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Sample records for vaginalis var plantaginea

  1. Viabilidade de sementes de papuã (Brachiaria plantaginea e a cobertura do solo com palha Alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea seed viability and soil cover with straw

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    Giovani Theisen

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito de palha de aveia preta (Avena strigosa sobre o solo, na dormência e quiescência de sementes de papuã (Brachiaria plantaginea. Os tratamentos testados foram cobertura do solo (0; 2,6; 5,2; 7,8 e 10,5t/ha, o tempo de permanência das sementes submetidas à ação da cobertura do solo (40, 70, 100, 200 e 300 dias e o posicionamento das sementes (2 e 10cm. Elevados níveis de cobertura sobre o solo aumentaram o percentual de sementes de papuã viáveis. Sementes próximas da superfície do solo apresentaram menor dormência e quiescência do que aquelas posicionadas a 10cm de profundidade. A dormência e a quiescência das sementes de papuã se reduziram com o decorrer do tempo.The objective of this work was to determine the effect of black oat (Avena strigosa residues on the viability of alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea seeds. The factors studied were the level of residues on the soil (0, 2.6, 5.2, 7.8 and 10.5t/ha, the time of permanence of seeds in soil submitted to action of residues (40, 70, 100, 200 and 300 days and the seed placement (2 and 10cm. High levels of crop residues on the soil surface increased the seed viability. Seeds placed at 2.0cm presented smaller dormancy and quiescence than those at 10cm depth. Seed dormancy and quiescence were reduced with time.

  2. Genetic diversity in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, John C; Carlton, Jane M

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in genetic characterisation of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates show that the extensive clinical variability in trichomoniasis and its disease sequelae are matched by significant genetic diversity in the organism itself, suggesting a connection between the genetic identity of isolates and their clinical manifestations. Indeed, a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in T vaginalis isolates has been observed using multiple genotyping techniques. A unique two-type population structure that is both local and global in distribution has been identified, and there is evidence of recombination within each group, although sexual recombination between the groups appears to be constrained. There is conflicting evidence in these studies for correlations between T vaginalis genetic identity and clinical presentation, metronidazole susceptibility, and the presence of T vaginalis virus, underscoring the need for adoption of a common standard for genotyping the parasite. Moving forward, microsatellite genotyping and multilocus sequence typing are the most robust techniques for future investigations of T vaginalis genotype-phenotype associations.

  3. Manejo da Planta Daninha Brachiaria plantaginea Resistente aos herbicidas Inibidores da ACCase Management of the Weed Brachiaria plantaginea Resistant to ACCase Inhibitor Herbicides

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    P.J. Christoffoleti

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o manejo de uma população da planta daninha capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase (ariloxifenoxipropionatos e ciclohexanodionas, utilizados na cultura da soja no sistema de plantio direto. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos: um utilizando herbicidas de manejo, com mecanismos de ação alternativos, comparando a eficácia destes com os inibidores da ACCase; e outro apenas com herbicidas inibidores da ACCase e aditivos misturados à calda. As sementes resistentes foram produzidas a partir de plantas comprovadamente resistentes; para comparação de resultados, foi utilizada uma população de capim-marmelada que nunca tinha sido pulverizada com inibidores da ACCase, portanto uma população suscetível. O experimento com os herbicidas de manejo foi realizado em condições de campo, porém as plantas ficaram em caixas com capacidade de 50 L, evitando-se a disseminação destas para áreas adjacentes. Concluiu-se que as plantas resistentes não apresentam resistência múltipla com herbicidas de manejo com mecanismos de ação alternativos, podendo os herbicidas glyphosate, paraquat, sulfosate, paraquat + diuron, MSMA e glufosinate ser utilizados no período entressafra das áreas com sistema de plantio direto, para manejo de populações resistentes de capim-marmelada aos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase. O experimento com aditivos foi realizado em casa de vegetação, com plantas em vasos individuais, utilizando sementes das populações suscetíveis e resistentes. Os herbicidas utilizados foram inibidores da ACCase, em cuja calda foram adicionados aditivos nitrogenados, do tipo uréia e sulfato de amônio, além de um tratamento sem aditivos. Concluiu-se que os aditivos não alteraram a eficácia dos herbicidas inibidores da ACCase nas plantas provenientes tanto da população suscetível quanto da resistente.The objective of this research was to

  4. Nível de dano econômico de Brachiaria plantaginea na cultura de milho irrigado Economic weed threshold (EWT of Brachiaria plantaginea in irrigated corn crop

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    R.A. Vidal

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O nível de dano econômico (NDE consiste na quantidade de plantas daninhas que causa impacto no rendimento de grãos da cultura que justifique o custo de seu controle. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a possibilidade de utilizar experimentos de eficácia de herbicidas residuais para determinar o NDE, a partir do rendimento de grãos em relação à densidade de plantas de Brachiaria plantaginea (BRAPL que emergem após o tratamento, e avaliar o impacto do preço da cultura e do custo do controle no NDE. A densidade de BRAPL foi determinada em um experimento no qual se realizaram tratamentos químicos que possibilitaram a emergência de diferentes quantidades de plantas e, em conseqüência, vários níveis de interferência sobre a cultura do milho. A avaliação da densidade foi feita aos 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 dias após a emergência (DAE, de forma a abranger o período crítico de prevenção da interferência. Ao final do experimento foi avaliado o rendimento de grãos da cultura do milho. A resposta da regressão entre densidade de BRAPL e rendimento de grãos de milho ajustou curvas do tipo exponencial decrescente nas avaliações realizadas aos 10 e 20 DAE e curvas do tipo logístico (sigmoidal aos 30, 40 e 50 DAE. O NDE de BRAPL em milho, com base na densidade determinada no início do período crítico de prevenção da interferência (20 DAE, considerando nível de produtividade de 10 t ha-1, variou entre 0,2 e 2,0 plantas m-2, dependendo do preço do milho e do custo do controle. O NDE determinado ao término do período crítico de interferência (50 DAE correspondeu às densidades de BRAPL de 1,5 a 13 plantas m-2. Conclui-se que o NDE de BRAPL na cultura de milho pode ser estabelecido com dados de densidade desta espécie, determinados em experimentos para testes de herbicidas residuais. Assim, o NDE previsto será adequado para situações em que se deseja decidir por aplicações de herbicidas em pós-emergência em

  5. Períodos de interferência de Brachiaria plantaginea na cultura do milho na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul Interference periods of Brachiaria plantaginea in corn crops in Southern Rio Grande do Sul

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    L. Galon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os períodos de convivência das espécies daninhas têm grande influência no crescimento das plantas e na produtividade das culturas. Desse modo, objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar os períodos de competição, anterior à interferência (PAI, o crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI e o período total de prevenção da interferência (PTPI de B. plantaginea sobre a cultura do milho na Região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, no sistema de cultivo convencional com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em manter a cultura do milho na presença e ausência de B. plantaginea por 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias após a emergência (DAE da cultura. B. plantaginea originou-se do banco de sementes do solo, com população média de 312 plantas m-2. Foram amostradas e analisadas 10 plantas de milho em cada unidade experimental, com vistas à avaliação da altura de plantas e da inserção da espiga (cm, do comprimento de espigas (cm, do número de fileiras por espiga, número de grãos por fileira e número de grãos por espiga, além da produtividade de grãos, que foi determinada pela colheita de três linhas centrais da área útil em cada unidade experimental. Considerando 5% de tolerância na redução da produção, conclui-se que o período total de prevenção à interferência (PTPI foi de 27 DAE; o período que antecede a interferência (PAI, de 11 DAE; e o período crítico de prevenção à interferência (PCPI, de 11 a 27 DAE.Weed control period have great influence on plant growth and crop productivity. The objective of this work was to determine the competition periods, both previous to interference and critical interference prevention of B. plantaginea on corn crop in Southern Rio Grande do Sul. The trial was conducted in a completely randomized block design, under conventional tillage system, with four replications. The treatments consisted of maintaining

  6. Homeopathic Preparations to Control the Rosy Apple Aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass.

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    Eric Wyss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory model system with the rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Pass. on apple seedlings was developed to study the effects of homeopathic preparations on this apple pest. The assessment included the substance Lycopodium clavatum and a nosode of the rosy apple aphid. Each preparation was applied on the substrate surface as aqueous solution of granules (6c, 15c, or 30c. Controls were aqueous solutions of placebo granules or pure water. In eight independent, randomized, and blinded experiments under standardized conditions in growth chambers, the development of aphids on treated and untreated apple seedlings was observed over 17 days, each. Six experiments were determined to assess the effects of a strict therapeutic treatment; two experiments were designed to determine the effects of a combined preventative and therapeutic treatment. After application of the preparations, the number of juvenile offspring and the damage on apple seedlings were assessed after 7 and 17 days, respectively. In addition, after 17 days, the seedling weight was measured. In the final evaluation of the six strictly therapeutic trials after 17 days, the number of juvenile offspring was reduced after application of L. clavatum 15c (-17%, p = 0.002 and nosode 6c (-14%, p = 0.02 compared to the pure water control. No significant effects were observed for leaf damage or fresh weight for any application. In the two experiments with combined preventative and therapeutic treatment, no significant effects were observed in any measured parameter. Homeopathic remedies may be effective in plant-pest systems. The magnitude of observed effects seems to be larger than in models with healthy plants, which renders plant-pest systems promising candidates for homeopathic basic research. For successful application in agriculture, however, the effect is not yet sufficient. This calls for further optimization concerning homeopathic remedy selection, potency level, dosage, and

  7. Método alternativo de avaliação da absorção de atrazine por plantas de Brachiaria plantaginea Alternative method for evaluation of atrazine asorption by Brachiaria plantaginea plants

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    C.D.G. Maciel

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação da Universidade Estadual de Maringá-PR, objetivando desenvolver metodologia alternativa para avaliar a absorção foliar e radicular de herbicidas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com 11 e 5 tratamentos para os solos arenoso e argiloso, respectivamente, ambos os experimentos com quatro repetições, constituídos por plantas de B. plantaginea em dois estádios. O herbicida atrazine foi aplicado nas doses de 2,5 e 3,0 kg ha¹ em solos arenoso e argiloso, utilizando um pulverizador costal pressurizado por CO2. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por plantas protegidas com canudos plásticos em solo descoberto e plantas desprotegidas em solo coberto com papel-alumínio, associadas a condições de solo seco e úmido, ou em ambas as condições, acrescidas de irrigação de 20 mm apenas ao solo após aplicação. A absorção foliar da atrazine foi eficiente no controle de B. plantaginea com duas a três folhas em solo arenoso e argiloso, ao contrário do estádio de quatro a cinco folhas, onde houve necessidade de associar os efeitos da absorção foliar e radicular para se obter controle satisfatório. A irrigação de 20 mm ampliou o controle da absorção radicular de B. plantaginea em diferentes estádios de plantas, solo e umidade do solo. A metodologia apresentou-se viável como ferramenta alternativa para avaliação da absorção foliar e radicular de herbicidas, no controle de gramíneas em estádio inicial de desenvolvimento.Two trials were carried out at the Universidade Estadual de Maringá, PR-Brazil, to develop an alternative method to evaluate foliar and root absorption of herbicides. A random experimental design was arranged, with eleven or five treatments, for sandy or clay soils, respectively,both with four replicates. Atrazine was applied at rates of 2.5 or 3.0 kg ha-1 in sandy or clay soil samples, respectively, with a CO2-pressured

  8. Direct detection of Trichomonas vaginalis virus in Trichomonas vaginalis positive clinical samples from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehee, Ivo; van der Veer, Charlotte; Himschoot, Michelle; Hermans, Mirjam; Bruisten, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted parasitical infection worldwide. T. vaginalis can carry a virus: Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV). To date, four TVV species have been described. Few studies have investigated TVV prevalence and its clinical importance. We have developed

  9. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection among Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis has emerged as one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. The infection may lead to an important complication in pregnancy, as it has been related with prematurity and low birth weight. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis ...

  10. Avaliação de pontas de jato plano na deposição da calda de pulverização com diferentes combinações de plantas de feijão, Brachiaria plantaginea e Bidens pilosa Evaluation of flat fan nozzles in spray deposition on different combinations of bean blants, Brachiaria plantaginea and Bidens pilosa

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    A.C.P. Rodrigues-Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a ponta XR na deposição da calda de pulverização com diferentes combinações de plantas de feijão, Brachiaria plantaginea e Bidens pilosa, em dois volumes de aplicação, com e sem a adição de surfatante Silwet. Foi utilizado como traçador o corante Azul Brilhante FDC -1 na concentração de 500 ppm para quantificar a deposição. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de sete combinações de plantas: (feijão, (B. plantaginea, (B. pilosa, (feijão + B. plantaginea, (feijão + B. pilosa, (B. plantaginea + B. pilosa e (feijão + B. plantaginea + B. pilosa. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado. Foram avaliadas as pontas de jato plano XR 110015 VS e XR 11002 VS com volumes de aplicação de 150 e 200 L ha-1, respectivamente, com e sem a presença do Silwet a 0,05% v v-1. Após a aplicação, as plantas foram imediatamente coletadas e, em seguida, lavadas em 100 mL de água destilada, para posterior quantificação do traçador em espectrofotômetro. As pontas XR apresentaram comportamento distinto na deposição das gotas de pulverização nas espécies estudadas; a adição de um surfatante à calda de pulverização aumentou a uniformidade da deposição nos alvos e contribuiu para a redução do volume de aplicação.The objective of this study was to evaluate flat fan nozzle spray deposition on different combinations of the common bean plants, Brachiaria plantaginea and Bidens pilosa, in two volumes of application, with and without the addition of surfactant. Brilliant blue FDC -1 was used as tracer solution at the concentration of 500 ppm to evaluate the deposition. The treatments consisted of 7 combinations of plants: (common bean; (B. plantaginea; (B. pilosa; (common bean + B. plantaginea; (common bean + B. pilosa; (B. plantaginea + B. pilosa and (common bean + B. plantaginea + B. pilosa. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design. The flat fan nozzles XR 110015 VS

  11. Trichomonas vaginalis Pathogenesis: a Narrative Review

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    Zahra Arab-Mazar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the latest articles which were published during 2013-2014, Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis was mentioned as a neglected sexual transmission disease (STD, while the exact mechanism of its pathogenesis has not been cleared yet. Although trichomonasiasis is easy curable, there is concern that resistance to drug are increasing. This common infection as concerning the important public health implications needs more research to be done for understanding the diagnosis, treatment, immunology and pathogenesis. In this review we searched all valuable and relevant information considering the pathogenesis of T. vaginalis. We referred to the information databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar. The used keywords were the combinations of T. vaginalis and words associated with pathogenicity. This review discusses the host-parasite interaction and pathogenicity of this parasite.

  12. Direct detection of Trichomonas vaginalis virus in Trichomonas vaginalis positive clinical samples from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehee, Ivo; van der Veer, Charlotte; Himschoot, Michelle; Hermans, Mirjam; Bruisten, Sylvia

    2017-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted parasitical infection worldwide. T. vaginalis can carry a virus: Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV). To date, four TVV species have been described. Few studies have investigated TVV prevalence and its clinical importance. We have developed a nested reverse-transcriptase PCR, with novel, type specific primers to directly detect TVV RNA in T. vaginalis positive clinical samples. A total of 119T. vaginalis positive clinical samples were collected in Amsterdam and "s-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands, from 2012 to 2016. For all samples T. vaginalis was genotyped using multi-locus sequence typing. The T. vaginalis positive samples segregated into a two-genotype population: type I (n=64) and type II (n=55). All were tested for TVV with the new TVV PCR. We detected 3 of the 4 TVV species. Sequencing of the amplified products showed high homology with published TVV genomes (82-100%). Half of the T. vaginalis clinical samples (n=60, 50.4%) were infected with one or more TVV species, with a preponderance for TVV infections in T. vaginalis type I (n=44, 73.3%). Clinical data was available for a subset of samples (n=34) and we observed an association between testing positive for (any) TVV and reporting urogenital symptoms (p=0.023). The nested RT-PCR allowed for direct detection of TVV in T. vaginalis positive clinical samples. This may be helpful in studies and clinical settings, since T. vaginalis disease and/or treatment outcome may be influenced by the protozoa"s virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Redução da infestação de Brachiaria plantaginea em soja pela cobertura do solo com palha de aveia-preta Reduction of Brachiaria plantaginea infestation on soybean crop with black oat residues

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    GIOVANI THEISEN

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido em área da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, em 1996/97, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de resíduos de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. sobre o solo na densidade de papuã (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. e no rendimento da cultura da soja (Glycine max L. Merrill. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições; os tratamentos método de controle de papuã (nas parcelas e cobertura do solo (nas subparcelas foram arranjados em esquema fatorial. A densidade da planta daninha diminuiu de forma exponencial com o aumento da cobertura de aveia sobre o solo, variando de 829 a 86 plantas/m² para níveis de cobertura 0,0 t/ha e 10,5 t/ha, respectivamente. Houve maior infestação de papuã nas linhas do que nas entrelinhas da cultura. Não houve efeito da cobertura vegetal no rendimento da soja quando a cultura foi mantida livre de papuã. Por sua vez, níveis crescentes de resíduos vegetais sobre o solo controlaram papuã e aumentaram linearmente o rendimento da cultura. Nas condições de alta infestação da área, a produção de grãos aumentou na razão de 158 kg/ha de grãos por tonelada de palha sobre o solo.This work was conducted at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, during 1996/97, to evaluate the effect of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. residues on alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. density and on soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill yield. Treatments were arranged in split-plot in a randomized complete block design with four replicates, with weed control method as main plots and level of black oat residues as subplots. An exponential reduction of alexandergrass density was observed, with data varying from 829 to 86 plants/m² for levels of straw on the soil surface of 0 to 10.5 ton/ha, respectively. Higher weed

  14. Competitivity of the common-bean plant relative to the weed alexandergrass [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.] Competitividade do feijoeiro-comum com o capim-marmelada [Brachiaria plantaginea (link hitch.

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    Telma Passini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies of competitive interaction quantification between weeds and crops are not widely elucidated and compared in the literature. The competitive ability of common-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris relative to alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea was assessed and two approaches of replacement series experiment analysis were compared. The response of the species to the presence of each other at different densities and proportion was evaluated. Replacement series at total densities of 625, 816 and 1,111 plants m-2 were performed at the proportions of common-bean:alexandergrass of 100:0 (pure stand of common-bean, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100% (pure stand of alexandergrass, at four replicates in a randomized block design. Data analyses were performed by the qualitative compared to the quantitative approach. The quantitative approach provided larger number of information than did the qualitative approach, and indicated that there was intraspecific competition among common-bean plants, and a minimum of interspecific competition from alexandergrass. There was no intraspecific competition among alexandergrass plants, being the crop effect on the weed larger than the effect among alexandergrass plants. The ecological niche differentiation was partial, since the crop intraspecific competition was larger than the interspecific, and the last one was negligible, at the same time that the weed interspecific competition was larger than the intraspecific. Common-bean, as a competitor species, is superior to alexandergrass.As metodologias de quantificação das interações competitivas entre plantas cultivadas e daninhas não estão amplamente elucidadas e comparadas na literatura. A competitividade da cultura de feijão-comum (Phaseolus vulgaris em relação ao capim-marmelada (Brachiaria plantaginea foi avaliada pela comparação entre o método qualitativo e um método quantitativo de análise de resultados. A resposta de cada espécie à presença da

  15. Interaction between Trichomonas vaginalis and the Prostate Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Su; Park, Soon-Jung; Min, Duk-Young; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2017-04-01

    Most men infected with Trichomonas vaginalis are asymptomatic and can remain undiagnosed and untreated. This has been hypothesized to result in chronic persistent prostatic infection. Adhesion of the protozoan organisms to mucosal cells is considered a first and prerequisite step for T. vaginalis infection. Adhesion of T. vaginalis to prostate epithelial cells has not yet been observed; however, there are several reports about inflammation of prostate epithelial cells induced by T. vaginalis . The aim of this study was to investigate whether adhesion and cytotoxicity of T. vaginalis are involved in inflammation of prostate epithelial cells. When RWPE-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis (1:0.4 or 1:4), adhesion of T. vaginalis continuously increased for 24 hr or 3 hr, respectively. The cytotoxicity of prostate epithelial cells infected with T. vaginalis (RWPE-1: T. vaginalis =1:0.4) increased at 9 hr; at an infection ratio of 1:4, cytotoxicity increased after 3 hr. When the RWPE-1 to T. vaginalis ratio was 1:0.4 or 1:4, production of IL-1β, IL-6, CCL2, and CXCL8 also increased. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was verified by measuring decreased E-cadherin and increased vimentin expression at 24 hr and 48 hr. Taken together, the results indicate that T. vaginalis adhered to prostate epithelial cells, causing cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and EMT. Our findings suggest for the first time that T. vaginalis may induce inflammation via adhesion to normal prostate epithelial cells.

  16. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Modulates Trichomonas vaginalis Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosh, Travis; Jordan, Kelsey D; Wu, Ja-Shin; Yarlett, Nigel; Upmacis, Rita K

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite and, while it is often asymptomatic in males, the parasite is associated with disease in both sexes. Metronidazole is an effective treatment for trichomoniasis, but resistant strains have evolved and, thus, it has become necessary to investigate other possible therapies. In this study, we examined the effects of native and oxidized forms of the sodium salts of eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and arachidonic acids on T. vaginalis activity. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the most toxic with 190 and 380 μM causing approximately 90% cell death in Casu2 and ATCC 50142 strains, respectively. In contrast, oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid was the least toxic, requiring > 3 mM to inhibit activity, while low levels (10 μM) were associated with increased parasite density. Mass spectrometric analysis of oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid revealed C20 products containing one to six additional oxygen atoms and various degrees of bond saturation. These results indicate that eicosapentaenoic acid has different effects on T. vaginalis survival, depending on whether it is present in the native or oxidized form. A better understanding of lipid metabolism in T. vaginalis may facilitate the design of synthetic fatty acids that are effective for the treatment of metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  17. Laboratory diagnosis of gardnerella vaginalis vaginosis | Okwoli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gardnerella vaginalis grew predominantly in enriched culture media: Modified peptone-starch dextrose blood agar used for primary culture of organism, and also proteose peptone broth + cooked meat; Brain-heart infusion both + 5% human serum; Brain heart infusion starch agar + 5% blood, and chocolate agar.

  18. Factors Associated with Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on the factors associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection was carried out among pregnant women who attended ante-natal clinics at Plateau State Specialist Hospital and Our Lady of Apostles (OLA) Maternity Hospital between January and April, 2012.All the women were married. Two diagnostic techniques ...

  19. Diagnosis of trichomonas vaginalis infection by PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, R.M.; Shalaby, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To compare the sensitivity of PCR, wet preparation and culture in detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in urine and vaginal fluid. A PCR targeting the beta-tubulin genes of T. vaginalis was used for the detection of the organism in both vaginal swab and urine specimens from infected patients. Random urine samples were collected from 30 patients (23 females and 7 males), and tested for T. vaginalis by wet preparation and the Inpouch T. vaginalis culture systeme. Two vaginal swabs were collected by each woman. PCR detection. was carried out on samples negative by first methods. The positive result was found in 28.57% in male urine and 39.13% in female urine samples, 65.21% in 1st swab and 78.26 % in 2nd swab by wet preparation. By culture, the male urine samples showed 42.85% positive, female urine 69.56% while 1st swab showed 86.95% positive and 2nd swab 91.30% positive. All negative cases by culture in urine and vaginal samples were tested by PCR, which showed 2 cases to be positive in male urine samples and 5 cases positive in female urine sample. PCR assay was as good as or more sensitive than wet preparation and culture and resulted in practical advantage of providing results in shorter time. However, PCR test is still very expensive. (author)

  20. Trichomonas vaginalis origins, molecular pathobiology and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Robert P; Sherrard, Jackie

    2015-02-01

    To integrate a selection of the most recent data on Trichomonas vaginalis origins, molecular cell biology and T. vaginalis interactions with the urogenital tract microbiota with trichomoniasis symptoms and clinical management. Transcriptomics and proteomics datasets are accumulating, facilitating the identification and prioritization of key target genes to study T. vaginalis pathobiology. Proteins involved in host sensing and cytoskeletal plasticity during T. vaginalis amoeboid transformation were identified. T. vaginalis was shown to secrete exosomes and a macrophage migration inhibitory factor-like protein that both influence host-parasite interactions. T. vaginalis co-infections with Mycoplasma species and viruses were shown to modulate the inflammatory responses, whereas T. vaginalis interactions with various Lactobacillus species inhibit parasite interactions with human cells. T. vaginalis infections were also shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis. A broader range of health sequelae is also becoming apparent. Diagnostics for both women and men based on the molecular approaches are being refined, in particular for men. New developments in the molecular and cellular basis of T. vaginalis pathobiology combined with data on the urogenital tract microbiota and immunology have enriched our knowledge on human-microbe interactions that will contribute to increasing our capacity to prevent and treat T. vaginalis and other sexually transmitted infections.

  1. [Vulvovaginitis caused by Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis in sexually active women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam-W, Maha; Cermeño-Vivas, Julman R; Orellán-García, Yida; Penna, Salvador J

    2002-03-01

    Vulvovaginitis accounts for 20 to 30% of gynecological diseases and it is observed in women from 20 to 30 years of age. It has a higher frequency in women using oral contraceptives and during the third trimester of pregnancy. The aim of this research was to assess the prevalence of Candida spp and Trichomonas vaginalis in patients with the diagnosis of vulvovaginitis from the Gynecology Service in Hospital Universitario "Ruiz y Páez" in Ciudad Bolívar and Hospital "Raúl Leoni" in San Félix (Bolívar State, Venezuela). Two hundred women with symptoms of vulvovaginitis were examined, and samples were taken from the uterocervical cul-de-sac. Each patient was asked to fill a questionnaire. The following studies were made in each sample: a) fresh wet mount examination, b) orange acridine and Giemsa stains for Trichomonas and c) culture for the identification of yeasts. The latter were identified by means of the germinal tube assay, resistance to actidione and the presence of clamidospores in rice-cream agar and sugar utilization test, using the commercial kit ID32C (BioMérieux). Only in 57 women of 200 patients with vulvovaginitis the causative agent was demonstrated; Candida spp was present in 84.2% (n = 48) and Trichomonas vaginalis in 14% (n = 8). A single case of Zygosaccharomyces spp (1.8%) was detected. The age group mainly affected was that of 25-35 years old, the 38.6% of the studied population. Candida species detected were: C. albicans in 87% of cases (n = 42), C. glabrata, in 10.42% (n = 5), and C. guillermondii, in 2.08 (n = 1). Vaginal flux, vulvar pruritus and leucorrhoea were observed in significant number of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The use of antibiotics was considered predisposing factor for Trichomonas vaginalis infection. The relationship between age and the etiological agent was not statistically significant. Due to the low specificity of clinical manifestations of infections caused by Candida spp and Trichomonas vaginalis, we

  2. Interferência e nível de dano econômico de Brachiaria plantaginea e Ipomoea nil na cultura do feijão comum Interference and economic threshold of Brachiaria plantaginea and Ipomoea nil in the common bean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas Antonio Vidal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As pesquisas acerca do impacto da interferência das plantas daninhas sobre as culturas normalmente são realizadas com uma única espécie infestante, quando na realidade podem ocorrer diversas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a interferência de Brachiaria plantaginea e Ipomoea nil sobre o rendimento de grãos do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris e determinar o nível de dano econômico (NDE de cada espécie na cultura. Foram realizados dois experimentos a campo com as cultivares de feijão 'IPR Graúna' (Grupo Preto e 'UTF-06' (Grupo Carioca em convivência com infestações mistas em diferentes proporções aleatórias das espécies B. plantaginea e I. nil. Modelos de regressão múltiplos foram utilizados para determinar a capacidade de interferência de cada espécie daninha sobre a produtividade da cultura. O impacto de interferência de cada planta de I. nil correspondeu a 2,6 e 0,25 quando comparada a cada planta de B. plantaginea, dependente das proporções relativas na comunidade infestante e das condições de cada experimento. A cultivar 'IPR Graúna' apresentou maior habilidade competitiva do que 'UTF-06'. O NDE foi dependente da proporção relativa de cada espécie daninha na comunidade e foi obtido sob baixas infestações (The researches about the impact of weed interference on crops are usually performed with a single weed species, when in reality there are numerous. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interference of Brachiaria plantaginea and Ipomoea nil on the grain yield of French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and to determine the economic weed threshold (EWT of each species on the crop. Two field experiments were conducted with bean cultivars 'IPR Graúna' (Black group and 'UTF-06' (Carioca group in coexistence with random proportions of mixed infestations of B. plantaginea and I. nil. Multiple regression models were used to determine the interference abi1lity of each weed species on crop productivity. The

  3. Trichomonas vaginalis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Coinfection Among Women Under Community Supervision: A Call for Expanded T. vaginalis Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Dasgupta, Anindita; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2016-10-01

    The United States has a large community supervision population, a growing number of whom are women. Trichomonas vaginalis infection is strongly associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission, particularly among women, but there is a paucity of research on HIV and T. vaginalis co-infection among women under community supervision. This article examines the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection and T. vaginalis and HIV coinfection at baseline among women under community supervision in New York City. It also examines the 12-month outcomes of women treated for T. vaginalis. Women received biological tests for HIV and T. vaginalis at baseline and 12 months follow-up. Of the 333 women tested for sexually transmitted infections, 77 women (23.1%) tested positive for T. vaginalis at baseline and 44 (13.3%) were HIV positive. Human immunodeficiency virus-positive women had significantly higher rates of T. vaginalis infection than HIV-negative women (36.4% vs 21.3%, P ≤ 0.05). Sixteen women (4.8%) were coinfected with T. vaginalis and HIV. Of the 77 women who were positive for T. vaginalis infection at baseline, 58 (75.3%) received treatment by a health care provider. Of those who received treatment, 17 (29.3%) tested positive for T. vaginalis at the 12-month follow-up. Given the high prevalence of T. vaginalis among this sample of women, particularly among HIV-positive women, and high levels of reinfection or persistent infection, screening for T. vaginalis among women under community supervision may have a substantial impact on reducing HIV acquisition and transmission among this high-risk population.

  4. Superoxide anion production by human neutrophils activated by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2013-08-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in vaginal discharges of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. In this study, we examined superoxide anion (O2 (.-)) production by neutrophils activated by T. vaginalis. Human neutrophils produced superoxide anions when stimulated with either a lysate of T. vaginalis, its membrane component (MC), or excretory-secretory product (ESP). To assess the role of trichomonad protease in production of superoxide anions by neutrophils, T. vaginalis lysate, ESP, and MC were each pretreated with a protease inhibitor cocktail before incubation with neutrophils. Superoxide anion production was significantly decreased by this treatment. Trichomonad growth was inhibited by preincubation with supernatants of neutrophils incubated for 3 hr with T. vaginalis lysate. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production by neutrophils was stimulated by live trichomonads. These results indicate that the production of superoxide anions and MPO by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis may be a part of defense mechanisms of neutrophils in trichomoniasis.

  5. Correlation of Leukorrhea and Trichomonas vaginalis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, David E.; Nolte, Frederick S.

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) causing vaginitis. Microscopy has poor sensitivity but is used for diagnosis of trichomoniasis in resource-poor settings. We aimed to provide a more reliable diagnosis of trichomoniasis by investigating an association with leukorrhea. Women presenting for evaluation of vaginal discharge, STI exposure, or preventative gynecologic examination were evaluated for Trichomonas infection. Vaginal pH was determined and microscopy was performed by the provider, who recorded the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) per epithelial cell and the presence of clue cells, yeast, and/or motile trichomonads. Leukorrhea was defined as greater than one PMNL per epithelial cell. Culture and a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were used to detect T. vaginalis. Patients were evaluated for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using NAATs and bacterial vaginosis using Gram stains. Two hundred ninety-four women were enrolled, and 16% were found to have Trichomonas (46/294). Trichomonas infection was more common in parous non-Hispanic, black women, who reported low rates of contraceptive use (33% versus 17%; P = 0.02) and a STI history (85% versus 55%; P = 0.002). These women were more likely to report vaginal discharge (76% versus 59%; P = 0.02) and have an elevated vaginal pH (87% versus 48%; P Trichomonas infection. Leukorrhea on microscopy was associated with Trichomonas vaginitis. Patients with leukorrhea should be evaluated with more-sensitive tests for T. vaginalis, preferably NAATs, if microscopy is negative. PMID:23678058

  6. Imaging of mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis testis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, M. [University of Trieste, Department of Radiology, Trieste (Italy); Boulay-Coletta, I. [Fondation Hopital Saint Joseph, Service d' Imagerie Medical, Paris (France); Butini, R. [Ospedale S. Giacomo, Department of Radiology, Castelfranco Veneto, TV (Italy); Dudea, S.M. [Univ. Med. Pharm. ' ' Iuliu Hatieganu' ' , Department of Radiology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Grenier, N. [Pellegrin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bordeaux (France); Oltmanns, G. [University Hospital of North Norway, Department of Radiology, Tromsoe (Norway); Ramchandani, P. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Stein, M.W. [Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Valentino, M. [Sant' Antonio Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tolmezzo, UD (Italy); Derchi, Lorenzo E. [University of Genoa, Department of Health Sciences, Genova (Italy); IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino IST, Radiologia d' Urgenza, Genova (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    To describe the imaging findings in a series of patients with mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. We reviewed clinical data, imaging findings and follow-up information in a series of 10 pathology-proven cases of mesothelioma (all had US; 2 had MR) of the tunica vaginalis. A variety of patterns could be observed, the most common (5/10) being a hydrocele with parietal, solid and hypervascular vegetations; one patient had a septated hydrocele with hypervascular walls; one had multiple, solid nodules surrounded by a small, physiological quantity of fluid; one a cystic lesion with thick walls and vegetations compressing the testis; two had a solid paratesticular mass. MR showed multiple small nodules on the surface of the tunica vaginalis in one case and diffuse thickening and vegetations in the other one; lesions had low signal intensity on T2-w images and were hypervascular after contrast injection. A preoperative diagnosis of mesotheliomas presenting as solid paratesticular masses seems very difficult with imaging. On the contrary, the diagnosis must be considered in patients in whom a hydrocele with parietal vegetations is detected, especially if these show high vascularity. (orig.)

  7. prevalence of trichomonas vaginalis among the sexual partners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among the sexual partners of women with Trichomoniasis. While 103 female patients were found to have T. vaginalis using both direct wet mount microscopy and culture, only 44(42.7%) male contacts reported for screening. Trichomonas ...

  8. Strategies for Prevention and Treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchemal, Kawthar; Bories, Christian; Loiseau, Philippe M

    2017-07-01

    The last estimated annual incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis worldwide exceeds that of chlamydia and gonorrhea combined. This critical review updates the state of the art on advances in T. vaginalis diagnostics and strategies for treatment and prevention of trichomoniasis. In particular, new data on treatment outcomes for topical administration of formulations are reviewed and discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Angelica E; Pinto, Valdir M; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15-24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7-10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR=4.70 (95% CI: 1.63-13.56, p=0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR=5.15 (95% CI: 1.15-23.25, p=0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Insights into the CRISPR/Cas system of Gardnerella vaginalis

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    Pleckaityte Milda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gardnerella vaginalis is identified as the predominant colonist of the vaginal tracts of women diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis (BV. G. vaginalis can be isolated from healthy women, and an asymptomatic BV state is also recognised. The association of G. vaginalis with different clinical phenotypes could be explained by different cytotoxicity of the strains, presumably based on disparate gene content. The contribution of horizontal gene transfer to shaping the genomes of G. vaginalis is acknowledged. The CRISPR loci of the recently discovered CRISPR/Cas microbial defence system provide a historical view of the exposure of prokaryotes to a variety of foreign genetic elements. Results The CRISPR/Cas loci were analysed using available sequence data from three G. vaginalis complete genomes and 18 G. vaginalis draft genomes in the NCBI database, as well as PCR amplicons of the genomic DNA of 17 clinical isolates. The cas genes in the CRISPR/Cas loci of G. vaginalis belong to the E. coli subtype. Approximately 20% of the spacers had matches in the GenBank database. Sequence analysis of the CRISPR arrays revealed that nearly half of the spacers matched G. vaginalis chromosomal sequences. The spacers that matched G. vaginalis chromosomal sequences were determined to not be self-targeting and were presumably neither constituents of mobile-element-associated genes nor derived from plasmids/viruses. The protospacers targeted by these spacers displayed conserved protospacer-adjacent motifs. Conclusions The CRISPR/Cas system has been identified in about one half of the analysed G. vaginalis strains. Our analysis of CRISPR sequences did not reveal a potential link between their presence and the virulence of the G. vaginalis strains. Based on the origins of the spacers found in the G. vaginalis CRISPR arrays, we hypothesise that the transfer of genetic material among G. vaginalis strains could be regulated by the CRISPR/Cas mechanism. The

  11. Freeze-fracture study of Trichomonas vaginalis

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    Marlene Benchimol

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The freeze-fracture technique was used to analyse the organization of the plasma membrane, as well as membranes of cytoplasmic organelles, of the pathogenic protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Rosettes formed by 4 to 14 intramembranous particles were seen on the fracture faces of the membrane lining the anterior flagella as well as in fracture faces of the plasma membrane enclosing the anterior region of the protozoan and in cytoplasmic organelles. Special organization of the membrane particles were also seen in the region of association of the recurrent flagellum to the cell body.

  12. Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in genital disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaqchali, S; Wilks, M; Thin, R N

    1983-01-01

    In a study of Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in non-specific vaginitis (NSV) and other genital disease 89 patients attending a genital medicine clinic had vaginal samples examined for conventional pathogens and for quantitative analysis of G vaginalis and aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora. The overall incidence of G vaginalis was 20%; G vaginalis (mean concentration 7.0 log10/g of secretion) occurred predominantly in patients with NSV (57%) but also in sexual contacts of non-specific urethritis (NSU) (37.5%) and in patients with other conditions (11.8%). G vaginalis is therefore a relatively common isolate in patients with vaginal discharge. The concentration of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria ranged from 4.9-11.0 log10/g of secretion with an anaerobe-to-aerobe ratio of 10:1. Anaerobic bacteria, particularly anaerobic Gram-positive cocci (mean concentrations 7.7 log10/g), were present in patients with NSV and in association with G vaginalis, but they also occurred in other clinical groups and with other pathogens, particularly Trichomonas vaginalis. Anaerobic bacteria may therefore play an important role in the pathogenesis of vaginal infections. PMID:6600955

  13. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in Hamadan City, Western Iran

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    M Fallah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs in humans. The prevalence of infection in Iran has been reported between 2 to 8%, depending on deferent socio-cultural conditions. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis in women referred to gynecologic clinics in Hamadan city, West of Iran.Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 750 women who referred to Gyneco­logic clinics in Hamadan from November 2010 to July 2011. Vaginal samples were obtained from them and examined by wet mount and culture methods for the detection of T. vaginalis.Results: Sixteen out of 750 vaginal swab specimens (2.1% were culture positive for T. vaginalis and 13 of these positive specimens (1.7% were wet mount positive. Only 12 of 42 patients who were clinically diagnosed as having T. vaginalis infection, confirmed by culture method. Five hundred and fifty of the participants women (73.3% had at least one of signs and symptoms of trichomoniasis. No statistical correlation was observed between clinical manifestations and parasitological results (p>0.05.Conclusion: This study showed low prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in the study population. Since clinical signs of trichomonal vaginitis are the same of other STDs, a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis is necessary. Wet smear as well as culture are sensitive for detection of T. vaginalis.

  14. Neutrophils kill the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis using trogocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Frances; Ng, Shek Hang; Brown, Taylor M.; Boatman, Grace; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2018-01-01

    T. vaginalis, a human-infective parasite, causes the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide and contributes to adverse inflammatory disorders. The immune response to T. vaginalis is poorly understood. Neutrophils (polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs]) are the major immune cell present at the T. vaginalis–host interface and are thought to clear T. vaginalis. However, the mechanism of PMN clearance of T. vaginalis has not been characterized. We demonstrate that human PMNs rapidly kill T. vaginalis in a dose-dependent, contact-dependent, and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)-independent manner. In contrast to phagocytosis, we observed that PMN killing of T. vaginalis involves taking “bites” of T. vaginalis prior to parasite death, using trogocytosis to achieve pathogen killing. Both trogocytosis and parasite killing are dependent on the presence of PMN serine proteases and human serum factors. Our analyses provide the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of a mammalian phagocyte using trogocytosis for pathogen clearance and reveal a novel mechanism used by PMNs to kill a large, highly motile target. PMID:29408891

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis: Clinical relevance, pathogenicity and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Burke, Patricia; Smalley, Helen; Hobbs, Glyn

    2016-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Trichomoniasis is a widespread, global health concern and occurring at an increasing rate. Infections of the female genital tract can cause a range of symptoms, including vaginitis and cervicitis, while infections in males are generally asymptomatic. The relatively mild symptoms, and lack of evidence for any serious sequelae, have historically led to this disease being under diagnosed, and under researched. However, growing evidence that T. vaginalis infection is associated with other disease states with high morbidity in both men and women has increased the efforts to diagnose and treat patients harboring this parasite. The pathology of trichomoniasis results from damage to the host epithelia, caused by a variety of processes during infection and recent work has highlighted the complex interactions between the parasite and host, commensal microbiome and accompanying symbionts. The commercial release of a number of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) has added to the available diagnostic options. Immunoassay based Point of Care testing is currently available, and a recent initial evaluation of a NAAT Point of Care system has given promising results, which would enable testing and treatment in a single visit.

  16. Genetic variance of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates by Southern hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Jae-Sook; Min, Duk-Young; Shin, Myeong-Heon; Cho, Youl-Hee

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, genomic DNAs were purified from Korean isolates (KT8, KT6, KT-Kim and KT-Lee) and foreign strains (CDC85, IR78 and NYH 286) of Trichomonas vaginalis, and hybridized with a probe based on the repetitive sequence cloned from T. vaginalis to observe the genetic differences. By Southern hybridization, all isolates of T. vaginalis except the NYH286 strain had 11 bands. Therefore all isolates examined were distinguishable into 3 groups according to their banding patterns; i) K...

  17. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  18. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Trichomonas vaginalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR HUMPHREY

    Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasitic infection known ... Humans are the only known definitive host of the parasite and infected ... Convenient sampling was used to select pregnant women, in which all pregnant.

  19. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States as Determined by the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, K.; Smith, J. S.; Aslanzadeh, J.; Snook, J.; Hill, C. S.; Gaydos, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to determine Trichomonas vaginalis prevalence using the Aptima Trichomonas vaginalis assay (ATV; Gen-Probe) and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfections in U.S. women undergoing screening for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae. Discarded urogenital samples from 7,593 women (18 to 89 years old) undergoing C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae screening using the Aptima Combo 2 assay (Gen-Probe) in various clinical settings were tested with ATV. Overall, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis, and N. gonorrhoeae prevalences were 8.7%, 6.7%, and 1.7%, respectively. T. vaginalis was more prevalent than C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae in all age groups except the 18- to 19-year-old group. The highest T. vaginalis prevalence was in women ≥40 years old (>11%), while the highest C. trachomatis prevalence (9.2%) and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence (2.2%) were in women vaginalis, 0.61% for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae and N. gonorrhoeae/T. vaginalis, and 0.24% for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae/T. vaginalis and highest in women vaginalis prevalence differed by race/ethnicity, with the highest prevalence in black women (20.2%). T. vaginalis prevalence ranged from 5.4% in family planning clinics to 22.3% in jails. Multivariate analysis determined that ages of ≥40 years, black race, and patient locations were significantly associated with T. vaginalis infection. T. vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in women of >40 years, while C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence is lowest in that age group. Higher T. vaginalis prevalence in women of >40 years is probably attributed to the reason for testing, i.e., symptomatic status versus routine screening in younger women. Coinfections were relatively low. High T. vaginalis prevalence in all age groups suggests that women screened for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae, whether asymptomatic or symptomatic, should be screened for T. vaginalis. PMID:22622447

  20. Histamine and TNF-α release by rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated with Trichomonas vaginalis

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    Im S.J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in the vaginal smears of patients infected with T. vaginalis. In this study, we investigated whether T. vaginalis could induce mast cells to migrate and to produce TNF-α and histamine. Rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC, a primary mast cell, were used for the study. T. vaginalis induced an increase in chemotactic migration of the mast cells toward excretory and secretory product (ESP of T. vaginalis, and the mast cells activated with T. vaginalis showed an increased release of histamine and TNF-α. Therefore, mast cells may be involved in the inflammatory response caused by T. vaginalis.

  1. An update on Gardneralla vaginalis associated bacterial vaginosis in Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nada Khairi Younus; Renu Gopinath; Ravindran Jegasothy; Syafinaz Amin Nordin; Alex van Belkum; Narcisse Mary; Vasantha Kumari Neela

    2017-01-01

    Objeetive:To update the status of Gardnerella vaginalis (G.vaginalis) as a causative agent of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in Malaysia and to define its epidemiology,metronidazole resistance and virulence properties.Methods:It is a single-centre (Gynaecology clinic at the Hospital Kuala Lumpur,Malaysia) prospective study with laboratory-based microbiological follow up and analyses.Vaginal swabs collected from the patients suspected for BV were subjected to clinical BV diagnosis,isolation and identification of G.vaginalis,metronidazole susceptibility testing,vaginolysin and sialidase gene PCR,Piot's biotyping and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis genotyping.Results:Among the 207 patients suspected for BV,G.vaginalis was isolated from 47 subjects.G.vaginalis coexisted with Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans in 26 samples.Three G.vaginalis isolates were resistant to metronidazole.Biotyping revealed 1 and 7 as the common types.Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis genotype Ⅱ was found to be more common (n =22;46%) than Ⅰ (n =12;25.53%) and Ⅲ (n =13;27.6%).All genotype Ⅰ and Ⅲ isolates carried the sialidase gene,while 91.6% and 84.6% contained the vaginolysin gene.Genotype Ⅰ was significantly associated with postgynaecological surgical complications and abortions (P =0.002).Conclusions:The existence of pathogenic G.vaginalis clones in Malaysia including drug resistant strains should not be taken lightly and needs to be monitored as these may bring more complications especially among women of child bearing age and pregnant women.

  2. Effect of Chaerophyllum macropodum extracts on Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabari Maryam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis is a protozoan parasite causing trichomoniasis or trichomonal vaginitis. The infection is considered as non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD. Metronidazole and Tinidazole are now the drugs of choice for the treatment of this infection. However, resistant to these drugs has also been reported. So it is necessary to search for effective alternative drugs with fewer side effects. Chaerophyllum macropodum (C. macropodum plant have been used against some parasites. Therefore, in this study the effects of different extracts of this plant on T. vaginalis in culture media have been investigated. Methods: In this experimental study hydro-ethanol extracts of C. macropodum leaves were prepared. Anti-T. vaginalis activities of the extracts were tested in concentrations of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 40, 50, 60, 80, 100 and 150 mg/ml following 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation of cultured media. Results: All extract concentrations showed some degrees of growth inhibition activity on T. vaginalis. However crude extract was more efficient. Conclusion: C. macropodum showed an anti-T. vaginalis activity. More investigations are recommended to use this plant as an antiparasitic drug.

  3. Crown sheath rot of rice: host-range and varietal resistance to Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília do Nascimento Peixoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several gramineous plants occurring in rice fields show symptoms of crown sheath rot of rice, caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis (Ggg, under natural conditions of infection. The pathogenicity of the Ggg-a 01 isolate, collected from rice, was tested on seven grass species and eight cereals, under greenhouse conditions, in order to get information on host-range and resistance of rice genotypes to crown sheath rot. The inoculation tests showed that the rice isolate was pathogenic to weeds such as Echinochloa crusgalli, Pennisetum setosum, Brachiaria sp., Digitaria horizontalis, Brachiaria plantaginea, Eleusine indica and Cenchrus echinatus, and that these species are potential hosts to the pathogen. Winter cereals such as wheat, oat, rye, barley and triticale, as well as sorghum, maize and millet, presented different degrees of susceptibility to the Ggg-a isolate. Significant differences were observed in relation to lesion height and production of hyphopodia and perithecia on culms. Perithecia were not observed on millet, sorghum, southern sandbur and maize. The resistance of 58 upland rice genotypes was tested, and the SCIA16 and SCIA08 genotypes presented lesion height significantly smaller, being considered resistant, when compared to the highly susceptible CNAS10351 genotype.

  4. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) induces apoptosis in Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Mohsen; Delavari, Mahdi; Fakhrieh Kashan, Zohre; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hooshyar, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted protozoan diseases in the worldwide. Metronidazole is the choice drug for trichomoniasis treatment, however, metronidazole resistant Trichomonas vaginalis ( T.vaginalis ) has been reported. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and Zingiber officinale (Ginger ) is widely used ingredient in the traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of the ginger ethanol extract on the growth of T.vaginalis trophozoites in vitro. In this experimental study, 970 women who were attend in Kashan health centers were examined for T. vaginalis . Of them, 23 samples were infected with T.vaginalis . Three T. vaginalis isolates were cultured in a TYI-S-33 medium. The effect of ginger ethanol extracts and its toxicity in different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml) on mouse macrophages were measured in triplicate exam by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The effect of ginger on apoptosis induction was determined by Flow cytometry. The IC 50 of ginger and metronidazole were 93.8 and 0.0326 µg/ml, respectively. 12, 24 and 48 hr after adding different concentrations of extract on mouse macrophages, fatality rates in maximum dose (800 µg/ml) were 0.19, 0.26 and 0.31 respectively. Flow cytometry results showed the apoptosis rate following treatment with different concentrations of the extract after 48 hr were 17, 28.5, 42.1, 58.8, 76.3 and 100% respectively, while in the control group was 2.9%. Ginger ethanol extract induces programmed death in T. vaginalis . It is recommended that due to the known teratogenic effect of metronidazole, ginger can be considered as an alternative drug for metronidazole.

  5. Influência do orvalho e volume de calda de aplicação na eficácia do glyphosate na dessecação de Brachiaria plantaginea Influence of dew and spray volume on the efficacy of glyphosate for Brachiaria plantaginea burndown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Roman

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A eficácia de herbicidas é influenciada por diversos fatores que afetam a absorção e a translocação desses compostos na planta. A absorção de herbicidas pelas plantas, por exemplo, é influenciada, tanto física como biologicamente, pela temperatura e pela umidade relativa do ar dentro do dossel. Com a diminuição da umidade relativa do ar e/ou com o aumento da temperatura, as gotas da pulverização secam mais rapidamente e a absorção do produto diminui, ou até mesmo cessa, afetando o desempenho biológico. Com base nessa premissa, o presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar a influência do orvalho e do volume de calda de aplicação na eficiência de doses de glyphosate para o controle de Brachiaria plantaginea. Foram observadas interações significativas entre volume de calda, orvalho e dose de glyphosate. O volume mais baixo (100 L ha-1 resultou em melhor controle da espécie, especialmente quando o herbicida foi usado na menor dose (90 g ha-1. A presença de orvalho nas folhas causou reduções na atividade do produto, especialmente quando aplicado na menor dose e combinado com maior volume de calda.The efficacy of herbicides is influenced by several factors affecting the absorption and translocation of these compounds in the plant. Herbicide plant absorption, for example, is both physically and biologically influenced by temperature and air relative humidity in the plant canopy. With the reduction in relative air humidity and/or increase in temperature, the spray droplets dry more rapidly and the absorption of the herbicide decreases or even stops, affecting the biological performance. Based on that, this research aimed to study the influence of dew and spray volume on the efficacy of glyphosate rates in the control of B. plantaginea. There were significant interactions among volume of water, dew and rate of glyphosate. The lower the water volume, the more effective the glyphosate activity was, especially when applied at

  6. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...... hundrede år var blevet fortalt mundtligt videre på egnen, og hun forsøgte – med forskellige midler – at få bragt denne version af historien frem i offentligheden....

  7. Paulus var kristendommens Lenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro.......En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro....

  8. Molecular typing of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates by actin gene sequence analysis and carriage of T. vaginalis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masha, Simon C; Cools, Piet; Crucitti, Tania; Sanders, Eduard J; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2017-10-30

    The protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted pathogen. Although T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among women in Kenya, there is lack of data regarding genetic diversity of isolates currently in circulation in Kenya. Typing was performed on 22 clinical isolates of T. vaginalis collected from women attending the antenatal care clinic at Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya, in 2015. Genotyping followed a previously proposed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) scheme, which involved in silico cleavage of the amplified actin gene by HindII, MseI and RsaI restriction enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis of all the sequences was performed to confirm the results obtained by RFLP-analysis and to assess the diversity within the RFLP genotypes. Additionally, we determined carriage of the four different types of Trichomonas vaginalis viruses (TVVs) by polymerase chain reaction. In silico RFLP-analysis revealed five actin genotypes; 50.0% of the isolates were of actin genotype E, 27.3% of actin genotype N, 13.6% of actin genotype G and 4.5% of actin genotypes I and P. Phylogenetic analysis was in agreement with the RFLP-analysis, with the different actin genotypes clustering together. Prevalence of TVVs was 43.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: 23.2-65.5). TVV1 was the most prevalent, present in 39.1% of the strains and 90% of the T. vaginalis isolates which harbored TVVs had more than one type of TVV. None of the isolates of actin genotype E harbored any TVV. The presence of five actin genotypes in our study suggests notable diversity among T. vaginalis isolates occurring among pregnant women in Kilifi, Kenya. Isolates of the most prevalent actin genotype E lacked TVVs. We found no association between T. vaginalis genotype, carriage of TVVs and symptoms. Further studies with higher number of strains should be conducted in order to corroborate these results.

