Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Biophysics Group, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, EU-III, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    We have built a 36-pixel superconducting tunnel junction X-ray spectrometer for chemical analysis of dilute samples in the soft X-ray band. It offers an energy resolution of {approx}10-20 eV FWHM below 1 keV, a solid angle coverage of {approx}10{sup -3}, and can be operated at total rates of up to {approx}10{sup 6} counts/s. Here, we describe the spectrometer performance in speciation measurements by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray facility at the ALS synchrotron.

  8. X-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R.; Otto, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray radiographic or fluoroscopic table is described which includes a film holder with a frame attached to a cable running over end pulleys for positioning the holder longitudinally as desired under the table top. The holder has a front opening to receive a cassette-supporting tray which can be slid out on tracks to change the cassette. A reed switch on the frame is opened by a permanent magnet on the tray only when the tray is half-way out. When the switch is closed, an electromagnet locks the pulley and the holder in place. The holder is thus automatically locked in place not only during exposure (tray in) but when the tray is out for changing the cassette. To re-position the holder, the operator pulls the tray half-out and, using the tray itself, pushes the holder along the table, the holder being counterbalanced by a weight. (author)

  9. X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.)

  10. X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.G.B.

    1988-01-06

    The patent concerns a warning and protection system for mobile x-ray equipment used for 'on site' radiography, so that workers in the vicinity of such a working unit can be alerted to its presence. The invention is a local repeater warning system which gives a preliminary warning that energisation of the tubehead is imminent, as well as a switch near the tubehead to abort or inhibit energisation. The latter switch allows personnel caught in the vicinity of the tubehead to prevent energisation. The preliminary warning may be flashing lamps or by a klaxon. The control unit for the equipment may include a monitoring circuit to detect failure of the warning light or klaxon. (U.K.).

  11. Soft x-ray interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument's components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200 angstrom wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency

  12. Valence Band Structure of InAs1−xBix and InSb1−xBix Alloy Semiconductors Calculated Using Valence Band Anticrossing Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samajdar, D. P.; Dhar, S.

    2014-01-01

    The valence band anticrossing model has been used to calculate the heavy/light hole and spin-orbit split-off energies in InAs1−xBix and InSb1−xBix alloy systems. It is found that both the heavy/light hole, and spin-orbit split E + levels move upwards in energy with an increase in Bi content in the alloy, whereas the split E − energy for the holes shows a reverse trend. The model is also used to calculate the reduction of band gap energy with an increase in Bi mole fraction. The calculated values of band gap variation agree well with the available experimental data. PMID:24592181

  13. Valence band structure of InAs(1-x)Bi(x) and InSb(1-x)Bi(x) alloy semiconductors calculated using valence band anticrossing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samajdar, D P; Dhar, S

    2014-01-01

    The valence band anticrossing model has been used to calculate the heavy/light hole and spin-orbit split-off energies in InAs(1-x)Bi(x) and InSb(1-x)Bi(x) alloy systems. It is found that both the heavy/light hole, and spin-orbit split E + levels move upwards in energy with an increase in Bi content in the alloy, whereas the split E - energy for the holes shows a reverse trend. The model is also used to calculate the reduction of band gap energy with an increase in Bi mole fraction. The calculated values of band gap variation agree well with the available experimental data.

  14. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism in (Ge,Mn) compounds: Experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardif, Samuel; Titov, Andrey; Arras, Emmanuel; Slipukhina, Ivetta; Hlil, El-Kébir; Cherifi, Salia; Joly, Yves; Jamet, Matthieu; Barski, André; Cibert, Joël; Kulatov, Erkin; Uspenskii, Yurii A.; Pochet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    X-ray absorption (XAS) and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra at the L 2,3 edges of Mn in (Ge,Mn) compounds have been measured and are compared to the results of first principles calculation. Early ab initio studies show that the Density Functional Theory (DFT) can very well describe the valence band electronic properties but fails to reproduce a characteristic change of sign in the L 3 XMCD spectrum of Mn in Ge 3 Mn 5 , which is observed in experiments. In this work we demonstrate that this disagreement is partially related to an underestimation of the exchange splitting of Mn 2p core states within the local density approximation. It is shown that the change in sign experimentally observed is reproduced if the exchange splitting is accurately calculated within the Hartree–Fock approximation, while the final states can be still described by the DFT. This approach is further used to calculate the XMCD in different (Ge,Mn) compounds. It demonstrates that the agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra can be improved by combining state of the art calculations for the core and valence states respectively. - Highlights: • X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra are measured and compared to first principles calculations in (Ge,Mn) compounds. • Standard density functional theory fails in properly describing peculiar features observed in the experiment. • A new approach to calculate theoretical X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra is proposed. • Improved modeling of the core levels splitting using the Hartree–Fock approximation allows for a better matching with the experiment. • This new method could be generalized to any 3d metallic-like system

  15. The localized effect of the Bi level on the valence band in the dilute bismuth GaBixAs1-x alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan-Zhen; Zhu, Min-Min; Wang, Jun; Wang, Sha-Sha; Lu, Ke-Qing

    2018-05-01

    The research on the temperature dependence of the band gap energy of the dilute bismuth GaBixAs1-x alloy has been done. It is found that its temperature insensitiveness is due to the enhanced localized character of the valence band state and the small decrease of the temperature coefficient for the conduction band minimum (CBM). The enhanced localized character of the valence band state is the main factor. In order to describe the localized effect of the Bi levels on the valence band, the localized energy is introduced into the Varshni's equation. It is found that the effect of the localized Bi level on the valence band becomes strong with increasing Bi content. In addition, it is found that the pressure dependence of the band gap energy of GaBixAs1-x does not seem to be influenced by the localized Bi levels. It is due to two factors. One is that the pressure dependence of the band gap energy is mainly determined by the D CBM of GaBixAs1-x. The D CBM of GaBixAs1-x is not influenced by the localized Bi levels. The other is that the small variation of the pressure coefficient for the D valence band maximum (VBM) state of GaBixAs1-x can be cancelled by the variation of the pressure coefficient for the D CBM state of GaBixAs1-x.

  16. Resonant inelastic scattering in dilute magnetic semiconductors by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Institute of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Jia, J.J.; Underwood, J.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    As modern, technologically important materials have become more complex, element specific techniques have become invaluable in studying the electronic structure of individual components from the system. Soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) and absorption (SXA) spectroscopies provide a unique means of measuring element and angular momentum density of electron states, respectively, for the valence and conducting bands in complex materials. X-ray absorption and the decay through x-ray emission are generally assumed to be two independent one-photon processes. Recent studies, however have demonstrated that SXF excited near the absorption threshold generate an array of spectral features that depend on nature of materials, particularly on the localization of excited states in s and d-band solids and that these two processes can no be longer treated as independent. Resonant SXF offers thus the new way to study the dynamics of the distribution of electronic valence states in the presence of a hole which is bound to the electron low lying in the conduction band. This process can simulate the interaction between hole-electron pair in wide gap semiconductors. Therefore such studies can help in understanding of transport and optics phenomena in the wide gap semiconductors. The authors report the result of Mn and S L-resonant emission in Zn{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub x}S (with x=0.2 and 0.3) and MnS as the energy of exciting radiation is tuned across the Mn and S L{sub 3,2} absorption edge, along with the resonant excited spectra from elemental Mn as a reference.

  17. X-Ray Lasers 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a selection of invited and contributed papers presented at the 15th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2016), held at the Nara Kasugano International Forum, Japan, from May 22 to 27, 2016. This conference was part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications.   The book showcases recent advances in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays, the development of practical devices and their applications across a wide variety of fields. It also discusses emerging topics such as plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generations, as well as other x-ray generation schemes.

