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Sample records for vagal af substrate

  1. Pulmonary vein region ablation in experimental vagal atrial fibrillation: role of pulmonary veins versus autonomic ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Kristina; Chartier, Denis; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Dubuc, Marc; Cartier, Raymond; Armour, Andrew; Ting, Michael; Sakabe, Masao; Shiroshita-Takeshita, Akiko; Comtois, Philippe; Nattel, Stanley

    2008-01-29

    Pulmonary vein (PV) -encircling radiofrequency ablation frequently is effective in vagal atrial fibrillation (AF), and there is evidence that PVs may be particularly prone to cholinergically induced arrhythmia mechanisms. However, PV ablation procedures also can affect intracardiac autonomic ganglia. The present study examined the relative role of PVs versus peri-PV autonomic ganglia in an experimental vagal AF model. Cholinergic AF was studied under carbachol infusion in coronary perfused canine left atrial PV preparations in vitro and with cervical vagal stimulation in vivo. Carbachol caused dose-dependent AF promotion in vitro, which was not affected by excision of all PVs. Sustained AF could be induced easily in all dogs during vagal nerve stimulation in vivo both before and after isolation of all PVs with encircling lesions created by a bipolar radiofrequency ablation clamp device. PV elimination had no effect on atrial effective refractory period or its responses to cholinergic stimulation. Autonomic ganglia were identified by bradycardic and/or tachycardic responses to high-frequency subthreshold local stimulation. Ablation of the autonomic ganglia overlying all PV ostia suppressed the effective refractory period-abbreviating and AF-promoting effects of cervical vagal stimulation, whereas ablation of only left- or right-sided PV ostial ganglia failed to suppress AF. Dominant-frequency analysis suggested that the success of ablation in suppressing vagal AF depended on the elimination of high-frequency driver regions. Intact PVs are not needed for maintenance of experimental cholinergic AF. Ablation of the autonomic ganglia at the base of the PVs suppresses vagal responses and may contribute to the effectiveness of PV-directed ablation procedures in vagal AF.

  2. Malignant vagal paraganglioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Camilla S; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise S

    2003-01-01

    Approximately 20 cases of malignant vagal paragangliomas (MVP)have been reported in English literature. Malignancy is based on the presence of metastases. A careful preoperative evaluation is necessary to detect multicentricity and/or significant production of catecholamines. A new case of MVP...... treated with embolization and surgery is presented and the literature discussed. It is concluded, that preoperative embolization followed by radical surgical resection is a rational treatment of patients with unilateral MVP....

  3. Vagal stimulation in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ferrari, Gaetano M

    2014-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is accompanied by an autonomic imbalance that is almost always characterized by both increased sympathetic activity and withdrawal of vagal activity. Experimentally, vagal stimulation has been shown to exert profound antiarrhythmic activity and to improve cardiac function and survival in HF models. A open-label pilot clinical study in 32 patients with chronic HF has shown safety and tolerability of chronic vagal stimulation associated with subjective (improved quality of life and 6-min walk test) and objective improvements (reduced left ventricular systolic volumes and improved left ventricular ejection fraction). Three larger clinical studies, including a phase III trial are currently ongoing and will evaluate the clinical role of this new approach.

  4. Therapeutic effects of selective atrioventricular node vagal stimulation in atrial fibrillation and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhua; Popović, Zoran B; Kusunose, Kenya; Mazgalev, Todor N

    2013-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) frequently coexist. We have previously demonstrated that selective atrioventricular node (AVN) vagal stimulation (AVN-VS) can be used to control ventricular rate during AF. Due to withdrawal of vagal activity in HF, the therapeutic effects of AVN-VS may be compromised in the combined condition of AF and HF. Accordingly, this study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of AVN-VS to control ventricular rate in AF and HF. A combined model of AF and HF was created by implanting a dual chamber pacemaker in 24 dogs. A newly designed bipolar electrode was inserted into the ganglionic AVN fat pad and connected to a nerve stimulator for delivering AVN-VS. In all dogs, HF was induced by high rate ventricular pacing at 220 bpm for 4 weeks. AF was then induced and maintained by rapid atrial pacing at 600 bpm after discontinuation of ventricular pacing. These HF + AF dogs were randomized into control (n = 9) and AVN-VS (n = 15) groups. In the latter group, vagal stimulation (310 μs, 20 Hz, 3-7 mA) was delivered continuously for 6 months. Compared with the control, AVN-VS had a consistent effect on ventricular rate slowing (by >50 bpm, all P AVN-VS was well tolerated by the treated animals. AVN-VS achieved consistent rate slowing, which was associated with improved ventricular function in a canine AF and HF model. Thus, AVN-VS may be a novel, effective therapeutic option in the combined condition of AF and HF. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Vagal gustatory reflex circuits for intraoral food sorting behavior in the goldfish: cellular organization and neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Takanori; Ogura, Tatsuya; Finger, Thomas E

    2009-09-20

    The sense of taste is crucial in an animal's determination as to what is edible and what is not. This gustatory function is especially important in goldfish, who utilize a sophisticated oropharyngeal sorting mechanism to separate food from substrate material. The computational aspects of this detection are carried out by the medullary vagal lobe, which is a large, laminated structure combining elements of both the gustatory nucleus of the solitary tract and the nucleus ambiguus. The sensory layers of the vagal lobe are coupled to the motor layers via a simple reflex arc. Details of this reflex circuit were investigated with histology and calcium imaging. Biocytin injections into the motor layer labeled vagal reflex interneurons that have radially directed dendrites ramifying within the layers of primary afferent terminals. Axons of reflex interneurons extend radially inward to terminate onto both vagal motoneurons and small, GABAergic interneurons in the motor layer. Functional imaging shows increases in intracellular Ca++ of vagal motoneurons following electrical stimulation in the sensory layer. These responses were suppressed under Ca(++)-free conditions and by interruption of the axons bridging between the sensory and motor layers. Pharmacological experiments showed that glutamate acting via (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy- 5-ethylisoxazole-4-propioinc acid (AMPA)/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors mediate neurotransmission between reflex interneurons and vagal motoneurons. Thus, the vagal gustatory portion of the viscerosensory complex is linked to branchiomotor neurons of the pharynx via a glutamatergic interneuronal system.

  6. Vagal gustatory reflex circuits for intraoral food sorting behavior in the goldfish Cellular organization and neurotransmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, Takanori; Ogura, Tatsuya; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The sense of taste is crucial in an animal’s determination as to what is edible and what is not. This gustatory function is especially important in goldfish who utilize a sophisticated oropharyngeal sorting mechanism to separate food from substrate material. The computational aspects of this detection are carried out by the medullary vagal lobe which is a large, laminated structure combining elements of both the gustatory nucleus of the solitary tract and the nucleus ambiguus. The sensory layers of the vagal lobe are coupled to the motor layers via a simple reflex arc. Details of this reflex circuit were investigated with histology and calcium imaging. Biocytin injections into the motor layer labeled vagal reflex interneurons which have radially-directed dendrites ramifying within the layers of primary afferent terminals. Axons of reflex interneurons extend radially inward to terminate onto both vagal motoneurons and small, GABAergic interneurons in the motor layer. Functional imaging shows increases in intracellular Ca++ of vagal motoneurons following electrical stimulation in the sensory layer. These responses were suppressed under Ca++-free conditions and by interruption of the axons bridging between the sensory and motor layers. Pharmacological experiments showed that glutamate acting via (±)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-ethylisoxazole-4-propioinc acid (AMPA)/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors mediates neurotransmission between reflex interneurons and vagal motoneurons. Thus the vagal gustatory portion of the viscerosensory complex is linked to branchiomotor neurons of the pharynx via a glutamatergic interneuronal system. PMID:19598285

  7. Vagal Blocking for Obesity Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Helene; Revesz, David; Kodama, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    : VBLOC reduced body weight and food intake, which was associated with increased satiety but not with decreased hunger. Brain activities in response to VBLOC included increased gene expression of leptin and CCKb receptors, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor, and transforming growth factor β1......BACKGROUND: Recently, the US FDA has approved "vagal blocking therapy or vBLoc® therapy" as a new treatment for obesity. The aim of the present study was to study the mechanism-of-action of "VBLOC" in rat models. METHODS: Rats were implanted with VBLOC, an intra-abdominal electrical device...... with leads placed around gastric vagal trunks through an abdominal incision and controlled by wireless device. Body weight, food intake, hunger/satiety, and metabolic parameters were monitored by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system. Brain-gut responses were analyzed physiologically. RESULTS...

  8. Fremtidssikring af kloaknet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2008-01-01

    Beskrivelse af hvordan man ved udbygning af eksisterende kloaknet og ved nytænkning af planlægning af nye bydele kan sikre sig langsigtet mod konsekvenserne af klimaændinger og kraftigere nedbør...

  9. Police work stressors and cardiac vagal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Michael E; Violanti, John M; Gu, Ja K; Fekedulegn, Desta; Li, Shengqiao; Hartley, Tara A; Charles, Luenda E; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Miller, Diane B; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2017-09-10

    This study examines relationships between the frequency and intensity of police work stressors and cardiac vagal control, estimated using the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV). This is a cross-sectional study of 360 officers from the Buffalo New York Police Department. Police stress was measured using the Spielberger police stress survey, which includes exposure indices created as the product of the self-evaluation of how stressful certain events were and the self-reported frequency with which they occurred. Vagal control was estimated using the high frequency component of resting HRV calculated in units of milliseconds squared and reported in natural log scale. Associations between police work stressors and vagal control were examined using linear regression for significance testing and analysis of covariance for descriptive purposes, stratified by gender, and adjusted for age and race/ethnicity. There were no significant associations between police work stressor exposure indices and vagal control among men. Among women, the inverse associations between the lack of support stressor exposure and vagal control were statistically significant in adjusted models for indices of exposure over the past year (lowest stressor quartile: M = 5.57, 95% CI 5.07 to 6.08, and highest stressor quartile: M = 5.02, 95% CI 4.54 to 5.51, test of association from continuous linear regression of vagal control on lack of support stressor β = -0.273, P = .04). This study supports an inverse association between lack of organizational support and vagal control among female but not male police officers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. AF Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    AF Bands Air Force Band Recordings Air National Guard Band of the Midwest Air National Guard Band of U.S. Air Force Bands U.S. Air Force Heartland of America Band U.S. Air Force Heritage of America Band U.S. Air Forces in Europe Band US Air Forces Central Command Band Medical 42d Medical Group 59th

  11. Vagal stimulation targets select populations of intrinsic cardiac neurons to control neurally induced atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavatian, Siamak; Beaumont, Eric; Longpré, Jean-Philippe; Armour, J Andrew; Vinet, Alain; Jacquemet, Vincent; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-01

    Mediastinal nerve stimulation (MNS) reproducibly evokes atrial fibrillation (AF) by excessive and heterogeneous activation of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons. This study evaluated whether preemptive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) impacts MNS-induced evoked changes in IC neural network activity to thereby alter susceptibility to AF. IC neuronal activity in the right atrial ganglionated plexus was directly recorded in anesthetized canines (n = 8) using a linear microelectrode array concomitant with right atrial electrical activity in response to: 1) epicardial touch or great vessel occlusion vs. 2) stellate or vagal stimulation. From these stressors, post hoc analysis (based on the Skellam distribution) defined IC neurons so recorded as afferent, efferent, or convergent (afferent and efferent inputs) local circuit neurons (LCN). The capacity of right-sided MNS to modify IC activity in the induction of AF was determined before and after preemptive right (RCV)- vs. left (LCV)-sided VNS (15 Hz, 500 μs; 1.2× bradycardia threshold). Neuronal (n = 89) activity at baseline (0.11 ± 0.29 Hz) increased during MNS-induced AF (0.51 ± 1.30 Hz; P neuronal synchrony increased during neurally induced AF, a local neural network response mitigated by preemptive VNS. These antiarrhythmic effects persisted post-VNS for, on average, 26 min. In conclusion, VNS preferentially targets convergent LCNs and their interactive coherence to mitigate the potential for neurally induced AF. The antiarrhythmic properties imposed by VNS exhibit memory. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Energirenovering af parcelhuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm, Søren

    af de tre huse består i efterisolering af lofter op til 300 mm, udskiftning af almindelige termoruder til energiruder, og installation af solvarmeanlæg til produktion af varmt brugsvand. I de tre huse er der ved energirenoveringen opnået en reduktion af energiforbruget på 16-22 procent. Rapporten...

  13. Anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2003-01-01

    Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"......Resume af By og Byg Anvisning 207 om anvendelse af alternative isoleringsmaterialer, udarbejdet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut under udviklingsprogrammet "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  14. Asystole Following Profound Vagal Stimulation During Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Asystole in a non laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery following intense vagal stimulation is a rare event. This case report highlights the need for awareness of such a complication when a thoracic epidural anaesthetic has been given in addition to a general anaesthetic for an upper abdominal procedure. A combined thoracic epidural and general anaesthetic was given. The anterior abdominal wall was retracted forty minutes after administration of the epidural bolus. This maneuver resulted in a profound vagal response with bradycardia and asystole. The patient was resuscitated successfully with a cardiac massage, atropine and adrenaline and the surgery was resumed. Surgery lasted eleven hours and was uneventful.

  15. Vagal stimulation targets select populations of intrinsic cardiac neurons to control neurally induced atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavatian, Siamak; Beaumont, Eric; Longpré, Jean-Philippe; Armour, J. Andrew; Vinet, Alain; Jacquemet, Vincent; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2016-01-01

    Mediastinal nerve stimulation (MNS) reproducibly evokes atrial fibrillation (AF) by excessive and heterogeneous activation of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons. This study evaluated whether preemptive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) impacts MNS-induced evoked changes in IC neural network activity to thereby alter susceptibility to AF. IC neuronal activity in the right atrial ganglionated plexus was directly recorded in anesthetized canines (n = 8) using a linear microelectrode array concomitant with right atrial electrical activity in response to: 1) epicardial touch or great vessel occlusion vs. 2) stellate or vagal stimulation. From these stressors, post hoc analysis (based on the Skellam distribution) defined IC neurons so recorded as afferent, efferent, or convergent (afferent and efferent inputs) local circuit neurons (LCN). The capacity of right-sided MNS to modify IC activity in the induction of AF was determined before and after preemptive right (RCV)- vs. left (LCV)-sided VNS (15 Hz, 500 μs; 1.2× bradycardia threshold). Neuronal (n = 89) activity at baseline (0.11 ± 0.29 Hz) increased during MNS-induced AF (0.51 ± 1.30 Hz; P < 0.001). Convergent LCNs were preferentially activated by MNS. Preemptive RCV reduced MNS-induced changes in LCN activity (by 70%) while mitigating MNS-induced AF (by 75%). Preemptive LCV reduced LCN activity by 60% while mitigating AF potential by 40%. IC neuronal synchrony increased during neurally induced AF, a local neural network response mitigated by preemptive VNS. These antiarrhythmic effects persisted post-VNS for, on average, 26 min. In conclusion, VNS preferentially targets convergent LCNs and their interactive coherence to mitigate the potential for neurally induced AF. The antiarrhythmic properties imposed by VNS exhibit memory. PMID:27591222

  16. Withdrawal and restoration of central vagal afferents within the dorsal vagal complex following subdiaphragmatic vagotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, James H; Gallaher, Zachary R; Ryu, Vitaly; Czaja, Krzysztof

    2013-10-15

    Vagotomy, a severing of the peripheral axons of the vagus nerve, has been extensively utilized to determine the role of vagal afferents in viscerosensory signaling. Vagotomy is also an unavoidable component of some bariatric surgeries. Although it is known that peripheral axons of the vagus nerve degenerate and then regenerate to a limited extent following vagotomy, very little is known about the response of central vagal afferents in the dorsal vagal complex to this type of damage. We tested the hypothesis that vagotomy results in the transient withdrawal of central vagal afferent terminals from their primary central target, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Sprague-Dawley rats underwent bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy and were sacrificed 10, 30, or 60 days later. Plastic changes in vagal afferent fibers and synapses were investigated at the morphological and functional levels by using a combination of an anterograde tracer, synapse-specific markers, and patch-clamp electrophysiology in horizontal brain sections. Morphological data revealed that numbers of vagal afferent fibers and synapses in the NTS were significantly reduced 10 days following vagotomy and were restored to control levels by 30 days and 60 days, respectively. Electrophysiology revealed transient decreases in spontaneous glutamate release, glutamate release probability, and the number of primary afferent inputs. Our results demonstrate that subdiaphragmatic vagotomy triggers transient withdrawal and remodeling of central vagal afferent terminals in the NTS. The observed vagotomy-induced plasticity within this key feeding center of the brain may be partially responsible for the response of bariatric patients following gastric bypass surgery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Clonidine, an alpha2-receptor agonist, diminishes GABAergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Kerry E; Bateman, Ryan J; Mendelowitz, David

    2010-08-06

    In hypertension, there is an autonomic imbalance in which sympathetic activity dominates over parasympathetic control. Parasympathetic activity to the heart originates from cardiac vagal neurons located in the nucleus ambiguus. Presympathetic neurons that project to sympathetic neurons in the spinal cord are located in the ventral brainstem in close proximity to cardiac vagal neurons, and many of these presympathetic neurons are catecholaminergic. In addition to their projection to the spinal cord, many of these presympathetic neurons have axon collaterals that arborize into neighboring cardiorespiratory locations and likely release norepinephrine onto nearby neurons. Activation of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors in the central nervous system evokes a diverse range of physiological effects, including reducing blood pressure. This study tests whether clonidine, an alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist, alters excitatory glutamatergic, and/or inhibitory GABAergic or glycinergic synaptic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus. Cardiac vagal neurons were identified in an in vitro brainstem slice preparation, and synaptic events were recording using whole cell voltage clamp methodologies. Clonidine significantly inhibited GABAergic neurotransmission but had no effect on glycinergic or glutamatergic pathways to cardiac vagal neurons. This diminished inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons would increase parasympathetic activity to the heart, decreasing heart rate and blood pressure. The results presented here provide a cellular substrate for the clinical use of clonidine as a treatment for hypertension as well as a role in alleviating posttraumatic stress disorder by evoking an increase in parasympathetic cardiac vagal activity, and a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vagal tone during infant contingency learning and its disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2016-04-01

    This study used contingency learning to examine changes in infants' vagal tone during learning and its disruption. The heart rate of 160 five-month-old infants was recorded continuously during the first of two training sessions as they experienced an audiovisual event contingent on their pulling. Maternal reports of infant temperament were also collected. Baseline vagal tone, a measure of parasympathetic regulation of the heart, was related to vagal levels during the infants' contingency learning session, but not to their learner status. Vagal tone levels did not vary significantly over session minutes. Instead, vagal tone levels were a function of both individual differences in learner status and infant soothability. Vagal levels of infants who learned in the initial session were similar regardless of their soothability; however, vagal levels of infants who learned in a subsequent session differed as a function of soothability. Additionally, vagal levels during contingency disruption were significantly higher among infants in this group who were more soothable as opposed to those who were less soothable. The results suggest that contingency learning and disruption is associated with stable vagal tone in the majority of infants, but that individual differences in attention processes and state associated with vagal tone may be most readily observed during the disruption phase. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Restaurering af Skjern Å

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, K.; Boysen Larsen, B.; Bundgaard, P.

    Denne rapport indeholder resultaterne af den natur- og miljøovervågning, der blev iværksat som en del af naturgenopretningen af Skjern Å 1999-2002. Ved projektet ophørte den kunstige afvanding af den vestlige del af Skjern Å dalen. Størstedelen af de dyrkede arealer ændredes til ekstensive græsni...

  20. Vagal withdrawal during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Schulze, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are at risk of developing cardiorespiratory complications, but the mechanism is still unknown. Treatment with metoprolol 2 h before the endoscopy has been shown to decrease the incidence of myocardial ischaemia......: The existence of a defence-like reaction ('vagal withdrawal') during ERCP has been shown. Metoprolol given 2 h before the procedure did not affect the occurrence of this phenomenon. The interaction of other periendoscopic factors is still unclear and should be studied further....

  1. 6 belysninger af vejledning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Helle Mary; Jessing, Carla Tønder; Nymann, Anette

    Artiklerne belyser vejledning af unge og vejledning af voksne. I relation til unge drejer det sig om: 1. vejledning af unge med vanskeligheder i forhold til uddannelse - her unge med særlige vejledningsbehov, og mentorordninger for unge, og 2. vejledning af unge i ungdomsuddannelser og i erhvervs...

  2. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  3. Lyden-af-Leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform.......Præsentation af seniorforsker-projekt Lyden-af-Leg i et traderingsperspektiv og med indledende fokus på YouTube som traderings-platform....

  4. Energirenovering af Sems Have

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Østergaard; Rose, Jørgen; Mørck, Ove

    Nærværende rapport udgør en del af afrapporteringen af PSO ELFORSK projektet Vejledning for energirenovering af boligblokke til lavenergiklasse 2015 og 2020. Arbejdet har været finansieret af PSO midler via ELFORSK, projekt: 347-023. Formålet med projektet er at udvikle en vejledning for dybtgående...

  5. Energirenovering af Traneparken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Mørck, Ove

    Nærværende rapport udgør en del af afrapporteringen af PSO ELFORSK projektet Vejledning for energirenovering af boligblokke til lavenergiklasse 2015 og 2020. Arbejdet har været finansieret af PSO midler via ELFORSK, projekt: 347-023. Formålet med projektet er at udvikle en vejledning for dybtgående...

  6. Beregning af nitratudvaskning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    I forbindelse med kommunalreformen ønskes en ensartet forvaltning af reglerne for vurdering af virkninger på miljøet (VVM) ved ansøgninger om udvidelse af husdyrbrug, herunder beregning af nitratudvaskningen. Rapporten foreslår et beregningskoncept, der bygger på den ansøgende bedrifts samlede kv...

  7. Transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation modulates cardiac vagal tone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, C; Brock, B; Aziz, Q

    2017-01-01

    -VNS, there was an increase in cardiac vagal tone and a reduction in tumor necrosis factor-α in comparison to baseline. No change was seen in blood pressure, cardiac sympathetic index or other cytokines. These preliminary data suggest that t-VNS exerts an autonomic and a subtle antitumor necrosis factor-α effect, which...

  8. Moderate Baseline Vagal Tone Predicts Greater Prosociality in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G.; Kahle, Sarah; Hastings, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Vagal tone is widely believed to be an important physiological aspect of emotion regulation and associated positive behaviors. However, there is inconsistent evidence for relations between children’s baseline vagal tone and their helpful or prosocial responses to others (Hastings & Miller, 2014). Recent work in adults suggests a quadratic association (inverted U-shape curve) between baseline vagal tone and prosociality (Kogan et al., 2014). The present research examined whether this nonlinear association was evident in children. We found consistent evidence for a quadratic relation between vagal tone and prosociality across 3 samples of children using 6 different measures. Compared to low and high vagal tone, moderate vagal tone in early childhood concurrently predicted greater self-reported prosociality (Study 1), observed empathic concern in response to the distress of others and greater generosity toward less fortunate peers (Study 2), and longitudinally predicted greater self-, mother-, and teacher-reported prosociality 5.5 years later in middle childhood (Study 3). Taken together, our findings suggest that moderate vagal tone at rest represents a physiological preparedness or tendency to engage in different forms of prosociality across different contexts. Early moderate vagal tone may reflect an optimal balance of regulation and arousal that helps prepare children to sympathize, comfort, and share with others. PMID:27819463

  9. Lyden af musik - er lyden af idealisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigtved, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Programartiklen til Det Ny Teaters opsætning af Rodgers & Hammersteins The Sound of Music, undersøger musicalgenrens - og især de konkrete ophavsmænds- affinitet til fremstillingen af såvel idealistiske som ideologiske universer.......Programartiklen til Det Ny Teaters opsætning af Rodgers & Hammersteins The Sound of Music, undersøger musicalgenrens - og især de konkrete ophavsmænds- affinitet til fremstillingen af såvel idealistiske som ideologiske universer....

  10. Styring af kommunal digitalisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Digitalisering af både interne arbejdsprocesser og kommunikation med borgere og virksomheder har længe været en vigtig faktor i moderniseringen af den offentlige sektor. Derfor er der stort fokus på styring af digitaliseringen. Denne artikel undersøger, dels hvordan digitaliseringen i den kommunale...... sektor styres, og dels hvilke styringsparadigmer der kan identificeres. Med udgangspunkt i en konkret kommune analyseres styringen af digitalisering gennem et hierarki af offentlige digitaliseringsstrategier. Gennem udvikling af en helt ny form for organisering, en såkaldt Digitaliseringsforening...