  9. Molecular typing of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates by actin gene sequence analysis and carriage of T. vaginalis viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Masha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted pathogen. Although T. vaginalis is highly prevalent among women in Kenya, there is lack of data regarding genetic diversity of isolates currently in circulation in Kenya. Methods Typing was performed on 22 clinical isolates of T. vaginalis collected from women attending the antenatal care clinic at Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya, in 2015. Genotyping followed a previously proposed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP scheme, which involved in silico cleavage of the amplified actin gene by HindII, MseI and RsaI restriction enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis of all the sequences was performed to confirm the results obtained by RFLP-analysis and to assess the diversity within the RFLP genotypes. Additionally, we determined carriage of the four different types of Trichomonas vaginalis viruses (TVVs by polymerase chain reaction. Results In silico RFLP-analysis revealed five actin genotypes; 50.0% of the isolates were of actin genotype E, 27.3% of actin genotype N, 13.6% of actin genotype G and 4.5% of actin genotypes I and P. Phylogenetic analysis was in agreement with the RFLP-analysis, with the different actin genotypes clustering together. Prevalence of TVVs was 43.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: 23.2–65.5. TVV1 was the most prevalent, present in 39.1% of the strains and 90% of the T. vaginalis isolates which harbored TVVs had more than one type of TVV. None of the isolates of actin genotype E harbored any TVV. Conclusion The presence of five actin genotypes in our study suggests notable diversity among T. vaginalis isolates occurring among pregnant women in Kilifi, Kenya. Isolates of the most prevalent actin genotype E lacked TVVs. We found no association between T. vaginalis genotype, carriage of TVVs and symptoms. Further studies with higher number of strains should be conducted in order to corroborate these results.

  10. Contact-dependent cytopathogenic mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, J.N.; Ravdin, J.I.; Rein, M.F.

    1985-12-01

    The cytopathogenic mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis have been debated since the 1940s. We examined the following three proposed pathogenic mechanisms: contact-dependent extracellular killing, cytophagocytosis, and extracellular cytotoxins. Serial observations of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell monolayers exposed to trichomonads revealed that (i) trichomonads form clumps, (ii) the clumps adhere to cells in culture, and (iii) monolayer destruction occurs only in areas of contact with T. vaginalis. Kinetic analysis of target cell killing by trichomonads revealed that the probability of CHO cell death was related to the probability of contact with T. vaginalis, supporting the observation by microscopy that trichomonads kill cells only by direct contact. Simultaneous studies of /sup 111/indium oxine label release from CHO cells and trypan blue dye exclusion demonstrated that T. vaginalis kills target cells without phagocytosis. Filtrates of trichomonad cultures or from media in which trichomonads were killing CHO cells had no effect on CHO cell monolayers, indicating that trichomonads do not kill cells by a cell-free or secreted cytotoxin. The microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin D (10 micrograms/ml) inhibited trichomonad killing of CHO cell monolayers by 80% (P less than 0.0001). In contrast, the microtubule inhibitor vinblastine (10(-6) M) caused only 17% inhibition of trichomonad destruction of CHO cell monolayers (P less than 0.020), whereas colchicine (10(-6) M) had no effect. T. vaginalis kills target cells by direct contact without phagocytosis. This event requires intact trichomonad microfilament function; microtubule function appears not to be essential.

  11. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa E. Figueroa-Angulo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  12. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-11-26

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis.

  13. Potential of synthetic endoperoxides against Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Young; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Sato, Akira; Kurosaki, Yuji; Chang, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Hye-Sook

    2017-10-01

    Metronidazole is well known for medicine against Trichomonas vaginalis infection, but it has side effects though it is effective, and especially because reports of metronidazole-tolerant species are increasing, the development of new medicine is being required. Here, we noticed the killing effects of endoperoxide compounds, N-89 and N-251 as new antimalarial drug candidates, on T. vaginalis and searched the possibility of development of new medicine. We added each of metronidazole, artemisinin, and two of new endoperoxides (N-89 and N-251) to metronidazole-resistant and -sensitive species and compared its anti-trichomonal efficacy. For metronidazole, IC 50 value, 50% of killing concentration for T. vaginalis, was very low for metronidazole-sensitive isolates (11.7 to 22.8μM), but was high for metronidazole-resistant ones (182.9 to 730.4μM). The IC 50 values of N-89 and N-251 were 41.0 to 60.0μM, and 82.0 to 300.0μM for metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant isolates, respectively. In conclusion, we found the endoperoxides, N-89 and N-251, have anti-trichomonal effect against metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis as well as metronidazole-sensitive ones. These results indicate that the anti-trichomonal effects for our endoperoxides are equivalent or better in metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis in comparison to metronidazole. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Contact-dependent cytopathogenic mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, J.N.; Ravdin, J.I.; Rein, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    The cytopathogenic mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis have been debated since the 1940s. We examined the following three proposed pathogenic mechanisms: contact-dependent extracellular killing, cytophagocytosis, and extracellular cytotoxins. Serial observations of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell monolayers exposed to trichomonads revealed that (i) trichomonads form clumps, (ii) the clumps adhere to cells in culture, and (iii) monolayer destruction occurs only in areas of contact with T. vaginalis. Kinetic analysis of target cell killing by trichomonads revealed that the probability of CHO cell death was related to the probability of contact with T. vaginalis, supporting the observation by microscopy that trichomonads kill cells only by direct contact. Simultaneous studies of 111 indium oxine label release from CHO cells and trypan blue dye exclusion demonstrated that T. vaginalis kills target cells without phagocytosis. Filtrates of trichomonad cultures or from media in which trichomonads were killing CHO cells had no effect on CHO cell monolayers, indicating that trichomonads do not kill cells by a cell-free or secreted cytotoxin. The microfilament inhibitor cytochalasin D (10 micrograms/ml) inhibited trichomonad killing of CHO cell monolayers by 80% (P less than 0.0001). In contrast, the microtubule inhibitor vinblastine (10(-6) M) caused only 17% inhibition of trichomonad destruction of CHO cell monolayers (P less than 0.020), whereas colchicine (10(-6) M) had no effect. T. vaginalis kills target cells by direct contact without phagocytosis. This event requires intact trichomonad microfilament function; microtubule function appears not to be essential

  15. Prevalencia de Trichomonas vaginalis en trabajadores sexuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Salomón

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La tricomoniasis es una infección de transmisión sexual (ITS que se asocia a vaginitis, uretritis, cervicitis y enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica pudiendo producir infertilidad tubárica. El objetivo de este trabajo, de tipo retrospectivo longitudinal, fue determinar la prevalencia de Trichomonas vaginalis en una población de trabajadores sexuales en Mendoza, Argentina. Se estudió en forma retrospectiva una población de 720 personas asistidas por el Programa Provincial de ITS de Mendoza. Entre febrero de 2007 y junio de 2009 se procesaron 1692 muestras con un muestreo por reposición. La distribución por sexo fue de 687 mujeres y 33 varones con edades comprendidas entre 15 y 65 años. La prevalencia de tricomoniasis determinada en esta población en riesgo fue de 7.6% para las mujeres, sin encontrarse infecciones en el grupo de los hombres. La prevalencia hallada en este grupo en riesgo muestra una población con alta vulnerabilidad para contraer otras ITS de mayor gravedad. En otro sentido, sugiere una importante falta de adhesión al uso de barreras mecánicas para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual. Este trabajo justifica la elaboración de una guía de procedimientos para el manejo de la infección por tricomonas en el marco del Programa de Salud Reproductiva (PROSAR.

  16. Trichomonas vaginalis perturbs the junctional complex in epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a protist parasite of the urogenital tract in humans, is the causative agent of trichomonosis,which in recent years have been associated with the cervical cancer development. In the present study we analyzed the modifications at the junctional complex level of Caco-2 cells after interaction with two isolates of T. vaginalis and the influence of the iron concentration present in the parasite's culture medium on the interaction effects. Our results show that T. vaginalis adheres to the epithelial cell causing alterations in the junctional complex, such as: (a) a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance; (b) alteration in the pattern of junctional complex proteins distribution as obseryed for E-cadherin, occludin and ZO-1; and (c) enlargement of the spaces between epithelial cells. These effects were dependent on (a) the degree of the parasite virulence isolate, (b) the iron concentration in the culture medium, and (c) the expression of adhesin proteins on the parasite surface.

  17. Trichomonas vaginalis - an indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases and 68 men counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female SID cases′ and in 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 216 cases of T.vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with infection with Candida species; 29 (23% with Neisseria gonorrhoea. 18 cases (14.3% with Haemophilus ducreyi and 11 cases (8.7%, Chlamydia trachomatis. Treponema pallidum was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constituted a low percentage. Present study highlighted the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-third cases which suggested that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  18. The problem of resistant Trichomonas vaginalis to antiprotozoal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Poznyak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review presents recent data on the energy metabolism of Trichomonas vaginalis and ways the activation of metronidazole. The sensitivity of microorganisms to the 5-nitroimidazole by the presence of their enzyme systems, generating and transporting electrons, which can then transfer them to the nitro group of the drug. In T.vaginalis these are pyruvate ferredoxin-oxydoreductase, thioredoxin reductase and flavin reductase. The development of resistance T.vaginalis to metronidazole preparations of this multistep process, based on the gradual reduction (up to a loss activity hydrogenosomal enzymes and / or violation of the flavindependent metabolic pathways.

  19. Hemolytic activity of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo A De Carli

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The hemolytic activity of live isolates and clones of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus was investigated. The isolates were tested against human erythrocytes. No hemolytic activity was detected by the isolates of T. foetus. Whereas the isolates of T. vaginalis lysed erythrocytes from all human blood groups. No hemolysin released by the parasites could be detected. Our preliminary results suggest that hemolysis depend on the susceptibility of red cell membranes to destabilization and the intervention of cell surface receptors as a mechanism of the hemolytic activity. The mechanism could be subject to strain-species-genera specific variation of trichomonads. The hemolytic activity of T. vaginalis is not due to a hemolysin or to a product of its metabolism. Pretreatment of trichomonads with concanavalin A reduced levels of hemolysis by 40%.

  20. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Women Visiting 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Daegu, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Lee, Won-Myung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-02-01

    This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease.

  1. Trichomonas vaginalis Metalloproteinase Induces mTOR Cleavage of SiHa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Yang, Jung-Bo; Zhou, Wei; Cha, Guang-Ho; Zhou, Yu; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis secretes a number of proteases which are suspected to be the cause of pathogenesis; however, little is understood how they manipulate host cells. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell motility, cell survival, protein synthesis, and transcription. We detected various types of metalloproteinases including GP63 protein from T. vaginalis trophozoites, and T. vaginalis GP63 metalloproteinase was confirmed by sequencing and western blot. When SiHa cells were stimulated with live T. vaginalis, T. vaginalis excretory-secretory products (ESP) or T. vaginalis lysate, live T. vaginalis and T. vaginalis ESP induced the mTOR cleavage in both time- and parasite load-dependent manner, but T. vaginalis lysate did not. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with a metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1,10-phenanthroline, completely disappeared the mTOR cleavage in SiHa cells. Collectively, T. vaginalis metallopeptidase induces host cell mTOR cleavage, which may be related to survival of the parasite. PMID:25548410

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis surface proteins: a view from the genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirt, R. P.; Noel, C. J.; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Surface proteins of mucosal microbial pathogens play multiple and essential roles in initiating and sustaining the colonization of the heavily defended mucosa. The protist Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common human sexually transmitted pathogens that colonize the urogenital mucosa....... However, little is known about its surface proteins. The recently completed draft genome sequence of T. vaginalis provides an invaluable resource to guide molecular and cellular characterization of surface proteins and to investigate their role in pathogenicity. Here, we review the existing data on T...

  3. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis in the general population of Granada and co-infections with Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Ávila, José Antonio; Serrano-García, María Luisa; Fernández-Parra, Jorge; Sorlózano-Puerto, Antonio; Navarro-Marí, José María; Stensvold, C Rune; Gutiérrez-Fernández, Jose

    2017-10-01

    Purulent or exudative genitourinary infections are a frequent cause of consultation in primary and specialized healthcare. The objectives of this study were: to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and co-infections with Candida spp. and Gardnerella vaginalis in vaginal secretion; and to use multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to analyse the genetic diversity of T. vaginalis strains. The samples were submitted for analysis (n=5230) to a third-level hospital in Granada (Southern Spain) between 2011 and 2014; eight T. vaginalis strains isolated during 2015 were randomly selected for MLST analysis. Culture and nucleic acid hybridization techniques were used to detect microorganisms in the samples. The prevalence of T. vaginalis was 2.4 % between 2011 and 2014, being higher during the first few months of both 2011 and 2012. Among samples positive for T. vaginalis, co-infection with G. vaginalis was detected in 29 samples and co-infection with Candida spp. in 6, while co-infection with all three pathogens was observed in 3 samples. The only statistically significant between-year difference in co-infection rates was observed for T. vaginalis with G. vaginalis due to an elevated rate in 2011. MLST analysis results demonstrated a high genetic variability among strains circulating in our setting. These findings emphasize the need for the routine application of diagnostic procedures to avoid the spread of this sexually transmitted infection.

  4. Frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis in cervical-vaginal smears in four different decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Jorge Adad

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Vaginitis is one of the principal motives that lead women to seek out an obstetrician or gynecologist. Bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis are responsible for 90% of the cases of infectious vaginitis. OBJECTIVE: To verify the frequency of the three main causative agents of vaginitis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis, in four different decades (1960's, 1970's, 1980's and 1990's. DESIGN: Retrospective. PLACE: A tertiary referral center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients attended to as gynecology and obstetrics outpatients at the Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro during the years 1968, 1978, 1988, 1998, taken as samples of each decade. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Diagnoses of infection by Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida sp and Gardnerella vaginalis were gathered from 20,356 cervical-vaginal cytology tests on patients attended to as gynecology outpatients at Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro during the years 1968, 1978, 1988, 1998, representing the four decades. The results were grouped according to the age group of the patients: under 20, between 20 and 29, between 30 and 39, between 40 and 49, and 50 or over. Statistical analysis was done via the chi-squared (Mantel-Haentzel test with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: In 1968 infections by Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida sp were diagnosed in 10% and 0.5% of the cytology tests and in 1978, 5.1% and 17.3%, respectively (P < 0.0001. Infection by Gardnerella vaginalis could only be evaluated in the latter two decades. In 1988, 19.8% of the women had positive tests for Gardnerella vaginalis, which was the most frequent agent in that year, diminishing in the subsequent decade to 15.9% (P < 0.0001. Candidiasis was the most frequent infection in 1998, detected in 22.5% of the tests (P < 0.0001. In a general manner, all the infections were most frequent among younger patients, especially those aged under 20, in all decades, whereas infections were

  5. Trichomonas Vaginalis infection among women in Ikwuano Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    that promote the transmission of Trichomonas vaginalis among women of Ikwuano in Abia State using high vaginal swab and ... to marital status, single women had the highest (19.72%). While widows .... see sex as a business and means of using what they have to set ... for better academic performance and also among.

  6. Trichomonas Vaginalis infection among women in Ikwuano Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study on Trichomoniasis was conducted to determine the prevalence, symptoms and factors that promote the transmission of Trichomonas vaginalis among women of Ikwuano in Abia State using high vaginal swab and urine samples. A total of 600 women aged between 14-60years were examined and 112 (18.67%) ...

  7. Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlton, Jane M.; Hirt, Robert P.; Silva, Joana C.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the genome sequence of the protist Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted human pathogen. Repeats and transposable elements comprise about two-thirds of the approximately 160-megabase genome, reflecting a recent massive expansion of genetic material. This expansion...... environment. The genome sequence predicts previously unknown functions for the hydrogenosome, which support a common evolutionary origin of this unusual organelle with mitochondria....

  8. Trichomonas vaginalis: pathogenicity and potential role in human reproductive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielczarek, Ewelina; Blaszkowska, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, which colonizes the genitourinary tract of men and women, is a sexually transmitted parasite causing symptomatic or asymptomatic trichomoniasis. The host-parasite relationship is very complex, and clinical symptoms cannot likely be attributed to a single pathogenic effect. Among the many factors responsible for interactions between T. vaginalis and host tissues, contact-dependent and contact-independent mechanisms are important in pathogenicity, as is the immune response. This review focuses on the potential virulence properties of T. vaginalis and its role in female and male infertility. It highlights the association between T. vaginalis infection and serious adverse health consequences experienced by women, including infertility, preterm birth and low-birth-weight infants. Long-term clinical observations and results of in vitro experimental studies indicate that in men, trichomoniasis has been also associated with infertility through inflammatory damage to the genitourinary tract or interference with sperm function. These results contribute significantly to improving our knowledge of the role of parasitic virulence factors in the development of infection and its role in human infertility.

  9. Unique Trichomonas vaginalis gene sequences identified in multinational regions of Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Feng, Meng; Wang, Xiaolan; Fu, Yongfeng; Ma, Cailing; Cheng, Xunjia

    2017-07-24

    Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects humans worldwide. This study determined the sequence of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene of T. vaginalis infecting both females and males in Xinjiang, China. Samples from 73 females and 28 males were collected and confirmed for infection with T. vaginalis, a total of 110 sequences were identified when the T. vaginalis 18S ribosomal RNA gene was sequenced. These sequences were used to prepare a phylogenetic network. The rooted network comprised three large clades and several independent branches. Most of the Xinjiang sequences were in one group. Preliminary results suggest that Xinjiang T. vaginalis isolates might be genetically unique, as indicated by the sequence of their 18S ribosomal RNA gene. Low migration rate of local people in this province may contribute to a genetic conservativeness of T. vaginalis. The unique genetic feature of our isolates may suggest a different clinical presentation of trichomoniasis, including metronidazole susceptibility, T. vaginalis virus or Mycoplasma co-infection characteristics. The transmission and evolution of Xinjiang T. vaginalis is of interest and should be studied further. More attention should be given to T. vaginalis infection in both females and males in Xinjiang.

  10. Epigenetics regulates transcription and pathogenesis in the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachano, Tomas; Nievas, Yesica R; Lizarraga, Ayelen; Johnson, Patricia J; Strobl-Mazzulla, Pablo H; de Miguel, Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Different T. vaginalis strains vary greatly in their adherence and cytolytic capacities. These phenotypic differences might be attributed to differentially expressed genes as a consequence of extra-genetic variation, such as epigenetic modifications. In this study, we explored the role of histone acetylation in regulating gene transcription and pathogenesis in T. vaginalis. Here, we show that histone 3 lysine acetylation (H3KAc) is enriched in nucleosomes positioned around the transcription start site of active genes (BAP1 and BAP2) in a highly adherent parasite strain; compared with the low acetylation abundance in contrast to that observed in a less-adherent strain that expresses these genes at low levels. Additionally, exposition of less-adherent strain with a specific histone deacetylases inhibitor, trichostatin A, upregulated the transcription of BAP1 and BAP2 genes in concomitance with an increase in H3KAc abundance and chromatin accessibility around their transcription start sites. Moreover, we demonstrated that the binding of initiator binding protein, the transcription factor responsible for the initiation of transcription of ~75% of known T. vaginalis genes, depends on the histone acetylation state around the metazoan-like initiator to which initiator binding protein binds. Finally, we found that trichostatin A treatment increased parasite aggregation and adherence to host cells. Our data demonstrated for the first time that H3KAc is a permissive histone modification that functions to mediate both transcription and pathogenesis of the parasite T. vaginalis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis. PMID:26393928

  12. A case of metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Georgina L; Drayton, Rachel; Forbes, Gavin D

    2016-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted protozoan infection resulting in vulvo-vaginitis and altered vaginal discharge in symptomatic women. Trichomoniasis has been implicated in causing adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight and pre-term labour. Metronidazole is the recommended first-line treatment for trichomonal infection. Other nitroimidazoles, such as tinidazole, are used as alternative regimens with similar activity but at a greater expense. Treatment failure usually represents patient non-compliance or re-infection, although metronidazole resistance has previously been documented. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for T. vaginalis is currently not available in the UK. Patients with disease unresponsive to first-line treatments pose a major challenge, as therapeutic options are limited. We present the case of a patient with presumed resistant infection during pregnancy, and the additional treatment issues that this presented. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Ferredoxin Gene Mutation in Iranian Trichomonas Vaginalis Isolates

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    Soudabeh Heidari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis causes trichomoniasis and metronidazole is its chosen drug for treatment. Ferredoxin has role in electron transport and carbohydrate metabolism and the conversion of an inactive form of metronidazole (CO to its active form (CPR. Ferredoxin gene mutations reduce gene expression and increase its resistance to metronidazole. In this study, the frequency of ferredoxin gene mutations in clinical isolates of T.vaginalis in Tehran has been studied.Methods: Forty six clinical T. vaginalis isolates of vaginal secretions and urine sediment were collected from Tehran Province since 2011 till 2012. DNA was extracted and ferredoxin gene was amplified by PCR technique. The ferredoxin gene PCR products were sequenced to determine gene mutations.Results: In four isolates (8.69% point mutation at nucleotide position -239 (the translation start codon of the ferredoxin gene were detected in which adenosine were converted to thymine.Conclusion: Mutation at nucleotide -239 ferredoxin gene reduces translational regulatory protein’s binding affinity which concludes reduction of ferredoxin expression. For this reduction, decrease in activity and decrease in metronidazole drug delivery into the cells occur. Mutations in these four isolates may lead to resistance of them to metronidazole.

  14. Sphingomyelinase Activity of Trichomonas vaginalis Extract and Subfractions

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    Francisco González-Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomoniasis is one of the most common acute sexually transmitted curable diseases, and it is disseminated worldwide generating more than 170 million cases annually. Trichomonas vaginalis is the parasite that causes trichomoniasis and has the ability to destroy cell monolayers of the vaginal mucosa in vitro. Sphingomyelinases (SMase are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin into ceramide and phosphorylcholine. Ceramide appears to be a second messenger lipid in programmed apoptosis, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Sphingomyelinase is probably a major source of ceramide in cells. Signal transduction mediated by ceramide leads cells to produce cytokine induced apoptosis during several inflammatory responses. SMase are also relevant toxins in several microorganisms. The main objective of this research is to identify SMase activity of T. vaginalis in the total extract (TE, P30, and S30 subfractions from brooked trophozoites. It was found that these fractions of T. vaginalis have SMase activity, which comes principally from P30 subfraction and was mainly type C. Enzymatic activity of SMase increased linearly with time and is pH dependent with two peaks by pH 5.5 and pH 7.5. The addition of manganese to the reaction mixture increased the SMase activity by 1.97.

  15. Activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against biofilm formation and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Negreiros Neto, Themístocles; Gardner, Dale; Hallwass, Fernando; Leite, Ana Jéssica Matias; de Almeida, Camila Guimarães; Silva, Laura Nunes; de Araújo Roque, Alan; de Bitencourt, Fernanda Gobbi; Barbosa, Euzébio Guimarães; Tasca, Tiana; Macedo, Alexandre José; de Almeida, Mauro Vieira; Giordani, Raquel Brandt

    2016-10-01

    Crotalaria genus belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae comprising about 600 species spread throughout tropical, neotropical and subtropical regions. In this study, seeds of Crolatalaria pallida were used to the isolation of usaramine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were utilized as strains to test some activities of this alkaloid, such as antibiofilm and antibacterial. Meanwhile, monocrotaline obtained from Crotalaria retusa seeds, was used as the starting material for synthesis of necine base derivatives with anti-Trichomonas vaginalis potential. Alkaloids were characterized by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and GC-MS analysis. Usaramine demonstrated a highlighted antibiofilm activity against S. epidermidis by reducing more than 50% of biofilm formation without killing the bacteria, thus it could be assumed as a prototype for the development of new antibiofilm molecules for pharmaceutical and industrial purposes. Monocrotaline activity against T. vaginalis was evaluated and results indicated inhibition of 80% on parasite growth at 1mg/mL, in addition, neither cytotoxicity against vaginal epithelial cells nor hemolytic activity were observed. On the other hand, retronecine showed no anti-T. vaginalis activity while azido-retronecine was more active than monocrotaline killing 85% of the parasites at 1mg/mL. In conclusion, pyrrolizidine alkaloids are suggested as promising prototypes for new drugs especially for topical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Da Danmark var en slavenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Louise Alberg; Brunbech, Peter Johan Yding; Poulsen, Jens Aage

    I mere end 250 år var Danmark en stor kolonimagt. Skt. Jan, Skt. Thomas og Skt. Croix, eller U.S. Virgin Islands, som de kaldes i dag, var danske kolonier, hvor der bl.a. blev dyrket sukkerrør og bomuld. Det hårde arbejde blev udført af slaver, som man fra slutningen af 1600-tallet begyndte at tr...

  17. Prevalence and morbidity of urethral Trichomonas vaginalis in Japanese men with or without urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seike, Kensaku; Maeda, Shin-Ichi; Kubota, Yasuaki; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Deguchi, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the pathogens causing sexually transmitted infections. This microorganism is a common pathogen among women, but its significance as a cause of morbidity among men remains uncertain. We sought to determine the prevalence and morbidity of T. vaginalis infection in Japanese men with and without urethritis. We examined urine specimens from 215 men with urethritis and 98 men without urethritis for the presence of urethral T. vaginalis by PCR assay. Only four patients-one with gonococcal urethritis, one with non-gonococcal chlamydial urethritis, one with non-gonococcal non-chlamydial urethritis and one without urethritis-were positive for T. vaginalis. The prevalence of T. vaginalis was 1.4% in men with urethritis and 1.0% in men without urethritis. A possible relation between the appearance of T. vaginalis and clinical symptoms was not confirmed. In the present study, the incidence of urethral T. vaginalis infection appears to be rare in Japanese men with or without urethritis, and T. vaginalis may be an uncommon pathogen in male urethritis in Japan.

  18. Double-stranded RNA viral infection of Trichomonas vaginalis (TVV1) in Iranian isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanaliha, Khadijeh; Masoumi-Asl, Hossein; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Tabatabaei, Azardokht; Naghdalipoor, Mehri

    2017-08-01

    The Totiviridae family includes a number of viruses that can infect protozoan parasites such as Leishmania and Giardia and fungi like Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis are also infected with one or more double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses. In this study, the frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV1) was evaluated in Iranian isolates of T. vaginalis in Tehran, Iran. One thousand five hundred vaginal samples were collected from patients attending obstetrics and gynaecology hospitals associated with Iran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran from October 2015 to September 2016. Trichomonas vaginalis isolates were cultured in Diamond's modified medium. Nucleic acids were extracted using a DNA/RNA extraction kit and RT-PCR was performed. Among 1500 collected vaginal samples, 8 (0.53%) cases of T. vaginalis infection were found. Half (4/8) of the T. vaginalis positive cases were infected with TVV1. Phylogenetic mapping indicated that the Iranian isolates were most closely related to TVV1-OC5, TVV1-UR1. Iranian isolates of T. vaginalis were infected with TVV1. The frequency of viral infection (TVV1) in T. vaginalis isolates found in this study is higher than previously reported in Iran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis reinfection in HIV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Melissa D; Kissinger, Patricia; Schmidt, Norine; Martin, David H; Carlton, Jane M

    2013-09-01

    Recently developed genotyping tools allow better understanding of Trichomonas vaginalis population genetics and epidemiology. These tools have yet to be applied to T vaginalis collected from HIV+ populations, where understanding the interaction between the pathogens is of great importance due to the correlation between T vaginalis infection and HIV transmission. The objectives of the study were twofold: first, to compare the genetic diversity and population structure of T vaginalis collected from HIV+ women with parasites from reference populations; second, to use the genetic markers to perform a case study demonstrating the usefulness of these techniques in investigating the mechanisms of repeat infections. Repository T vaginalis samples from a previously described treatment trial were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. Estimates of genetic diversity and population structure were determined using standard techniques and compared with previously reported estimates of global populations. Genotyping data were used in conjunction with behavioural data to evaluate mechanisms of repeat infections. T vaginalis from HIV+ women maintain many of the population genetic characteristics of parasites from global reference populations. Although there is evidence of reduced diversity and bias towards type 1 parasites in the HIV+ population, the populations share a two-type population structure and parasite haplotypes. Genotyping/behavioural data suggest that 36% (12/33) of repeat infections in HIV+ women can be attributed to treatment failure. T vaginalis infecting HIV+ women is not genetically distinct from T vaginalis infecting reference populations. Information from genotyping can be valuable for understanding mechanisms of repeat infections.

  20. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in women of reproductive age at a family health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glehn, Mateus De Paula von; Sá, Lana Cristina Evangelista Ferreira; Silva, Hian Delfino Ferreira da; Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues

    2017-03-31

    Trichomonas vaginalis is considered the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection, and its occurrence exceeds that of gonococcal and chlamydia infections. This parasite has been identified as responsible for the increased risk of transmission of HIV and has also been associated with prostate and cervical cancer. Many carriers of T. vaginalis are asymptomatic and, when experiencing a health problem, they most often have nonspecific symptoms. The aim of this research was to estimate the presence of T. vaginalis and the associated factors in women of childbearing age at a primary health care clinic in the Federal District of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with consecutive sampling of an outpatient population of women of childbearing age (excluding minors and pregnant women). The women answered a questionnaire and were examined. After vaginal pH measurement and whiff testing, a vaginal secretion sample was obtained for inoculation in TYM, a specific T. vaginalis culture medium. The presence of T. vaginalis was identified in 16% of the sample. Fewer lifetime sexual partners and consistent condom use were identified as factors of protection against the infection. Complaints of dyspareunia were proportionally higher among women with positive cultures for T. vaginalis. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection was high in the sample studied. The infection was positively associated with the number of lifetime sexual partners, and consistent condom use was a protective factor. Vaginal complaints were more common among women with T. vaginalis, but only dyspareunia had significant association.

  1. Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan parasite and commonly infected the lower genital tract in women and men. Iron is a known nutrient for growth of various pathogens, and also reported to be involved in establishment of trichomoniasis. However, the exact mechanism was not clarified. In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis.

  2. Evaluation of Lethal Effect of Pergularia Tomentosa and Priploca aphylla on Trichomonas Vaginalis In Vitro

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    Morad Ali Fouladvand

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: results showed that the Pergularia tomentosa and Priploca aphylla, dichloromethane and n-hexane extracts had more potent effect against Trichomonas vaginalis than methanolic and water extracts in all concentrations. so, identification and evaluation of the mechanism of these ingredients against Trichomonas vaginalis is recommended.

  3. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

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    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  4. Genetic identity and differential gene expression between Trichomonas vaginalis and Trichomonas tenax

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    Mundodi Vasanthakrishna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichomonas vaginalis is a human urogenital pathogen responsible for trichomonosis, the number-one, non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD worldwide, while T. tenax is a commensal of the human oral cavity, found particularly in patients with poor oral hygiene and advanced periodontal disease. The extent of genetic identity between T. vaginalis and its oral commensal counterpart is unknown. Results Genes that were differentially expressed in T. vaginalis were identified by screening three independent subtraction cDNA libraries enriched for T. vaginalis genes. The same thirty randomly selected cDNA clones encoding for proteins with specific functions associated with colonization were identified from each of the subtraction cDNA libraries. In addition, a T. vaginalis cDNA expression library was screened with patient sera that was first pre-adsorbed with an extract of T. tenax antigens, and seven specific cDNA clones were identified from this cDNA library. Interestingly, some of the clones identified by the subtraction cDNA screening were also obtained from the cDNA expression library with the pre-adsorbed sera. Moreover and noteworthy, clones identified by both the procedures were found to be up-regulated in expression in T. vaginalis upon contact with vaginal epithelial cells, suggesting a role for these gene products in host colonization. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of select clones showed that the genes were not unique to T. vaginalis and that these genes were also present in T. tenax, albeit at very low levels of expression. Conclusion These results suggest that T. vaginalis and T. tenax have remarkable genetic identity and that T. vaginalis has higher levels of gene expression when compared to that of T. tenax. The data may suggest that T. tenax could be a variant of T. vaginalis.

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing at an Urban HIV Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, Christina A; Burkholder, Greer A; Fry, Karen R; Austin, Erika L; Schwebke, Jane R

    2016-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection. T. vaginalis nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) recently became available at the University of Alabama at Birmingham human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinic. The objective of this study was to determine the uptake of T. vaginalis NAAT testing among clinic providers during the first year of test availability in addition to T. vaginalis prevalence and predictors based on NAAT results. This was a retrospective review of HIV+ women and men ages ≥16 years at the University of Alabama at Birmingham HIV Clinic, including those receiving a T. vaginalis NAAT on a genitourinary specimen. Between August 2014 and August 2015, 3163 HIV+ patients were seen (768 women, 2395 men), of whom 861 (27.3%) received a T. vaginalis NAAT; 402 women (52.3%) and 459 men (19.2%). Among those with T. vaginalis NAAT results, 70 (17.4%) of 402 women and 12 (2.6%) of 459 men (9 men who have sex with women, 1 man who has sex with men, 2 unknown) tested positive. In adjusted analyses for women, age ≤40 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-6.96), current cocaine use (OR, 4.86; 95% CI, 1.57-15.06), and CD4 vaginalis NAAT. For those with a positive T. vaginalis NAAT, treatment was prescribed for 65 (92.9%) of 70 women and 10 (83.3%) of 12 men. Initial uptake of T. vaginalis NAAT testing was modest at this HIV clinic yet identified a high prevalence among women tested. Emphasis on the need for testing in HIV+ women is necessary.

  6. Evaluation of Presto(plus) assay and LightMix kit Trichomonas vaginalis assay for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in dry vaginal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waaij, Dewi J; Ouburg, Sander; Dubbink, Jan Henk; Peters, Remco P H; Morré, Servaas A

    2016-08-01

    This is an evaluation study of the Presto(plus) Assay for T. vaginalis by comparing to the TIB MOLBIOL LightMix Kit Trichomonas vaginalis Assay using 615 dry collected vaginal and rectal swabs. Discordant samples were analyzed by the Qiagen® Microbial DNA qPCR for TV Assay. Both assays showed comparable performances (McNemar p>0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gardnerella vaginalis-associated bacterial vaginosis in Bulgarian women

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    Raina T. Gergova

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of BV in Bulgarian pregnant and nonpregnant women from several age ranges and to compare three different laboratory methods for Gardnerella vaginalis detection in patents suffering from BV. METHODS: Between September 2011 and June 2012, 809 women of 16-40 years of age separated in two major groups: nonpregnant - 469 (355 with and 114 without symptoms and pregnant - 340 (213 and 127 respectively were enrolled for the study. The women underwent three different laboratory tests simultaneously: scoring of Gram staining of vaginal smear, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay for G. vaginalis. RESULTS: The microscopic method detected high frequency of BV in symptomatic (57% whereas only a minority of asymptomatic subjects (14% were detected. G. vaginalisassociated BV was diagnosed in approximately equal proportions when evaluated with PCR and microscopic method for both pregnant and nonpregnant women. The comparative analysis of microscopic evaluation, culture and PCR assays demonstrated greater concurrence (about 90% between Gram staining and PCR detection for BV, than both methods compared to culture. The combination of microscopy and PCR turned out to be very reliable and repeatable for detecting G. vaginalis-associated BV. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comparative investigation on the epidemiology of G. vaginalisassociated BV in Bulgaria. The established highest frequency in the young Bulgarian women (21-30 years is alarming and should be considered in prophylaxis and reproductive programmes.

  8. Drug resistance in the sexually transmitted protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REBECCA L DUNNE; LINDA A DUNN; PETER UPCROFT; PETER J O'DONOGHUE; JACQUELINE A UPCROFT

    2003-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common, sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Symptoms include vaginitis and infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality, as well as predisposing to HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. Trichomoniasis has the highest prevalence and incidence of any sexually transmitted infection. The 5-nitroimidazole drugs, of which metronidazole is the most prescribed, are the only approved,effective drugs to treat trichomoniasis. Resistance against metronidazole is frequently reported and crossresistance among the family of 5-nitroimidazole drugs is common, leaving no alternative for treatment, with some cases remaining unresolved. The mechanism of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis from treatment failures is not well understood, unlike resistance which is developed in the laboratory under increasing metronidazole pressure. In the latter situation, hydrogenosomal function which is involved in activation of the prodrug, metronidazole, is down-regulated. Reversion to sensitivity is incomplete after removal of drug pressure in the highly resistant parasites while clinically resistant strains, so far analysed, maintain their resistance levels in the absence of drug pressure. Although anaerobic resistance has been regarded as a laboratory induced phenomenon, it clearly has been demonstrated in clinical isolates. Pursuit of both approaches will allow dissection of the underlying mechanisms. Many alternative drugs and treatments have been tested in vivo in cases of refractory trichomoniasis, as well as in vitro with some successes including the broad spectrum anti-parasitic drug nitazoxanide. Drug resistance incidence in T. vaginalis appears to be on the increase and improved surveillance of treatment failures is urged.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis Contact-Dependent Cytolysis of Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Gila; Ryan, Christopher M.; Secor, W. Evan

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is an extracellular protozoan parasite that binds to the epithelium of the human urogenital tract during infection. In this study, we examined the propensities of 26 T. vaginalis strains to bind to and lyse prostate (BPH-1) and ectocervical (Ect1) epithelium and to lyse red blood cells (RBCs). We found that only three of the strains had a statistically significant preference for either BPH-1 (MSA1103) or Ect1 (LA1 and MSA1123). Overall, we observed that levels of adherence are highly variable among strains, with a 12-fold range of adherence on Ect1 cells and a 45-fold range on BPH-1 cells. Cytolysis levels displayed even greater variability, from no detectable cytolysis to 80% or 90% cytolysis of Ect1 and BPH-1, respectively. Levels of adherence and cytolysis correlate for weakly adherent/cytolytic strains, and a threshold of attachment was found to be necessary to trigger cytolysis; however, this threshold can be reached without inducing cytolysis. Furthermore, cytolysis was completely blocked when we prevented attachment of the parasites to host cells while allowing soluble factors complete access. We demonstrate that hemolysis was a rare trait, with only 4 of the 26 strains capable of lysing >20% RBCs with a 1:30 parasite/RBC ratio. Hemolysis also did not correlate with adherence to or cytolysis of either male (BPH-1)- or female (Ect1)-derived epithelial cell lines. Our results reveal that despite a broad range of pathogenic properties among different T. vaginalis strains, all strains show strict contact-dependent cytolysis. PMID:23429535

  10. Measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, L.K.; Barker, A.R.; Briere, R.A.; Makoff, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Patterson, J.R.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Somalwar, S.V.; Wah, Y.W.; Winstein, B.; Winston, R.; Woods, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Swallow, E.C.; Bock, G.J.; Coleman, R.; Enagonio, J.; Hsiung, Y.B.; Ramberg, E.; Stanfield, K.; Tschirhart, R.; Yamanaka, T.; Gollin, G.D.; Karlsson, M.; Okamitsu, J.K.; Debu, P.; Peyaud, B.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) has been made using the full E731 data set. We find Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)=(7.4±5.2±2.9)x10 -4 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic

  11. PCR for diagnosis of male Trichomonas vaginalis infection with chronic prostatitis and urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Jin; Moon, Hong Sang; Lee, Tchun Yong; Hwang, Hwan Sik; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of PCR for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among male patients with chronic recurrent prostatitis and urethritis. Between June 2001 and December 2003, a total of 33 patients visited the Department of Urology, Hanyang University Guri Hospital and were examined for T. vaginalis infection by PCR and culture in TYM medium. For the PCR, we used primers based on a repetitive sequence cloned from T. vaginalis (TV-E650). Voided bladder urine (VB1 and VB3) was sampled from 33 men with symptoms of lower urinary tract infection (urethral charge, residual urine sensation, and frequency). Culture failed to detect any T. vaginalis infection whereas PCR identified 7 cases of trichomoniasis (21.2%). Five of the 7 cases had been diagnosed with prostatitis and 2 with urethritis. PCR for the 5 prostatitis cases yielded a positive 330 bp band from bothVB1 and VB3, whereas positive results were only obtained from VB1 for the 2 urethritis patients. We showed that the PCR method could detect T. vaginalis when there was only 1 T. vaginalis cell per PCR mixture. Our results strongly support the usefulness of PCR on urine samples for detecting T. vaginalis in chronic prostatitis and urethritis patients.

  12. Microscopy outperformed in a comparison of five methods for detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in symptomatic women.

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    Nathan, B; Appiah, J; Saunders, P; Heron, D; Nichols, T; Brum, R; Alexander, S; Baraitser, P; Ison, C

    2015-03-01

    In the UK, despite its low sensitivity, wet mount microscopy is often the only method of detecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection. A study was conducted in symptomatic women to compare the performance of five methods for detecting T. vaginalis: an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Aptima T. vaginalis kit; OSOM ®Trichomonas Rapid Test; culture and microscopy. Symptomatic women underwent routine testing; microscopy and further swabs were taken for molecular testing, OSOM and culture. A true positive was defined as a sample that was positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Two hundred and forty-six women were recruited: 24 patients were positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Of these 24 patients, 21 patients were detected by real-time PCR (sensitivity 88%); 22 patients were detected by the Aptima T. vaginalis kit (sensitivity 92%); 22 patients were detected by OSOM (sensitivity 92%); nine were detected by wet mount microscopy (sensitivity 38%); and 21 were detected by culture (sensitivity 88%). Two patients were positive by just one method and were not considered true positives. All the other detection methods had a sensitivity to detect T. vaginalis that was significantly greater than wet mount microscopy, highlighting the number of cases that are routinely missed even in symptomatic women if microscopy is the only diagnostic method available. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Trichomonas vaginalis is very rare among women with vaginal discharge in Podlaskie province, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwin, Agnieszka Beata; Bulhak-Koziol, Violetta; Sokolowska, Marianna; Golparian, Daniel; Unemo, Magnus

    2017-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common curable sexually transmitted pathogen globally. However, in the European Union (EU), trichomoniasis appears to be a rare condition. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of T. vaginalis among females attending an STI centre in Bialystok, Poland, using the highly sensitive and specific APTIMA T. vaginalis assay. Consecutive females, referred by gynaecologists mainly because of abnormal vaginal discharge, were diagnosed using wet mount microscopy, culture and APTIMA T. vaginalis assay. Among 272 women studied, 82% were pre- and 18% postmenopausal. The average age was 36.0 ± 13.9 (range: 18-86) years. Abnormal discharge (alone or accompanied by itch or vulvovaginal burning) was the most frequent complain in both groups (66.2% and 48.0%). Erythema and discharge were the most frequent abnormal signs (58.6% and 56.0%). Not a single T. vaginalis-positive sample was detected using wet mount microscopy, culture or APTIMA T. vaginalis assay. Despite using the highly sensitive APTIMA T. vaginalis assay for detection, the pathogen could not be identified in females in the studied setting, similar to results from other EU settings. The need for general screening using NAAT for this pathogen while diagnosing vulvovaginal symptoms in females in Poland appears to be low. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Inflammatory response of a prostate stromal cell line induced by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, S J; Han, I H; Kim, J H; Gu, N Y; Seo, M Y; Chung, Y H; Ryu, J S

    2016-04-01

    While Trichomonas vaginalis, a cause of sexually transmitted infection, is known as a surface-dwelling protozoa, trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissue from benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis by immunoperoxidase assay or PCR. However, the immune response of prostate stromal cells infected with T. vaginalis has not been investigated. Our objective was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce an inflammatory response in prostate stromal cells. Incubation of a human prostate stromal myofibroblast cells (WPMY-1) with live T. vaginalis T016 increased expression of the inflammatory chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2. In addition, TLR4, ROS, MAPK and NF-κB expression increased, while inhibitors of TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB reduced CXCL8 and CCL2 production. Medium conditioned by incubation of WPMY-1 cells with T. vaginalis stimulated the migration of human neutrophils and monocytes (THP-1 cells). We conclude that T. vaginalis increases CXCL8 and CCL2 production by human prostate stromal cells by activating TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB, and this in turn attracts neutrophils and monocytes and leads to an inflammatory response. This study is the first attempt to demonstrate an inflammatory reaction in prostate stromal cells caused by T. vaginalis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Molecular typing of the actin gene of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates by PCR-RFLP in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Zohreh; Sadraei, Javid; Kazemi, Bahram; Dalimi, Abdolhossein

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a human urogenital pathogen that causes trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral, parasitic sexually transmitted infection in the world. At present, little is known regarding the degree of strain variability of T. vaginalis. A classification method for T. vaginalis strains would be a useful tool in the study of the epidemiology, drug resistance, pathogenesis and transmission of T. vaginalis. Eight different types of actin genes have been identified by PCR-RFLP in T. vaginalis; the purpose of this study is to determine the genotypes of this parasite in Karaj city, Iran. Forty-five clinical T. vaginalis isolates from vaginal secretions and urine sediment were collected from Karaj city from 2012 through 2014. DNA was extracted and the actin gene was amplified by nested-PCR; all samples were positive. To determine the genetic differences, sequencing on seven samples was conducted. Then, all PCR products were digested with HindII, MseI, and RsaI restriction enzymes. Of 45 isolates, 23 samples (51.1%) were of actin genotype G, 11 samples (24.4%) of genotype E, six samples (13.3%) of genotype H, three samples (6.6%) of genotype I, and two samples (4.4%) were mixed genotypes of G and E. Genetic diversity of T. vaginalis isolates is notable. The actin genotype G may be the dominant genotype in Karaj city, Iran. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Heterologous expression in Tritrichomonas foetus of functional Trichomonas vaginalis AP65 adhesin

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    Alderete JF

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichomonosis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, is the number one, nonviral sexually transmitted infection that has adverse consequences for the health of women and children. The interaction of T. vaginalis with vaginal epithelial cells (VECs, a step preparatory to infection, is mediated in part by the prominent surface protein AP65. The bovine trichomonad, Tritrichomonas foetus, adheres poorly to human VECs. Thus, we established a transfection system for heterologous expression of the T. vaginalis AP65 in T. foetus, as an alternative approach to confirm adhesin function for this virulence factor. Results In this study, we show stable transfection and expression of the T. vaginalis ap65 gene in T. foetus from an episomal pBS-ap65-neo plasmid. Expression of the gene and protein was confirmed by RT-PCR and immunoblots, respectively. AP65 in transformed T. foetus bound to host cells. Specific mAbs revealed episomally-expressed AP65 targeted to the parasite surface and hydrogenosome organelles. Importantly, surface-expression of AP65 in T. foetus paralleled increased levels of adherence of transfected bovine trichomonads to human VECs. Conclusion The T. vaginalis AP65 adhesin was stably expressed in T. foetus, and the data obtained using this heterologous system strongly supports the role of AP65 as a prominent adhesin for T. vaginalis. In addition, the heterologous expression in T. foetus of a T. vaginalis gene offers an important, new approach for confirming and characterizing virulence factors.

  17. Population structure and genetic diversity of the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis in Bristol, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksworth, Joseph; Levy, Max; Smale, Chloe; Cheung, Dean; Whittle, Alice; Longhurst, Denise; Muir, Peter; Gibson, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    The protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, an extremely common, but non-life-threatening, sexually-transmitted disease throughout the world. Recent population genetics studies of T. vaginalis have detected high genetic diversity and revealed a two-type population structure, associated with phenotypic differences in sensitivity to metronidazole, the drug commonly used for treatment, and presence of T. vaginalis virus. There is currently a lack of data on UK isolates; most isolates examined to date are from the US. Here we used a recently described system for multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of T. vaginalis to study diversity of clinical isolates from Bristol, UK. We used MLST to characterise 23 clinical isolates of T. vaginalis collected from female patients during 2013. Seven housekeeping genes were PCR-amplified for each isolate and sequenced. The concatenated sequences were then compared with data from other MLST-characterised isolates available from http://tvaginalis.mlst.net/ to analyse the population structure and construct phylogenetic trees. Among the 23 isolates from the Bristol population of T. vaginalis, we found 23 polymorphic nucleotide sites, 25 different alleles and 19 sequence types (genotypes). Most isolates had a unique genotype, in agreement with the high levels of heterogeneity observed elsewhere in the world. A two-type population structure was evident from population genetic analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction split the isolates into two major clades. Tests for recombination in the Bristol population of T. vaginalis gave conflicting results, suggesting overall a clonal pattern of reproduction. We conclude that the Bristol population of T. vaginalis parasites conforms to the two-type population structure found in most other regions of the world. We found the MLST scheme to be an efficient genotyping method. The online MLST database provides a useful repository and resource that will prove

  18. Association between Trichomonas vaginalis and vaginal bacterial community composition among reproductive-age women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Rebecca M.; Bradford, L. Latey; Conrad, Melissa; Gajer, Pawel; Ault, Kevin; Peralta, Ligia; Forney, Larry J.; Carlton, Jane M.; Abdo, Zaid; Ravel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Some vaginal bacterial communities are thought to prevent infection by sexually transmitted organisms. Prior work demonstrated that the vaginal microbiota of reproductive-age women cluster into five types of bacterial communities; 4 dominated by Lactobacillus species (L. iners, L. crispatus, L. gasseri, L. jensenii), and one (termed community state type (CST) IV) lacking significant numbers of lactobacilli and characterized by higher proportions of Atopobium, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Mobiluncus, and other taxa. We sought to evaluate the relationship between vaginal bacterial composition and Trichomonas vaginalis. Methods Self-collected vaginal swabs were obtained cross-sectionally from 394 women equally representing four ethnic/racial groups. T. vaginalis screening was performed using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA and β-tubulin genes. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA genes. A panel of eleven microsatellite markers was used to genotype T. vaginalis. The association between vaginal microbiota and T. vaginalis was evaluated by exact logistic regression. Results T. vaginalis was detected in 2.8% of participants (11/394). Of the eleven T. vaginalis-positive cases, eight (72%) were categorized as CST-IV, two (18%) as communities dominated by L. iners and one (9%) as L. crispatus-dominated (p-value:0.05). CST-IV microbiota were associated with an 8-fold increased odds of detecting T. vaginalis compared to women in the L. crispatus-dominated state (OR:8.26, 95% CI:1.07–372.65). Seven of the 11 T. vaginalis isolates were assigned to two genotypes. Conclusion T. vaginalis was associated with vaginal microbiota consisting of low proportions of lactobacilli and high proportions of Mycoplasma, Parvimonas, Sneathia, and other anaerobes. PMID:23007708

  19. Modified Field's staining--a rapid stain for Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzan, M Yusuf; Sivanandam, S; Kumar, G Suresh

    2010-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan parasite commonly found in the human genitourinary tract, is transmitted primarily by sexual intercourse. Diagnosis is usually by in vitro culture method and staining with Giemsa stain. There are laboratories that use Gram stain as well. We compared the use of modified Field's (MF), Giemsa, and Gram stains on 2 axenic and xenic isolates of T. vaginalis, respectively. Three smears from every sediment of spun cultures of all 4 isolates were stained, respectively, with each of the stains. We showed that MF staining, apart from being a rapid stain (20 s), confers sharper staining contrast, which differentiates the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the organism when compared to Giemsa and Gram staining especially on parasites from spiked urine samples. The alternative staining procedure offers in a diagnostic setting a rapid stain that can easily visualize the parasite with sharp contrasting characteristics between organelles especially the nucleus and cytoplasm. Vacuoles are more clearly visible in parasites stained with MF than when stained with Giemsa. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro activity of Arbutus unedo leaf extracts against Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertabaklar, Hatice; Kivçak, Bijen; Mert, Tuba; Ozensoy Töz, Seray

    2009-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) is a flagellated protozoan commonly causing sexually transmitted disease. T. vaginalis infections are treated with a 5-nitroimidazole derivate. However, drug resistance has been known to occur for a long time and new alternatives are under investigation. Arbutus unedo is a wild plant mainly growing in maquis and rocky places of the seaboard in Southern Europe. In our study, ethanolic, water, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were tested in vitro against T. vaginalis trophozoites and the ethyl acetate extract of Arbutus unedo leaves was found to be effective (Growth inhibition rate (GI): 100%, at the concentration of 500 microg/ml). It may be a promising anti-trichomonacidal agent in the future and further experiments are needed.

  1. Is There a Seasonal Difference in the Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by Cervical Cytology?

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    Sydney Shrader

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of a Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosis in routine Papanicolaou smears and whether it is seasonal. We reviewed the diagnosis rendered for 93,681 Papanicolaou smears evaluated at a medical school hospital laboratory between 1992 and 1997. The occurrence of a diagnosis of T. vaginalis was analyzed by year, by quarter, and by month using a generalized linear regression model. The prevalence of a T. vaginalis diagnosis during the 6-year study period was 3.1%. The between-month and between-quarter comparisons of prevalence were not statistically different. In the population reported here, the prevalence of a Papanicolaou smear diagnosis of T. vaginalis was low and no seasonal difference in making this diagnosis was identified.

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis infection and human immunodeficiency virus acquisition in African women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Barbara; Kwok, Cynthia; Pierre-Louis, Bosny; Rinaldi, Anne; Salata, Robert A.; Chen, Pai-Lien; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Mmiro, Francis; Mugerwa, Roy; Chipato, Tsungai; Morrison, Charles S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Trichomoniasis vaginalis is the most common nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide, with a particularly high prevalence in regions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endemicity. However, its impact as a cofactor for HIV acquisition is poorly understood. Methods.

  3. Effect of Echinophora platyloba , Stachys lavandulifolia, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis plants on Trichomonas vaginalis growth in vitro

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    Hossein Ali Youse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite which causes vaginitis in women worldwide. Metronidazole with vast side effects is drug of choice for this infection. In search for an alternative drug, in this study the effect of three plants on Trichomonas vaginalis has been investigated in vitro. Materials and Methods: Alcoholic and watery extracts of Echinophora platyloba, Stachys lavandulifolia, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were prepared. In TYIS culture medium containing alive Trichomonas vaginalis different concentrations of extracts of three plants were added. Following, 24, 48, and 72 h incubation the number of parasite in each test tube was counted. Results: Eucalyptus camaldulensis showed a strong effect on Trichomonas vaginalis growth. However, no significant effect was observed with Echinophora platyloba or Stachys lavandulifolia extracts. Conclusion: Eucalyptus camaldulensis can be considered as an alternative drug for treatment of infective vaginitis which is caused by bacteria, fungi and parasites.