  18. X-ray instrumentation in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuhlane, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a conference devoted to x-ray instrumentation in astronomy. Special sections are: AXAF X-Ray Optical Systems; Specialized X-Ray Systems; X-Ray Optical Systems I; X-Ray Optical Systems II; Gas Filled X-Ray Detectors II; The NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility; X-Ray and EUV Spectrometers; Microchannel Plates; and Solid State Detectors

  19. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  20. Quasiparticle lifetime broadening in resonant x-ray scattering of NH4NO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, John; Jach, Terrence; Müller, Matthias; Unterumsberger, Rainer; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2016-07-01

    It has been previously shown that two effects cause dramatic changes in the x-ray absorption and emission spectra from the N K edge of the insulating crystal ammonium nitrate. First, vibrational disorder causes major changes in the absorption spectrum, originating not only from the thermal population of phonons, but, significantly, from zero-point motion as well. Second, the anomalously large broadening (˜4 eV) of the emission originating from nitrate σ states is due to the unusually short lifetimes of quasiparticles in an otherwise extremely narrow band. In this work, we investigate the coupling of these effects to core and valence excitons that are created as the initial x-ray excitation energy is progressively reduced toward the N edge. Using a G W /Bethe-Salpeter approach, we show the extent to which this anomalous broadening is captured by the G W approximation. The data and calculations demonstrate the importance that the complex self-energies (finite lifetimes) of the valence bands have on the interpretation of emission spectra. We produce a scheme to explain why extreme lifetimes should appear in σ states of other similar compounds.

  1. Quasiparticle Lifetime Broadening in Resonant X-ray Scattering of NH4NO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, John; Jach, Terrence; Müller, Matthias; Unterumsberger, Rainer; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2016-07-15

    It has been previously shown that two effects cause dramatic changes in the x-ray absorption and emission spectra from the N K edge of the insulating crystal ammonium nitrate. First, vibrational disorder causes major changes in the absorption spectrum, originating not only from the thermal population of phonons, but, significantly, from zero-point motion as well. Second, the anomalously large broadening ( ~ 4 eV) of the emission originating from nitrate σ states is due to unusually short lifetimes of quasiparticles in an otherwise extremely narrow band. In this work we investigate the coupling of these effects to core and valence excitons that are created as the initial x-ray excitation energy is progressively reduced toward the N edge. Using a GW /Bethe-Salpeter approach, we show the extent to which this anomalous broadening is captured by the GW approximation. The data and calculations demonstrate the importance that the complex self-energies (finite lifetimes) of valence bands have on the interpretation of emission spectra. We produce a scheme to explain why extreme lifetimes should appear in σ states of other similar compounds.

  2. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  3. X-ray filtration apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to an X-ray shielding support device. In spite of considerable development in X-ray taking techniques, a need still exists for effective shielding, inter alia, to compensate for variations in the thickness, density and the absorption properties of the object being studied. By appropriate shielding, the X-ray image produced is of sufficient detail, contrast and intensity over its entire area to constitute a useful diagnostic aid. It is also desirable to subject the patient to the smallest possible X-ray dosage. 4 figs

  4. Interplay of Coulomb interactions and disorder in three-dimensional quadratic band crossings without time-reversal symmetry and with unequal masses for conduction and valence bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Ipsita; Nandkishore, Rahul M.

    2018-03-01

    Coulomb interactions famously drive three-dimensional quadratic band crossing semimetals into a non-Fermi liquid phase of matter. In a previous work [Nandkishore and Parameswaran, Phys. Rev. B 95, 205106 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.205106], the effect of disorder on this non-Fermi liquid phase was investigated, assuming that the band structure was isotropic, assuming that the conduction and valence bands had the same band mass, and assuming that the disorder preserved exact time-reversal symmetry and statistical isotropy. It was shown that the non-Fermi liquid fixed point is unstable to disorder and that a runaway flow to strong disorder occurs. In this paper, we extend that analysis by relaxing the assumption of time-reversal symmetry and allowing the electron and hole masses to differ (but continuing to assume isotropy of the low energy band structure). We first incorporate time-reversal symmetry breaking disorder and demonstrate that there do not appear any new fixed points. Moreover, while the system continues to flow to strong disorder, time-reversal-symmetry-breaking disorder grows asymptotically more slowly than time-reversal-symmetry-preserving disorder, which we therefore expect should dominate the strong-coupling phase. We then allow for unequal electron and hole masses. We show that whereas asymmetry in the two masses is irrelevant in the clean system, it is relevant in the presence of disorder, such that the `effective masses' of the conduction and valence bands should become sharply distinct in the low-energy limit. We calculate the RG flow equations for the disordered interacting system with unequal band masses and demonstrate that the problem exhibits a runaway flow to strong disorder. Along the runaway flow, time-reversal-symmetry-preserving disorder grows asymptotically more rapidly than both time-reversal-symmetry-breaking disorder and the Coulomb interaction.

  5. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  6. Investigation of electronic states of infinite-layer SrFeO2 epitaxial thin films by X-ray photoemission and absorption spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikamatsu, Akira; Matsuyama, Toshiya; Hirose, Yasushi; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Oshima, Masaharu; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electronic states of infinite-layer SrFeO 2 films have been experimentally observed. ► Fe 3d states have higher densities of states in the valence-band region. ► Three peaks derived from Fe 3d states were observed in the conduction-band region. ► Indirect bandgap value was determined to be 1.3 eV. - Abstract: We investigated the electronic states of a single-crystal SrFeO 2 epitaxial thin film in the valence-band and conduction-band regions using synchrotron-radiation X-ray photoemission and absorption spectroscopies. Fe 2p–3d resonant photoemission measurements revealed that the Fe 3d states have higher densities of states at binding energies of 3–5 eV and 5–8.5 eV in the valence-band region. The O K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum exhibited three peaks in the Fe 3d-derived conduction band hybridized with O 2p states; these can be assigned to Fe 3d xy , 3d xz + 3d yz , and 3d x 2 –y 2 . In addition, the indirect bandgap value of the SrFeO 2 film was determined to be 1.3 eV by transmission and absorption spectroscopies.

  7. The role of engineered materials in superconducting tunnel junction X-ray detectors - Suppression of quasiparticle recombination losses via a phononic band gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippert, Edward D.; Ketterson, John B.; Chen, Jun; Song, Shenian; Lomatch, Susanne; Maglic, Stevan R.; Thomas, Christopher; Cheida, M. A.; Ulmer, Melville P.

    1992-01-01

    An engineered structure is proposed that can alleviate quasi-particle recombination losses via the existence of a phononic band gap that overlaps the 2-Delta energy of phonons produced during recombination of quasi-particles. Attention is given to a 1D Kronig-Penny model for phonons normally incident to the layers of a multilayered superconducting tunnel junction as an idealized example. A device with a high density of Bragg resonances is identified as desirable; both Nb/Si and NbN/SiN superlattices have been produced, with the latter having generally superior performance.

  8. X-ray Measurements of Black Hole X-ray Binary Source GRS 1915+ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    March 30th, 1997 during a quiescent phase of the source. .... The field of view ... tagged with a 25µsec resolution and transmitted to ground on a 40 Kbit PCM/FM ... only composite model fits for the soft and hard X ray band are used and the ...

  9. Sixa-silicon x-ray array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, I.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) satellite is scheduled for launch in 1995-96. Mission objectives include broad and narrow band imaging spectroscopy over a wide range of energies from the EUV through hard X-rays with an emphasis on studying galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources. Timing and moderate resolution spectroscopy can be performed with the solid state spectrometer SIXA (Silicon X-Ray Array), placed on the focal plane of the SODART telescope with total effective area of 1150 cm 2 at 6 keV (for f = 8 in telescope). The detector consists of 19 circular Si(Li) pixels, each with an active diameter of 9.2 min and thickness of 3 min. A radiative cooler will be used to bring the detector to the proper operating temperature (120-130 K). The energy range 0.5-20 keV is divided into 1024 channels of 20 eV size. Photons can be recorded with 30 μs time resolution and 160-200 eV (1-7 keV) energy resolution. Potential observing programmes (for e.g. time-resolved Iron Kα line spectroscopy) include stellar coronae, cataclysmic variables and X-ray binaries; accretion discs and coronae of neutron stars and black hole candidates; supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei and clusters of galaxies. (author)

  10. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.T.M. van.

    1979-01-01

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  11. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si0 2 . The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? ...

  14. Traditional x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of imaging x-rays, with particular reference to medicine, are reviewed. The history and nature of x-rays, their production and spectra, contrast, shapes and fine structure, image transducers, including fluorescent screens, radiography, fluoroscopy, and image intensifiers, image detection, perception and enhancement and clinical applications are considered. (U.K.)

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are a form of radiation like light or radio waves. X-rays pass through most objects, including the body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Once it is carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for ... organizations continually review and update the technique standards used ...

  20. Ab-initio calculation of the valence-band offset at strained GaAs/InAs (001) heterojunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tit, N.; Peressi, M.