  11. Skoling af lyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    På baggrund af interview med tre elevgenerationer fremanalyseres skolens virkningsfuldhed i skoling af lyst i et historisk perspektiv. I afhandlingen udvikles to teoretisk-analytiske optikker: Skolen som ideologisk rum - med inspiration fra Slavoj Zizeks ideologikritik, samt Skolen som affektivt...

  12. Om distributionen af hvidhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i John Fords Western, Forfølgeren fra 1956, præsenteres en analyse af repræsentationer af race og overskridelse af raceskel, særligt i relation til konstitueringen af subjektpositioner, hvorfra spørgsmål om hvidhed og ikke-hvidhed kan afgøres.......Med udgangspunkt i John Fords Western, Forfølgeren fra 1956, præsenteres en analyse af repræsentationer af race og overskridelse af raceskel, særligt i relation til konstitueringen af subjektpositioner, hvorfra spørgsmål om hvidhed og ikke-hvidhed kan afgøres....

  13. Udforskning af journalistiske moralnormer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Kirsten Mogensen beskriver professionelle journalistiske normer. Med udgangspunkt i amerikansk tv's dækning af begivenhederne 11. september kombinerer Kirsten Mogensen kvalitative interviews og tekstanalyse for på den måde at beskrive professionelle journalistiske normer. Metoden er en kombinatio...... af halvstrukturerede, udforskende interviews med både kvantitative og kvalitative analyser af den faktiske dækning, og er primært udledt af Alf Ross' essay om normer og direktiver....

  14. En verden af medier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Bogen: 'En verden af medier – Medialiseringen af politik, sprog, religion og leg' anmeldes. Anmeldelsen kan læses på: http://ojs.statsbiblioteket.dk/index.php/mediekultur/article/view/1370/1499 Udgivelsesdato: 2009......Bogen: 'En verden af medier – Medialiseringen af politik, sprog, religion og leg' anmeldes. Anmeldelsen kan læses på: http://ojs.statsbiblioteket.dk/index.php/mediekultur/article/view/1370/1499 Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  15. Ensretning af historieundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønhede, Søren

    2008-01-01

    "Det er ikke kun i Putins Rusland, at statsmagten vil dirigere historieundervisningen." (Politiken havde fokuseret på "ensretning af historieundervisningen" i Rusland) "Kanonen fra 2006 er undfanget af Udvalget til Styrkelse af Historie i Folkeskolen. Dette udvalg havde regeringen nedsat; men bid...... bidrager kanonen til faglig styrkelse?" spørges der. Det vises, at flere kanonpunkter ikke er fagligt funderede, men af mytologisk art....

  16. Behandling af elmesyge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Kristoffersen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    Ingen midler er p.t. godkendt og dermed lovlige til bekæmpelse af elmesyge i Danmark. Lovprisning af nye behandlinger ses f.eks. på internettet, men dokumentation mangler. Økonomien og nytten ved en kemisk bekæmpelse frem for sanering af syge træer skal afvejes nøje....

  17. Globalisering af uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2005-01-01

    Det globale marked for uddannelse er i voldsom vækst og er ved at blive et af Danmarks vigtigste vareområder. Hvorledes kan KVL agere i globaliseringen af uddannelse for at sikre en høj kvalitet af egne kandidater med gode jobmuligheder?...

  18. Livscyklusvurdering af basiskemikalier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stig Irving

    1998-01-01

    Dette resumé af metoder og væsentlige erfaringer fra erhvervsforskerprojektet Livscyklusvurdering af basiskemikalier er skrevet i erkendelse af, at hovedrapporten er for omfattende til en hurtig introduktion i problemstillingerne. Formålet med denne rapport er derfor at give et kort overblik over...

  19. Digital formidling af kulturarv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En af tidens store kulturelle dagsordner drejer sig om digital tilgængeliggørelse af kulturarv. Fortidens spor dukker op i nye former på nettet - næsten alle kulturinstitutioner arbejder med, og befolkningen har fået helt nye muligheder for at se med og deltage. Digital formidling af kulturarv...

  20. Af Upraktiske Grunde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2001-01-01

    som både Claude Levi-Strauss lægger op til i sine klassiske studier af "den vilde tanke", og som Jean Baudrillard siden har lagt op til i sine analyser af samlere som en slags ekstreme forbrugere, der er i færd med at komplettere deres identitet gennem besiddelser af genstande. Imidlertid tillægger...

  1. Optimering af model for spredning af luftforurening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2008-01-01

    De nuværende luftforureningsmodeller har problemer med at bevare massen af diverse kemiske stoffer og med at der ind i mellem optræder negative værdier. Derfor arbejder specialestuderende Ayoe Buus Hansen på om at forbedre den model DMU bruger til at beskrive transport og spredning af luftforuren...... luftforurening på alle skalaer på den nordlige halvkugle ved at sammenligne tre alternative beregningsmodeller. ...

  2. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, Guy; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Armour, John A; Zamir, Mair

    2014-01-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  3. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Kember

    Full Text Available Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  4. ARCgame - gamification af undervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Gyldendahl

    2014-01-01

    Gamification er et begreb, der anvendes til at beskrive brugen af spilelementer i andre miljøer for at forbedre brugernes oplevelse. Følgende tekst har til formål at behandle emnet i forhold til af opnå en forståelse for de elementer der indvirker på en ”gamification af et undervisningsforløb”, her...

  5. Hvad griner du af?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Tobias Hiort

    2012-01-01

    latterliggørelse indenfor en sådan teori. Sociologiens begreb om ”un-laughter” angives som en mulig udvej af dette problem. I forlængelse af dette kritiseres den moderne humor-psykologis lære om populationers humor-patologi og til slut argumenteres der for at en moderne dannelse af humor må have en moralsk...

  6. Ledelse af projektmyldret

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    større arbejdsgrupper, og det kan være selvorganiserede store udviklingsprogrammer. Et projekt kører sjældent alene, og derfor er der ikke kun tale om projektledelse, men i lige så høj grad om ledelse af projekter. Ledelse af virksomhedens mylder af projekter er ikke let, og forfatterne gennemgår derfor...

  7. Strategisk ledelse af evalueringskulturen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Orlowitz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hvis evaluering skal anvendes til at udvikle uddannelser, er en af ledelsen vigtigste opgaver at udvikle en strategi for udvikling af evalueringskulturen – herunder strategier for udvikling af kommunikation og evalueringskapacitet. Den strategiske ledelse kan i den sammenhæng anvendes til at håndtere de ofte modsatte krav, som eksterne og interne interessenter stiller til evaluering.

  8. Ledelse af Organisationens Kreativitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Lars

    2008-01-01

    forskel, så er man som leder nødt til at arbejde mere målrettet med de medarbejdere som forventes at præstere et kreativt udbytte. Inspireret af analyseværktøjet "KEYS, Assessing the Work Environment for Creativity" udviklet af den amerikanske psykolog og ledelsesforsker ved Harvard University, Teresa...... Amabile, blev en undersøgelse derfor gennemført i udviklingsafdelingerne, Idéland og Idélab hos Bang og Olufsen, for at få et indblik i anvendeligheden af KEYS som inspirationskilde for succesfuld ledelse af organisationens kreativitet....

  9. Coaching af dit studieliv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus Thorning

    2008-01-01

    En generel beskrivelse af de problemer specialestuderende sidder med og hvorledes coaching kan hjælpe med at (gen)skabe motivation og fokus......En generel beskrivelse af de problemer specialestuderende sidder med og hvorledes coaching kan hjælpe med at (gen)skabe motivation og fokus...

  10. Dialektisk billede af Benjamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Jacob

    2004-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Lars Brückner: "Løse blade. Læseren, kritikeren og fortælleren Walter Benjamin"......Anmeldelse af Lars Brückner: "Løse blade. Læseren, kritikeren og fortælleren Walter Benjamin"...

  11. Administration af informationsmodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    En informationsmodel er i denne sammenhæng en digital repræsentation af et givent byggeri. Både offentlige og private bygherrer anvender informationsmodeller, når der 'bygges digitalt'. I denne artikel undersøges det, hvilke konkrete udfordringer der følger af digitaliseringen, hvor gennemgribend...

  12. Raman af hvide pigmenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeler, Nini Elisabeth Abildgaard; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Et samspil mellem kunst og kemi. I et samarbejde mellem Statens Museum for Kunst og Kemisk Institut på KU er Ramanspek-troskopi brugt til at definere sammensætningen af blandinger af blyhvidt og calcit i maleriers hvide pigmenter....

  13. Midtvejsevaluering af EGA handlingsplanen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels; Hasle, Peter; Christiansen, Jørgen Møller

    Center for Alternativ Samfundsanalyse (CASA) og Institut for Teknologi og Samfund ved Danmarks Tekniske Universitet har gennemført denne midtvejsevaluering af arbejdsmarkedets parters handlingsplan mod reduktion af ensidigt gentaget arbejde. Undersøgelsen viser, at der er sket en betydelig...

  14. Anvendelse af genmodificerede planter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, F.

    I rapporten vurderes mulighederne for at gennemføre velfærdsøkonomiske analyser af anvendelsen af genmodificerede planter. Der gøres rede for kravene til konse-kvensbeskrivelsen og for mulighederne for at prissætte såvel de markedsrelaterede som de ikke-markedsrelaterede konsekvenser. Mulighederne...

  15. Kvalitetsvurdering af sundhedsoplysende materiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Bech, Lars; Sybille, Bojlén

    1990-01-01

    Lægeforeningens Hygiejnekomités arbejdsgruppe vedrørende sundhedsoplysning har udarbejdet en "huskeliste" til brug for en kvalitetsvurdering af skriftligt sundhedsoplysende materiale......Lægeforeningens Hygiejnekomités arbejdsgruppe vedrørende sundhedsoplysning har udarbejdet en "huskeliste" til brug for en kvalitetsvurdering af skriftligt sundhedsoplysende materiale...

  16. Implementering af evidensbaseret praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Linda Schumann; Tewes, Marianne; Petersen, Preben Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Projektet omhandler implementering af den kliniske retningslinje om identifikation, forebyggelse og behandling af delirium – i denne sammenhæng relateret til hjertepatienter. Projektet foregår på to hospitaler i Hjertecentret på Rigshospitalet, et intensivt afsnit og et sengeafsnit, i tæt...

  17. Implementering af evidensbaseret praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel, Linda Schumann; Hansen, Ida Rode

    2014-01-01

    Projektet omhandler implementering af den kliniske retningslinje om identifikation, forebyggelse og behandling af delirium – i denne sammenhæng relateret til hjertepatienter. Projektet foregår på to hospitaler i Hjertecentret på Rigshospitalet, et intensivt afsnit og et sengeafsnit, i tæt...

  18. Fundering af mindre bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.; Ballisager, C.C.

    Denne SBI-anvisning indeholder en gennemgang af de jordbunds- og grundvandsforhold, som er bestemmende for funderingen af en bygning. Specielt gennemgås de betingelser, der skal være opfyldt, for at man på forsvarlig måde kan fundere en mindre bygning i traditionel udformning. Publikationen...

  19. Evaluering af afdeling H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda; Birkmose, Sofie Meldal

    2016-01-01

    Som led i Kriminalforsorgens flerårsaftale 2013-2016 blev det åbne statsfængsel Søbysøgård i januar 2015 udvidet med 42 lukkede pladser i den nybyggede afdeling H. Nærværende evaluering kortlægger de erfaringer personalet og indsatte har gjort sig i løbet af det første år. Etableringen af den...... lukkede fængselsafdeling H giver en unik mulighed for at følge henholdsvis hvilke faktorer, der bidrager til udvikling af fængselskultur, og hvordan de respektive faktorer influerer på udvikling af fængselskulturen. Evalueringens metoder består af kvalitative og kvantitative metoder såsom dokumentanalyse...

  20. Sundhedseffekter af luftforurening-beregningspriser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Frohn, L. M.; Jensen, S. S.

    Denne rapport afrapporterer det fortsatte arbejde med udvikling af miljøøkonomiske beregningspriser. På grundlag af EcoSense 4.0 fra ExternE-projektet, er der foretaget nye beregninger af eksternaliteter ved luftforurening med sundhedseffekter. Samtidig giver rapporten en vurdering af luftspredni......Denne rapport afrapporterer det fortsatte arbejde med udvikling af miljøøkonomiske beregningspriser. På grundlag af EcoSense 4.0 fra ExternE-projektet, er der foretaget nye beregninger af eksternaliteter ved luftforurening med sundhedseffekter. Samtidig giver rapporten en vurdering af...

  1. Gut vagal afferents differentially modulate innate anxiety and learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarer, Melanie; Arnold, Myrtha; Günther, Lydia; Winter, Christine; Langhans, Wolfgang; Meyer, Urs

    2014-05-21

    Vagal afferents are an important neuronal component of the gut-brain axis allowing bottom-up information flow from the viscera to the CNS. In addition to its role in ingestive behavior, vagal afferent signaling has been implicated modulating mood and affect, including distinct forms of anxiety and fear. Here, we used a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective vagal deafferentation method existing to date, to study the consequences of complete disconnection of abdominal vagal afferents on innate anxiety, conditioned fear, and neurochemical parameters in the limbic system. We found that compared with Sham controls, SDA rats consistently displayed reduced innate anxiety-like behavior in three procedures commonly used in preclinical rodent models of anxiety, namely the elevated plus maze test, open field test, and food neophobia test. On the other hand, SDA rats exhibited increased expression of auditory-cued fear conditioning, which specifically emerged as attenuated extinction of conditioned fear during the tone re-exposure test. The behavioral manifestations in SDA rats were associated with region-dependent changes in noradrenaline and GABA levels in key areas of the limbic system, but not with functional alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal grand stress. Our study demonstrates that innate anxiety and learned fear are both subjected to visceral modulation through abdominal vagal afferents, possibly via changing limbic neurotransmitter systems. These data add further weight to theories emphasizing an important role of afferent visceral signals in the regulation of emotional behavior. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347067-10$15.00/0.

  2. EFFECTS OF VAGAL SENSORY INPUT ON THE BREATHING RHYTHM OF THE CARP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEGRAAF, PJF; ROBERTS, BL

    Electrical stimulation of an epibranchial vagal ganglion, which innervates the gill region, had a marked influence on the respiratory rhythm of the carp Cyprinus carpio. Vagal input could initiate ventilation in fish displaying intermittent respiration. In fish breathing steadily, vagal stimuli

  3. På sporet af innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgaard, Lone Bak

    organisationen blandt ledere og medarbejdere samt eksternt, uden for organisationen, hos dens kunder. Ph.d.-afhandlingen På sporet af innovation har som formål at bidrage til forståelse af, hvordan organisationers arbejde med digital selvbetjening kan fremmes, set i et innovationsteoretisk perspektiv. Foruden en...... indføring i innovationsteorien og dens udvikling belyser afhandlingens resultater hvordan at innovationspotentialet kan styrkes gennem organisatorisk åbenhed og samarbejde i alle dele af den innovative proces. Dette gælder ved både idéudvikling, realisering og spredning af nye digitale løsninger.......Flere og flere private og offentlige servicer digitaliseres, så kunder, borgere og virksomheder, i øget grad betjener sig selv. Digital selvbetjening kan potentielt effektivisere driften og skabe bedre kundeservice. Men processen har udfordringer, da den kan kræve omfattende omstilling internt i...

  4. Test af Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dette dokument udgør slutrapporten for netværkssamarbejdet ”Testnet”, som er udført i perioden 1.4.2006 til 31.12.2008. Netværket beskæftiger sig navnlig med emner inden for test af indlejret og teknisk software, men et antal eksempler på problemstillinger og løsninger forbundet med test af...... administrativ software indgår også. Rapporten er opdelt i følgende 3 dele: Overblik. Her giver vi et resumé af netværkets formål, aktiviteter og resultater. State of the art af software test ridses op. Vi omtaler, at CISS og netværket tager nye tiltag. Netværket. Formål, deltagere og behandlede emner på ti...

  5. Supervision af psykoterapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUPERVISION AF PSYKOTERAPI indtager en central position i uddannelsen og udviklingen af psykoterapeuter. Trods flere lighedspunkter med psykoterapi, undervisning og konsultation er psykoterapisupervision et selvstændigt virksomhedsområde. Supervisor må foruden at være en trænet psykoterapeut kende...... supervisionens rammer og indplacering i forhold til organisation og samfund. En række kapitler drejer sig om supervisors opgaver, roller og kontrolfunktion, supervision set fra supervisandens perspektiv samt betragtninger over relationer og processer i supervision. Der drøftes fordele og ulemper ved de...... forskellige måder, hvorpå en sag kan fremlægges. Bogens første del afsluttes med refleksioner over de etiske aspekter ved psykoterapisupervision. Bogens anden del handler om de særlige forhold, der gør sig gældende ved supervision af en række specialiserede behandlingsformer eller af psykoterapi med bestemte...

  6. Sammenligning af kvaliteten af kommunernes sagsbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    flere forskellige spørgsmål fra praksis¬undersøgelser i samme sammenligning. Vi foreslår også, at metoder til såkaldte ’multi¬ple sammenligninger’ bruges til dele af undersøgelserne. Det er en ældre og ikke særlig kendt metode, men den er særdeles relevant både i den konkrete anvendelse og i andre...

  7. Effekten af absolut kumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Britta; Klement, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Som led i finansloven for 2011 blev regeringen og forligspartierne enige om at undersøge reglerne om strafudmåling ved samtidig pådømmelse af flere kriminelle forhold og i forbindelse hermed vurdere konsekvenserne af at ændre de gældende regler i forhold til kapacitetsbehovet i Kriminalforsorgens...... samlet bødesum ved en absolut kumulation i forhold til en modereret kumulation, som nu er gældende....

  8. Genlyden af et nej

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östman, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Europa og den vestlige verden er ramt af en økonomisk krise. Det er en krise, der er anderledes, end den vi har været vant til fx fra 1980'erne.......Europa og den vestlige verden er ramt af en økonomisk krise. Det er en krise, der er anderledes, end den vi har været vant til fx fra 1980'erne....

  9. Evaluering af kollegial supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Line Bjerre Folsgaard; Bager, Lene Tortzen; Jørgensen, Mette Eg

    2015-01-01

    Videoen er en evaluering af arbejdet med en metodisk tilgang til kollegial supervision på VIA Ergoterapeutuddannelsen gennem et par år. Evalueringen sætter fokus på selve metoden, der er anvendt til kollegial supervision. Derudover er der fokus på erfaringer og udbytte af at arbejde systematisk med...... kollegial supervision blandt undervisere på VIA Ergoterapeutuddannelsen....

  10. Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation Elicited "Jackhammer Esophagus": A New Complication Due to Vagal Nerve Stimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolone, Salvatore; Savarino, Edoardo; Docimo, Ludovico

    2015-10-01

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is a potentially curative method for treatment of highly symptomatic and drug-refractory atrial fibrillation (AF). However, this technique can provoke esophageal and nerve lesion, due to thermal injury. To our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of a newly described motor disorder, the Jackhammer esophagus (JE) after RFCA, independently of GERD. We report a case of JE diagnosed by high-resolution manometry (HRM), in whom esophageal symptoms developed 2 weeks after RFCA, in absence of objective evidence of GERD. A 65-year-old male with highly symptomatic, drug-refractory paroxysmal AF was candidate to complete electrical pulmonary vein isolation with RFCA. Prior the procedure, the patient underwent HRM and impedance-pH to rule out GERD or hiatal hernia presence. All HRM parameters, according to Chicago classification, were within normal limits. No significant gastroesophageal reflux was documented at impedance pH monitoring. Patient underwent RFCA with electrical disconnection of pulmonary vein. After two weeks, patient started to complain of dysphagia for solids, with acute chest-pain. The patient repeated HRM and impedance-pH monitoring 8 weeks after RFCA. HRM showed in all liquid swallows the typical spastic hypercontractile contractions consistent with the diagnosis of JE, whereas impedance-pH monitoring resulted again negative for GERD. Esophageal dysmotility can represent a possible complication of RFCA for AF, probably due to a vagal nerve injury, and dysphagia appearance after this procedure must be timely investigated by HRM.

  11. Malignant Transformation of Vagal Nerve Schwannoma in to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vagal schwannomas are benign, rare peripheral nerve sheath tumors in the head and neck region. Some physicians opt to closely observe cases of schwannoma of the neck on an outpatient basis rather than to perform radical surgery. However, there is a possibility, albeit rare, of malignant transformation of a.

  12. Modulation of the masseteric reflex by gastric vagal afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E

    1983-04-01

    Several investigations have shown that the vagal nerve can affect the reflex responses of the masticatory muscles acting at level either of trigeminal motoneurons or of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MTN). The present experiments have been devoted to establish the origin of the vagal afferent fibres involved in modulating the masseteric reflex. In particular, the gastric vagal afferents were taken into consideration and selective stimulations of such fibres were performed in rabbit. Conditioning electrical stimulation of truncus vagalis ventralis (TVV) reduced the excitability of the MTN cells as shown by a decrease of the antidromic response recorded from the semilunar ganglion and elicited by MTN single-shock electrical stimulation. Sympathetic and cardiovascular influences were not involved in these responses. Mechanical stimulation of gastric receptors, by means of gastric distension, clearly diminished the amplitude of twitch tension of masseteric reflex and inhibited the discharge frequency of proprioceptive MTN units. The effect was phasic and depended upon the velocity of distension. Thus the sensory volleys originating from rapid adapting receptors reach the brain stem through vagal afferents and by means of a polysynaptic connection inhibits the masseteric reflex at level of MTN cells.

  13. Anvendeligheden af GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winstrup, Mie; Levin, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Fragmentering af naturen er en trussel mod biodiversiteten, og etablering af økologiske forbindelser/korridorer mellem naturområderne er én måde hvorved nedgangen i biodiversitet kan stoppes. Med Næstved Kommune som case-område har jeg undersøgt, hvordan analyser i GIS kan bruges til at udvælge...... omdannet til reelle korridorer, hvor bredden afhænger af arealdækket som forbindelserne krydser. I implementerings øjemed er det anvendeligt at vide om nogle forbindelser er særlig vigtige for at skabe mere sammenhængende natur. GIS er anvendeligt hertil, idet GIS kan bruges til at bestemme den enkelte...

  14. Videoanalyse af social interaktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Igennem de sidste 40 år er videooptagelser af praksis blevet anvendt som et redskab i forskning af social interaktion inden for f.eks. læring, design, mediering, kommunikationstræning og i sundhedsvæsenet. Videoanalyse af social interaktion giver et stærkt metodisk, teoretisk og praktisk blik ind i...... videoanalyse og viser, hvordan man som forsker og studerende kan bruge videoanalyse til at undersøge social interaktion. Bogens temaer og spørgsmål udgør således en grundsten i arbejdet med videoanalyse på professions-, universitets- og forskeruddannelser såvel som i forskning mere generelt og omfatter: - de...

  15. Realisering af Vision 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    Repræsentanter for byggesektoren har på 11 dialogmøder drøftet Erhvervs- og Byggestyrelsens "Vision 2020 - Byggeri med mening". Drøftelserne førte til formulering af en lang række initiativforslag til realisering af visionen. Den mest centrale udfordring bliver at reducere fejl og mangler i...... byggeriet. Branchen lægger også vægt på, at styringen af Vision 2020s reaisering sker i byggesektoren. Initiativforslagene er i rapporten samlet under 3 hovedområder. Det første hovedområde lægger vægt på bygningerne, brugerbehov og det globale samfund. Det andet omhandler processen og leverancesystemet...

  16. Centralisering af FM organisationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2016-01-01

    Centralisering af FM organisationer kan let føre til mange frustrerende arbejds- dage for medarbejdere og deres ledere. Denne artikel giver et bud på hvad kom- muner og andre kan gøre for at komme bedre igennem en omorganisering.......Centralisering af FM organisationer kan let føre til mange frustrerende arbejds- dage for medarbejdere og deres ledere. Denne artikel giver et bud på hvad kom- muner og andre kan gøre for at komme bedre igennem en omorganisering....