  4. Bifunctional activity of deoxyhypusine synthase/hydroxylase from Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas-Granados, Laura Itzel; Carvajal Gamez, Bertha Isabel; Villalpando, Jose Luis; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana; Azuara-Liceaga, Elisa; Álvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth

    2016-04-01

    The Trichomonas vaginalis genome analysis suggested the presence of a putative deoxyhypusine synthase (TvDHS) that catalyzes the posttranslational modification of eIF-5A. Herein, we expressed and purified the recombinant TvDHS (rTvDHS) protein (43 kDa) and the recombinant TveIF-5A (rTveIF-5A) precursor protein (46 kDa). A 41 kDa band of the native TvDHS was recognized by western blot analysis in T. vaginalis total protein extract by a mouse polyclonal anti-rTvDHS antibody. The enzymatic activity of rTvDHS was determined by in vitro rTveIF-5A precursor modification. The modification reaction was performed by using ((3)H)-spermidine, and the biochemical analysis showed that rTvDHS exhibited Km value of 0.6 μM. The rTvDHS activity was inhibited by the spermidine analog, N″-guanyl-1,7-diamino-heptane (GC7). Native gel electrophoresis analysis showed two bands corresponding to an rTvDHS-rTveIF-5A complex and an intermediate form of rTveIF-5A. The two forms were subsequently separated by ion exchange chromatography to identify the hypusine residue by MS/MS analysis. Moreover, mutations in TvDHS showed that the putative HE motif present in this enzyme is involved in the hydroxylation of TveIF-5A. We observed that only hypusine-containing TveIF-5A was bound to an RNA hairpin ERE structure from the cox-2 gene, which contains the AAAUGUCACAC consensus sequence. Interestingly, 2DE-WB assays, using parasites that were grown in DAB-culture conditions and transferred to exogenous putrescine, showed the new isoform of TveIF-5A. In summary, our results indicate that T. vaginalis contains an active TvDHS capable of modifying the precursor TveIF-5A protein, which subsequently exhibits RNA binding activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Experimente ueber den Einflusse von Metaboliten und Antimetaboliten am Modell von Trichomonas Vaginalis. VI. (Experiments on the Influence of Metabolites and Antimetabolites on the Model of Trichomonas Vaginalis. VI. Communication: Effect of Vitamins and Vitamin-Like Substances),

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of substances (folic acid, axerophtol, tokopherol and others) stimulate the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis and, therefore, are very well...group of vitamins (thiamine, lactoflavin, pyridoxine and others) are without recognizeable effect upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . The third...inhibiting effect upon the growth of Trichomonas vaginalis . Further investigations with these substances within a combined inhibition system seem to be important. (Modified author abstract)

  6. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on Trichomonas vaginalis adhering to and phagocytizing genitourinary epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文列; 陈金富; 钟秀容; 梁平; 林炜

    2004-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) belongs to a common sexually transmitted disease pathogen causing genitourinary trichomoniasis in both sexes. We investigated the pathogenetic mechanism of genitourinary trichomoniasis.Methods Cultured T. vaginalis bodies were injected into the vaginas of rats, or incubated with genitourinary epithelial cells of female subjects, male subjects, and sperm. The ultrastructural and microscopic changes were observed via transmission and scanning electron microscopy and through microscopic histochemistry.Results Groups of T.vaginalis adhered to PAS positive columnar cells at the surface of stratified epithelium in the middle and upper portions of the vaginas. They also traversed under these cells. The parasites were shown to be PAS, cathepsin D, and actin positive, and they could release hydrolase into the cytoplasm of adhered epithelial cells. In the amebiform T.vaginalis, microfilaments were arranged into reticular formation. Similar phenomena were found during the interaction of T.vaginalis with host cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Usually several protozoa adhered to an epithelial cell and formed polymorphic pseudopodia or surface invaginations to surround and phagocytize the microvilli or other parts of the epithelial cytoplasm. Adhesion and phagocytosis of sperm by the protozoa occurred at 15-30 minutes of incubation. Digestion of sperm was found at 45-75 minutes and was complete at 90-105 minutes.Conclusions T.vaginalis tends to parasitize at the fornix of the vagina, because this is the site where columnar cells are rich in mucinogen granules and their microvilli are helpful for adhesion and nibbling. T.vaginalis possesses some invading and attacking abilities. Shape change, canalization, encystation, phagocytosis, digestion, the cell coat, cytoskeleton, and lysosome all play important roles in the process of adhesion. They have two methods of phagocytosis: nibbling and ingestion. Genitourinary epithelium may be

  7. Sequestration of host-CD59 as potential immune evasion strategy of Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Ibáñez-Escribano, Alexandra; Nogal-Ruiz, Juan José; Pérez-Serrano, Jorge; Gómez-Barrio, Alicia; Escario, J Antonio; Alderete, J F

    2015-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is known to evade complement-mediated lysis. Because the genome of T. vaginalis does not possess DNA sequence with homology to human protectin (CD59), a complement lysis restricting factor, we tested the hypothesis that host CD59 acquisition by T. vaginalis organisms mediates resistance to complement killing. This hypothesis was based on the fact that trichomonads are known to associate with host proteins. No CD59 was detected on the surface of T. vaginalis grown in serum-based medium using as probe anti-CD59 monoclonal antibody (MAb). We, therefore, infected mice intraperitoneally with live T. vaginalis, and trichomonads harvested from ascites were tested for binding of CD59. Immunofluorescence showed that parasites had surface CD59. Furthermore, as mouse erythrocytes (RBCs) possess membrane-associated CD59, and trichomonads use RBCs as a nutrient source, organisms were co-cultured with murine RBCs for one week. Parasites were shown to have detectable surface CD59. Importantly, live T. vaginalis with bound CD59 were compared with batch-grown parasites without surface-associated CD59 for sensitivity to complement in human serum. Trichomonads without surface-bound CD59 had a higher level of killing by complement than did parasites with surface CD59. These data show that host CD59 acquired onto the surface by live T. vaginalis may be an alternative mechanism for complement evasion. We describe a novel strategy by T. vaginalis consistent with host protein procurement by this parasite to evade the lytic action of complement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multilocus sequence typing of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical samples from Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

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    van der Veer, C; Himschoot, M; Bruisten, S M

    2016-10-13

    In this cross-sectional epidemiological study we aimed to identify molecular profiles for Trichomonas vaginalis and to determine how these molecular profiles were related to patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Molecular typing methods previously identified two genetically distinct subpopulations for T. vaginalis; however, few molecular epidemiological studies have been performed. We now increased the sensitivity of a previously described multilocus sequence typing (MLST) tool for T. vaginalis by using nested PCR. This enabled the typing of direct patient samples. From January to December 2014, we collected all T. vaginalis positive samples as detected by routine laboratory testing. Samples from patients either came from general practitioners offices or from the sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic in Amsterdam. Epidemiological data for the STI clinic patients were retrieved from electronic patient files. The primary outcome was the success rate of genotyping direct T. vaginalis positive samples. The secondary outcome was the relation between T. vaginalis genotypes and risk factors for STI. All 7 MLST loci were successfully typed for 71/87 clinical samples. The 71 typed samples came from 69 patients, the majority of whom were women (n=62; 90%) and half (n=34; 49%) were STI clinic patients. Samples segregated into a two population structure for T. vaginalis representing genotypes I and II. Genotype I was most common (n=40; 59.7%). STI clinic patients infected with genotype II reported more sexual partners in the preceding 6 months than patients infected with genotype I (p=0.028). No other associations for gender, age, ethnicity, urogenital discharge or co-occurring STIs with T. vaginalis genotype were found. MLST with nested PCR is a sensitive typing method that allows typing of direct (uncultured) patient material. Genotype II is possibly more prevalent in high-risk sexual networks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  9. Gene-expression analysis of cold-stress response in the sexually transmitted protist Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Kai; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Po-Jung; Lin, Rose; Chao, Mei; Tang, Petrus

    2015-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease in the world. This infection affects millions of individuals worldwide annually. Although direct sexual contact is the most common mode of transmission, increasing evidence indicates that T. vaginalis can survive in the external environment and can be transmitted by contaminated utensils. We found that the growth of T. vaginalis under cold conditions is greatly inhibited, but recovers after placing these stressed cells at the normal cultivation temperature of 37 °C. However, the mechanisms by which T. vaginalis regulates this adaptive process are unclear. An expressed sequence tag (EST) database generated from a complementary DNA library of T. vaginalis messenger RNAs expressed under cold-culture conditions (4 °C, TvC) was compared with a previously published normal-cultured EST library (37 °C, TvE) to assess the cold-stress responses of T. vaginalis. A total of 9780 clones were sequenced from the TvC library and were mapped to 2934 genes in the T. vaginalis genome. A total of 1254 genes were expressed in both the TvE and TvC libraries, and 1680 genes were only found in the TvC library. A functional analysis showed that cold temperature has effects on many cellular mechanisms, including increased H2O2 tolerance, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, induction of iron-sulfur cluster assembly, and reduced energy metabolism and enzyme expression. The current study is the first large-scale transcriptomic analysis in cold-stressed T. vaginalis and the results enhance our understanding of this important protist. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates: cytoadherence and adherence to polystyrene, intrauterine device, and vaginal ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Odelta; Rigo, Graziela Vargas; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2017-12-01

    The parasitism by Trichomonas vaginalis is complex and in part is mediated by cytoadherence accomplished via five surface proteins named adhesins and a glycoconjugate called lipophosphoglycan (TvLPG). In this study, we evaluated the ability of T. vaginalis isolates to adhere to cells, plastic (polystyrene microplates), intrauterine device (IUD), and vaginal ring. Of 32 T. vaginalis isolates, 4 (12.5%) were strong adherent. The T. vaginalis isolates TV-LACM6 and TV-LACM14 (strong polystyrene-adherent) were also able to adhere to IUD and vaginal ring. Following chemical treatments, results demonstrated that the T. vaginalis components, lipophosphoglycan, cytoskeletal proteins, and surface molecules, were involved in both adherence to polystyrene and cytoadherence. The gene expression level from four adhesion proteins was highest in trophozoites adhered to cells than trophozoites adhered to the abiotic surface (polystyrene microplate). Our data indicate the major involvement of TvLPG in adherence to polystyrene, and that adhesins are important for cytoadherence. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first report showing the T. vaginalis adherence to contraceptive devices, reaffirming its importance as pathogen among women in reproductive age.

  11. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting Actin DNA of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Shin, Won-Sik; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Won-Ki; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2016-06-01

    Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted disease. Its association with several health problems, including preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical cancer, and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, emphasizes the importance of improved access to early and accurate detection of T. vaginalis. In this study, a rapid and efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based method for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed and validated, using vaginal swab specimens from subjects suspected to have trichomoniasis. The LAMP assay targeting the actin gene was highly sensitive with detection limits of 1 trichomonad and 1 pg of T. vaginalis DNA per reaction, and specifically amplified the target gene only from T. vaginalis. Validation of this assay showed that it had the highest sensitivity and better agreement with PCR (used as the gold standard) compared to microscopy and multiplex PCR. This study showed that the LAMP assay, targeting the actin gene, could be used to diagnose early infections of T. vaginalis. Thus, we have provided an alternative molecular diagnostic tool and a point-of-care test that may help to prevent trichomoniasis transmission and associated complications.

  12. Effect of Recombinant Prophenin 2 on the Integrity and Viability of Trichomonas vaginalis

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    J. L. Hernandez-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is the causal agent of trichomoniasis, which is associated with preterm child delivery, low birth weight, and an increased risk of infection by human papilloma virus and human immunodeficiency virus following exposure. Several reports have established increasing numbers of trichomoniasis cases resistant to metronidazole, the agent used for treatment, and it is therefore important to identify new therapeutic alternatives. Previously, our group reported the effect of tritrpticin, a synthetic peptide derived from porcine prophenin, on T. vaginalis; however, the hemolytic activity of this small peptide complicates its possible use as a therapeutic agent. In this study, we report that the propeptide and the processed peptide of prophenin 2 (cleaved with hydroxylamine affected the integrity and growth of T. vaginalis and that pro-prophenin 2 displays some resistance to proteolysis by T. vaginalis proteinases at 1 h. Its effect on T. vaginalis as well as its low hemolytic activity and short-time stability to parasite proteinases makes prophenin 2 an interesting candidate for synergistic or alternative treatment against T. vaginalis.

  13. New Concepts in the Diagnosis and Pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis

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    Renuka Bhatt

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most commonly encountered sexually transmitted disease. There is a need for more accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods, leading to better control and treatment strategies. Various virulence factors such as adherence, contact-independent factors, hemolysis and acquisition of host macromolecules have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of this infection. Detection of the factors that are only present in the pathogenic isolates of trichomonads will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Culture technique is highly specific compared with microscopic techniques, but it is time consuming. Immunological techniques lack proper correlation with clinical manifestations. The application of monoclonal antibodies, either singly or in a group that recognizes a common antigen, along with methods such as detection of common DNA fragment from clinical specimens, may have a promising future in the laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis.

  14. [Killing effect of polymorphonuclear neutrophils on Trichomonas vaginalis].

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    Zhao, Jian-Ling; Gao, Xing-Zheng; Qu, Ming

    2008-10-30

    To study the killing effect of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) on Trichomonas vaginalis. The vaginal secretion from a patient with vaginitis was incubated in the liver infusion liquid medium to get T. vaginalis. One ml serum was collected from the patient and heated for 30 min at 56 degrees C to inactivate complement in serum, and was absorbed three times with the parasites at 0 degree C to make the serum free of antibodies. PMNs were separated from the patient's blood and purified with density gradient centrifugation and polymer accelerating sedimentation. NBT and safranin O were used to stain the sample. The interaction between PMNs and the parasites was observed under microscope. 300 trichomonads and 3x10(4) PMNs were incubated for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 minutes under the conditions of aerobic or anaerobic, with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) or without SOD and CAT, and with complement or without complement. They were then inoculated in solid medium for another five days under the anaerobic condition, and surviving organisms were enumerated. PMNs were observed to surround and kill a single trichomonad. In the petri-dish containing PMNs, the surviving rate of the parasites in anaerobic condition was 85%, only 3% in aerobic condition (P<0.01). SOD and CAT reduced the killing effect of PMNs, with a surviving rate of 98% and 94% respectively after 60 min incubation. Without SOD and CAT, the surviving rate is only 2% (P<0.05). PMNs in the serum without antibodies killed all the parasites, while the complement-inactivated serum fail to kill them. The trichomonacidal activity of PMNs relies on the presence of oxygen and complement in the serum of patient.

  15. Unique vaginal microbiota that includes an unknown Mycoplasma-like organism is associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection.

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    Martin, David H; Zozaya, Marcela; Lillis, Rebecca A; Myers, Leann; Nsuami, M Jacques; Ferris, Michael J

    2013-06-15

    The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection is highest in women with intermediate Nugent scores. We hypothesized that the vaginal microbiota in T. vaginalis-infected women differs from that in T. vaginalis-uninfected women. Vaginal samples from 30 T. vaginalis-infected women were matched by Nugent score to those from 30 T. vaginalis-uninfected women. Equal numbers of women with Nugent scores categorized as normal, intermediate, and bacterial vaginosis were included. The vaginal microbiota was assessed using 454 pyrosequencing analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of an unknown organism was obtained by universal bacterial polymerase chain reaction amplification, cloning, and sequencing. Principal coordinates analysis of the pyrosequencing data showed divergence of the vaginal microbiota in T. vaginalis-infected and T. vaginalis-uninfected patients among women with normal and those with intermediate Nugent scores but not among women with bacterial vaginosis. Cluster analysis revealed 2 unique groups of T. vaginalis-infected women. One had high abundance of Mycoplasma hominis and other had high abundance of an unknown Mycoplasma species. Women in the former group had clinical evidence of enhanced vaginal inflammation. T. vaginalis may alter the vaginal microbiota in a manner that is favorable to its survival and/or transmissibility. An unknown Mycoplasma species plays a role in some of these transformations. In other cases, these changes may result in a heightened host inflammatory response.

  16. A cross-sectional analysis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant African couples.

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    Bochner, Aaron F; Baeten, Jared M; Rustagi, Alison S; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R; Mugo, Nelly R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kapiga, Saidi; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Celum, Connie; Barnabas, Ruanne V

    2017-11-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent curable STI worldwide and has been associated with adverse health outcomes and increased HIV-1 transmission risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among couples to assess how characteristics of both individuals in sexual partnerships are associated with the prevalence of male and female T. vaginalis infection. African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples were concurrently tested for trichomoniasis at enrolment into two clinical trials. T. vaginalis testing was by nucleic acid amplification or culture methods. Using Poisson regression with robust standard errors, we identified characteristics associated with trichomoniasis. Among 7531 couples tested for trichomoniasis, 981 (13%) couples contained at least one infected partner. The prevalence was 11% (n=857) among women and 4% (n=319) among men, and most infected individuals did not experience signs or symptoms of T. vaginalis . Exploring concordance of T. vaginalis status within sexual partnerships, we observed that 61% (195/319) of T. vaginalis -positive men and 23% (195/857) of T. vaginalis -positive women had a concurrently infected partner. In multivariable analysis, having a T. vaginalis -positive partner was the strongest predictor of infection for women (relative risk (RR) 4.70, 95% CI 4.10 to 5.38) and men (RR 10.09, 95% CI 7.92 to 12.85). For women, having outside sex partners, gonorrhoea, and intermediate or high Nugent scores for bacterial vaginosis were associated with increased risk of trichomoniasis, whereas age 45 years and above, being married, having children and injectable contraceptive use were associated with reduced trichomoniasis risk. Additionally, women whose male partners were circumcised, had more education or earned income had lower risk of trichomoniasis. We found that within African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples, the prevalence of trichomoniasis was high among partners of T. vaginalis -infected individuals, suggesting

  17. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a potential tool for Trichomonas vaginalis identification.

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    Calderaro, Adriana; Piergianni, Maddalena; Montecchini, Sara; Buttrini, Mirko; Piccolo, Giovanna; Rossi, Sabina; Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina; Medici, Maria Cristina; Chezzi, Carlo; De Conto, Flora

    2016-06-10

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan causing trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted human infection, with around 276.4 million new cases estimated by World Health Organization. Culture is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection. Recently, immunochromatographic assays as well as PCR assays for the detection of T. vaginalis antigen or DNA, respectively, have been also available. Although the well-known genome sequence of T. vaginalis has made possible the application of proteomic studies, few data are available about the overall proteomic expression profiling of T. vaginalis. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential application of MALDI-TOF MS as a new tool for the identification of T. vaginalis. Twenty-one isolates were analysed by MALDI-TOF MS after the creation of a Main Spectrum Profile (MSP) from a T. vaginalis reference strain (G3) and its subsequent supplementation in the Bruker Daltonics database, not including any profile of protozoa. This was achieved after the development of a new identification method created by modifying the range setting (6-10 kDa) for the MALDI-TOF MS analysis in order to exclude the overlapping of peaks derived from the culture media used in this study. Two MSP reference spectra were created in 2 different range: 3-15 kDa (standard range setting) and 6-10 kDa (new range setting). Both MSP spectra were deposited in the MALDI BioTyper database for further identification of additional T. vaginalis strains. All the 21 strains analysed in this study were correctly identified by using the new identification method. In this study it was demonstrated that changes in the MALDI-TOF MS standard parameters usually used to identify bacteria and fungi allowed the identification of the protozoan T. vaginalis. This study shows the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS in the reliable identification of microorganism grown on complex liquid media such as the protozoan T. vaginalis, on the basis of the

  18. Nitric oxide maintains cell survival of Trichomonas vaginalis upon iron depletion.

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    Cheng, Wei-Hung; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Po-Jung; Hsu, Jo-Hsuan; Fang, Yi-Kai; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Tang, Petrus

    2015-07-25

    Iron plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of highly prevalent human trichomoniasis. T. vaginalis resides in the vaginal region, where the iron concentration is constantly changing. Hence, T. vaginalis must adapt to variations in iron availability to establish and maintain an infection. The free radical signaling molecules reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) have been proven to participate in iron deficiency in eukaryotes. However, little is known about the roles of these molecules in iron-deficient T. vaginalis. T. vaginalis cultured in iron-rich and -deficient conditions were collected for all experiments in this study. Next generation RNA sequencing was conducted to investigate the impact of iron on transcriptome of T. vaginalis. The cell viabilities were monitored after the trophozoites treated with the inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (L-NG-monomethyl arginine, L-NMMA) and proteasome (MG132). Hydrogenosomal membrane potential was measured using JC-1 staining. We demonstrated that NO rather than ROS accumulates in iron-deficient T. vaginalis. The level of NO was blocked by MG132 and L-NMMA, indicating that NO production is through a proteasome and arginine dependent pathway. We found that the inhibition of proteasome activity shortened the survival of iron-deficient cells compared with untreated iron-deficient cells. Surprisingly, the addition of arginine restored both NO level and the survival of proteasome-inhibited cells, suggesting that proteasome-derived NO is crucial for cell survival under iron-limited conditions. Additionally, NO maintains the hydrogenosomal membrane potential, a determinant for cell survival, emphasizing the cytoprotective effect of NO on iron-deficient T. vaginalis. Collectively, we determined that NO produced by the proteasome prolonged the survival of iron-deficient T. vaginalis via maintenance of the hydrogenosomal functions. The findings in this

  19. Detection of Trichomonas Vaginalis in Vaginal Speciemens from Women by Wet Mount, Culture and PCR

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    Gulnaz Culha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted infection (STI caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, affects 180 million people worldwide and causes significant morbidity. Infection with T. vaginalis has been associated with vaginitis, exocervicitis, and urethritis in women. Material and Method: In this study, we aim to investigate the presence of T. vaginalis by using three different methods for comparing the results. Two hundred T. vaginalis isolates taken from swap samples were collected in Medical Faculty, Department of Gynecology, Mustafa Kemal University Polyclinic, and examined genotypically and phenotypically to identify T. vaginalis in Parasitology Department. This research is unique in terms of its contribution to patient treatment, being the first molecular study in Turkey/Hatay to determine Trichomonas (TV genes stemming from Trichomonas vaginalis strains. Result: 56 out of 200 patients examined were identified as positive and 24 (42.8% of these were identified through microscopy, 18 (32,1% with culture and 24 (42,8% with PCR. The number of those identified through all these methods is 14 (25%. In this study, difference was calculated using three methods (p=0.022 with Cochran%u2019s Q test. When compared with McNemar two by two, no superiority in T. vaginalis diagnosis was found between microscopy and culture (p=0.5, microscopy and PCR (p=0.063, or culture and PCR (p=0.25 methods. Discussion: Culture method is not used in routine laboratory procedures and has contamination risk. PCR method shows directly the parasite of DNAs, and so it is thought to be more reliable compared to the other two methods.

  20. Atividade citotóxica do extrato de Vitis labrusca em culturas de Trichomonas vaginalis = Cytotoxic activity of Vitis labrusca extract in cultures of Trichomonas vaginalis

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    Serpa, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Conclusões: O extrato de folha de videira pode ser uma alternativa no combate a T. vaginalis. Estudos pré-clínicos e clínicos são necessários para comprovar eficácia e segurança desta intervenção

  1. Involvement of purinergic signaling on nitric oxide production by neutrophils stimulated with Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Bonan, Carla Denise; Tasca, Tiana

    2012-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite from the human urogenital tract that causes trichomonosis, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease. The neutrophil infiltration has been considered to be primarily responsible for cytological changes observed at infection site, and the chemoattractants can play an important role in this leukocytic recruitment. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most widespread mediator compounds, and it is implicated in modulation of immunological mechanisms. Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides are signaling molecules involved in several processes, including immune responses and control of leukocyte trafficking. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase members, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine deaminase (ectoADA) have been characterized in T. vaginalis. Herein, we investigated the effects of purinergic system on NO production by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis. The trophozoites were able to induce a high NO synthesis by neutrophils through iNOS pathway. The extracellular nucleotides ATP, ADP, and ATPγS (a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog) showed no significant change in NO secretion. In contrast, adenosine and its degradation product, inosine, promoted a low production of the compound. The immunosuppressive effect of adenosine upon NO release by neutrophils occurred due to adenosine A(2A) receptor activation. The ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity displayed by T. vaginalis was shown to be important in adenosine generation, indicating the efficiency of purinergic cascade. Our data suggest the influence of purinergic signaling, specifically adenosinergic system, on NO production by neutrophils in T. vaginalis infection, contributing to the immunological aspects of disease.

  2. The anti-Trichomonas vaginalis phloroglucinol derivative isoaustrobrasilol B modulates extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Camila Braz; Rigo, Graziela Vargas; Bridi, Henrique; Trentin, Danielle da Silva; Macedo, Alexandre José; von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Tasca, Tiana

    2017-11-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes trichomoniasis, a neglected sexually transmitted disease. Due to severe health consequences and treatment failure, new therapeutic alternatives are crucial. Phloroglucinols from southern Brazilian Hypericum species demonstrated anti-T. vaginalis and anti-Leishmania amazonensis activities. The modulation of biochemical pathways involved in the control of inflammatory response by ectonucleotidases, NTPDase, and ecto-5'-nucleotidase represents new targets for combating protozoa. This study investigated the activity of phloroglucinol derivatives of Hypericum species from southern Brazil against T. vaginalis as well as its ability on modulating parasite ectonucleotidases and, consequently, immune parameters through ATP and adenosine effects. Phloroglucinol derivatives screening revealed activity for isoaustrobrasilol B (IC 50 38 μm) with no hemolytic activity. Although the most active compound induced cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell lineage, the in vivo model evidenced absence of toxicity. Isoaustrobrasilol B significantly inhibited NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities, and the immune modulation attributed to extracellular nucleotide accumulation was evaluated. The production of ROS and IL-6 by T. vaginalis-stimulated neutrophils was not affected by the treatment. Conversely, IL-8 levels were significantly enhanced. The associative mechanism of trophozoites death and ectonucleotidases modulation by isoaustrobrasilol B may increase the susceptibility of T. vaginalis to host innate immune cell like neutrophils consequently, contributing to parasite clearance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Trichomonas vaginalis Repair of Iron Centres Proteins: The Different Role of Two Paralogs.

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    Nobre, Lígia S; Meloni, Dionigia; Teixeira, Miguel; Viscogliosi, Eric; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2016-06-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative parasite of one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases is, so far, the only protozoan encoding two putative Repair of Iron Centres (RIC) proteins. Homologs of these proteins have been shown to protect bacteria from the chemical stress imposed by mammalian immunity. In this work, the biochemical and functional characterisation of the T. vaginalis RICs revealed that the two proteins have different properties. Expression of ric1 is induced by nitrosative stress but not by hydrogen peroxide, while ric2 transcription remained unaltered under similar conditions. T. vaginalis RIC1 contains a di-iron centre, but RIC2 apparently does not. Only RIC1 resembles bacterial RICs on spectroscopic profiling and repairing ability of oxidatively-damaged iron-sulfur clusters. Unexpectedly, RIC2 was found to bind DNA plasmid and T. vaginalis genomic DNA, a function proposed to be related with its leucine zipper domain. The two proteins also differ in their cellular localization: RIC1 is expressed in the cytoplasm only, and RIC2 occurs both in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Therefore, we concluded that the two RIC paralogs have different roles in T. vaginalis, with RIC2 showing an unprecedented DNA binding ability when compared with all other until now studied RICs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Adenosine, but not guanosine, protects vaginal epithelial cells from Trichomonas vaginalis cytotoxicity.

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    Menezes, Camila Braz; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Meirelles, Lucia Collares; Tasca, Tiana

    2017-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. The cytoadherence and cytotoxicity upon the vaginal epithelial cells are crucial for the infection. Extracellular nucleotides are released during cell damage and, along with their nucleosides, can activate purinoceptors. The opposing effects of nucleotides versus nucleosides are regulated by ectonucleotidases. Herein we evaluated the hemolysis and cytolysis induced by T. vaginalis, as well as the extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis along with the effects mediated by nucleotides and nucleosides on cytotoxicity. In addition, the gene expression of purinoceptors in host cells was determined. The hemolysis and cytolysis exerted by all T. vaginalis isolates presented positive Pearson correlation. All T. vaginalis isolates were able to hydrolyze nucleotides, showing higher NTPDase than ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity. The most cytotoxic isolate, TV-LACM6, hydrolyzes ATP, GTP with more efficiency than AMP and GMP. The vaginal epithelial cell line (HMVII) expressed the genes for all subtypes of P1, P2X and P2Y receptors. Finally, when nucleotides and nucleosides were tested, the cytotoxic effect elicited by TV-LACM6 was increased with nucleotides. In contrast, the cytotoxicity was reversed by adenosine in presence of EHNA, but not by guanosine, contributing to the understanding of the purinergic signaling role on T. vaginalis cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of cyclin-dependent kinases and Cdc2/Cdc28 kinase subunits in Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Amador, Erick; López-Pacheco, Karla; Morales, Nataly; Coria, Roberto; López-Villaseñor, Imelda

    2017-04-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have important roles in regulating key checkpoints between stages of the cell cycle. Their activity is tightly regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including through binding with cyclin proteins and the Cdc2/Cdc28 kinase subunit (CKS), and their phosphorylation at specific amino acids. Studies of the components involved in cell cycle control in parasitic protozoa are limited. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis in humans and is therefore important in public health; however, some of the basic biological processes used by this organism have not been defined. Here, we characterized proteins potentially involved in cell cycle regulation in T. vaginalis. Three genes encoding protein kinases were identified in the T. vaginalis genome, and the corresponding recombinant proteins (TvCRK1, TvCRK2, TvCRK5) were studied. These proteins displayed similar sequence features to CDKs. Two genes encoding CKSs were also identified, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were found to interact with TvCRK1 and TvCRK2 by a yeast two-hybrid system. One putative cyclin B protein from T. vaginalis was found to bind to and activate the kinase activities of TvCRK1 and TvCRK5, but not TvCRK2. This work is the first characterization of proteins involved in cell cycle control in T. vaginalis.

  6. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

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    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies.

  7. Evaluation of the in vitro activity of ceragenins against Trichomonas vaginalis.

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    Polat, Zubeyde Akin; Cetin, Ali; Savage, Poul B

    2016-03-01

    Trichomonosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is a curable sexually transmitted disease that is most commonly encountered worldwide. Increasing importance of trichomoniasis and emerging of resistance against metronidazole lead to search for alternative drugs with different mode of activity. The purpose of this study was to determine in vitro activity of ceragenins (CSA-13, CSA-44, CSA-13, and CSA-138) against the metronidazole-susceptible (ATCC 30001) and metronidazole-resistant (ATCC 50138) strains of T. vaginalis. The effective concentrations were evaluated using two strains of T. vaginalis with different metronidazole susceptibilities (ATCC 30001 and ATCC 50138) in the presence of dilution series of ceragenins in 24-well microtitre assays. Overall, all the ceragenins killed the metronidazole-susceptible (ATCC 30001) and metronidazole-resistant (ATCC 50138) strains of T. vaginalis (p>0.05). With regard to the their effects against the studied strains of T. vaginalis, in order of effectiveness, overall, the ceragenins ordered as CSA-13 (the most effective), CSA-131 and CSA-138 (effective similarly), and CSA-44 (the least effective) (pvaginalis with a time- and dose- dependent manner (pvaginalis. CSA-13 is the leading ceragenin as the most effective anti-trichomonas compound, followed by CSA-131 and CSA-138. They have a potential to have a place in the armemantarium of gynecologic and urologic practice for the management of sexually transmitted diseases.

  8. The effect of iron on metronidazole activity against Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro.

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    Elwakil, Hala Salah; Tawfik, Rania Ayman; Alam-Eldin, Yosra Hussein; Nassar, Doaa Ashraf

    2017-11-01

    Metronidazole is administered in an inactive form then activated to its cytotoxic form within the hydrogenosome of trichomonads. Two hydrogenosomal proteins, pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and ferredoxin, play a critical role in the reductive activation of metronidazole. The expression of these proteins and other hydrogenosomal proteins are likewise positively regulated by iron. In the present study, the effect of iron on minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of metronidazole on in vitro cultured Trichomonas vaginalis(T. vaginalis) isolates was investigated. Interestingly, Addition of Ferrous ammonium sulphate (FAS) to T. vaginalis culture led to decrease in the MLC of metronidazole. On using aerobic assay, MLC of metronidazole on untreated T. vaginalis of both isolates was 12.5 μg/ml that decreased to 0.38 μg/ml on FAS treated trichomonads. Also anaerobic assay revealed that MLC on untreated parasites was 3.12 μg/ml that decreased to 0.097 μg/ml and 0.19 μg/ml for isolate 1 and isolate 2 respectively after iron addition. It was concluded that, addition of iron to in vitro cultured T. vaginalis decreases metronidazole MLC that was detected by both aerobic and anaerobic assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in Nigerian pregnant women and risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections.

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    Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T; Fadipe, Olamide; Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa T

    2016-11-01

    Trichomoniasis poses a public health threat to pregnant women and neonatal health. This study evaluated Trichomonas vaginalis and other common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) status in pregnant women, and risk factors associated with them. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive and a total of 198 pregnant women were recruited for T. vaginalis screening by microscopic examination. Questionnaires were also administered to 108 pregnant women to access information related to socio-demography and other factors associated with STI transmission. The overall prevalence of T. vaginalis was 18.7%. While prevalence of T. vaginalis was neither age nor parity dependent (p > 0.05), women in their first trimester showed significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis compared to women in their second and third trimesters (p vaginalis in pregnant women, with those at an early gestational age at greater risk. The improved education of women on safe sex and the need to know partners' STI status are advocated. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS FOR WOMEN IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Cíntia Lima AMBROZIO

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Trichomonas vaginalis infections have been associated with other diseases so that epidemiological studies of the parasite are important and help to prevent the spread of the disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis in female patients of 19 counties in southwestern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For diagnosis, was used direct examination, followed by applying a socio-epidemiological questionnaire. We analyzed 300 women and 9% were infected by Trichomonas vaginalis. The highest frequency occurred in women between 18 and 39 years old, single/divorced/widowed, whose family income was at one minimum wage or less, and they had not completed the primary school. Statistically significant risk factors were: women reporting two or more sexual partners in the last year were 3.3 times more likely to acquire the parasite, and those in use of oral contraceptives were 2.7 times more likely to have T. vaginalis. Importantly, 33% of the asymptomatic women were infected, and most of the negative results were from women presenting symptoms consistent with the infection. The findings emphasize that it is necessary to expand the knowledge of individuals about the disease, especially among women with the above mentioned risk factors and also to include the regular screening of Trichomonas vaginalis infections in health centers.

  11. IL-10 release by bovine epithelial cells cultured with Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus

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    Ricardo Chaves Vilela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic protists of the human and bovine urogenital tracts, respectively. Several studies have described the cytotoxic effects of trichomonads on urogenital tract epithelial cells. However, little is known about the host cell response against trichomonads. The aim of this study was to determine whether T. foetus and T. vaginalis stimulated the release of the cytokine interleukin (IL-10 from cultured bovine epithelial cells. To characterise the inflammatory response induced by these parasites, primary cultures of bovine oviduct epithelial cells were exposed to either T. vaginalis or T. foetus. Within 12 h after parasite challenge, supernatants were collected and cytokine production was analysed. Large amounts of IL-10 were detected in the supernatants of cultures that had been stimulated with T. foetus. Interestingly, T. vaginalis induced only a small increase in the release of IL-10 upon exposure to the same bovine cells. Thus, the inflammatory response of the host cell is species-specific. Only T. foetus and not T. vaginalis induced the release of IL-10 by bovine oviduct epithelial cells.

  12. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and protozoan load in South African women: a cross-sectional study

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    de Waaij, Dewi J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Trichomonas vaginalis is thought to be the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors and protozoan load of T. vaginalis infection in South African women. Methods A cross-sectional study of 604 women was conducted at 25 primary healthcare facilities in rural South Africa (Mopani district). T. vaginalis DNA was detected in vaginal and rectal swabs. In univariate and multivariate analyses, the T. vaginalis infection was investigated in relation to demographic characteristics, medical history and behavioural factors. The T. vaginalis load was determined as the logarithm of DNA copies per microlitre sample solution. Results Collected vaginal and rectal swabs were tested for T. vaginalis DNA. Prevalence of vaginal T. vaginalis was 20% (95% CI 17.0% to 23.4%) and rectal 1.2% (95% CI 0.6% to 2.4%). Most women (66%) with a vaginal infection were asymptomatic. Factors associated with T. vaginalis infection were a relationship status of single (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5 to 4.0; pvaginalis infection were more likely to have concurrent Chlamydia trachomatis rectal infection than those without vaginal infection (12%vs3%; pvaginalis load was observed among women with observed vaginal discharge compared with those without vaginal discharge (p=0.025). Conclusions Vaginal trichomoniasis is highly prevalent in rural South Africa, especially among single women and those with HIV infection, and often presents without symptoms. PMID:28993385

  13. Large two-centre study into the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.S. de; Rahamat-Langendoen, J.C.; Alphen, P. van; Hilt, N.; Herk, C. van; Pont, S.; Melchers, W.; Bovenkamp, J. van de

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis are common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In the Netherlands, testing for M. genitalium and T. vaginalis is not recommended for first-line STI screening. Recent reports about the increasing antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium raise

  14. High rates of double-stranded RNA viruses and Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz Becker, Débora; dos Santos, Odelta; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in world, with 276.4 million new cases each year. T. vaginalis can be naturally infected with Mycoplasma hominis and Trichomonasvirus species. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of T. vaginalis infected with four distinct T. vaginalis viruses (TVVs) and M. hominis among isolates from patients in Porto Alegre city, South Brazil. An additional goal of this study was to investigate whether there is association between metronidazole resistance and the presence of M. hominis during TVV infection. The RNA expression level of the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) gene was also evaluated among metronidazole-resistant and metronidazole-sensitive T. vaginalis isolates. A total of 530 urine samples were evaluated, and 5.7% samples were positive for T. vaginalis infection. Among them, 4.51% were isolated from female patients and 1.12% were from male patients. Remarkably, the prevalence rates of M. hominis and TVV-positive T. vaginalis isolates were 56.7% and 90%, respectively. Most of the T. vaginalis isolates were metronidazole-sensitive (86.7%), and only four isolates (13.3%) were resistant. There is no statistically significant association between infection by M. hominis and infection by TVVs. Our results refute the hypothesis that the presence of the M. hominis and TVVs is enough to confer metronidazole resistance to T. vaginalis isolates. Additionally, the role of PFOR RNA expression levels in metronidazole resistance as the main mechanism of resistance to metronidazole could not be established. This study is the first report of the T. vaginalis infection by M. hominis and TVVs in a large collection of isolates from South Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative drug susceptibility study of five clonal strains of Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hemantkumar Somabhai Chaudhari; Prati Pal Singh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To produce comparative data on a group of Trichomonas vaginalis clonal strains with varied drug responses using identical methods and materials. Methods: Five clonal strains of Trichomonas vaginalis were isolated from reference strain using agar plate technique. The variability of growth kinetic and susceptibility of clonal strain to metronidazole, tinidazole, satranidazole and nitazoxanide were observed in 96 well microtitre plate. Results: Among these clonal strains there was a good correlation between rates of growth with the relative susceptibility of the strains to drugs in vitro. Regarding metronidazole, tinidazole and satranidazole susceptibility, different degrees of susceptibility were determined. However, no difference in nitazoxanide susceptibility was found between the clonal strain tested and a reference strain.Conclusions: This is the first description of biological variability in clonal stock of Trichomonas vaginalis. Different degrees of drug susceptibility were determined among clonal strains tested. Further studies will be necessary to ascertain the importance of this variability in clinical infection.

  16. Trichomonas vaginalis-An indicator for other sexually transmitted infecting agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal B

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on 350 women having sexually transmitted diseases (STD and 68 male counterparts. Trichomonas vaginalis was a significant contributor in 216 (61.7% out of 350 female STD cases and 56 (82.3% out of 68 male counterparts. Further, out of 126 (58.3% out of 216 cases of T. vaginalis, 41 cases (32.5% were associated with candida species; 29 cases (23% were associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N gonorrhoeae; Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi 18 cases (14.3% and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis 11 cases (8.7%. Treponema pallidium (T. pallidium was observed in 8 cases (6.3% which constitutes a low percentage. The present study highlights the importance of T. vaginalis by showing positivity in two-thirds of the STD cases which suggests that it can be an important indicator for other etiological STD agents in women.

  17. Biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Hilda M.; Marcet, Ricardo; Sarracent, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Human trichomonosis, infection with Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. The host-parasite interaction and pathophysiological processes of trichomonosis remain incompletely understood. This review focuses on the advancements reached in the area of the pathogenesis of T. vaginalis, especially in the role of the cysteine proteinases. It highlights various approaches made in this field and lists a group of trichomonad cysteine proteinases involved in diverse processes such as invasion of the mucous layer, cytoadherence, cytotoxicity, cytoskeleton disruption of red blood cells, hemolysis, and evasion of the host immune response. A better understanding of the biological roles of cysteine proteinases in the pathogenesis of this parasite could be used in the identification of new chemotherapeutic targets. An additional advantage could be the development of a vaccine in order to reduce transmission of T. vaginalis. PMID:25348828

  18. Identification of weak points prone for mutation in ferredoxin of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis , the causative agent for human trichomoniasis, is a problematic sexually transmitted disease mainly in women. At present, metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis is an infrequent but challenging problem with no universally successful treatment. Genetic mutation is believed to be an important factor leading to increasing drug resistance. Understanding the mutation status will help to design accurate strategies of therapy against mutant strains of T. vaginalis . The author performed a bioinformatic analysis to determine positions that tend to comply peptide motifs in the amino acid sequence of ferridoxin of T. vaginalis . Based on this study, the weak linkages in the studied protein can be identified and can be useful information for prediction of possible new mutations that can lead to drug resistance. In addition, the results from this study can be good information for further research on the diagnosis for mutants and new effective drug development.

  19. A Trichomonas vaginalis Rhomboid Protease and Its Substrate Modulate Parasite Attachment and Cytolysis of Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra, Angelica M.; Gandhi, Shiv; Sweredoski, Michael J.; Moradian, Annie; Hess, Sonja; Urban, Sinisa; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is an extracellular eukaryotic parasite that causes the most common, non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Although disease burden is high, molecular mechanisms underlying T. vaginalis pathogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we identify a family of putative T. vaginalis rhomboid proteases and demonstrate catalytic activity for two, TvROM1 and TvROM3, using a heterologous cell cleavage assay. The two T. vaginalis intramembrane serine proteases display different subcellular localization and substrate specificities. TvROM1 is a cell surface membrane protein and cleaves atypical model rhomboid protease substrates, whereas TvROM3 appears to localize to the Golgi apparatus and recognizes a typical model substrate. To identify TvROM substrates, we interrogated the T. vaginalis surface proteome using both quantitative proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Of the nine candidates identified, TVAG_166850 and TVAG_280090 were shown to be cleaved by TvROM1. Comparison of amino acid residues surrounding the predicted cleavage sites of TvROM1 substrates revealed a preference for small amino acids in the predicted transmembrane domain. Over-expression of TvROM1 increased attachment to and cytolysis of host ectocervical cells. Similarly, mutations that block the cleavage of a TvROM1 substrate lead to its accumulation on the cell surface and increased parasite adherence to host cells. Together, these data indicate a role for TvROM1 and its substrate(s) in modulating attachment to and lysis of host cells, which are key processes in T. vaginalis pathogenesis. PMID:26684303

  20. Detecting the Diversity of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Endosymbionts Hosted by Trichomonas vaginalis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Anastasios; Papaioannou, Panagiota; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Magana, Maria; Ioannidou, Vasiliki; Tzanetou, Konstantina; Burriel, Angeliki R.; Tsironi, Maria; Chatzipanagiotou, Stylianos

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis is the first described association between two obligate human parasites. Trichomonas is the niche and the vector for the transmission of M. hominis infection. This clinically significant symbiosis may affect T. vaginalis virulence and susceptibility to treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate the intracellularly present Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species in T. vaginalis strains isolated from the vaginal discharge of infected women as well as to trace the diversity pattern among the species detected in the isolated strains. Methods: Hundred pure T. vaginalis cultures were isolated from ~7,500 patient specimens presented with clinical purulent vaginitis. PCR and sequencing for Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma spp. were performed in DNA extracted from the pure cultures. In addition, vaginal discharge samples were cultured for the presence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum. Phylogenetic analysis assisted the identification of interspecies relationships between the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma isolates. Results: Fifty four percentage of T. vaginalis isolates were harboring Mycoplasma spp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three distinct clusters, two with already characterized M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp. (37% of total Mycoplasma spp.), whereas one group formed a distinct cluster matched with the newly identified species Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii (59.3%) and one or more unknown Mycoplasma spp. (3.7%). Conclusions: T. vaginalis strains associated with vaginal infection might host intracellular mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas. Intracellular Mollicutes that remain undetected in the extracellular environment when conventional diagnostic methods are implemented may comprise either novel species, such as Candidatus M. giredii, or unknown species with yet unexplored clinical significance. PMID:28702014

  1. Kinetics of circulating antibody response to Trichomonas vaginalis: clinical and diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton Nu, Phuong Anh; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Nguyen, Vu Quoc Huy; Fiori, Pier Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Persistence of antibodies against pathogens after antimicrobial treatment is a marker of therapy failure or evolution to a chronic infection. The kinetics of antibody production decrease following antigen elimination is highly variable, and predicting the duration of soluble immunity in infectious diseases is often impossible. This hampers the development and use of immunoassays for diagnostic and seroepidemiological purposes. In the case of Trichomonas vaginalis infection, the kinetics of antibody levels decrease following therapy has never been studied. We thus investigated the clearance of circulating anti-T. vaginalis IgGs after pharmacological treatment in patients affected by trichomoniasis. 18 female patients affected by acute trichomoniasis were enrolled in this study. After metronidazole therapy administration, subjects were followed up monthly up to 5 months, and serum levels of anti-T. vaginalis IgGs were measured by ELISA. We showed that a successful therapy is characterised by a relatively fast decline of specific antibodies, until turning into negative by ELISA in 1-3 months. In a few patients we observed that the persistence of anti-T. vaginalis antibodies was associated with an evolution to chronic infection, which may be due to treatment failure or to reinfection by untreated sexual partners. Our results describe the direct correlation between the decline of a specific humoral anti-T. vaginalis response and an effective antimicrobial therapy. These findings may facilitate the follow-up approach to circumvent limitations in developing new diagnostic tools and techniques routinely used in microbiology laboratories to assess the presence of T. vaginalis in clinical samples. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Detecting the Diversity of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma Endosymbionts Hosted by Trichomonas vaginalis Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Ioannidis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma hominis is the first described association between two obligate human parasites. Trichomonas is the niche and the vector for the transmission of M. hominis infection. This clinically significant symbiosis may affect T. vaginalis virulence and susceptibility to treatment. The aims of this study were to investigate the intracellularly present Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species in T. vaginalis strains isolated from the vaginal discharge of infected women as well as to trace the diversity pattern among the species detected in the isolated strains.Methods: Hundred pure T. vaginalis cultures were isolated from ~7,500 patient specimens presented with clinical purulent vaginitis. PCR and sequencing for Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma spp. were performed in DNA extracted from the pure cultures. In addition, vaginal discharge samples were cultured for the presence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum. Phylogenetic analysis assisted the identification of interspecies relationships between the Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma isolates.Results: Fifty four percentage of T. vaginalis isolates were harboring Mycoplasma spp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three distinct clusters, two with already characterized M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp. (37% of total Mycoplasma spp., whereas one group formed a distinct cluster matched with the newly identified species Candidatus Mycoplasma girerdii (59.3% and one or more unknown Mycoplasma spp. (3.7%.Conclusions:T. vaginalis strains associated with vaginal infection might host intracellular mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas. Intracellular Mollicutes that remain undetected in the extracellular environment when conventional diagnostic methods are implemented may comprise either novel species, such as Candidatus M. giredii, or unknown species with yet unexplored clinical significance.

  3. Detecting asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis in females using the BD ProbeTec™ Trichomonas vaginalis Qx nucleic acid amplification test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Emily; Newnham, Tana; Dorrell, Lucy; Jesuthasan, Gerald; Clarke, Lorraine; Jeffery, Katie; Sherrard, Jackie

    2017-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) rates in women are increasing and many are asymptomatic. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are becoming the 'gold standard' for diagnosis. We aimed to establish our asymptomatic TV rates by testing all women attending Oxfordshire's Sexual Health service, regardless of symptoms, using the BD ProbeTec™ TV Q x NAATs (BDQ x ). During BDQ x 's verification process, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated using results of 220 endocervical samples from symptomatic women, compared with culture. BDQ x was subsequently implemented and prospectively evaluated over 6 months in female attendees. Wet mount microscopy was also performed in symptomatics. Demographic and clinical characteristics of those diagnosed were analysed. From 220 samples tested by BDQ x and culture: 5 were positive on both and one solely using BDQ x , giving a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.53%, respectively. In the prospective cohort, of 5775 BDQ x tests, 33 (0.57%) were positive. 11/33 (33%) patients were asymptomatic. All patients diagnosed had risk factors: age >25 years (85%), residence in a deprived area (79%) and black ethnicity (21%). Despite BDQ x being highly sensitive and specific, with our low TV prevalence universal screening may not be justified. Targeted screening using local demographic data merits further investigation.

  4. In vitro sensitivity of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans to chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, T; Salmela, I

    1978-06-01

    Strains of fresh clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans have been tested in vitro for their sensitivity to eight drugs used in the therapy of monilial and trichomonal vaginitis. Three of the chemotherapeutic agents, chlorchinaldol, clotrimazole and broxyquinoline were effective against both organisms. Tinidazole and metronidazole were active against T. vaginalis. The strains of C. albicans were also sensitive to trichomycin, natamycin and nystatin. Tinidazole was the most effective trichomonacide, clotrimazole and chlorchinaldol were most effective against C. albicans, while chlorchinaldol had the best in vitro effect against both organisms. The ranges of the MICs are compared to values previously reported.

  5. New metabolic labelling medium for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus using 35S methionine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torian, B.E.; Kenny, G.E.

    1986-04-01

    A metabolic labelling medium was devised for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus utilizing 35S methionine. T. vaginalis cultured for 24h in the medium took up approximately 27% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in number. Counts per microgram of protein were 32,555 +/- 10% between different strains or identical strains in different labelling runs. T. foetus took up approximately 5% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in 24h. This resulted in specific labelling of 12,704 cpm/ug protein +/- 10% between different runs with the same strain.

  6. New metabolic labelling medium for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus using 35S methionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torian, B.E.; Kenny, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    A metabolic labelling medium was devised for Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus utilizing 35S methionine. T. vaginalis cultured for 24h in the medium took up approximately 27% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in number. Counts per microgram of protein were 32,555 +/- 10% between different strains or identical strains in different labelling runs. T. foetus took up approximately 5% of the available label and increased greater than two fold in 24h. This resulted in specific labelling of 12,704 cpm/ug protein +/- 10% between different runs with the same strain

  7. New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F; Travassos, Mark A; Moser, Kara A; Delcher, Arthur L; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-03-28

    Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data. Using ETHA, we characterized the repertoire of var genes in 12 samples from uncomplicated malaria infections in children from a single Malian village and showed them to be as genetically diverse as vars from isolates from around the globe. The gene var2csa, a member of the var family associated with placental malaria pathogenesis, was present in each genome, as were vars previously associated with severe malaria. ETHA, a tool to discover novel var sequences from clinical samples, will aid the understanding of malaria pathogenesis and inform the design of malaria vaccines based on PfEMP1. ETHA is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/etha/ .

  8. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  9. Routine testing of Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, Marieke L M; Veerbeek, Jan H W; Deurloo, Koen L; van Hannen, Erik J; Thijsen, Steven F T

    2017-06-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are common sexual transmitted infections (STI). However, most STI screening programmes do not include routinely detection of these pathogens. Consequently, epidemiological data about MG and TV in the general population is lacking. The current study aims to give insight into the prevalence of both infections, thereby guiding decisions whether testing for these pathogens should be included routinely. Between February 2013 and August 2015, all samples sent to the laboratory of Diakonessenhuis Utrecht for STI testing (i.e. testing for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)) were additionally examined for the presence of MG and TV by means of a laboratory-developed RT-PCR. Samples were collected by our hospital or by regional general practitioners. A total of 5628 PCR's were evaluated. In 7.5%, one or more STI were detected. CT was found in 5% and MG was positive in 1.9%. NG was detected in 0.5% and TV was detected in 0.6% of the samples. CT was found more often in primary care than in hospital setting (9.7% vs. 3.0%, p < .05). The same was shown for NG (1.1% vs. 0.2%, p < .05). More men than women were positive for CT (11.2% vs. 3.8%, p < .05) and NG (1.4% vs. 0.3%, p < .05). MG is more prevalent than NG and TV in a regional Dutch population. Furthermore, TV is equally common as NG. Based on our prevalence data, including MG and TV in STI testing protocols should be considered in the future.