    1993-06-01

    We present a self consistent pseudopotential calculation of the valence band offset (VBO) at GaAs/InAs (001) strained heterojunction, which is chose as an example of the isovalent polar with common-anion lattice mismatched heterojunctions. The effects of strain are studied by looking at the variation of the VBO versus the in plane lattice constant, which is imposed by the substrate. Our results show that the VBO can be tuned by about 0.17 eV going from GaAs to InAs substrates. Comparison of our work with the available experimental and theoretical results is also discussed. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  1. X-ray absorption and emission studies of diamond nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buuren, T.; Willey, T.; Raty, J.Y.; Galli, G.; Terminello, L.J.; Bostedt, C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A new family of carbon nanopaticles produced in detonations, are found to have a core of diamond with a coating fullerene- like carbon. X-ray diffraction and TEM show that the nanodiamond powder is crystalline and approximately 4 nm in diameter. These nano-sized diamonds do not display the characteristic property of other group IV nanoparticles: a strong widening of the energy gap between the conduction and valence bands owing to quantum-confinement effects. For nano-sized diamond with a size distribution of 4 nm, there is no shift of the band energies relative to bulk diamond. Although the C1s core exciton feature clearly observed in the K-edge absorption edge of bulk diamond is shifted and broadening due to increased overlap of the excited electron with the core holein the small particle. Also the depth of the second gap in the nanodiamond spectra is shallower than that of bulk diamond. A feature at lower energy in the X-ray absorption spectra that is not present in the bulk samples is consistent with a fullerene like surface reconstruction. By exposing the diamond nanoparticles to an Argon /Oxygen plasma then annealing in a UHV environment we have obtained a hydrogen free surface. The nanodiamonds processed in this manner show an increase fullerene type contribution in the carbon x-ray absorption pre-edge. High spatial resolution EELS measurements of the empty states of a single nanodiamond particle acquired with a ld emission TEM also show the core of the particle is bulk diamond like where as the surface has a fullerene like structure. Standard density-functional calculations on clusters in which the diamond surface bonds are terminated with hydrogen atoms, show that the bandgap begins to increase above the bulk value only for clusters smaller than 1 nm. Surface hydrogen atoms are found to be about as close as they do in molecular hydrogen and can escape as H 2 , forcing the respective carbon atoms to rearrange. A series of such rearrangements can

  2. Microanalysis of iron oxidation state in iron oxides using X Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S. R.; Delaney, J.; Bajt, S.; Rivers, M. L.; Smith, J. V.

    1993-01-01

    An exploratory application of x ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis using the synchrotron x ray microprobe was undertaken to obtain Fe XANES spectra on individual sub-millimeter grains in conventional polished sections. The experiments concentrated on determinations of Fe valence in a suite of iron oxide minerals for which independent estimates of the iron speciation could be made by electron microprobe analysis and x ray diffraction.

  3. X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A novel, high-speed apparatus for use in X-ray computerised tomography is described in detail. It consists of a semi-circular array of X-ray sources, collimators and an ion chamber array for detection of the X-rays. The X-ray sources may be pulsed in salvos such that the corresponding detectors in the array are only illuminated by one source. The use of computer controlled salvos speeds up the image processing by at least a factor of two. The ion chamber array is designed to have a constant detection efficiency for varying angles of X-ray incidence. A detailed description of the detector construction and suggested gaseous fillings are given. It is claimed that the present tomographic system allows fast and accurate imaging of internal body organs and is insensitive to the blurring effects which motion of these organs tends to produce. (UK)

  4. State density of valence-band tail and photoconductivity amorphous hydrogenated silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikova, O.A.; Domashevskaya, Eh.P.; Mezdrogina, M.M.; Sorokina, K.L.; Terekhov, V.A.; Trostyanskij, S.N.

    1991-01-01

    Relation between photoconductivity and g(ε) mobility gap within the range adjoining to the top (mobility end) of valent zone (VZ tail) in a-Si:H film is studied. Stationary photoconductivity within spectral maximum range (χ=0.63μm) at Φ=10 17 photxcm -2 s -1 flow is measured. Density of g(ε) states are controlled using ultrasoft X-ray emission spectroscopy. It is shown, that correlation between photoconductivity and width of VZ tail may reflect the fact of their similar dependence o film heterogeneity: at the increase of share of microholes there occur both expansion of VZ tail and growth of number of respective hydrogen complexes and torn relations which results in drop of photoconductivity

  5. X-ray diagnostics for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.

    1982-12-01

    A short description of the x-ray diagnostic preparation for the TFTR tokamak is given. The x-ray equipment consists of the limiter x-ray monitoring system, the soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis-system, the soft x-ray imaging system and the x-ray crystal spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the radiation protection of the x-ray systems from the neutron environment

  6. X-ray filter for chest X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of an X-ray filter comprised of a sheet of radiation absorbing material with an opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. The upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter. This filter will permit an acceptable density level of x-ray exposure for the lungs while allowing a higher level of x-ray exposure for the mediastinum areas of the body. (author)

  7. X-ray filter for chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Filter for use in medical x-ray apparatus to permit higher intensity x-ray exposure in the heart and mediastinum area while maintaining a normal level of x-ray exposure in other areas of the body, particlarly in the lung area. The filter comprises a sheet of radiation absorbing material having an opening therein, said opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. Accordingly, the upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter

  8. Electronic structure of Al- and Ga-doped ZnO films studied by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabás

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Al- and Ga-doped sputtered ZnO films (AZO, GZO are semiconducting and metallic, respectively, despite the same electronic valence structure of the dopants. Using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we observe that both dopants induce a band in the electronic structure near the Fermi level, accompanied by a narrowing of the Zn 3d/O 2p gap in the valence band and, in the case of GZO, a substantial shift in the Zn 3d. Ga occupies substitutional sites, whereas Al dopants are in both substitutional and interstitial sites. The latter could induce O and Zn defects, which act as acceptors explaining the semiconducting character of AZO and the lack of variation in the optical gap. By contrast, mainly substitutional doping is consistent with the metallic-like behavior of GZO.

  9. Effect of Mn Substitution for Multiferroic BiFeO3 Probed by High-Resolution Soft-X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Tohru; Higuchi, T.; Hattori, T.; Sakamoto, W.; Itoh, N.; Shimura, T.; Yogo, T.; Yao, P.; Liu, Y.; Glans, P.; Chang, C.; Wu, Z.; Guo, Jinghua

    2008-07-11

    The electronic structures of BiFeO{sub 3} (BF) and Mn-doped BiFeO{sub 3} (BF(Mn)) have been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and soft-X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES). The BF and BF(Mn) have the mixed valence state of Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The valence band is mainly composed of O 2p state hybridized with the majority-spin t{sub 2g} and e{sub g} orbitals of Fe 3d state. The conduction band is composed of the minority-spin t{sub 2g} and e{sub g} orbitals of Fe 3d. The band gaps of BF and BF(Mn) are estimated to be 1.3 eV and 2.7 eV, respectively. The increase of band gap with Mn substitution contributes to the change of bandwidth of valence band.

  10. Resonant x-ray emission from gas-phase TiCl{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hague, C.F.; Tronc, M. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); De Groot, F. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) has proved to be a powerful tool for studying the electronic structure of condensed matter. Over the past few years it has been used mainly for studying the valence bands of solids and condensed molecules. Very recently the advent of high brightness photon beams provided by third generation synchrotron radiation source undulators, associated with efficient x-ray emission spectrometers has made it possible to perform experiments on free diatomic molecular systems. RXE spectra of free molecules are of prime importance to gain insight into their electronic structure and bonding as they reflect the symmetry of orbitals engaged in the two-electron, two-step process with the l = 0, {+-}2 parity-conserving selection rule, and are free from solid state effects which can introduce difficulties in the interpretation. They provide information (more so than XAS) on the core excited states, and, when performed at fixed incident photon energy as a function of the emitted photon energy, on the electronic excitation (charge transfer, multiplet states). Moreover the anisotropy of the angular distribution of resonant x-ray emission affects the relative intensity of the emission peaks and provides information concerning the symmetries of final states. This is a preliminary report on what are the first RXE spectra of a 3d transition metal complex in the gas phase. The experiment concerns the Ti 3d {yields}2p emission spectrum of TiCl{sub 4} over the 450 to 470 eV region.

  11. Resonant x-ray emission from gas-phase TiCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hague, C.F.; Tronc, M.; De Groot, F.