  17. Kuratering af Samtidskunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuratering af Samtidskunst er den første bogudgivelse i Danmark, der fokuserer på kuratering som fag og praksis. Kuratering spiller en stadig større rolle i samtidskunsten. Bogen er en introduktion til skiftende forståelser af udstillings- og kuratorpraksisser og deres udfordringer, indkredset ge...... Kofod Olsen, Teresa Gleadowe, Helle Ryberg, Kirse Junge-Stevnsborg, Malene Natascha Ratcliffe, Pelin Uran, Jacob Fabricius, Lotte Juul Petersen, Jacob Lillemose, Solvej Helweg Ovesen, Frederikke Hansen & Tone Olaf Nielsen (kuratorisk aktion) og Temporary Services....

  18. Constitutive overexpression of muscarinic receptors leads to vagal hyperreactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Livolsi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alterations in muscarinic receptor expression and acetylcholinesterase (AchE activity have been observed in tissues from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS. Vagal overactivity has been proposed as a possible cause of SIDS as well as of vasovagal syncopes. The aim of the present study was to seek whether muscarinic receptor overexpression may be the underlying mechanism of vagal hyperreactivity. Rabbits with marked vagal pauses following injection of phenylephrine were selected and crossed to obtain a vagal hyperreactive strain. The density of cardiac muscarinic receptors and acetylcholinesterase (AchE gene expression were assessed. Blood markers of the observed cardiac abnormalities were also sought. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cardiac muscarinic M(2 and M(3 receptors were overexpressed in hyperreactive rabbits compared to control animals (2.3-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively and the severity of the phenylephrine-induced bradycardia was correlated with their densities. A similar overexpression of M(2 receptors was observed in peripheral mononuclear white blood cells, suggesting that cardiac M(2 receptor expression can be inferred with high confidence from measurements in blood cells. Sequencing of the coding fragment of the M(2 receptor gene revealed a single nucleotide mutation in 83% of hyperreactive animals, possibly contributing for the transcript overexpression. Significant increases in AchE expression and activity were also assessed (AchE mRNA amplification ratio of 3.6 versus normal rabbits. This phenomenon might represent a compensatory consequence of muscarinic receptors overexpression. Alterations in M(2 receptor and AchE expression occurred between the 5th and the 7th week of age, a critical period also characterized by a higher mortality rate of hyperreactive rabbits (52% in H rabbits versus 13% in normal rabbits and preceeded the appearance of functional disorders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that

  19. Evaluering af naturfaglige kompetencer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Nielsen, Jan Alexis; Tidemand, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Artiklen skitserer kort de sidste 40-50 års udvikling i naturfagene op til det nuværende fokus på undersøgelsesbaseret undervisning og udvikling af kompetencer. Den påpeger hvorledes mange traditionelle evalueringsformer, især brugt ved eksamen, ikke er i stand til at indfange de ønskede kompeten...

  20. Opfindelsen af naturen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Torsten Bøgh

    2016-01-01

    Kritisk omtale og kontekstualisering af Andrea Wulfs, "The Invention of Nature: Alexander von Humboldt’s New World". Der er en direkte forbindelse imellem oplysningstidens naturforståelse og den nuværende klimakrisevirkelighed. Alexander von Humboldt opfandt ikke bare naturen, han påpegede også det...

  1. Digitalisering af undervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, René B.; Hansen, Søren; Rossen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    Rapporten er et bestillingsarbejde fra FU (Forskning og Udvikling) og viser en række eksempler på hvorledes undervisningsforløb kan konstrueres online. Herunder ved brug af både LMS-systemer og web 2.0-værktøjer...

  2. Definition af et landdistrikt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    2008-01-01

    Forskellige lande arbejder med meget forskellige definitioner af begrebet landdistrikt. Arbejdspapiret diskuterer først en række generelle krav til definitioner og anbefaler på den baggrund konkrete justeringer i forhold til den hidtidige danske praksis på området. Arbejdspapiret er blevet til i...

  3. En verden af medier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarvard, Stig

    selvstændig institution, der forvalter samfundets fælles kommunikation, sætter de spillereglerne for andre aktører, og de er samtidig en selvfølgelig del af hverdagslivets kommunikation mellem familie, venner og kolleger. I samspillet mellem de gamle massemedier og nye interaktive medier opstår forandringer...

  4. Anmeldelse af: Gruppepsykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    , kreativitet og nytænkning. Det er her, videnskabens virkelige fremskridt sker.” Sådan lyder et citat af Albert Einstein, som Lars Svedberg bruger for at sætte sin faglige fremstilling om gruppepsykologi i perspektiv. Gruppeorganisationen er nemlig ofte rum for/ eller kan være rum for denne synergieffekt, der...

  5. Benchmarking af kommunernes sagsbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    Fra 2007 skal Ankestyrelsen gennemføre benchmarking af kommuernes sagsbehandlingskvalitet. Formålet med benchmarkingen er at udvikle praksisundersøgelsernes design med henblik på en bedre opfølgning og at forbedre kommunernes sagsbehandling. Dette arbejdspapir diskuterer metoder for benchmarking...

  6. En skygge af modernitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian Egander

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen vil kort skitsere forskellige, samtidige konservative reaktioner på teknikken, hvis destruktive potentiale var blevet åbenbart i og med Første Verdenskrig, og derefter gennem en læsning af Drachmanns politiske og skønlitterære forfatterskab identificere nøgleelementer og begreber i Drach...

  7. Konsekvensanalyse af Kulturby 96

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridberg, Torben; Koch-Nielsen, Inger

    1997-01-01

    Rapporten om Kulturby 96 indeholder en beskrivelse af kulturbyårets aktiviteter og responsen herpå fra publikum, turister, presse og samarbejdspartnere i øvrigt. Der redegøres for projektets organisatoriske struktur, herunder Kulturbysekretariatets organisation og rolle. Rapporten indeholder...

  8. På kanten af ungdomslivet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels Ulrik; Pless, Mette

    2015-01-01

    ). Parallelt hermed fortælles moderne ungdomsliv (i ungdomssociologien) frem gennem ”…theoretical frameworks based on urban experiences which capture neither the lives of rural young people nor the spatial dimensions of the structures and cultures that make up contemporary youth.” (Farrugia 2013......, at yderområder er hårdt ramt af ungdomsarbejdsløshed (Bjørnsted & Andersen 2013), at områderne er præget af høj koncentration af unge med arbejderklassebaggrund (Ottosen et a 2010), mens de uddannelsesorienterede og ressourcestærke unge er tilbøjelige til at flytte væk og ind til byerne (Helve 2003). Og ser man...... stedstilknytning og stedbundne ressourcer. Teoretiske perspektiver, der peger på vigtigheden af en mere ”..spatialised youth sociology that is sensitive to macro-level processes producing different spaces, as well as the local, emplaced ways in which young people are responding to social changest hat shape...

  9. Boligboblen pustes op af bankerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2017-01-01

    Den aktuelle boligboble blæses i vejret af bankerne, der gennem opkøb af realkreditobligationer skaber nye penge og dermed presser boligpriserne i vejret - en kreditfinansieret bolig- eller finansboble....

  10. Dannelsen af den ansvarlige elev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Denne artikel handler om den del af lærergerningen, der har at gøre med udarbejdelse af elevplaner. Der tages udgangspunkt i en foucaultsk forståelse, hvor beskrivelsen af den enkelte elev udtrykker et særligt normativt ideal om, hvilke former for elevhed der er de ønskværdige i den danske...

  11. Udlejers godkendelse af ny erhvervslejer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    I artiklen er taget udgangspunkt i den »klassiske« afståelsessituation, hvor en lejer vil afhænde den i de lejede lokaler drevne virksomhed, og lejeren har afståelsesret til en af udlejer godkendt lejer, uden at kravene til den ny lejer er specificeret. På baggrund af Vestre Landsrets dom af 9/2 ...

  12. Anmeldelse af Evolution, Literature and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2011-01-01

    Diskussion af basisproblemer i evolutionær fiktionsteori med udgangspunkt i en anmeldelse af Evolution, Literature and Film......Diskussion af basisproblemer i evolutionær fiktionsteori med udgangspunkt i en anmeldelse af Evolution, Literature and Film...

  13. En genlæsning af John Rawls i lyset af hans diskussion af forholdet til fremtidige generationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübcke, Poul

    2009-01-01

    På grundlag af en konsekventialistisk rekonstruktion af Rawls' politiske position gøres der rede for Rawls eksplicitte og implicitte vurdering af vores ansvar over for fremtidige generationer......På grundlag af en konsekventialistisk rekonstruktion af Rawls' politiske position gøres der rede for Rawls eksplicitte og implicitte vurdering af vores ansvar over for fremtidige generationer...

  14. På sporet af sprogpsykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Sprogpsykologi beskæftiger sig med, hvordan sprog og mennesker hænger sammen, og hvilke følger sammenhængen får for vore forståelser af verden og os selv. Denne antologi henvender sig til den sproginteresserede, der ønsker at gå et lag dybere end sprogets grammatiske sider. Sprog er ikke kun et l...

  15. Tilbagebetaling af sociale ydelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hielmcrone, Nina Elisabeth von

    konstateres, at der foreligger fejl og forsømmelser hos både modtager og myndighed. Dermed stilles der også spørgsmålstegn ved de såkaldt "objektive" tilbagebetalingsbestemmelser som f.x. i boligstøttelovens § 47 stk. 1 og 2.       Bogen behandler desuden de mange og vanskelige fortolkningsproblemer, der...... knytter sig til anvendelsen af tilbagebetalingsbestemmelserne i de sociale love....

  16. Hvordan integration af it?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Herdis

    2008-01-01

    Fokus i artiklen er den måde, hvorpå børn positionerer sig på i skolerummet, og på, hvordan børn gennem brug af it opbygger og integrerer digital kompetence forstået som færdigheder, kundskaber og holdninger, der skal sætte dem i stand til at agere i det lærende samfund. Med udgangspunkt i et Bou...

  17. Innovation af innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    , at innovation af innovationen forsøges gennemført på en måde, hvor tiden kræves at forholde sig til sin egen tidslighed i form af fremtid, nutid, fortid og ikke mindst i form af samtidighed. I tiden skal vi iagttage, hvordan vi iagttager tiden. Vi dobbelt-koder tiden på samme måde, som forskning forsker i...... organisationssystemerne. De to typer systemer kan noget helt bestemt med fænomenet tid. De kan synkronisere. Analyseres organisationssystemer ser vi, imidlertid at innovation kræver ro. Stærkt innovative systemer er militærsystemet og kunstsystemet, der også inddrages, og hvor vi ser paradokset mellem innovation og...... involution. Tid er med et medium og ikke et lufttomt rum. Tid er end ikke en gasart, men udgør et solidt fluidum, som samfundet bader i og flyder i, konstant i bevægelse. Reformer forudsætter former, og innovation forudsætter involution. Kun sådan muliggøres evolution....

  18. Relevansen af Aristoteles' etik for konceptionen af eksistentiel terapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    Siden sin undfangelse i begyndelsen af det 20. århundrede har den eksistentielle terapi repræsenteret et filosofisk funderet alternativ til de former for terapeutisk praksis, der er funderet i den funktionalistiske medicinske metafysik. Anvendelse af elementer fra Aristoteles' etik muliggør en...... fremhævelse af den eksistentielle terapi som en praktisk eksistensfænomenologisk livskunst, hvis anliggende er en frembringelse af det enkelte menneskes muligheder fra det skjulte og ind i det uskjulte, så mennesket viser sig som det er ved sig selv...

  19. Anvendelse af MIP ved kildekarakterisering og vurdering af nedbrydning af chlorerede opløsningsmidler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Janniche, Gry Sander; Damgaard, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Membrane Interface Probing (MIP) er et 'direct push' screeningsværktøj, som kan anvendes ved karakterisering af forurenede grunde. Karakterisering af kildeområder med chlorerede opløsningsmidler (som DNAPL) udgør et vigtigt led i udviklingen af den konceptuelle forståelse, som er essentiel...... for risikovurdering og valg af afværgestrategi. Integreret karakterisering med en række metoder for direkte såvel som indirekte dokumentation af DNAPL i moræneler, herunder MIP, er beskrevet i Kerrn-Jespersen et al. (2013). Det samlede DNAPL-karakteriseringsprojekt er beskrevet i detaljer i Janniche et al. (2013). En...... vurdering af anvendte detektorer for MIP er foretaget af Olsson (2013). Ved karakterisering af forurening med bl.a. chlorerede opløsningsmidler er der behov for en vurdering af forureningssammensætning og nedbrydning. Tilsvarende vurdering er nødvendig, når udviklingen af stimuleret reduktiv dechlorering...

  20. Critical Airway Compromise due to a Massive Vagal Schwannoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, AM

    2016-05-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old man with a slowly enlarging neck lump and compressive symptoms. He presented to a separate institution 10 years prior where an observational approach was advocated. Following preoperative investigations and embolization, an 11cm vagal schwannoma was excised and vagus nerve was sacrificed. Although conservative management is appropriate for a select patient population, surgical excision is treatment of choice for cervical neurogenic tumours and paraganglionomas and must be considered in young patients or rapidly expanding tumours to avoid compressive symptoms, as in this case.

  1. Parental Socialization, Vagal Regulation, and Preschoolers' Anxious Difficulties: Direct Mothers and Moderated Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Paul D.; Sullivan, Caroline; McShane, Kelly E.; Coplan, Robert J.; Utendale, William T.; Vyncke, Johanna D.

    2008-01-01

    Parental supportiveness and protective overcontrol and preschoolers' parasympathetic regulation were examined as predictors of temperamental inhibition, social wariness, and internalizing problems. Lower baseline vagal tone and weaker vagal suppression were expected to mark poorer dispositional self-regulatory capacity, leaving children more…

  2. Exacerbation of electrical storm subsequent to implantation of a right vagal stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Alaa A; El-Saed, Aiman; Nemec, Jan; Moossy, John J; Balzer, Jeffrey R

    2007-12-01

    A patient with advanced ischemic cardiomyopathy underwent implantation of a vagal stimulator in an attempt to control recurrent drug refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Electrical storm was exacerbated after the implant and continued after neurostimulation was discontinued. The report aims to provide a cautionary note to application of vagal stimulation for control of cardiac arrhythmia.

  3. Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on heart rate in relation to vagal cardioacceleration in conscious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roossien, A; Brunstig, J.R; Nijmeijer, A; Zaagsma, Hans; Zijlstra, W.G

    Objective: The vagal cardiac accelerator (VCA) system takes part in the nervous control of the heart rate. In the present study we tried to adduce evidence that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VLP) contributes to vagally induced cardioacceleration. Methods: The effect of VIP on heart rate and

  4. Jugular and vagal paragangliomas: Systematic study of management with surgery and radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, C.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Bodeker, C.C.; Llorente, J.L.; Silver, C.E.; Jansen, J.C.; Takes, R.P.; Strojan, P.; Pellitteri, P.K.; Rinaldo, A.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Ferlito, A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The definitive treatment for head and neck paraganglioma (PG) is surgical excision. Unfortunately, surgery, particularly of vagal paraganglioma (VPG; "glomus vagale") and foramen jugulare ("glomus jugulare") tumors, may be complicated by injuries to the lower cranial nerves, a high price

  5. Energiforbrug til opvarmning af bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budde, J.; Pedersen, D.O.

    Rapporten giver oplysninger om enhedsforbrug til varme og varmt brugsvand i forskellige typer af bygninger baseret på en analyse af et omfattende datamateriale. Formålet med undersøgelsen har været at ajourføre denne del af grundlaget for både landsdækkende og lokal varmeplanlægning i Danmark....

  6. Mothers' responses to children's negative emotions and child emotion regulation: the moderating role of vagal suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-07-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of children's cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and nonsupportive responses) and children's emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children's negative emotions and children's regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal suppression were assessed during a laboratory task designed to elicit frustration. Results indicated that children's vagal suppression moderated the association between mothers' nonsupportive emotion socialization and children's emotion regulation behaviors such that nonsupportive reactions to negative emotions predicted lower observed distraction and lower reported emotion regulation behaviors when children displayed lower levels of vagal suppression. No interaction was found between supportive maternal emotion socialization and vagal suppression for children's emotion regulation behaviors. Results suggest physiological regulation may serve as a buffer against nonsupportive emotion socialization. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Coaching af sygedagpengemodtagere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coop Henriksen, Annemette

    SFI gennemførte i foråret 2008 til foråret 2009 en pilotundersøgelse om coaching. Undersøgelsen var designet som et lodtrækningsforsøg og omfattede 42 kvindelige sygedagpengemodtagere fra Rødovre Jobcenter, der var sygemeldt med psykiske lidelser i form af stress, depression eller udbrændthed eller...... med lidelser i bevægeapparatet. Undersøgelsen er bestilt og finansieret af Rødovre Jobcenter. I rapporten undersøges, om coaching kan bidrage til at bringe sygedagpengemodtagere i arbejde eller tættere på arbejdsmarkedet målt ved, om deltagerne får fx øget motivation, mere selvtillid, øget afklaring...... og færre symptomer på sygdom. Undersøgelsen viser, at gruppen, der har modtaget coaching, oplever en positiv udvikling i forhold til stress, depression og udbrændthed. Gruppen, der modtog coaching, har den tydeligste positive udvikling, men begge grupper har oplevet en helbredsmæssig fremgang i...

  8. Overførsel af viden ved flytning af produktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2010-01-01

    Empiriske studier i tre industrielle virksomheder har afsløret, at selv virksomheder med mange års erfaring i at overføre produktion til andre lande hovedsagelig fokuserer på planlægning af den fysiske overflytning af produktionsudstyr og fokuserer på den eksplicitte viden, der er tilknyttet prod...

  9. Determining cardiac vagal threshold from short term heart rate complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Rami Abou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating individual aerobic exercise capacity is fundamental in sports and exercise medicine but associated with organizational and instrumental effort. Here, we extract an index related to common performance markers, the aerobic and anaerobic thresholds enabling the estimation of exercise capacity from a conventional sports watch supporting beatwise heart rate tracking. Therefore, cardiac vagal threshold (CVT was determined in 19 male subjects performing an incremental maximum exercise test. CVT varied around the anaerobic threshold AnT with mean deviation of 7.9 ± 17.7 W. A high correspondence of the two thresholds was indicated by Bland-Altman plots with limits of agreement −27.5 W and 43.4 W. Additionally, CVT was strongly correlated AnT (rp = 0.86, p < 0.001 and reproduced this marker well (rc = 0.81. We conclude, that cardiac vagal threshold derived from compression entropy time course can be useful to assess physical fitness in an uncomplicated way.

  10. Virkelighedsflugt og masser af sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Rasmus Fink

    2011-01-01

    I artiklen laves en læsning af ungdomsromanen "6" (2010) af Ronni Andersen. Dernæst udfoldes en række litteraturpædagogiske forslag tilen undervisning i romanen i skolens ældste klasser. Arbejdsforslagene er baseret på en kompetencetilgang til danskfaget og rummer fire værksteder hvor eleverne sk...

  11. I Frans af Assisis fodspor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    En fodrejse fra Assisi til Rom i Frans af Assisis fodspor sætter gang i tankerne og giver anledning til nye ideer......En fodrejse fra Assisi til Rom i Frans af Assisis fodspor sætter gang i tankerne og giver anledning til nye ideer...

  12. Ledelse af forandringer i folkeskolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Mikkel; Rosdahl, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Dette notat bygger på kvalitative interview på seks folkeskoler i efteråret 2015. Skolerne ligger i forskellige egne af landet og i landområder, mindre og store byer. Skolerne er af forskellig størrelse, og deres elevgrundlag, dvs. forældrenes sociale baggrund, varierer også. Notatet bygger primæ...

  13. Forhastet regulering af de store

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke.......Christiansborg gennemfører sandsynligvis en markant skærpet regulering af de store finansielle virksomheder. Det vil virke kontraktivt og medvirke til erhvervslivets kredittørke....

  14. Masser af information uden betydning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    en diskussion af informationsteorien i Tor Nørretranders "Mærk verden" og en skitse til et alternativ baseret på anden ordens kybernetik og semiotik......en diskussion af informationsteorien i Tor Nørretranders "Mærk verden" og en skitse til et alternativ baseret på anden ordens kybernetik og semiotik...

  15. Anbefalinger til organisering af uddannelserne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Andersen, Lars Døvling; Hornemann, Birte C.

    2009-01-01

    Notatet sammenfatter de diskussioner, som det af fakulteterne nedsatte udvalg vedrørende nye undervisnings- og eksamensformer har haft, og de anbefalinger til en omlægning af vores uddannelsessystem, som udvalget har valgt at give. Notatet er samtidig en begyndelse på en erfaringsudveksling om ny...

  16. Modeller af komplicerede systemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J.

    emphasizes their use in relation to technical systems. All the presented models, with the exception of the types presented in chapter 2, are non-theoretical non-formal conceptual network models. Two new model types are presented: 1) The System-Environment model, which describes the environments interaction...... with conceptual modeling in relation to process control. It´s purpose is to present classify and exemplify the use of a set of qualitative model types. Such model types are useful in the early phase of modeling, where no structured methods are at hand. Although the models are general in character, this thesis......This thesis, "Modeller af komplicerede systemer", represents part of the requirements for the Danish Ph.D.degree. Assisting professor John Nørgaard-Nielsen, M.Sc.E.E.Ph.D. has been principal supervisor and professor Morten Lind, M.Sc.E.E.Ph.D. has been assisting supervisor. The thesis is concerned...

  17. Health Information in Somali (Af-Soomaali )

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Wound Healing - Af-Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Fasting Blood Sugar Test - Af-Soomaali (Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations GTT (Glucose Tolerance Test) - Af-Soomaali ( ...

  18. Anmeldelse af World Drug Report 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Internationale udfordringer i spændingsfeltet mellem organiseret kriminalitet og narkotika. Værdien af det illegale narkotikamarked. Skabelsen af et Illicit Drug Index. Ny organisationsstruktur bag udgivelsen af denne WDR. Udgivelsesdato: December......Internationale udfordringer i spændingsfeltet mellem organiseret kriminalitet og narkotika. Værdien af det illegale narkotikamarked. Skabelsen af et Illicit Drug Index. Ny organisationsstruktur bag udgivelsen af denne WDR. Udgivelsesdato: December...

  19. Modulation of experimental arthritis by vagal sensory and central brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Gabriel Shimizu; Dias, Daniel Penteado Martins; Franchin, Marcelo; Talbot, Jhimmy; Reis, Daniel Gustavo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista; Castania, Jaci Airton; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Resstel, Leonardo Barbosa Moraes; Salgado, Helio Cesar; Cunha, Fernando Queiróz; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Ulloa, Luis; Kanashiro, Alexandre

    2017-08-01

    Articular inflammation is a major clinical burden in multiple inflammatory diseases, especially in rheumatoid arthritis. Biological anti-rheumatic drug therapies are expensive and increase the risk of systemic immunosuppression, infections, and malignancies. Here, we report that vagus nerve stimulation controls arthritic joint inflammation by inducing local regulation of innate immune response. Most of the previous studies of neuromodulation focused on vagal regulation of inflammation via the efferent peripheral pathway toward the viscera. Here, we report that vagal stimulation modulates arthritic joint inflammation through a novel "afferent" pathway mediated by the locus coeruleus (LC) of the central nervous system. Afferent vagal stimulation activates two sympatho-excitatory brain areas: the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) and the LC. The integrity of the LC, but not that of the PVN, is critical for vagal control of arthritic joint inflammation. Afferent vagal stimulation suppresses articular inflammation in the ipsilateral, but not in the contralateral knee to the hemispheric LC lesion. Central stimulation is followed by subsequent activation of joint sympathetic nerve terminals inducing articular norepinephrine release. Selective adrenergic beta-blockers prevent the effects of articular norepinephrine and thereby abrogate vagal control of arthritic joint inflammation. These results reveals a novel neuro-immune brain map with afferent vagal signals controlling side-specific articular inflammation through specific inflammatory-processing brain centers and joint sympathetic innervations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intelligent styring af dynamisk LED belysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan; Hansen, Søren Stentoft

    Denne slutrapport giver en kort beskrivelse af arbejdet, der er udført af DTU Fotonik i projektet ”Intelligent styring af dynamisk LED belysning” støttet af EUDP. Arbejdet er udført i perioden 2011‐2012 i samarbejde med Lighten.......Denne slutrapport giver en kort beskrivelse af arbejdet, der er udført af DTU Fotonik i projektet ”Intelligent styring af dynamisk LED belysning” støttet af EUDP. Arbejdet er udført i perioden 2011‐2012 i samarbejde med Lighten....

  1. Nyttigt bidrag til professionalisering af revisionsudvalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af: KPMG. 2009, Audit Committee Institute. Revisionsudvalg i Praksis. 2. reviderede udgave.......Anmeldelse af: KPMG. 2009, Audit Committee Institute. Revisionsudvalg i Praksis. 2. reviderede udgave....