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis Induces SiHa Cell Apoptosis by NF-κB Inactivation via Reactive Oxygen Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Juan-Hua; Kang, Byung-Hun; Yang, Jung-Bo; Rhee, Yun-Ee; Noh, Heung-Tae; Choi, In-Wook; Cha, Guang-Ho; Yuk, Jae-Min

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis induces apoptosis in host cells through various mechanisms; however, little is known about the relationship between apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and NF-κB signaling pathways in the cervical mucosal epithelium. Here, we evaluated apoptotic events, ROS production, and NF-κB activity in T. vaginalis-treated cervical mucosal epithelial SiHa cells, with or without specific inhibitors, using fluorescence microscopy, DNA fragmentation assays, subcellular fractionation, western blotting, and luciferase reporter assay. SiHa cells treated with live T. vaginalis at a multiplicity of infection of 5 (MOI 5) for 4 h produced intracellular and mitochondrial ROS in a parasite-load-dependent manner. Incubation with T. vaginalis caused DNA fragmentation, cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. T. vaginalis-treated SiHa cells showed transient early NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, which dramatically dropped at 4 h after treatment. Suppression of NF-κB activity was dependent on parasite burden. However, treatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-C-cysteine (NAC), reversed the effect of T. vaginalis on apoptosis and NF-κB inactivation in SiHa cells. Taken together, T. vaginalis induces apoptosis in human cervical mucosal epithelial cells by parasite-dose-dependent ROS production through an NF-κB-regulated, mitochondria-mediated pathway. PMID:29410962

  11. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR in men attending a primary care urology clinic in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jun-Hyeok; Yang, Hye-Won; Joo, So-Young; Song, Su-Min; Lee, Yu-Ran; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Yoo, Eun Sang; Lee, Won Kee; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Won-Ja; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Chung, Dong-Il; Hong, Yeonchul

    2014-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a causative agent of trichomoniasis, may trigger symptomatic or asymptomatic nongonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis in men. Despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests, including PCR, few prospective studies present data on male T. vaginalis infection in South Korea. In the present study, the prevalence of T. vaginalis and associated clinical conditions were evaluated in 201 male patients from a primary care urology clinic in South Korea. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in our cohort was 4% (8/201) by PCR. T. vaginalis infection was common in men older than 40 years (median age, 52 years). Among the 8 Trichomonas-positive patients, 87.5% (7/8) had prostatic diseases, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 25.0% (2/8) and 12.5% (1/8) were coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. Our results suggest that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in men attending primary care urology clinics in South Korea, especially in those older than 40 years, in whom it may explain the presence of prostatic disease. The possibility of T. vaginalis infection should be routinely considered in older male patients with prostatic diseases in South Korea.

  12. Trichomonas vaginalis Induces SiHa Cell Apoptosis by NF-κB Inactivation via Reactive Oxygen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Hua Quan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis induces apoptosis in host cells through various mechanisms; however, little is known about the relationship between apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and NF-κB signaling pathways in the cervical mucosal epithelium. Here, we evaluated apoptotic events, ROS production, and NF-κB activity in T. vaginalis-treated cervical mucosal epithelial SiHa cells, with or without specific inhibitors, using fluorescence microscopy, DNA fragmentation assays, subcellular fractionation, western blotting, and luciferase reporter assay. SiHa cells treated with live T. vaginalis at a multiplicity of infection of 5 (MOI 5 for 4 h produced intracellular and mitochondrial ROS in a parasite-load-dependent manner. Incubation with T. vaginalis caused DNA fragmentation, cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP, and release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. T. vaginalis-treated SiHa cells showed transient early NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, which dramatically dropped at 4 h after treatment. Suppression of NF-κB activity was dependent on parasite burden. However, treatment with the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-C-cysteine (NAC, reversed the effect of T. vaginalis on apoptosis and NF-κB inactivation in SiHa cells. Taken together, T. vaginalis induces apoptosis in human cervical mucosal epithelial cells by parasite-dose-dependent ROS production through an NF-κB-regulated, mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  13. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  14. Male partner circumcision associated with lower Trichomonas vaginalis incidence among pregnant and postpartum Kenyan women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintye, Jillian; Drake, Alison L; Unger, Jennifer A; Matemo, Daniel; Kinuthia, John; McClelland, R Scott; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the world's most common curable STI and has implications for reproductive health in women. We determined incidence and correlates of T. vaginalis in an HIV-uninfected peripartum cohort. Women participating in a prospective study of peripartum HIV acquisition in Western Kenya were enrolled during pregnancy and followed until 9 months post partum. T. vaginalis was assessed every 1-3 months using wet mount microscopy. Correlates of incident T. vaginalis were determined using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 1271 women enrolled, median age was 22 years (IQR 19-27) and gestational age was 22 weeks (IQR 18-26); most (78%) were married and had uncircumcised male partners (69%). Prevalent T. vaginalis was detected in 81 women (6%) at enrolment. Among women without T. vaginalis at enrolment, 112 had T. vaginalis detected during 1079 person-years of follow-up (10.4 per 100 person-years). After adjustment for socio-economic factors, male partner circumcision status, pregnancy status and other STIs, T. vaginalis incidence was higher during pregnancy than post partum (22.3 vs 7.7 per 100 person-years, adjusted HR (aHR) 3.68, 95% CI 1.90 to 7.15, pvaginalis compared with women with uncircumcised partners (aHR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.76, p=0.004). Employed women had lower risk of incident T. vaginalis than unemployed women (aHR 0.49, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.79, p=0.003); recent STI was associated with increased T. vaginalis risk (aHR 2.97, 95% CI 1.49 to 5.94, p=0.002). T. vaginalis was relatively common in this peripartum cohort. Male circumcision may confer benefits in preventing T. vaginalis . Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Persistent Urethritis and Prostatitis Due to Trichomonas vaginalis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abdolrasouli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a case of persistent urethritis accompanied by prostatitis due to Trichomonas vaginalis in a young male patient. The importance of the laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis in persistent or recurrent urethritis (ie, testing samples from multiple sites is highlighted, with the aim of improving the clinical recognition of this pathogen.

  16. Novel Functions of an Iron-Sulfur Flavoprotein from Trichomonas vaginalis Hydrogenosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smutná, T.; Pilařová, K.; Tarábek, Ján; Tachezy, J.; Hrdý, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 6 (2014), s. 3224-3232 ISSN 0066-4804 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GC13-09208J Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Methanosarcina thermophila * nitric oxide * Trichomonas vaginalis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.476, year: 2014

  17. The effect of lavender essential oil and nanoemulsion on Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Ziaei Hezarjaribi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is the cause of trichomoniasis. Due to increased resistance and side effects of the drugs, the aim of this study was to assess an anti-trichomonias effect of lavender (Lavandula officinalis essential oil and nanoemulsion on T. vaginalis in vitro. Materials and Methods: Lavender essential oil components were characterized by gas chromatography. To determine the cytotoxicity effects, the macrophage cell line J774.A.1 was used. Trichomonas vaginalis was isolated from vaginal secretions of the infected women and then cultured in the TYM complete medium and passaged for 10 days. The effect of essential oil and 1% lavender nanoemulsion in concentrations 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL in the 24-well plate were examined at 1, 2 and 3 hours as triplicate. Positive control was metronidazole (50 μg/mL. The number of live and dead parasites was counted by trypan blue stain with a Neubauer slide. Results: The viability of the macrophages for lavender essential oil was 93.70% and for nanoemulsion was 90.90%. Essential oil and nanoemulsion of lavender in concentration of 100 μg/mL and during 3 hours showed 81.7% and 81.9% growth inhibitory, respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Lavender essential oil and nanoemulsion has a desirable inhibitory effect on growth of T.vaginalis and can be a good choice for conducting therapeutic investigations regarding trichomonial infections.

  18. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Human papillomavirus in female sex workers in Central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Ramírez, Azucena; López-Monteon, Aracely; Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; Méndez-Bolaina, Enrique; Guapillo-Vargas, Mario R B

    2018-03-13

    Female sex workers (FSWs) have been considered a key population for sexually transmitted infections (STIs); therefore, they are periodically screened as a requirement to obtain a work card. However, there is insufficient epidemiological data on STIs among FSWs in Mexico. The detection of Trichomonas vaginalis is limited to microscopic studies and the molecular screening of Human papillomavirus (HPV) is only done to women 35 years of age and older. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis and HPV infections in FSWs in the city of Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico. Samples from 105 FSWs were obtained by cervical swab and analyzed. The identification of T. vaginalis and HPV was performed by molecular methods. HPV DNA was identified in 5.71% of the samples with the presence of HPV16, HPV18, and HPV58. A percentage of 25.7% samples were positive for T. vaginalis for optical microscopy and 23.8% for PCR. The results of the study indicate the need to incorporate more sensitive methods for the timely diagnosis of STIs as well as comprehensive health promotion programs directed to the most vulnerable groups among FSWs. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Trichomonas vaginalis exosomes deliver cargo to host cells and mediate host∶parasite interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Twu

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted parasite that colonizes the human urogential tract where it remains extracellular and adheres to epithelial cells. Infections range from asymptomatic to highly inflammatory, depending on the host and the parasite strain. Here, we use a combination of methodologies including cell fractionation, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, RNA, proteomic and cytokine analyses and cell adherence assays to examine pathogenic properties of T. vaginalis. We have found that T.vaginalis produces and secretes microvesicles with physical and biochemical properties similar to mammalian exosomes. The parasite-derived exosomes are characterized by the presence of RNA and core, conserved exosomal proteins as well as parasite-specific proteins. We demonstrate that T. vaginalis exosomes fuse with and deliver their contents to host cells and modulate host cell immune responses. Moreover, exosomes from highly adherent parasite strains increase the adherence of poorly adherent parasites to vaginal and prostate epithelial cells. In contrast, exosomes from poorly adherent strains had no measurable effect on parasite adherence. Exosomes from parasite strains that preferentially bind prostate cells increased binding of parasites to these cells relative to vaginal cells. In addition to establishing that parasite exosomes act to modulate host∶parasite interactions, these studies are the first to reveal a potential role for exosomes in promoting parasite∶parasite communication and host cell colonization.

  20. Analysis of the NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase profiles in serum-limited Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Piccoli Frasson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite of the human urogenital tract that causes trichomonosis, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase family members, which hydrolyse extracellular ATP and ADP and ecto-5′-nucleotidase, which hydrolyses AMP, have been characterised in T. vaginalis. For trichomonad culture, the growth medium is supplemented with 10% serum, which is an important source of nutrients, such as adenosine. Here, we investigated the ATP metabolism of T. vaginalis trophozoites from long-term cultures and clinical isolates under limited bovine serum conditions (1% serum. The specific enzymatic activities were expressed as nmol inorganic phosphate (Pi released/min/mg protein, the gene expression patterns were determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, the extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography and the cell cycle analysis was assessed by flow cytometry. Serum limitation led to the profound activation of NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities. Furthermore, the levels of NTPDase A and B transcripts increased and extracellular ATP metabolism was activated, which led to enhanced ATP hydrolysis and the formation of ADP and AMP. Moreover, the cell cycle was arrested at the G0/G1 stage, which suggested adenosine uptake. Our data suggest that under conditions of serum limitation, NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase play a role in providing the adenosine required for T. vaginalis growth and that this process contributes to the establishment of parasitism.

  1. Optimization of Trichomonas vaginalis Diagnosis during Pregnancy at a University Hospital, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testardini, Pamela; Vaulet, María Lucía Gallo; Entrocassi, Andrea Carolina; Menghi, Claudia; Eliseht, Martha Cora; Gatta, Claudia; Losada, Mirta; Touzón, María Sol; Corominas, Ana; Vay, Carlos; Tatti, Silvio; Famiglietti, Angela; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodriguez; Perazzi, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different methods for Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosis during pregnancy in order to prevent maternal and perinatal complications. A total of 386 vaginal exudates from pregnant women were analyzed. T. vaginalis was investigated by 3 types of microscopic examinations direct wet mount with physiologic saline solution, prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) staining, and wet mount with sodium-acetate-formalin (SAF)/methylene blue method. PCR for 18S rRNA gene as well as culture in liquid medium were performed. The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic examinations were evaluated considering the culture media positivity or the PCR techniques as gold standard. The frequency of T. vaginalis infection was 6.2% by culture and/or PCR, 5.2% by PCR, 4.7% by culture, 3.1% by SAF/methylene blue method and 2.8% by direct wet smear and prolonged MGG staining. The sensitivities were 83.3%, 75.0%, 50.0%, and 45.8% for PCR, culture, SAF/methylene blue method, and direct wet smear-prolonged MGG staining, respectively. The specificity was 100% for all the assessed methods. Microscopic examinations showed low sensitivity, mainly in asymptomatic pregnant patients. It is necessary to improve the detection of T. vaginalis using combined methods providing higher sensitivity, such as culture and PCR, mainly in asymptomatic pregnant patients, in order to prevent maternal and perinatal complications.

  2. The Pathogenesis of Human Cervical Epithelium Cells Induced by Interacting with Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Wei-Ting; Chang, Tsuey-Yu; Shin, Jyh-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that occurs in the urogenital-vaginal tract and is the primary causative agent of trichomoniasis, a common sexually transmitted disease in humans. The aggregation of this protozoan tends to destroy epithelial cells and induce pathogenesis. Principal Findings This study cultured T. vaginalis and human cervical epithelial cells (Z172) under the same conditions in the experiments. Following co-culturing for ten hours, the protozoans became attached to Z172, such that the cells presented a round shape and underwent shrinkage. Time-lapse recording and flow cytometry on interacted Z172 revealed that 70% had been disrupted, 18% presented a necrosis-like morphology and 8% showed signs of apoptosis. Gene expression profiling revealed in the seven inflammatory Z172 genes as well as in T. vaginalis genes that code for adhesion proteins 65 and 65-1. Significance These results suggest that cytopathogenic effects progress while Z172 is in contact with T. vaginalis, and the resulting morphological changes can be categorized as disruption. PMID:25901354

  3. Differential Protein Expressions in Virus-Infected and Uninfected Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ding; Pengtao, Gong; Ju, Yang; Jianhua, Li; He, Li; Guocai, Zhang; Xichen, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Protozoan viruses may influence the function and pathogenicity of the protozoa. Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan that could contain a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, T. vaginalis virus (TVV). However, there are few reports on the properties of the virus. To further determine variations in protein expression of T. vaginalis , we detected 2 strains of T. vaginalis ; the virus-infected (V + ) and uninfected (V - ) isolates to examine differentially expressed proteins upon TVV infection. Using a stable isotope N-terminal labeling strategy (iTRAQ) on soluble fractions to analyze proteomes, we identified 293 proteins, of which 50 were altered in V + compared with V - isolates. The results showed that the expression of 29 proteins was increased, and 21 proteins decreased in V + isolates. These differentially expressed proteins can be classified into 4 categories: ribosomal proteins, metabolic enzymes, heat shock proteins, and putative uncharacterized proteins. Quantitative PCR was used to detect 4 metabolic processes proteins: glycogen phosphorylase, malate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, which were differentially expressed in V + and V - isolates. Our findings suggest that mRNA levels of these genes were consistent with protein expression levels. This study was the first which analyzed protein expression variations upon TVV infection. These observations will provide a basis for future studies concerning the possible roles of these proteins in host-parasite interactions.

  4. Recent Advances in the Trichomonas vaginalis Field [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leitsch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The microaerophilic protist parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is occurring globally and causes infections in the urogenital tract in humans, a condition termed trichomoniasis. In fact, trichomoniasis is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease with more than 250 million people infected every year. Although trichomoniasis is not life threatening in itself, it can be debilitating and increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, HIV infection, and, possibly, neoplasias in the prostate and the cervix. Apart from its role as a pathogen, T. vaginalis is also a fascinating organism with a surprisingly large genome for a parasite, i.e. larger than 160 Mb, and a physiology adapted to its microaerophilic lifestyle. In particular, the hydrogenosome, a mitochondria-derived organelle that produces hydrogen, has attracted much interest in the last few decades and rendered T. vaginalis a model organism for eukaryotic evolution. This review will give a succinct overview of the major advances in the T. vaginalis field in the last few years.

  5. Five putative nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase genes are expressed in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Dos Santos, Odelta; Meirelles, Lúcia Collares; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan that parasitizes the human urogenital tract causing trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease. The parasite has unique genomic characteristics such as a large genome size and expanded gene families. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) is an enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing nucleoside tri- and diphosphates and has already been biochemically characterized in T. vaginalis. Considering the important role of this enzyme in the production of extracellular adenosine for parasite uptake, we evaluated the gene expression of five putative NTPDases in T. vaginalis. We showed that all five putative TvNTPDase genes (TvNTPDase1-5) were expressed by both fresh clinical and long-term grown isolates. The amino acid alignment predicted the presence of the five crucial apyrase conserved regions, transmembrane domains, signal peptides, phosphorylation and catalytic sites. Moreover, a phylogenetic analysis showed that TvNTPDase sequences make up a clade with NTPDases intracellularly located. Biochemical NTPDase activity (ATP and ADP hydrolysis) is responsive to the serum-restrictive conditions and the gene expression of TvNTPDases was mostly increased, mainly TvNTPDase2 and TvNTPDase4, although there was not a clear pattern of expression among them. In summary, the present report demonstrates the gene expression patterns of predicted NTPDases in T. vaginalis. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Iron from haemoglobin and haemin modulates nucleotide hydrolysis in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros Tavares de; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Carli, Geraldo Atillio de; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB) and haemin (HM) enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron.

  7. Iron from haemoglobin and haemin modulates nucleotide hydrolysis in Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Brum Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB and haemin (HM enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron.

  8. Antiparasitic activity of 1,3-dioxolanes containing tellurium in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena-Lopes, Ângela; das Neves, Raquel Nascimento; Bezerra, Francisco Silvestre Brilhante; de Oliveira Silva, Mara Thais; Nobre, Patrick C; Perin, Gelson; Alves, Diego; Savegnago, Lucielli; Begnini, Karine Rech; Seixas, Fabiana Kommling; Collares, Tiago; Borsuk, Sibele

    2017-05-01

    The increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant infections has resulted in a search for alternative drugs for the treatment of trichomoniasis. In the present study, we report the preparation and in vitro activity of three 1,3-dioxolanes that contain tellurium (PTeDOX 01, PTeDOX 02, and PTeDOX 03) against Trichomonas vaginalis. Six concentrations of these compounds were analyzed for in vitro activity against ATCC 30236 isolate of T. vaginalis. PTeDOX 01 reported a cytotoxic effect against 100% of T. vaginalis trophozoites at a final concentration of 90μM with an IC 50 of 60μM. The kinetic growth curve of trophozoites indicated that PTeDOX 01 reduced the growth by 22% at a concentration of 90μM after an exposure of 12h, and induced complete parasite death at 24h. It induced cytotoxicity of 44% at 90μM concentration but and had no effect in lower concentrations in a culture of CHO-K1 cells. These results confirmed that PTeDOX 01 is an important drug for the treatment of T. vaginalis, and should be evaluated in other infectious agents as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. "Var Teatre"--A Pioneer Turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pamela L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stockholm Municipal Youth and Children's theatre ("Var Teatre"), an institution of 14 theatres and attendant professional staff devoted exclusively to drama activities for children and teenagers. (PD)

  10. [Investigation of in vitro metronidazole resistance in the clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertabaklar, Hatice; Yaman Karadam, Senem; Malatyalı, Erdoğan; Ertuğ, Sema

    2016-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated, urogenital anaerobic protozoon is reported as an important cause of vaginitis with a global distribution. Although metronidazole is the primary choice of drug for the treatment of trichomoniasis, the presence of resistant isolates from many different countries highlights the need of novel drugs for the treatment. Many studies from Turkey mostly dealing with the in vitro effects of compounds and natural products against T.vaginalis have been reported, however, only one study has been encountered searching the metronidazole resistance in a single T.vaginalis isolate. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro metronidazole resistance and minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) of the isolates from symptomatic cases. T.vaginalis strains isolated from vaginal discharge samples of symptomatic women that were sent to Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Research and Training Hospital Parasitology Laboratory, between 2009-2014 period, were included in the study. The strains were isolated by the inoculation of samples into trypticase-yeast-maltose medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. A total of 40 T.vaginalis isolates stored by cryopreservation were revived before the experiments. T.vaginalis trophozoites were incubated with different concentrations of metronidazole (200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.12, 1.56 μg/ml) and the viability of cells were examined in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions under phase contrast microscope. Additionally, non-motile isolates were further inoculated into fresh media and viability was checked. The wells containing motile trophozoites after 48 hours of incubation with 15 µg/ml and/or higher metronidazole concentration in anaerobic condition and 75 µg/ml and/or higher metronidazole concentration in aerobic conditions were determined as resistant isolates. Of the 40 T.vaginalis isolates three (7.5%) were resistant to metronidazole. MLC mean values of metronidazole

  11. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  12. Inflammatory Responses in a Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Epithelial Cell Line (BPH-1) Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Su; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissues from prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer. Chronic prostatic inflammation is known as a risk factor for prostate enlargement, benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms, and acute urinary retention. Our aim was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce inflammatory responses in cells of a benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line (BPH-1). When BPH-1 cells were infected with T. vaginalis, the protein and mRNA of inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL8, CCL2, IL-1β, and IL-6, were increased. The activities of TLR4, ROS, MAPK, JAK2/STAT3, and NF-κB were also increased, whereas inhibitors of ROS, MAPK, PI3K, NF-κB, and anti-TLR4 antibody decreased the production of the 4 cytokines although the extent of inhibition differed. However, a JAK2 inhibitor inhibited only IL-6 production. Culture supernatants of the BPH-1 cells that had been incubated with live T. vaginalis (trichomonad-conditioned medium, TCM) contained the 4 cytokines and induced the migration of human monocytes (THP-1 cells) and mast cells (HMC-1 cells). TCM conditioned by BPH-1 cells pretreated with NF-κB inhibitor showed decreased levels of cytokines and induced less migration. Therefore, it is suggested that these cytokines are involved in migration of inflammatory cells. These results suggest that T. vaginalis infection of BPH patients may cause inflammation, which may induce lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).

  13. Auranofin inactivates Trichomonas vaginalis thioredoxin reductase and is effective against trichomonads in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Melissa; Yun, Jeong-Fil; Zhou, Bianhua; Le, Christine; Kehoe, Katelin; Le, Ryan; Hill, Ryan; Jongeward, Gregg; Debnath, Anjan; Zhang, Liangfang; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Eckmann, Lars; Land, Kirkwood M; Wrischnik, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Trichomoniasis, caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common, non-viral, sexually transmitted infection in the world, but only two closely related nitro drugs are approved for its treatment. New antimicrobials against trichomoniasis remain an urgent need. Several organic gold compounds were tested for activity against T. vaginalis thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in cell-free systems as well as for activity against different trichomonads in vitro and in a murine infection model. The organic gold(I) compounds auranofin and chloro(diethylphenylphosphine)gold(I) inhibited TrxR in a concentration-dependent manner in assays with recombinant purified reductase and in cytoplasmic extracts of T. vaginalis transfected with a haemagglutinin epitope-tagged form of the reductase. Auranofin potently suppressed the growth of three independent clinical T. vaginalis isolates as well as several strains of another trichomonad (Tritrichomonas foetus) in a 24 h-assay, with 50% inhibitory concentrations of 0.7-2.5 µM and minimum lethal concentrations of 2-6 µM. The drug also compromised the ability of the parasite to overcome oxidant stress, supporting the notion that auranofin acts, in part, by inactivating TrxR-dependent antioxidant defences. Chloro(diethylphenylphosphine)gold(I) was 10-fold less effective against T. vaginalis in vitro than auranofin. Oral administration of auranofin for 4 days cleared the parasites in a murine model of vaginal T. foetus infection without displaying any apparent adverse effects. The approved human drug auranofin may be a promising agent as an alternative treatment of trichomoniasis in cases when standard nitro drug therapies have failed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Trichomonas vaginalis homolog of macrophage migration inhibitory factor induces prostate cell growth, invasiveness, and inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twu, Olivia; Dessí, Daniele; Vu, Anh; Mercer, Frances; Stevens, Grant C; de Miguel, Natalia; Rappelli, Paola; Cocco, Anna Rita; Clubb, Robert T; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Johnson, Patricia J

    2014-06-03

    The human-infective parasite Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Infections in men may result in colonization of the prostate and are correlated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. We have found that T. vaginalis secretes a protein, T. vaginalis macrophage migration inhibitory factor (TvMIF), that is 47% similar to human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (HuMIF), a proinflammatory cytokine. Because HuMIF is reported to be elevated in prostate cancer and inflammation plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cancers, we have explored a role for TvMIF in prostate cancer. Here, we show that TvMIF has tautomerase activity, inhibits macrophage migration, and is proinflammatory. We also demonstrate that TvMIF binds the human CD74 MIF receptor with high affinity, comparable to that of HuMIF, which triggers activation of ERK, Akt, and Bcl-2-associated death promoter phosphorylation at a physiologically relevant concentration (1 ng/mL, 80 pM). TvMIF increases the in vitro growth and invasion through Matrigel of benign and prostate cancer cells. Sera from patients infected with T. vaginalis are reactive to TvMIF, especially in males. The presence of anti-TvMIF antibodies indicates that TvMIF is released by the parasite and elicits host immune responses during infection. Together, these data indicate that chronic T. vaginalis infections may result in TvMIF-driven inflammation and cell proliferation, thus triggering pathways that contribute to the promotion and progression of prostate cancer.

  15. In-Vitro Efficacy of Plantago lanceolata L. Extracts on Trichomonas Vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Matini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common non viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Plantago lanceolata extracts on Trichomonas vaginalis. Materials and Methods: In this study, after collection and drying of P. lanceolata, n-hexanic, ethyl acetate, methanol and hydroalcoholic extracts, they were prepared by maceration. Five clinical T. vaginalis isoleates subjected to extract suscebtibility testing, in comparison of metronidazole. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum lethal concentration (MLC tests were carried out in duplicate and repeated two times for each T. vaginalis isolate. Results: The results showed that the extracts of P. lanceolata had potent antitrichomonal activity. The most antitrichomonal activity was related to ethyl acetate extract with the least MIC of 500 µg/ml and mean of 1525 µg/ml, after 48 hrs incubation. And also, the lowest antitrichomonal activity was related to hydroalcoholic and methanolic extract with the least and mean MIC of 2000 µg/ml. The results of MLC and MIC tests were identical and this finding confirmed the trichomonacidal activity of the extracts. The drug suscebtibility testing showed that the T. vaginalis isoleates were susceptibale to metronidazole ranging from 3.1 to 6.2 µg/ml with a mean and standard deviation of 4.2 ± 1.5 µg/ml. Conclusion: This study showed that the extracts of P. lanceolata hav e a considerable activity on T. vaginalis parasite. Hence, further studies are needed to clear more details of antimicrobial properties of P. lanceolata compounds.

  16. Weinig VVT-instellingen met VAR : onderzoek naar VAR's in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corina de Feijter; Pieterbas Lalleman

    V&VN is op zoek gegaan naar alle actieve Verpleegkundige en/of Verzorgende Adviesraden (VAR) in Nederland. Het blijkt dat in totaal 144 zorginstellingen (24%) een VAR hebben. Vooral in de VVT-sector is het aantal VAR’s laag: 13%.

  17. Molecular and physiological diversity among Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola and var. aleophilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Largeteau, M.L.; Baars, J.J.P.; Savoie, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic and physiological variability of Verticillium fungicola var. aleophilum responsible for Agaricus bisporus dry bubble disease in North America is well documented but little is known about the var. fungicola affecting European crops. Variability was assessed within this variety and

  18. Over de verspreiding binnen Nederland van Bidens connata var. fallax (Warnst.) Sherf en var. anomala Farw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, Koos (J.) F.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of recent observations and study of herbarium material it might tentatively be concluded that var. anomala (with erecto-patent barb hairs on achenes as well as on the bristles) is becoming more common since 1954 and might be locally replacing the hitherto more common var. fallax (with

  19. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in a targeted population in Xinxiang City, Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenchao; Kang, Lixia; Wang, Weijuan; Zhao, Xin; Li, Yuhua; Xie, Qing; Wang, Shuai; He, Tong; Li, Han; Xiao, Tingwei; Chen, Yunchao; Zuo, Suqiong; Kong, Lingmin; Li, Pengju; Li, Xiangrui

    2018-03-02

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is a protozoan parasite that causes trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease, worldwide. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. vaginalis and contrasted the most prevalent strains of T. vaginalis isolated from Xinxiang City, Henan Province, China. In Xinxiang from September 2015 to September 2017, a total of 267 (1.64%, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.45-1.85) clinical T. vaginalis-positive samples from vaginal secretions were observed by wet mount microscopy from 16,294 women with some clinical symptoms of trichomoniasis. We found that trichomoniasis frequently occurred in the 21- to 40-year-old age group and in winter. After the 267 clinical T. vaginalis positive samples were cultured, 68 isolates of T. vaginalis were harvested and identified as genotype E (58.82%), H (17.65%), mixed 1 (17.65%) and mixed 2 (5.88%) using a sensitive and reliable polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) typing method on the actin gene. The phylogenetic diversity analysis showed that the genotype E samples fell within a separate clade compared to the other T. vaginalis isolates, while the samples of the genotype H separated into two clades. Our results demonstrate a notable gene polymorphism of clinical isolates from the targeted population and provide insight into the performance of these genetic markers in the molecular epidemiology of trichomoniasis. However, further studies are needed to clarify the association between a certain genotype and the pathogenicity of T. vaginalis.

  20. Topical tenofovir protects against vaginal simian HIV infection in macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Natalia; Henning, Tara; Taylor, Andrew; Dinh, Chuong; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Aubert, Rachael; Hanson, Debra; Phillips, Christi; Papp, John; Mitchell, James; McNicholl, Janet; Garcia-Lerma, Gerardo J; Heneine, Walid; Kersh, Ellen; Dobard, Charles

    2017-03-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis, two prevalent sexually transmitted infections, are known to increase HIV risk in women and could potentially diminish preexposure prophylaxis efficacy, particularly for topical interventions that rely on local protection. We investigated in macaques whether coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis reduces protection by vaginal tenofovir (TFV) gel. Vaginal TFV gel dosing previously shown to provide 100 or 74% protection when applied either 30 min or 3 days before simian HIV(SHIV) challenge was assessed in pigtailed macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis and challenged twice weekly with SHIV162p3 for up to 10 weeks (two menstrual cycles). Three groups of six macaques received either placebo or 1% TFV gel 30 min or 3 days before each SHIV challenge. We additionally assessed TFV and TFV diphosphate concentrations in plasma and vaginal tissues in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected (n = 4) and uninfected (n = 4) macaques. Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfections were maintained during the SHIV challenge period. All macaques that received placebo gel were SHIV infected after a median of seven challenges (one menstrual cycle). In contrast, no infections were observed in macaques treated with TFV gel 30 min before SHIV challenge (P vaginal lymphocytes were significantly higher in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected compared with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis uninfected macaques. Our findings in this model suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfection may have little or no impact on the efficacy of highly effective topical TFV modalities and highlight a significant modulation of TFV pharmacokinetics.

  1. Synthetic siRNAs effectively target cystein protease 12 and α-actinin transcripts in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaee, Roya; Ebadi, Parimah; Hatam, Gholamreza; Vafafar, Arghavan; Ghahramani Seno, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-10-01

    The flagellated protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) causes trichomoniasis, a reproductive tract infection, in humans. Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In addition to direct consequences such as infertility and abortion, there are indications that trichomoniasis favours development of prostate cancer and it has also been associated with increased risk of spreading human immunodeficiency virus and papillomavirus infections. Reports from around the world show that the rate of drug resistance in T. vaginalis is increasing, and therefore new therapeutic approaches have to be developed. Studying molecular biology of T. vaginalis will be quite helpful in identifying new drugable targets. RNAi is a powerful technique which allows biologist to specifically target gene products (i.e. mRNA) helping them in unravelling gene functions and biology of systems. However, due to lack of some parts of the required intrinsic RNAi machinery, the RNAi system is not functional in all orders of life. Here, by using synthetic siRNAs targeting two genes, i.e. α-actinin and cystein protease 12 (cp12), we demonstrate T. vaginalis cells are amenable to RNAi experiments conducted by extrinsic siRNAs. Electroporation of siRNAs targeting α-actinin or cp12 into T. vaginalis cells resulted in, respectively, 48-67% and 33-72% downregulation of the cognate transcripts compared to the T. vaginalis cells received siRNAs targeting GL2 luciferase as a control. This finding is helpful in that it demonstrates the potential of using extrinsically induced RNAi in studies on molecular biology of T. vaginalis such as those aiming at identifying new drug targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Symbiotic Association with Mycoplasma hominis Can Influence Growth Rate, ATP Production, Cytolysis and Inflammatory Response of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarita, Valentina; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Pintus, Gianfranco; Hirt, Robert P.; Fiori, Pier L.

    2016-01-01

    The symbiosis between the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis and the opportunistic bacterium Mycoplasma hominis is the only one currently described involving two obligate human mucosal symbionts with pathogenic capabilities that can cause independent diseases in the same anatomical site: the lower urogenital tract. Although several aspects of this intriguing microbial partnership have been investigated, many questions on the influence of this symbiosis on the parasite pathobiology still remain unanswered. Here, we examined with in vitro cultures how M. hominis could influence the pathobiology of T. vaginalis by investigating the influence of M. hominis on parasite replication rate, haemolytic activity and ATP production. By comparing isogenic mycoplasma-free T. vaginalis and parasites stably associated with M. hominis we could demonstrate that the latter show a higher replication rate, increased haemolytic activity and are able to produce larger amounts of ATP. In addition, we demonstrated in a T. vaginalis-macrophage co-culture system that M. hominis could modulate an aspect of the innate immuno-response to T. vaginalis infections by influencing the production of nitric oxide (NO) by human macrophages, with the parasite-bacteria symbiosis outcompeting the human cells for the key substrate arginine. These results support a model in which the symbiosis between T. vaginalis and M. hominis influences host-microbes interactions to the benefit of both microbial partners during infections and to the detriment of their host. PMID:27379081

  3. Large two-centre study into the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, A S; Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; van Alphen, Ptw; Hilt, N; van Herk, Cmc; Pont, Sbeh; Melchers, Wjg; van de Bovenkamp, Jhb

    2016-09-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis are common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In the Netherlands, testing for M. genitalium and T. vaginalis is not recommended for first-line STI screening. Recent reports about the increasing antimicrobial resistance in M. genitalium raise concern about the adequacy of current empirical treatment regimens. It is necessary to have insight in the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis in order to evaluate current first-line STI screening and treatment protocols. During a five-month period, samples sent to two large medical microbiology diagnostic centres in the Netherlands for STI screening (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) were retrospectively tested for the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis using the Diagenode S-DiaMGTV kit. A total of 1569 samples from 1188 unique patients (55.4% female) were tested. M. genitalium was the second most prevalent STI detected (4.5% of the patients), after C. trachomatis (8.3%). T. vaginalis was detected in 1.4% of the patients, comparable to the prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae (1.3%). Dual infections were only detected in a small number of patients (1.0%). Incorporation of M. genitalium into routine STI screening should be considered, because of its relatively high prevalence, the consequences of its detection for antibiotic treatment and because of the availability of easy-to-use molecular diagnostic tests. For T. vaginalis, routine screening may be considered, depending on local prevalence and (sub)population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  5. Affirm VPIII microbial identification test can be used to detect gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicans and trichomonas vaginalis microbial infections in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Seung Won; Park, Yeon Joon; Hur, Soo Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test results for Korean women to those obtained for Gardnerella vaginalis through Nugent score, Candida albicans based on vaginal culture and Trichomonas vaginalis based on wet smear diagnostic standards. Study participants included 195 women with symptomatic or asymptomatic vulvovaginitis under hospital obstetric or gynecologic care. A definite diagnosis was made based on Nugent score for Gardnerella, vaginal culture for Candida and wet prep for Trichomonas vaginalis. Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test results were then compared to diagnostic standard results. Of the 195 participants, 152 were symptomatic, while 43 were asymptomatic. Final diagnosis revealed 68 (37.87%) cases of Gardnerella, 29 (14.87%) cases of Candida, one (0.51%) case of Trichomonas, and 10 (5.10%) cases of mixed infections. The detection rates achieved by each detection method (Affirm assay vs diagnostic standard) for Gardnerella and Candida were not significantly different (33.33% vs 34.8% for Gardnerella, 13.33% vs 14.87% for Candida, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of the Affirm test for Gardnerella compared to the diagnostic standard were 75.0% and 88.98%, respectively. For Candida, the sensitivity and specificity of the Affirm test compared to the diagnostic standard were 82.76% and 98.80%, respectively. The number of Trichomonas cases was too small (1 case) to be statistically analyzed. The Affirm test is a quick tool that can help physicians diagnose and treat patients with infectious vaginitis at the point of care. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis properties of the oil of Amomum tsao-ko and its major component, geraniol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Min; Peng, Cheng; Peng, Fu; Xie, Chengbin; Wang, Pinjia; Sun, Fenghui

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonosis, caused by the flagellate protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) and 5-nitroimidazole drugs are used for the treatment. However, a growing number of T. vaginalis isolates are resistant to these drugs, which make it becomes an urgent issue. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-T. vaginalis activity of the essential oil from A. tsao-ko used in traditional Chinese medicine and as a spice and its main component, geraniol. The anti-T. vaginalis activities of A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol were evaluated by the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) in vitro. The morphological changes of T. vaginalis were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, sub-MLC concentration treatment with sub-MLC A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol was also performed. This study shows that MLC/IC50 of A. tsao-ko essential oil was 44.97 µg/ml/22.49 µg/ml for T. vaginalis isolate Tv1, and 89.93 µg/ml/44.97 µg/ml for T. vaginalis isolate Tv2. Those of geraniol were 342.96 µg/ml/171.48 µg/ml, respectively. After A. tsao-ko essential oil or geraniol treatment, obvious similar morphological changes of T. vaginalis were observed by TEM: the nuclear membrane was damaged, nuclei were dissolved, and the chromatin was accumulated; in the cytoplasm, numerous vacuoles appeared, rough endoplasmic reticulum dilated, the number of ribosomes were reduced, organelles disintegrated, the cell membrane was partially damaged, with cytoplasmic leakage, and cell disintegration was observed. The action time did not increase the effect of A. tsao-ko essential oil or geraniol against T. vaginalis, as no significant difference was observed after sub-MLC concentration treatment for 1, 3, and 5 h with A. tsao-ko essential oil and geraniol. The study describes the first report on the activity and morphological changes of A. tsao-ko essential oil and

  7. Cloning and expression of an iron-containing superoxide dismutase in the parasitic protist, Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscogliosi, E; Delgado-Viscogliosi, P; Gerbod, D; Dauchez, M; Gratepanche, S; Alix, A J; Dive, D

    1998-04-01

    A superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene of the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis was cloned, sequenced, expressed in Escherichia coli, and its gene product characterized. It is an iron-containing dimeric protein with a monomeric mass of 22,067 Da. Southern blots analyses suggested the presence of seven iron-containing (FeSOD) gene copies. Hydrophobic cluster analysis revealed some peculiarities in the 2D structure of the FeSOD from T. vaginalis and a strong structural conservation between prokaryotic and eukaryotic FeSODs. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the SOD sequences confirmed the dichotomy between FeSODs and manganese-containing SODs. FeSODs of protists appeared to group together with homologous proteobacterial enzymes suggesting a possible origin of eukaryotic FeSODs through an endosymbiotic event.

  8. Interaction of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus with keratin: an important role in parasite infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chaves Vilela

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are human and bovine parasites, respectively, that provoke the sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis. These extracellular parasites adhere to the host epithelial cell surface. Although mucinases and proteases have been described as important proteins for parasite adhesion to epithelial cells, no studies have examined the role of the keratin molecules that cornify the vaginal epithelium. Here, we investigated the interaction of T. vaginalis and T. foetus with human keratin in vitro; additionally, adherence assays were performed in cattle with T. foetus to elucidate whether trichomonads were able to interact with keratin in vivo. We demonstrated that both T. vaginalisand T. foetusinteracted directly with keratin. Additionally, the trichomonads ingested and digested keratin, shedding new light on the Trichomonas infection process.

  9. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  10. Early repeated infections with Trichomonas vaginalis among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Secor, W Evan; Leichliter, Jami S; Clark, Rebecca A; Schmidt, Norine; Curtin, Erink; Martin, David H

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether early repeated infections due to Trichomonas vaginalis among human immunuodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative women are reinfections, new infections, or cases of treatment failure. Women attending an HIV outpatient clinic and a family planning clinic in New Orleans, Louisiana, who had culture results positive for T. vaginalis were treated with 2 g of metronidazole under directly observed therapy. At 1 month, detailed sexual exposure and sexual partner treatment information was collected. Isolates from women who had clinical resistance (i.e., who tested positive for a third time after treatment at a higher dose) were tested for metronidazole susceptibility in vitro. Of 60 HIV-positive women with trichomoniasis, 11 (18.3%) were T. vaginalis positive 1 month after treatment. The 11 recurrences were classified as 3 probable reinfections (27%), 2 probable infections from a new sexual partner (18%), and 6 probable treatment failures (55%); 2 of the 6 patients who experienced probable treatment failure had isolates with mild resistance to metronidazole. Of 301 HIV-negative women, 24 (8.0%) were T. vaginalis positive 1 month after treatment. The 24 recurrences were classified as 2 probable reinfections (8%) and 22 probable treatment failures (92%); of the 22 patients who experienced probable treatment failure, 2 had strains with moderate resistance to metronidazole, and 1 had a strain with mild resistance to metronidazole. HIV-positive women were more likely to have sexual re-exposure than were HIV-negative women, although the rate of treatment failure was similar in both groups. High rates of treatment failure among both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women indicate that a 2-g dose of metronidazole may not be adequate for treatment of some women and that rescreening should be considered.

  11. In Vitro Susceptibility of Iranian Isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis to Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad MATINI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole derivative, is the main antitrich­omonal agent of choice for treatment of trichomoniasis. Since 1962, some cases of treatment failure with metronidazole have been reported and recently drug re­sistance is now on the rise in the world. This study was aimed to determine current susceptibility of Iranian isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole.Methods: This study was performed on 50 T. vaginalis isolates collected from west and central areas of Iran. After axenisation of the parasites, susceptibility testing was carried out by using serial twofold dilutions of metronidazole (400 to 0.1 µg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum lethal concentration (MLC of the trichomonads were determined after 48 h incubation at 35.5 °C. Drug susceptibility assays of the all isolates were carried out two times in triplicate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Results: Ninety-eight percent of the T. vaginalis isolates (49/50 were sensitive to metronidazole. Metronidazole resistance was defined as aerobic MIC ≥50 µg/ml, detected in one isolate. The means of aerobic MICs and MLCs and that of anaero­bic MICs of the parasites were 2.91, 1.95 and 0.28 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: This investigation showed in vitro low-level tolerance to metronida­zole in a few T. vaginalis isolates that may be leading to the development of drug resistance.

  12. Rediscovery of Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia (Balsaminaceae from NE India

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    R. Gogoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia Hook.f. rediscovered after a lapse of 139 years from Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh. Earlier it was known only – from its type locality in Manipur. Detailed morphological description of I. laevigata var. laevigata and var. grandifolia have been provided based on fresh plant collections.

  13. B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage ...

  14. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, John Carlo B; Solon, Juan Antonio A; Rivera, Windell L

    2014-07-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the 2-kbp repeated DNA species-specific sequence was developed for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis, the causative agent of trichomoniasis. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assay were evaluated using pooled genital swab and urine specimens, respectively, spiked with T. vaginalis trophozoites. Genital secretion and urine did not inhibit the detection of the parasite. The sensitivity of the LAMP was 10-1000 times higher than the PCR performed. The detection limit of LAMP was 1 trichomonad for both spiked genital swab and urine specimens. Also, LAMP did not exhibit cross-reactivity with closely-related trichomonads, Trichomonas tenax and Pentatrichomonas hominis, and other enteric and urogenital microorganisms, Entamoeba histolytica, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of a LAMP assay for the detection of T. vaginalis and has prospective application for rapid diagnosis and control of trichomoniasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro

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    Jaesook Roh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitrofertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitrousing mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro.

  16. Potential of bisbenzimidazole-analogs toward metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosh, Travis; Bujans, Emmanuel; Morada, Mary; Karaalioglu, Canan; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Mayence, Annie; Huang, Tien L; Yarlett, Nigel

    2017-10-01

    A bisoxyphenylene-bisbenzimidazole series with increasing aliphatic chain length (CH 2 to C 10 H 20 ) containing a meta- (m) or para (p)-benzimidazole linkage to the phenylene ring was tested for ability to inhibit the growth of metronidazole-susceptible (C1) and metronidazole-refractory (085) Trichomonas vaginalis isolates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Compound 3m, 2,2'-[α,ω-propanediylbis(oxy-1,3-phenylene)]bis-1H-benzimidazole, displayed a 5.5-fold lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) toward T. vaginalis isolate 085 than metronidazole under aerobic growth conditions, (26 μm compared to 145 μm). A dose of 25 mg/kg per day for four days of compound 3m cured a subcutaneous mouse model infection using T. vaginalis isolates 286 (metronidazole susceptible) and 085 (metronidazole refractory). Compound 3m was weakly reduced by pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, but unlike metronidazole was not dependent upon added ferredoxin. It is concluded from structure-activity relationships that there was no obvious trend based on the length of the central aliphatic chain, or the steric position of the bisbenzimidazole enabling prediction of biological activity. The compounds generally fulfill Lipinski's rile of five, indicating their potential as drug leads. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites.

  18. The secretory products of Trichomonas vaginalis decrease fertilizing capacity of mice sperm in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jaesook; Lim, Young-Su; Seo, Min-Young; Choi, Yuri; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in humans and is now recognized as an important cause of infertility in men. There is little information about the effect of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from T. vaginalis on sperm, but previous reports do not provide a conclusive description of the functional integrity of the sperm. To investigate the impact of EPS on the fertilizing capacity of sperm, we assessed sperm motility, acrosomal status, hypo-osmotic swelling, and in vitro fertilization rate after incubating the sperm with EPS in vitro using mice. The incubation of sperm with EPS significantly decreased sperm motility, viability, and functional integrity in a concentration and time-dependent manner. These effects on sperm quality also resulted in a decreased fertilization rate in vitro. This is the first report that demonstrates the direct negative impact of the EPS of T. vaginalis on the fertilization rate of sperm in vitro. However, further study should be performed using human sperm to determine if EPS has similar negative impact on human sperm fertilizing capacity in vitro. PMID:25578937

  19. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites

  20. Medicinal plants and their isolated compounds showing anti-Trichomonas vaginalis- activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehriardestani, Mozhgan; Aliahmadi, Atousa; Toliat, Tayebeh; Rahimi, Roja

    2017-04-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a major of non-viral sexually-transmitted infection and an important cause of serious obstetrical and gynecological complications. Treatment options for trichomoniasis are limited to nitroimidazole compounds. The increasing resistance and allergic reactions to nitroimidazole and recurrent trichomoniasis make it essential to identify and develop new drugs against trichomoniasis. Medicinal plants are an important source for discovery of new medications. This review discusses the anti-trichomonas effects of medicinal plants and their chemical constituents to find better options against this pathogenic protozoon. Electronic databases were searched to collect all data from the year 2000 through September 2015 for in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies on the effect of medicinal plants on T. vaginalis. A total of 95 in vitro and clinical studies were identified. Only four human studies were found in this review. The Asteracea, Lamiaceae and Myrtaceae families contained the greatest number of plants with anti-trichomonas activity. Persea americana, Ocimum basilicum and Verbascum thapsus were the most efficacious against T. vaginalis. Plant metabolites containing alkaloids, isoflavonoid glucosides, essential oils, lipids, saponins and sesquiterpene lactones were found to possess anti-trichomonas properties. Assessing the structure-activity of highly-potent anti-trichomonas phytochemicals is suggested for finding natural, semisynthetic and synthetic anti-trichomonas compounds. Further clinical studies are necessary for confirmation of natural anti-trichomonas substances and completion of their safety profiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibitory effects of seaweed extracts on the growth of the vaginal bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yu-Mi; Choi, Jae-Suk; Lee, Bo-Bae; Moon, Hye Eun; Cho, Kwang Keun; Choi, In Soon

    2014-05-01

    Of 44 species of seaweed screened for potential anti-Gardnerella vaginalis activity, 27 (61.4%) showed antimicrobial activity by the agar disk-diffusion method. Among them, the strongest activities against the pathogen were exhibited by Chlorophyta, with Ulva pertusa producing an 11.3-mm zone of inhibition at 5 mg disk⁻¹. The MIC values of U. pertusa extracts against both G. vaginalis KCTC 5096 and KCTC 5097, the main cause of vaginosis, were 312 μg ml⁻¹, while the MIC values against both Candida albicans KCTC 7270 and KCTC 7965, the main cause of candidiasis, were 2.5 mg ml⁻¹. Against Lactobacillus gasseri KCTC 3173 and Lactobacillus jensenii KCTC 5194, members of the normal vaginal microflora, no inhibitory effect was seen even at 10 mg ml⁻¹. To identify the primary active compounds, a U. pertusa powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against G. vaginalis KCTC 5096 were determined to be nitrogenous compounds (156 μg ml⁻¹ of the MIC value). According to these results, it was suggested that extracts of the seaweed U. pertusa are valuable for the development of natural therapeutic agents for treating women with bacterial vaginosis.

  2. Genital infections and reproductive complications associated with Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Streptococcus agalactiae in women of Qom, central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nateghi Rostam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis (T.vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N.gonorrhoeae are two most common non-viral sexually transmitted infections in the world. No data are available regarding the epidemiology of genital infections in women of Qom, central Iran. Objective: Epidemiological investigation of sexually transmitted infections in genital specimens of women referred to the referral gynecology hospital in Qom, central Iran. Materials and Methods: Genital swab specimens were collected from women volunteers and used for identification of bacterial and protozoal infections by conventional microbial diagnostics, porA pseudo gene LightCycler® real-time PCR (for N.gonorrhoeae and ITS-PCR (for T.vaginalis. Results: Of 420 volunteers, 277 (65.9% had genital signs/symptoms, including 38.3% malodorous discharge, 37.9% dyspareunia, and 54.8% abdominal pain. Totally, 2 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae were identified. Five specimens (1.2% in Thayer-Martin culture and 17 (4.1% in real-time PCR were identified as N.gonorrhoeae. Fifty-four specimens (12.9% in wet mount, 64 (15.2% in Dorset’s culture, and 81 (19.3% in ITS-PCR showed positive results for T.vaginalis. Five mixed infections of T.vaginalis+ N.gonorrhoeae were found. The risk of T.vaginalis infection was increased in women with low-birth-weight (p=0.00; OR=43.29, history of abortion (p=0.00; OR=91.84, and premature rupture of membranes (PROM (p=0.00; OR=21.75. The probability of finding nuclear leukocytes (p=0.00; OR=43.34 in vaginal smear was higher in T.vaginalis infection. Conclusion: The significant prevalence of trichomoniasis and gonorrhea emphasizes the need for accurate diagnosis and effective surveillance to prevent serious reproductive complications in women.

  3. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among homeless and unstably housed adult women living in a resource-rich urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Elise D; Cohen, Jennifer; Dilworth, Samantha E; Grimes, Barbara; Marquez, Carina; Chin-Hong, Peter; Philip, Susan S

    2016-06-01

    The social context of poverty is consistently linked to Trichomonas vaginalis infection, yet few studies regarding T. vaginalis have been conducted exclusively among low-income individuals. We identified social determinants of health associated with prevalent T. vaginalis infection among homeless and unstably housed adult women. Between April and October of 2010, we conducted cross-sectional T. vaginalis screening and behavioural interviews in an existing cohort of San Francisco homeless and unstably housed women. Data were analysed using multivariable logistical regression. Among 245 study participants, the median age was 47 years and 72% were of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. T. vaginalis prevalence was 12%, compared to 3% in the general population, and 33% of infected individuals reported no gynaecological symptoms. In adjusted analysis, the odds of T. vaginalis infection were lower among persons older than 47 years, the population median (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.38), and higher among those reporting recent short-term homeless shelter stays (OR=5.36, 95% CI 1.57 to 18.26). Race and income did not reach levels of significance. Sensitivity analyses indicated that testing all women who report recent unprotected sex would identify more infections than testing those who report gynaecological symptoms (20/30 vs 10/30; p=0.01). The prevalence of T. vaginalis is high among homeless and unstably housed adult women, over one-third of infected individuals have no gynaecological symptoms, and correlates of infection differ from those reported in the general population. Targeted screening and treatment among impoverished women reporting recent unprotected sex, particularly young impoverished women and all women experiencing short-term homelessness, may reduce complications related to this treatable infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Molecular characterization of double-stranded RNA virus in Trichomonas vaginalis Egyptian isolates and its association with pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gayar, Eman K; Mokhtar, Amira B; Hassan, Wael A

    2016-10-01

    Trichomoniasis is a common human sexually transmitted infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. The parasite can be infected with double-stranded RNA viruses (TVV). This viral infection may have important implications on trichomonal virulence and disease pathogenesis. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis virus among isolates obtained from infected (symptomatic and asymptomatic) women in Ismailia City, Egypt, and to correlate the virus-infected isolates with the clinical manifestations of patients. In addition, the pathogenicity of TVV infected isolates on mice was also evaluated. T. vaginalis isolates were obtained from symptomatic and asymptomatic female patients followed by axenic cultivation in Diamond's TYM medium. The presence of T. vaginalis virus was determined from total extraction of nucleic acids (DNA-RNA) followed by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Representative samples were inoculated intraperitoneally in female albino/BALB mice to assess the pathogenicity of different isolates. A total of 110 women were examined; 40 (36.3 %) samples were positive for T. vaginalis infection. Of these 40 isolates, 8 (20 %) were infected by TVV. Five isolates contained TVV-2 virus species, and the remaining three isolates were infected withTVV-4 variant. A significant association was found between the presence of TVV and particular clinical manifestations of trichomoniasis. Experimental mice infection showed varying degrees of pathogenicity. This is the first report on T. vaginalis infection by TVV in Egypt. The strong association detected between TVV and particular clinical features of trichomoniasis and also the degree of pathogenicity in experimentally infected mice may indicate a possible clinical significance of TVV infection of T. vaginalis isolates.

  5. Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense var. nov. (Lamiaceae from Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Dinç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense M. Dinç & S. Doğu (Lamiaceae, a new variety from Aksaray in Central Anatolia, is described and illustrated. The new variety is similar to the typical one in its calyx teeth uncinate at tip and subequal to the tube with conspicious midvein. It is readily distinguished from var. pruinosum by its general appearance, indumentum, and floral organ pigmentation. The map showing the distributions of the varieties was given.