    1997-01-01

    Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) has proved to be a powerful tool for studying the electronic structure of condensed matter. Over the past few years it has been used mainly for studying the valence bands of solids and condensed molecules. Very recently the advent of high brightness photon beams provided by third generation synchrotron radiation source undulators, associated with efficient x-ray emission spectrometers has made it possible to perform experiments on free diatomic molecular systems. RXE spectra of free molecules are of prime importance to gain insight into their electronic structure and bonding as they reflect the symmetry of orbitals engaged in the two-electron, two-step process with the l = 0, ±2 parity-conserving selection rule, and are free from solid state effects which can introduce difficulties in the interpretation. They provide information (more so than XAS) on the core excited states, and, when performed at fixed incident photon energy as a function of the emitted photon energy, on the electronic excitation (charge transfer, multiplet states). Moreover the anisotropy of the angular distribution of resonant x-ray emission affects the relative intensity of the emission peaks and provides information concerning the symmetries of final states. This is a preliminary report on what are the first RXE spectra of a 3d transition metal complex in the gas phase. The experiment concerns the Ti 3d →2p emission spectrum of TiCl 4 over the 450 to 470 eV region

  12. Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueff, J.P.

    2007-06-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)

  13. Design studies for ITER x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.

    1995-01-01

    Concepts for adapting conventional tokamak x-ray diagnostics to the harsh radiation environment of ITER include use of grazing-incidence (GI) x-ray mirrors or man-made Bragg multilayer (ML) elements to remove the x-ray beam from the neutron beam, or use of bundles of glass-capillary x-ray ''light pipes'' embedded in radiation shields to reduce the neutron/gamma-ray fluxes onto the detectors while maintaining usable x-ray throughput. The x-ray optical element with the broadest bandwidth and highest throughput, the GI mirror, can provide adequate lateral deflection (10 cm for a deflected-path length of 8 m) at x-ray energies up to 12, 22, or 30 keV for one, two, or three deflections, respectively. This element can be used with the broad band, high intensity x-ray imaging system (XIS), the pulseheight analysis (PHA) survey spectrometer, or the high resolution Johann x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS), which is used for ion-temperature measurement. The ML mirrors can isolate the detector from the neutron beam with a single deflection for energies up to 50 keV, but have much narrower bandwidth and lower x-ray power throughput than do the GI mirrors; they are unsuitable for use with the XIS or PHA, but they could be used with the XCS; in particular, these deflectors could be used between ITER and the biological shield to avoid direct plasma neutron streaming through the biological shield. Graded-d ML mirrors have good reflectivity from 20 to 70 keV, but still at grazing angles (<3 mrad). The efficiency at 70 keV for double reflection (10 percent), as required for adequate separation of the x-ray and neutron beams, is high enough for PHA requirements, but not for the XIS. Further optimization may be possible

  14. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  15. Harmonic lasing in X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2012-05-15

    Harmonic lasing in a free electron laser with a planar undulator (under the condition that the fundamental frequency is suppressed) might be a cheap and efficient way of extension of wavelength ranges of existing and planned X-ray FEL facilities. Contrary to nonlinear harmonic generation, harmonic lasing can provide much more intense, stable, and narrow-band FEL beam which is easier to handle due to the suppressed fundamental frequency. In this paper we perform a parametrization of the solution of the eigenvalue equation for lasing at odd harmonics, and present an explicit expression for FEL gain length, taking into account all essential effects. We propose and discuss methods for suppression of the fundamental harmonic. We also suggest a combined use of harmonic lasing and lasing at the retuned fundamental wavelength in order to reduce bandwidth and to increase brilliance of X-ray beam at saturation. Considering 3rd harmonic lasing as a practical example, we come to the conclusion that it is much more robust than usually thought, and can be widely used in the existing or planned X-ray FEL facilities. In particular, LCLS after a minor modification can lase to saturation at the 3rd harmonic up to the photon energy of 25-30 keV providing multi-gigawatt power level and narrow bandwidth. As for the European XFEL, harmonic lasing would allow to extend operating range (ultimately up to 100 keV), to reduce FEL bandwidth and to increase brilliance, to enable two-color operation for pump-probe experiments, and to provide more flexible operation at different electron energies. Similar improvements can be realized in other X-ray FEL facilities with gap-tunable undulators like FLASH II, SACLA, LCLS II, etc. Harmonic lasing can be an attractive option for compact X-ray FELs (driven by electron beams with a relatively low energy), allowing the use of the standard undulator technology instead of small-gap in-vacuum devices. Finally, in this paper we discover that in a part of the

  16. The advantages of soft X-rays and cryogenic spectrometers for measuring chemical speciation by X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, Owen B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); UC Davis, Biophysics Graduate Group, 1 Shields Ave, CA 95616 (United States); LBNL, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 92720 (United States); Friedrich, Stephan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States) and LBNL, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 92720 (United States)]. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov; George, Simon J. [LBNL, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 92720 (United States); Cramer, Stephen P. [UC Davis, Biophysics Graduate Group, 1 Shields Ave, CA 95616 (United States); LBNL, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 92720 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We have built a 36-pixel high-resolution superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) soft X-ray spectrometer for chemical analysis of dilute metals by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. Soft X-ray absorption edges are preferred over traditional hard X-ray spectroscopy at the K-edges, since they have narrower natural linewidths and exhibit stronger chemical shifts. STJ detectors are preferred in the soft X-ray band over traditional Ge or grating spectrometers, since they have sufficient energy resolution to resolve transition metal L and M lines from light element K emission, and sufficient detection efficiency to measure the weak lines of dilute specimens within an acceptable time. We demonstrate the capabilities of our STJ spectrometer for chemical analysis with soft XAS measurements of molybdenum speciation on the Mo M{sub 4,5}-edges.

  17. X-ray film calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, G.F.; Dittmore, C.H.; Henke, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of silver halide x-ray films for imaging and spectroscopy which is limited by the range of intensities that can be recorded and densitometered. Using the manufacturers processing techniques can result in 10 2-3 range in intensity recorded over 0-5 density range. By modifying the chemistry and processing times, ranges of 10 5-6 can be recorded in the same density range. The authors report on x-ray film calibration work and dynamic range improvements. Changes to the processing chemistry and the resulting changes in dynamic range and x-ray sensitivity are discussed

  18. Women and x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunkley, P A; Stewart, J H

    1976-01-01

    When a woman comes to an X-Ray Department it is usually necessary to know the present stage of her menstrual cycle. X-Rays may have an adverse effect on the embryo, especially in early pregnancy. However, exposure to X-Rays at any stage may be associated with a slightly increased incidence of malignant disease in childhood. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends that in women of child-bearing age (in some cases as young as 11 years), non-urgent diagnostic radiography be confined to the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle: that is, 14 days following the first day of the last menstrual period.

  19. Upsurge of X-ray astronomy 230-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments are described used for X-ray astronomy, namely X-ray detectors and X-ray telescopes. Unlike telescopes, the detectors do not comprise X-ray optics. A survey is given of the results obtained in solar and stellar X-ray astronomy and hypotheses are submitted on the origin of X radiation in the interstellar space. (J.B.)

  20. Photoelectron spectroscopy study of the X-ray-induced decomposition of some gold(III) dithiocarbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attekum, P.M.Th.M. van; Trooster, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The factors influencing the decomposition rate of two gold(III) complexes, [AuMe 2 (S 2 CNMe 2 )] and [AuBr 2 (S 2 CNPr 2 sup(n))]; in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiment have been studied. It is shown that the decomposition rate can be slowed down by using graphite as substrate and by lowering the sample temperature. From the Au(4f) spectrum a direct measure has been made of the shift in the binding energy between Ausup(III) and Ausup(I) and this shift is shown to be dependent on the electronegativity of the ligands. The valence bands of the complexes show a narrow Au(5d) band with a spin-orbit splitting of ca. 1.6 eV. (author)

  1. X-Ray Polarimetry with GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2011-01-01

    The polarization properties of cosmic X-ray sources are still largely unexplored. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) will carry out the first sensitive X-ray polarization survey of a wide range of sources including; accreting compact objects (black holes and neutron stars), AGN, supernova remnants, magnetars and rotation-powered pulsars. GEMS employs grazing-incidence foil mirrors and novel time-projection chamber (TPC) polarimeters leveraging the photoelectric effect to achieve high polarization sensitivity in the 2 - 10 keV band. I will provide an update of the project status, illustrate the expected performance with several science examples, and provide a brief overview of the data analysis challenges

  2. Pressure variation of the valence band width in Ge: A self-consistent GW study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modak, Paritosh; Svane, Axel; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2009-01-01

    . In the present work we report results of quasiparticle self-consistent GW  (QSGW) band calculations for diamond- as well as β-tin-type Ge under pressure. For both phases we find that the band width increases with pressure. For β-tin Ge this agrees with experiment and density-functional theory, but for diamond Ge...