  2. Acute Vagal Nerve Stimulation Lowers α2 Adrenoceptor Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landau, Anne M.; Dyve, Suzan; Jakobsen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    Background Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) emerged as an anti-epileptic therapy, and more recently as a potential antidepressant intervention. Objective/hypothesis We hypothesized that salutary effects of VNS are mediated, at least in part, by augmentation of the inhibitory effects of cortical...... monoaminergic neurotransmission at appropriate receptors, specifically adrenoceptors. Our objective was to measure the effect of acute VNS on α2 adrenoceptor binding. Methods Using positron emission tomography (PET), we measured changes in noradrenaline receptor binding associated with acute VNS stimulation...... electrode in minipigs before and within 30 min of the initiation of 1 mA stimulation. Kinetic analysis with the Logan graphical linearization generated tracer volumes of distribution for each condition. We used an averaged value of the distribution volume of non-displaceable ligand (VND), to calculate...

  3. High job control enhances vagal recovery in media work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Harri; Sinisalo, Juha; Ahlberg, Jari; Jahkola, Antti; Partinen, Markku; Hublin, Christer; Savolainen, Aslak

    2009-12-01

    Job strain has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In modern media work, time pressures, rapidly changing situations, computer work and irregular working hours are common. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been widely used to monitor sympathovagal balance. Autonomic imbalance may play an additive role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. To study the effects of work demands and job control on the autonomic nervous system recovery among the media personnel. From the cross-sectional postal survey of the employees in Finnish Broadcasting Company (n = 874), three age cohorts (n = 132) were randomly selected for an analysis of HRV in 24 h electrocardiography recordings. In the middle-aged group, those who experienced high job control had significantly better vagal recovery than those with low or moderate control (P work rather than low demands seemed to enhance autonomic recovery in middle-aged media workers. This was independent of poor health habits such as smoking, physical inactivity or alcohol consumption.

  4. Modellering af elforbrug til netanalyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob

    I denne rapport undersøges mulighederne for at etablere en model for elforbruget, der kan anvendes ved analyser af det østdanske transmissionsnet. Rapporten henvender sig til ingeniører og beslutningstagere, der ønsker viden om betydningen af en nøjagtig elforbrugsmodel og om mulighederne for i p...... simuleringsresultater med mindre usikkerhed, og der opnås en integration mellem eksisterende systemer, idet data fra en række systemer bl.a. Panda, elforbrugsprognoser, elforbrugspaneler og stationsprognoser kan udnyttes til etableringen af en model....

  5. Rating af banker og banksystemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Banksystemer over hele verdenen er med nød og næppe blevet reddet af diverse statslige hjælpepakker. Derfor er der i disse år øget fokus på banker og banksystemers rating. Denne interesse bliver ikke mindre af, at de statslige garantier til bankerne i mange lande udløber i de kommende år. Rating ...

  6. Analyse og design af produktionssystemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, John; Riis, Jens Ove; Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft

    lys, men til vores store glæde og overraskelse har vi erfaret, at dele af materialet stadigvæk er anvendt på en del ingeniør- og økonomiuddannelser i Danmark. Nogle af de tanker og metoder som blev udviklet i ViPSprogrammet har overlevet og opfattes fortsat som relevante og anvendelige også til...

  7. Kants Kritik af dømmekraften

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Introduktion til Kants Kritik af dømmekraften bestående af otte artikler, der følger værkets egen tematiske opbygning......Introduktion til Kants Kritik af dømmekraften bestående af otte artikler, der følger værkets egen tematiske opbygning...

  8. Bilag til forskningsoversigt - Effekterne af Cooperative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    Ved en opsamling af de empiriske studier vedrørende effekten af CL inden for voksenundervisningsfeltet ses en overvægt af studier, som rapporterer en positiv effekt af CL i forhold til de voksne lærendes faglige udbytte. En meta-analyse over 168 amerikanske undersøgelser på universitetsniveau vis...

  9. Beregning af luftlydisolation mellem to rum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, A.

    Meddelelsen bringer resultaterne af en forundersøgelse af to beregningsmetoder. Den ene metode belyses nærmere gennem nogle forenklede eksempler, der viser omfanget af regnearbejdet og peger på nogle af de vanskeligheder det vil indebære at opstille en praktisk anvendelig beregningsmetode....

  10. På sporet af de gyldne opskrifter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulfelt, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Børsen Ledelse. Markedet for kogebøger er stort. For der produceres hvert år et hav nye af slagsen. Nogle udgives af kendte kokke, nogle af særlige eksperter inden for kost og motion, og andre af personer, der har en ægte interesse inden for gastronomi og mad. På ledelsesområdet findes en...

  11. Udvikling af systemleverancer, parametri og BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, Per

    2016-01-01

    Seminaret rummede indlæg fra både nogle af projektets tidligere ph.d.-studerende og forskellige kompetente professionelle personer fra forskellige grene af praksis. Seminaret gav samlet et fint billede af status indenfor udviklingen af systemleverancer og deres anvendelse i relation til BIM...

  12. Test af spørgeskema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i •design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, •formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, •metoder til at analysere resultaterne....

  13. Professor: Lær af Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada.......Transportdebatten: En mulig finansiering af fremtidige infrastrukturprojekter kunne være OPP. Danmark bør tage ved lære af erfaringer fra Canada....

  14. Fremtidens biblioteksbetjening af børn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Helene

    2008-01-01

    Rapporten er resultatet af et tværministerielt udvalgsarbejde nedsat af Kulturministeriet.  Kommissoriet har været at nytænke biblioteksbetjeningen af børn, så den passer til vidensamfundet.  Udvalgsarbejdet munder ud i ti bud for fremtidens biblioteksbetjening af børn....

  15. Regulering af det psykiske arbejdsmiljø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus T.

    nationale informationer om reguleringen af det psykiske arbejdsmiljø. Rapport er bygget op med ◊ et internationalt overblik over regulering af psykisk arbejdsmiljø ◊ en bredere diskussion af reguleringens dilemmaer ◊ en gennemgang af den aktuelle danske udvikling ◊ udfordringerne på området...

  16. Implementering af MultifunC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze-Pedersen, Sofie; Kohl, Katrine Syppli; Oldrup, Helene

    (MultifunC), som allerede havde vist lovende resultater i Norge og Sverige. I 2011 og 2012 åbnede to danske MultifunC-institutioner derfor i henholdsvis København og Aarhus. Denne rapport undersøger, hvordan implementeringen af MultifunC-programmet er forløbet i Danmark. Undersøgelsen viser, at ingen af de...... to danske institutioner lykkedes med at implementere MultifunC tilfredsstillende i løbet af implementeringsperioden. Det har fx været vanskeligt at implementere det tætte tværfaglige samarbejde mellem medarbejdere med forskellige fagprofessionelle baggrunde, som behandlingsprogrammet indebærer. Det har...... desuden været særdeles vanskeligt for de danske MultifunC-institutioner at få etableret det eksterne samarbejde med de sociale myndigheder i kommunerne, politiet, skoler og praktiksteder samt fritidstilbud i nærområdet, som også er en væsentlig del af behandlingsprogrammet. Undersøgelsen af finansieret af...

  17. The modulatory effects of noradrenaline on vagal control of heart rate in the dogfish, Squalus acanthias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnisola, Claudio; Randall, David J; Taylor, Edwin W

    2003-01-01

    The possible interactions between inhibitory vagal control of the heart and circulating levels of catecholamines in dogfish (Squalus acanthias) were studied using an in situ preparation of the heart, which retained intact its innervation from centrally cut vagus nerves. The response to peripheral vagal stimulation typically consisted of an initial cardiac arrest, followed by an escape beat, leading to renewed beating at a mean heart rate lower than the prestimulation rate (partial recovery). Cessation of vagal stimulation led to a transient increase in heart rate, above the prestimulation rate. This whole response was completely abolished by 10(-4) M atropine (a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist). The degree of vagal inhibition was evaluated in terms of both the initial, maximal cardiac interval and the mean heart rate during partial recovery, both expressed as a percentage of the prestimulation heart rate. The mean prestimulation heart rate of this preparation (36+/-4 beats min(-1)) was not affected by noradrenaline but was significantly reduced by 10(-4) M nadolol (a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist), suggesting the existence of a resting adrenergic tone arising from endogenous catecholamines. The degree of vagal inhibition of heart rate varied with the rate of stimulation and was increased by the presence of 10(-8) M noradrenaline (the normal in vivo level in routinely active fish), while 10(-7) M noradrenaline (the in vivo level measured in disturbed or deeply hypoxic fish) reduced the cardiac response to vagal stimulation. In the presence of 10(-7) M noradrenaline, 10(-4) M nadolol further reduced the vagal response, while 10(-4) M nadolol + 10(-4) M phentolamine had no effect, indicating a complex interaction between adrenoreceptors, possibly involving presynaptic modulation of vagal inhibition.

  18. Inhibition of reflex vagal bradycardia by a central action of 5-hydroxytryptophan.

    OpenAIRE

    Tadepalli, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    1 Vagally mediated reflex bradycardia was elicited in spinal cats with intravenous pressor doses of noradrenaline. Administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (1.5 and 3 mg total dose) into the fourth cerebral ventricle reduced the reflex bradycardia. 2 Inhibition of central amino acid decarboxylase with R044602 prevented the effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan. After intravenous administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan, vagal reflex bradycardia was not affected. 3 Results suggest that 5-hydroxytryptophan ...

  19. Breathing exercises with vagal biofeedback may benefit patients with functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelland, Ina E; Svebak, Sven; Berstad, Arnold; Flatabø, Geir; Hausken, Trygve

    2007-09-01

    Many patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) have postprandial symptoms, impaired gastric accommodation and low vagal tone. The aim of this study was to improve vagal tone, and thereby also drinking capacity, intragastric volume and quality of life, using breathing exercises with vagal biofeedback. Forty FD patients were randomized to either a biofeedback group or a control group. The patients received similar information and care. Patients in the biofeedback group were trained in breathing exercises, 6 breaths/min, 5 min each day for 4 weeks, using specially designed software for vagal biofeedback. Effect variables included maximal drinking capacity using a drink test (Toro clear meat soup 100 ml/min), intragastric volume at maximal drinking capacity, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), skin conductance (SC) and dyspepsia-related quality of life scores. Drinking capacity and quality of life improved significantly more in the biofeedback group than in the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01) without any significant change in baseline autonomic activity (RSA and SC) or intragastric volume. After the treatment period, RSA during breathing exercises was significantly correlated to drinking capacity (r=0.6, p=0.008). Breathing exercises with vagal biofeedback increased drinking capacity and improved quality of life in FD patients, but did not improve baseline vagal tone.

  20. Evidence for a vagal pathophysiology for bulimia nervosa and the accompanying depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Patricia L; Eckert, Elke D; Kim, Suck-Won; Meller, William H; Pardo, Jose V; Goodale, Robert L; Hartman, Boyd K

    2006-05-01

    The bilateral vagus nerves (Cranial X) provide both afferent and efferent connections between the viscera and the caudal medulla. The afferent branches increasingly are being recognized as providing significant input to the central nervous system for modulation of complex behaviors. In this paper, we review evidence from our laboratory that increases in vagal afferent activity are involved in perpetuating binge-eating and vomiting in bulimia nervosa. Preliminary findings are also presented which suggest that a subgroup of depressions may have a similar pathophysiology. Two main approaches were used to study the role of vagal afferents. Ondansetron (ONDAN), a 5-HT3 antagonist, was used as a pharmacological tool for inhibiting or reducing vagal afferent neurotransmission. Second, somatic pain detection thresholds were assessed for monitoring a physiological process known to be modulated by vagal afferents, including the gastric branches involved in meal termination and satiety. High levels of vagal activity result in an increase in pain detection thresholds. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was used to identify higher cortical brain areas activated by vagal stimulation produced by proximal gastric distention in normal eating subjects. Double-blind treatment of severe bulimia nervosa subjects with ONDAN resulted in a rapid and significant decrease in binge-eating and vomiting compared to placebo controls. The decrease in abnormal eating episodes was accompanied by a return of normal satiety. Pain detection thresholds measured weekly over the course of the treatment protocol were found to dynamically fluctuate in association with bulimic episodes. Thresholds were the most elevated during periods of short-term abstinence from the behaviors, suggesting that not engaging in a binge/vomit episode is accompanied by an increase in vagal activity. ONDAN also resulted in abolition of the

  1. Brug af alternativ isolering i forbindelse med renovering af ældre etageejendomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2003-01-01

    Resume af rapport om praktiske erfaringer med brug af alternative isoleringsmaterialer i en renoveringsopgave, udarbejdet af Byfornyelse København m.fl. under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  2. Avaliando a atividade vagal cardíaca na eletrocardiografia convencional Evaluating cardiac vagal activity on a conventional electrocardiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia P. Teixeira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a viabilidade da utilização de traçado convencional de eletrocardiografia (ECG para avaliação da atividade vagal cardíaca (AVC. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados, retrospectivamente, 1.395 indivíduos (995 homens, na faixa de idade de 46 + 17,2 anos (média ± desvio padrão, com traçados de ECG convencional para medida do Delta RR, que representa a diferença, em ms, entre o maior e o menor intervalo RR, e com resultados da avaliação autonômica parassimpática, o teste de exercício de quatro segundos (T4s, que quantifica a AVC por meio do índice vagal cardíaco (IVC. Foram obtidas curvas ROC para determinar os valores de Delta RR com melhor relação entre sensibilidade e especificidade para os pontos de corte de baixa e alta AVC, respectivamente, de 1,20 e 1,95. RESULTADOS: Os valores de delta RR correlacionaram-se significativamente com os de IVC (r = 0,40; p 120 ms como os melhores pontos de corte para baixa e alta AVC, com sensibilidade de 75% e 57%, especificidade de 62% e 79% e áreas das curvas ROC de 0,76 e 0,74, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A medida visual do delta RR em um traçado de ECG parece ser válida para a avaliação clínica preliminar e rápida da AVC, podendo ser útil em consultórios, emergências ou situações nas quais o uso de métodos mais sofisticados de avaliação autonômica não seja viável, oportuno ou conveniente.OBJECTIVE: To determine the viability of using a conventional electrocardiogram (ECG tracing for assessment of CVA. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 1395 individuals (995 males, aged 46 ± 17.2 years (mean ± standard deviation with conventional ECG tracings to measure the delta RR (which represents the difference in milliseconds (ms between the greatest and smallest RR interval and results of a second autonomic parasympathetic evaluation, the 4-second exercise test (T4s, that quantifies CVA by the cardiac vagal index (CVI. ROC curves were obtained to determine the

  3. The vagal innervation of the gut and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteoli, Gianluca; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2013-08-01

    The central nervous system interacts dynamically with the immune system to modulate inflammation through humoral and neural pathways. Recently, in animal models of sepsis, the vagus nerve (VN) has been proposed to play a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response, also referred to as the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. The VN, through release of acetylcholine, dampens immune cell activation by interacting with α-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Recent evidence suggests that the vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal tract also plays a major role controlling intestinal immune activation. Indeed, VN electrical stimulation potently reduces intestinal inflammation restoring intestinal homeostasis, whereas vagotomy has the reverse effect. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding concerning the mechanisms and effects involved in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the gastrointestinal tract. Deeper investigation on this counter-regulatory neuroimmune mechanism will provide new insights in the cross-talk between the nervous and immune system leading to the identification of new therapeutic targets to treat intestinal immune disease.

  4. Børn af veteraner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe; Lausten, Mette

    Siden starten af 1990’erne har Danmark sendt over 30.000 soldater og andet personel på internationale missioner – langt de fleste til Eks-Jugoslavien, Afghanistan og Irak. Denne undersøgelse handler om de børn, hvis fædre har været udsendt på militære missioner i udlandet. For hvordan håndterer...... spørgsmål er fokus for undersøgelsen. Undersøgelsen bygger på en spørgeskemaundersøgelse blandt børn af veteraner på henholdsvis 7, 11 og 15 år. Undersøgelsen er gennemført for og i samarbejde med Veterancentrets Videncenter, som er en del af Forsvarsministeriets Personalestyrelse....

  5. Styring af international transfer pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuther, Peter; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2011-01-01

    Nærværende artikel introducerer international transfer pricing, dels som et skatteretligt fænomen og dels som et værktøj til planlægning og økonomisk styring af koncernforbundne selskaber i en multinational virksomhed (MNV). Med udgangspunkt i en case-analyse af MNV’en gives der et konkret eksempel...... på hvordan transfer pricing håndteres i praksis. Artiklens formål er at give et praktisk eksempel på at transfer pricing handler om at efterleve regler, ikke omgå dem. På baggrund af case-analysen argumenteres der for, at såvel akademikere som praktikere bør tage virksomhedens tilgang til...... international transfer pricing i betragtning, når økonomiske styringssystemer i en MNV skal anvendes til planlægning og opfølgning....

  6. Strategi til udbredelse og udvikling af aquaponik

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholin, Aline; Nielsen, Per

    2014-01-01

    Denne rapport omhandler, hvorledes aquaponik i fremtiden skal udbredes med henblik på at produktionsmetoden bliver en del af den etablerede fødevaresektor. Ud fra et interview med PlanteLaboratoriet som er en del af foreningen Akvaponisk Selskab, samt observationer af en workshop afholdt af PlanteLaboratoriet forsøger vi at kortlægge den førte strategi til udbredelse og udvikling af aquaponik, samt undersøge hvorledes aquaponik som innovation bliver taget imod af mulige adoptere. Empirien sam...

  7. Kortlægning af evalueringer og undersøgelser af vejledning knyttet til vejledning af unge i UU-regi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; thomsen, rie

    2013-01-01

    Kortlægning af evalueringer og undersøgelser af vejledning knyttet til vejledning af unge i UU-regi 2004-2013. Et arbejdspapir......Kortlægning af evalueringer og undersøgelser af vejledning knyttet til vejledning af unge i UU-regi 2004-2013. Et arbejdspapir...

  8. Logning af teledata i lyset af Tele2-dommen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lentz, Lene Wacher

    2017-01-01

    De danske teleudbydere har siden 2007 været underlagt en pligt efter logningsbekendtgørelsen til at registrere data om al telekommunikation for at sikre at data er tilgængelige ved en eventuel senere efterforskning. Logningspligten må nu revideres og i vidt omfang afvikles som følge af EU-domstol...

  9. Undersøgelse af kommunernes administration af bygningsreglementets elevatorkrav

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grangaard, Sidse

    Denne rapport undersøger kommunernes praksis omkring administrationen af bygningsreglementets krav om elevator ved nybyggeri og ombygning. Blandt de 26 kommuner, der har deltaget i undersøgelsen, var der generelt konsensus om at stille krav om elevator ved nybyggeri. Kommunerne modtager kun meget...

  10. Betydningen af pesticider for forekomsten af vilde bier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Marianne; Dupont, Yoko Luise; Grant, Ruth

    Både i Danmark og andre steder er der observeret en nedgang i de insekter, der bestøver landmandens afgrøder og de vilde planter. Tilbagegangen falder sammen med, at landbrugsdriften er blevet mere intensiv, og anvendelsen af pesticider er øget. Vi ved imidlertid ikke, hvilken rolle pesticiderne ...

  11. Forekomst af resistente bakterier og forbrug af antibiotika til hunde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karl; Pedersen, Kristina; Jensen, Helene

    2007-01-01

    ), Pasteurella multocida (n=25), Bordetella bronchiseptica (n=14), Proteus spp. (n=29), og E. coli (n=449). I undersøgelsen anvendtes data fra VetStat databasen. Størstedelen af de antibiotika, der bruges til hunde er bredspektrede. Penicilliner med udvidet spektrum, cephalosporiner samt sulphonamider...

  12. Transkateterlukning af venstre atriums aurikel til forebyggelse af apoplexia cerebri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loupis, Anastasia M; De Backer, Ole; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    In patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and increased risk of stroke, oral anticoagulation (OAC) is the standard treatment for stroke prevention - however, this therapy also carries a high risk of bleeding. Percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) has been suggested to be an alte...

  13. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  14. Self-esteem fluctuations and cardiac vagal control in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerdtfeger, Andreas R; Scheel, Sophie-Marie

    2012-03-01

    It has been proposed that self-esteem buffers threat-responding. The same effect is ascribed to the vagus nerve, which is a primary nerve of the parasympathetic nervous system. Consequently, it has been suggested that self-esteem and cardiac vagal tone are interconnected on a trait, as well as on a state, level. In this study, we examined the relationship of vagal cardiac control and self-esteem fluctuations across a single day using ecological momentary assessment. Eighty-four participants were recruited, and self-esteem, negative affect, and vagal tone were recorded throughout a 22-hour period. Men provided higher self-esteem ratings than women, but the negative relationship between self-esteem and negative affect was stronger in women. Moreover, controlling for potential confounds (e.g., age, BMI, depressive symptoms, smoking status, regular physical activity), we observed that for men, self-esteem was significantly positively associated with cardiac vagal tone, whereas for women it was not. These findings suggest that the relationship between self-esteem and vagal innervation of the heart during daily life is sex-specific and might involve different central-autonomic pathways for men and women, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. VERSATILE, HIGH-RESOLUTION ANTEROGRADE LABELING OF VAGAL EFFERENT PROJECTIONS WITH DEXTRAN AMINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Gary C.; Phillips, Robert J.; Baronowsky, Elizabeth A.; Powley, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    None of the anterograde tracers used to label and investigate vagal preganglionic neurons projecting to the viscera has proved optimal for routine and extensive labeling of autonomic terminal fields. To identify an alternative tracer protocol, the present experiment evaluated whether dextran conjugates, which have produced superior results in the CNS, might yield widespread and effective labeling of long, fine-caliber vagal efferents in the peripheral nervous system. The dextran conjugates that were evaluated proved reliable and versatile for labeling the motor neuron pool in its entirety, for single- and multiple-labeling protocols, for both conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy, and for permanent labeling protocols for brightfield microscopy of the projections to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Using a standard ABC kit followed by visualization with DAB as the chromagen, Golgi-like labeling of the vagal efferent terminal fields in the GI wall was achieved with the biotinylated dextrans. The definition of individual terminal varicosities was so sharp and detailed that it was routinely practical to examine the relationship of putative vagal efferent contacts (by the criteria of high magnification light microscopy) with the dendritic and somatic architecture of counterstained neurons in the myenteric plexus. Overall, dextran conjugates provide high-definition labeling of an extensive vagal motor pool in the GI tract, and offer considerable versatility when multiple-staining protocols are needed to elucidate the complexities of the innervation of the gut. PMID:19056424

  16. Vagal activity is quadratically related to prosocial traits, prosocial emotions, and observer perceptions of prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Aleksandr; Oveis, Christopher; Carr, Evan W; Gruber, June; Mauss, Iris B; Shallcross, Amanda; Impett, Emily A; van der Lowe, Ilmo; Hui, Bryant; Cheng, Cecilia; Keltner, Dacher

    2014-12-01

    In the present article, we introduce the quadratic vagal activity-prosociality hypothesis, a theoretical framework for understanding the vagus nerve's involvement in prosociality. We argue that vagus nerve activity supports prosocial behavior by regulating physiological systems that enable emotional expression, empathy for others' mental and emotional states, the regulation of one's own distress, and the experience of positive emotions. However, we contend that extremely high levels of vagal activity can be detrimental to prosociality. We present 3 studies providing support for our model, finding consistent evidence of a quadratic relationship between respiratory sinus arrhythmia--the degree to which the vagus nerve modulates the heart rate--and prosociality. Individual differences in vagal activity were quadratically related to prosocial traits (Study 1), prosocial emotions (Study 2), and outside ratings of prosociality by complete strangers (Study 3). Thus, too much or too little vagal activity appears to be detrimental to prosociality. The present article provides the 1st theoretical and empirical account of the nonlinear relationship between vagal activity and prosociality.