  6. Investigación de Trichomonas vaginalis durante el embarazo mediante diferentes metodologías Investigation of Trichomonas vaginalis through different methodologies during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Perazzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del trabajo fueron conocer la prevalencia de tricomonosis en pacientes embarazadas y evaluar la utilidad de diferentes metodologías para su diagnóstico. Se estudiaron prospectivamente 223 mujeres embarazadas. Trichomonas vaginalis se investigó utilizando distintos exámenes microscópicos, cultivo en medio sólido y medio líquido. Se evaluó la sensibilidad y especificidad de la microscopía considerando a los cultivos en ambos medios como método de referencia. La prevalencia del parásito obtenida por cultivo (medio líquido más medio sólido fue de 4,5% (10/223 siendo la detección por examen en fresco, coloración de May-Grunwald Giemsa, fresco con solución acética formolada (SAF/azul de metileno y por cultivo en medio sólido y líquido de 1,3%, 1,8%, 1,8% y 4,5% respectivamente. La sensibilidad del examen en fresco fue 30%, para el May-Grunwald Giemsa y el SAF/azul de metileno fue 40%. Utilizando conjuntamente los tres exámenes microscópicos, la sensibilidad se elevó al 50% y la especificidad fue 100% para todos los exámenes microscópicos. El cultivo en medio líquido detectó el 100% de los casos positivos , mientras que el medio sólido sólo el 50%. Por la baja sensibilidad de la microscopía para T. vaginalis, en embarazadas asintomáticas recomendamos la utilización del cultivo en medio líquido durante el embarazo, para instaurar un tratamiento precoz.The aim of this study was to conduct a survey regarding the prevalence of trichomoniasis in pregnant patients and to evaluate the utility of different diagnostic methods. Two hundred and twenty three vaginal swab specimens from pregnant women were prospectively examined. Trichomonas vaginalis was investigated by various microscopic examinations, solid culture medium and liquid culture medium. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopy were evaluated by considering both culture media as the "gold standards". The prevalence of T. vaginalis obtained by both

  7. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  8. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the

  9. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie. Flowering Trees Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 89-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/04/0089-0089. Resonance ...

  10. Var der noget kapløb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Denise; Nielsen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Hvorfor faldt Kina bagud i kapløbet med Vesten?« spørger David Favrholdt i sidste nummer af Weekendavisen. Var der overhovedet noget kapløb? Forudsætter et kapløb ikke, at man har et fælles mål? Spørgsmålet implicerer, at Vesten har vundet og indplacerer samtidig klodens øvrige kulturer i forhold....... Som en af 1900-tallets største sinologer A. C. Graham skriver i sin bog Disputers of the Tao (La Salle, Ill., 1989) var den videnskabelige revolution »en unik og kompleks begivenhed, som var afhængig af en mangfoldighed af sociale og andre betingelser, herunder et sammenfald af opdagelser (græske......, indiske, kinesiske, arabiske, næsten ingen romerske) koncentreret om kombinationen af indiske tal og aritmetik og græsk logik og geometri« (s. 317). En unik begivenhed, som er forekommet én gang i verdenshistorien. Det giver derfor ingen mening at spørge, hvorfor det ikke skete andre steder. Hvis det var...

  11. Genotyping of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates from women in Shahrekord city (Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili Bahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a causative agent of vaginitis in female and urethritis in men. It is primarily transmitted by sexually route. It is known that each geographical area has its own set of Trichomonas vaginalis strain. Parasite strains in each region have its specific characterizations and different strains of the parasite are able to cause various diseases with the acuity and severity. The aim of this study was to determine the genotyping of Trichomonas vaginalis strains in the Shahrekord city (Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari province, southwest Iran. A total of 1725 vaginal samples were taken from clinically suspected women for Trichomonas vaginalis infection and 21 specimens were diagnosed as positive by direct smear wet mount and culture repeated passage of the parasite in the modified TYI-S-33 medium. The genomic DNA was extracted from each sample and the nested polymerase chain reaction was applied using specific oligonucleotide primers for actin gene amplification. Finally, the restriction fragment length polymorphism using RsaI, MseI, and HindII restriction enzymes were done on PCR products for genotyping. PCR-RFLP analysis of 21 positive cases (1.22% was showing the most frequent genotype was H (8 cases, followed by G (4 cases, E (3 cases, and P (2 cases. N and I genotypes were detected in each 1 case. Also, there was 2 cases mix (E and H genotype. The findings of the present work were showed 7 different genetic strains in isolated Trichomonas vaginalis from symptomatic and asymptomatic women in Shahrekord city. In this study high level of H genotype in referred women in Shahrekord city was observed and H, G, E, and I genotypes were may be related to burning and itching as well as H, P, and mix genotypes were associated with malodorous discharge with pelvic pain in this region of Iran. For a suggestion, it would be better in further studies the accurate determination of genetic diversity of this parasite done in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari

  12. The vagina of women infected with Trichomonas vaginalis has numerous proteinases and antibody to trichomonad proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, J F; Newton, E; Dennis, C; Neale, K A

    1991-12-01

    Patients with trichomoniasis have serum antibody to numerous T. vaginalis cysteine proteinases, indicating that the proteinases are expressed in vivo. It was important, therefore, to examine for the presence of soluble trichomonad proteinases and/or antibody to the proteinases in the vagina of infected women. Vaginal washes (VWs) from 20 women were examined for the presence of proteinases by electrophoresis using acrylamide co-polymerised with gelatin as the indicator system. Antibody to proteinases in VWs was detected by an immunoprecipitation assay involving protein A-bearing Staphylococcus aureus first coated with anti-human immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, which was then added to VWs. For VWs having soluble proteinases, the bacteria were used to determine whether immune complexes between antibody and proteinases were present. VWs without soluble proteinases were incubated with the anti-human IgG treated bacteria before adding to detergent extracts of T. vaginalis. Individual isolates from the patients examined in this study were also analysed by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis for their proteinase content. Finally, VWs were from patients without any history of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) as well as from individuals having numerous other STDs, including yeast, group B streptococcus, chlamydia, and syphilis. Approximately one-third of patients had soluble proteinases in the VWs; the remaining two-thirds (70%) of patients and normal women had no detectable proteinases in VWs. Half of the patients without soluble proteinases had IgG which, when bound to S. aureus, immunoprecipitated many proteinases from a detergent extract of T. vaginalis. All soluble proteinases and those precipitated from trichomonal extracts were inhibited by inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. Finally, patients having trichomoniasis in addition to numerous other STD agents, including yeast, group B streptococcus, chlamydia, and syphilis did not have soluble proteinases

  13. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarc...hive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Embryo.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive

  14. RNA-Binding Proteins in Trichomonas vaginalis: Atypical Multifunctional Proteins Involved in a Posttranscriptional Iron Regulatory Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa E.; Calla-Choque, Jaeson S.; Mancilla-Olea, Maria Inocente; Arroyo, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is highly regulated in vertebrates through a regulatory system mediated by RNA-protein interactions between the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) that interact with an iron responsive element (IRE) located in certain mRNAs, dubbed the IRE-IRP regulatory system. Trichomonas vaginalis, the causal agent of trichomoniasis, presents high iron dependency to regulate its growth, metabolism, and virulence properties. Although T. vaginalis lacks IRPs or proteins with aconitase activity, possesses gene expression mechanisms of iron regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. However, only one gene with iron regulation at the transcriptional level has been described. Recently, our research group described an iron posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism in the T. vaginalis tvcp4 and tvcp12 cysteine proteinase mRNAs. The tvcp4 and tvcp12 mRNAs have a stem-loop structure in the 5'-coding region or in the 3'-UTR, respectively that interacts with T. vaginalis multifunctional proteins HSP70, α-Actinin, and Actin under iron starvation condition, causing translation inhibition or mRNA stabilization similar to the previously characterized IRE-IRP system in eukaryotes. Herein, we summarize recent progress and shed some light on atypical RNA-binding proteins that may participate in the iron posttranscriptional regulation in T. vaginalis. PMID:26703754

  15. [Usefulness of conventional polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis in female outpatient's genital samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Gonzalo; Barraza, Gabriela; Vera, Andrea; Wozniak, Aniela; García, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp. are microorganisms responsible for genitourinary and pregnancy pathologies. Nucleic acid amplification methods have shown several advantages, but have not been widely studied for the detection of these microorganisms. To implement a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the microorganisms and to compare its results versus the methods currently used at our laboratory. 91 available samples were processed by PCR, culture (M. hominis y Ureaplasma spp.) and wet mount (T vaginalis). Results were compared and statistically analyzed by kappa agreement test. 85, 80 and 87 samples resulted in agreement for the detection of M. hominis, Ureaplasma spp. y T. vaginalis, respectively. For M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp., agreement was substantial, whereas for T. vaginalis it was moderate, however, for the latter, PCR detected more cases than wet mount. We recommend the implementation of PCR for detection of T. vaginalis whereas culture kit is still a useful method for the other microorganisms.

  16. 阴道毛滴虫病毒对虫体基因多态性的影响%The effects of the Trichomonas vaginalis virus on genetic polymorphisms of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 王黎; 薛长贵

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析阴道毛滴虫病毒对阴道毛滴虫临床分离株基因多态性的影响. 方法 用MGE-PCR扩增阴道毛滴虫病毒阳性株和病毒阴性株Tvmar1基因位置,应用软件MEGA 5.0构建系统进化树. 结果 阴道毛滴虫临床分离株之间的遗传差异明显,6株阴道毛滴虫病毒阳性株之间的遗传距离较近,分布在同一分支上. 结论 阴道毛滴虫病毒会对阴道毛滴虫的基因多态性产生影响.%Objective To analyze the effects of Trichomonas vaginalis virus on genetic polymorphisms of T. Vaginalis. Methods Thirty T. Vaginalis isolates were subjected to MGE-PCR to detect variations in the location of the Tvmarl gene. Genetic polymorphisms due to the presence of TVV were analyzed and based on the results phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA 5. 0. Results The variable location of Tvmarl genes from 30 T. Vaginalis isolates showed that the protozoan isolates have significant genetic polymorphism. Based on the results of MGE-PCR, the phylogenetic tree of Tvmarl genes indicated that the 6 T. Vaginalis virus-positive isolates were in the same cluster. Conclusion The presence of T. Vaginalis virus affects the genetic polymorphisms of parasites.

  17. Trichomonas vaginalis infection: How significant is it in men presenting with recurrent or persistent symptoms of urethritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Andrea; Ross, Jonathan D C

    2016-01-01

    Persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis has been reported to affect up to 10-20% of men attending sexual health clinics. An audit was undertaken to review the management of persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis in men presenting at Whittall Street Clinic, Birmingham, UK. Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection was with the newly-introduced nucleic acid amplification test. A total of 43 (8%) of 533 men treated for urethritis re-attended within three months with persistent or recurrent symptoms. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was identified in 13/40 (33%), T. vaginalis in 1/27 (4%) and Mycoplasma genitalium in 6/12 (50%). These findings suggest that the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection remains low in our clinic population and may not contribute significantly to persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Extensive genetic diversity, unique population structure and evidence of genetic exchange in the sexually transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Conrad

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes.Here we utilize a panel of T. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2 differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor the T. vaginalis virus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages.Our study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of global T. vaginalis genetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understanding T. vaginalis pathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease.

  19. Extensive genetic diversity, unique population structure and evidence of genetic exchange in the sexually transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Melissa D; Gorman, Andrew W; Schillinger, Julia A; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Arroyo, Rossana; Malla, Nancy; Dubey, Mohan Lal; Gonzalez, Jorge; Blank, Susan; Secor, William E; Carlton, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes. Here we utilize a panel of T. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2) differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor the T. vaginalis virus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages. Our study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of global T. vaginalis genetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understanding T. vaginalis pathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease.

  20. Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis in France: a point prevalence study in people screened for sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyre, S; Laurier Nadalié, C; Bébéar, C

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis are common causes of sexually transmitted infections, but limited prevalence data are available in France. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis infections and to assess prevalence by gender, age, sample collection sites and clinical symptoms. A multicentre collection of specimens was intended to obtain a nationwide overview of the epidemiology. Between September 2014 and January 2015, a total of 2652 consecutive urogenital specimens submitted to the microbiology diagnostic departments of 16 French university hospitals for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae detection were collected. M. genitalium and T. vaginalis prevalence were evaluated using a commercial real-time PCR kit. Clinical data from patients were anonymously collected. T. vaginalis and M. genitalium prevalence were 1.7% (95% confidence interval 1.3-2.4) and 3.4% (95% confidence interval 2.8-4.2), respectively, and did not differ between gender or age groups, except M. genitalium prevalence between men and women in the 35- to 44-year age group (5.9 vs. 1.5%; p 0.03). M. genitalium prevalence was significantly higher in patients receiving care in sexually transmitted infection clinics, abortion centres, family planning clinics and prisons than in gynaecologic, obstetric and reproduction centres (4.0 vs. 1.7%, p 0.009). Among M. genitalium- and T. vaginalis-positive patients, 70.9 and 61.5% were asymptomatic, respectively. The low T. vaginalis prevalence does not justify systematic screening for this organism in France. Conversely, selective screening for M. genitalium may be warranted in care settings that receive presumably high-risk sexual behaviour patients, regardless of symptoms. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trichomonas vaginalis NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase hydrolyze guanine nucleotides and increase extracellular guanosine levels under serum restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Camila Braz; Durgante, Juliano; de Oliveira, Rafael Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Victor Hugo Jacks Mendes; Rodrigues, Luiz Frederico; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Dos Santos, Odelta; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the aethiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. The purinergic signaling pathway is mediated by extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides that are involved in many biological effects as neurotransmission, immunomodulation and inflammation. Extracellular nucleotides can be hydrolyzed by a family of enzymes known as ectonucleotidases including the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) family which hydrolyses nucleosides triphosphate and diphosphate as preferential substrates and ecto-5'-nucleotidase which catalyzes the conversion of monophosphates into nucleosides. In T. vaginalis the E-NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities upon adenine nucleotides have already been characterized in intact trophozoites but little is known concerning guanine nucleotides and nucleoside. These enzymes may exert a crucial role on nucleoside generation, providing the purine sources for the synthesis de novo of these essential nutrients, sustaining parasite growth and survival. In this study, we investigated the hydrolysis profile of guanine-related nucleotides and nucleoside in intact trophozoites from long-term-grown and fresh clinical isolates of T. vaginalis. Knowing that guanine nucleotides are also substrates for T. vaginalis ectoenzymes, we evaluated the profile of nucleotides consumption and guanosine uptake in trophozoites submitted to a serum limitation condition. Results show that guanine nucleotides (GTP, GDP, GMP) were substrates for T. vaginalis ectonucleotidases, with expected kinetic parameters for this enzyme family. Different T. vaginalis isolates (two from the ATCC and nine fresh clinical isolates) presented a heterogeneous hydrolysis profile. The serum culture condition increased E-NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities with high consumption of extracellular GTP generating enhanced GDP, GMP and guanosine levels as demonstrated by HPLC, with final

  2. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding coint...... the effects of capital liberalization on the determination of money, income, prices, and interest rates in a small open economy...

  3. The genetic diversity of metronidazole susceptibility in Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in an Egyptian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Magied, Aida A; El-Kholya, El-Said I; Abou El-Khair, Salwa M; Abdelmegeed, Eman S; Hamoudaa, Marwa M; Mohamed, Sara A; El-Tantawy, Nora Labeeb

    2017-11-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common curable sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Resistance to metronidazole in treating trichomoniasis is a problematic health issue. We aimed to determine the minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of metronidazole for Trichomonas vaginalis isolates detected in Mansoura, Egypt and studied the genotypic profile of these isolates. Vaginal swab specimens were obtained from 320 symptomatic and 100 asymptomatic females, for whom clinical examination, vaginal discharge wet mount, Giemsa stain, and culture in modified Diamond's media were performed. Metronidazole susceptibility testing by an aerobic tube assay was performed. Both sensitive and resistant isolates were examined by PCR amplification followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Trichomonas vaginalis was identified in 49/420 (11.7%) using either culture or PCR, while wet mount and Giemsa stain detected the parasite in 8.1 and 7.6% of participants, respectively. After 48 h incubation, most isolates were sensitive to metronidazole with a minimal lethal concentration (MLC) of 1 μg/ml. Mild resistance was observed in two isolates with MLCs of 64 μg\\ml and mild to moderate resistance was observed in an additional two isolates with MLCs of 128 μg/ml. The four isolates that demonstrated low to moderate metronidazole resistance displayed a unique genotype band pattern by RFLP compared to the other 45 samples that were metronidazole sensitive. Our results highlight the presence of in vitro metronidazole tolerance in a few T. vaginalis isolates in Mansoura, Egypt that may lead to the development of drug resistance as well as the possibility of an identifying RFLP pattern in the isolates.

  4. Genetic Indicators of Drug Resistance in the Highly Repetitive Genome of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradic, Martina; Warring, Sally D; Tooley, Grace E; Scheid, Paul; Secor, William E; Land, Kirkwood M; Huang, Po-Jung; Chen, Ting-Wen; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tang, Petrus; Sullivan, Steven A; Carlton, Jane M

    2017-06-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted parasite, causes ∼283 million trichomoniasis infections annually and is associated with pregnancy complications and increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition. The antimicrobial drug metronidazole is used for treatment, but in a fraction of clinical cases, the parasites can become resistant to this drug. We undertook sequencing of multiple clinical isolates and lab derived lines to identify genetic markers and mechanisms of metronidazole resistance. Reduced representation genome sequencing of ∼100 T. vaginalis clinical isolates identified 3,923 SNP markers and presence of a bipartite population structure. Linkage disequilibrium was found to decay rapidly, suggesting genome-wide recombination and the feasibility of genetic association studies in the parasite. We identified 72 SNPs associated with metronidazole resistance, and a comparison of SNPs within several lab-derived resistant lines revealed an overlap with the clinically resistant isolates. We identified SNPs in genes for which no function has yet been assigned, as well as in functionally-characterized genes relevant to drug resistance (e.g., pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase). Transcription profiles of resistant strains showed common changes in genes involved in drug activation (e.g., flavin reductase), accumulation (e.g., multidrug resistance pump), and detoxification (e.g., nitroreductase). Finally, we identified convergent genetic changes in lab-derived resistant lines of Tritrichomonas foetus, a distantly related species that causes venereal disease in cattle. Shared genetic changes within and between T. vaginalis and Tr. foetus parasites suggest conservation of the pathways through which adaptation has occurred. These findings extend our knowledge of drug resistance in the parasite, providing a panel of markers that can be used as a diagnostic tool. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  5. The protist Trichomonas vaginalis harbors multiple lineages of transcriptionally active Mutator-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Gonçalo AG

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For three decades the Mutator system was thought to be exclusive of plants, until the first homolog representatives were characterized in fungi and in early-diverging amoebas earlier in this decade. Results Here, we describe and characterize four families of Mutator-like elements in a new eukaryotic group, the Parabasalids. These Trichomonas vaginalis Mutator- like elements, or TvMULEs, are active in T. vaginalis and patchily distributed among 12 trichomonad species and isolates. Despite their relatively distinctive amino acid composition, the inclusion of the repeats TvMULE1, TvMULE2, TvMULE3 and TvMULE4 into the Mutator superfamily is justified by sequence, structural and phylogenetic analyses. In addition, we identified three new TvMULE-related sequences in the genome sequence of Candida albicans. While TvMULE1 is a member of the MuDR clade, predominantly from plants, the other three TvMULEs, together with the C. albicans elements, represent a new and quite distinct Mutator lineage, which we named TvCaMULEs. The finding of TvMULE1 sequence inserted into other putative repeat suggests the occurrence a novel TE family not yet described. Conclusion These findings expand the taxonomic distribution and the range of functional motif of MULEs among eukaryotes. The characterization of the dynamics of TvMULEs and other transposons in this organism is of particular interest because it is atypical for an asexual species to have such an extreme level of TE activity; this genetic landscape makes an interesting case study for causes and consequences of such activity. Finally, the extreme repetitiveness of the T. vaginalis genome and the remarkable degree of sequence identity within its repeat families highlights this species as an ideal system to characterize new transposable elements.

  6. Comparison of Resistant and Susceptible Strains of Trichomons vaginalis to Metronidazole Using PCR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fallah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metronidazole is drug of choice recommended by WHO for treatment of trichomoniasis, however, some reports claims drug resistance in Trichomonas vaginalis isolates recently. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum lethal concentration (MLC of metronidazole in resistant and sensitive strains, as well as genetic patterns of these stains by PCR method. Methods: From February 2006 to March 2007, in a cross sectional study, clinical and wet mount examination of vaginal smear along with culture were performed on 683 women attending to public and private outpatient clinics in Hamadan. Trichomoniasis marked based on major clinical symptoms. Diagnosis confirmed using wet mount microscopically and culture in Diamond medium. A serial concentration of metronidazole was provided and all isolated Trichomonas strains (resistant and sensitive tested by standard method. Finally, all sensitive and resistant strains examined by PCR technique. Results: Only 15/683, (2.2% of patients clinically diagnosed trichomonal vaginitis were positive for T. vaginalis by wet smear and culture. The minimum lethal concentration (MLC for clinically sensitive isolates was 25 µg/ml; however, this concentration for resistant isolates was 200 µg/ml after 24 h and 100 µg/ml after 50 h. The results of PCR examination of DNA from sensitive and resistant isolates had same pattern. The lanes appeared by two primers were 98 bp and 261 bp for both clinically sensitive and resistant strains. Conclusion: Resistance to metronidazole in T. vaginalis has not relation to genetic variations and might be related to some physiologic pathways of organism.

  7. Frecuencia de infección por Trichomonas vaginalis en parejas con trastornos de la fertilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Rodríguez Peña, Martha; Sarría Pérez, Carlos; Palma Monroy, Sara; Sariego Ramos, Idalia; Fraga Nodarse, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Se estudió un total de 172 parejas que acudieron por primera vez a la consulta de infertilidad del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología, en el período comprendido entre junio de 1999 y junio del 2000, con el objetivo de dar a conocer la frecuencia de infección por Trichomonas vaginalis en este grupo de estudio, así como determinar su interacción con diferentes variables clínica y de riesgo. Los resultados arrojaron 10,5 % de positividad al parásito, el síntoma predominante fue la leucorrea en...

  8. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS PARASITE IN CURTEA DE ARGEŞ POPULATION

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    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study, conducted in 2008-2010 to the Curtea de Argeş population releaved an incidence of infestation with Trichomonas vaginalis of 46.29% on the investigated cases. There are significant differences related to the gender distribution and most cases come from urban areas. The incidence of infested women is higher in comparison with the infested men because the trichomoniasis at men is usually asymptomatic and remains undiagnosed. It is required a training and information campaign in schools, but also an implementation of programs at a national level for the testing of population, especially to identify the trichomoniasis at persons between 15 and 40 years.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis infection induces vaginal CD4+ T-cell infiltration in a mouse model: a vaccine strategy to reduce vaginal infection and HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey D; Garber, Gary E

    2015-07-15

    Complications related to the diagnosis and treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis infection, as well as the association between T. vaginalis infection and increased transmission of and susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus, highlight the need for alternative interventions. We tested a human-safe, aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted whole-cell T. vaginalis vaccine for efficacy in a BALB/c mouse model of vaginal infection. A whole-cell T. vaginalis vaccine was administered subcutaneously to BALB/c mice, using a prime-boost vaccination schedule. CD4(+) T-cell infiltration in the murine vaginal tissue and local and systemic levels of immunoglobulins were measured at time points up to 4 weeks following infection. Vaccination reduced the incidence and increased the clearance of T. vaginalis infection and induced both systemic and local humoral immune responses. CD4(+) T cells were detected in vaginal tissues following intravaginal infection with T. vaginalis but were not seen in uninfected mice. The presence of CD4(+) T cells following T. vaginalis infection can potentially increase susceptibility to and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. The vaccine induces local and systemic immune responses and confers significantly greater protection against vaginal infection than seen in unvaccinated mice (P infection that could also influence the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis Induces Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Mouse Macrophages Through Activation of MAPK and NF-κB Pathways Partially Mediated by TLR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Li, Xin; Gong, Pengtao; Zhang, Xichen; Yang, Zhengtao; Yang, Ju; Li, Jianhua

    2018-01-01

    Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis infection, is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in female and male globally. However, the mechanisms by innate immunity against T. vaginalis infection have not been fully elucidated. Toll-like receptor2 (TLR2) has been shown to be involved in pathogen recognition, innate immunity activation, and inflammatory response to the pathogens. Nonetheless, the function of TLR2 against T. vaginalis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of TLR2 in mouse macrophages against T. vaginalis. RT-qPCR analysis revealed that T. vaginalis stimulation increased the gene expression of TLR2 in wild-type (WT) mouse macrophages. T. vaginalis also induced the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in WT mouse macrophages, and the expression of these cytokines significantly decreased in TLR2-/- mouse macrophages and in WT mouse macrophages pretreated with MAPK inhibitors SB203580 (p38) and PD98059 (ERK). Western blot analysis demonstrated that T. vaginalis stimulation induced the activation of p38, ERK, and p65 NF-κB signal pathways in WT mouse macrophages, and the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and p65 NF-κB significantly decreased in TLR2-/- mouse macrophages. Taken together, our data suggested that T. vaginalis may regulates proinflammatory cytokines production by activation of p38, ERK, and NF-κB p65 signal pathways via TLR2 in mouse macrophages. TLR2 might be involved in the defense and elimination of T. vaginalis infection. PMID:29692771

  11. PCR based diagnostic assay targeting the beta tubulin gene for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in vaginal swab samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic women in India

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    Surya Prakash Dwivedi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop an in-house PCR based diagnostic assay for identification of strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects of India, targeting the 毬 -tubulin gene using specific primers. Methods: In the present study a primer set is designed to target a well-conserved region in the beta-tubulin gene of Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis. All strains of T. vaginalis were tested and successfully detected by PCR yielding a single predicted product of 198 bp in gel electrophoresis, while there was negative response with DNA from Giardia lamblia, Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania donovani and Entamoeba histolytica. The sensitivity and specificity for a single T. vaginalis cell per PCR was achieved. Axenic Culture, performed with long term axenized T. vaginalis culture system, was routinely examined to identify T. vaginalis. Results: The PCR based investigations with 498 vaginal swab samples from women attending OPD clinics of Halberg Hospital Moradabad and Queen Mary ’s Hospital, Lucknow, India and 17 long term axenic cultures maintained at PGIMER, Chandigarh, India using primer set BTUB 1 & BTUB 2 showed sensitivity and specificity response of 98% and 100%, respectively, while wet preparation in clinically isolated samples responded up to 62.5%. The PCR product sequencing result of symptomatic strains (SS1 of T. vaginalis (744 bp long was submitted to NCBI (Accession No: JF513200. It shows maximum identity 98 % with XM_001284521 Trichomonas vaginalis G-3 beta-tubulin (btub putative partial mRNA. Conclusions: The data gathered in the present study entail that the diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection by PCR may be established as a sensitive and specific protocol, to be incorporated into a joint strategy for the screening of multiple STDs by employing molecular amplification technique. The merits and precautions of the protocol have been discussed.

  12. Characterization of RNase MRP RNA and novel snoRNAs from Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic cells possess a complex network of RNA machineries which function in RNA-processing and cellular regulation which includes transcription, translation, silencing, editing and epigenetic control. Studies of model organisms have shown that many ncRNAs of the RNA-infrastructure are highly conserved, but little is known from non-model protists. In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results We have identified the previously 'missing' Giardia RNase MRP RNA, which is a key ribozyme involved in pre-rRNA processing. We have also uncovered 18 new H/ACA box snoRNAs, expanding our knowledge of the H/ACA family of snoRNAs. Conclusions Results indicate that Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, like their distant multicellular relatives, contain a rich infrastructure of RNA-based processing. From here we can investigate the evolution of RNA processing networks in eukaryotes. PMID:22053856

  13. In Vitro Activity of Lactobacilli with Probiotic Potential Isolated from Cocoa Fermentation against Gardnerella vaginalis

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    Wallace Felipe Blohem Pessoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the probiotic potential of microorganisms isolated from fermented foods has been increasing, especially studies related to lactobacilli. In intestinal models, lactobacilli have demonstrated beneficial properties, such as anti-inflammatory activity and increased antibody production, but the molecular mechanisms involving probiotic and antagonistic action as well as their effect on human vaginal cells have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional and antagonistic properties of three strains of lactobacilli isolated from cocoa fermentation (Lactobacillus fermentum 5.2, L. plantarum 6.2, and L. plantarum 7.1 against Gardnerella vaginalis. Our results show that the lactobacilli have potential use as probiotics, since they have high hydrophobicity and autoaggregation properties and effectively adhere to vaginal cells. Metabolites secreted into the culture medium and whole cells of the strains under study are capable of interfering with the growth of G. vaginalis to different degrees. The elucidation of the antagonistic mechanisms as well as their effect on human cells may be useful in the development of a product containing such microorganisms or products secreted by them.

  14. Novel core promoter elements and a cognate transcription factor in the divergent unicellular eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alias J; Chudnovsky, Lorissa; Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto; Delgadillo-Correa, Maria G; Jonsson, Zophonias O; Wohlschlegel, James A; Johnson, Patricia J

    2011-04-01

    A highly conserved DNA initiator (Inr) element has been the only core promoter element described in the divergent unicellular eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis, although genome analyses reveal that only ∼75% of protein-coding genes appear to contain an Inr. In search of another core promoter element(s), a nonredundant database containing 5' untranslated regions of expressed T. vaginalis genes was searched for overrepresented DNA motifs and known eukaryotic core promoter elements. In addition to identifying the Inr, two elements that lack sequence similarity to the known protein-coding gene core promoter, motif 3 (M3) and motif 5 (M5), were identified. Mutational and functional analyses demonstrate that both are novel core promoter elements. M3 [(A/G/T)(A/G)C(G/C)G(T/C)T(T/A/G)] resembles a Myb recognition element (MRE) and is bound specifically by a unique protein with a Myb-like DNA binding domain. The M5 element (CCTTT) overlaps the transcription start site and replaces the Inr as an alternative, gene-specific initiator element. Transcription specifically initiates at the second cytosine within M5, in contrast to characteristic initiation by RNA polymerase II at an adenosine. In promoters that combine M3 with either M5 or Inr, transcription initiation is regulated by the M3 motif.

  15. Susceptibilidad a desinfectantes de Trichomonas vaginalis y Escherichia coli presentes en fómites experimentales

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    Fernando Anaya Velázquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades infecciosas provocadas por microorganismos patógenos se pueden transmitir directa o indirectamente. El protozoario Trichomonas vaginalis y la bacteria Escherichia coli son patógenos para el ser humano que pueden ser trans - mitidos por fómites. Existe una gama de productos para desinfectar, pero no existe información sobre el efecto completo de su eficacia en forma comparativa sobre bacterias o tricomonas en interacción con diferentes tipos de materiales. En este trabajo, se analizó el efecto de algunos desinfectantes sobre la viabilidad de Escherichia coli cepa 055 y Trichomonas vaginalis cepa GT-21, depositadas sobre diferentes tipos de materiales. Se diseñó un sistema in vitro con fómites experi - mentales para estudiar el efecto sobre estos patógenos. Se encontró que las tricomonas permanecen viables hasta ocho horas, y las bacterias hasta 24 horas en madera, papel, tela y plástico. Sin embargo, ambos microorganismos sobreviven solamente entre 1 y 4 horas sobre vidrio o metal. Tanto las bacterias como las tricomonas son inhibidas por los desinfec - tantes probados, siendo los más efectivos el etanol a 70% y el producto comercial Lysol ® .

  16. A systematic identification of Kolobok superfamily transposons in Trichomonas vaginalis and sequence analysis on related transposases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingshu Meng; Kaifu Chen; Lina Ma; Songnian Hu; Jun Yu

    2011-01-01

    Transposons are sequence elements widely distributed among genomes of all three kingdoms of life, providing genomic changes and playing significant roles in genome evolution. Trichomonas vaginalis is an excellent model system for transposon study since its genome ( ~ 160 Mb) has been sequenced and is composed of ~65% transposons and other repetitive elements. In this study, we primarily report the identification of Kolobok-type transposons (termed tvBac) in T. vaginalis and the results of transposase sequence analysis. We categorized 24 novel subfamilies of the Kolobok element, including one autonomous subfamily and 23 non-autonomous subfamilies. We also identified a novel H2CH motif in tvBac transposases based on multiple sequence alignment. In addition, we supposed that tvBac and Mutator transposons may have evolved independently from a common ancestor according to our phylogenetic analysis. Our results provide basic information for the understanding of the function and evolution of tvBac transposons in particular and other related transposon families in general.

  17. [Experimental work: reconstruction of the pelvi-ureteric junction and ureter using testicular tunica vaginalis autograft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usupbaev, A Ch; Kurbanaliev, R M; Chernetsova, G S; Kolesnichenko, I V; Sultanov, B M; Myrzakanov, N M; Zolotukhin, A O; Vagner, N A

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the results of surgical reconstruction of the upper urinary tract using an autograft of testicular tunica vaginalis in experimental animals. The article presents the results of partial replacement of the renal pelvis and ureter with an autograft in 25 male dogs. The grafts were harvested by resection of the parietal layer of the testicular tunica vaginalis, which was transplanted into the region of the pelvi-ureteric junction and the proximal ureter. The upper urinary tract was drained using a ureteral stent catheter. The results were evaluated at week 1 and months 1, 3 and six after the operation. The functional state of the kidneys and ureters was analyzed using excretory urography and ultrasound; the autograft biopsy specimens were examined histologically. In all cases, the viability of the autograft was completely preserved, there were no signs of secondary infection, necrosis and impaired patency in the anastomosis zone. Histological examination revealed signs of epithelialization, connective tissue substitution and neovasculogenesis in the implantation zone. The proposed surgical modality is an alternative method to restore normal urine flow in the upper urinary tract in obstructive urological diseases. The group of obstructive urological diseases was studied using the model of the strictures of the pelvi-ureteric junction in the intrarenal pelvis and ureteral strictures measuring up to 3-4 cm in length.

  18. Multiple adenomatoid tumours in the Epididymis and Tunica vaginalis: Case report

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    Ahmed Abroaf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 65 year-old male presenting with a tender right testicular mass, confirmed to be a tumour on ultrasound. The patient underwent a radical inguinal orchidectomy and histology revealed multiple adenomatoid tumours in epididymis and tunica vaginalis. This is an infrequent benign tumour of mesothelial origin that has rarely been reported as multiple lesions in the literature. Immunohistochemistry demonstrates that adenomatoid tumour and mesotheliomas share the expression of podoplanin (D2-40 which is helpful to differentiate them from carcinomas. On the other hand adenomatoid tumour is differentiated from mesothelioma on morphological grounds since the former does not exhibit cellular atypia, mitotic activity or bland focal tumour necrosis. Although testis preserving surgery can be an option for benign adenomatoid tumours, most patients (as in our case proceed to orchidectomy as diagnosing them confidently can be difficult.---------------------------Cite this article as: Abroaf A, Veeratterapillay R, Vasdev N, Majo J, Sherif AE, Paez E. Multiple adenomatoid tumours in the Epididymis and Tunica vaginalis : Case Report. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1:02021.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0202.1

  19. Perineal hernia repair using an autologous tunica vaginalis communis in nine intact male dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratummintra, Kittiya; Chuthatep, Suwicha; Banlunara, Wijit; Kalpravidh, Marissak

    2013-01-01

    Perineal hernia in dogs is very problematic and mostly requires surgical reconstruction of the weak pelvic diaphragm. Tissue or synthetic grafts have been used for the correction after failure of the conventional herniorrhaphy. Aim of this clinical trial was to assess the possible use of the autologous tunica vaginalis communis as a free graft for perineal hernia repair in intact male dogs. Seven unilateral and 2 bilateral perineal hernias in nine intact male dogs free from testicular and scrotal neoplasms were included in this study. The median surgical time for unilateral herniorrhaphy was 75 min. The median follow-up time was 13 months. The success of the autografting, based on no recurrence and comfort of the animals during urination and defecation, was found in ten of 11 hernias; giving a success rate of 90.91%. One hernia (9.09%) recurred 10 days after surgery. Histopathological examination of the apposing area between the graft and the adjacent tissue, taken during the repair of the recurred case at day 20, revealed neovascularization and connective tissue ingrowth. In conclusion, the tunica vaginalis autograft can be used for perineal herniorrhaphy in intact male dogs.

  20. A Review of Evidence-Based Care of Symptomatic Trichomoniasis and Asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meites, Elissa; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Hobbs, Marcia M; Kissinger, Patricia; Nyirjesy, Paul; Schwebke, Jane R; Secor, W Evan; Sobel, Jack D; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2015-12-15

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection, affecting an estimated 3.7 million women and men in the United States. Health disparities are prominent in the epidemiology of this infection, which affects 11% of women aged ≥40 years and a disproportionately high percentage of black women. Particularly high prevalences have been identified among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients and incarcerated individuals. This article reviews and updates scientific evidence in key topic areas used for the development of the 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current evidence is presented regarding conditions associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. Nucleic acid amplification tests and point-of-care tests are newly available diagnostic methods that can be conducted on a variety of specimens, potentially allowing highly sensitive testing and screening of both women and men at risk for infection. Usually, trichomoniasis can be cured with single-dose therapy of an appropriate nitroimidazole antibiotic, but women who are also infected with HIV should receive therapy for 7 days. Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. The Caatinga endemic Manilkara rufula possesses remarkable activity against Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brum Vieira, Patrícia; Feijó Silva, Nícolas Luiz; Silva, Denise Brentan; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; da Silva, Alexandre Gomes; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; Bastida, Jaume; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2017-02-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus infects the bovine urogenital tract, causing bovine trichomoniasis. Significant economic losses may occur due to infertility and abortion among cattle. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis; the most common but overlooked non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Human and bovine trichomoniasis present treatment restrictions and efforts to identify new alternatives are essential. The present study evaluated the anti-trichomonads activities of seven fractions from northwest endemic plant Manilkara rufula. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were identified from these fractions by LC-DAD-MS/MS and MALDI-MS/MS. Altogether, the results demonstrated for the first time the structural description of tannins from leaves of M. rufula and the relation of these compounds with anti-T. vaginalis and anti-T. foetus activities. Overall, this report reveals the potential of M. rufula fractions against both parasites and shows new alternatives to treat the infection caused by trichomonads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Incident Trichomonas vaginalis Is Associated With Partnership Concurrency: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Buyze, Jozefien; Klebanoff, Mark; Brotman, Rebecca M

    2017-11-01

    Sexual partner concurrency (PC) has been shown to be a risk factor for a number of sexually transmitted infections but it is unknown if it is a risk factor for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). We assess if there is an association between PC and incident TV infection. We used mixed effects logistic regression to assess the association between PC and incident TV in the Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora, a cohort study of 3620 women followed quarterly for 5 visits. Trichomonas vaginalis was more common in those reporting definite/possible/unknown PC (15.6%/15.0%/18.3%) than those reporting no PC (5.2%; P < 0.001 for all 3 comparisons). After controlling for a range of confounders, incident TV remained associated with reporting that one's partner definitely (adjusted odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 3.7-8.0) and possibly (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-5.1) engaged in PC in the preceding period. Partner concurrency was associated with incident TV infection.

  3. Tubulin post-translational modifications in the primitive protist Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Viscogliosi, P; Brugerolle, G; Viscogliosi, E

    1996-01-01

    Using several specific monoclonal antibodies, we investigated the occurrence and distribution of different post-translationally modified tubulin during interphase and division of the primitive flagellated protist Trichomonas vaginalis. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence experiments revealed that interphasic microtubular structures of T. vaginalis contained acetylated and glutamylated but non-tyrosinated and non-glycylated [Brugerolle and Adoutte, 1988: Bio Systems 21: 255-268] tubulin. Immunofluorescence studies performed on dividing cells showed that the extranuclear mitotic spindle (or paradesmosis) was acetylated and glutamylated, which contrast with the ephemeral nature of this structure. Newly formed short axostyles also contained acetylated and glutamylated tubulin suggesting that both post-translational modifications might take place very early after assembly of microtubular structures. Our results indicate that acetylation and glutamylation of tubulin appeared early in the history of eukaryotes and could reflect the occurrence of post-translational modifications of tubulin in the primitive eukaryotic cells. These cells probably had a highly ordered cross-linked microtubular cytoskeleton in which microtubules showed a low level of subunit exchange dynamics.

  4. Characterization of RNase MRP RNA and novel snoRNAs from Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowei S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eukaryotic cells possess a complex network of RNA machineries which function in RNA-processing and cellular regulation which includes transcription, translation, silencing, editing and epigenetic control. Studies of model organisms have shown that many ncRNAs of the RNA-infrastructure are highly conserved, but little is known from non-model protists. In this study we have conducted a genome-scale survey of medium-length ncRNAs from the protozoan parasites Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results We have identified the previously 'missing' Giardia RNase MRP RNA, which is a key ribozyme involved in pre-rRNA processing. We have also uncovered 18 new H/ACA box snoRNAs, expanding our knowledge of the H/ACA family of snoRNAs. Conclusions Results indicate that Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis, like their distant multicellular relatives, contain a rich infrastructure of RNA-based processing. From here we can investigate the evolution of RNA processing networks in eukaryotes.

  5. A pilot study on Trichomonas vaginalis in women with recurrent urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chih Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs shared similar risk factors, age distribution and overlapping symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV in women with recurrent UTIs, attending a urology clinic in a medical center, in order to inform screening and treatment policies. Methods: Women with recurrent UTIs, defined as the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, frequency and urgency and three positive urine cultures on voided urine specimens in the previous year, were enrolled prospectively from January 2013 to April 2014. Urine samples were collected for culture and tested for TV using immunochromatographic strip. Outpatient follow-up was arranged to diagnose any symptomatic UTI recurrence. Results: Sixty-five women were recruited. Mean age was 57.4 ± 14.3 year-old and follow-up duration was 9.5 ± 4.0 months. The prevalence of TV was 16.9% (11/65. Eight women had UTI recurrence in the follow-up period. Recurrence rate did not differ in patients with and without concomitant TV infection. Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of TV, we suggest that testing for TV should be considered in women with recurrent UTIs. Further larger studies are needed to evaluate the potential benefit of treating TV in this group of patients. Keywords: Prevalence, Trichomonas vaginalis, Urinary tract infection, Women

  6. Study on ITS1 Gene of Iranian Trichomonas Vaginalis by Molecular Methods

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    F Kazemi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomoniasis is a worldwide protozoan parasitic disease and metronidazole is a choice drug for its treatment. Because of disease importance in public health and its controversial ideas about the prevalence of drug resistance, this study was carried out.Methods: Fifty-two suspected vaginal samples were collected from 2006 to 2007 in Gynecology Maryam Hospital, Tehran, Iran. All isolates were examined by microscopic, culture and PCR tech­niques. The PCR products were analyzed by RFLP and CSGE methods and two suspected samples were sequenced.Results: Trichomonas vaginalis was identified from all 52 samples. Of 52 isolates, 45 samples were successfully cultured and amplified by PCR except one. Seven were positive only by PCR. Finally, ITS1 fragment was successfully amplified in 51 of 52. CSGE analysis and PCR products di­gestion by MspI followed by sequencing showed nucleotide mutation at position 209 (C209T of the ITS1 fragment in two (3.9% of them.Conclusion: The results showed mutation in ITS1 fragment of T. vaginalis in two (3.9% of Ira­nian isolates which may be related to metronidazole resistance.

  7. Remarkable Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis Activity of Plants Traditionally Used by the Mbyá-Guarani Indigenous Group in Brazil

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    Clara Lia Costa Brandelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomonosis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Taking into account the increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant isolates, alternative drugs are essential for the successful treatment. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and popular wisdom about the use of medicinal plants is a powerful tool in this search. In this study, the activity of 10 medicinal plants extensively used in daily life by Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group was evaluated against seven different T. vaginalis isolates. Among the aqueous extracts tested, Verbena sp. (Guachu ka'a in Mbyá-Guarani language and Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Guavira in Mbyá-Guarani language showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis with MIC value of 4.0 mg/mL reaching 100% of efficacy against the parasite. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extracts promoted complete growth abolishment after 4 h of incubation. In addition, the extracts tested did not promote a significant hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Our results show for the first time the potential activity of Verbena sp. and C. xanthocarpa against T. vaginalis. In addition, this study demonstrates that indigenous knowledge is an important source of new prototype antiprotozoal agents.

  8. Remarkable anti-trichomonas vaginalis activity of plants traditionally used by the Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomonosis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Taking into account the increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant isolates, alternative drugs are essential for the successful treatment. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and popular wisdom about the use of medicinal plants is a powerful tool in this search. In this study, the activity of 10 medicinal plants extensively used in daily life by Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group was evaluated against seven different T. vaginalis isolates. Among the aqueous extracts tested, Verbena sp. (Guachu ka'a in Mbyá-Guarani language) and Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Guavira in Mbyá-Guarani language) showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis with MIC value of 4.0 mg/mL reaching 100% of efficacy against the parasite. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extracts promoted complete growth abolishment after 4 h of incubation. In addition, the extracts tested did not promote a significant hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Our results show for the first time the potential activity of Verbena sp. and C. xanthocarpa against T. vaginalis. In addition, this study demonstrates that indigenous knowledge is an important source of new prototype antiprotozoal agents.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis infection and risk of prostate cancer: associations by disease aggressiveness and race/ethnicity in the PLCO Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marous, Miguelle; Huang, Wen-Yi; Rabkin, Charles S; Hayes, Richard B; Alderete, John F; Rosner, Bernard; Grubb, Robert L; Winter, Anke C; Sutcliffe, Siobhan

    2017-08-01

    Results from previous sero-epidemiologic studies of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and prostate cancer (PCa) support a positive association between this sexually transmitted infection and aggressive PCa. However, findings from previous studies are not entirely consistent, and only one has investigated the possible relation between T. vaginalis seropositivity and PCa in African-American men who are at highest risk of both infection and PCa. Therefore, we examined this possible relation in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, including separate analyses for aggressive PCa and African-American men. We included a sample of participants from a previous nested case-control study of PCa, as well as all additional Caucasian, aggressive, and African-American cases diagnosed since the previous study (total n = 438 Gleason 7 Caucasian cases, 487 more advanced Caucasian cases (≥Gleason 8 or stage III/IV), 201 African-American cases, and 1216 controls). We tested baseline sera for T. vaginalis antibodies. No associations were observed for risk of Gleason 7 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.37) or more advanced (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.58-1.38) PCa in Caucasian men, or for risk of any PCa (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.67-1.68) in African-American men. Our findings do not support an association between T. vaginalis infection and PCa.

  10. Performance of a rapid self-test for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in South Africa and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Heidi E.; Lippman, Sheri A.; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H.; Young, Taryn; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Women participating in studies in Brazil (n = 695) and South Africa (n = 230) performed rapid point-of-care tests for Trichomonas vaginalis on self-collected vaginal swabs. Using PCR as the gold standard, rapid self-testing achieved high specificity (99.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 98.2 to

  11. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  12. Aspectos clínicos, patogênese e diagnóstico de Trichomonas vaginalis Clinical aspects, pathogenesis and diagnostic of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele de Paiva Maciel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis é o agente etiológico da tricomoníase, a doença sexualmente transmissível (DST não-viral mais comum no mundo. Esse protozoário flagelado atinge o parasitismo com sucesso em um ambiente hostil através dos vários mecanismos pelos quais estabelece sua patogenicidade e também por sua capacidade de evadir a resposta imune do hospedeiro. A infecção apresenta uma ampla variedade de manifestações clínicas, desde quadro assintomático até severa vaginite. A tricomoníase tem sido associada à transmissão do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, à doença inflamatória pélvica, ao câncer cervical, à infertilidade, ao parto prematuro e ao baixo peso de bebês nascidos de mães infectadas. A investigação laboratorial é essencial na diagnose dessa patogenia, uma vez que leva ao tratamento apropriado e facilita o controle da propagação da infecção. A prevalência mundial anual da tricomoníase é de 180 milhões de casos, e na Europa é responsável por 41% dos casos de vaginite. A terapia da tricomoníase inclui as mesmas medidas profiláticas destinadas às outras DSTs, como prática de sexo seguro e uso de preservativos. O metronidazol é o medicamento de escolha no tratamento da tricomoníase, entretanto, devido à ineficácia dos tratamentos de dose única e ao iminente surgimento de cepas resistentes, outras alternativas terapêuticas estão sendo investigadas.Trichomonas vaginalis is the aethiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the sexually transmitted disease (STD non-viral most common in the world. This flagellate protozoan successfully reaches the parasitism in a hostile environment through some mechanisms which establish its pathogenicity and also through its capacity to evade the host immune response. Trichomoniasis presents a large variety of clinical manifestations, from a totally asymptomatic infection to severe vaginitis. It has been associated to the increase in transmission of the human

  13. Cardenolide glycosides from Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark S; Towerzey, Leanne; Pham, Ngoc B; Hyde, Edward; Wadi, Sao Khemar; Guymer, Gordon P; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    Extracts from dried leaf and stems of Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium (Celastraceae) collected in South East Queensland, Australia, were active in an assay that measured Ca(2+) driven expression of IL-2/luciferase designed to identify inhibitors of the ICRAC channel. Bioassay-guided isolation using C18 and polyamide column chromatography, HPLC (Phenyl and C18) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) led to the isolation of digitoxigenin (1) and three cardenolide glycosides, glucoside 2, quinovoside 3 and the new natural product xyloside 4, as the active components with low nM activity in the reporter assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. VAR IPP-IPC Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Pérez Monsalve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the relationship of the two main Price indicators in the Colombian economy, the IPP and the IPC. For this purpose, we identified the theory comprising both indexes to then develop a vector autoregressive model, which shows the reaction to shocks both in itself as in the other variable, whose impact continues propagating in the long term. Additionally, the work presents a simulation of the VAR model through the Monte Carlo method, verifying the coincidence in distributions of probability and volatility levels, as well as the existence correlation over time

  15. The effect of alcoholic extracts of Arctium lappa L. and Satureja hortensis L. against Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Arbabi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is one of the most prevalent type of vaginitis in women. Considering the side effects of metronidazole and therapeutic properties of Arctium lappa L. and Satureja hortensis L. in traditional medicine, this study aimed to examine the anti-Trichomonas effects of Arctium lappa and Satureja hortensis alcoholic extracts in vitro. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted on T. vaginalis isolated from 1203 persons referred to five health centers in Kashan city. Five T. vaginalis isolates were cultured in a TYI-S-33 medium and were used to study the effect of Arctium lappa and Satureja hortensis extracts. The effects of different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 µg/mL of plant extracts on the growth of T. vaginalis trophozoeites were studied 12, 24, and 48 h after the culture. Also, the culture media and metronidazole (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 µg/mL were considered as the negative and positive controls, respectively. The effects of the extracts and drug were examined by counting the number of live and dead parasites using the trypan blue staining method. Results: Results showed that the alcoholic extracts of Satureja hortensis and Arctium lappa had an inhibitory effect on the growth of T. vaginalis. The IC50 values of the alcoholic extracts of Satureja hortensis, Arctium lappa and metronidazole after 24 h were 190.8, 996.7 and 0.0326 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The present study shows the in vitro anti-Trichomonas effect of Arctium lappa and Satureja hortensis extracts. The anti-Trichomonas effect of Satureja hortensis extract was higher than that of the Arctium lappa extract. Further studies are recommended to investigate the anti-Trichomonas effect of major components of these plants, especially the Satureja hortensis extract.

  16. Trichocystatin-2 (TC-2): an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteinases in Trichomonas vaginalis is associated with TvCP39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Ramón-Luing, Lucero de los Ángeles; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Ortega-López, Jaime; Arroyo, Rossana

    2014-09-01

    The causal agent of trichomoniasis is a parasitic protist, Trichomonas vaginalis, which is rich in proteolytic activity, primarily carried out by cysteine proteases (CPs). Some CPs are known virulence factors. T. vaginalis also possesses three genes encoding endogenous cystatin-like CP inhibitors. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize one of these CP inhibitors. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), a cystatin-like peptidase inhibitor dubbed Trichocystatin-2 (TC-2) was identified in the T. vaginalis active degradome in association with TvCP39, a 39kDa CP involved in cytotoxicity. To characterize the TC-2 inhibitor, we cloned and expressed the tvicp-2 gene, purified the recombinant protein (TC-2r), and produced a specific polyclonal antibody (α-TC-2r). This antibody recognized a 10kDa protein band by western blotting. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and cell fractionation assays using the α-TC-2r antibody showed that TC-2 was localized in the cytoplasm and lysosomes and that it colocalized with TvCP39. TC-2r showed inhibitory activity against papain, cathepsin-L, and TvCP39 in trichomonad extracts and live parasites but not legumain-like CPs. Live trichomonads treated with TC-2r showed reduced trichomonal cytotoxicity to HeLa cell monolayers in a TC-2r-concentration-dependent manner. In this study, we identified and characterized an endogenous cystatin-like inhibitor in T. vaginalis, TC-2, which is associated with TvCP39 and appears to regulate the cellular damage caused by T. vaginalis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAPI staining and PARP SDS-PAGE tests showed 60 μM quercetin could induce potential apoptotic activity in HepG2 liver cancer cells. Conclusion: Quercetin was the major cytotoxicity constituent in S. bodinieri var. delicate. Keywords: Apoptotic activity, Quercetin, Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate, HepG2 liver cancer ...

  18. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  19. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. ... Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by ..... µg/mL; G. silvatica leaves, LC50 = 117.9 µg/mL.

  20. ESTIMASI NILAI VaR PORTOFOLIO MENGGUNAKAN FUNGSI ARCHIMEDEAN COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AULIA ATIKA PRAWIBTA SUHARTO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk explains the magnitude of the worst losses occurred in financial products investments with a certain level of confidence and time interval. The purpose of this study is to estimate the VaR of portfolio using Archimedean Copula family. The methods for calculating the VaR are as follows: (1 calculating the stock return; (2 calculating descriptive statistics of return; (3 checking for the nature of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity effects on stock return data; (4 checking for the presence of extreme value by using Pareto tail; (5 estimating the parameters of Achimedean Copula family; (6 conducting simulations of Archimedean Copula; (7 estimating the value of the stock portfolio VaR. This study uses the closing price of TLKM and GGRM. At 90% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 0.9562%, 1.0189%, 0.9827% respectively. At 95% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 1.2930%, 1.2522%, 1.3152% respectively. At 99% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 2.0327%, 1.9164%, is 1.8678% respectively. In conclusion estimation of VaR using Clayton copula yields the highest VaR.