  3. Characterization of the Electronic Structure of Silicon Nanoparticles Using X-ray Absorption and Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaverka, April Susan Montoya [Univ.of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Resolving open questions regarding transport in nanostructures can have a huge impact on a broad range of future technologies such as light harvesting for energy. Silicon has potential to be used in many of these applications. Understanding how the band edges of nanostructures move as a function of size, surface termination and assembly is of fundamental importance in understanding the transport properties of these materials. In this thesis work I have investigated the change in the electronic structure of silicon nanoparticle assemblies as the surface termination is changed. Nanoparticles are synthesized using a thermal evaporation technique and sizes are determined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). By passivating the particles with molecules containing alcohol groups we are able to modify the size dependent band edge shifts. Both the valence and conduction bands are measured using synchrotron based x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and soft x-ray fluorescence (SXF) techniques. Particles synthesized via recrystallization of amorphous silicon/SiO2 multilayers of thicknesses below 10 nm are also investigated using the synchrotron techniques. These samples also show quantum confinement effects but the electronic structure is different from those synthesized via evaporation methods. The total bandgap is determined for all samples measured. The origins of these differences in the electronic structures are discussed.

  4. Black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients: a hard X-ray view of their outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.

    2004-01-01

    The RXTE public observations of the outbursts of black hole soft X-ray transients XTE J1550-564, XTE J1859+226, 4U 1630-47, XTE J1118+480, XTE J1650-500, and the neutron star soft X-ray transients 4U 1608-52, Aquila X-1, including a variable 'persistent' neutron star low mass X-ray binary 4U 1705-44, are summarized in this paper. The hard X-ray view of those outbursts, which is quite different from that of the soft X-ray band, suggests that there are several types of outbursts which result in different hard X-ray outburst profile - the outburst profiles are energy dependent. One type is the low/hard state outbursts, the other type is the outburst showing transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state, or to the intermediate or to the very high state. The later has an initial low/hard state, introducing the phenomena that the hard X-ray precedes the soft X-ray in the outburst rise. Such outbursts in XTE J1550-564, Aql X-1 and 4U 1705-44 support a two-accretion-flow model which involves one Keplerian disk flow and one sub-Keplerian flow for the initial outburst rise

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken ... and/or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... is repeated. Two or three images (from different angles) will typically be taken. An x-ray may ... RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical questions or for ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. ... should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist if there is any possibility that they are ...

  8. X-ray guided biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, R.; Lezana, A.H.; Pedrosa, C.S.

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is now a routine procedure in many X-ray Departments. This paper presents the authors' experience with this technique in chest, abdominal and skeletal lesions. (Auth.)

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ... exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  11. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  13. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x-rays ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... in metabolic conditions. assist in the detection and diagnosis of bone cancer . locate foreign objects in soft ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of any bone in the body, including the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg ( ... Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a ... Images related ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken to the patient in a hospital ... so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone x-ray examination itself ... available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes and other locations, making it convenient ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician , who ... Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology Report Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams ... the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to produce pictures of any bone in the body. It is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones ... x-rays involves exposing a part of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in metabolic ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning devices will be used to help you maintain the ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiological technologist preparing to take an arm x-ray on a patient. View ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ...

  16. Flash x-ray cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments intended to provide an overview of the potential capabilities and limitations of flash x-ray cinematography as a diagnostic technique for a Fast Reactor Safety Test Facility are described. The results provide estimates of the x-ray pulse intensity required to obtain adequate radiographs of an array of fuel pins in a typical reactor configuration. An estimate of the upper limit on the pulse duration imposed by the reactor background radiation was also determined. X-ray cinematography has been demonstrated at a repetition rate limited only by the recording equipment on hand at the time of these measurements. These preliminary results indicate that flash x-ray cinematography of the motion of fuel in a Fast Reactor Test Facility is technically feasible

  17. X-ray screening materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to x-ray screening materials and especially to materials in sheet form for use in the production of, for example, protective clothing such as aprons and lower back shields, curtains, mobile screens and suspended shields. The invention is based on the observation that x-ray screening materials in sheet form having greater flexiblity than the hitherto known x-ray screening materials of the same x-ray absorber content can be produced if, instead of using a single sheet of filled sheet material of increased thickness, one uses a plurality of sheets of lesser thickness together forming a laminar material of the desired thickness and one bonds the individual sheets together at their edges and, optionally, at other spaced apart points away from the edges thereby allowing one sheet to move relative to another. (U.K.)

  18. X-ray luminescent glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Yamada, O.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray luminescent glasses comprising a divalent cation such as an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cations such as pb, cd, or zn, and certain rare earth metaphosphates are suitable as vitreous, x-ray phosphors or x-ray luminescent glass fibers in an x-ray intensifying screen. The glasses have the composition n(Mo X p2o5)((1-y)tb2o3 X yce2o3 X 3p2o5) wherein N is greater than zero but less than or equal to 16, M is an alkaline earth metal or other divalent cation such as pb, cd, or zn, and Y is greater than or equal to zero but less than one

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of any bone in the ... of the body to a small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  1. Miniature x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  2. Duodenal X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheppach, W.

    1982-01-01

    The publication provides an overview of duodenal X-ray diagnostics with the aid of barium meals in 1362 patients. The introducing paragraphs deal with the topographic anatomy of the region and the methodics of X-ray investigation. The chapter entitled ''processes at the duodenum itself'' describes mainly ulcers, diverticula, congenital anomalies, tumors and inflammations. The neighbourhood processes comprise in the first place diseases having their origin at the pancreas and bile ducts. As a conclusion, endoscopic rectograde cholangio-pancreaticography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography are pointed out as advanced X-ray investigation methods. In the annex of X-ray images some of the described phenomena are shown in exemplary manner. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ... accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... CT Exams Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety How to Read Your Radiology ...

  6. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... the oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... carefully aimed at the part of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small ... the table in the area of the body being imaged. When necessary, sandbags, pillows or other positioning ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

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    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  10. Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Paul G [Computer-Aided Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Isaacs, Eric D [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction uses the structural specificity of x-ray diffraction to probe complex magnetic structures at the length scales relevant to physical phenomena including domain dynamics and phase transitions. Conventional magnetic crystallography techniques such as neutron or x-ray diffraction lack this spatial resolution. The combination of both reciprocal space and real space resolution with a rich magnetic cross section allows new microscopy techniques to be developed and applied to magnetism at the scale of single domains. Potential applications include a wide range of magnetic problems in nanomagnetism, the interaction of strain, polarization and magnetization in complex oxides and spatially resolved studies of magnetic phase transitions. We present the physical basis for x-ray microdiffraction and magnetic scattering processes, review microdiffraction domain imaging techniques in antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials and discuss potential directions for studies. (topical review)

  11. Start of Eta Car's X-ray Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Liburd, Jamar; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Gull, Theodore; Madura, Thomas; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Russell, Chris; Pollock, Andrew; hide

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of Eta Car's X-ray spectrum in the 2-10 keV band using quicklook data from the XRay Telescope on Swift shows that the flux on July 30, 2014 was 4.9 plus or minus 2.0×10(exp-12) ergs s(exp-1)cm(exp-2). This flux is nearly equal to the X-ray minimum flux seen by RXTE in 2009, 2003.5, and 1998, and indicates that Eta Car has reached its X-ray minimum, as expected based on the 2024-day period derived from previous 2-10 keV observations with RXTE.

  12. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  13. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  14. X-ray tube target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A target with an improved heat emissive surface for use in a rotating anode type x-ray tube is described. The target consists of a body having a first surface portion made of x-ray emissive material and a second surface portion made of a heat emissive material comprising at least one of hafnium boride, hafnium oxide, hafnium nitride, hafnium silicide, and hafnium aluminide. (U.K.)

  15. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  16. X-ray data processing

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Harold R.

    2017-01-01

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most c...

  17. Low energy (soft) x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.; Miller, R.C.; Nakamura, Nori; Mizuno, Masayoshi; Nishio, Shoji.