  17. The antiarrhythmic effect of vagal stimulation after acute coronary occlusion: Role of the heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manati, Waheed; Pineau, Julien; Doñate Puertas, Rosa; Morel, Elodie; Quadiri, Timour; Bui-Xuan, Bernard; Chevalier, Philippe

    2018-01-03

    Strong evidence suggests a causal link between autonomic disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. However, the mechanisms underlying the antiarrhythmic effect of vagal stimulation are poorly understood. The vagal antiarrhythmic effect might be modulated by a decrease in heart rate. the proximal anterior interventricular artery was occluded in 16 pigs by clamping under general anaesthesia. Group 1: heart rates remained spontaneous (n = 6; 12 occlusions); Group 2: heart rates were fixed at 190 beats per minute (bpm) with atrial electrical stimulation (n = 10; 20 occlusions). Each pig received two occlusions, 30 min apart, one without and one with vagal stimulation (10 Hz, 2 ms, 5-20 mA). The antiarrhythmic effect of vagal activation was defined as the time to the appearance of ventricular fibrillation (VF) after occlusion. In Group 1, vagal stimulation triggered a significant decrease in basal heart rate (132 ± 4 vs. 110 ± 17 bpm, p coronary occlusion (1102 ± 85 vs. 925 ± 41 s, p acute coronary occlusion.

  18. Ledelse af ledelse i udviklingssamtaler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Hvem sætter dagsorden for udvikling? Udviklingssamtaler er præget af forskellige ledende interessser, der ikke blot konkurrerer om at vinde indflydelse, men også skaber tvetydigheder og doublebind, som ledere og medarbejdere må forholde sig til....

  19. Kvalifikation af skattesubjekter og traktatbeskyttelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen er baseret på generalrapporten og den danske nationalrapport om emnet “Qualification of taxable entities and treaty protection”, der er udarbejdet til IFA-kongressen 2014 i Mumbai. Artiklen opsummerer konklusionerne fra generalrapportens komparative studier, og forhold af særlig dansk...

  20. Afgivelse af formue til trusts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Rasmus Kristian

    2009-01-01

    Kravet om at en stifter skal have foretaget en "uigenkaldelig og effektiv udskillelse" for at dansk skatteret vil anerkende at der foreligger en trust vurderes. Kravet er senest lagt til grund i SKM 2009.249 SR. Forfatteren opfordrer til, at SKAT i stedet foretager en konkret vurdering af selve...

  1. Digitalisering af det eksisterende byggeri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2010-01-01

    Digitalisering af det eksisterende byggeri er en vanskelig og uendelig opgave. Det giver kun mening at digitalisere eksisterende byggeri, når man har et konkret behov, og da kun at indhente og lagre de informationer, som man strategisk eller konkret har behov for. Erhvervs og Byggestyrelsen har i...

  2. Evaluering af Animationsbaseret Sketching Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Hautopp, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Formålet med workshoppen var at styrke forskere fra Ild-Lab i at anvende animationsbaseret sketching og prototyping i deres undervisning således, at undervisningen understøtter designbaserede tilgange, der er mere produkt- og teknologiorienteret. På denne led kan vi styrke materialiseringen af hu...

  3. Udredning af xerostomi og hyposalivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Jensen, Siri Beier

    2011-01-01

    Mundtørhed kræver grundig undersøgelse Xerostomi er ofte associeret til betydelig nedsat spytsekretion, men kan forekomme, uden at der objektivt kan påvises nedsat spytsekretion. Udredning af patienter, som klager over mundtørhed, bør således altid inkludere en omhyggelig anamnese, en detaljeret ...

  4. Danskernes brug af nyhedsmedier 2018

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Kim Christian; Ørsten, Mark; Eberholst, Mads Kæmsgaard

    Hvis der er ét begreb, der i 2018 er blevet slået fast med syvtommersøm i den offentlige debat verden over, så er det ’fake news’! Bekymringen over fænomenet er vokset eksplosivt, samtidig med at det er blevet mere og mere uklart, hvad ’fake news’ egentlig dækker over. I dette års analyse af...... brugen af nyhedsmedier sætter Reuters Institute Digital News Report, og også denne specialrapport om Danmark, analytisk fokus på ’fake news’ og kaster lys over borgernes opfattelse af fænomenet på en måde, så vi får nuancerne i det komplekse begreb med. Et andet emne, der er blevet diskuteret...... for fake news og egne oplevelser af fake news, og danskernes viden om, hvordan nyheder bliver lavet (nyheds-literacy)....

  5. Overholdelse af kravene i bygningsreglementet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    Denne rapport undersøger, hvorvidt bestemmelserne i bygningsreglementet BR10 omkring energieffektivisering ved renoveringen af bygninger bliver overholdt. Der fokuseres især på parcelhuse, da problemet med manglende overholdelse menes at være størst her, ligesom potentialet for energibesparelser...

  6. Ledelsesroller i globalisering af cleantech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Poul Frøjk; Tambo, Torben

    2011-01-01

    nyeste teknologier, globalisering af salg, installation og produktion, og at vækstdagsordenen er blevet fastholdt. Den globale satsning på cleantech sætter disse ledelsesmæssige kvaliteter under pres. Dette studie ser på en mellemstor komponentleverandør til vindindustrien, og dennes kamp...

  7. Virksomhedernes opfattelse af arbejdsmarkedets "restgrupper"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver, hvorledes danske arbejdsgivere opfatter ældre ledige, ledige indvandrere og ledige med lang forudgående ledighed. Det teoretiske udgangspunkt er, at arbejdsmarkedets fundamentale informationsproblemer fører til brug af statistisk diskrimination og frygt for «lemons». Analyserne...

  8. På sporet af fremtidens konkurrenceevne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje Rasmussen, Martin Møller

    2013-01-01

    Michael Porter og Harvard Business School står bag nyt banebrydende initiativ, Social Progress Index, som måler et samfunds evne til at skabe livskvalitet for borgerne. Dette aktualiserer debatten om udviklingen af helt nye konkurrencemodeller. Der er tale om et valg mellem tre forskellige typer...

  9. Human autonomic rhythms: vagal cardiac mechanisms in tetraplegic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, J.; Brown, T. E.; Beightol, L. A.; Ha, C. Y.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    by atropine in both tetraplegic and healthy subjects, these rhythms reflect in an important way rhythmic firing of vagal cardiac motoneurones.

  10. Sygeplejestuderendes brug af portfolio i klinisk undervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Anne Charlotte Overgaard; Bruhn, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Brugen af portfolio var mangelfuld, men et udviklingsprojekt i samarbejde med den kommunale sygepleje motiverede både sygeplejestuderende og kliniske vejledere til at anvende læringsdelen af portfolio aktivt.......Brugen af portfolio var mangelfuld, men et udviklingsprojekt i samarbejde med den kommunale sygepleje motiverede både sygeplejestuderende og kliniske vejledere til at anvende læringsdelen af portfolio aktivt....

  11. Udviklingen af rumopfattelsen 1600-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Hovedtræk af rumopfattelsens idehistorie fra Descartes til Wittgenstein med speciel vægt på Kant, værkbegrebet, modelbegrebet og den fænomenologiske opfattelse af rummet som handlingens sted......Hovedtræk af rumopfattelsens idehistorie fra Descartes til Wittgenstein med speciel vægt på Kant, værkbegrebet, modelbegrebet og den fænomenologiske opfattelse af rummet som handlingens sted...

  12. Identifikation af referencevandløb til implementering af vandrammedirektivet i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Esben Astrup; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Skriver, Jens

    Definition og beskrivelse af referencetilstanden er centralt for implementering af vandrammedirektivet, da bedømmelse af den økologiske tilstand sker som afvigelsen fra den upåvirkede referencetilstand. I denne rapport præsenteres analyser af danske, udenlandske og historiske data med det formål...

  13. Aspekter af integrationsindsatsen i 6 kommuner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosdahl, Anders

    Dette arbejdspapir præsenterer resultaterne af en mindre kvalitativ undersøgelse af kommuners indsats for at bringe nyankomne flygtninge og indvandrere i beskæftigelse. Undersøgelsen er en opfølgning på en kvantitativ benchmarkanalyse, som er gennemført af Amternes og Kommunernes Forskningsinstit...

  14. Registrering af biometriske og biologiske personoplysninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik; Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i menneskeretsdomstolens Marper dom drøftes i artiklen indretningen af dansk rets regler om registrering af fingeraftryk og dna-profil med tilhørende biologisk materiale, og om dommen nødvendiggør ændringer af disse regler....

  15. Delegation af lovgivningsmagt: risiko for ringere regulering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Jarlbæk; Christensen, Geert Laier; Ravn, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    kortsigtetede, politiske incitamenter. Samtidig underlægges delegation ikke samme grad af kvalitetskontrolmekanismer som almindelig lovgivning; dette kunne ellers kompensere for den mere politiserede delegation. En øget brug af bekendtgørelser kan derfor betyde en stigende risiko for regulering af lavere...

  16. Registrering og Benchmarking af Modus 2 Forskning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen; Jørgensen, Jens E.

    2004-01-01

    Fremvæksten af modus 2 forskning stiller krav om en revurdering af højere læreanstalters evaluerings- og meriteringspraksis. Den endimensionale prioritering af modus 1 forskning såvel som dennes ligeså endimensionale evaluering via publikationer må afvises som utidssvarende. Som en konsekvens her...

  17. Energioptimering af bæredygtighedscertificeringsprocesserne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Holmberg; Carlsen, Mads; Alon, Shlomo Nevo

    2014-01-01

    Større fokus på bæredygtighedscertificeringer som DGNB har yderligere øget kompleksiteten af designet af bygninger. Introduktionen af teknologier som building information modelling (BIM) og proces metoder som integreret design proces (IDP) kan hjælpe med at reducere kompleksiteten og bedre...

  18. Regulering af jødiske kroppe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    på teori dels af Michel Foucault om, hvordan kultur sikrer sin egen overlevelse ved at indsamle viden om bl.a. kroppe med henblik på at regulere brugen af dem, dels af Judith Butler, der bl.a. forklarer, hvordan kultur trods alt er åben for såkaldt subversion, idet det bidrager til at udvide og...

  19. Magtens repræsentation af danskhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i Maurice Charlands begreb om konstitutiv retorik og Jacques Derridas dekonstruktion af repræsentationslogik foretager artiklen en kritisk analyse og fortolkning af repræsentationen af dansk nationalidentitet, sådan som den kommer til udtryk i Dronning Margrethes nytårstaler...

  20. Prøvetagning af grundvand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inga

    Bogen fokuserer på prøveatgning af grundvand og drikkevand til forskellige formål såsom undersøgelse af forurenede grunde, grundvandsmonitering samt produktion af drikkevand. Da grundvand i sagens natur findes under jordoverfladen, beskriver bogen også væsentlige forhold om hydrogeologi og...

  1. Modelanalyser af mobilitet og miljø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Linda; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    Begrebet bæredygtig transport diskuteres og ved hjælp af persontrafikmodellen ALTRANS belyses mulighederne for at fremme bæredygtig udvikling gennem en række scenarier. Desuden præsenteres en mere detaljeret analyse af ændringer i CO2-belastningen ved forbedring af den kollektive trafiks servicen...

  2. Hærdeteknologi og Holdbarhed af Betonkonstruktioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    Kurset Hærdeteknologi og Holdbarhed af Betonkonstruktioner afholdes i 1. og 2. periode af forårssemesteret 2006. Kurset sigter på at give de studerende en grundlæggende forståelse af, hvorledes man designer og udfører holdbare betonkonstruktioner....

  3. Påvisning af PCV2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Katrine; Buse, Katja Strøm; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2018-01-01

    Mængden af PCV2-virus i poolede serumprøver kan anvendes til at finde grise med meget PCV2-virus, hvorimod mængden af PCV2-virus i spyt og fæces er velegnede til at vurdere tilstedeværelsen af eller tidspunktet for en begyndende PCV2-infektion...

  4. Påvisning af PCV2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Katrine; Buse, Katja Strøm; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Mængden af PCV2-virus i poolede serumprøver kan anvendes til at finde grise med meget PCV2-virus, hvorimod mængden af PCV2-virus i spyt og fæces er velegnede til at vurdere tilstedeværelsen af eller tidspunktet for en begyndende PCV2-infektion...

  5. Dexmedetomidine decreases inhibitory but not excitatory neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Douglas B; Wang, Xin; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-07-29

    Dexmedetomidine, an α2 adrenergic agonist, is a useful sedative but can also cause significant bradycardia. This decrease in heart rate may be due to decreased central sympathetic output as well as increased parasympathetic output from brainstem cardiac vagal neurons. In this study, using whole cell voltage clamp methodology, the actions of dexmedetomidine on excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission to parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons in the rat nucleus ambiguus was determined. The results indicate that dexmedetomidine decreases both GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory input to cardiac vagal neurons, with no significant effect on excitatory input. These results provide a mechanism for dexmedetomidine induced bradycardia and has implications for the management of this potentially harmful side effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sluggish vagal brake reactivity to physical exercise challenge in children with selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Keri J; Connolly, Sucheta D; Padilla, Wendy O; Wrzosek, Marika I; Graczyk, Patricia A; Porges, Stephen W

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular response patterns to laboratory-based social and physical exercise challenges were evaluated in 69 children and adolescents, 20 with selective mutism (SM), to identify possible neurophysiological mechanisms that may mediate the behavioral features of SM. Results suggest that SM is associated with a dampened response of the vagal brake to physical exercise that is manifested as reduced reactivity in heart rate and respiration. Polyvagal theory proposes that the regulation of the vagal brake is a neurophysiological component of an integrated social engagement system that includes the neural regulation of the laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles. Within this theoretical framework, sluggish vagal brake reactivity may parallel an inability to recruit efficiently the structures involved in speech. Thus, the findings suggest that dampened autonomic reactivity during mobilization behaviors may be a biomarker of SM that can be assessed independent of the social stimuli that elicit mutism.

  7. Parenting Stressors and Young Adolescents’ Depressive Symptoms: Does High Vagal Suppression Offer Protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Anne C.; Buehler, Cheryl; Buchanan, Christy M.; Weymouth, Bridget B.

    2017-01-01

    Grounded in a dual-risk, biosocial perspective of developmental psychopathology, this study examined the role of higher vagal suppression in providing young adolescents protection from four parenting stressors. It was expected that lower vagal suppression would increase youth vulnerability to the deleterious effects of these parenting stressors. Depressive symptoms were examined as a central marker of socioemotional difficulties during early adolescence. The four parenting stressors examined were interparental hostility, maternal use of harsh discipline, maternal inconsistent discipline, and maternal psychological control. Participants were 68 young adolescents (Grade 6) and their mothers. Greater vagal suppression provided protection (i.e., lower depressive symptoms) from interparental hostility, harsh discipline, and maternal psychological control for boys but not for girls. PMID:27979628

  8. Parenting stressors and young adolescents' depressive symptoms: Does high vagal suppression offer protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Anne C; Buehler, Cheryl; Buchanan, Christy M; Weymouth, Bridget B

    2017-03-01

    Grounded in a dual-risk, biosocial perspective of developmental psychopathology, this study examined the role of higher vagal suppression in providing young adolescents protection from four parenting stressors. It was expected that lower vagal suppression would increase youth vulnerability to the deleterious effects of these parenting stressors. Depressive symptoms were examined as a central marker of socioemotional difficulties during early adolescence. The four parenting stressors examined were interparental hostility, maternal use of harsh discipline, maternal inconsistent discipline, and maternal psychological control. Participants were 68 young adolescents (Grade 6) and their mothers. Greater vagal suppression provided protection (i.e., lower depressive symptoms) from interparental hostility, harsh discipline, and maternal psychological control for boys but not for girls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Peakonsul Jaanus Kirikmäe andis teenetemärgi praost Thomas Vagale / Airi Vaga ; foto: Harold Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves annetas iseseisvuspäeva puhul USA I praostkonna praostile Thomas Vagale Valgetähe IV klassi teenetemärgi. Teenetemärgi andis Thomas Vagale üle Eesti Vabariigi peakonsul Jaanus Kirikmäe

  10. Cholecystokinin regulates satiation idependently of the abdominal vagal nerve in a pig model of total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, D.; Wielen, van der N.; Meulen, van der J.; Schuurman, T.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    The vagal nerve and gut hormones CCK and GLP-1 play important roles in the control of food intake. However, it is not clear to what extent CCK and GLP-1 increase satiation by stimulating receptors located on abdominal vagal nerve endings or via receptors located elsewhere. This study aimed to

  11. Cholecystokinin regulates satiation independently of the abdominal vagal nerve in a pig model of total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripken, D.; Wielen, N. van der; Meulen, J. van der; Schuurman, T.; Witkamp, R.F.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Koopmans, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    The vagal nerve and gut hormones CCK and GLP-1 play important roles in the control of food intake. However, it is not clear to what extent CCK and GLP-1 increase satiation by stimulating receptors located on abdominal vagal nerve endings or via receptors located elsewhere. This study aimed to

  12. Validation and characterization of a novel method for selective vagal deafferentation of the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepenbroek, Charlene; Quinn, Danielle; Stephens, Ricky; Zollinger, Benjamin; Anderson, Seth; Pan, Annabelle; de Lartigue, Guillaume

    2017-10-01

    There is a lack of tools that selectively target vagal afferent neurons (VAN) innervating the gut. We use saporin (SAP), a potent neurotoxin, conjugated to the gastronintestinal (GI) hormone cholecystokinin (CCK-SAP) injected into the nodose ganglia (NG) of male Wistar rats to specifically ablate GI-VAN. We report that CCK-SAP ablates a subpopulation of VAN in culture. In vivo, CCK-SAP injection into the NG reduces VAN innervating the mucosal and muscular layers of the stomach and small intestine but not the colon, while leaving vagal efferent neurons intact. CCK-SAP abolishes feeding-induced c-Fos in the NTS, as well as satiation by CCK or glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1). CCK-SAP in the NG of mice also abolishes CCK-induced satiation. Therefore, we provide multiple lines of evidence that injection of CCK-SAP in NG is a novel selective vagal deafferentation technique of the upper GI tract that works in multiple vertebrate models. This method provides improved tissue specificity and superior separation of afferent and efferent signaling compared with vagotomy, capsaicin, and subdiaphragmatic deafferentation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We develop a new method that allows targeted lesioning of vagal afferent neurons that innervate the upper GI tract while sparing vagal efferent neurons. This reliable approach provides superior tissue specificity and selectivity for vagal afferent over efferent targeting than traditional approaches. It can be used to address questions about the role of gut to brain signaling in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Central vagal sensory and motor connections: human embryonic and fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Zhou, Xiangtian; Qu, Jia; Ashwell, Ken W S; Paxinos, G

    2004-07-30

    The embryonic and fetal development of the nuclear components and pathways of vagal sensorimotor circuits in the human has been studied using Nissl staining and carbocyanine dye tracing techniques. Eight fetal brains ranging from 8 to 28 weeks of development had DiI (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3' tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate) inserted into either the thoracic vagus nerve at the level of the sternal angle (two specimens of 8 and 9 weeks of gestation) or into vagal rootlets at the surface of the medulla (at all other ages), while a further five were used for study of cytoarchitectural development. The first central labeling resulting from peripheral application of DiI to the thoracic vagus nerve was seen at 8 weeks. By 9 weeks, labeled bipolar cells at the ventricular surface around the sulcus limitans (sl) were seen after DiI application to the thoracic vagus nerve. Subnuclear organization as revealed by both Nissl staining and carbocyanine dye tracing was found to be advanced at a relatively early fetal age, with afferent segregation in the medial Sol apparent at 13 weeks and subnuclear organization of efferent magnocellular divisions of dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve noticeable at the same stage. The results of the present study also confirm that vagal afferents are distributed to the dorsomedial subnuclei of the human nucleus of the solitary tract, with particular concentrations of afferent axons in the gelatinosus subnucleus. These vagal afferents appeared to have a restricted zone of termination from quite early in development (13 weeks) suggesting that there is no initial exuberance in the termination field of vagal afferents in the developing human nucleus of the solitary tract. On the other hand, the first suggestion of afferents invading 10N from the medial Sol was not seen until 20 weeks and was not well developed until 24 weeks, suggesting that direct monosynaptic connections between the sensory and effector components of the vagal

  14. Glucose-dependent trafficking of 5-HT3 receptors in rat gastrointestinal vagal afferent neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Tanja; Troy, Amanda E; Fortna, Samuel R; Browning, Kirsteen N

    2012-01-01

    Background Intestinal glucose induces gastric relaxation via vagally mediated sensory-motor reflexes. Glucose can alter the activity of gastrointestinal (GI) vagal afferent (sensory) neurons directly, via closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels, as well as indirectly, via the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from mucosal enteroendocrine cells. We hypothesized that glucose may also be able to modulate the ability of GI vagal afferent neurons to respond to the released 5-HT, via regulation of neuronal 5-HT3 receptors. Methods Whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from acutely dissociated GI-projecting vagal afferent neurons exposed to equiosmolar Krebs’ solution containing different concentrations of D-glucose (1.25–20mM) and the response to picospritz application of 5-HT assessed. The distribution of 5-HT3 receptors in neurons exposed to different glucose concentrations was also assessed immunohistochemically. Key Results Increasing or decreasing extracellular D-glucose concentration increased or decreased, respectively, the 5-HT-induced inward current as well as the proportion of 5-HT3 receptors associated with the neuronal membrane. These responses were blocked by the Golgi-disrupting agent Brefeldin-A (5µM) suggesting involvement of a protein trafficking pathway. Furthermore, L-glucose did not mimic the response of D-glucose implying that metabolic events downstream of neuronal glucose uptake are required in order to observe the modulation of 5-HT3 receptor mediated responses. Conclusions & Inferences These results suggest that, in addition to inducing the release of 5-HT from enterochromaffin cells, glucose may also increase the ability of GI vagal sensory neurons to respond to the released 5-HT, providing a means by which the vagal afferent signal can be amplified or prolonged. PMID:22845622

  15. Produktion og afsætning af nicheprodukter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Baungaard; Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    . Egnsmærker opnår generelt en merpris på 20-30 pct. Det er dog bemærkelsesværdigt, at landmanden “kun” har omkring 13 pct. af forbrugerkronen på Lammefjords-kartofler. Her er der tale om unikke produkter, hvor det i praksis udelukkende er landmanden og landmandens placering og produktion, som skaber de unikke...

  16. Cardiac vagal tone, a non-invasive measure of parasympathetic tone, is a clinically relevant tool in Type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, C; Jessen, N; Brock, B

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To compare a novel index of parasympathetic tone, cardiac vagal tone, with established autonomic variables and to test the hypotheses that (1) cardiac vagal tone would be associated with established time and frequency domain measures of heart rate and (2) cardiac vagal tone would be lower...... identification of people with Type 1 diabetes who should undergo formal autonomic function testing....

  17. Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Classification of the External Vagal Nerve Stimulator for Headache. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-27

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the external vagal nerve stimulator for headache into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the external vagal nerve stimulator for headache's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.

  18. Barrierer for ibrugtagning af videooptaget universitetsundervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattleff, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    tilgængelige for studerende og andre interesserede. Der kan således iagttages nogle barrierer i forhold til ibrugtagning af videooptaget undervisning på universitetsniveau, idet underviserne for en umiddelbar betragtning tilsyneladende for det første har nogle forbehold af psykologisk, for det andet af...... begrebsafklaring, præsenterer forfatterne i denne artikel erfaringerne med tilbud af videostreamet og podcastet universitetsundervisning til studerende på Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitetsskole med henblik på en diskussion af de potentialer og især de barrierer, der kan iagttages i forhold til en mere systematisk...

  19. Bidrag til automatisering af ortofotomosaikfremstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Andersen, Simon G.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    Mosaikker af nabo-ortofotos, der udgør et vigtigt element i dagens automatiske kortfremstilling og -opdatering, laves i dag ved håndkraft. Her vil vi vise en vigtig byggeklods til automatisering af denne proces. Der findes metoder, der baserer sig på den såkaldte “bidirectional reflectance...... bestemt ortofoto typisk vil skulle kalibreres til flere nabo-ortofotos. Disse flere kalibreringer vil iblandt være i modstrid med hinanden. For eksempel kan en kalibrering til et ortofoto mod nord udsige, at pixels i ortofotoet skal have en højere værdi samtidigt med, at ortofotoet mod vest kræver en...

  20. Domesticeringen af Ford i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Det amerikanske automobilfirma Ford Motor Company (1903) med hovedkvarter i Detroit begyndte at drive forretning i Danmark omkring 1906. Dermed havde Ford tidligt fået et stærkt fodfæste i Nordeuropa, som udviklingen i salget af Ford automobiler de næste årtier til fulde skulle demonstrere....... Artiklen har fokus på Ford Motor Companys aktiviteter som agent for fordismen i en dansk kulturel kontekst. Hvordan reagerede de danske forretningsforbindelser, politikere, arbejdere og deres fagforeninger, samt forbrugerne på fordismen og de amerikanske forretningsmetoder. På hvilken måde blev forbrugeren...... defineret og inklineret af Ford Motor Company og de danske forhandlere gennem annoncer og andre marketingstiltag, og hvordan blev Ford automobilet kulturelt iscenesat som en ’dansk’ bil....