  1. Een nieuwe naam voor Arenaria serpyllifolia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutermann, W.; Mennema, J.

    1983-01-01

    The name Arenaria serpyllifoiia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd is illegitimate, because of the existence of the earlier non-synonymous A. serpyllifolia0 macrocarpa Godron. As on the level of variety no other name is available, we call the taxon A renaria serpylli/olia L. var. Iloydn (Jord.) Gutermann et

  2. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  3. Genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis and gonorrhea prevalence, and risk factors among nearly 70,000 randomly selected women in 4 Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Trichomonas vaginalis Ferredoxin Show a Loop-Cap Transition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weksberg, Tiffany E; Lynch, Gillian C; Krause, Kurt; Pettitt, Bernard M

    2007-05-01

    The crystal structure of the oxidized Trichomonas vaginalis ferredoxin (Tvfd) showed a unique crevice that exposed the redox center. Here we have examined the dynamics and solvation of the active site of Tvfd using molecular dynamics simulations of both the reduced and oxidized states. The oxidized simulation stays true to the crystal form with a heavy atom root mean-squared deviation of 2Å. However, within the reduced simulation of Tvfd a profound loop-cap transition into the redox center occurred within 6-ns of the start of the simulation and remained open throughout the rest of the 20-ns simulation. This large opening seen in the simulations supports the hypothesis that the exceptionally fast electron transfer rate between Tvfd and the drug metronidazole is due to the increased access of the antibiotic to the redox center of the protein and not due to the reduction potential.

  5. Trichomonas vaginalis Cysteine Proteinases: Iron Response in Gene Expression and Proteolytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Guerra, Rosa Elena; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Puente-Rivera, Jonathan; Zamudio-Prieto, Olga; Ortega-López, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the iron response of Trichomonas vaginalis to gene family products such as the cysteine proteinases (CPs) involved in virulence properties. In particular, we examined the effect of iron on the gene expression regulation and function of cathepsin L-like and asparaginyl endopeptidase-like CPs as virulence factors. We addressed some important aspects about CPs genomic organization and we offer possible explanations to the fact that only few members of this large gene family are expressed at the RNA and protein levels and the way to control their proteolytic activity. We also summarized all known iron regulations of CPs at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels along with new insights into the possible epigenetic and miRNA processes. PMID:26090464

  6. Persistent and recurrent Trichomonas vaginalis infections: epidemiology, treatment and management considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seña, Arlene C; Bachmann, Laura H; Hobbs, Marcia M

    2014-06-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is a common sexually transmitted infection that can cause vaginitis, cervicitis and urethritis. Persistent and recurrent TV infections are frequent in women, potentially due to the lack of routine screening recommendations for this pathogen, the chronic nature of some infections, and drug resistance. Metronidazole and tinidazole are two oral drugs that are effective against trichomoniasis. There are few alternative treatment options for persons with a metronidazole allergy or treatment failure. Most TV isolates from women with treatment failures that have been analyzed for susceptibility testing in the United States have exhibited low-level metronidazole resistance, supporting the initial use of tinidazole for patients who fail metronidazole therapy. Several non-nitroimidazole drugs and other agents have demonstrated acceptable in vitro activity or cure rates in case reports for metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis; however, clinical trials are imperative to evaluate their efficacy as alternative therapeutic regimens for this highly prevalent infection.

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Trichomonas vaginalis Ferredoxin Show a Loop-Cap Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weksberg, Tiffany E; Lynch, Gillian C; Krause, Kurt; Pettitt, Bernard M

    2007-05-01

    The crystal structure of the oxidized Trichomonas vaginalis ferredoxin (Tvfd) showed a unique crevice that exposed the redox center. Here we have examined the dynamics and solvation of the active site of Tvfd using molecular dynamics simulations of both the reduced and oxidized states. The oxidized simulation stays true to the crystal form with a heavy atom root mean-squared deviation of 2Å . However, within the reduced simulation of Tvfd a profound loop-cap transition into the redox center occurred within 6-ns of the start of the simulation and remained open throughout the rest of the 20-ns simulation. This large opening seen in the simulations supports the hypothesis that the exceptionally fast electron transfer rate between Tvfd and the drug metronidazole is due to the increased access of the antibiotic to the redox center of the protein and not due to the reduction potential.

  8. Recombinant α-actinin subunit antigens of Trichomonas vaginalis as potential vaccine candidates in protecting against trichomoniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Ting; Gao, Jiang-Mei; Wu, Ya-Ping; Tang, Petrus; Hide, Geoff; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong

    2017-02-16

    Human trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases with more than 200 million cases worldwide. It has caused a series of health problems to patients. For prevention and control of infectious diseases, vaccines are usually considered as one of the most cost-efficient tools. However, until now, work on the development of T. vaginalis vaccines is still mainly focused on the screening of potential immunogens. Alpha-actinin characterized by high immunogenicity in T. vaginalis was suggested as a promising candidate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the protective potency of recombinant α-actinin against T. vaginalis infection in a mouse intraperitoneal model. Two selected coding regions of α-actinin (ACT-F, 14-469 aa and ACT-T, 462-844 aa) amplified from cDNA were cloned into pET-32a (+) expression vector and transfected into BL21 cells. After induction with IPTG and purification with electroelution, the two recombinant fusion proteins were emulsified in Freund's adjuvant (FA) and used to immunize BALB/C mice. Following intraperitoneal inoculation with T. vaginalis, the survival rate of mice was monitored for the assessment of protective potency. After immunization, the antibody level in mouse serum was assessed by ELISA, splenocyte proliferation response was detected with CCK8 and cytokines in the supernatant of splenocytes were quantified with a cytometric bead-based assay. We successfully obtained purified ACT-F (70.33 kDa) and ACT-T (61.7kDa). Both recombinant proteins could provide significant protection against T. vaginalis challenge, especially ACT-T (with 100% protection within one month). Meanwhile, high levels of specific total IgG and subtypes (IgG1 > IgG2a) were detected in sera from the immunized mice. Our results also revealed a statistically significant increase in splenocyte proliferation and related cytokine (IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17A and IL-10) production after repeated

  9. A novel surface protein of Trichomonas vaginalis is regulated independently by low iron and contact with vaginal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang T-H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichomonosis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is the number one, non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD that affects more than 250 million people worldwide. Immunoglobulin A (IgA has been implicated in resistance to mucosal infections by pathogens. No reports are available of IgA-reactive proteins and the role, if any, of this class of antibody in the control of this STD. The availability of an IgA monoclonal antibody (mAb immunoreactive to trichomonads by whole cell (WC-ELISA prompted us to characterize the IgA-reactive protein of T. vaginalis. Results An IgA mAb called 6B8 was isolated from a library of mAbs reactive to surface proteins of T. vaginalis. The 6B8 mAb recognized a 44-kDa protein (TV44 by immunoblot analysis, and a full-length cDNA clone encoded a protein of 438 amino acids. Southern analysis revealed the gene (tv44 of T. vaginalis to be single copy. The tv44 gene was down-regulated at both the transcriptional and translational levels in iron-depleted trichomonads as well as in parasites after contact with immortalized MS-74 vaginal epithelial cells (VECs. Immunofluorescence on non-permeabilized organisms confirmed surface localization of TV44, and the intensity of fluorescence was reduced after parasite adherence to VECs. Lastly, an identical protein and gene were present in Tritrichomonas foetus and Trichomonas tenax. Conclusion This is the first report of a T. vaginalis gene (tv44 encoding a surface protein (TV44 reactive with an IgA mAb, and both gene and protein were conserved in human and bovine trichomonads. Further, TV44 is independently down-regulated in expression and surface placement by iron and contact with VECs. TV44 is another member of T. vaginalis genes that are regulated by at least two independent signaling mechanisms involving iron and contact with VECs.

  10. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  11. Sensitivity assessment of direct method for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in comparison with Dorset Culture media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ebrahim badparva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan that lives in the genital tract and causes trichomoniasis in women. About 200 million people all over the world are infected with T. vaginalis. There are various methods with different sensitivity and specificity for detection of this parasite, that one of them is direct smear of vaginal secretions which is simpler, rapid and cheaper than other diagnostic methods. Materials and Methods: Demographic data was gathered by a questionnaire which contained different variables. Vaginal secretions samples were taken by spicolum and two swaps that maintained in glucose solution in separate tubes from 160 women referred to health centers of Khorramabad. One of the vaginal samples was examined by direct smear in saline solution and the other was cultured in Dorse medium. Results: Of 160 women suspected of trichomoniasis, 11.8% and 18.75% were positive by direct smear and culture respectively. The sensitivity of the direct method was 63.3%. Our findings indicated that 30% of the infected women belonged to the 31 – 35 age group, which had the most relative frequency of positive cases. Most of the patients (43% were illiterate or had elementary educational level. Conclussion: The sensivity of direct method is 63% in compare to culture ( as a Gold standard , which is ralatively low . Although the efficacy of this test could be imporved by shortening the elapsed time between sampling and examination , use of skilled microscopists , and different samples , but we recommend that more sensitive methods such as culture and PCR should be used .

  12. Co-occurrence of Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastring, Danielle R; Amedee, Angela; Gatski, Megan; Clark, Rebecca A; Mena, Leandro A; Levison, Judy; Schmidt, Norine; Rice, Janet; Gustat, Jeanette; Kissinger, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are independently associated with increased risk of vaginal shedding in HIV-positive women. Because these 2 conditions commonly co-occur, this study was undertaken to examine the association between TV/BV co-occurrence and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. HIV-positive women attending outpatient HIV clinics in 3 urban US cities underwent a clinical examination; were screened for TV, BV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis; and completed a behavioral survey. Women shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally (≥50 copies/mL) were compared with women who had an undetectable (women who were TV positive and BV positive or had co-occurrence of TV/BV had higher odds of shedding vaginally when compared with women who did not have these conditions. In this sample of 373 HIV-positive women, 43.1% (n = 161) had co-occurrence of TV/BV and 33.2% (n = 124) were shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally. The odds of shedding HIV vaginally in the presence of TV alone or BV alone and when TV/BV co-occurred were 4.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-9.37), 5.65 (95% CI, 2.64-12.01), and 18.63 (95% CI, 6.71-51.72), respectively, when compared with women with no diagnosis of TV or BV, and after adjusting for age, antiretroviral therapy status, and plasma viral load. T. vaginalis and BV were independently and synergistically related to vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. Screening and prompt treatment of these 2 conditions among HIV-positive women are important not only clinically but for HIV prevention, as well.

  13. Bacterial vaginosis and the risk of trichomonas vaginalis acquisition among HIV-1-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Richardson, Barbra A; Rabe, Lorna K; Taha, Taha E; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Kasaro, Margaret Phiri; Ramjee, Gita; Hoffman, Irving F; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2014-02-01

    The vaginal microbiota may play a role in mediating susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections, including Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Data were analyzed from HIV-1-seronegative women participating in HIV Prevention Trials Network Protocol 035. At quarterly visits for up to 30 months, participants completed structured interviews and specimens were collected for genital tract infection testing. T. vaginalis was detected by saline microscopy. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was characterized by Gram stain using the Nugent score (BV = 7-10; intermediate = 4-6; normal = 0-3 [reference group]). Cox proportional hazards models stratified by study site were used to assess the association between Nugent score category at the prior quarterly visit and TV acquisition. In this secondary analysis, 2920 participants from Malawi, South Africa, United States, Zambia, and Zimbabwe contributed 16,259 follow-up visits. Bacterial vaginosis was detected at 5680 (35%) visits, and TV was detected at 400 (2.5%) visits. Adjusting for age, marital status, hormonal contraceptive use, unprotected sex in the last week and TV at baseline, intermediate Nugent score, and BV at the prior visit were associated with an increased risk of TV (intermediate score: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-2.19; BV: aHR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.92-3.00). Sensitivity analyses excluding 211 participants with TV at baseline were similar to those from the full study population (intermediate score: aHR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.10-2.14; BV: aHR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.75-2.84). Women with a Nugent score higher than 3 were at an increased risk for acquiring TV. If this relationship is causal, interventions that improve the vaginal microbiota could contribute to reductions in TV incidence.

  14. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection in Chilean Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneeus, Andrea; Schilling, Andrea; Fernandez, Mario I

    2018-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis infection in sexually active Chilean adolescents and young adults. A comparative analysis was performed between genders to identify demographic, clinical, and sexual behavior characteristics to predict the occurrence of C trachomatis. Analytical observational study. Santiago, Chile. Two hundred eighty-six sexually active volunteers aged 24 years or younger (171 female and 115 male); 82.9% (237/286) of them were classified as having high socioeconomic status. Confidential survey and self-collected samples (urine for men and vaginal swabs for women). Prevalence, demographic characteristics, symptoms, and sexual behavior characteristics. The prevalence rate of C trachomatis was 8.7% (10/115) in men and 8.8% (15/171) in women (P = .58). N gonorrhoeae was detected in 1 subject, whereas no T vaginalis cases were detected. In multivariate analysis, having some college education was protective (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.89), whereas having a higher number of sexual partners was a risk factor (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3) for C trachomatis infection. The latter was also predicted by postcoital bleeding (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.30-16.23) in the female model. C trachomatis infection rates were similar between both genders. Protective characteristics for the occurrence of this infection were having some college education, lower number of sexual partners, and if female, the absence of postcoital bleeding. This study highlights the importance of C trachomatis screening among the Chilean affluent population younger than 25 years. However, further studies are needed in a more diverse and representative sample to recommend universal screening in Chilean adolescents and young adults. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Zafer

    1991-01-01

    Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

  16. Chromosome behaviour in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata is unusual in that its twelve chromosomes are arranged in a ring at meiosis. The order of the chromosomes has been established, and each chromosome arm has been designated a letter in accordance with the segmental interchange theory. Chromosomes are often irregularly orientated at metaphase I. Chromosomes at anaphase I are generally distributed equally (6-6, 58.75%) although not necessarily balanced. Due to adjacent distribution, 7-5 distribution at anaphase I was frequently observed (24.17%), and due to lagging, 6-1-5 and 5-2-5 distributions were also observed (10.83% and 3.33% respectively). Three types of abnormal distribution, 8-4, 7-1-4 and 6-2-4 were observed very infrequently (2.92% total), and their possible origins are discussed. Irregularities, such as adjacent distribution and lagging, undoubtedly reduce the fertility of the plant because of the resulting unbalanced gametes.

  17. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  18. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    in their analysis is not "cashflow news" but "inter- est rate news" which should not be zero. Consequently, in contrast to what Chen and Zhao claim, their decomposition does not serve as a valid caution against VAR based decompositions. Second, we point out that in order for VAR based decompositions to be valid......Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component...

  19. Trichomonas vaginalis vast BspA-like gene family: evidence for functional diversity from structural organisation and transcriptomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Noel, CJ; Diaz, N

    2010-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common non-viral human sexually transmitted pathogen and importantly, contributes to facilitating the spread of HIV. Yet very little is known about its surface and secreted proteins mediating interactions with, and permitting the invasion and colonisation of...... potential extracellular proteins for the pathogen. A broad range of microorganisms encoding BspA-like proteins was identified and these are mainly known to live on mucosal surfaces, among these T. vaginalis is endowed with the largest gene family. Over 180 TvBspA proteins with inferred transmembrane domains...... were characterized by a considerable structural diversity between their TpLRR and other types of repetitive sequences and two subfamilies possessed distinct classic sorting signal motifs for endocytosis. One TvBspA subfamily also shared a glycine-rich protein domain with proteins from Clostridium...

  20. Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis of "uncertain malignant potential" - an evolving concept: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Asli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis is a rare neoplasm, typically demonstrating frankly malignant morphology and aggressive behavior. Rare cases of well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas have also been reported, which, in contrast, demonstrate indolent behavior. There are, however, cases which do not fit into the well-differentiated or diffuse malignant mesothelioma categories and can be considered mesothelioma of tunica vaginalis of "uncertain malignant potential", which is an emerging diagnostic category. A 57-year-old man presented with a neoplasm in a hydrocele sac. The neoplasm was non-invasive, but showed focal complex and solid growth and it was difficult to categorize either as well-differentiated papillary mesotheliomas or malignant mesothelioma. After the initial limited resection, the patient underwent radical orchiectomy with hemiscrotectomy and is alive and without disease progression after 6 years. Documentation of these rare tumors will allow their distinction from true malignant mesotheliomas and will facilitate the development of specific treatment recommendations.

  1. How can the origin of the decay var-phi →3π be determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achasov, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the interference pattern in the region √s = 1.05 GeV in the reaction e + e - →ω, var-phi →3π can be used to determine unambiguously whether the decay var-phi →3π occurs because of var-phi ω mixing, var-phi →ω→3π, or because of the direct transition var-phi →3π. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. The influence of sexual activity on the vaginal microbiota and Gardnerella vaginalis clade diversity in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodstrcil, Lenka A; Twin, Jimmy; Garland, Suzanne M; Fairley, Christopher K; Hocking, Jane S; Law, Matthew G; Plummer, Erica L; Fethers, Katherine A; Chow, Eric P F; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Bradshaw, Catriona S

    2017-01-01

    To examine the influence of sexual activity on the composition and consistency of the vaginal microbiota over time, and distribution of Gardnerella vaginalis clades in young women. Fifty-two participants from a university cohort were selected. Vaginal swabs were self-collected every 3-months for up to 12 months with 184 specimens analysed. The vaginal microbiota was characterised using Roche 454 V3/4 region 16S rRNA sequencing, and G.vaginalis clade typing by qPCR. A Lactobacillus crispatus dominated vaginal microbiota was associated with Caucasian ethnicity (adjusted relative risk ratio[ARRR] = 7.28, 95%CI:1.37,38.57,p = 0.020). An L.iners (ARRR = 17.51, 95%CI:2.18,140.33,p = 0.007) or G.vaginalis (ARRR = 14.03, 95%CI:1.22,160.69, p = 0.034) dominated microbiota was associated with engaging in penile-vaginal sex. Microbiota dominated by L.crispatus, L.iners or other lactobacilli exhibited greater longitudinal consistency of the bacterial communities present compared to ones dominated by heterogeneous non-lactobacilli (pvaginal sex (RRR = 9.55, 95%CI:1.33,68.38,p = 0.025) or were diagnosed with BV (RRR = 31.5, 95%CI:1.69,586.87,p = 0.021). Sexual activity and ethnicity influenced the composition of the vaginal microbiota of these young, relatively sexually inexperienced women. Women had consistent vaginal microbiota over time if lactobacilli were the dominant spp. present. Penile-vaginal sex did not alter the consistency of microbial communities but increased G.vaginalis clade diversity in young women with and without BV, suggesting sexual transmission of commensal and potentially pathogenic clades.

  3. Association between preterm labor and genitourinary tract infections caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Gram-negative bacilli, and coryneforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa El-Dien M.S. Hosny

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the main risk factors for PTL were vaginal infection with T. vaginalis, M. hominis, coryneforms, and Gram-negative bacilli, and their determinants (vaginal pH>5, positive whiff test, heavy vaginal bleeding. Both young age (< 20 years and poor obstetric history were also the risk factors. Therefore, screening for genitourinary tract infections is strongly recommended to be included in prenatal care.

  4. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibody to Trichomonas vaginalis: use of whole cells and aqueous extract as antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Alderete, J F

    1984-01-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antibody to antigenic Trichomonas vaginalis macromolecules has been identified using whole cells or an aqueous protein extract as antigen. The test was developed under optimum conditions using serum samples from experimental animals. The sensitivity of the ELISA was equal to or greater than that obtained by radioimmunoprecipitation and electrophoresis-fluorography techniques. The ELISA was capable of assessing antibody responses durin...

  5. Identification, characterization, and synthesis of peptide epitopes and a recombinant six-epitope protein for Trichomonas vaginalis serodiagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alderete JF

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available J F Alderete, Calvin J NeaceSchool of Molecular Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USAAbstract: There is a need for a rapid, accurate serodiagnostic test useful for both women and men infected by Trichomonas vaginalis, which causes the number one sexually transmitted infection (STI. Women and men exposed to T. vaginalis make serum antibody to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD, α-enolase (ENO, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP. We identified, by epitope mapping, the common and distinct epitopes of each protein detected by the sera of women patients with trichomonosis and by the sera of men highly seropositive to the immunogenic protein α-actinin (positive control sera. We analyzed the amino acid sequences to determine the extent of identity of the epitopes of each protein with other proteins in the databanks. This approach identified epitopes unique to T. vaginalis, indicating these peptide-epitopes as possible targets for a serodiagnostic test. Individual or combinations of 15-mer peptide epitopes with low to no identity with other proteins were reactive with positive control sera from both women and men but were unreactive with negative control sera. These analyses permitted the synthesis of a recombinant His6 fusion protein of 111 amino acids with an Mr of ~13.4 kDa, which consisted of 15-mer peptides of two distinct epitopes each for ALD, ENO, and GAP. This recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. This composite protein was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, dot blots, and immunoblots, using positive control sera from women and men. These data indicate that it is possible to identify epitopes and that either singly, in combination, or as a composite protein represent targets for a point-of-care serodiagnostic test for T. vaginalis.Keywords: diagnostics, point-of-care, targets, trichomonosis

  6. Putrescine-Dependent Re-Localization of TvCP39, a Cysteine Proteinase Involved in Trichomonas vaginalis Cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal-Gamez, Bertha Isabel; Quintas-Granados, Laura Itzel; Arroyo, Rossana; Vázquez-Carrillo, Laura Isabel; Ramón-Luing, Lucero De los Angeles; Carrillo-Tapia, Eduardo; Alvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth

    2014-01-01

    Polyamines are involved in the regulation of some Trichomonas vaginalis virulence factors such as the transcript, proteolytic activity, and cytotoxicity of TvCP65, a cysteine proteinase (CP) involved in the trichomonal cytotoxicity. In this work, we reported the putrescine effect on TvCP39, other CP that also participate in the trichomonal cytotoxicity. Parasites treated with 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB) (an inhibitor of putrescine biosynthesis), diminished the amount and proteolytic activity...

  7. Glycogen synthase from the parabasalian parasite Trichomonas vaginalis: An unusual member of the starch/glycogen synthase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wayne A; Pradhan, Prajakta; Madhan, Nayasha; Gist, Galen C; Brittingham, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a parasitic protist, is the causative agent of the common sexually-transmitted infection trichomoniasis. The organism has long been known to synthesize substantial glycogen as a storage polysaccharide, presumably mobilizing this compound during periods of carbohydrate limitation, such as might be encountered during transmission between hosts. However, little is known regarding the enzymes of glycogen metabolism in T. vaginalis. We had previously described the identification and characterization of two forms of glycogen phosphorylase in the organism. Here, we measure UDP-glucose-dependent glycogen synthase activity in cell-free extracts of T. vaginalis. We then demonstrate that the TVAG_258220 open reading frame encodes a glycosyltransferase that is presumably responsible for this synthetic activity. We show that expression of TVAG_258220 in a yeast strain lacking endogenous glycogen synthase activity is sufficient to restore glycogen accumulation. Furthermore, when TVAG_258220 is expressed in bacteria, the resulting recombinant protein has glycogen synthase activity in vitro, transferring glucose from either UDP-glucose or ADP-glucose to glycogen and using both substrates with similar affinity. This protein is also able to transfer glucose from UDP-glucose or ADP-glucose to maltose and longer oligomers of glucose but not to glucose itself. However, with these substrates, there is no evidence of processivity and sugar transfer is limited to between one and three glucose residues. Taken together with our earlier work on glycogen phosphorylase, we are now well positioned to define both how T. vaginalis synthesizes and utilizes glycogen, and how these processes are regulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. Induction of Apoptosis by Alcoholic Extract of Combination Verbascum thapsus and Ginger officinale on Iranian Isolate of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh FAKHRIEH-KASHAN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Metronidazole is a chosen drug for the treatment. This study evaluated the anti trichomonal activity of alcoholic extracts of combination Verbascum thapsus and Ginger officinale.Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the Parasitology Laboratory, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2015, on 23 women with suspected trichomoniasis referring to Kashan clinical centers. Medium TYI-S-33 was used for culture of three T. vaginalis isolates. Different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 µg/ml of V. thapsus and G. officinale ethanol extract added to Trichomonas trophozoites in 48-well plates and metronidazole considered as positive control and the negative control was TYI-S33 containing Trichomonas trophozoites without any drug. In all of mentioned groups, trophozoites number counted 12, 24, 48 h after culture. Results were analyzed using ANOVA statistical test, to evaluate the toxicity of extract, measured by MTT assay. Induced apoptosis of T. vaginalis after treatment with different concentrations of extract was determined by Flow Cytometry. Results: IC50 of alcoholic extract of combination V. thapsus and G. officinale and metronidazole after 24h was 73.80 µg/ml and 0.0326 µg/ml, respectively. The toxicity percentage of 25-800 μg/ml concentrations of this combination were between 0.2-1.98. In different concentrations of extract (25,50,100,200 and 400 µg/ml apoptosis percent after 48h was 18.97 to 77.19 and necrosis percent was calculated 1.35, 3.18, 3.10, 1.16 and 4.09, respectively.Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of combination V. thapsus and G. officinale induces programmed death in T. vaginalis. Due to no toxicity on macrophages, it can be examined in vivo studies.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus: interaction with fibroblasts and muscle cells - new insights into parasite-mediated host cell cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chaves Vilela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are parasitic, flagellated protists that inhabit the urogenital tract of humans and bovines, respectively. T. vaginalis causes the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide and has been associated with an increased risk for human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in humans. Infections by T. foetus cause significant losses to the beef industry worldwide due to infertility and spontaneous abortion in cows. Several studies have shown a close association between trichomonads and the epithelium of the urogenital tract. However, little is known concerning the interaction of trichomonads with cells from deeper tissues, such as fibroblasts and muscle cells. Published parasite-host cell interaction studies have reported contradictory results regarding the ability of T. foetus and T. vaginalis to interact with and damage cells of different tissues. In this study, parasite-host cell interactions were examined by culturing primary human fibroblasts obtained from abdominal biopsies performed during plastic surgeries with trichomonads. In addition, mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, primary chick embryo myogenic cells and L6 muscle cells were also used as models of target cells. The parasite-host cell cultures were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopy and were tested for cell viability and cell death. JC-1 staining, which measures mitochondrial membrane potential, was used to determine whether the parasites induced target cell damage. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling staining was used as an indicator of chromatin damage. The colorimetric crystal violet assay was performed to ana-lyse the cytotoxicity induced by the parasite. The results showed that T. foetus and T. vaginalis adhered to and were cytotoxic to both fibroblasts and muscle cells, indicating that trichomonas infection of the connective and muscle tissues is likely to occur; such

  10. Activation and clustering of a Plasmodium falciparum var gene are affected by subtelomeric sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Tang, Jingyi; Sumardy, Fransisca; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Selvarajah, Shamista A; Josling, Gabrielle A; Day, Karen P; Petter, Michaela; Brown, Graham V

    2017-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family encodes the cytoadhesive, variant antigen PfEMP1. P. falciparum antigenic variation and cytoadhesion specificity are controlled by epigenetic switching between the single, or few, simultaneously expressed var genes. Most var genes are maintained in perinuclear clusters of heterochromatic telomeres. The active var gene(s) occupy a single, perinuclear var expression site. It is unresolved whether the var expression site forms in situ at a telomeric cluster or whether it is an extant compartment to which single chromosomes travel, thus controlling var switching. Here we show that transcription of a var gene did not require decreased colocalisation with clusters of telomeres, supporting var expression site formation in situ. However following recombination within adjacent subtelomeric sequences, the same var gene was persistently activated and did colocalise less with telomeric clusters. Thus, participation in stable, heterochromatic, telomere clusters and var switching are independent but are both affected by subtelomeric sequences. The var expression site colocalised with the euchromatic mark H3K27ac to a greater extent than it did with heterochromatic H3K9me3. H3K27ac was enriched within the active var gene promoter even when the var gene was transiently repressed in mature parasites and thus H3K27ac may contribute to var gene epigenetic memory. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Morphologic study of the effect of iron on pseudocyst formation in Trichomonas vaginalis and its interaction with human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Saboia-Vahia, Leonardo; Margotti, Eliane Trindade; Fernandes, Nilma de Souza; Castro, Cássia Luana de Faria; Oliveira, Francisco Odencio; Peixoto, Juliana Figueiredo; Britto, Constança; Silva, Fernando Costa E; Cuervo, Patricia; Jesus, José Batista de

    2017-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the aetiological agent of human trichomoniasis, which is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in humans. Iron is an important element for the survival of this parasite and the colonisation of the host urogenital tract. In this study, we investigated the effects of iron on parasite proliferation in the dynamics of pseudocyst formation and morphologically characterised iron depletion-induced pseudocysts. We performed structural and ultrastructural analyses using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that iron depletion (i) interrupts the proliferation of T. vaginalis, (ii) induces morphological changes in typical multiplicative trophozoites to spherical non-proliferative, non-motile pseudocysts, and (iii) induces the arrest of cell division at different stages of the cell cycle; (iv) iron is the fundamental element for the maintenance of typical trophozoite morphology; (v) pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are viable and reversible forms; and, finally, (vi) we demonstrated that pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are able to interact with human epithelial cells maintaining their spherical forms. Together, these data suggest that pseudocysts could be induced as a response to iron nutritional stress and could have a potential role in the transmission and infection of T. vaginalis.

  12. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibody to Trichomonas vaginalis: use of whole cells and aqueous extract as antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, J F

    1984-06-01

    An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antibody to antigenic Trichomonas vaginalis macromolecules has been identified using whole cells or an aqueous protein extract as antigen. The test was developed under optimum conditions using serum samples from experimental animals. The sensitivity of the ELISA was equal to or greater than that obtained by radioimmunoprecipitation and electrophoresis-fluorography techniques. The ELISA was capable of assessing antibody responses during the development of lesions in animals inoculated subcutaneously and it reproducibly measured the individual classes immunoglobulins directed at T vaginalis. The colorimetric assay was also suitable for showing cross reactivity between trichomonal species as well as between different strains of T vaginalis. Conditions established for monitoring antibody to trichomanads in immunised rabbits or infected mice were equally effective for human materials, such as serum or vaginal washes. Serum from experimental animals or infected people showed high concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgM antibody to trichomonads. Only antibodies of the IgG and IgA class were detected in vaginal washes from women with acute trichomoniasis. No IgE antibody to trichomonads was found under a variety of conditions in serum samples from patients or experimental animals.

  13. Diagnosis of Trichomonous vaginalis by microscopy, latex agglutination, diamond's media, and PCR in symptomatic women, Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amir M; Abdalla, Hamid S; Satti, Abdelsalam B; Babiker, Suad M; Gasim, Gasim I; Adam, Ishag

    2014-03-06

    Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted disease. However, limited data are available on an effective technique for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of wet mount microscopy, latex agglutination, Diamond's media, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of T. vaginalis among symptomatic women who attended the gynecological clinic at Khartoum, Sudan. Of the 297 women studied, 252 (84.8%) were positive for T. vaginalis by wet mount microscopy, 257 (86.5%) by latex agglutination, 253 (85.2%) by Diamond's media, and 253 (85.2%) by PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of wet mount microscopy were 99.2% and 97.7%, respectively, compared with PCR. The sensitivity and specificity of latex agglutination and Diamond's media were 99.6% and 88.6%, and 100.0% and 86.4%, respectively, compared with PCR. In this study, wet mount microscopy, latex agglutination, and Diamond's media were found to be highly sensitive and specific. However, the availability and cost effectiveness might limit the use of Diamond's media and PCR in routine practice. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7859723851211496.

  14. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and risk factors in women treated at public health units in Brazil: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grama, Daliane Faria; Casarotti, Leonardo da Silva; Morato, Michelle Gonçalves Vilela de Andrade; Silva, Lidyane Suellen; Mendonça, Daniella Fernandes; Limongi, Jean Ezequiel; Viana, João da Costa; Cury, Márcia Cristina

    2013-09-01

    Studies have revealed high prevalence rates of Trichomonas vaginalis in men and women worldwide. In Brazil, where reporting is not mandatory, the true prevalence rate is unknown. This study determined the prevalence of the parasite in women attending public health units in the city of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, identifying possible risk factors for infection, and also compared three diagnostic techniques for detecting the parasite. Samples of vaginal secretions collected from 742 women attending public health units were analyzed by direct wet mount examination, culture and smear test. Epidemiological questionnaires were administered. Of the total of 742 samples analyzed, 19 (2.6%) tested positive for T. vaginalis. The variables significantly associated with infection were: being of black ethnicity, smoking, having knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases and presenting clinical signs. The culture method was considered the gold standard test. Although there are programs to control other sexually transmitted diseases, there are none for trichomoniasis. The results of this study indicate the presence of T. vaginalis in the female population, and points to the need for more research in Brazil to gain a better understanding of the profile and epidemiology of the parasite.

  15. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  16. Molt disruption and mortality of Locusta migratoria var. manilensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IGRs) on the oriental migratory locust Locusta migratoria var. manilensis were assessed. Under laboratory conditions, at the highest tested dose rate of 300 ppm, the percent mortality and molt inhibition after two weeks for the five tested ...

  17. ClinVar data parsing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This software repository provides a pipeline for converting raw ClinVar data files into analysis-friendly tab-delimited tables, and also provides these tables for the most recent ClinVar release. Separate tables are generated for genome builds GRCh37 and GRCh38 as well as for mono-allelic variants and complex multi-allelic variants. Additionally, the tables are augmented with allele frequencies from the ExAC and gnomAD datasets as these are often consulted when analyzing ClinVar variants. Overall, this work provides ClinVar data in a format that is easier to work with and can be directly loaded into a variety of popular analysis tools such as R, python pandas, and SQL databases.

  18. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1College of Health Technology, Zawan, Plateau State.2Department of ... Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). ... White Blood cell Count (WBC) count and lymphocytosis in the differential count.

  19. Box H/ACA snoRNAs are preferred substrates for the trimethylguanosine synthase in the divergent unicellular eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes-Barbosa, Augusto; Chakrabarti, Kausik; Pearson, Michael; Benarroch, Delphine; Shuman, Stewart; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    The 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine caps of eukaryal snRNAs and snoRNA are formed by the enzyme Tgs1, which catalyzes sequential guanine-N2 methylations of m7G caps. Atypically, in the divergent unicellular eukaryote Trichomonas vaginalis, spliceosomal snRNAs lack a guanosine cap and the recombinant T. vaginalis trimethylguanosine synthase (TvTgs) produces only m2,7G in vitro. Here, we show by direct metabolic labeling that endogenous T. vaginalis RNAs contain m7G, m2,7G, and m2,2,7G caps. Immunodepletion of TvTgs from cell extracts and TvTgs add-back experiments demonstrate that TvTgs produces m2,7G and m2,2,7G caps. Expression of TvTgs in yeast tgs1Δ cells leads to the formation of m2,7G and m2,2,7G caps and complementation of the lethality of a tgs1Δ mud2Δ strain. Whereas TvTgs is present in the nucleus and cytosol of T. vaginalis cells, TMG-containing RNAs are localized primarily in the nucleolus. Molecular cloning of anti-TMG affinity-purified T. vaginalis RNAs identified 16 box H/ACA snoRNAs, which are implicated in guiding RNA pseudouridylation. The ensemble of new T. vaginalis H/ACA snoRNAs allowed us to predict and partially validate an extensive map of pseudouridines in T. vaginalis rRNA. PMID:22847815

  20. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  1. An orientin derivative isolated from Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Freddy A.; Castellanos, Leonardo; López, César; Palacios, Lizeth; Duque, Carmenza; Pacheco, Ricardo; Guzmán, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima (banana passion fruit) is an edible fruit widespread in the Andean highlands of Colombia and Ecuador. The fruit is used for juices as well as for the sedative properties of the leaves. As a contribution to the chemical characterization of this species, a new compound, 4'- methoxyluteolin-8-C-6”acetylglucopyranoside, was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima leaves and identified by spectroscopical data (NMR, MS, UV).

  2. Da abort ikke var en sag for kvinden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Annette Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet.......Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet....

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Appel-da-Silva, Marcelo C.; Narvaez, Gabriel A.; Perez, Leandro R.R.; Drehmer, Laura; Lewgoy, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administrat...

  4. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  5. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  6. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis)

    OpenAIRE

    Spini, Vanessa B.M.G.; Kerr, Warwick Estevam

    2000-01-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these c...

  7. Efficacy of laparoscopically assisted high ligation of patent processus vaginalis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H; Youssef, M K; Salem, E A; Fawzi, A M; Desoky, E A E; Eliwa, A M; Sakr, A M N; Shahin, A M S

    2016-02-01

    Laparoscopic hernia repairs have been proven to be efficient and safe for children, despite the slightly higher recurrence rate compared with the classic surgical repair. They have the advantage of easy and precise identification of the type of defect and its correction, both in ipsilateral and contralateral sides. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy, safety and outcome of the laparoscopically assisted piecemeal high ligation of a patent processus vaginalis (PPV) in children. A total of 40 children were enrolled into this prospective study; they were aged ≥ 6 months and had an inguinal hernia. The peritoneal cavity, including the contralateral side, was inspected for the possibility of bilateral hernias using a 3-mm 30° telescope. Another 3-mm port was introduced through the same infra-umbilical incision. The hernia was manually reduced or with the aid of a working infra-umbilical grasper. A prolene or vicryl 2/0 or 3/0 suture on a curved semicircle round-bodied taper-ended 25-30 mm needle was introduced through a very small inguinal skin-crease incision. It was passed through the abdominal wall layers to the peritoneum and was manipulated by the laparoscopic grasper to pick up the peritoneum in piecemeal all around the internal ring. The needle was then pushed to the outside near to the entrance site, thus forming a semicircle around the internal ring. The suture was then tied and the knot was subcutaneously buried. The primary outcome of the procedure was the incidence of intraoperative diagnosis and surgical repair of contralateral hernias in pre-operatively diagnosed unilateral cases. The secondary outcomes were defined as the incidence of complications and hernia recurrence. The exploratory laparoscopy found contralateral patent processus vaginalis (CPPV) with a detection rate of 28.1%. Chan et al., Esposito et al., Toufique et al. and Niyogi et al. reported similar figures for laparoscopic contralateral hernia detection rates of 28

  8. Involvement of PI3K/AKT and MAPK Pathways for TNF-α Production in SiHa Cervical Mucosal Epithelial Cells Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jung-Bo; Quan, Juan-Hua; Kim, Ye-Eun; Rhee, Yun-Ee; Kang, Byung-Hyun; Choi, In-Wook; Cha, Guang-Ho; Yuk, Jae-Min; Lee, Young-Ha

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis; induces proinflammation in cervicovaginal mucosal epithelium. To investigate the signaling pathways in TNF-α production in cervical mucosal epithelium after T. vaginalis infection, the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways were evaluated in T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells in the presence and absence of specific inhibitors. T. vaginalis increased TNF-α production in SiHa cells, in a parasite burden-dependent and incubation time-dependent manner. In T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells, AKT, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK were phosphorylated from 1 hr after infection; however, the phosphorylation patterns were different from each other. After pretreatment with inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways, TNF-α production was significantly decreased compared to the control; however, TNF-α reduction patterns were different depending on the type of PI3K/MAPK inhibitors. TNF-α production was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with wortmannin and PD98059, whereas it was increased by SP600125. These data suggested that PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways are important in regulation of TNF-α production in cervical mucosal epithelial SiHa cells. However, activation patterns of each pathway were different from the types of PI3K/MAPK pathways.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis α-Actinin 2 Modulates Host Immune Responses by Inducing Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells via IL-10 Production from Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Juri; Ryu, Jae-Sook; Park, Soon-Jung

    2017-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a pathogen that triggers severe immune responses in hosts. T. vaginalis α-actinin 2, Tvα-actinin 2, has been used to diagnose trichomoniasis. This study was undertaken to examine the role of Tvα-actinin 2 as an antigenic molecule to induce immune responses from humans. Western blot analysis using anti-Tvα-actinin 2 antibodies indicated its presence in the secreted proteins of T. vaginalis. ELISA was employed to measure cytokine production by vaginal epithelial cells, prostate cells, mouse dendritic cells (DCs), or T cells stimulated with T. vaginalis or Tvα-actinin 2 protein. Both T. vaginalis and rTvα-actinin 2 induced cytokine production from epithelial cell lines, including IL-10. Moreover, CD4+CD25- regulatory T cells (Treg cells) incubated with rTvα-actinin 2-treated DCs produced high levels of IL-10. These data indicate that Tvα-actinin 2 modulates immune responses via IL-10 production by Treg cells.

  10. α -Actinin TvACTN3 of Trichomonas vaginalis is an RNA-binding protein that could participate in its posttranscriptional iron regulatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calla-Choque, Jaeson Santos; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa Elvira; Ávila-González, Leticia; Arroyo, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted flagellated protist parasite responsible for trichomoniasis. This parasite is dependent on high levels of iron, favoring its growth and multiplication. Iron also differentially regulates some trichomonad virulence properties by unknown mechanisms. However, there is evidence to support the existence of gene regulatory mechanisms at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels that are mediated by iron concentration in T. vaginalis. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify an RNA-binding protein in T. vaginalis that interacts with the tvcp4 RNA stem-loop structure, which may participate in a posttranscriptional iron regulatory mechanism mediated by RNA-protein interactions. We performed RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay (REMSA) and supershift, UV cross-linking, Northwestern blot, and western blot (WB) assays using cytoplasmic protein extracts from T. vaginalis with the tvcp4 RNA hairpin structure as a probe. We identified a 135-kDa protein isolated by the UV cross-linking assays as α-actinin 3 (TvACTN3) by MALDI-TOF-MS that was confirmed by LS-MS/MS and de novo sequencing. TvACTN3 is a cytoplasmic protein that specifically binds to hairpin RNA structures from trichomonads and humans when the parasites are grown under iron-depleted conditions. Thus, TvACTN3 could participate in the regulation of gene expression by iron in T. vaginalis through a parallel posttranscriptional mechanism similar to that of the IRE/IRP system.

  11. Patient-delivered partner treatment for Trichomonas vaginalis infection: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Schmidt, Norine; Mohammed, Hamish; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L; Meadors, Bernadette; Sanders, Cheryl; Farley, Thomas A

    2006-07-01

    Infections with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are common and recurrence rates are high. Better methods of treating partners of women with trichomoniasis are needed. To determine if patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT) is better and more cost-effective than partner referral. Women attending a family planning clinic who were culture-positive and treated for TV (N = 463) were randomized to either standard partner referral (PR), booklet-enhanced partner referral (BEPR), or PDPT. At baseline and 1 month, women were interviewed and cultured for TV. Detailed cost information was also collected. Most women had 1 partner, were less than 24 years old, and were black. The percentage of women reporting that their partners were treated was similar for PDPT but significantly lower for BEPR compared to PR. TV follow-up rates were similar. PDPT cost less and was cost saving compared to PR and BEPR. Among women with TV, PDPT did not result in more partners taking the medicine or lower follow-up rates than PR but was less costly.

  12. A Systematic Review of Point of Care Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Herbst de Cortina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Systematic review of point of care (POC diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV. Methods. Literature search on PubMed for articles from January 2010 to August 2015, including original research in English on POC diagnostics for sexually transmitted CT, NG, and/or TV. Results. We identified 33 publications with original research on POC diagnostics for CT, NG, and/or TV. Thirteen articles evaluated test performance, yielding at least one test for each infection with sensitivity and specificity ≥90%. Each infection also had currently available tests with sensitivities <60%. Three articles analyzed cost effectiveness, and five publications discussed acceptability and feasibility. POC testing was acceptable to both providers and patients and was also demonstrated to be cost effective. Fourteen proof of concept articles introduced new tests. Conclusions. Highly sensitive and specific POC tests are available for CT, NG, and TV, but improvement is possible. Future research should focus on acceptability, feasibility, and cost of POC testing. While pregnant women specifically have not been studied, the results available in nonpregnant populations are encouraging for the ability to test and treat women in antenatal care to prevent adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes.

  13. Iron-induced changes in the proteome of Trichomonas vaginalis hydrogenosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neritza Campo Beltrán

    Full Text Available Iron plays a crucial role in metabolism as a key component of catalytic and redox cofactors, such as heme or iron-sulfur clusters in enzymes and electron-transporting or regulatory proteins. Limitation of iron availability by the host is also one of the mechanisms involved in immunity. Pathogens must regulate their protein expression according to the iron concentration in their environment and optimize their metabolic pathways in cases of limitation through the availability of respective cofactors. Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted pathogen of humans, requires high iron levels for optimal growth. It is an anaerobe that possesses hydrogenosomes, mitochondrion-related organelles that harbor pathways of energy metabolism and iron-sulfur cluster assembly. We analyzed the proteomes of hydrogenosomes obtained from cells cultivated under iron-rich and iron-deficient conditions employing two-dimensional peptide separation combining IEF and nano-HPLC with quantitative MALDI-MS/MS. We identified 179 proteins, of which 58 were differentially expressed. Iron deficiency led to the upregulation of proteins involved in iron-sulfur cluster assembly and the downregulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Interestingly, iron affected the expression of only some of multiple protein paralogues, whereas the expression of others was iron independent. This finding indicates a stringent regulation of differentially expressed multiple gene copies in response to changes in the availability of exogenous iron.

  14. A prospective study of Trichomonas vaginalis and prostate cancer risk among African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; Han, Xijing; Alderete, J F; Moses, Kelvin A; Signorello, Lisa B; Blot, William J

    2016-04-18

    African Americans (AA) have a higher prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) infection and a higher prostate (PC) risk. Past studies suggest an association between Tv seropositivity and PC, and therefore we prospectively investigated this association among AA men. Incident PC cases were individually matched to controls in a nested case-control study within the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). Primary analysis included 296 PC cases and 497 race-matched controls. Levels of Tv antibody response were measured by ELISA in serum collected at baseline. Tv antibody response did not significantly differ between cases and controls overall or within AA participants (253 AA cases). There were no significant associations or trends between levels of Tv response and PC risk or the diagnosis of aggressive PC. We found no evidence of a prospective association between baseline Tv infection and PC risk in AA men. Tv infection in men may have substantial health implications in HIV transmission and reproductive outcomes, but may not impact future PC risk in AA men at high-risk for PC. Further efforts need to define past vs. present Tv infection and to separate pathophysiology from PC detection.

  15. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ......Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations......, and another in which the cointegrating relations are estimated recursively from a likelihood function, where the short-run parameters have been concentrated out. We suggest graphical procedures based on recursively estimated eigenvalues to evaluate the constancy of the long-run parameters in the model...

  16. Trichomonas vaginalis induces IL-1β production in a human prostate epithelial cell line by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome via reactive oxygen species and potassium ion efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Na-Yeong; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Han, Ik-Hwan; Im, Su-Jeong; Seo, Min-Young; Chung, Yong-Hoon; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis in women, and urethritis and prostatitis in men. IL-1β is synthesized as immature pro-IL-1β, which is cleaved by activated caspase-1. Caspase-1 is, in turn, activated by a multi-protein complex known as an inflammasome. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory response of a prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) to T. vaginalis and, specifically, the capacity of T. vaginalis to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. RWPE-1 cells were stimulated by live T. vaginalis, and subsequent expression of pro-IL-1β, IL-1β, NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. IL-1β and caspase-1 production was also measured by ELISA. To evaluate the effects of NLRP3 and caspase-1 on IL-1β production, the activated RWPE-1 cells were transfected with small interfering RNAs to silence the NLRP3 and caspase-1 genes. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by spectrofluorometry. When RWPE-1 cells were stimulated with live T. vaginalis, the mRNA and protein expression of IL-1β, NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 increased. Moreover, silencing of NLRP3 and caspase-1 attenuated T. vaginalis-induced IL-1β secretion. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI and high extracellular potassium ion suppressed the production of IL-1β, caspase-1, and the expression of NLRP3 and ASC proteins. The specific NF-κB inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, inhibited IL-1β production, and also inhibited the production of caspase-1, ASC and NLRP3 proteins. T. vaginalis induces the formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human prostate epithelial cells via ROS and potassium ion efflux, and this results in IL-1β production. This is the first evidence for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the inflammatory response by prostate epithelial cells infected with T. vaginalis. Prostate 76:885-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley

  17. T. vaginalis Infection Is Associated with Increased IL-8 and TNFr1 Levels but with the Absence of CD38 and HLADR Activation in the Cervix of ESN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olamide D Jarrett

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis infection is associated with an increased risk of HIV infection in exposed-seronegative women (ESN despite their unique immune quiescent profile. It is important to understand possible mechanisms, such as recruitment of activated T cells, by which T. vaginalis could facilitate HIV infection in this population.We conducted a cross-sectional study exploring the relationships between T. vaginalis infection, inflammatory markers and T cell activation in the cervix of ESN. During scheduled study visits, participants completed a behavioral questionnaire and physical exam, including sexually transmitted infection (STI screening and collection of endocervical sponge and cytobrush specimens. T cell and monocyte phenotypes were measured in cervical cytobrush specimens using multi-parameter flow cytometry. Cervical sponge specimens were used to measure cytokines (IL-6, IL-8,IL-10, IP-10, RANTES using Luminex immunoassays and the immune activation marker soluble TNF receptor 1 using ELISA.Specimens of 65 women were tested. Twenty-one of these women were infected with T. vaginalis. T. vaginalis infection was associated with significantly increased concentrations of IL-8 (1275pg/ml vs. 566pg/ml, p=.02 and sTNFr1 (430 pg/ml vs. 264 pg/ml, p=.005. However, T. vaginalis infection was not associated with increased percent expression of CCR5+ T cells nor increased CD38 and HLADR activation compared to uninfected women. It was also not associated with increased expression of CCR5+ monocytes.Among ESN T. vaginalis infection is associated with increased levels of genital pro-inflammatory/immune activation markers IL-8 and TNFr1, but was not associated with an increased percentage of activated endocervical T cells along the CD38 and HLADR pathways. Thus, while T.vaginalis infection may result in some reversal of the immune quiescent profile of ESN, enhanced recruitment of activated CD38 and HLADR expressing CD4+ cells into the endocervix may not

  18. Fistole retto-vaginali Crohn-relate trattate mediante trasposizione del muscolo gracile: risultati a lungo termine e qualità della vita

    OpenAIRE

    Tassone, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    OBIETTIVO: Le fistole retto-vaginali Crohn-relate hanno un impatto significativo sulla qualità della vita. Quando il canale anale è alterato da ulcerazioni e stenosi o in pazienti con difetti estesi del perineo, la chirurgia locale produce risultati insoddisfacenti. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare l'efficacia della trasposizione del muscolo gracile nelle fistole retto-vaginali Crohn-relate e determinare i suoi effetti sulla qualità della vita. MATERIALI E METODI: Da gennaio...

  19. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  20. Urethral duplication II-A Y type with rectal urethra: ASTRA approach and tunica vaginalis flap for first stage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Antonio; Rondon, Atila; Bacelar, Herick; Ottoni, Sergio; Liguori, Riberto; Garrone, Gilmar; Ortiz, Valdemar

    2012-01-01

    Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly affecting mainly boys. Generally, the duplication develops on the sagittal plane; the accessory urethra may run dorsally or ventrally to the orthotopic one. We present a patient with urethral duplication in which the orthotopic urethra was patent in the penile segment but atresic in the bulbar and prostatic segment. The patient had urinary flow from the rectum and the ectopic urethra could be well identified by anal examination. Age at surgery was 13 months. The procedure consisted of an ASTRA (anterior sagittal trans-ano-rectal) approach for dividing the urethra and rectum and was successful to move the urethra up to the perineal area. The rectum was reconstructed and the patient placed into a lithotomy position. A urethral catheter inserted in the penile urethra oriented us were the atresic urethra in bulbar area started. The scrotum was opened in the middle and the distance between the two urethral stumps proximal and distal defined the extension of no urethral tissue that consisted of 5 cm. We opened the right scrotal space and a tunica vaginalis flap was obtained and attached to the bulbar tissue for a two-stage urethroplasty strategy. Patient had a nice healing and the tunica vaginalis was nicely incorporated to the adjacent tissue, having the two urethral stumps well delineated. ASTRA approach in combination with a two-stage urethroplasty with tunica vaginalis dorsal flap proved to be an excellent combination for a rare case of urethral Y duplication having the main urethra into the rectum.

  1. Urethral duplication II-A Y type with rectal urethra: ASTRA approach and tunica vaginalis flap for first stage repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Macedo Jr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urethral duplication is a rare congenital anomaly affecting mainly boys. Generally, the duplication develops on the sagittal plane; the accessory urethra may run dorsally or ventrally to the orthotopic one. We present a patient with urethral duplication in which the orthotopic urethra was patent in the penile segment but atresic in the bulbar and prostatic segment. The patient had urinary flow from the rectum and the ectopic urethra could be well identified by anal examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age at surgery was 13 months. The procedure consisted of an ASTRA (anterior sagittal trans-ano-rectal approach for dividing the urethra and rectum and was successful to move the urethra up to the perineal area. The rectum was reconstructed and the patient placed into a lithotomy position. A urethral catheter inserted in the penile urethra oriented us were the atresic urethra in bulbar area started. The scrotum was opened in the middle and the distance between the two urethral stumps proximal and distal defined the extension of no urethral tissue that consisted of 5 cm. We opened the right scrotal space and a tunica vaginalis flap was obtained and attached to the bulbar tissue for a two-stage urethroplasty strategy. RESULTS: Patient had a nice healing and the tunica vaginalis was nicely incorporated to the adjacent tissue, having the two urethral stumps well delineated. CONCLUSIONS: ASTRA approach in combination with a two-stage urethroplasty with tunica vaginalis dorsal flap proved to be an excellent combination for a rare case of urethral Y duplication having the main urethra into the rectum.