    1987-05-01

    Dosimetry of low-energy (soft) X rays produced by the SOFTEX Model CMBW-2 was performed using Nuclear Associates Type 30 - 330 PTW, Exradin Type A2, and Shonka-Wyckoff ionization chambers with a Keithley Model 602 electrometer. Thermoluminescent (BeO chip) dosimeters were used with a Harshaw Detector 2000-A and Picoammeter-B readout system. Beam quality measurements were made using aluminum absorbers; exposure rates were assessed by the current of the X-ray tube and by exposure times. Dose distributions were established, and the average factors for non-uniformity were calculated. The means of obtaining accurate absorbed and exposed doses using these methods are discussed. Survival of V79 cells was assessed by irradiating them with soft X rays, 200 kVp X rays, and 60 Co gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for soft X rays with 0, 0.2, 0.7 mm added thicknesses of aluminum were 1.6, which were compared to 60 Co. The RBE of 200 kVp X rays relative to 60 Co was 1.3. Results of this study are available for reference in future RERF studies of cell survival. (author)

  18. Electronic structure of Ti4Fe2Ox as determined from first-principles APW + LO calculations and X-ray spectroscopy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrentyev, A.A.; Gabrelian, B.V.; Shkumat, P.N.; Nikiforov, I.Ya.; Zavaliy, I.Yu.; Sinelnichenko, A.K.; Izvekov, A.V.; Khyzhun, O.Yu.

    2010-01-01

    Electronic properties of Ti 4 Fe 2 O oxide, a very promising hydrogen-storage material, were studied both from theoretical and experimental points of view employing the first-principles band-structure augmented plane wave + local orbitals (APW + LO) method with the WIEN2k code as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES). Total and partial densities of states of the constituent atoms of Ti 4 Fe 2 O have been derived from the APW + LO calculations. The XPS valence-band spectra as well as the SXES Ti Lα, Fe Lα and O Kα bands have been measured for a series of Ti 4 Fe 2 O x oxides (x = 1.0, 0.5, and 0.25). The present APW + LO calculations reveal that, the O 2p-like states are the dominant contributors into the bottom of the valence band, whilst the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band of Ti 4 Fe 2 O are dominated by contributions of the Fe 3d- and Ti 3d-like states. The APW + LO results are confirmed experimentally by a comparison on a common energy scale of the XPS valence-band spectra and the SXES Ti Lα, Fe Lα and O Kα bands of the Ti 4 Fe 2 O x oxides. The XPS Ti 2p, Fe 2p and O 1s core-level binding energies have been measured for the compounds under consideration.

  19. Decreasing of pulsation intensity levels in X-ray receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Dvoryankin, V F; Kudryashov, A A; Petrov, A G

    2002-01-01

    The low frequency filter is applied in the multichannel receiver on the basis of the GaAs epitaxial structures for decreasing the pulsations level at the signals amplifier outlet. The optimal band of the filter is determined by the transition processes by the detector scanning in the roentgen beams. The X-ray source of radiation with the medium-frequency feeding generator is used for verifying the quality of the obtained X-ray image

  20. Circumstellar X-ray Emission from SN1978K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Colbert, E.; Petre, R.

    1995-02-01

    We present the X-ray light curve in the 0.2 2.4 keV band based on fiveROSAT observations of SN1978K in NGC 1313. The X-ray emission is believed to arise from the interaction of the reverse shock and the expanding debris from the supernova. The reverse shock becomes established after the outgoing shock runs into circumstellar matter.

  1. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  2. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and

  3. Discovery of x-rays and its impact on the development of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirdeshmukh, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    Roentgen's discovery of x-rays is discussed. Roentgen's discovery was important not only for the property of transmission of x-rays, which immediately resulted in the new field of radiology, but also because it led to several experiments which had a great impact on the development of physics. Laue's discovery of x-ray diffraction in turn led to the development of x-ray crystallography and x-ray spectroscopy. The contributions of Barkla, Moseley and Siegbahn are discussed. The experiments of Duane and Hunt on continuous x-rays and Compton on scattering of x-rays lent support to the photon nature of radiation. In recent times, the line-widths of x-ray emission lines have given information about the band structure of solids. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  4. Quasiparticle excitations in valence-fluctuation materials: effects of band structure and crystal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandow, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    Evidence is now quite strong that the elementary hybridization model is the correct way to understand the lattice-coherent Fermi liquid regime at very low temperatures. Many-body theory leads to significant renormalizations of the input parameters, and many of the band-theoretic channels for hybridization are suppressed by the combined effects of Hund's-rule coupling, crystal-field splitting, and the f-f Coulomb repulsion U. Some exploratory calculations based on this picture are described, and some inferences are drawn about the band structures of several heavy-fermion materials. These inferences can and should be tested by suitably modified band-theoretic calculations. We find evidence for a significant Baber-scattering contribution in the very-low-temperature resistivity. A new mechanism is proposed for crossover from the coherent Fermi-liquid regime to the incoherent dense-Kondo regime. 28 refs

  5. Soft X-ray radiation damage in EM-CCDs used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, D.; Soman, M.; Holland, A.; Keelan, J.; Hall, D.; Holland, K.; Colebrook, D.

    2018-02-01

    Advancement in synchrotron and free electron laser facilities means that X-ray beams with higher intensity than ever before are being created. The high brilliance of the X-ray beam, as well as the ability to use a range of X-ray energies, means that they can be used in a wide range of applications. One such application is Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). RIXS uses the intense and tuneable X-ray beams in order to investigate the electronic structure of materials. The photons are focused onto a sample material and the scattered X-ray beam is diffracted off a high resolution grating to disperse the X-ray energies onto a position sensitive detector. Whilst several factors affect the total system energy resolution, the performance of RIXS experiments can be limited by the spatial resolution of the detector used. Electron-Multiplying CCDs (EM-CCDs) at high gain in combination with centroiding of the photon charge cloud across several detector pixels can lead to sub-pixel spatial resolution of 2-3 μm. X-ray radiation can cause damage to CCDs through ionisation damage resulting in increases in dark current and/or a shift in flat band voltage. Understanding the effect of radiation damage on EM-CCDs is important in order to predict lifetime as well as the change in performance over time. Two CCD-97s were taken to PTB at BESSY II and irradiated with large doses of soft X-rays in order to probe the front and back surfaces of the device. The dark current was shown to decay over time with two different exponential components to it. This paper will discuss the use of EM-CCDs for readout of RIXS spectrometers, and limitations on spatial resolution, together with any limitations on instrument use which may arise from X-ray-induced radiation damage.

  6. 16O + 16O + valence neutrons in molecular orbitals structures of positive- and negative-parity superdeformed bands in 34S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka

    2015-01-01

    The structures of superdeformed (SD) states in 34 S have been investigated using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics and generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM basis wave functions are calculated via energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter β. By applying the GCM after parity and angular momentum projections, the coexistence of two positive- and one negative-parity SD bands are predicted, and low-lying states and other deformed bands are obtained. The SD bands have structures of 16 O + 16 O + two valence neutrons in molecular orbitals around the two 16 O cores in a cluster picture. The configurations of the two valence neutrons are δ 2 and π 2 for the positive-parity SD bands and π 1 δ 1 for the negative-parity SD band. (author)

  7. 16O + 16O + valence neutrons in molecular orbitals structures of positive- and negative-parity superdeformed bands in 34S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    The structures of superdeformed (SD) states in 34 S are investigated using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics and generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM basis wave functions are calculated via energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter β. By applying the GCM after parity and angular momentum projections, the coexistence of two positive- and one negative-parity SD bands are predicted, and low-lying states and other deformed bands are obtained. The SD bands have structures of 16 O + 16 O + two valence neutrons in molecular orbitals around the two 16 O cores in a cluster picture. The configurations of the two valence neutrons are δ 2 and π 2 for the positive-parity SD bands and π 1 δ 1 for the negative-parity SD band

  8. Perspectives of the lobster-eye telescope: The promising types of cosmic X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, V.

    2017-07-01

    We show the astrophysical aspects of observing the X-ray sky with the planned lobster-eye telescope. This instrument is important because it is able to provide wide-field X-ray imaging. For the testing observations, we propose to include also X-ray binaries in which matter transfers onto the compact object (mostly the neutron star). We show the typical features of the long-term X-ray activity of such objects. Observing in the soft X-ray band is the most promising because their X-ray intensity is the highest in this band. Since these X-ray sources tend to concentrate toward the center of our Galaxy, several of them can be present in the field of view of the tested instrument.