  1. Vaccination af slagtekalve mod BRSV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Anne Mette; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2009-01-01

    Rspiratory Suncytial Virus) blev fundet til at være den typisk fundne virus, der forårsager lungebetændelse. Vacciner imod BRSV er tilgængelige på markedet, men de er aldrig blevt afprøvet systematisk under danske forhold. Formålet med dette forsøg er at undersøge effekten af to forskellige...

  2. Domesticeringen af Ford i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    forstand voksede sig stor og stærk i den selv samme periode som Ford Motor Company gennem udbredelse af bilismen. Det var især FDM's medlemsblad MOTOR, som løbende bragte en stor mængde artikler om Ford Motor Company og reklamer for firmaets produkter i hele perioden 1906-1940. De to store aktører...

  3. Evaluating the Atrial Myopathy Underlying Atrial Fibrillation: Identifying the Arrhythmogenic and Thrombogenic Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Jeffrey J.; Arora, Rishi; Green, David; Greenland, Philip; Lee, Daniel C.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Markl, Michael; Ng, Jason; Shah, Sanjiv J.

    2015-01-01

    Atrial disease or myopathy forms the substrate for atrial fibrillation (AF) and underlies the potential for atrial thrombus formation and subsequent stroke. Current diagnostic approaches in patients with AF focus on identifying clinical predictors with evaluation of left atrial size by echocardiography serving as the sole measure specifically evaluating the atrium. Although the atrial substrate underlying AF is likely developing for years prior to the onset of AF, there is no current evaluation to identify the pre-clinical atrial myopathy. Atrial fibrosis is one component of the atrial substrate that has garnered recent attention based on newer MRI techniques that have been applied to visualize atrial fibrosis in humans with prognostic implications regarding success of treatment. Advanced ECG signal processing, echocardiographic techniques, and MRI imaging of fibrosis and flow provide up-to-date approaches to evaluate the atrial myopathy underlying AF. While thromboembolic risk is currently defined by clinical scores, their predictive value is mediocre. Evaluation of stasis via imaging and biomarkers associated with thrombogenesis may provide enhanced approaches to assess risk for stroke in patients with AF. Better delineation of the atrial myopathy that serves as the substrate for AF and thromboembolic complications might improve treatment outcomes. Furthermore, better delineation of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the development of the atrial substrate for AF, particularly in its earlier stages, could help identify blood and imaging biomarkers that could be useful to assess risk for developing new onset AF and suggest specific pathways that could be targeted for prevention. PMID:26216085

  4. Fermentering af korn øger fordøjeligheden af næringsstoffer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anni Øyan; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2010-01-01

    Et fordøjelighedsforsøg har vist, at energiværdien af byg og hvede steg ved fermentering. Effekten var størst ved fermentering af byg, hvor fordøjeligheden af organisk stof for enden af tyndtarmen steg statistisk sikkert med 9 %. Ved fermentering af hvede steg fordøjeligheden af organisk stof...... af vand og dels CO2-produktion og dermed tørstoftab. Anbefaling om beregning af energiværdi i fermenteret korn vil blive foretaget ud fra resultaterne af et produktionsforsøg med slagtesvin, som er under publicering. Fosforudnyttelse i fermenteret korn undersøges yderligere i et produktionsforsøg med...

  5. Vagal and sympathetic activity in burnouts during a mentally demanding workday

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanstra, Ydwine J.; Schellekens, Jan M. H.; Schaap, Cas; Kooistra, Libbe

    2006-01-01

    Objective: We study differences in task performance and related sympathetic-vagal reaction patterns between burnouts and controls during a mentally demanding workday. Method: Thirty-nine adults with burnout and 40 healthy controls performed mental tasks during a simulated workday. At pretest, just

  6. Impact of gonadectomy on sympatho-vagal balance in male and female normotensive rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijacka, Wioletta; Clifford, Bethan; Walas, Dawid; Tilburgs, Chantal; Joles, Jaap A; McMullen, Sarah; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    OBJECTIVE: It is well established that autonomic nervous system and sympatho-vagal balance plays an important role in maintaining arterial blood pressure (ABP) (Salman IM., 2016) and that autonomic regulation of ABP differs between males and females (Hart EC et al., 2014). We hypothesised that sex

  7. Vagal activation by sham feeding improves gastric motility in functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunding, J A; Nordström, L M; Haukelid, A-O; Gilja, O H; Berstad, A; Hausken, T

    2008-06-01

    Antral hypomotility and impaired gastric accommodation in patients with functional dyspepsia have been ascribed to vagal dysfunction. We investigated whether vagal stimulation by sham feeding would improve meal-induced gastric motor function in these patients. Fourteen healthy volunteers and 14 functional dyspepsia patients underwent a drink test twice, once with and once without simultaneous sham feeding. After ingesting 500 mL clear meat soup (20 kcal, 37 degrees C) in 4 min, sham feeding was performed for 10 min by chewing a sugar-containing chewing gum while spitting out saliva. Using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound, antral motility index (contraction amplitude x frequency) and intragastric volumes were estimated. Without sham feeding, functional dyspepsia patients had lower motility index than healthy volunteers (area under curve 8.0 +/- 1.2 vs 4.4 +/- 1.0 min(-1), P = 0.04). In functional dyspepsia patients, but not in healthy volunteers, motility index increased and intragastric volume tended to increase by sham feeding (P = 0.04 and P = 0.06 respectively). The change in motility index was negatively correlated to the change in pain score (r = -0.59, P = 0.007). In functional dyspepsia patients, vagal stimulation by sham feeding improves antral motility in response to a soup meal. The result supports the view that impaired vagal stimulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric motility disturbances in functional dyspepsia.

  8. Vagal modulation of resting heart rate in rats: the role of stress, psychosocial factors and physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca eCarnevali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In humans, there are large individual differences in the levels of vagal modulation of resting heart rate. High levels are a recognized index of cardiac health, whereas low levels are considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several factors are thought to contribute significantly to this inter-individual variability. While regular physical exercise seems to induce an increase in resting vagal tone, chronic life stress and psychosocial factors such as negative moods and personality traits appear associated with vagal withdrawal. Preclinical research has been attempting to clarify such relationships and to provide insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying vagal tone impairment/enhancement. This paper focuses on rat studies that have explored the effects of stress, psychosocial factors and physical exercise on vagal modulation of resting heart rate. Results are discussed with regard to: (i individual differences in resting vagal tone, cardiac stress reactivity and arrhythmia vulnerability; (ii elucidation of the neurobiological determinants of resting vagal tone.

  9. Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias and vagal dysfunction in Chagas disease patients with no apparent cardiac involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silveira Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia (EIVA and autonomic imbalance are considered as early markers of heart disease in Chagas disease (ChD patients. The objective of the present study was to verify the differences in the occurrence of EIVA and autonomic maneuver indexes between healthy individuals and ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement. METHODS : A total of 75 ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement, aged 44.7 (8.5 years, and 38 healthy individuals, aged 44.0 (9.2 years, were evaluated using echocardiography, symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing and autonomic function tests. RESULTS : The occurrence of EIVA was higher in the chagasic group (48% than in the control group (23.7% during both the effort and the recovery phases. Frequent ventricular contractions occurred only in the patient group. Additionally, the respiratory sinus arrhythmia index was significantly lower in the chagasic individuals compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS : ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement had a higher frequency of EIVA as well as more vagal dysfunction by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These results suggest that even when asymptomatic, ChD patients possess important arrhythmogenic substrates and subclinical disease.

  10. Profiling of G protein-coupled receptors in vagal afferents reveals novel gut-to-brain sensing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerod, Kristoffer L; Petersen, Natalia; Timshel, Pascal N; Rekling, Jens C; Wang, Yibing; Liu, Qinghua; Schwartz, Thue W; Gautron, Laurent

    2018-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) act as transmembrane molecular sensors of neurotransmitters, hormones, nutrients, and metabolites. Because unmyelinated vagal afferents richly innervate the gastrointestinal mucosa, gut-derived molecules may directly modulate the activity of vagal afferents through GPCRs. However, the types of GPCRs expressed in vagal afferents are largely unknown. Here, we determined the expression profile of all GPCRs expressed in vagal afferents of the mouse, with a special emphasis on those innervating the gastrointestinal tract. Using a combination of high-throughput quantitative PCR, RNA sequencing, and in situ hybridization, we systematically quantified GPCRs expressed in vagal unmyelinated Na v 1.8-expressing afferents. GPCRs for gut hormones that were the most enriched in Na v 1.8-expressing vagal unmyelinated afferents included NTSR1, NPY2R, CCK1R, and to a lesser extent, GLP1R, but not GHSR and GIPR. Interestingly, both GLP1R and NPY2R were coexpressed with CCK1R. In contrast, NTSR1 was coexpressed with GPR65, a marker preferentially enriched in intestinal mucosal afferents. Only few microbiome-derived metabolite sensors such as GPR35 and, to a lesser extent, GPR119 and CaSR were identified in the Na v 1.8-expressing vagal afferents. GPCRs involved in lipid sensing and inflammation (e.g. CB1R, CYSLTR2, PTGER4), and neurotransmitters signaling (CHRM4, DRD2, CRHR2) were also highly enriched in Na v 1.8-expressing neurons. Finally, we identified 21 orphan GPCRs with unknown functions in vagal afferents. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive description of GPCR-dependent sensing mechanisms in vagal afferents, including novel coexpression patterns, and conceivably coaction of key receptors for gut-derived molecules involved in gut-brain communication. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  11. TRPV1 Channels and Gastric Vagal Afferent Signalling in Lean and High Fat Diet Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Kentish

    Full Text Available Within the gastrointestinal tract vagal afferents play a role in control of food intake and satiety signalling. Activation of mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferents induces satiety. However, gastric vagal afferent responses to mechanical stretch are reduced in high fat diet mice. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels (TRPV1 are expressed in vagal afferents and knockout of TRPV1 reduces gastro-oesophageal vagal afferent responses to stretch. We aimed to determine the role of TRPV1 on gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity and food intake in lean and HFD-induced obese mice.TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice were fed either a standard laboratory diet or high fat diet for 20wks. Gastric emptying of a solid meal and gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity was determined.Gastric emptying was delayed in high fat diet mice but there was no difference between TRPV1+/+ and -/- mice on either diet. TRPV1 mRNA expression in whole nodose ganglia of TRPV1+/+ mice was similar in both dietary groups. The TRPV1 agonist N-oleoyldopamine potentiated the response of tension receptors in standard laboratory diet but not high fat diet mice. Food intake was greater in the standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- compared to TRPV1+/+ mice. This was associated with reduced response of tension receptors to stretch in standard laboratory diet TRPV1-/- mice. Tension receptor responses to stretch were decreased in high fat diet compared to standard laboratory diet TRPV1+/+ mice; an effect not observed in TRPV1-/- mice. Disruption of TRPV1 had no effect on the response of mucosal receptors to mucosal stroking in mice on either diet.TRPV1 channels selectively modulate gastric vagal afferent tension receptor mechanosensitivity and may mediate the reduction in gastric vagal afferent mechanosensitivity in high fat diet-induced obesity.

  12. Effekter af koordineret hjerneskaderehabilitering. Et systematisk litteraturreview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Chalotte; Hansen, Tia G. B.

    beskrevet. Der er ingen klar dansk definition af koordination. Begrebet bliver ofte brugt inkonsistent, og koordination er meget forskelligt tilrettelagt. Derfor kan man ikke generelt dokumentere, om koordinatorfunktioner er en sikker vej til forbedring af komplekse rehabiliteringsforløb. Sundhedsstyrelsen......Forskningsprojekt udvikler ny definition af begrebet koordination Som et led i forskningsprojektet ”Bio-psyko-sociale effekter af koordineret hjerneskaderehabilitering” er der udviklet en ny definition af koordinationsbegrebet. Forskningsprojektet ”Bio-psyko-sociale effekter af koordineret...... senhjerneskadeområdet – initiativer, der skal fremme en sammenhængende og helhedsorienteret rehabiliteringsindsats. Men hvad dækker begrebet koordination egentlig over? Det har et nyt forskningsprojekt set på og kommer med et bud på en ny definition. Dansk definition mangler Indholdet i koordination har været upræcist...

  13. Depressive patienters oplevelse af at modtage ECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine Damsbo

    Dette studie handler om, hvordan det opleves for den voksne depressive patient at gennemgå et ECT-behandlingsforløb (electroconvulsive therapy). Formålet med projektet er dels at undersøge, hvordan processen omkring ECT-behandlingen udspiller sig og dels at undersøge patienternes oplevelse......, reaktioner og tanker omkring ECT-behandlingen. Studiet bygger på den eksisterende viden om patienters oplevelse af ECT. Metoden er feltforskning med deltagende observation og etnografisk interview. Dette suppleres af to spørgeskemaer. Der blev inkluderet 8 patienter i undersøgelsen. Analysen udspringer af...... konstruktivistisk epistemiologisk vinkel. Ved en teoristyret analyse fremkom 2 overordnede temaer: Anspændthed og tryghed. Disse temaer blev behandlet i en procesorienteret forståelse af ECT-forløbet. Denne proces bestod af: Betingelser, interaktion og konsekvenser. Diskussionen er en kritisk diskussion af fund og...

  14. Gennemgang af den danske samfundsregulering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    investeringer hos en bred række af markedsaktører’1. Midlet til at opnå dette mål har været at skabe et regelsæt der gør det lettere for nye virksomheder at komme ind på det nye telemarked, og konkurrere på lige fod med TDC. Herudover, har man hjulpet de nye operatører på vej gennem en såkaldt asymmetrisk...

  15. Rekruttering og fastholdelse af seniorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luccat, Dorte

    Denne undersøgelse har til formål at afdække holdninger, praksis, barrierer og muligheder i forhold til rekruttering og fastholdelse af seniorer. Undersøgelsen er baseret på 19 kvalitative interviews med henholdsvis tillidsrepræsentanter og personaleledere på 13 forskellige arbejdspladser. De...... udvalgte arbejdspladser repræsenterer såvel den offentlige som den private sektor samt større (mindst 50 ansatte) og mindre (under 50 ansatte) arbejdspladser. Vi har endvidere besøgt virksomheder, der henholdsvis har og ikke har seniorer ansat, for at indsamle information om holdninger og praksis fra flere...

  16. Bekæmpelse af elmesyge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Ravn, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    Elmesygen kom til Danmark i 1970’erne. Efter 1985 er udbredelsen gået stærkt, og elmesygen har været katastrofal for bestanden af bytræer og træer i landskabet. Bekæmpelse består fortrinsvis af sanering, dvs. fjernelse af syge og billeangrebne træer inden 1. maj....

  17. Offentliggørelse af kursrelevante oplysninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Schaumburg-Müller, Peer

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer, særligt på baggrund af EU-Domstolens dom af 28. juni 2012 i C-19/11, Daimler AG, hvilken betydning en række mellemliggende trin, der fører frem til en kursrelevant og offentliggørelsespligtig begivenhed, har for tidspunktet for indtrædelsen af pligten til offentliggørelse. De...

  18. Konceptuelt design og udvikling af Intergomus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebæk, P.; Pedersen, T.; Stendal, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Denne rapport gennemgår udviklingsforløbet af et træningsapparat til genoptræning af læderede fingre. Rapporten omhandler kun den mekaniske del af udstyret. Opgaven er blevet løst i samarbejde med Ergoterapien på Køge Amtssygehus, Procare, Centret forAvanceret Teknologi og flere afdelinger på RIS...

  19. Forsegling af okklusal dentincaries i permanente molarer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Borum, Mette Kit; Dynes Møller, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Der findes ingen eksakte tal for forekomsten af fødevareallergi i den danske befolkning. Den kumulerede forekomst af fødevareallergi hos børn i de første tre leveår skønnes at være på 7-8 %, hvoraf hovedparten vokser sig fra det. Punktprævalensen af diagnosticeret fødevareallergi hos voksne er 3 ...

  20. NIR: optimerer produktionen af gammeldags modnede sild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, T.; Bro, Rasmus; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2005-01-01

    Måling med nærinfrarødt (NIR) lys er et godt supplement til de nuværende metoder til at følge modningen af sild saltede i tønder. Det viser resultaterne af et forskningsprojekt udført i samarbejde mellem Lykkeberg A/S, Danmarks Fiskeriundersøgelser og Den Kgl Veterinær- og Landbohøjskole. Ved hjælp...... af avanceret matematik er det nemt og hurtigt at bestemme modningsgraden af sild direkte fra en NIR måling....

  1. Evaluering af FIU`s akademiuddannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    I rapporten præsenteres en empirisk evaluerinf af to nye uddannelser i FIUs regi. I forlængelse af evalueringen præsenteres en forskningsmæssig analyse a uddannelsernes rolle i fagbevægelsens modernisering......I rapporten præsenteres en empirisk evaluerinf af to nye uddannelser i FIUs regi. I forlængelse af evalueringen præsenteres en forskningsmæssig analyse a uddannelsernes rolle i fagbevægelsens modernisering...

  2. Didaktisk design af et pervasive learning game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldenskov, Joakim; Westergren, Jens; Frank, Anders Bredahl

    2010-01-01

    Projektet er et studie i det teoretiske grundlag for, og en empirisk undersøgelse, af en prototype for et didaktisk design af et pervasive learning game. Der arbejdes overordnet med udviklingen af et didaktisk design af et læringsspil som kombinerer mobile teknologier, det fysiske rum og eleverne...... game med en analyse af legen og motivationen iboende spillet. I det læringsteoretiske felt inddrages og diskuteres forskellige tilgange til læring og pervasive games, som alle repræsenterer et socialkonstruktivistisk syn på læring. Det didaktiske design danner grundlag for et prototypedesign af et...... funktionalitet som en del af undervisningen. Det er afgørende at teknologien er pålidelig og er let at gå til, da det er kernefunktionen i denne type af spil. Legens rolle er vigtig for motivationen, men må ikke overtage de formelle krav til den undervisning, som spillet er del af. Det var entydigt omkring...

  3. Omsætning af fast ejendom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    Bogen er en systematisk gennemgang af lov om omsætning af fast ejendom, der regulerer ejendomsmægleres virke. Følgende emner er bl.a. behandlet: Hvem kan drive ejendomsmæglervirksomhed og ejendomsmæglernes pligter og ansvar.......Bogen er en systematisk gennemgang af lov om omsætning af fast ejendom, der regulerer ejendomsmægleres virke. Følgende emner er bl.a. behandlet: Hvem kan drive ejendomsmæglervirksomhed og ejendomsmæglernes pligter og ansvar....

  4. Snit af målinger: VK afhængig af DF og NA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    2007-01-01

    ANALYSE: Ekstra Risbjerg-snit af meningsmålinger grundet fortsat valgrummel - VK-regeringen vil blive afhængig af både DF og NA. Udgivelsesdato: 21. august 2007......ANALYSE: Ekstra Risbjerg-snit af meningsmålinger grundet fortsat valgrummel - VK-regeringen vil blive afhængig af både DF og NA. Udgivelsesdato: 21. august 2007...

  5. Forskningsoversigt - Effekterne af Cooperative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    Kan Cooperative Learning - en undervisningsform hvor lærerens tid ved tavlen mindskes og hvor de lærende samarbejder om stoffet - maksimere de lærendes indlæring og medvirke til en forbedring af deres interpersonelle og kommunikative kompetencer, samt øge deres motivation for læring? Den megen...... forskning fra USA viser, at Cooperative Learning øger lærerens bevidsthed om, hvilken adfærd, han er medvirkende til at skabe blandt de lærende. Og den øger lærerens bevidsthed omkring interaktioner i klasserummet, og giver god plads og taletid til hver enkelt lærende. Set i lyset heraf kan Cooperative......, at Cooperative Learning har lige så høj grad af positiv effekt, som den viser sig at have på grundskoleområdet. Det er sigtet med denne oversigt over den empiriske forskning. Til start præsenteres Cooperative Learning som metode, dens rødder og udvikling, dernæst skitseres den omfattende forskning omkring...

  6. Hvad er ledelse af brugerinddragelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Petersen, Christina; Navne, Laura Emdal

    2015-01-01

    Brugerinddragelse i det danske sundhedsvæsen står højt på den politiske dagsorden, men det er stadig en udfordring at implementere visionen i klinisk praksis. Ledelse af brugerinddragelse bliver aktuelt udpeget som en central nøgle til at føre visionen ud i livet. Samtidig er der kun relativt lidt......, at brugerinddragelse skal implementeres i en verden, hvor der allerede er en række andre mål tilstede. En central ledelsesudfordring er derfor, at nogle af målene med brugerinddragelse forudsætter nye måder at organisere ikke bare arbejdet og kompetencer på, men også relationer til patienter og pårørende. En væsentlig...... that organize relations Patient involvement in the health services in Denmark is high on the political agenda, though continues to be a challenge to implement. It is increasingly said that leadership is crucial to the implementation process. However, research into the role of leaders in patient involvement...

  7. Pilotprojekt - In situ test af stimuleret aerob nedbrydning til oprensning af pesticidpunktkilder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsitonaki, Katerina; Roost, Sandra; Larsen, Lars

    Denne rapport omhandler et pilotforsøg i felten, hvor det er undersøgt, hvorvidt aerob nedbrydning af phenoxysyre-pesticider kan stimuleres ved tilsætning af ilt suppleret med tilsætning af specifikke pesticidnedbrydende bakterier. Forsøget er udført på en forurenet lokalitet, Skelstofte, hvor der...

  8. Midler til lindring af mundtørhed og stimulation af spytsekretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2013-01-01

    effekt. I relation til risikoen for at udvikle caries, der er forhøjet hos den mundtørre patient, er det dog væsentligt at anbefale produkter uden sukker. Ligesom produktets indhold af syre og dermed det erosive potentiale er af betydning i forhold til udviklingen af dentale erosioner. Systemisk...

  9. Fluorerede stoffer i mademballage af pap og papir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Xenia; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

    andre typer af madbokse. Prøverne er blevet analyseret for flere forskellige typer af fluorerede stoffer, der anvendes til at imprægnere disse typer af emballager, så de ikke suger fedt eller vand. I ingen af prøverne er der fundet indhold af fluorerede stoffer, der overstiger analysemetodens...