  2. A recently transferred cluster of bacterial genes in Trichomonas vaginalis - lateral gene transfer and the fate of acquired genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) has recently gained recognition as an important contributor to some eukaryote proteomes, but the mechanisms of acquisition and fixation in eukaryotic genomes are still uncertain. A previously defined norm for LGTs in microbial eukaryotes states that the majority are genes involved in metabolism, the LGTs are typically localized one by one, surrounded by vertically inherited genes on the chromosome, and phylogenetics shows that a broad collection of bacterial lineages have contributed to the transferome. Results A unique 34 kbp long fragment with 27 clustered genes (TvLF) of prokaryote origin was identified in the sequenced genome of the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Using a PCR based approach we confirmed the presence of the orthologous fragment in four additional T. vaginalis strains. Detailed sequence analyses unambiguously suggest that TvLF is the result of one single, recent LGT event. The proposed donor is a close relative to the firmicute bacterium Peptoniphilus harei. High nucleotide sequence similarity between T. vaginalis strains, as well as to P. harei, and the absence of homologs in other Trichomonas species, suggests that the transfer event took place after the radiation of the genus Trichomonas. Some genes have undergone pseudogenization and degradation, indicating that they may not be retained in the future. Functional annotations reveal that genes involved in informational processes are particularly prone to degradation. Conclusions We conclude that, although the majority of eukaryote LGTs are single gene occurrences, they may be acquired in clusters of several genes that are subsequently cleansed of evolutionarily less advantageous genes. PMID:24898731

  3. Detection of T. vaginalis,M. hominis,M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum using Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Brunelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction. The sexually transmitted diseases include a large group of infections affecting both the sexes. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the Prato area during the period September 2010 – July 2011. Methods.We analysed different kind of samples (urine, endocervical swabs, urethral swabs, seminal fluids from hospitalized patients or referred to the Prato clinic subjects.The DNA was obtained using EZ1-DNA extraction kit and EZ1 instrument.The DNA was then amplified using the Seeplex STD6 kit (Seegene, Korea, identifying multiple pathogens simultaneously (T. vaginalis, M. hominis, M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae e U. urealyticum. The revelation was performed by electrophoresis on microchip (instrument Multina, Shimadzu, Japan. Results. 1136 samples from Italian and foreign patients were examined: 876 were endocervical swabs (77%, 103 urethral swabs (9%, 103 seminal fluids (9%, and 54 urines (5%. The number of females was higher than males [894 (78.7% vs 242 (21.3%]; the mean age of females was 37.0±11.6 years, whereas that of males was 41.5 ±12.63 years.The prevalence of urogenital pathogens was: 15 positive samples for T. vaginalis (1.3%, 56 for M. hominis (4.9%, 13 for M. genitalium (1.1%, 28 for C. trachomatis (2.5%, 8 for N. gonorrhoeae (0.7% and 87 for U. urealyticum (7.7%.Among all positive, 25 subjects were positive for more than one pathogen and in particular: one was positive for the presence of 4 pathogens, five presented 3 pathogens simultaneously and the remaining nineteen for 2 pathogens. Conclusions. This study provides data on the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the hospital of Prato.

  4. To the issue of increasing efficiency of VAR compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Костянтинівна Поднебенна

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of VAR compensation of variable loads. One of the most common non-symmetric non-linear power consumers are welding power sources. Time and duration of the work of these sources vary randomly. To compensate the consumption of reactive power on the basis of consumption data from the three-phase electricity meters is inefficient. Compensation devices power should be calculated taking into account the asymmetrical consumption/generation of reactive power per phase and changing consumption patterns. Thyristor-controlled reactor, thyristor-switched capacitors, hybrid VAR compensators, active compensators (STATCOMs, «dynamic capacitors» can be used as the VAR compensation devices. Thyristor-controlled reactors can provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they have high weight and size parameters and are additional sources of higher harmonics. Thyristor-switched capacitors provide stepwise adjustment of reactive power and are subject to the current higher harmonics. Hybrid VAR compensators make it possible to isolate capacitors from the higher harmonics and ensure smooth regulation, which is achieved by active filter introduction to the reactive power compensation devices based on thyristor-switched capacitors. However, this increases the cost of a compensator and complicates its control system. STATCOMs provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they are too expensive.Perspective direction in the development of effective VAR compensation devices is «dynamic capacitor». As a result of a feasibility study the prospects for further research of electrical grids power efficiency through the development of effective devices for VAR compensation have been established

  5. 13C-NMR reveals glycerol as an unexpected major metabolite of the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, A.; Lloyd, D.; Linstead, D.J.; Williams, J.

    1985-01-01

    13 C-NMR has been used to study the kinetics of the formation of metabolites from [l- 13 C]glucose in intact cells of Trichomonas vaginalis during anaerobic incubation. As well as the expected metabolites lactate and acetate, this technique revealed glycerol as an additional major product, present in amounts equimolar with acetate. The formation of glycerol is readily explained in terms of the need to maintain redox balance. This protozoan now joins the small group of organisms which are known to produce glycerol as a result of normal metabolic activities. (Auth.)

  6. New prediction for the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilon prime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2001-01-01

    The low-energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale Λ χ ≅1GeV. Based on the new analyses, we present a consistent prediction for both the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule in kaon decays. In the leading 1/N c approximation, the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is predicted to be large, which also confirms our earlier conclusion. Its numerical value is var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=23.6 -7.8 +12.4 x10 -4 (Imλ t /= 1.2x10 -4 ) which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 , the ratio var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is in favor of the values var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=(20±9)x10 -4

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

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    Marcelo C. Appel-da-Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line. Keywords: Saccharomyces, Probiotics, Fungemia, Critical illness, Clostridium difficile

  8. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR, which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF. We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  9. Inhibition and Structure of Trichomonas vaginalis Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase with Picomolar Transition State Analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldo-Matthis,A.; Wing, C.; Ghanem, M.; Deng, H.; Wu, P.; Gupta, A.; Tyler, P.; Evans, G.; Furneaux, R.; et al.

    2007-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protozoan purine auxotroph possessing a unique purine salvage pathway consisting of a bacterial type purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and a purine nucleoside kinase. Thus, T. vaginalis PNP (TvPNP) functions in the reverse direction relative to the PNPs in other organisms. Immucillin-A (ImmA) and DADMe-Immucillin-A (DADMe-ImmA) are transition stte mimics of adenosine with geometric and electrostatic features that resemble early and late transition states of adenosine at the transition state stabilized by TvPNP. ImmA demonstrates slow-onset tight-binding inhibition with TvPNP, to give an equilibrium dissociation constant of 87 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 17.2 min, and a K{sub m}/K{sub d} ratio of 70,100. DADMe-ImmA resembles a late ribooxacarbenium ion transition state for TvPNP to give a dissociation constant of 30 pM, an inhibitor release half-time of 64 min, and a K{sub m}/K{sub d} ratio of 203,300. The tight binding of DADMe-ImmA supports a late S{sub N}1 transition state. Despite their tight binding to TvPNP, ImmA and DADMe-ImmA are weak inhibitors of human and P. falciparum PNPs. The crystal structures of the TvPNP-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} and TvPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} ternary complexes differ from previous structures with substrate anologues. The tight binding with DADMe-ImmA is in part due to a 2.7 {angstrom} ionic interaction between a PO{sub 4} oxygen and the N1 cation of the hydroxypyrrolidine and is weaker in the TvPNP{center_dot}ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} structure at 3.5 {angstrom}. However, the TvPNP{center_dot}ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4} structure includes hydrogen bonds between the 2'-hydroxyl and the protein that are not present in TvPNP{center_dot}DADMe-ImmA{center_dot}PO{sub 4}. These structures explain why DADMe-ImmA binds tighter than ImmA. Immucillin-H is a 12 nM inhibitor of TvPNP but a 56 pM inhibitor of human PNP. And this difference is explained by isotope

  10. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. 173.145 Section 173.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. The food additive alpha-galactosidase and parent mycelial microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer may be safely used...

  11. Association of Trichomonas vaginalis and cytological abnormalities of the cervix in low risk women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert G G Donders

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Is Trichomonas vaginalis (TV an inducing factor for the development of (pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix? DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Screening healthy Belgian women with low infection risk. SAMPLE: 63,251 consecutive liquid based cervical samples. METHODS: Real time quantitative PCR for presence of TV, 18 HPV types and Pap smear analysis of cytologic abnormalities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of TV and HPV with cervix dysplasia. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of TV DNA was 0.37%, of low risk HPV 2%, of high risk HPV 13.2%, and 8.8 % had cytological abnormalities. Both LR-HPV and HR-HPV were significantly associated with all cytological abnormalities. Presence of TV was associated with LR- and HR-HPV, ASC-US and HSIL, but not with other abnormalities. All women with TV and HSIL also had HR-HPV, while the latter was present in only 59% of women with TV and ASC-US. Amongst HPV negative women, TV was found in 1.3% of women with ASC-US, but only in 0.03% of women with normal cytology (OR 4.2, CL95% 2.1-8.6. In HR-HPV positive women, presence of TV increased the likelihood of cytological abnormalities somewhat (P=0.05, mainly due to an increase in ASC-US and LSIL, but not HSIL. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that TV infection is associated with both LR and HR-HPV infection of the cervix, as well as with ASC-US and HSIL. TV is a concomitant STI, but is not thought to be a co-factor in the causation of HSIL and cervical cancer. However, TV may cause false positive diagnoses of ASC-US.

  12. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Mercer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells.

  13. The influence of ART on the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis among HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, Alys; Clark, Rebecca A; Mena, Leandro; Henderson, Harold; Levison, Judy; Schmidt, Norine; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Martin, David H; Kissinger, Patricia

    2014-09-15

    Among women who are human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+), both prevalent and persistent infections with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are common. TV has been shown to increase vaginal shedding of HIV, which may influence HIV sexual and perinatal transmission, making prevention important. In 1 cohort of HIV+ women in Kenya, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, mostly nevirapine based, was associated with lower cure rates of TV for single-dose therapy. Our goal was to repeat this study in a US-based cohort of HIV+/TV+ women and compare outcomes to those with multidose therapy. A secondary data analysis was performed on a multicentered cohort of HIV+/TV+ women who were randomized to single-dose (2 grams) or 7-day (500 mg twice daily) multidose metronidazole (MTZ) treatment. Test of cure visit, via culture, occurred 6-12 days after treatment completion. Information was collected on sex partner treatment and sexual exposures. Persistent TV infection rates were compared for women on ART at baseline vs not on ART. Of the 226 women included, those on ART had more treatment failures than women not on ART (24/146 [16.4%] vs 5/80 [6.3%]; P = .03). When stratified by treatment arm, more treatment failures were seen in the single-dose arm (17/73 [23.3%] vs 3/39 [7.7%]; P = .05) than in the multidose arm (7/73 [9.6%] vs 2/41 [4.8%]; P = .39). ART usage was associated with a higher TV persistent infection rate among those receiving the single-dose treatment, but not the multidose, providing more evidence that multidose should be the preferred treatment for HIV+ women. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Association of Trichomonas vaginalis and cytological abnormalities of the cervix in low risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Depuydt, Christophe E; Bogers, John-Paul; Vereecken, Annie J

    2013-01-01

    Is Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) an inducing factor for the development of (pre-)cancerous lesions of the cervix? Cross sectional study. Screening healthy Belgian women with low infection risk. 63,251 consecutive liquid based cervical samples. Real time quantitative PCR for presence of TV, 18 HPV types and Pap smear analysis of cytologic abnormalities. Association of TV and HPV with cervix dysplasia. The overall prevalence of TV DNA was 0.37%, of low risk HPV 2%, of high risk HPV 13.2%, and 8.8 % had cytological abnormalities. Both LR-HPV and HR-HPV were significantly associated with all cytological abnormalities. Presence of TV was associated with LR- and HR-HPV, ASC-US and HSIL, but not with other abnormalities. All women with TV and HSIL also had HR-HPV, while the latter was present in only 59% of women with TV and ASC-US. Amongst HPV negative women, TV was found in 1.3% of women with ASC-US, but only in 0.03% of women with normal cytology (OR 4.2, CL95% 2.1-8.6). In HR-HPV positive women, presence of TV increased the likelihood of cytological abnormalities somewhat (P=0.05), mainly due to an increase in ASC-US and LSIL, but not HSIL. We conclude that TV infection is associated with both LR and HR-HPV infection of the cervix, as well as with ASC-US and HSIL. TV is a concomitant STI, but is not thought to be a co-factor in the causation of HSIL and cervical cancer. However, TV may cause false positive diagnoses of ASC-US.

  15. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I.; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells. PMID:27529696

  16. Trichomonas vaginalis Lipophosphoglycan Exploits Binding to Galectin-1 and -3 to Modulate Epithelial Immunity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichorova, Raina N.; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Fashemi, Titilayo; Foley, Evan; Ryan, Stanthia; Beatty, Noah; Dawood, Hassan; Hayes, Gary R.; St-Pierre, Guillaume; Sato, Sachiko; Singh, Bibhuti N.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection caused by the vaginotropic extracellular protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. The infection is recurrent, with no lasting immunity, often asymptomatic, and linked to pregnancy complications and risk of viral infection. The molecular mechanisms of immune evasion by the parasite are poorly understood. We demonstrate that galectin-1 and -3 are expressed by the human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells and act as pathogen-recognition receptors for the ceramide phosphoinositol glycan core (CPI-GC) of the dominant surface protozoan lipophosphoglycan (LPG). We used an in vitro model with siRNA galectin knockdown epithelial clones, recombinant galectins, clinical Trichomonas isolates, and mutant protozoan derivatives to dissect the function of galectin-1 and -3 in the context of Trichomonas infection. Galectin-1 suppressed chemokines that facilitate recruitment of phagocytes, which can eliminate extracellular protozoa (IL-8) or bridge innate to adaptive immunity (MIP-3α and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted)). Silencing galectin-1 increased and adding exogenous galectin-1 suppressed chemokine responses to Trichomonas or CPI-GC/LPG. In contrast, silencing galectin-3 reduced IL-8 response to LPG. Live Trichomonas depleted the extracellular levels of galectin-3. Clinical isolates and mutant Trichomonas CPI-GC that had reduced affinity to galectin-3 but maintained affinity to galectin-1 suppressed chemokine expression. Thus via CPI-GC binding, Trichomonas is capable of regulating galectin bioavailability and function to the benefit of its parasitic survival. These findings suggest novel approaches to control trichomoniasis and warrant further studies of galectin-binding diversity among clinical isolates as a possible source for symptom disparity in parasitic infections. PMID:26589797

  17. Substrate-Induced Dimerization of Engineered Monomeric Variants of Triosephosphate Isomerase from Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lara-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available The dimeric nature of triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs is maintained by an extensive surface area interface of more than 1600 Å2. TIMs from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM are held in their dimeric state by two mechanisms: a ball and socket interaction of residue 45 of one subunit that fits into the hydrophobic pocket of the complementary subunit and by swapping of loop 3 between subunits. TvTIMs differ from other TIMs in their unfolding energetics. In TvTIMs the energy necessary to unfold a monomer is greater than the energy necessary to dissociate the dimer. Herein we found that the character of residue I45 controls the dimer-monomer equilibrium in TvTIMs. Unfolding experiments employing monomeric and dimeric mutants led us to conclude that dimeric TvTIMs unfold following a four state model denaturation process whereas monomeric TvTIMs follow a three state model. In contrast to other monomeric TIMs, monomeric variants of TvTIM1 are stable and unexpectedly one of them (I45A is only 29-fold less active than wild-type TvTIM1. The high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIMs contrast with the marginal catalytic activity of diverse monomeric TIMs variants. The stability of the monomeric variants of TvTIM1 and the use of cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments permit us to understand the differences between the catalytic activities of TvTIMs and other marginally active monomeric TIMs. As TvTIMs do not unfold upon dimer dissociation, herein we found that the high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIM variants is explained by the formation of catalytic dimeric competent species assisted by substrate binding.

  18. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  19. PCR Research of Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis Cells of Sichuan Province%四川地区阴道毛滴虫内人型支原体的PCR检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓燕; 王雅静; 毕世樑; 张仁刚

    2009-01-01

    20 isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis were collected from clinical patients in hospital. After pure cultivation, genomic DNA of T. vaginalis was extracted. A pair of specific 16S rDNA primers was designed based on the sequence of Mycoplasma hominis. M. hominis in T. vaginalis cells were detected by PCR. Altogether 20 isolates of T. vaginalis were collected, 13 out of 20 T. vaginalis isolates harboured M. hominis, and the symbiosis ratio between T. vaginalis and M. hominis was up to 65%. It suggested that the symbiotic relationship between T. vaginalis and M. hominis occurred commonly in Sichuan, China.%从临床上分离获得20株阴道毛滴虫虫株,经纯化培养后,提取基因组DNA.以人型支原体16S rDNA序列设计特异性引物,利用PCR技术检测阴道毛滴虫内的人型支原体,结果有13株为人型支原体阳性,感染率为65%,表明阴道毛滴虫与人型支原体的共生关系在中国四川具有普遍性.

  20. Metabolomic profiling and stable isotope labelling of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus reveal major differences in amino acid metabolism including the production of 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid, cystathionine and S-methylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrop, Gareth D; Wang, Lijie; Blackburn, Gavin J; Zhang, Tong; Zheng, Liang; Watson, David G; Coombs, Graham H

    2017-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are pathogens that parasitise, respectively, human and bovine urogenital tracts causing disease. Using LC-MS, reference metabolomic profiles were obtained for both species and stable isotope labelling with D-[U-13C6] glucose was used to analyse central carbon metabolism. This facilitated a comparison of the metabolic pathways of T. vaginalis and T. foetus, extending earlier targeted biochemical studies. 43 metabolites, whose identities were confirmed by comparison of their retention times with authentic standards, occurred at more than 3-fold difference in peak intensity between T. vaginalis and T. foetus. 18 metabolites that were removed from or released into the medium during growth also showed more than 3-fold difference between the species. Major differences were observed in cysteine and methionine metabolism in which homocysteine, produced as a bi-product of trans-methylation, is catabolised by methionine γ-lyase in T. vaginalis but converted to cystathionine in T. foetus. Both species synthesise methylthioadenosine by an unusual mechanism, but it is not used as a substrate for methionine recycling. T. vaginalis also produces and exports high levels of S-methylcysteine, whereas only negligible levels were found in T. foetus which maintains significantly higher intracellular levels of cysteine. 13C-labeling confirmed that both cysteine and S-methylcysteine are synthesised by T. vaginalis; S-methylcysteine can be generated by recombinant T. vaginalis cysteine synthase using phosphoserine and methanethiol. T. foetus contained higher levels of ornithine and citrulline than T. vaginalis and exported increased levels of putrescine, suggesting greater flux through the arginine dihydrolase pathway. T. vaginalis produced and exported hydroxy acid derivatives of certain amino acids, particularly 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid derived from leucine, whereas negligible levels of these metabolites occurred in T. foetus.

  1. Metabolomic profiling and stable isotope labelling of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus reveal major differences in amino acid metabolism including the production of 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid, cystathionine and S-methylcysteine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth D Westrop

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are pathogens that parasitise, respectively, human and bovine urogenital tracts causing disease. Using LC-MS, reference metabolomic profiles were obtained for both species and stable isotope labelling with D-[U-13C6] glucose was used to analyse central carbon metabolism. This facilitated a comparison of the metabolic pathways of T. vaginalis and T. foetus, extending earlier targeted biochemical studies. 43 metabolites, whose identities were confirmed by comparison of their retention times with authentic standards, occurred at more than 3-fold difference in peak intensity between T. vaginalis and T. foetus. 18 metabolites that were removed from or released into the medium during growth also showed more than 3-fold difference between the species. Major differences were observed in cysteine and methionine metabolism in which homocysteine, produced as a bi-product of trans-methylation, is catabolised by methionine γ-lyase in T. vaginalis but converted to cystathionine in T. foetus. Both species synthesise methylthioadenosine by an unusual mechanism, but it is not used as a substrate for methionine recycling. T. vaginalis also produces and exports high levels of S-methylcysteine, whereas only negligible levels were found in T. foetus which maintains significantly higher intracellular levels of cysteine. 13C-labeling confirmed that both cysteine and S-methylcysteine are synthesised by T. vaginalis; S-methylcysteine can be generated by recombinant T. vaginalis cysteine synthase using phosphoserine and methanethiol. T. foetus contained higher levels of ornithine and citrulline than T. vaginalis and exported increased levels of putrescine, suggesting greater flux through the arginine dihydrolase pathway. T. vaginalis produced and exported hydroxy acid derivatives of certain amino acids, particularly 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid derived from leucine, whereas negligible levels of these metabolites occurred in T

  2. Cryo-EM structures of the 80S ribosomes from human parasites Trichomonas vaginalis and Toxoplasma gondii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhifei Li; Qiang Guo; Lvqin Zheng; Yongsheng Ji; Yi-Ting Xie; De-Hua Lai; Zhao-Rong Lun; Xun Suo; Ning Gao

    2017-01-01

    As an indispensable molecular machine universal in all living organisms,the ribosome has been selected by evolution to be the natural target of many antibiotics and small-molecule inhibitors.High-resolution structures of pathogen ribosomes are crucial for understanding the general and unique aspects of translation control in disease-causing microbes.With cryo-electron microscopy technique,we have determined structures of the cytosolic ribosomes from two human parasites,Trichomonas vaginalis and Toxoplasma gondii,at resolution of 3.2-3.4,(A).Although the ribosomal proteins from both pathogens are typical members of eukaryotic families,with a co-evolution pattern between certain species-specific insertions/extensions and neighboring ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expansion segments,the sizes of their rRNAs are sharply different.Very interestingly,rRNAs of T.vaginalis are in size comparable to prokaryotic counterparts,with nearly all the eukaryote-specific rRNA expansion segments missing.These structures facilitate the dissection of evolution path for ribosomal proteins and RNAs,and may aid in design of novel translation inhibitors.

  3. Symptomatic candidiasis: Using self sampled vaginal smears to establish the presence of Candida, lactobacilli, and Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberts, M K; Boon, M E; van Haaften, M; Heintz, A P M

    2007-10-01

    In a prospective cohort study, 10 symptomatic women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis were taught how to prepare vaginal smears of their own vaginal fluids on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. The 40 smears were stained with the PAS-method and examined by three different cytopathologists for presence of Candida. Thereafter, the smears were restained with Giemsa-stain to determine presence of lactobacilli, Gardnerella vaginalis ("clue cells") and neutrophils. All three cytopathologists unequivocally established Candida blastospores and (pseudo)hyphae in 27 out of the 40 PAS-stained vaginal smears, whereas in the remaining 13 smears Candida was not found. All 10 patients had Candida in their smears during the second half of their menstrual cycle.Self sampled smears prove to be reliable for establishing the presence of Candida in symptomatic patients with candidiasis. Candida is associated with a lactobacillus-predominated vaginal flora, but with the absence of Gardnerella vaginalis. Further studies may be directed towards the interaction between the various members of the vaginal flora. This study should open molecular methodology for determining the possible interactions of lactobacilli and Candida. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G; Cabañes, F J

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species. PMID:8074536

  5. Micropropagation of Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala : A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient in vitro protocol has been developed for the multiplication of shoots and conservation of a rare succulent medicinal plant Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala growing wildly in Karnataka State. Proliferation of multiple shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with various ...

  6. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  7. Testing for Granger causality in large mixed-frequency VARs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, T.B.; Hecq, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Granger causality testing in a mixed-frequency VAR, originally proposed by Ghysels (2012), where the difference in sampling frequencies of the variables is large. In particular, we investigate whether past information on a low-frequency variable help in forecasting a

  8. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  9. The identity of zostera marina var. angustifolia Hornemann (Potamogetonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Since Hornemann (Fl. Dan. 9, 1816, p. 3, pl. 1501) published the name Zostera marina var. angustifolia together with a very poor drawing and the extremely short diagnosis ‘foliis subenerviis’ several interpretations of the identity of this taxon have been given. Some authors regarded it as a

  10. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  11. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  12. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 1319 (2011), s. 1-60 ISSN 1725-2806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fiscal policy * financial markets * threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/baxa-0364091.pdf

  13. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae) is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests with drooping branches and yellow to brownish-yellow flowers. it is endemic to Rajasthan and is considered to be a threatened tree of the region due to over exploitation for timber ...

  14. 蒙药金莲花体外抗阴道毛滴虫效果观察%Effect of Trollius chinensis Bunge against Trichomonas vaginalis: an observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建芳; 闫艳; 于桂霞; 宋强

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察金莲花对体外阴道毛滴虫的杀灭效果.方法 采用不同浓度的金莲花水提物进行体外抗阴道毛滴虫试验,于药物作用后不同时间记录阴道毛滴虫的死亡率.结果 金莲花具有抑制和杀灭阴道毛滴虫的作用,最低有效浓度为20.00 mg/mL.结论 金莲花对阴道毛滴虫具有杀灭效果.%Objective To study the effect of Trollius chinensis Bunge on Trichonwnas vaginalis. Method After treated with different concentration of Trollius chinensis Bunge, Trichomonas vaginalis was observed for the purpose of morphological changes and mortality rate at different time after agent interactions. Result The obvious killing effect on Trichomonas vaginalis conducted by Trollius chinensis Bunge was observed. The lowest killing concentration was 20.00 mg/ mL. Conclusion Trollius chinensis bunge exhibits a relatively potent effect on Trichomonas vaginalis.

  15. One case of Trichomonas vaginalis in pleural fluid%胸水中检出阴道毛滴虫1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范久波; 刘海菊; 王荣; 陈斌

    2009-01-01

    本文报道1例从胸水中检出阴道毛滴虫的病例.患者治疗不彻底,因心肺衰竭而死亡.%This paper reports a case of Trichomonas vaginalis detected from pleural fluid. Because of inadequate treatment, the patient died due to heart and lung failure.

  16. Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium: age-specific prevalence and disease burden in men attending a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, C.; van Rooijen, M. S.; Himschoot, M.; de Vries, H. J. C.; Bruisten, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Men are not routinely tested for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in the Netherlands and, therefore, very few studies have looked into their prevalence and/or role in urogenital complaints in the Dutch male population. To describe the age-specific prevalence and disease

  17. [Microscopic examination of vaginal discharge specimens for Trichomonas vaginalis and other micro-organisms in 18-45 age group women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keşli, Recep; Pektaş, Bayram; Ozdemir, Mehmet; Günenc, Oğuzhan; Coşkun, Erkan; Baykan, Mahmut; Baysal, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoon that causes trichomoniasis which is characterised by a foamy yellowish odorous discharge and superficial defects and necrotic ulcers in vaginal mucosa. Trichomoniasis is transmitted from human to human by sexual contact and can be seen in almost every part of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis in 18-45 years age group women with vaginal discharge complaints who applied to the Gynaecology Outpatient Clinic of Konya Social Insurance Instution Hospital during September 1-December 15 2003. Samples were taken from posterior fornix of the vagina with the aid of a speculum and sterile cotton swabs. All the samples were examined by wet mount preparations, Gram and Giemsa staining method under the light microscope. Of seventy samples 6 (9%) were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis, 9 (13%) for Gardnerella vaginalis, one for Mobiluncus spp. and 11 (16%) for Candida spp. It is possible to say that, in spite of a definite diagnosis of trichomoniasis made by cultivation method, examining the vaginal smear by direct microscope also has an important role in the diagnosis of infection. Direct microscopic examination will help in deciding whether to begin the treatment of trichomoniasis.

  18. Low positivity rate after systematic screening for Trichomonas vaginalis in three patient cohorts from general practitioners, STI clinic and a national population-based chlamydia screening study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, Tanja H.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; Dirks, Anne; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H. T. M.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Wolffs, Petra F. G.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this multi-cohort study is to investigate the positivity rate of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among three distinct Dutch patient populations and its relation with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) positivity. Few studies have been performed in Europe where TV positivity rate seems to be low.

  19. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  20. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  1. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A comprehensive market-based scheme for VAR management and pricing in the electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Qassim Univ., Alqassim, Meldia (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order to enable a power system to operate within an acceptable degree of reliability and security, the provision of VAR ancillary services from the VAR sources in electricity markets is the most effective method. The procurement of VAR services is particularly problematic for transmission operators as it relates to pricing mechanism and various technical issues during system operation. This paper proposed an integrated market-based approach for pricing VAR service in the electricity market. The paper was an extension of the authors' proposal for the provision of the VAR service from dynamic VAR sources in a competitive market-based environment. The formulation was modified to include VAR utilization payment and possible power system transition states multiple base cases and contingencies with their associated occurrence probabilities. The paper discussed the basic terms of the proposed approach including the VAR market objective and generator VAR output and its compensation. The mathematical formulation that considered VAR capacity payment, utilization payment and operating costs under the previous transition states in a unified single problem were introduced. The overall problem formulation and solution algorithm were also presented as a large-scale mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. It was concluded that the proposed method was suited for the simulation and analysis of the existing VAR market. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  3. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  4. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  5. Clinical Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert TV Assay for Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis with Prospectively Collected Specimens from Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebke, Jane R; Gaydos, C A; Davis, T; Marrazzo, J; Furgerson, D; Taylor, S N; Smith, B; Bachmann, L H; Ackerman, R; Spurrell, T; Ferris, D; Burnham, C A; Reno, H; Lebed, J; Eisenberg, D; Kerndt, P; Philip, S; Jordan, J; Quigley, N

    2018-02-01

    Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted disease (STD). It has been associated with preterm birth and the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Recently, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) have been FDA cleared in the United States for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in specimens from both women and men. This study reports the results of a multicenter study recently conducted using the Xpert TV ( T. vaginalis ) assay to test specimens from both men and women. On-demand results were available in as little as 40 min for positive specimens. A total of 1,867 women and 4,791 men were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. In women, the performance of the Xpert TV assay was compared to the patient infected status (PIS) derived from the results of InPouch TV broth culture and Aptima NAAT for T. vaginalis The diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of the Xpert TV assay for the combined female specimens (urine samples, self-collected vaginal swabs, and endocervical swabs) ranged from 99.5 to 100% and 99.4 to 99.9%, respectively. For male urine samples, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 97.2% and 99.9%, respectively, compared to PIS results derived from the results of broth culture for T. vaginalis and bidirectional gene sequencing of amplicons. Excellent performance characteristics were seen using both female and male specimens. The ease of using the Xpert TV assay should result in opportunities for enhanced screening for T. vaginalis in both men and women and, hopefully, improved control of this infection. Copyright © 2018 Schwebke et al.

  6. Experimental observation of cryopreserved Trichomonas vaginalis%低温保存阴道毛滴虫的实验观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭步平; 李宇飞

    2009-01-01

    利用5%、10%、15%、20%、25%、30%浓度的二甲基亚砜和甘油肝浸汤培养液对临床分离的阴道毛滴虫进行4℃保存观察.二甲基亚砜和甘油两实验组最适保种浓度分别为15%和10%,50%虫体存活率天数分别为29和27 d,最长保存天数分别为31和29 d;而空白对照组仅为5和7 d.结果表明,15%二甲基亚砜或10%甘油肝浸汤培养液4℃冷藏保存阴道毛滴虫可显著延长其保存期.%Clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis were preserved at 4 ℃ in liver extract medium with glycerol and dimethylsulfoxide(DMSO) at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% and then observed. The optimal concentrations of DMSO and glycerol for cryopreservation of T. vaginalis were 15% and 10%, respectively. The 50% survival rate in days for T. vaginalis was 29 days and 27 days, respectively. The longest survival in days for T. vaginalis was 31 days and 29 days, respectively, and the blank contrast had a survival of only 7 days. Results indicated that the length of T. vaginalis preservation was prolonged significantly by refrigeration at 4 'C with a liver extract medium and 15% DMSO or 10% glycerol.

  7. The Glycolytic Enzyme Triosephosphate Isomerase of Trichomonas vaginalis Is a Surface-Associated Protein Induced by Glucose That Functions as a Laminin- and Fibronectin-Binding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Ozuna, Jesús F T; Hernández-García, Mar S; Brieba, Luis G; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia G; Ortega-López, Jaime; González-Robles, Arturo; Arroyo, Rossana

    2016-10-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase of Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM) is a 27-kDa cytoplasmic protein encoded by two genes, tvtim1 and tvtim2, that participates in glucose metabolism. TvTIM is also localized to the parasite surface. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify the novel functions of the surface-associated TvTIM in T. vaginalis and to assess the effect of glucose as an environmental factor that regulates its expression and localization. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the tvtim genes were differentially expressed in response to glucose concentration. tvtim1 was overexpressed under glucose-restricted (GR) conditions, whereas tvtim2 was overexpressed under glucose-rich, or high-glucose (HG), conditions. Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays also showed that glucose positively affected the amount and surface localization of TvTIM in T. vaginalis Affinity ligand assays demonstrated that the recombinant TvTIM1 and TvTIM2 proteins bound to laminin (Lm) and fibronectin (Fn) but not to plasminogen. Moreover, higher levels of adherence to Lm and Fn were detected in parasites grown under HG conditions than in those grown under GR conditions. Furthermore, pretreatment of trichomonads with an anti-TvTIMr polyclonal antibody or pretreatment of Lm- or Fn-coated wells with both recombinant proteins (TvTIM1r and TvTIM2r) specifically reduced the binding of live parasites to Lm and Fn in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, T. vaginalis was exposed to different glucose concentrations during vaginal infection of women with trichomoniasis. Our data indicate that TvTIM is a surface-associated protein under HG conditions that mediates specific binding to Lm and Fn as a novel virulence factor of T. vaginalis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Can reported VaR be used as an indicator of the volatility of share prices? Evidence from UK banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shian Kao

    2006-01-01

    Value at Risk (VaR) is used as an indicator to measure the risks contained in a firm. With the uprising development of VaR theory and computational techniques, the VaR is nowadays adopted by banks and reported in annual reports. Since the method to calculate VaR is questioned, and the reported VaR can not be thoroughly audited, this paper attempts to find the relationship between the reported VaR and the volatility of share price for UK listed banks. This paper reviews literature about VaR an...

  9. Foco de leishmaniasis en El Hobo, municipio de El Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Cortés

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se describen las características epidemiológica e importancia de la especies de Lutzomyia presentes en un foco de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar, departamento de Bolívar. Objetivos. Obtener un conocimiento preliminar de la transmisión de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron datos epidemiológicos y se realizaron capturas de flebótomos con trampas CDC y cebo humano en la vereda El Hobo. Para establecer la sero prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral canina se hizo un estudio en perros mediante la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. Se capturaron nueve especies de Lutzomyia: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L .cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi,L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Las especie de mayor importancia por sus implicaciones en la transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral fueron L. gomezi, y L. evansi respectivamente. Se reporta por primera vez para Bolívar especimenes de L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Se determinó una prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral del 36% en los caninos estudiados. Según los reportes epidemiológicos, en el 2002 en el municipio de Carmen de Bolívar la leishmaniasis cutánea mostró un aumento del 40% y la leishmaniasis visceral canina del 80% de los casos con respecto al 2001, debido al brote presentado en la vereda El Hobo Conclusiones. Los resultados determinan a la vereda El Hobo como una zona de riesgo potencial de transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral.

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection Among Men and Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Eshan U; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Packman, Zoe R; Quinn, Thomas C; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2018-03-15

    The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection in the United States is poorly defined. Males and females aged 18-59 years who participated in the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and provided a urine specimen were tested for TV infection (n = 4057). Participants were also examined for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection, genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus. Weighted adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated by multivariable Poisson regression. TV infection prevalence was 0.5% and 1.8% among males and females, respectively. TV infection prevalence was 4.2% among black males, 8.9% among black females, and 0.03% and 0.8%, respectively, among males and females of other races/ethnicities. TV infection prevalence (aPR [95% confidence interval]) was positively associated with female sex (6.1 [3.3-11.3]), black race (vs other races/ethnicities; 7.9 [3.9-16.1]), older age (vs 18-24 years; 3.0 [1.2-7.1] for 25- to 39-year-olds and 3.5 [1.3-9.4] for 40- to 59-year-olds), having less than a high school education (vs completing high school or more; 2.0 [1.0-4.1]), being below the poverty level (vs at or above the poverty level; 4.0 [2.1-7.7]), and having ≥2 sexual partners in the past year (vs 0-1 sexual partners; 3.6 [2.0-6.6]). There were no TV and CT coinfections. Genital HPV detection was not independently associated with TV infection. Among persons aged 18-39 years, there was a significant racial disparity in all sexually transmitted infections examined, and this disparity was greatest for TV infection. There is a high and disproportionate burden of urinary TV infection in the adult civilian, noninstitutionalized black population in the United States that warrants intervention.

  11. Identification of the relationship between Chinese Adiantum reniforme var. sinense and Canary Adiantum reniforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ye; Schneider, Harald; Zhai, Jun-Wen; Liu, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Song; Xing, Fu-Wu; Chen, Hong-Feng; Wang, Fa-Guo

    2015-02-05

    There are different opinions about the relationship of two disjunctively distributed varieties Adiantum reniforme L. var. sinense Y.X.Lin and Adiantum reniforme L. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an endangered fern only distributed in a narrowed region of Chongqing city in China, while Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme just distributed in Canary Islands and Madeira off the north-western African coast. To verify the relationship of these two taxa, relative phylogenetic analyses, karyotype analyses, microscopic spore observations and morphological studies were performed in this study. Besides, divergence time between A. reniforme var. sinense and A. reniforme var. reniforme was estimated using GTR model according to a phylogeny tree constructed with the three cpDNA markers atpA, atpB, and rbcL. Phylogenetic results and divergence time analyses--all individuals of A. reniforme var. sinense from 4 different populations (representing all biogeographic distributions) were clustered into one clade and all individuals of A. reniforme var. reniforme from 7 different populations (all biogeographic distributions are included) were clustered into another clade. The divergence between A. reniforme var. reniforme and A. reniforme var. sinense was estimated to be 4.94 (2.26-8.66) Myr. Based on karyotype analyses, A. reniforme var. reniforme was deduced to be hexaploidy with 2n = 180, X = 30, while A. reniforme var. sinense was known as tetraploidy. Microscopic spore observations suggested that surface ornamentation of A. reniforme var. reniforme is psilate, but that of A. reniforme var. sinense is rugate. Leaf blades of A. reniforme var. sinense are membranous and reniform and with several obvious concentric rings, and leaves of A. reniforme var. reniforme are pachyphyllous and coriaceous and are much rounder and similar to palm. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an independent species rather than the variety of Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme. As a result, we

  12. Cross-sectional study to evaluate Trichomonas vaginalis positivity in women tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, attending genitourinary medicine and primary care clinics in Bristol, South West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Jane E; Turner, Katy M E; North, Paul; Ferguson, Ralph; May, Margaret T; Gough, Karen; Macleod, John; Muir, Peter; Horner, Patrick J

    2018-03-01

    Highly sensitive, commercial nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for Trichomonas vaginalis have only recently been recommended for use in the UK. While testing for T. vaginalis is routine in symptomatic women attending genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, it is rare in asymptomatic women or those attending primary care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the positivity of T. vaginalis using a commercial NAAT, in symptomatic and asymptomatic women undergoing testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in GUM and primary care settings. Samples from 9186 women undergoing chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing in South West England between May 2013 and Jan 2015 were also tested for T. vaginalis by NAAT alongside existing tests. T. vaginalis positivity using NAAT was as follows: in GUM 4.5% (24/530, symptomatic) and 1.7% (27/1584, asymptomatic); in primary care 2.7% (94/3499, symptomatic) and 1.2% (41/3573, asymptomatic). Multivariable regression found that in GUM older age, black ethnicity and deprivation were independent risk factors for T. vaginalis infection. Older age and deprivation were also risk factors in primary care. Testing women presenting with symptoms in GUM and primary care using TV NAATs is estimated to cost £260 per positive case diagnosed compared with £716 using current microbiological tests. Aptima TV outperforms existing testing methods used to identify T. vaginalis infection in this population. An NAAT should be used when testing for T. vaginalis in women who present for testing with symptoms in primary care and GUM, based on test performance and cost. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  14. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  15. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  16. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Hong; Jiang, Wei-Zhe; Lv, Li; Wu, Ling-Ling; Lv, Cong; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Su, Gui-Liang

    2009-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis by establishing its quality control standard. The bioactive constituents were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Moisture, ash and the extracts of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were all determined. The TLC spots of levodopa had similar color with the control group at the same position. The results of HPLC quantitative analysis showed that the linear range of levodopa was 26.45 to approximately 132.25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material.

  17. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  18. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  19. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  20. MANAGEMENT OF Amburana cearensis var. acreana IN ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814586This work has as its objectives: a to assess the geographical distribution and population structure of Amburana cearensis var. acreana; b to calculate sustainable cutting rates, according to stipulated cutting cycles, and c to simulate the projected recovery potential in volume based on the calculated cutting rate. It was used data from sustainable forest management plans, and the results will contribute for future decisions about its endangered condition. The results did not corroborate the information that Amburana cearensis var. acreana is endangered in Acre state. However the management sustainability will only be feasible if considered the ideal remaining population structure and the estimative of the optimal cutting rate according to the cutting cycle.

  1. The prevalence and risk factors for Trichomonas vaginalis infection amongst human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women attending the antenatal clinics of a university teaching hospital in Lagos, South-Western, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijasan, Olaolopin; Okunade, Kehinde Sharafadeen; Oluwole, Ayodeji Ayotunde

    2018-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Interactions between this infection and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm labour, premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, low birth weight and post-abortal sepsis. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of T. vaginalis infection amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal care at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria. This was an analytical cross-sectional study in which 320 eligible participants which included 160 HIV-positive (case group) and 160 HIV-negative (control group) pregnant women were recruited at the antenatal clinic of LUTH. A structured pro forma was used to collect data from consenting participants after which high vaginal swabs were collected, processed and examined for T. vaginalis. The association between categorical variables was tested using the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test where applicable. All significances were reported at P women were 10% and 8.1%, respectively (P = 0.559). Significant risk factors for T. vaginalis infection in the HIV-positive pregnant women were early coitarche (P women for T. vaginalis infection as a tool of reducing HIV acquisition, especially in pregnancy, campaign to create better sexual health awareness should be commenced as a way to contributing to the reduction in T. vaginalis infection during pregnancy and perinatal transmission of HIV.

  2. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  3. Phytochemical study of the flavonoids of acacia nilotica var astringens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gazali, N. A.

    2006-08-01

    The barks of acaica nilotica var astringens were extracted with 95% ethanol. Qualitative tests on the alcoholic extractives were negative for alkaloids and positive for steroids, tannins and flavonoids. Fractionation of the alcoholic extract over silica gel using acetone: methanol (4:1) gave a pure compound-compound 1. The structure of compound 1 was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra and the following structure was suggested.(Author)

  4. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2018), s. 395-423 ISSN 0377-7332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Fiscal policy * Financial markets * Threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economic s OBOR OECD: Applied Economic s, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/baxa-0488303.pdf

  5. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  6. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  7. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam; Selin Sayek Böke

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the d...

  8. Saponinas esteroidales de la planta Agave brittoniana (Agavaceae con actividad contra el parásito Trichomona vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Orestes Guerra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Agave, familia Agavaceae, tiene más de 300 especies, con aproximadamente 16 distribuidas en toda Cuba. Una de ellas, el Agave brittoniana Trel. (ssp. brachypus, es una subespecie endémica y sus hojas son tradicionalmente utilizadas en el tratamiento de enfermedades parasitarias. Se realizaron estudios "in vitro" de la actividad de productos de esta planta frente a Trichomona vaginalis. Las hojas secas y pulverizadas fueron extraídas tres veces con una mezcla de etanol-agua (7: 3 mediante maceración a temperatura ambiente. El disolvente fue evaporado a presión reducida y el extracto fue suspendido en agua destilada, desengrasado con n-hexano, y extraído con n-butanol saturado con agua. Luego de una extracción con acetato de etilo, los productos de la hidrólisis fueron comparados con patrones de sapogeninas mediante la cromatografía de capa fina (CCD. Aislamos las sapogeninas mayoritarias (yuccagenina y diosgenina y confirmamos sus estructuras utilizando técnicas de resonancia magnética nuclear. Por otra parte, el extracto n-butanólico fue sometido a un proceso de separación biodirigido mediante cromatografía de columna, obteniéndose cinco fracciones. Después de múltiples separaciones, la más activa rindió una fracción purificada con dos sapogeninas con el mismo aglicón (diosgenina y un glicósido de yucagenina. Los mejores resultados de esta actividad fueron obtenidos con el glicósido derivado de la yucageninaSteroidal saponins from the plant Agave brittoniana with activity against the parasite Trichomona vaginalis. The genus Agave (Agavaceae, includes more than 300 species; around 16 of them show an homogeneous distribution throughout Cuba. Agave brittoniana (ssp. brachypus, is an endemic subspecies that grows in the central region of the country and its leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of parasitic diseases. The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis causes the disease known as trichomoniasis, that infects

  9. No evidence for infection of UK prostate cancer patients with XMRV, BK virus, Trichomonas vaginalis or human papilloma viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Harriet C T; Warren, Anne Y; Neal, David E; Bishop, Kate N

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of specific infections in UK prostate cancer patients was investigated. Serum from 84 patients and 62 controls was tested for neutralisation of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) Envelope. No reactivity was found in the patient samples. In addition, a further 100 prostate DNA samples were tested for XMRV, BK virus, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papilloma viruses by nucleic acid detection techniques. Despite demonstrating DNA integrity and assay sensitivity, we failed to detect the presence of any of these agents in DNA samples, bar one sample that was weakly positive for HPV16. Therefore we conclude that these infections are absent in this typical cohort of men with prostate cancer.

  10. No evidence for infection of UK prostate cancer patients with XMRV, BK virus, Trichomonas vaginalis or human papilloma viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet C T Groom

    Full Text Available The prevalence of specific infections in UK prostate cancer patients was investigated. Serum from 84 patients and 62 controls was tested for neutralisation of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV Envelope. No reactivity was found in the patient samples. In addition, a further 100 prostate DNA samples were tested for XMRV, BK virus, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papilloma viruses by nucleic acid detection techniques. Despite demonstrating DNA integrity and assay sensitivity, we failed to detect the presence of any of these agents in DNA samples, bar one sample that was weakly positive for HPV16. Therefore we conclude that these infections are absent in this typical cohort of men with prostate cancer.

  11. Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho

    2017-08-01

    Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. The TvLEGU-1, a Legumain-Like Cysteine Proteinase, Plays a Key Role in Trichomonas vaginalis Cytoadherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Rendón-Gandarilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper was to characterize a Trichomonas vaginalis cysteine proteinase (CP legumain-1 (TvLEGU-1 and determine its potential role as a virulence factor during T. vaginalis infection. A 30-kDa band, which migrates in three protein spots (pI~6.3, ~6.5, and ~6.7 with a different type and level of phosphorylation, was identified as TvLEGU-1 by one- and two-dimensional Western blot (WB assays, using a protease-rich trichomonad extract and polyclonal antibodies produced against the recombinant TvLEGU-1 (anti-TvLEGU-1r. Its identification was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Immunofluorescence, cell binding, and WB assays showed that TvLEGU-1 is upregulated by iron at the protein level, localized on the trichomonad surface and in lysosomes and Golgi complex, bound to the surface of HeLa cells, and was found in vaginal secretions. Additionally, the IgG and Fab fractions of the anti-TvLEGU-1r antibody inhibited trichomonal cytoadherence up to 45%. Moreover, the Aza-Peptidyl Michael Acceptor that inhibited legumain proteolytic activity in live parasites also reduced levels of trichomonal cytoadherence up to 80%. In conclusion, our data show that the proteolytic activity of TvLEGU-1 is necessary for trichomonal adherence. Thus, TvLEGU-1 is a novel virulence factor upregulated by iron. This is the first report that a legumain-like CP plays a role in a pathogen cytoadherence.

  13. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, I.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4.

  15. VAR, stress-testing and supplementary methodologies: uses and constraints in energy risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Brian

    1999-01-01

    This chapter lists some of the special risks associated with a range of energy markets, and questions what is risk. Market risk, the use of value-at-risk (VAR) for measuring and managing market risk, use of VAR in the banking sector, back-testing of VAR, the corporate sector, making investment decisions, and the need for additional methods of risk analysis are discussed. Scenario analysis and stress testing, liquidity, and combining VAR and stress-testing are described. Credit risk and the quantitative analysis of credit risk are addressed, and operational risk, and organisational challenges are considered. Panels present examples of a simple VAR calculation and give descriptions of VAR in corporate decisions, the measurement of liquidity, and the use of the Greeks in decisions on day to day trading and risk management

  16. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  17. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation.

  18. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  19. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  20. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  1. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Based on Data Collected by a Network of Clinical Microbiology Laboratories, in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salfa, Maria Cristina; Suligoi, Barbara

    Bacterial and protozoal sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, may cause acute symptoms, chronic infections and severe long-term complications. The complications of these infections in women include pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Moreover, infection during pregnancy is associated with premature rupture of the membranes, low birth weight and miscarriage.In Italy, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis infections are not subject to mandatory reporting; while gonorrhoea is subject to mandatory reporting.To extend surveillance to STIs that are widespread yet often asymptomatic and to improve the knowledge on the epidemiology of these infections in Italy, in 2009 the "Centro Operativo AIDS of the Istituto Superiore di SanitÁ", in collaboration with the Association of Italian Clinical Microbiologists (AMCLI, Associazione Microbiologi Clinici Italiani), launched the sentinel STIs surveillance system based on a network of 13 clinical microbiology laboratories.The main objective of the surveillance was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoea infections among individuals attending microbiology laboratories in Italy.

  2. Clinical laboratory assessments for Mycoplasma genitalium in a high-prevalence sexually-transmitted infection community reveal epidemiologic dichotomies with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Erik; Munson, Kimber L; Schell, Ronald F

    2017-02-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging agent of sexually-transmitted infection and is responsible for clinically-significant genital tract disease in both females and males. Similar to scenarios recently experienced with the urogenital flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis, an evolving molecular diagnostic reference standard based on transcription-mediated amplification allows for accurate detection of the organism, plus additional insight into disease epidemiology. Areas covered. The basis for this article includes primary peer-reviewed literature plus compilations of data derived from routine clinical laboratory screening of females and males for agents of sexually-transmitted infection. Introductory laboratory and epidemiologic data related to T. vaginalis provides not only a foreshadowing to the dichotomies inherent to M. genitalium prevalence but also advocacy of a common non-invasive specimen source that could be used to screen females for both agents. This review also documents increased prevalence rates of M. genitalium in both females and males by way of transcription-mediated amplification. Expert commentary. Molecular detection of M. genitalium should be a consideration in the development of comprehensive sexually-transmitted infection screening programs for both females and males. Transcription-mediated amplification has additionally identified novel facets of M. genitalium and T. vaginalis epidemiology that warrant further investigation.

  3. Role of polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals from India (South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Paul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite and an etiological agent for trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Fifty to eighty percentage of women with trichomoniasis are asymptomatic and in the absence of treatment the infection persists longer. Aim: To evaluate the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the diagnosis of trichomoniasis and also to look at the frequency of infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected women. Methods: A non-nested PCR was standardized to detect 102 bp size amplified product of the adhesin gene of T. vaginalis. The real time performance of this assay was performed with vaginal swab samples from 198 HIV-seropositive women who attended the infectious disease clinic and compared with wet mount and culture in Diamond′s modified media. Results: Among the prospectively studied 198 HIV-infected women, 1 (0.51% was positive by wet mount, 6 (3.03% were positive by culture and 10 (5.02% were positive by the PCR. There was a significant observed agreement between the PCR and culture (k=0.74, Z=10.7, P<0.0000. Conclusion: Our study showed that the PCR assay for the amplification of adhesion gene is a highly sensitive method to screen the high risk group individuals like HIV-positive women for Trichomonas vaginalis compared to the culture. Testing algorithm should be, wet mount and if negative, test by PCR as it is rapid compared to culture which takes 7 days.

  4. Plasmodium falciparum var Gene Silencing Is Determined by cis DNA Elements That Form Stable and Heritable Interactions ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Lakshmi; Amulic, Borko; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Antigenic variation in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum depends on the transcriptional regulation of the var gene family. In each individual parasite, mRNA is expressed exclusively from 1 var gene out of ∼60, while the rest of the genes are transcriptionally silenced. Both modifications to chromatin structure and DNA regulatory elements associated with each var gene have been implicated in the organization and maintenance of the silent state. Whether silencing is established at the level of entire chromosomal regions via heterochromatin spreading or at the level of individual var promoters through the action of a silencing element within each var intron has been debated. Here, we consider both possibilities, using clonal parasite lines carrying chromosomally integrated transgenes. We confirm a previous finding that the loss of an adjacent var intron results in var promoter activation and further show that transcriptional activation of a var promoter within a cluster does not affect the transcriptional activity of neighboring var promoters. Our results provide more evidence for the hypothesis that var genes are primarily silenced at the level of an individual gene, rather than by heterochromatin spreading. We also tested the intrinsic directionality of an intron's silencing effect on upstream or downstream var promoters. We found that an intron is capable of silencing in either direction and that, once established, a var promoter-intron pair is stably maintained through many generations, suggesting a possible role in epigenetic memory. This study provides insights into the regulation of endogenous var gene clusters. PMID:21317310

  5. A experimental study on the anti -trichomonas vaginalis effect of traditional Chinese medicine%中药抗阴道毛滴虫作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建芳; 闫艳; 高静; 杨宏东; 宋强

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨鸡冠花、金莲花和荆芥体外抗阴道毛滴虫的作用.方法:将不同浓度的鸡冠花、金莲花和荆芥作用于体外培养的阴道毛滴虫,于药物作用后不同时间记录阴道毛滴虫的死亡率.结果:鸡冠花、金莲花和荆芥对阴道毛滴虫均有抑制和杀灭作用,其中鸡冠花抗阴道毛滴虫的作用最强,与金莲花、荆芥比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),荆芥抗阴道毛滴虫作用强于金莲花(P<0.05).结论:鸡冠花、金莲花和荆芥均具有抗阴道毛滴虫作用.%Objective: To explore the anti - trichomonas vaginalis effects of Celosia cristata, Trollius chinensis Bunge and Herba schizonepetae in vitro. Methods:The trichomonas vaginalis cultured in vitro were treated with different concentrations of Celosia cristata, Trollius chinensis Bunge and Herba schizonepetae, the mortality rates of trichomonas vaginalis at different time points after the treatment were recorded. Results; Celosia cristata, Trollius chinensis Bunge and Herba schizonepetae had inhibiting and killing effects on trichomonas vagi-nalis, and the anti - trichomonas vaginalis effect of Celosia cristata was the strongest, compared with Trollius chinensis Bunge and Herba schizonepetae, there was significant difference (P < 0.05 ) ; the anti - trichomonas vaginalis effect of Herba schizonepetae was stronger than that of Trollius chinensis Bunge (P <0. 05) . Conclusion; Celosia cristata, Trollius chinensis Bunge and Herba schizonepetae have anti -trichomonas vaginalis effects.