  9. XRASE: The X-Ray Spectroscopic Explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnopper, H.W.; Silver, E.; Murray, S.

    2001-01-01

    baryonic matter, the mass of black holes and the formation of disks and jets in AGN and galactic binaries. XRASE has a thin foil, multilayered telescope with a large collecting area up to 10 keV, especially in the Fe K alpha region (1100 cm(2)). Its microcalorimeter array combines high energy resolution (7...... eV at 6 keV) and efficiency with a field-of-view of 26 arcmin(2) . A deep orbit allows for long, continuous observations. Monitoring instruments in the optical (WOM-X), UV (TAUVEX) and hard X-RAY (GRAM) bands will offer exceptional opportunities to make simultaneous multi-wavelength observations....

  10. Creation of X-Ray Transparency of Matter by Stimulated Elastic Forward Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, J; Scherz, A

    2015-09-04

    X-ray absorption by matter has long been described by the famous Beer-Lambert law. Here, we show how this fundamental law needs to be modified for high-intensity coherent x-ray pulses, now available at x-ray free electron lasers, due to the onset of stimulated elastic forward scattering. We present an analytical expression for the modified polarization-dependent Beer-Lambert law for the case of resonant core-to-valence electronic transitions and incident transform limited x-ray pulses. Upon transmission through a solid, the resonant absorption and dichroic contrasts are found to vanish with increasing x-ray intensity, with the stimulation threshold lowered by orders of magnitude through a resonant superradiantlike effect. Our results have broad implications for the study of matter with x-ray lasers.

  11. Relation between X-Ray and γ-Ray Emissions for Fermi Blazars ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Using γ-ray band data detected by Fermi Large Area Tele- scope (LAT) and X-ray band data for 78 blazars, we find a medium cor- relation between X-ray and γ-ray fluxes in the average state. A medium anticorrelation is also found between X-ray (1 KeV) mean spectral index αx and γ-ray mean spectral index αγ for ...

  12. Transmission X-ray mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lairson, B.M.; Bilderback, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission X-ray mirrors have been made from 400 A to 10 000 A thick soap films and have been shown to have novel properties. Using grazing angles of incidence, low energy X-rays were reflected from the front surface while more energetic X-rays were transmitted through the mirror largely unattenuated. A wide bandpass monochromator was made from a silicon carbide mirror followed by a soap film transmission mirror and operated in the white beam at the cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). Bandpasses of ΔE/E=12% to 18% were achieved at 13 keV with peak efficiencies estimated to be between 55% and 75%, respectively. Several wide angle scattering photographs of stretched polyethylene and a phospholipid were obtained in 10 s using an 18% bandpass. (orig.)

  13. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  14. Exponential x-ray transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazou, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    In emission computed tomography one wants to determine the location and intensity of radiation emitted by sources in the presence of an attenuating medium. If the attenuation is known everywhere and equals a constant α in a convex neighborhood of the support of f, then the problem reduces to that of inverting the exponential x-ray transform P/sub α/. The exponential x-ray transform P/sub μ/ with the attenuation μ variable, is of interest mathematically. For the exponential x-ray transform in two dimensions, it is shown that for a large class of approximate δ functions E, convolution kernels K exist for use in the convolution backprojection algorithm. For the case where the attenuation is constant, exact formulas are derived for calculating the convolution kernels from radial point spread functions. From these an exact inversion formula for the constantly attenuated transform is obtained

  15. X-ray of osteopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyschmidt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Osteoporosis, osteomalcia, fibro-osteoclasia and osteosclerosis are essential reactions to pathologicometabolic processes of the bone. The X-ray film shows precisely which changes have taken place in the bone structure, thus supplying the means for an analysis based on anatomic pathology. These phenomena are discussed in detail, special attention being paid to structural modifications. Attention is also focused on the problems connected with X-ray technology. The value of direct and indirect magnification of the skeleton of the hand for the identification and classification of esteopathies is explained. Phenomena observed in X-ray films, such as enosteal erosion, intracortical longitudinal stripes or tunnelisation, as well as subperiostal absorption, can be of pathognomonic importance for certain osteopathies. (orig.) [de

  16. Imaging X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory, more appealingly called the Einstein Observatory, marked one of the most revolutionary steps taken in astrophysics this century. Its greater sensitivity compared with earlier satellites and its ability to make high spacial and spectral resolution observations transformed X-ray astronomy. This book is based on a Symposium held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to celebrate a decade of Einstein Observatory's achievements. It discusses the contributions that this satellite has made to each area of modern astrophysics and the diversity of the ongoing work based on Einstein data. There is a guide to each of the main data bases now coming on-line to increase the availability and to preserve this valuable archive for the future. A review of NASA's next big X-ray mission, AXAF, and a visionary program for novel X-ray astronomy satellites by Riccardo Giacconi conclude this wide-ranging volume. (author)

  17. Solar X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnov, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the popular form the consideration is given to the modern state tasks and results of X-ray spectrometry of solar bursts. The operation of X-ray spectroheliograph is described. Results of spectral and polarization measurings of X-ray radiation of one powerful solar burst are presented. The conclusion has been drawn that in the process of burst development three characteristic stages may be distingwished: 1) the initial phase; just in this period processes which lead to observed consequences-electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation are born; 2) the impulse phase, or the phase of maximum, is characterised by sharp increase of radiation flux. During this phase the main energy content emanates and some volumes of plasma warm up to high temperatures; 3) the phase of burst damping, during which plasma cools and reverts to the initial condition

  18. X-ray fluorescence holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu, Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-03-07

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy.

  19. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Happo, Naohisa; Hosokawa, Shinya; Hu Wen; Matsushita, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method of atomic resolution holography which utilizes fluorescing atoms as a wave source or a monitor of the interference field within a crystal sample. It provides three-dimensional atomic images around a specified element and has a range of up to a few nm in real space. Because of this feature, XFH is expected to be used for medium-range local structural analysis, which cannot be performed by x-ray diffraction or x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. In this article, we explain the theory of XFH including solutions to the twin-image problem, an advanced measuring system, and data processing for the reconstruction of atomic images. Then, we briefly introduce our recent applications of this technique to the analysis of local lattice distortions in mixed crystals and nanometer-size clusters appearing in the low-temperature phase of a shape-memory alloy. (topical review)

  20. Valence band photoemission from in-situ grown GaAs(100)-c(4 x 4)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiříček, Petr; Cukr, Miroslav; Bartoš, Igor; Adell, M.; Strasser, T.; Schattke, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2006), s. 21-26 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Surface Physics /10./. Praha, 11.07.2005-15.07.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : GaAs(100)-c(4X4) * surface states * band structure * structure plot Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  1. Glancing angle x-ray studies of oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, A.J.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    High brightness synchrotron radiation incident at glancing angles has been used to study inhibiting species present in low concentrations in oxide films on aluminum. Glancing incident angle fluorescence measurements give surface-sensitive information on the valence state of elements from the shape of the x-ray absorption edge. Angle-resolved measurements show the depth distribution of the species present. 15 refs., 4 figs

  2. Overutilization of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    In this article on the overutilization of x-rays the author defines the term overutilization as excessive irradiation per unit of diagnostic information, therapeutic impact, or health outcome. Three main factors are described which lead to overutilization of x-rays: excessive radiation per film; excessive films per examination; and excessive examinations per patient. Topics discussed which influence the excessive examinations per patient are: the physician's lack of knowledge; undue dependence; lack of screening by radiologists; the physician's need for action and certainty; patient demand; reimbursement policies; institutional requirements; preventive medicine; defensive medicine; and the practice of radiology by nonradiologists

  3. Multichannel X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabakhpashev, A

    1980-10-01

    A typical design is discussed of multiwire proportional counters and their characteristic feature is explained, ie., the possibility of showing one or two coordinates of the X-ray quantum absorption site. The advantages of such instruments are listed, such as increased sensitivity of determination, the possibility of recording radiations of a different intensity, the possibility of on-line data processing and of the digital display of results. The fields of application include X-ray structural analysis in solid state physics, crystallography, molecular biology, astronomy, materials testing, and medicine.