  10. Cholecystokinin enhances visceral pain-related affective memory via vagal afferent pathway in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Bing

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC activation is critical for memory processing involved in long-term visceral affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue. Progress has been made and suggested that activation of vagal afferents plays a role in the behavioral control nociception and memory storage processes. In human patients, electrical vagus nerve stimulation enhanced retention of verbal learning performance. Cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK, which is a gastrointestinal hormone released during feeding, has been shown to enhance memory retention. Mice access to food immediately after training session enhanced memory retention. It has been well demonstrated that CCK acting on vagal afferent fibers mediates various physiological functions. We hypothesize that CCK activation of vagal afferent enhances visceral pain-related affective memory. Results In the presented study, infusion of CCK-8 at physiological concentration combining with conditional training significantly increased the CRD-induced CPA scores, and enhanced the pain affective memory retention. In contrast, CCK had no effect on CPA induced by non-nociceptive aversive stimulus (U69,593. The physiological implications were further strengthened by the similar effects observed in the rats with duodenal infusion of 5% peptone, which has been shown to induce increases in plasma CCK levels. CCK-8 receptor antagonist CR-1409 or perivagal application of capsaicin abolished the effect of CCK on aversive visceral pain memory, which was consistent with the notion that vagal afferent modulates affective aspects of visceral pain. CCK does not change

  11. Cholecystokinin enhances visceral pain-related affective memory via vagal afferent pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bing; Zhang, Xu; Yan, Ni; Chen, Shengliang; Li, Ying

    2012-06-09

    Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD) model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) activation is critical for memory processing involved in long-term visceral affective state and prediction of aversive stimuli by contextual cue. Progress has been made and suggested that activation of vagal afferents plays a role in the behavioral control nociception and memory storage processes.In human patients, electrical vagus nerve stimulation enhanced retention of verbal learning performance. Cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK), which is a gastrointestinal hormone released during feeding, has been shown to enhance memory retention. Mice access to food immediately after training session enhanced memory retention. It has been well demonstrated that CCK acting on vagal afferent fibers mediates various physiological functions. We hypothesize that CCK activation of vagal afferent enhances visceral pain-related affective memory. In the presented study, infusion of CCK-8 at physiological concentration combining with conditional training significantly increased the CRD-induced CPA scores, and enhanced the pain affective memory retention. In contrast, CCK had no effect on CPA induced by non-nociceptive aversive stimulus (U69,593). The physiological implications were further strengthened by the similar effects observed in the rats with duodenal infusion of 5% peptone, which has been shown to induce increases in plasma CCK levels. CCK-8 receptor antagonist CR-1409 or perivagal application of capsaicin abolished the effect of CCK on aversive visceral pain memory, which was consistent with the notion that vagal afferent modulates affective aspects of visceral pain. CCK does not change the nociceptive response (visceral pain

  12. Expression of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Vagal Motor Neurons Innervating the Trachea and Esophagus in Mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukudai, Shigeyuki; Ichi Matsuda, Ken; Bando, Hideki; Takanami, Keiko; Nishio, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The medullary vagal motor nuclei, the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), innervate the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. We conducted immunohistochemical analysis of expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα), in relation to innervation of the trachea and esophagus via vagal motor nuclei in mice. AR and ERα were expressed in the rostral NA and in part of the DMV. Tracing experiments using cholera toxin B subunit demonstrated that neurons of vagal motor nuclei that innervate the trachea and esophagus express AR and ERα. There was no difference in expression of sex steroid hormone receptors between trachea- and esophagus-innervating neurons. These results suggest that sex steroid hormones may act on vagal motor nuclei via their receptors, thereby regulating functions of the trachea and esophagus

  13. Clonidine, an α2 receptor agonist, diminishes GABAergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus

    OpenAIRE

    Philbin, Kerry E.; Bateman, Ryan J.; Mendelowitz, David

    2010-01-01

    In hypertension there is an autonomic imbalance in which sympathetic activity dominates over parasympathetic control. Parasympathetic activity to the heart originates from cardiac vagal neurons located in the nucleus ambiguus. Pre-sympathetic neurons that project to sympathetic neurons in the spinal cord are located in the ventral brainstem in close proximity to cardiac vagal neurons, and many of these pre-sympathetic neurons are catecholaminergic. In addition to their projection to the spina...

  14. Opfattelser af integration blandt unge med migrantbaggrund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Marianne; Bryderup, Inge

    2014-01-01

    I artiklen formidles analyser af otte interview med unge med migrantbaggrund. Der er fokus på de unges oplevelser og opfattelser af integration. Der er tale om komplekse processer og vekselvirkninger i forholdet mellem de samfundsmæssige kategoriseringer og individernes selvopfattelser. De unge o...

  15. Optimalt design af fødevarer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Engelund, Erling; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1993-01-01

    Udformningen af fødevarer opfattes som et designproblem, det består i at omsætte markedskrav, belyst gennem markedsanalyser, til egenskaber ved de fremstillede produkter under hensyntagen til de dermed forbundne omkostninger. Denne oversættelse af forbrugerønsker antages at kunne ske effektivt ge...

  16. Prioriteringer af efterretninger i kampen mod terror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz

    2015-01-01

    Efterretningstjenesterne indsamler stadig flere informationer i forsøget på at opdage og imødegå terrorister. Men mængden af informationer gør det ikke nødvendigvis lettere at forudsige terrorhandlinger. Efterretningstjenesterne bør derfor prioritere bearbejdning af oplysningerne højere, end de g...

  17. En bid af ældres hverdagsliv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Karen Marie; Top Christensen, Boye

    2000-01-01

    Undersøgelsen har udforsket hjemmeboende ældres egen forståelse og oplevelse af måltiddsaktiviteters betydning, og hvilke behov aktiviteterne dækker hos de ældre. Aktiviteterne har betydninger der knytter sig til maden men aktiviteterne har også betydninger i sig selv. Undersøgelsen er en af fler...

  18. Lokal integration af førtidspensionister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Joannes; Lindstrøm, Maia

    Denne rapport kortlægger livsvilkårene for en bred gruppe af førtidspensionister med fokus på deres hverdag og de vilkår, som omgiver dem. Derudover identificerer rapporten en gruppe af førtidspensionister, der selv ønsker mere social interaktion og indhold i hverdagen. Undersøgelsen viser, at de...

  19. Udforskning af dialoger om et regnehul

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindenskov, Lena

    2007-01-01

    Med introduktionen af det danske begreb 'regnehuller' om matematikvanskeligheder bliver det muligt at udforske dialoger i klasserummet med brug af værktøjer fra Augusto Boals Forumteater. Principperne i Boals tre faser præsenteres som værktøjer for læreres refleksive praksis. Ud fra datamateriale...

  20. Udvikling af pille-doserings teknologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brændgaard, Rikke; Churchill, Inge-Lise; Bolvig Poulsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Lab. X har i samarbejde med Brønderslev Kommune og Firmaet LT Automation i et idegenereringsforløb omhandlende viden om "pillens vej", indhentet viden om udfordringer og barrierer i forbindelse med udlevering af medicin fra apoteket til den afslutningsvis indtages af borgeren. Formålet med unders...

  1. Revisionsklienters anvendelse af serviceleverandører

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjersgaard, Lisbeth; Kiertzner, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer det overordnede indhold af den ajourførte ISA 402 om revisionsmæssige overvejelser ved revision af regnskaber for virk somheder, der anvender service-leverandører. Artiklen er opbygget efter de tre grundlæggende elementer i revisionsprocessen - planlægning, udførelse og rappo...

  2. Fastholdelse af erhvervsskoleelever i det danske erhvervsuddannelsessystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Koudahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Forskningsprojektet ”Retention of Vocational Students in the Danish VET System” undersøger de påvirkelige faktorer, der kan bidrage til at mindske frafaldet på de erhvervsfaglige uddannelser (EUD). For etablering af en sådan viden er dannet et konsortium bestående af såvel forskere med stor...

  3. Forført af hjernen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberoth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Blandingen af offentlig interesse, gode mediehistorier og smarte sælgere har ført til sejlivede neuromyter, der ikke bare distraherer almindelige mennesker, men også fører til udbredte misforståelser blandt professionelle som lærere og plejepersonale. I bedste fald leder neuromyter til spild af t...

  4. Økonomisk vurdering af energibesparende foranstaltninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Anvisningen gennemgår detaljeret hvordan man gennemfører analyser af lønsomhed og likviditetsvirkninger som led i udarbejdelsen af det teknisk-økonomiske grundlag for beslutninger om energibesparende investeringer. Anvisningen indeholder blandt andet en række enkle skemaer, der kan lette og syste...

  5. Tema 1: Programmering af robotenheder i grundskolen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Ejsing-Duun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available I denne artikel undersøger vi potentialerne for at lære matematik gennem programmering af robotter. Vi foreslår en model med tre indbyrdes afhængige læringspotentialer, som programmering fordrer. Det omfatter elevens evne til at; (1 tænke i algoritmer, (2 producere viden og artefakter gennem brug af matematik og (3 foretage abstraktion og indkapsling. Programmering er blevet en del af grundskolens læringsmål i flere lande. I Danmark er programmering et læringsmål i forenklede fælles mål for Fysik/Kemi og desuden en del af den nationale undervisningsvejledning for matematik. En analyse af potentialerne i at anvende programmering i forbindelse med disse fag er derfor væsentlig. I denne artikel fokuserer vi på samspillet mellem matematik og programmering gennem litteraturstudier og analyse af empiriske situationer fra undervisning i programmering af LEGO Mindstorms. Teoretisk anvendes den instrumentelle tilgang til teknologi i matematikundervisning. Analysen viser en række måder, hvorpå didaktisk opmærksomhed på epistemisk forhandling kan understøtte læring af matematik gennem programmering.

  6. Professionel udvikling af naturfagslærere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Lars Brian

    2016-01-01

    & Hollingsworth, 2002) som model for tænkning omkring TPD, samt anvende en mange-lags evalueringsoptik i overensstemmelse med Guskey (2002). Den eksisterende viden om, hvad der skal til for at professionelle udviklingsaktiviteter får virkning opsummeres som afsæt for en drøftelse af TPD-design. Endelig...

  7. Sproget afhænger af stedet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    2014-01-01

    I artiklen præsenteres resultaterne af et ph.d.-projekt ved Nordisk Forskningsinstitut ved Københavns Universitetet, der undersøger sammenhænge mellem sted og sprogforandring. Projektet er en undersøgelse af sprogforandring i virkelig tid, hvor gamle og nye optagelser med 23 informanter fra tre j...

  8. Måling af virksomheders administrative byrder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo

    2004-01-01

    Selskabsstyrelsen har offentliggjort rapporten: "Rapport om måling af virksomhedernes administrative byrder ved årsregnskabsloven og rapport om revisionshonorar for B-virksomheder."......Selskabsstyrelsen har offentliggjort rapporten: "Rapport om måling af virksomhedernes administrative byrder ved årsregnskabsloven og rapport om revisionshonorar for B-virksomheder."...

  9. Måling af stress hos mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmkvist, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Sammendrag Stress indgår som et element ved vurdering af dyrevelfærd. Endvidere kan stress mål anvendes i undersøgelser, hvor forskellige typer af avl, burmiljø og pasning af mink sammenlignes. Men hvad er stress egentlig og hvordan måles det? Er unormal adfærd koblet til stress hos mink? På...... temadagen præsenteres nye resultater og metoder til at vurdere stress hos mink. I en metode måles koncentrationen af nedbrydningsprodukter af hormonet cortisol i gødning fra mink. Der er en række fordele ved denne metode, frem for blodprøvetagning. Forsøg viste, at hovedparten af cortisol udskilles i fæces...... (83 %) frem for i urin (17 %), samt at omsætningen af radioaktivt mærket cortisol ikke er forskellig mellem mink med hhv. lav og høj forekomst af stereotypi. Denne viden kan bruges til bedre at forstå koblingen f.eks. unormal adfærd og stress hos mink....

  10. Beskrivelse og modellering af produktionssystemer, Tulip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    produktionssystemer til brug ved optimering af drift og planlægning/udvikling af nye produktionssystemer. For at opnå et nødvendigt informationsgrundlag udføres projektet i samarbejde med udvalgte virksomheder.Rapporten er udført i samarbejde med Tulip International A/S i Vejle, hvor den del, der omfatter...

  11. Digital visualisering i udbygning af Roskilde Universitetscenter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke

    Rapporten beskriver tre forsøg med 3D-visualisering i forbindelse med konkurrencer vedrørende udbygning af Roskilde Universitetscenter. Første forsøg var en metode til hurtigt at skabe en række digitale modeller i højt abstraktionsniveau. Forsøget resulterede i 15 små animationer, der blev benyttet...... af dommerkomiteen til volumenstudier af bygningskonkurrencens indsendte forslag. Andet forsøg var afprøvning af et modelleringsarbejde i lavere abstraktionsniveau, som resulterede i en animation af vinderprojektet. I sidste forsøg blev de praktiske erfaringer fra de to første forsøg implementeret hos...

  12. Evaluering af en sygeplejestyret hjertesvigtsklinik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streym, Súsanna við

    2008-01-01

    den helbredsrelaterede livskvalitet målt ved hjælp af Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHF) ved baseline og efter der minimum var gået 10 uger. Genindlæggelseshyppigheden og gennemsnitsindlæggelsestiden, blev målt ved at sammenligne alle førstegangsindlæggelser fra 1. marts 2006 til...... tilbuddet om fysisk træning, ville have taget imod det (n=18). Konklusion: Den helbredsrelaterede livskvalitet var signifikant forbedret efter opfølgende undersøgelse. Dog kan dette studie ikke påvise, eksakt hvilke interventioner der har haft indflydelse på forbedringen. Der er ingen forskel på...

  13. Om Hegels opfattelse af Gorgias, set på baggrund af tidligere filosofihistorikeres fremstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    En undersøgelse af Hegels tolkning af sofisten Gorgias giver anledning til at se på receptionen af sofisterne hos notable filosofihistorikere i det 18. århundrede. En sådan undersøgelse viser, at Hegel har en original og velvillig tolkning af sofisterne koncentreret omkring begrebet Bildung og det...... at give grunde for noget. Hegels udlægning af Gorgias bygger på hans tolkning af eleaterne, især af Zenon. Når Hegel har en særlig tolkning af eleaterne, skyldes det hans egne mangeårige filosofiske bestræbelser, og en identificering af en særlig, immanent objektiv dialektik hos Zenon, som han finder......, at Gorgias fører videre. Hegels filosofiske forståelse er tilstrækkelig udviklet til at kunne knytte positive kommentarer til alle dele af diskussionen i Gorgias' ræsonnement Om det ikkeværende, eller Om naturen. Det lykkes dog bedst i forhold til de to første af Gorgias' tre underteser. I hegelsk perspektiv...

  14. Resection of cervical vagal schwannoma via a post-auricular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong-Lyel

    2006-03-01

    Cervical vagal schwannomas are extremely rare and gross total resection is the standard treatment modality. However, because the conventional cervical approach leaves an incision scar in a visible area, other approaches need to be developed for young women who want the postoperative scar to be invisible. A 28-year-old female underwent complete resection of a 4x4 cm tumor in her right upper neck via a post-auricular approach using an inverted V-shaped incision along the post-auricular sulcus and hairline. The tumor was a schwannoma originating from the right cervical vagus nerve. Postoperatively, right vocal cord paralysis developed despite careful dissection but completely recovered within 6 months after surgery. The patient was satisfied with an invisible external scar which was hidden by her auricle and hair. A cervical vagal schwannoma can be successfully removed by making an incision in a potentially invisible area.

  15. Differential Activation of Medullary Vagal Nuclei Caused by Stimulation of Different Esophageal Mechanoreceptors

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Ivan M.; Medda, Bidyut K.; Shaker, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal mechanorecptors, i.e. muscular slowly adapting tension receptors and mucosal rapidly adapting touch receptors, mediate different sets of reflexes. The aim of this study was to determine the medullary vagal nuclei involved in the reflex responses to activation of these receptors. Thirty-three cats were anesthetized with alpha-chloralose and the esophagus was stimulated by slow balloon or rapid air distension. The physiological effects of the stimuli (N=4) were identified by recordin...

  16. The anxiolytic effect of Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 involves vagal pathways for gut-brain communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercik, P; Park, A J; Sinclair, D; Khoshdel, A; Lu, J; Huang, X; Deng, Y; Blennerhassett, P A; Fahnestock, M; Moine, D; Berger, B; Huizinga, J D; Kunze, W; McLean, P G; Bergonzelli, G E; Collins, S M; Verdu, E F

    2011-12-01

    The probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 normalizes anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mice with infectious colitis. Using a model of chemical colitis we test whether the anxiolytic effect of B. longum involves vagal integrity, and changes in neural cell function. Methods  Mice received dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 3%) in drinking water during three 1-week cycles. Bifidobacterium longum or placebo were gavaged daily during the last cycle. Some mice underwent subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Behavior was assessed by step-down test, inflammation by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and histology. BDNF mRNA was measured in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after incubation with sera from B. longum- or placebo-treated mice. The effect of B. longum on myenteric neuron excitability was measured using intracellular microelectrodes. Chronic colitis was associated with anxiety-like behavior, which was absent in previously vagotomized mice. B. longum normalized behavior but had no effect on MPO activity or histological scores. Its anxiolytic effect was absent in mice with established anxiety that were vagotomized before the third DSS cycle. B. longum metabolites did not affect BDNF mRNA expression in SH-SY5Y cells but decreased excitability of enteric neurons. In this colitis model, anxiety-like behavior is vagally mediated. The anxiolytic effect of B. longum requires vagal integrity but does not involve gut immuno-modulation or production of BDNF by neuronal cells. As B. longum decreases excitability of enteric neurons, it may signal to the central nervous system by activating vagal pathways at the level of the enteric nervous system. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Meal parameters and vagal gastrointestinal afferents in mice that experienced early postnatal overnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddinger, Jessica E; Fox, Edward A

    2010-08-04

    Early postnatal overnutrition results in a predisposition to develop obesity due in part to hypothalamic and sympathetic dysfunction. Potential involvement of another major regulatory system component--the vagus nerve--has not been examined. Moreover, feeding disturbances have rarely been investigated prior to development of obesity when confounds due to obesity are minimized. To examine these issues, litters were culled on the day of birth to create small litters (SL; overnutrition), or normal size litters (NL; normal nutrition). Body weight, fat pad weight, meal patterns, and vagal sensory duodenal innervation were compared between SL and NL adult mice prior to development of obesity. Meal patterns were studied 18 h/day for 3 weeks using a balanced diet. Then vagal mechanoreceptors were labeled using anterograde transport of wheatgerm agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase injected into the nodose ganglion and their density and morphology were examined. Between postnatal day 1 and weaning, body weight of SL mice was greater than for NL mice. By young adulthood it was similar in both groups, whereas SL fat pad weight was greater in males, suggesting postnatal overnutrition produced a predisposition to obesity. SL mice exhibited increased food intake, decreased satiety ratio, and increased first meal rate (following mild food deprivation) compared to NL mice, suggesting postnatal overnutrition disrupted satiety. The density and structure of intestinal IGLEs appeared similar in SL and NL mice. Thus, although a vagal role cannot be excluded, our meal parameter and anatomical findings provided no evidence for significant postnatal overnutrition effects on vagal gastrointestinal afferents. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Architecture of vagal motor units controlling striated muscle of esophagus: peripheral elements patterning peristalsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powley, Terry L; Mittal, Ravinder K; Baronowsky, Elizabeth A; Hudson, Cherie N; Martin, Felecia N; McAdams, Jennifer L; Mason, Jacqueline K; Phillips, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the architecture of the vagal motor units that control esophageal striated muscle, in spite of the fact that these units are necessary, and responsible, for peristalsis. The present experiment was designed to characterize the motor neuron projection fields and terminal arbors forming esophageal motor units. Nucleus ambiguus compact formation neurons of the rat were labeled by bilateral intracranial injections of the anterograde tracer dextran biotin. After tracer transport, thoracic and abdominal esophagi were removed and prepared as whole mounts of muscle wall without mucosa or submucosa. Labeled terminal arbors of individual vagal motor neurons (n=78) in the esophageal wall were inventoried, digitized and analyzed morphometrically. The size of individual vagal motor units innervating striated muscle, throughout thoracic and abdominal esophagus, averaged 52 endplates per motor neuron, a value indicative of fine motor control. A majority (77%) of the motor terminal arbors also issued one or more collateral branches that contacted neurons, including nitric oxide synthase-positive neurons, of local myenteric ganglia. Individual motor neuron terminal arbors co-innervated, or supplied endplates in tandem to, both longitudinal and circular muscle fibers in roughly similar proportions (i.e., two endplates to longitudinal for every three endplates to circular fibers). Both the observation that vagal motor unit collaterals project to myenteric ganglia and the fact that individual motor units co-innervate longitudinal and circular muscle layers are consistent with the hypothesis that elements contributing to peristaltic programming inhere, or are "hardwired," in the peripheral architecture of esophageal motor units. © 2013.

  19. Anvendelse af koldpresset rapsolie på varebiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Suldrup; Ivarsson, Anders; Schramm, Jesper

    Denne rapport sammenfatter resultaterne af undersøgelserne omkring anvendelse af koldpresset rapsolie på varebiler. Undersøgelsen, som er udført af Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Institut for Mekanisk Teknologi, er en del af et større projekt, som er finansieret af Trafikstyrelsens (tidligere Fær...... Færdselsstyrelsen) tilskudsordning til forsøg med biodiesel. Projektet har været administreret af Odense Kommune....

  20. The Relationship between a New Biomarker of Vagal Neuroimmunomodulation and Survival in Two Fatal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gidron

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The vagus nerve may slow tumor progression because it inhibits inflammation. This study examined the relationship between a new vagal neuroimmunomodulation (NIM index and survival in fatal cancers. Method. We retroactively derived markers of vagal nerve activity indexed by heart rate variability (HRV, specifically the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD, from patients’ electrocardiograms near diagnosis. The NIM index was the ratio of RMSSD to C-reactive protein levels (RMSSD/CRP. Sample 1 included 202 Belgian patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (PC, while sample 2 included 71 Belgian patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. In both samples, we examined the overall survival, while in sample 2, we additionally examined the survival time in deceased patients. Results. In PC patients, in a multivariate Cox regression controlling for confounders, the NIM index had a protective relative risk (RR of 0.68 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI of 0.51–0.92. In NSCLC patients, the NIM index also had a protective RR of 0.53 and 95% CI of 0.32–0.88. Finally, in NSCLC, patients with a higher NIM index survived more days (475.2 than those with lower NIM (285.1 (p<0.05. Conclusions. The NIM index, reflecting vagal modulation of inflammation, may be a new independent prognostic biomarker in fatal cancers.

  1. Research on alteration of neurons in vagal nuclei in medulla oblongata in newborns with respiratory distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Hilmi; Shabani, Ragip; Shabani, Driton; Dacaj, Ramadan; Manxhuka, Suzana; Azemi, Mehmedali; Krasniqi, Shaip; Kurtishi, Ilir

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal and axonal degenerative changes in motor vagal neurons (DMNV) and sensory vagal neurons (nTS) in the medulla oblongata in newborns were studied. Material was taken from the autopsies of newborns, live and dead newborns, in different gestational weeks (aborted, immature, premature and mature). 46 cases were studied. Material for research was taken from the medulla oblongata and lung tissue. Serial horizontal incisions were made in the medulla oblongata (± 4 mm), commencing from the obex, where the DMNV and nTS vagal nuclei were explored. Fixed cuttings in buffered formalin (10%) were used for histochemical staining. Serial cuttings were done with a microtome (7 µm). Pulmonary infections, being significant (p medulla oblongata in newborns in different gestational weeks are more emphasized in matures in comparison to aborted and immature (p < 0.05). Depending on the lifetime of dead newborns, neuronal morphological changes in vagus nerve nuclei are significant (p < 0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that pulmonary infections are often caused due to dramatic respiratory distress in newborns, while hypoxaemic changes in the population of vagus nerve neurons in respiratory distress are more emphasized in matures.

  2. Roles for gut vagal sensory signals in determining energy availability and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary J

    2018-08-15

    The gut sensory vagus transmits a wide range of meal-related mechanical, chemical and gut peptide signals from gastrointestinal and hepatic tissues to the central nervous system at the level of the caudal brainstem. Results from studies using neurophysiological, behavioral physiological and metabolic approaches that challenge the integrity of this gut-brain axis support an important role for these gut signals in the negative feedback control of energy availability by limiting food intake during a meal. These experimental approaches have now been applied to identify important and unanticipated contributions of the vagal sensory gut-brain axis to the control of two additional effectors of overall energy balance: the feedback control of endogenous energy availability through hepatic glucose production and metabolism, and the control of energy expenditure through brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Taken together, these studies reveal the pleiotropic influences of gut vagal meal-related signals on energy balance, and encourage experimental efforts aimed at understanding how the brainstem represents, organizes and coordinates gut vagal sensory signals with these three determinants of energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electroacupuncture improves burn-induced impairment in gastric motility mediated via the vagal mechanism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J; Yin, J; Sallam, H S; Bai, T; Chen, Y; Chen, J D Z

    2013-10-01

    Delayed gastric emptying (GE) is common in patients with severe burns. This study was designed to investigate effects and mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) on gastric motility in rats with burns. Male rats (intact and vagotomized) were implanted with gastric electrodes, chest and abdominal wall electrodes for investigating the effects of EA at ST-36 (stomach-36 or Zusanli) on GE, gastric slow waves, autonomic functions, and plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) 6 and 24 h post severe burns. (i) Burn delayed GE (P Electroacupuncture improved GE 6 and 24 h post burn (P Electroacupuncture improved burn-induced gastric dysrhythmia. The percentage of normal slow waves was increased with EA 6 and 24 h post burn (P = 0.02). (iii) Electroacupuncture increased vagal activity assessed by the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The high-frequency component reflecting vagal component was increased with EA 6 (P = 0.004) and 24 h post burn (P = 0.03, vs sham-EA). (iv) Electroacupuncture attenuated burn-induced increase in plasma IL-6 at both 6 (P = 0.03) and 24 h post burn (P = 0.003). Electroacupuncture at ST-36 improves gastric dysrhythmia and accelerates GE in rats with burns. The improvement seems to be mediated via the vagal pathway involving the inflammatory cytokine IL-6. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Typebestemmelse af de danske M. bovis stammer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokotovic, Branko

    Mycoplasma bovis er en af de mest betydningsfulde mykoplasma i kvægbruget på verdensplan. Bakterien findes oftest i forbindelse med mastitis, lunge- og ledbetændelse, men andre kliniske manifestationer kan også forekomme. Der findes ikke præcise, nyere beregninger over konsekvenser af M. bovis...... relateret sygdomme, men det anses, at infektionen hvert år globalt set pålægger en økonomisk byrde til kvægbruget i en multimillion skala. M. bovis blev for første gang påvist i Danmark i 1981 og gennem 1980’erne har bakterien forårsaget store udbrud af mastitis. I de følgende årtier blev bakterien isoleret...... sporadisk fra mange forskellige kvægbesætninger, men på trods af en tilsyneladende stigende forekomst i 1990’erne, blev der ikke registret omfattende sundhedsmæssige problemer som følge af M. bovis smitte. Siden 2011 er M. bovis dog kommet i fokus igen på grund af alvorlige udbrud af især ledbetændelse, men...