  6. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  7. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  8. Complete plastid genome of Astragalus mongholicus var. nakaianus (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Su; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The first complete plastid genome (plastome) of the largest angiosperm genus, Astragalus, was sequenced for the Korean endangered endemic species A. mongholicus var. nakaianus. Its genome is relatively short (123,633 bp) because it lacks an Inverted Repeat (IR) region. It comprises 110 genes, including four unique rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. Similar to other closely related plastomes, rpl22 and rps16 are absent. The putative pseudogene with abnormal stop codons is atpE. This plastome has no additional inversions when compared with highly variable plastomes from IRLC tribes Fabeae and Trifolieae. Our phylogenetic analysis confirms the non-monophyly of Galegeae.

  9. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  10. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  11. Phytochemical Studies on Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Mazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae, commonly known as ‘bekhanjabaj’, is a Bangladeshi perennial herb. A combination of the normal phase column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel afforded sitosterone (1 from the petroleum ether fraction, and viscozulenic acid (2 and acetophenone (3 from the chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this plant . The free-radical-scavenging properties the isolated compounds 1-3 were evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  12. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  13. An unusual variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, A A; Weitzman, I; Domenech, E

    1994-01-01

    A fungus, recovered from a skin lesion of a patient, produced velvety to powdery, white to deep yellow colonies on Sabouraud glucose agar. Microscopically, it produced a large number of cylindric, smooth-walled, three- to eight-celled macroconidia but failed to produce microconidia on a variety of nutritional media such as rice grains, cornmeal dextrose, potato dextrose, Sabouraud glucose, oatmeal and lactrimel agars. It hydrolysed urea in 7 days, perforated hair in vitro and required thiamine for growth. This isolate represents an atypical variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sufureum subvar. perforans.

  14. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2013-01-01

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  15. Mitigation of voltage fluctuations with an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, F [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Castanheira, A

    1997-04-01

    The installation of an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) to remedy a voltage flicker problem at the TIMEU sawmill in Fort Assiniboine, Alberta, was described. The TIMEU sawmill is a 980 kVA load at the end of a 25 kV feeder. Two older style J bar type saws, each driven by a 200 Hp motor, are used to operate the wood processing services. The sawing and chipping process resulted in the generation of significant voltage flicker on the 25 kV distribution system. The AVC provided cycle per cycle reactive compensation and voltage support; no further complaints of flicker were received.

  16. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2......CSA were compared between multigravidae with and without PM who had Ab to VAR2CSA. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2......), individual VAR2CSA DBL domains, VAR2CSA domains from different genetic backgrounds (variants), as well as proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2. RESULTS: Multigravidae with and without PM had similar levels of Ab to FV2, the six VAR2CSA DBL domains and different variants, while the proportion of high avidity...

  17. Trichomonas vaginalis infections in department of gynecology and preventive measures%妇科阴道毛滴虫感染分析及预防措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何燕妃

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore and analyze the status of Trichomonas vaginalis infections in department of gynecology, so as to develop preventive measures. METHODS The clinical data of outpatients in department of gynecology of our hospital from May 2010 to Apr. 2011 were collected; the age, month, and seasonal infection rates of the patients with T. Vaginalis infections were compared and analyzed for the understanding of status of T. Vaginalis infection. RESULTS A total of 1680 patients undergoing examination in gynecology clinic were enrolled in this study. T. Vaginalis infections occurred in 118 patients with the infection rate of 7. 0%. The age group of 35 has the highest infection rate, followed by age group of 40s the infections were widely distributed in spring (10. 0%), which was significantly higher than the other seasons. CONCLUSION The middle or young female adults between 35 and 45 years of age are the predominant population for T. Vaginalis infections. Keeping vulva clean and taking good healthcare are the important ways to prevent the disease.%目的 对妇科阴道毛滴虫感染情况进行分析探讨,并结合感染情况研究预防措施.方法 提取医院2010年5月-2011年4月门诊妇科检查资料,对感染阴道毛滴虫患者的年龄、月份、季节感染率进行对比分析,了解阴道毛滴虫感染情况.结果 妇科门诊进行检查的妇科患者共1680例,其中阴道毛滴虫感染者118例,感染率为7.0% ;35岁年龄组感染率较高,明显高于其他年龄组,40岁组次之;春季感染较多,为10.0%,高于其他季节.结论 妇科阴道毛滴虫感染以35~45岁中青年女性居多,保持个人外阴清洁、做好卫生保健,是预防本病的重要手段.

  18. Further elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc A. Baker

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of E. sneedii var. sneedii were found to occur in greater abundance within the Guadalupe Mountains than was previously recorded. No additional populations morphologically intermediate between E. guadalupensis and E. sneedii were found. Taxonomic affiliation and geographic...

  19. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  20. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  1. A Stochastic Dominance Approach to the Basel III Dilemma: Expected Shortfall or VaR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) (2013) recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The BCBS (2013) noted that “a number of weaknesses have been identified with using VaR for

  2. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  3. Clinical development of a VAR2CSA-based placental malaria vaccine PAMVAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbédandé, Komi; Fievet, Nadine; Viwami, Firmine

    2017-01-01

    Background  The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC...

  4. Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner (Malvaceae, A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner is naturalized in abandoned land of central Taiwan. The distinguished characteristics of A. manihot var. pungens include the ovate-lanceolate epicalyx lobes, distinct prickly hairs all over the plant, and even over the margins of its epicalyx lobes. Descriptions, line drawings and photos of this species are provided.

  5. Essays on Imperfect Knowledge Economics, Structural Change, and Persistence in the Cointegrated VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    conrm the original intuition behind the attempt to combine IKE and the econometric approach based on the cointegrated VAR model, that the parameter-instability of IKE models could potentially be an important source of the persistence found empirically in estimated cointegrated VAR models...

  6. Waarnemingen aan Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F.W. Meyer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations during six successive years in a cultivated clone of Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F. W. Meyer made it possible to study various types of fertile, sterile, and homophyadic stems developing in this clone. As E. arvense var. varium Milde, E. arvense f. sanguineum Luerss., and E.

  7. Computing level-impulse responses of log-specified VAR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Horvath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Impulse response functions (IRFs) are often used to analyze the dynamic behavior of a vector autoregressive (VAR) system. In many applications of VAR modelling, the variables are log-transformed before the model is estimated. If this is the case, the results of the IRFs do not have a direct

  8. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Antoine; Hamilton, William L; Kekre, Mihir; Otto, Thomas D; Faizullabhoy, Adnan; Rayner, Julian C; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2014-12-01

    The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations) were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4%) yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  9. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and

  10. Comparative anatomy of the leaves of Piper lepturum(Kunth) C.DC. var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (C.DC.) Yunck.

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nelson Santana de Oliveira; Pereira, Flaviane Gomes; Santos, Paulo Roberto Dias dos; Costa, Cecília Gonçalves; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This study showed anatomical differences related to Piper lepturumvar. lepturum and P. lepturum var. angustifolium species, sometimes considered varieties and in other cases synonyms. For histological analysis, fully expanded leaves were collected and for analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fragments from the midrib were fixed on both leaf surfaces. The two species revealed differences in plant anatomy and it was observed that the stem of P. lepturum var. lepturum showed persisten...

  11. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of cellular angiofibroma of the tunica vaginalis of the testis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntorkou, Alexandra A; Tsili, Athina C; Giannakis, Dimitrios; Batistatou, Anna; Stavrou, Sotirios; Sofikitis, Nikolaos; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2016-03-31

    Cellular angiofibroma represents a rare mesenchymal tumor typically involving the inguinoscrotal area in middle-aged men. Although the origin of this benign tumor is unknown, it is histologically classified as an angiomyxoid tumor. Cellular angiofibroma is characterized by a diversity of pathological and imaging features. An accurate preoperative diagnosis is challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging examination of the scrotum has been reported as a valuable adjunct modality in the investigation of scrotal pathology. The technique by providing both structural and functional information is useful in the differentiation between extratesticular and intratesticular diseases and in the preoperative characterization of the histologic nature of various scrotal lesions. There are few reports in the English literature addressing the magnetic resonance imaging findings of cellular angiofibroma of the scrotum and no reports on functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Here we present the first case of a cellular angiofibroma arising from the tunica vaginalis of the testis and we discuss the value of a multiparametric magnetic resonance protocol, including diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetization transfer imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the preoperative diagnosis of this rare neoplasm. A 47-year Greek man presented with a painless left scrotal swelling, which had gradually enlarged during the last 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of his scrotum displayed a left paratesticular mass, in close proximity to the tunica vaginalis, with heterogeneous high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and no areas of restricted diffusion. The tumor was hypointense on magnetization transfer images, suggestive for the presence of macromolecules. On dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging the mass showed intense heterogeneous enhancement with a type II curve. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were strongly suggestive of a benign

  13. METODE VECTOR AUTOREGRESSIVE (VAR DALAM PERAMALAN JUMLAH WISATAWAN MANCANEGARA KE BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TJOK GDE SAHITYAHUTTI RANANGGA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to model and to forecast the number of foreign tourists (Australia, China, and Japan arrival to Bali using vector autoregressive (VAR method. The estimated of VAR model obtained to forecast the number of foreign tourists to Bali is the sixth order VAR (VAR(6.We used multivariate least square method to estimate the VAR(6’s parameters.The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE in this model were as follows 6.8% in predicting the number of Australian tourists, 15.9% in predicting the number of Chinese tourists, and 9% in predicting the number of Japanese tourists. The prediction of Australian, Chinese, and Japanese tourists arrival to Bali for July 2017 to December 2017 tended  to experience up and downs that were not too high compared to the previous months.

  14. Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyla var. tridactyla – new hosts of Ampelomyces quisqualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales on plants of the Słowiański Park located in Goorzów Wielkopolski was investigated. Plant samples were collected once a month, from August to November. The samples examined were above ground plant parts colonized by powdery mildew fungi. A total of 78 samples were collected. Apart from 14 species of the order Erysiphales, Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitizing on Erysiphe cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyl var. tridactyla was found. Ampelomyces quisqualis affected hyphae, oidia, and young cleistothecia of P. mali. In contrast, in E. cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Po. tridactyle var. tridactyla, this hyperparasite colonized only hyphae and oidia. This paper for the first trime informs of A. quisqualis parasitizing on P. mali and Po. tridactyla var. tridactyla.

  15. MODEL NON LINIER GARCH (NGARCH UNTUK MENGESTIMASI NILAI VALUE at RISK (VaR PADA IHSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG TRY BAYU MAHENDRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In investment, risk measurement is important. One of risk measure is Value at Risk (VaR. There are many methods that can be used to estimate risk based on VaR framework. One of them Non Linier GARCH (NGARCH model. In this research, determination of VaR used NGARCH model. NGARCH model allowed for asymetric behaviour in the volatility such that “good news” or positive return and “bad news” or negative return. Based on calculations of VaR, the higher of the confidence level and the longer the investment period, the risk was greater. Determination of VaR using NGARCH model was less than GARCH model.

  16. [A survey on ecological environment of wild Adiantum reniforme var. sinense in Three Gorges Reservoir region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong-de; Jia, Han; Fu, Shao-Zhi; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The study aims at investigating the ecological environment Adiantum reniforme var. sinense of in Three Gorges Reservoir region, and providing a reference basis for the protection of resources and artificial cultivation of A. reniforme var. sinense. By using the method of investigation, field survey and experimental analysis, the vegetation, natural geographical environment, climate, soil nutrients of A. reniforme var. sinense were studied and analyzed. The survey found that A. reniforme var. sinense distribution area reduced fast in Three Gorges region, a lot of distribution has diminished and vanished due to excessive digging, currently only in 3 towns of Wanzhou there exist 4 wild distribution areas. The growth of A. reniforme var. sinense needs an environment with low altitude, steep slope and thin soil, northeast slope, canopy height and warm and humid climate characteristics, and the soil in distribution has the characteristics of high organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium, and low available phosphorus content. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  18. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  19. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. © 2011 The Author(s)

  20. DGA-based VAR rescheduling for transmission loss reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi (India); Taylor, G.A. [Brunel Univ., London (United Kingdom). Brunel Inst. of Power Systems; Reddy, J.B.V. [Government of India, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Science and Technology; Naeem, M.H. [Multimedia Univ. (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Power losses in power transmission lines can be minimized by adjusting transformer taps and switchable VAR sources. Optimal power flow (OPF) is a static, nonlinear, multi-objective optimization challenge in which the optimal settings of control variables must be determined for minimizing the cost of generation, emissions, transmission losses and voltage and power flow deviations. OPF is important in power system operation because a small savings per hour can mean a large annual savings. This paper presented a method to reduce transmission power losses using a Differential Genetic Algorithm (DGA) for VAR rescheduling. The New England 39-bus power system was used as a test case. Power losses were minimized by changing the tap settings of various transformers and by varying the injected reactive power. The paper showed that certain buses in the system can improve the voltage profile and reduce transmission losses through reactive power injections from capacitor banks. In this study, minimum reactive power output of generators was maintained at zero to ensure that the generators did not draw reactive power. The DGA was shown to produce better results than the Conventional Genetic Algorithm in terms of power loss minimization. 12 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  1. Parasitosis intestinales en vendedores ambulantes de comida en Ciudad Bolívar, estado Bolívar, Venezuela | Intestinal parasitosis in food handlers from ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a sample of apparently healthy individuals who sold food in streets in Los Proceres of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State. Fecal samples were collected from 85 individuals, which were analyzed by means of direct examination, qualitative Kato, spontaneous sedimentation and Kinyoun staining. Each individual was filled a clinical epidemiological record and underwent anamnesis and oriented clinical examination. The assessed group comprised 50 women and 35 men with ages 14 to 57 years (mean 15.25 ± 4.21 years. From this group, 50 persons (58.82% were parasitized mainly by Blastocystis spp. (42.22%, Endolimax nana (11.11%, Entamoeba coli (6.67%, Giardia intestinalis (11.11%, Cryptosporidium spp. (11.11% and Cystoisospora belli (4.44%. There was no preference for gender or age (p > 0.05, and persons aged 20 to 25 years were the most affected group. Monoparasitism was observed in 56% (n = 28 cases and 44% (n = 22 of cases had other associated parasites, being the most frequent association between Blastocystis spp with Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana. It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among street food handlers.

  2. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  3. Physicochemical traits of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemane, Asgedom; Skjelvåg, Arne O

    2003-01-01

    Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) has high appreciation for its taste and obtains a premium price in local markets compared to Ater (Pisum sativum var. sativum). However, data on the physicochemical traits of Dekoko seeds were lacking. This paper reports on the physicochemical features of Dekoko and compares the results with that of Ater. Seed weight and seed volume were 36 and 30%, respectively, higher in Ater, while water absorption, percent seed swelling, and percent husk were higher in Dekoko. Cooking time was shorter for Dekoko than Ater seeds. Decortication reduced cooking time on average by 39 and 45 min in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Cotyledon flour of Dekoko contained 251 g crude protein, 19 g fat, 31.7 g total sugars, 370 g starch, and 130 g neutral detergent fiber per kilogram DM. These traits were significantly higher in Dekoko than in Ater, except for starch, which was higher in the latter. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine occurred in larger proportions, and collectively contributed about 39% to the total amino acids in both varieties. Lysine contributed about 7%, while sulfur containing amino acids constituted about 3.0 and 2.3% of the total amino acids in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Ca and Mg were higher in Ater, while P was higher in Dekoko. Based on the observations it was concluded that Dekoko is a suitable supplementary protein source for a cereal-based diet.

  4. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Marion; Hathaway, Marianne J; Cartwright, Megan M; Gose, Severin O; Narum, David L; Smith, Joseph D

    2009-06-29

    VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36%) were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  5. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narum David L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. Methods VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. Results From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36% were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. Conclusion These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  6. [Leishmaniasis transmission focus in El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Luis Alberto

    2006-10-01

    The epidemiological characteristics and the importance of the Lutzomyia species present in a leishmaniasis focus in the village El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Department of Bolivar, Colombia, are described. To obtain a preliminary assessment of leishmaniasis transmission in the village of El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar. Epidemiological data were analyzed and sandflies were collected with CDC traps and on protected human volunteers in the village of El Hobo. Sero prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was evaluated using indirect inmunofluorescence (IFAT). Nine Lutzomyia species were collected: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L. cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri. The species of greater importance based on their implication in the transmission of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis were L. gomezi, and L. evansi respectively. Specimens of L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri are reported for the first time for the Department of Bolivar. The sero prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was 36%. According to the epidemiological records, in 2002 the municipality of Carmen de Bolivar presented a 40% increase in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and an 80% increase in canine visceral leishmaniasis as compared to 2001, due to the outbreak in the village of El Hobo. The results indicate that the village of El Hobo is an area of potential risk for transmission of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

  7. Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in men with urethritis attending an urban sexual health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, N; Bradbury, C; Chalker, V; Koh, G C K W; Smit, E; Wilson, S; Watson, J

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in men with urethritis, attending an urban sexual health clinic, in order to inform screening and treatment policies. Men attending an urban sexual health clinic between June 2011 and January 2012 were evaluated. Urine samples were collected from men with urethritis and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and TV using transcription-mediated amplification and for MG and UU using polymerase chain reaction. Eighty-three samples were analysed. The prevalence of CT was 33.7% (28/83), GC was 16.8% (14/83), TV was 3.6% (3/83), MG was 12.0% (10/83) and UU was 4.8% (4/83). Fifteen men had recurrent urethritis. Of these, three were found to have had TV, five to have had MG and none to have had UU, at initial presentation. Given the prevalence of MG in this study, there is an urgent need for further larger studies looking at optimal treatment regimens and screening strategies in urethritis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis Infections in Men With Nongonococcal Urethritis: Predictors and Persistence After Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seña, Arlene C.; Lensing, Shelly; Rompalo, Anne; Taylor, Stephanie N.; Martin, David H.; Lopez, Laureen M.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Schwebke, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). We assessed their predictors and persistence after treatment. Methods. We analyzed data from an NGU treatment trial among symptomatic heterosexual men aged 16–45 years from STI clinics. Nucleic acid amplification tests detected CT, MG, and TV at baseline and at 1 and 4 weeks after therapy. Associations between variables and STI detection were investigated. Results. Among 293 participants, 44% had CT, 31% had MG, and 13% had TV at baseline. In multivariate analysis, CT infection was associated with young age and STI contact. Young age was also associated with MG, and having ≥1 new partner was negatively associated with TV. We detected persistent CT in 12% and MG in 44% of participants at 4 weeks after therapy, which were associated with signs and symptoms of NGU. Persistent CT was detected in 23% of participants after azithromycin treatment vs 5% after doxycycline treatment (P = .011); persistent MG was detected in 68% of participants after doxycycline vs 33% after azithromycin (P = .001). All but 1 TV infection cleared after tinidazole. Conclusions. Persistent CT and MG after treatment of NGU are common, and were associated with clinical findings and drug regimen. PMID:22615318

  9. Temporal associations with declining Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosis rates among women in the state of Victoria, Australia, 1947 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, John; Fairley, Christopher K; Saville, Marian; Bradshaw, Catriona; Bowden, Francis J; Horvath, Leonie B; Donovan, Basil; Chen, Marcus; Hocking, Jane S

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the temporal associations between Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) diagnoses in women at a large urban sexual health clinic and a major Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening laboratory in Victoria, Australia with Pap smear screening rates and the introduction of nitroimidazole treatments. An ecological analysis of TV diagnosis rates at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre and the Victorian Cytology Service, Pap smear screening rates and nitroimidazole prescription data. Diagnoses of TV at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre peaked in the 1950s at 20% to 30% and then rapidly declined through the 1960s and 1970s to below 1% in 1990. A similar pattern was observed at the Victorian Cytology Service. Metronidazole prescribing and opportunistic Pap smear screening began in Victoria in the 1960s coinciding with declining TV. The availability of tinidazole in 1976 led to further declines in TV in the late 1970s. A national cervical screening program introduced in 1991 was temporally associated with further declines in TV. Our analyses suggest that the introduction of metronidazole was associated with a large reduction in TV among Victorian women in the 1960s. The subsequent availability of tinidazole and increased Pap smear screening may have contributed to the current low TV prevalence in Victoria.

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Socially-Marginalized Female Population in Coastal Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Segundo R.; Konda, Kelika A.; Bernstein, Kyle T.; Pajuelo, Jose B.; Rosasco, Ana M.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Coates, Thomas J.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among sexually active socially-marginalized women in three urban, coastal Peruvian cities was examined in order to quantify the prevalence of trichomonas infection and identify associated risk factors. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional, venue-based study of women from socially-marginalized populations in three coastal Peruvian cities. Results. Among the 319 women enrolled, the overall prevalence of trichomonal infection was 9.1% (95% CI, 5.9%–12.3%). The mean age was 26.3 years, and 35.5% reported having had unprotected intercourse with nonprimary partners and 19.8% reported two or more sex partners in the last three months. Trichomonal infection was associated with increased number of sex partners (PR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.6) and unprotected sex with nonprimary partner in the last three months (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.9). Conclusions. A moderately high prevalence of trichomonal infection was found among women in our study. Trichomonal infection was associated with unprotected sex and multiple sex partners. Efforts to control the continued spread of trichomonal infection are warranted. PMID:19584943

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis screening and treatment of pregnant women in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Mathelier, Patricia; Ocheretina, Oksana; Benoit, Daphne; Pape, Jean W; Wynn, Adriane; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-10-01

    In Haiti, routine screening for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among pregnant women is not conducted; yet these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with adverse birth and newborn health outcomes. We aimed to assess the acceptability and feasibility of screening and the prevalence of STIs among pregnant women in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Pregnant women of at least 18 years of age who attend Haitian Study Group for Kaposi's sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (GHESKIO) clinics in Port-au-Prince, Haiti provided self-collected vaginal swab specimens. Laboratory testing was done with Xpert® CT/NG and Xpert® TV. The results of this study showed that of the 322 pregnant women who visited GHESKIO for their regular scheduled appointments, 300 (93.2%) consented for CT, NG, and TV testing. Of those, 107 women (35.7%) tested positive for at least one STI. There were 42 (14.7%) cases of CT, 8 (2.8%) NG, and 83 (29.0%) TV infections. Most infections were treated - 122 of 133 (91.7%). In summary, we found that it was highly acceptable and feasible to implement CT, NG, and TV screening among pregnant women in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. We found high prevalence of STIs among pregnant women, which suggest that STI screening in this population may be warranted.

  12. Comparison of four diagnostic techniques for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in females attending tertiary care hospital of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Khatoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis causes a common sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis, which may lead to increased risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus infection and other pelvic inflammatory diseases. Wet mount examination is the most common test for diagnosis, but it has low sensitivity. Acridine orange staining can be used for diagnosis, but it requires special microscopic facility. Culture is considered as the gold standard, but it takes a long time for diagnosis. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test is a recently introduced rapid method based on immunochromatographic assay of trichomonal protein antigens. Hence, the present study was done to compare these four diagnostic techniques for detection of trichomoniasis in females with vaginal discharge. Materials and Methods: Vaginal swabs were taken from 835 female patients and wet mount examination, acridine orange staining, culture in Kupferberg medium, and OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test, were performed. Results: Out of 835 patients included in our study, 68 (8.1% positive cases of trichomoniasis were detected by culture. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test detected 63 (7.5% cases, acridine orange staining detected 53 (6.3% cases, whereas, wet mount examination detected only 45 (5.4% positive cases. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test performed well and showed high sensitivity and specificity of 88.2% and 99.6%, respectively. Conclusion: As OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test is a point of care test and gave better results than both wet mount examination and acridine orange staining; it can be used as a routine test in peripheral areas lacking laboratory facilities.

  13. An association between Trichomonas vaginalis and high-risk human papillomavirus in rural Tanzanian women undergoing cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenby, Gweneth B; Taylor, Peyton T; Badman, Barbara S; McHaki, Emil; Korte, Jeffrey E; Soper, David E; Young Pierce, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of vaginitis and its association with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) in women undergoing cervical cancer screening in rural Tanzania. For the purpose of cervical cancer screening, cytology and HR HPV polymerase chain reaction data were collected from 324 women aged between 30 and 60 years. Microscopy and gram stains were used to detect yeast and bacterial vaginosis. Cervical nucleic acid amplification test specimens were collected for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The majority of women were married (320 of 324) and reported having a single sexual partner (270 of 324); the median age of participants was 41 years. HR HPV was detected in 42 participants. Forty-seven percent of women had vaginitis. Bacterial vaginosis was the most common infection (32.4%), followed by TV (10.4%), and yeast (6.8%). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, TV was associated with an increased risk of HR HPV (odds ratio, 4.2 [95% CI, 1.7-10.3]). Patients with TV were 6.5 times more likely to have HPV type 16 than patients negative for TV (50% vs 13.3%) (odds ratio, 6.5 [95% CI, 1.1-37]). Among rural Tanzanian women who presented for cervical cancer screening, Trichomonas vaginitis was significantly associated with HR HPV infection (specifically type 16). © 2014 Published by Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.

  14. Prevalence of human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections in Amazonian women with normal and abnormal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Lira, E; Jacinto, A H V L; Silva, L M; Napoleão, P F R; Barbosa-Filho, R A A; Cruz, G J S; Astolfi-Filho, S; Borborema-Santos, C M

    2017-04-28

    Sexually transmitted infections are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women worldwide, and have been implicated as cofactors in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. We investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), and accessed the diversity of HPV in women with normal and abnormal cytology in Manaus, Brazil. We used polymerase chain reaction and HPV genotyping by direct sequencing. The chi-square test was used to calculate the absolute and relative frequencies of the categorical variables, and Fisher's test was used when P TV and CT DNA were 18.04 and 9.02% in the normal group, respectively. The percentages of HPV/TV and HPV/CT coinfection were 12.5% each in women with normal cytology. These findings improve our understanding of HPV, CT, and TV, and the distribution of HPV types, which may be relevant to vaccination strategies for protecting women from the north of Brazil from cervical cancers and precancerous lesions.

  15. Genetic characteristics of Trichomonas vaginalis%阴道毛滴虫遗传学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁丽杰; 高兴政

    2005-01-01

    阴道毛滴虫(Trichomonas vaginalis)是Donne于1836年从脓性阴道分泌物和男性泌尿生殖道分泌物中首次发现,1916年被确认为妇女滴虫性阴道炎的病原体。1957年发现了有效的治疗药物甲硝唑(metronidazole)。1962年临床首次报道阴道毛滴虫对甲硝唑具抗药性。最新资料表明,人体感染阴道毛滴虫可增加对其他性传播疾病病原体的易感性,感染免疫缺损病毒(HIV)的机率增加2~4倍,促进HIV在人群中广泛流行。阴道毛滴虫作为一种性传播疾病病原体越来越受到人们的重视。

  16. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a low-risk women attended in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norhayati Moktar; Nor Liyana Ismail; Phoy Cheng Chun; Mohamad Asyrab Sapie; Nor Farahin Abdul Kahar; Yusof Suboh; Noraina Abdul Rahim; Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail; Tengku Shahrul Anuar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the presence of trichomoniasis among women attending the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.Methods: A total of 139 high vaginal swabs were taken from the subjects and sent to the laboratory in Amies gel transport media. The specimens were examined for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis using wet mount, Giemsa staining and cultured in Diamond’s medium. Sociodemographic characteristics and gynaecological complaints were obtained in private using structured questionnaire applied by one investigator.Results: The median age was 32 years, with an interquartile interval of 9.96. Most of the subjects were Malays(76.9%) and the remaining were Chinese(15.1%), Indians(2.2%)and other ethnic groups(5.8%). One hundred and thirty eight(99.3%) of the women were married and 98.6% had less than 6 children. More than half(75.5%) of the women’s last child birth was less than 6 years ago. Forty seven percent of them were involved in supporting administrative work and 64.7% of the women gave a history of previous or current vaginal discharge.Conclusions: The present study reported zero incidence rate of trichomoniasis. The low incidence rate was postulated due to all women who participated in this study were categorized into a low-risk group.

  17. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a low-risk women attended in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norhayati Moktar; Nor Liyana Ismail; Phoy Cheng Chun; Mohamad Asyrab Sapie; Nor Farahin Abdul Kahar; Yusof Suboh; Noraina Abdul Rahim; Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail; Tengku Shahrul Anuar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the presence of trichomoniasis among women attending the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. Methods: A total of 139 high vaginal swabs were taken from the subjects and sent to the laboratory in Amies gel transport media. The specimens were examined for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis using wet mount, Giemsa staining and cultured in Diamond's medium. Sociodemographic characteristics and gynaecological complaints were obtained in private using structured questionnaire applied by one investigator. Results: The median age was 32 years, with an interquartile interval of 9.96. Most of the subjects were Malays (76.9%) and the remaining were Chinese (15.1%), Indians (2.2%) and other ethnic groups (5.8%). One hundred and thirty eight (99.3%) of the women were married and 98.6%had less than 6 children. More than half (75.5%) of the women's last child birth was less than 6 years ago. Forty seven percent of them were involved in supporting administrative work and 64.7% of the women gave a history of previous or current vaginal discharge. Conclusions: The present study reported zero incidence rate of trichomoniasis. The low incidence rate was postulated due to all women who participated in this study were categorized into a low-risk group.

  18. Trichomonas vaginalis Infection and Associated Risk Factors in a Socially-Marginalized Female Population in Coastal Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo R. Leon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among sexually active socially-marginalized women in three urban, coastal Peruvian cities was examined in order to quantify the prevalence of trichomonas infection and identify associated risk factors. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional, venue-based study of women from socially-marginalized populations in three coastal Peruvian cities. Results. Among the 319 women enrolled, the overall prevalence of trichomonal infection was 9.1% (95% CI, 5.9%–12.3%. The mean age was 26.3 years, and 35.5% reported having had unprotected intercourse with nonprimary partners and 19.8% reported two or more sex partners in the last three months. Trichomonal infection was associated with increased number of sex partners (PR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.6 and unprotected sex with nonprimary partner in the last three months (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.9. Conclusions. A moderately high prevalence of trichomonal infection was found among women in our study. Trichomonal infection was associated with unprotected sex and multiple sex partners. Efforts to control the continued spread of trichomonal infection are warranted.

  19. Gender-related differences of inguinal hernia and asymptomatic patent processus vaginalis in term and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmeier, Christine; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Schier, Felix

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the gender-related differences of inguinal hernia (IH) and patent processus vaginalis (PPV) in term and preterm infants. Over a nine-year-period 411 infants underwent laparoscopic herniorrhaphy within the first six months of life. 246 term (191 male; 55 female) and 165 preterm (118 male; 47 female) infants were included in this retrospective study. Initial presentation of IH and intraoperative anatomical findings of PPV were reviewed. We found that term boys (58.6%) and girls (58.2%) predominantly presented with right-sided IH whereas preterm boys (36.4%) and girls (44.7%) mostly presented with bilateral IH. Female babies had a higher incidence of initial left-sided IH. Term and preterm girls with initial left-sided hernia were found to have highest incidence of PPV. Male term babies with initial left-sided IH were found to have the lowest incidence of PPV (25.0%). The highest incidence of PPV in male was found in preterm boys with either left- or right-sided IH. Incidence and laterality of IH and PPV differ between term and preterm girls and boys. In open hernia repair decision concerning contralateral groin exploration should consider term/preterm birth as well as gender. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Putrescine-dependent re-localization of TvCP39, a cysteine proteinase involved in Trichomonas vaginalis cytotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Isabel Carvajal-Gamez

    Full Text Available Polyamines are involved in the regulation of some Trichomonas vaginalis virulence factors such as the transcript, proteolytic activity, and cytotoxicity of TvCP65, a cysteine proteinase (CP involved in the trichomonal cytotoxicity. In this work, we reported the putrescine effect on TvCP39, other CP that also participate in the trichomonal cytotoxicity. Parasites treated with 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB (an inhibitor of putrescine biosynthesis, diminished the amount and proteolytic activity of TvCP39 as compared with untreated parasites. Inhibition of putrescine biosynthesis also reduced ∼ 80% the tvcp39 mRNA levels according to RT-PCR and qRT-PCR assays. Additionally, actinomycin D-treatment showed that the tvcp39 mRNA half-life decreased in the absence of putrescine. However, this reduction was restored by exogenous putrescine addition, suggesting that putrescine is necessary for tvcp39 mRNA stability. TvCP39 was localized in the cytoplasm but, in DAB treated parasites transferred into exogenous putrescine culture media, TvCP39 was re-localized to the nucleus and nuclear periphery of trichomonads. Interestingly, the amount and proteolytic activity of TvCP39 was recovered as well as the tvcp39 mRNA levels were restored when putrescine exogenous was added to the DAB-treated parasites. In conclusion, our data show that putrescine regulate the TvCP39 expression, protein amount, proteolytic activity, and cellular localization.

  1. A molecular epidemiological study of var gene diversity to characterize the reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in humans in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito.We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1% var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences.Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population exists.

  2. A Molecular Epidemiological Study of var Gene Diversity to Characterize the Reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in Humans in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Smith, Terry-Ann; Peterson, Ingrid; Brown, Stuart M.; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Kortok, Moses M.; Marsh, Kevin; Daily, Johanna P.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Mboup, Souleymane; Day, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1%) var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences. Conclusions/Significance Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population

  3. A novel virus-like particle based vaccine platform displaying the placental malaria antigen VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø

    2015-01-01

    , this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA. This study demonstrates that the described Avi-L1 VLP-platform may serve as a versatile system for facilitating optimal VLP......SA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however...

  4. iVAR: a program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series using vector autoregressive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces iVAR, an R program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series on the basis of vector autoregressive (VAR) models. We conducted a simulation study to compare iVAR with three methods for handling missing data: listwise deletion, imputation with sample means and variances, and multiple imputation ignoring time dependency. The results showed that iVAR produces better estimates for the cross-lagged coefficients than do the other three methods. We demonstrate the use of iVAR with an empirical example of time series electrodermal activity data and discuss the advantages and limitations of the program.

  5. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0 ± 28.3) and (225.0 ± 21.2) µg/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0 ± 2.0) µg/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0 ± 1.0) µg/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects.

  6. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  7. [Correlation between distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms and contents of steroidal saponins of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wen-hua; Xiao, Guo-sheng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the varying pattern of the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus, was observed during the cultivation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the correlations between number of rhizospheric microorganisms and the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were also studied. The results showed that the rhizospheric microorganism source of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was rich. The distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms (soil bacteria, fungus, actinomycetes, potassium-solubilizing bacteria, inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, organic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) collected from different origin places existed significant difference (P the amount of actinomycetes > the amount of fungus. The medicinal quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was influenced by their habits, and the increase of cultivation years caused the obvious decrease of the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Therefore, the increase of cultivation years will cause the variation of the soil micro-ecology flora, and decrease the nutrient absorption and the utilization of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which will make the decrease of the medical quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  8. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  9. Phosphorylation of SU(VAR3-9 by the chromosomal kinase JIL-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Boeke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The histone methyltransferase SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role in the formation of heterochromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus. Several studies have shown that the formation of condensed chromatin is highly regulated during development, suggesting that SU(VAR3-9's activity is regulated as well. However, no mechanism by which this may be achieved has been reported so far. As we and others had shown previously that the N-terminus of SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role for its activity, we purified interaction partners from Drosophila embryo nuclear extract using as bait a GST fusion protein containing the SU(VAR3-9 N-terminus. Among several other proteins known to bind Su(VAR3-9 we isolated the chromosomal kinase JIL-1 as a strong interactor. We show that SU(VAR3-9 is a substrate for JIL-1 in vitro as well as in vivo and map the site of phosphorylation. These findings may provide a molecular explanation for the observed genetic interaction between SU(VAR3-9 and JIL-1.

  10. Molecular sensitivity threshold of wet mount and an immunochromatographic assay evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a low-risk population of childbearing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leli, Christian; Castronari, Roberto; Levorato, Lucia; Luciano, Eugenio; Pistoni, Eleonora; Perito, Stefano; Bozza, Silvia; Mencacci, Antonella

    2016-06-01

    Vaginal trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan. Diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection is mainly performed by wet mount microscopy, with a sensitivity ranging from 38% to 82%, compared to culture, still considered the gold standard. Commercial immunochromatographic tests for monoclonal-antibody-based detection have been introduced as alternative methods for diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection and have been reported in some studies to be more sensitive than wet mount. Real-time PCR methods have been recently developed, with optimal sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a molecular sensitivity threshold for both wet mount and imunochromatographic assays. To this aim, a total of 1487 low-risk childbearing women (median age 32 years, interquartile range 27-37) were included in the study, and underwent vaginal swab for T. vaginalis detection by means of a quantitative real-time PCR assay, wet mount and an immunochromatographic test. Upon comparing the results, prevalence values observed were 1.3% for real-time PCR, 0.5% for microscopic examination, and 0.8% for the immunochromatographic test. Compared to real-time PCR, wet mount sensitivity was 40% (95% confidence interval 19.1% to 63.9%) and specificity was 100% (95% CI 99.7% to 100%). The sensitivity and specificity of the immunochromatographic assay were 57.9% (95% CI 33.5% to 79.8%) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.6% to 100%), respectively. Evaluation of the wet mount results and those of immunochromatographic assay detection in relation to the number of T. vaginalis DNA copies detected in vaginal samples showed that the lower identification threshold for both wet mount (chi-square 6.1; P = 0.016) and the immunochromatographic assay (chi-square 10.7; P = 0.002) was ≥100 copies of T. vaginalis DNA/5 mcl of eluted DNA.

  11. Sporozoite Route of Infection Influences In Vitro var Gene Transcription of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites From Controlled Human Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimonte, Sandra; Bruske, Ellen I; Hass, Johanna; Supan, Christian; Salazar, Carmen L; Held, Jana; Tschan, Serena; Esen, Meral; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Koch, Iris; Berger, Jürgen; Bachmann, Anna; Sim, Betty K L; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-15

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by the multicopy var gene family. Each parasite possesses about 60 var genes, and switching between active var loci results in antigenic variation. In the current study, the effect of mosquito and host passage on in vitro var gene transcription was investigated. Thirty malaria-naive individuals were inoculated by intradermal or intravenous injection with cryopreserved, isogenic NF54 P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) generated from 1 premosquito culture. Microscopic parasitemia developed in 22 individuals, and 21 in vitro cultures were established. The var gene transcript levels were determined in early and late postpatient cultures and in the premosquito culture. At the early time point, all cultures preferentially transcribed 8 subtelomeric var genes. Intradermal infections had higher var gene transcript levels than intravenous infections and a significantly longer intrahost replication time (P = .03). At the late time point, 9 subtelomeric and 8 central var genes were transcribed at the same levels in almost all cultures. Premosquito and late postpatient cultures transcribed the same subtelomeric and central var genes, except for var2csa  The duration of intrahost replication influences in vitro var gene transcript patterns. Differences between premosquito and postpatient cultures decrease with prolonged in vitro growth. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Cloning of the Repertoire of Individual Plasmodium falciparum var Genes Using Transformation Associated Recombination (TAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christoph D.; Bühlmann, Tobias; Louis, Edward J.; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    One of the major virulence factors of the malaria causing parasite is the Plasmodium falciparum encoded erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). It is translocated to It the membrane of infected erythrocytes and expressed from approximately 60 var genes in a mutually exclusive manner. Switching of var genes allows the parasite to alter functional and antigenic properties of infected erythrocytes, to escape the immune defense and to establish chronic infections. We have developed an efficient method for isolating VAR genes from telomeric and other genome locations by adapting transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning, which can then be analyzed and sequenced. For this purpose, three plasmids each containing a homologous sequence representing the upstream regions of the group A, B, and C var genes and a sequence homologous to the conserved acidic terminal segment (ATS) of var genes were generated. Co-transfection with P. falciparum strain ITG2F6 genomic DNA in yeast cells yielded 200 TAR clones. The relative frequencies of clones from each group were not biased. Clones were screened by PCR, as well as Southern blotting, which revealed clones missed by PCR due to sequence mismatches with the primers. Selected clones were transformed into E. coli and further analyzed by RFLP and end sequencing. Physical analysis of 36 clones revealed 27 distinct types potentially representing 50% of the var gene repertoire. Three clones were selected for sequencing and assembled into single var gene containing contigs. This study demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly obtain the repertoire of var genes from P. falciparum within a single set of cloning experiments. This technique can be applied to individual isolates which will provide a detailed picture of the diversity of var genes in the field. This is a powerful tool to overcome the obstacles with cloning and assembly of multi-gene families by simultaneously cloning each member. PMID:21408186

  13. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  14. BASIC ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES of Ammannia auriculata var. arenaria (LYTHRACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define some anatomical characteristics of Ammannia auriculata Willd. var. arenaria (Kunth Koehne (Lythraceae to ensure a proper identification of the species and prevent confusion with other plants. Roots, leaves and stems of the plants were fixed in Formalin-Aceto-Alcohol (FAA, stained with various dyes, examined under a microscope and their photos were taken. The microscopic investigations of the plant parts revealed that 1 the leaf anatomy showed partly mezophyte character, the stem and roots beared aquatic characters with a wide aeranchymatic cortex and 2 thick lignified secondary xylem tissue in the roots and stems were located outwards of the stele. The results were compared with those of similar studies.

  15. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  16. Citogenética de Guazuma ulmifolia var. Ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó una metodología de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para obtener por vez primera el cariotipo somático de una población de Guazuma ulmifolia var. ulmifolia. El número cromosómico diploide 2n = 16 obtenido a partir de meristemos radiculares confirma recuentos anteriores. La fórmula cariotípica fue 14m + 2st con una ligera asimetría (T.F.% = 42,19. La longitud cromosómica total haploide fue de 11,65 µm con un intervalo cromosómico de 1,11 - 2,05 µm. Los organizadores nucleolares asociados a constricciones secundarias ubicados en el par 3 (m y el polimorfismo que exhibe el par 8 (st pueden ser empleados como marcadores citogenéticos en futuros estudios de otras especies y variedades del género.

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferro, M.A.; Prina, A.R.; Moscone, E.A.; Kwasniewska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  18. Forecasting Macedonian Business Cycle Turning Points Using Qual Var Model

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    Petrovska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the usefulness of leading indicators in business cycle research and forecast. Initially we test the predictive power of the economic sentiment indicator (ESI within a static probit model as a leading indicator, commonly perceived to be able to provide a reliable summary of the current economic conditions. We further proceed analyzing how well an extended set of indicators performs in forecasting turning points of the Macedonian business cycle by employing the Qual VAR approach of Dueker (2005. In continuation, we evaluate the quality of the selected indicators in pseudo-out-of-sample context. The results show that the use of survey-based indicators as a complement to macroeconomic data work satisfactory well in capturing the business cycle developments in Macedonia.

  19. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  20. Solidification Mapping of a Nickel Alloy 718 Laboratory VAR Ingot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Trevor J.; Taleff, Eric M.; Lopez, Felipe; Beaman, Joe; Williamson, Rodney

    The solidification microstructure of a laboratory-scale Nickel alloy 718 vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingot was analyzed. The cylindrical, 210-mm-diameter ingot was sectioned along a plane bisecting it length-wise, and this mid-plane surface was ground and etched using Canada's reagent to reveal segregation contrast. Over 350 photographs were taken of the etched mid-plane surface and stitched together to form a single mosaic image. Image data in the resulting mosaic were processed using a variety of algorithms to extract quantities such as primary dendrite orientation, primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) as a function of location. These quantities were used to calculate pool shape and solidification rate during solidification using existing empirical relationships for Nickel Alloy 718. The details and outcomes of this approach, along with the resulting comparison to experimental processing conditions and computational models, are presented.

  1. Causes and prevention countermeasures of Trichomonas vaginalis infections%阴道毛滴虫感染因素分析及预防对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮雅文

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析阴道毛滴虫感染的相关因素,并总结预防对策.方法 选择2011年5月-2012年5月在医院妇科门诊就诊的486例成年女性,用生理盐水涂片法检查阴道毛滴虫感染情况,对所有女性的年龄、就诊季节、婚姻状况、职业、卫生习惯等进行统计分析.结果 所检测的486份标本中,阴道毛滴虫阳性有42份,阳性率为8.6%;36~40岁的女性感染率阴道毛滴虫的概率最高,为13.8%;春季的感染率最高,为13.1%;已婚女性感染率明显高于未婚女性,已婚女性感染率为10.4%;从事农业的女性感染阴道毛滴虫的概率高于其他职业,为15.1%;经常清洁外阴的女性感染率要明显低于其他女性,为5.7%.结论 阴道毛滴虫感染与年龄、季节、婚姻状况、职业、卫生习惯等各方面因素有着密切关系,要预防阴道毛滴虫的感染,必须要注意几个因素的影响,综合进行预防阴道毛滴虫感染.%OBJECTIVE To analyze the related factors for Trichomonas vaginalis infections and summarize the preventive countermeasures. METHODS A total of 486 female adults were selected from gynecological clinic of the hospital from May, 2011 to May, 2012. The status of T. vaginalis infections was investigated with normal saline smear method, then the statistical analysis of the age, medical season, marital status, occupation, and health habits of the female adults was performed. RESULTS There were 42 cases of T. vaginalis positive patients in 486 specimens, and the positive rate was 8. 6%. The female adults aged between 36 and 40 years were the with highest probability of T. vaginalis infections, which was 13. 8% . The incidence of the infections was the highest in the spring. The infection rate of married women was significantly higher than the unmarried women. The infection rate of the fanners was higher than that of other occupations. The infection rate of the female adults who often cleaned the female

  2. [Investigation of the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among female Syrian refugees with the complaints of vaginitis aged between 15-49 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yentür Doni, Nebiye; Aksoy, Mustafa; Şimşek, Zeynep; Gürses, Gülcan; Hilali, Neşe Gül; Yıldız Zeyrek, Fadile; Özek, Behire; Yıldırımkaya, Gökhan

    2016-10-01

    Since the Syrian civil war began in 2011, most of the Syrian refugees have immigrated to Turkey due to its open gate policy and the width of the border. By the end of 2015, it was estimated that there were 2.5 million Syrian refugees in Turkey. Many of the Syrian refugees live in Sanliurfa due to its location on the border with Syria. Trichomonas vaginalis, apart from viral agents is the most common parasite among sexually transmitted infection agents. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of T.vaginalis among female married Syrian refugees living outside of the camps in Sanliurfa city center, aged between 15-49 years with complaints of vaginitis. This multi-purpose survey was carried out between February and March of 2015, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and Harran University. This study was approved under the heading of "General Health Status of Female Syrian Refugees" by the Ethics Committee of Harran University Faculty of Medicine. A total of 460 Syrian refugees house were selected using the probability cluster sampling method, with a 95% confidence level and a 5% confidence interval with a design effect. Two women refused to participate in the study, and the response rate was 99.6%. Two Syrian nurses, one laboratory technician, and one interpreter who knew Kurdish and Arabic were hired for the field survey. A structured questionnaire written in Turkish was translated to Arabic and used to collect the sociodemographic data during face to face interviews. According to the questionnaire data, the women with the complaints of vaginal discharge, unusual vaginal bleeding and/or dyspareunia were invited to the Gynecology Department of Harran University Research and Training Hospital for a medical examination. During gynecological examination, swab samples obtained from posterior fornix were evaluated by direct microscopy and Giemsa staining methods for the presence of T.vaginalis trophozoites. Of 458 women who have

  3. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-10-23

    Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  4. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  5. Positive selection of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with multiple var2csa-type PfEMP1 genes during the course of infection in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F; Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    multiple genes coding for different VAR2CSA proteins, and parasites with >1 var2csa gene appear to be more common in pregnant women with placental malaria than in nonpregnant individuals. We present evidence that, in pregnant women, parasites containing multiple var2csa-type genes possess a selective...... advantage over parasites with a single var2csa gene. Accumulation of parasites with multiple copies of the var2csa gene during the course of pregnancy was also correlated with the development of antibodies involved in blocking VAR2CSA adhesion. The data suggest that multiplicity of var2csa-type genes...

  6. Occurrence of pathotypes of Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella (Jones Boerema in the Olsztyn district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The causal agents of leaves and pods spot-pot of peas and field peas in the Olsztyn district was the fungus Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Investigated isolates of P. medicaginis var. pinodella differed by macroscopic and microscopic features. From diseases leaves and pods of peas and field peas obtained also saprophytic fungi among which Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens, Stemphylium botryosum, Sordaria fimicola and mycelia sterilia were dominated. In the study on the identification and distribution of pathotypes of P. medicaginis var. pinodella six pathotypes were identified among which pathotype 3 were dominated. The identified pathotypes differed by macroscopic and microscopic features.

  7. Application of superconducting coils to VAR control in electric power systems: a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1979-11-01

    During the last eight years, static VAR-control systems with thyristor-controlled, room-temperature reactors have been used in electrical systems for voltage control and system stabilization. In this proposal, we describe a new static VAR-control system that uses an asymmetrically controlled Graetz bridge and a superconducting dc coil. Preliminary studies indicate that the proposed system will have lower overall losses and that its capital cost and electrical characteristics are comparable to those of a conventional system. Three- and four-year programs for developing the electronic circuitry and superconducting coils for VAR control, culminating in the installation and testing of an approx. 40-MVAR system, are proposed

  8. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesion antigen family are major contributors to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria infections. The PfEMP1-encoding var genes are among the most diverse sequences in nature, but three genes......, var1, var2csa and var3 are found conserved in most parasite genomes. The most severe forms of malaria disease are caused by parasites expressing a subset of antigenically conserved PfEMP1 variants. Thus the ubiquitous and conserved VAR3 PfEMP1 is of particular interest to the research field. Evidence...... of VAR3 expression on the infected erythrocyte surface has never been presented, and var3 genes have been proposed to be transcribed and expressed differently from the rest of the var gene family members. METHODS: In this study, parasites expressing VAR3 PfEMP1 were generated using anti-VAR3 antibodies...

  9. Proliferation of Prostate Stromal Cell Induced by Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Epithelial Cell Stimulated With Trichomonas vaginalis via Crosstalk With Mast Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Su; Han, Ik-Hwan; Sim, Seobo; Ahn, Myoung-Hee; Ryu, Jae-Sook

    2016-11-01

    Chronic inflammation has a role in the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Mast cells have been detected in chronic inflammatory infiltrate of the prostate, and it is possible that the interaction between prostate epithelial cells and Trichomonas vaginalis influences the activity of mast cells in the prostate stroma. Activated mast cells might influence the biological functions of nearby tissues and cells. In this study, we investigated whether mast cells reacted with the culture supernatant of BPH epithelial cells infected with T. vaginalis may induce the proliferation of prostate stromal cells. To measure the proliferation of prostate stromal cells in response to chronic inflammation caused by the infection of BPH-1 cells with T. vaginalis, the CCK-8 assay and wound healing assay were used. ELISAs, quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to measure the production and expression of inflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor. BPH-1 cells incubated with live trichomonads produced increased levels of CCL2, IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL8, and induced the migration of mast cells and monocytes. When the culture supernatant of BPH-1 cells stimulated with trichomonads (TCM) was added to mast cells, they became activated, as confirmed by release of β-hexosaminidase and CXCL8. Prostate stromal cells incubated with the culture supernatant of mast cells activated with TCM (M-TCM) proliferated and expressed increased levels of CXCL8, CCL2, and the cytokine receptors CXCR1 and CCR2. Blocking the chemokine receptors reduced the proliferation of stromal cells and also decreased the production of CXCL8 and CCL2. Moreover, the expression of FGF2, cyclin D1, and Bcl-2 was increased in the proliferated stromal cells stimulated with M-TCM. Additionally, the M-TCM-treated stromal cells were more invasive than control cells. The inflammatory mediators released by BPH epithelial cells in response to infection by

  10. The study of laboratory diagnosis on trichomonas vaginalis infection%阴道毛滴虫的实验诊断研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向华国; 熊礼宽; 涂植光

    2006-01-01

    阴道毛滴虫(trichomonas vaginalis,TV)感染是一种十分常见的性传播疾病.人群普遍易感,除引起泌尿生殖道感染外,还是增加HIV感染和诱发宫颈癌的危险因素之一.因此,TV早期诊断十分重要,其能有效减少TV的传播.然而,其早期诊断主要靠实验诊断,包括病原学、免疫学、分子生物学等.

  11. Population-based Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis Prevalence Using Discarded, Deidentified Urine Specimens Previously Collected for Drug Testing (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-24

    trichomonas vaginalis testing, Melinda Balansay-ames, chris Myers and gary Brice for Pcr- based sex determination testing, and Kimberly De Vera for...2017-053355 rEFErEnCEs 1 torrone e , Papp J, Weinstock H. centers for Disease control and Prevention (cDc). Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital...infection among persons aged 14-39 years-United States, 2007-2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2014;63:834–7. 2 rietmeijer ca, Hopkins e , geisler WM