  4. Semiconductor X-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1978-02-01

    An outline is given of recent developments in particle and photon induced x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. Following a brief description of the basic mechanism of semiconductor detector operation a comparison is made between semiconductor detectors, scintillators and gas filled proportional devices. Detector fabrication and cryostat design are described in more detail and the effects of various device parameters on system performance, such as energy resolution, count rate capability, efficiency, microphony, etc. are discussed. The main applications of these detectors in x-ray fluorescence analysis, electron microprobe analysis, medical and pollution studies are reviewed

  5. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  6. X-ray tube targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    In rotary targets for X-ray tubes warping is a problem which causes X-ray deficiency. A rotary target is described in which warping is reduced by using alloys of molybdenum with 0.05 to 10% iron, silicon, cobalt, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, stable metal oxide or mixture thereof. Suitable mixtures are 0.5 to 10% of tantalum, niobium or hafnium with from 0.5 to 5% yttrium oxide, or 0.05 to 0.3% of cobalt or silicon. Optionally 0.1 to 5% by weight of additional material may be alloyed with the molybdenum, such as tantalum or hafnium carbides. (author)

  7. X-ray data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Harold R

    2017-10-31

    The method of molecular structure determination by X-ray crystallography is a little over a century old. The history is described briefly, along with developments in X-ray sources and detectors. The fundamental processes involved in measuring diffraction patterns on area detectors, i.e. autoindexing, refining crystal and detector parameters, integrating the reflections themselves and putting the resultant measurements on to a common scale are discussed, with particular reference to the most commonly used software in the field. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Diversity of soft X-ray spectra in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.; Wilkes, B.J.; Tananbaum, H.

    1985-01-01

    Soft X-ray spectra for three quasars obtained with the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter covering the 0.1-4.0 keV band are reported. Power-law fits to these spectra have best-fit energy indices of 1.2 +0.6 or -0.2, for the quasar NAB 0205 + 024, 0.6 +0.3 or -0.2 for the quasar B2 1028 + 313, and 2.2 + or -0.4 for the quasar PG 1211 + 143. None of the quasars shows any evidence for a column density of cold matter in excess of the galactic values. The derived spectra demonstrate that there is no single universal power law slope for quasar X-ray spectra. The implications of these results for the X-ray background, X-ray continuum emission mechanisms, and the production of the optical/UV emission lines are briefly discussed. 46 references

  9. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar flares; X-ray detectors; X-ray line emission and continuum; break energy; microflares. Abstract. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in ...

  10. Chest X-Ray (Chest Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Chest Chest x-ray uses a very small dose ... Radiography? What is a Chest X-ray (Chest Radiography)? The chest x-ray is the most commonly performed diagnostic ...

  11. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray ... MRI): Lumbar Spine Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Neck Enlarged Adenoids Croup Sinusitis Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  13. Features of carrier tunneling between the silicon valence band and metal in devices based on the Al/high-K oxide/SiO_2/Si structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vexler, M. I.; Grekhov, I. V.

    2016-01-01

    The features of electron tunneling from or into the silicon valence band in a metal–insulator–semiconductor system with the HfO_2(ZrO_2)/SiO_2 double-layer insulator are theoretically analyzed for different modes. It is demonstrated that the valence-band current plays a less important role in structures with HfO_2(ZrO_2)/SiO_2 than in structures containing only silicon dioxide. In the case of a very wide-gap high-K oxide ZrO_2, nonmonotonic behavior related to tunneling through the upper barrier is predicted for the valence-band–metal current component. The use of an insulator stack can offer certain advantages for some devices, including diodes, bipolar tunnel-emitter transistors, and resonant-tunneling diodes, along with the traditional use of high-K insulators in a field-effect transistor.

  14. Illumination system for X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    An X-ray lithography system is described, comprising: a point source of X-Ray radiation; a wafer plane disposed in spaced relation to the point source of X-Ray radiation; a mask disposed between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane whereby X-Ray radiation from the point source of X-ray radiation passes through the mask to the water plane; and X-Ray absorbent means mounted between the point source of X-Ray radiation and the wafer plane, the X-Ray absorbent means being of quadratically absorption from maximum absorption at the center to minimum absorption at the edge so as to have a radial absorption gradient profile to compensate for radial flux variation of the X-Ray radiation

  15. Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Kittle, Joe

    The emission regions of many types of X-ray sources are small and cannot be spatially resolved without interferometry techniques that haven't yet been developed. In order to understand the emission mechanisms and emission geometry, alternate measurement techniques are required. Most microphysical processes that affect X-rays, including scattering and magnetic emission processes are imprinted as polarization signatures. X-ray polarization also reveals exotic physical processes occurring in regions of very strong gravitational and magnetic fields. Observations of X-ray polarization will provide a measurement of the geometrical distribution of gas and magnetic fields without foreground depolarization that affects longer wavelengths (e.g. Faraday rotation in the radio). Emission from accretion disks has an inclination-dependent polarization. The polarization signature is modified by extreme gravitational forces, which bend light, essentially changing the contribution of each part of the disk to the integrated total intensity seen by distant observers. Because gravity has the largest effect on the innermost parts of the disk (which are the hottest, and thus contributes to more high energy photons), the energy dependent polarization is diagnostic of disk inclination, black hole mass and spin. Increasing the sensitive energy band will make these measurements possible. X-ray polarimetry will also enable the study of the origin of cosmic rays in the universe, the nature of black holes, the role of black holes in the evolution of galaxies, and the interaction of matter with the highest physically possible magnetic fields. These objectives address NASA's strategic interest in the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe. We propose a two-year effort to develop the Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter (NGXP) that will have more than ten times the sensitivity of the current state of the art. NGXP will make possible game changing measurements of classes of astrophysical

  16. A unique distortion in K{sub 1/3}Ba{sub 2/3}AgTe{sub 2}: X-ray diffraction determination and electronic band structure analysis of its incommensurately modulated structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdon, O; Hanko, J; Boucher, F; Petricek, V; Whangbo, M H; Kanatzidis, M G; Evain, M

    2000-04-03

    The incommensurately modulated structure of a square Te-net, namely that of K{sub 1/3}Ba{sub 2/3}AgTe{sub 2}, is determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data within a (3+1)D higher dimension formalism. The phase is shown to crystallize in the monoclinic symmetry, P2{sub 1}({alpha}0{gamma}) superspace group with the following lattice parameters: a = 4.6441(10) {angstrom}, b = 4.6292(12) {angstrom}, c = 23.765(9) {angstrom}, and {beta} = 101.28(2){degree} with q = 0.3248(6)a* {minus}0.07(8)c*, that is, in a symmetry different from that reported for the average structure (tetragonal) or that assumed from electron diffraction measurements (orthorhombic). After the introduction of a crenel function for the Te displacive description, the refinement converged to a residual factor R = 0.033 for 2583 observed reflections and 115 parameters (R = 0.024 and 0.101 for 1925 main reflections and 658 first-order satellites, respectively). The [Ag{sub 2}-Te{sub 2}] and the Ba/K layers are found to be only weakly modulated. The modulation of the square Te-net is, however, both substantial and unique. Namely, it results in two different units: a V-shaped Te{sub 3} trimer and a W-shaped Te{sub 5} pentamer. To examine both unit types, which are segregated in domains that aperiodically alternate within the Te layers, first principles electronic band structure calculations were carried out for three model commensurate structures using the tight-binding linear-muffin-tin-orbital method (LMTO). The calculations show that the distorted structures of V-pattern (model 2) and W-pattern (model 3) are more stable than the average structure (model 1) and that the V-pattern distortion provides a slightly larger stabilization than does the W-pattern distortion. The Fermi surface calculated for the average structure shows nesting vectors that are consistent with the occurrence of the V- and W-pattern distortions in the Te layers. However, these vectors do not predict the observed modulation

  17. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, E.

    1984-11-01

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  18. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J.L. de.

    1976-01-01

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  19. Stellar X-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the stellar end-state black holes, pulsars, and white dwarfs that are X-ray sources should have polarized X-ray fluxes. The degree will depend on the relative contributions of the unresolved structures. Fluxes from accretion disks and accretion disk corona may be polarized by scattering. Beams and jets may have contributions of polarized emission in strong magnetic fields. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) will study the effects on polarization of strong gravity of black holes and strong magnetism of neutron stars. Some part of the flux from compact stars accreting from companion stars has been reflected from the companion, its wind, or accretion streams. Polarization of this component is a potential tool for studying the structure of the gas in these binary systems. Polarization due to scattering can also be present in X-ray emission from white dwarf binaries and binary normal stars such as RS CVn stars and colliding wind sources like Eta Car. Normal late type stars may have polarized flux from coronal flares. But X-ray polarization sensitivity is not at the level needed for single early type stars.

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...