  5. Distribution af video – lige meget hvordan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diba Markus

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen omhandler løsninger til distribution af video og de faktorer, der kan være udslagsgivende, når man som underviser eller universitet skal vælge, hvilken man vil gøre brug af. De kommercielle løsninger såsom YouTube m.fl. er kendt af de fleste. Hvad færre måske ved er, at der eksisterer alternativer. På europæisk plan har en række institutioner og forskningsnet, herunder det danske, således valgt at lave deres egne løsninger. Der er afgørende forskelle i disse hhv. kommercielle og ikke-kommercielle videodistributionstjenesters tilgange til problemstillinger vedrørende adgangsbegrænsning, ophavsret, metadatering og bevaring samt kvalitetssikring af indhold - forskelle, der for en stor del udspringer af deres respektive opdrag og muligheder for brugerautentificering. Kun de færreste af alternativerne kan bruges af danske studerende og universitetsansatte. Som der argumenteres for i artiklen, er disse problemstillinger imidlertid vigtig baggrundsinformation, når der skal tages stilling til, hvordan man bedst distribuerer videoressourcer. I artiklen beskrives overordnede fællestræk ved hhv. de kommercielle og de ikke-kommercielle distributionsløsninger, og de helt grundliggende forskelle mellem dem diskuteres.

  6. Exercise training preserves vagal preganglionic neurones and restores parasympathetic tonus in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichige, Marcelo H A; Santos, Carla R; Jordão, Camila P; Ceroni, Alexandre; Negrão, Carlos E; Michelini, Lisete C

    2016-11-01

    Heart Failure (HF) is accompanied by reduced ventricular function, activation of compensatory neurohormonal mechanisms and marked autonomic dysfunction characterized by exaggerated sympathoexcitation and reduced parasympathetic activity. With 6 weeks of exercise training, HF-related loss of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive vagal preganglionic neurones is avoided, restoring the parasympathetic tonus to the heart, and the immunoreactivity of dopamine β-hydroxylase-positive premotor neurones that drive sympathetic outflow to the heart is reduced. Training-induced correction of autonomic dysfunction occurs even with the persistence of abnormal ventricular function. Strong positive correlation between improved parasympathetic tonus to the heart and increased ChAT immunoreactivity in vagal preganglionic neurones after training indicates this is a crucial mechanism to restore autonomic function in heart failure. Exercise training is an efficient tool to attenuate sympathoexcitation, a hallmark of heart failure (HF). Although sympathetic modulation in HF is widely studied, information regarding parasympathetic control is lacking. We examined the combined effects of sympathetic and vagal tonus to the heart in sedentary (Sed) and exercise trained (ET) HF rats and the contribution of respective premotor and preganglionic neurones. Wistar rats submitted to coronary artery ligation or sham surgery were assigned to training or sedentary protocols for 6 weeks. After haemodynamic, autonomic tonus (atropine and atenolol i.v.) and ventricular function determinations, brains were collected for immunoreactivity assays (choline acetyltransferase, ChATir; dopamine β-hydroxylase, DBHir) and neuronal counting in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMV), nucleus ambiguus (NA) and rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM). HF-Sed vs. SHAM-Sed exhibited decreased exercise capacity, reduced ejection fraction, increased left ventricle end diastolic pressure, smaller positive and negative

  7. Vurdering af omfang og konsekvenser af sprøjtning og gødskning af § 3-beskyttede naturarealer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, Morten Tune; Bak, Jesper Leth; Bladt, Jesper Stentoft

    2012-01-01

    Det er overvejende de ferske enge, der gødskes og sprøjtes, hvorimod dette kun undtagelsesvist er konstateret på andre naturtyper som overdrev og heder m.m. De ferske enge er samtidig den mest udbredte § 3-naturtype. Behandling i form af gødskning og sprøjtning foregår anslået på op til 20 % af a...

  8. Optimering af byggeprocessen via bedre/forøget brug af digitale modeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Mads; Grøn, Dorte Marie Frilund; Alon, Nevo

    2013-01-01

    Projektet klarlægger nødvendigheden for, og muligheder i, en struktureret og konsekvent planlægning ved anvendelsen af BIM i relation til projektering, udførelse og drift af byggeri. Der er udarbejdet et planlægningsværktøj, der muliggør en sådan planlægning. Samtidig kortlægges de nødvendige data......, der kan udtrækkes af en BIM model ved gennemførelsen af en LCA simulering. Projektet afsluttes med en præsentation af en udviklet demonstratorapplikation til gennemførelse af LCA simuleringer koblet med BIM modellen....

  9. Air Emissions/IGD: EF_AFS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EF_AFS is a subset of facilities from FRS_INTEREST and FRS_FACILITY_SITE which are updated on a monthly basis as part of the Locational Reference Tables (LRT)...

  10. Crowdings betydning for antallet af tvangsfikseringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Nielsen, Lea Marie; Hæssum, Birte

    2017-01-01

    I denne artikel vil vi beskrive et par af resultaterne fra forskningsprojektet ”Mechanical restraint. Preventive Factors in Theory and Practice” samt et eksempel fra praksis om crowdings betydning for hvor meget der bliver tvangsfikseret....

  11. Kortlægning af Hadforbrydelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drud Jensen, Mads Ted; Kromand, Rolf; Birgit, Lindsnæs

    Kortlægning af hadforbrydelser baserer sig på selvrapporteret udsathed for kriminalitet samt e-survey gennemført blandt minoritetsgrupper, der antages at være særlig udsat for hadforbrydelser....

  12. Danskernes brug af business case og gevinstrealisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Business case og gevinstrealisering har længe været faste begreber, når man taler effektivisering, implementering af strategi etc. Mange bruger det, flere brugere det delvist, og nogle bruger det slet ikke.......Business case og gevinstrealisering har længe været faste begreber, når man taler effektivisering, implementering af strategi etc. Mange bruger det, flere brugere det delvist, og nogle bruger det slet ikke....

  13. Selskaberne er en del af staten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein Jessen, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Lækket af Panama Papers fremhæver endnu engang den paradoksale rolle, ikke mindst multinationale selskaber spiller i politik og økonomi: De er både skabt af staten, og fremstår stadig som uden for og i opposition til staten. Hvis vi vil gøre noget ved problemet, må vi forstå, hvordan stat og...

  14. Arbejdsmiljø ved udbud af busdrift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegmann, Inger-Marie; Mathiesen, Karin; Hasle, Peter

    En undersøgelse af sammenhængen mellem arbejdsmiljø og udbud af busdrift i tre trafikselskabet. Resultaterne peger på at arbejdsmiljøet går fra udelukkende til at være et anliggende mellem arbejdsgiver og arbejdstager til et trepartsforhold hvor også udbyder (trafikselskabet) får et ansvar og har...

  15. Omrids af en trækultur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauff Greisen, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    høje prioritering af de fysiske rammer kan aflæses i de store linjer såvel som i de redelige detaljer. Artiklens spørgsmål er, hvorledes håndværkstraditionens kvaliteter og kerne kan overleveres til det moderne byggeri, der også i Vorarlberg i stigende grad præges af industrialiseringen, samt i hvilke...

  16. Forekomst af parodontitis og FORL hos perserkatte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flørnæs, Maria L. Topholm; Lund, Mette; Kortegaard, Hanne Ellen

    2007-01-01

    I dette studie er omfanget af tandrelaterede sygdomme heriblandt parodontitis og feline odontoklastiske resorptions læsioner (FORL) blandt 19 perserkatte (heraf 2 exotics) på 3 til 9 år undersøgt både klinisk og radiografisk. Ingen af kattene havde tidligere fået renset tænder i anæstesi. Alle ka...

  17. Blended Learning Analytics Model for Evaluation (BLAME). Et case-studie af universitetsunderviseres brug af Blackboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter; Bennedsen, Andreas Brændstrup; Hansen, Janne Saltoft

    2015-01-01

    I denne artikel vil vi præsentere en strategi til inddragelse af læringsanalytik (learning analytics) ved evaluering af universitetsunderviseres brug af et nyt LMS på Aarhus Universitet: Blackboard. Vi diskuterer en model (BLAME: Blended Learning Analytics Model of Evaluation) for, hvordan...... kategorisering af kurser og data om læringsanalytik indsamlet på Blackboard kan integreres. Endvidere belyser vi, hvilke implikationer en sådan læringsanalytik kan have for blended learning ved at analysere to forskellige uddannelses-cases/illustrationer. Dernæst diskuterer vi pædagogisk udvikling i forbindelse...

  18. Relationship between vagal tone, cortisol, TNF-alpha, epinephrine and negative affects in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, Sonia; Dantzer, Cécile; Mondillon, Laurie; Trocme, Candice; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Ducros, Véronique; Mathieu, Nicolas; Toussaint, Bertrand; Fournier, Alicia; Canini, Frédéric; Bonaz, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) involve brain-gut dysfunctions where vagus nerve is an important component. The aim of this work was to study the association between vagal tone and markers of stress and inflammation in patients with CD or IBS compared to healthy subjects (controls). The study was performed in 73 subjects (26 controls, 21 CD in remission and 26 IBS patients). The day prior to the experiment, salivary cortisol was measured at 8:00 AM and 10:00 PM. The day of the experiment, subjects completed questionnaires for anxiety (STAI) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). After 30 min of rest, ECG was recorded for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Plasma cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured in blood samples taken at the end of ECG recording. Compared with controls, CD and IBS patients had higher scores of state-anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A subgroup classification based on HRV-normalized high frequency band (HFnu) as a marker of vagal tone, showed that control subjects with high vagal tone had significantly lower evening salivary cortisol levels than subjects with low vagal tone. Such an effect was not observed in CD and IBS patients. Moreover, an inverse association (r =  -0.48; p<0.05) was observed between the vagal tone and TNF-alpha level in CD patients exclusively. In contrast, in IBS patients, vagal tone was inversely correlated with plasma epinephrine (r =  -0.39; p<0.05). No relationship was observed between vagal tone and IL-6, norepinephrine or negative affects (anxiety and depressive symptomatology) in any group. In conclusion, these data argue for an imbalance between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the vagal tone in CD and IBS patients. Furthermore, they highlight the specific homeostatic link between vagal tone and TNF-alpha in CD and epinephrine in IBS and argue for the relevance of vagus nerve reinforcement interventions in those diseases.

  19. Exposure to a high fat diet during the perinatal period alters vagal motoneurone excitability, even in the absence of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Ruchi; Fortna, Samuel R; Browning, Kirsteen N

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as being multifactorial in origin, involving both genetic and environmental factors. The perinatal period is known to be critically important in the development of neural circuits responsible for energy homeostasis and the integration of autonomic reflexes. Diet-induced obesity alters the biophysical, pharmacological and morphological properties of vagal neurocircuits regulating upper gastrointestinal tract functions, including satiety. Less information is available, however, regarding the effects of a high fat diet (HFD) itself on the properties of vagal neurocircuits. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that exposure to a HFD during the perinatal period alters the electrophysiological, pharmacological and morphological properties of vagal efferent motoneurones innervating the stomach. Our data indicate that perinatal HFD decreases the excitability of gastric-projecting dorsal motor nucleus neurones and dysregulates neurotransmitter release from synaptic inputs and that these alterations occur prior to the development of obesity. These findings represent the first direct evidence that exposure to a HFD modulates the processing of central vagal neurocircuits even in the absence of obesity. The perinatal period is critically important to the development of autonomic neural circuits responsible for energy homeostasis. Vagal neurocircuits are vital to the regulation of upper gastrointestinal functions, including satiety. Diet-induced obesity modulates the excitability and responsiveness of both peripheral vagal afferents and central vagal efferents but less information is available regarding the effects of diet per se on vagal neurocircuit functions. The aims of this study were to investigate whether perinatal exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) dysregulated dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurones, prior to the development of obesity. Whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from gastric-projecting DMV neurones in thin

  20. Relationship between vagal tone, cortisol, TNF-alpha, epinephrine and negative affects in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pellissier

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS involve brain-gut dysfunctions where vagus nerve is an important component. The aim of this work was to study the association between vagal tone and markers of stress and inflammation in patients with CD or IBS compared to healthy subjects (controls. The study was performed in 73 subjects (26 controls, 21 CD in remission and 26 IBS patients. The day prior to the experiment, salivary cortisol was measured at 8:00 AM and 10:00 PM. The day of the experiment, subjects completed questionnaires for anxiety (STAI and depressive symptoms (CES-D. After 30 min of rest, ECG was recorded for heart rate variability (HRV analysis. Plasma cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured in blood samples taken at the end of ECG recording. Compared with controls, CD and IBS patients had higher scores of state-anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A subgroup classification based on HRV-normalized high frequency band (HFnu as a marker of vagal tone, showed that control subjects with high vagal tone had significantly lower evening salivary cortisol levels than subjects with low vagal tone. Such an effect was not observed in CD and IBS patients. Moreover, an inverse association (r =  -0.48; p<0.05 was observed between the vagal tone and TNF-alpha level in CD patients exclusively. In contrast, in IBS patients, vagal tone was inversely correlated with plasma epinephrine (r =  -0.39; p<0.05. No relationship was observed between vagal tone and IL-6, norepinephrine or negative affects (anxiety and depressive symptomatology in any group. In conclusion, these data argue for an imbalance between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the vagal tone in CD and IBS patients. Furthermore, they highlight the specific homeostatic link between vagal tone and TNF-alpha in CD and epinephrine in IBS and argue for the relevance of vagus nerve reinforcement interventions in those diseases.

  1. Kontrol af konventionelle våben i Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Rune; Kierulf, John; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming

    Rapporten indledes med en historisk gennemgang af tilblivelsen og udviklingen af Traktat om Konventionelle Væbnede Styrker i Europa (CFE), som blev iværksat af NATO og det tidligere Warszawapagten i 1973. Traktaten fastsætter et loft for antallet af kampvogne, pansrede kampkøretøjer, artilleripje...

  2. Tællinger af vandfugle i Danmark 1998-99

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, S.; Laubek, B.

    1999-01-01

    Denne rapport præsenterer Miljø- og Energiministeriets seks feltstationer med beskrivelse af deres historie, naturforhold og overvågningsprogram. Resultaterne af fugleobservationer i 1997 beskrives i sammenhæng med tidligere års udvikling. Desuden præsenteres resultater af tre undersøgelser af he...

  3. Erfaringer fra nedrivning af boligblok i Rødbyhavn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Søren Skibstrup; Hansen, Klaus; Krogh, Hanne

    Denne meddelelse indeholder en beskrivelse af nedrivningen af et betonelementbyggeri. Der er foretaget en registrering af energiforbrug i forbindelse med nedrivningen og bortskaffelsen samt en registrering af de miljøbelastende stoffer i bygningsaffaldet. Inden bebyggelsen blev revet ned, blev de...

  4. Kommentarer til love og ændringer af love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    folkeoplysende foreningsarbejde og Folkeuniversitetet (folkeoplysningsloven) og ophævelse af lov om daghøjskoler m.v. og lov om den fri ungdomduddannelse samt ændring af lov om refusion af udgifter til uddannelse i forbindelse med aktivering m.m. samt ændring af forskellige love (Reform for daghøjskolerne...

  5. DVD anmeldelse - En Verden af Lyd og Musik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Anmeldelse af DVD-udgivelse af Claus Bang (2005): En Verden af Lyd og Musik. Musikterapi for døve, hørehæmmede og multihandicappede børn og unge. Al tale med undertekst eller tegnsprogstolkning. DVD-boks med 3 stk. dobbeltlag DVD beregnet til afspilning på PC. Udgivet af Musikterapi-foreningen En...

  6. Læring som improviseret udvikling af praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinck, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Med afsæt i forfatterens fænomenografiske studie af amerikanske musikeres oplevelse af det at jamme diskuterer artiklen, hvorvidt jam-bandets spontant improviserende praksis kan give ny forståelse af rytmiske musikeres læring som et overordnet socialt fænomen. Ved at betragte jam-bandets praksis i...

  7. Om den sociale og symbolske funktion af uddannelsesevalueringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten

    Ph.d.-afhandlingen handler om evalueringer, om evalueringer af uddannelse med et fokus og perspektiv som er begrænset til en afdækning af forhold om evalueringer, til en formulering af en teori om evalueringer. I afhandlingens analyser og diskussioner anvendes teorier af Émile Durkheim, Pierre...

  8. Miljørigtig ombygning af Mallinggård

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2002-01-01

    Resume af rapport om den byggetekniske anvendelse af alternativ isolering ved en ombygning af Mallinggårds lade til undervisningslokaler, udarbejdet af Bent Møller fra Rudolf Steiner Skolen i Skanderborg under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  9. Pathway and rate-limiting step of glyphosate degradation by Aspergillus oryzae A-F02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Gui-Ming; Chen, Yan; Li, Ru-Yi; Yuan, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Li, Bin; Wan, Yin

    2017-09-14

    Aspergillus oryzae A-F02, a glyphosate-degrading fungus, was isolated from an aeration tank in a pesticide factory. The pathway and rate-limiting step of glyphosate (GP) degradation were investigated through metabolite analysis. GP, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and methylamine were detected in the fermentation liquid of A. oryzae A-F02, whereas sarcosine and glycine were not. The pathway of GP degradation in A. oryzae A-F02 was revealed: GP was first degraded into AMPA, which was then degraded into methylamine. Finally, methylamine was further degraded into other products. Investigating the effects of the exogenous addition of substrates and metabolites showed that the degradation of GP to AMPA is the rate-limiting step of GP degradation by A. oryzae A-F02. In addition, the accumulation of AMPA and methylamine did not cause feedback inhibition in GP degradation. Results showed that degrading GP to AMPA was a crucial step in the degradation of GP, which determines the degradation rate of GP by A. oryzae A-F02.

  10. En kvantitativ metode til analyse af radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Lejre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I den danske såvel som den internationale radiolitteratur er bud på metoder til analyse af radiomediet sparsomme. Det skyldes formentlig, at radiomediet er svært at analysere, fordi det er et medie, der ikke er visualiseret i form af billeder eller understøttet af printet tekst. Denne artikel har til formål at beskrive en ny kvantitativ metode til analyse af radio, der tager særligt hensyn til radiomediets modalitet – lyd struktureret som et lineært forløb i tid. Metoden understøtter dermed både radiomediet som et medie i tid og som et blindt medie. Metoden er udviklet i forbindelse med en komparativ analyse af kulturprogrammer på P1 og Radio24syv lavet for Danmarks Radio. Artiklen peger på, at metoden er velegnet til analyse af ikke kun radio, men også andre medieplatforme samt forskellige journalistiske stofområder.

  11. Selektiv avl af racehunde og -katte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Fredholm, Merete

    2014-01-01

    Dette kapitel ser nærmere på de velfærdsmæssige problemstillinger, der opstår som følge af måden, hvorpå racehunde og -katte påvirkes gennem selektiv avl. Først beskrives, hvordan avlen af racehunde og -katte er organiseret. Dernæst gøres der rede for de dyrevelfærdsmæssige konsekvenser heraf....... Selektiv avl af hunde og katte tjener til at vedligeholde en stor racemæssig diversitet. De racemæssige forskelle gør det muligt for mennesker at vælge især hunde, der har nogle egenskaber, som passer til individuelle behov og ønsker. Desværre er der også en række bivirkninger for de pågældende dyrs...... problemer, som knytter sig til selektiv avl af racehunde og -katte, gennemgås og diskuteres mulige praktiske tiltag, som kan trække udviklingen i retning af at reducere forekomsten af disse problemer....

  12. Pædagogisk brug af test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordenbo, Sven Erik; Allerup, Peter; Andersen, Hanne Leth

    Publikationen er resultatet af et systematisk review foretaget i regi af Dansk Clearinghouse for Uddannelsesforskning. Reviewets grundspørgsmål er: Hvordan kan grundskolelæreres individ- og klassecentrerede brug af data fra test forbedre læreres didaktiske og/eller fagdidaktiske tiltag i klasser...... med almindelige elever? Spørgsmålet vedrører alene testtyper, som indgår i nationale test i de nordiske lande. Og hvordan indvirker indførelsen af testning på læreres didaktiske beslutninger og elevers læringsadfærd? Vi fandt frem til at grundskolelæreres individ- og klassecentrerede brug af testdata...... i klasser med almindelige elever forbedres, når de didaktiske og/eller fagdidaktiske tiltag bygger på test, som lærerne oplever et medejerskab for. Vi fandt fremtil, at introduktion af test fra instanser over klasseniveau med det formål at indvirke på undervisning og elevers læringsadfærd har...

  13. Enzymatisk omestring til produktion af biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk, Lene

    2007-01-01

      Biodiesel er i dag sammen med bioethanol et bud på, hvordan transportsektoren kan nedbringe sin netto CO2-emission til atmosfæren og lagrene af fossilt brændstof kan strækkes. På verdensplan forventes der en produktion af biodiesel på 7,9 mio. tons i 2007. Ved den industrielle fremstilling af...... biodiesel benyttes i dag kemiske katalysatorer såsom H2SO4, NaOH, MeONa eller KOH, der efterfølgende fjernes fra den producerede biodiesel med store mængder vand og derved produceres store mængder spildevand. Ved at benytte enzymer i processen kan man reducere mængden af spildevand, der skal renses. Enzymer...... benyttes ikke i de eksisterende processer, men det forventes, at udviklingen af processerne vil øge deres anvendelse i biodieselproduktion. I artiklen præsenteres fordele og ulemper ved anvendelse af enzymer til biodiesel produktion....

  14. Biotransformering af pyren i havbørsteormen Nereis virens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Giessing, Anders; Juul Rasmussen, Lene

    føden og ved overførsel over epithelet. Graden af systemisk akkumulering af PAHer afhænger af optaget men ligeledes af effektiviteten af biotransformering i den pågældende organisme. N. virens er kendt for effektivt at biotransformere PAHer. I nærværende undersøgelse blev biotransformering undersøgt med......-glucuronid er den fase II metabolit der primært produceres ved biotransformering af pyren. Dette indikerer at de vigtigste enzymer i biotransformering af pyren i N. virens er CYP enzymer og glucuronosyl transferase enzymer....

  15. Digital innovation af folkeskolernes åbenhed og sammenlignelighed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Henriksen, Helle Zinner; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Denne artikel præsenterer en normativ model (Public Sector Process Rebuilding, PPR), som kan indfange, hvor innovativt offentlige organisationer anvender digitale løsninger. Optag af digital innovation anskues ofte i litteraturen binært – enten er innovationen anskaffet eller ikke anskaffet. Vores...... argument er imidlertid, at optag af digitale innovationer kan gradbøjes. Vores sigte er derfor at få fokus væk fra anskaffelse og mere i retning af udnyttelse af digitaliseringen med henblik på at skabe forbedring af kerneydelserne og gavne slutbrugerne. Med empirisk afsæt i danske folkeskolers tolkning af...

  16. Offshore Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This shapefile displays the distribution of substrate types from Pt. Arena to Pt. Sal in central/northern California. Originally this data consisted of seven paper...

  17. Chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia blunts heart rate responses and alters neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Jameson, Heather; Dergacheva, Olga; Jain, Vivek; Alhusayyen, Mona; Mendelowitz, David

    2014-07-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea experience chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia (CIHH) during sleep that elicit sympathetic overactivity and diminished parasympathetic activity to the heart, leading to hypertension and depressed baroreflex sensitivity. The parasympathetic control of heart rate arises from pre-motor cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) located in nucleus ambiguus (NA) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNX). The mechanisms underlying diminished vagal control of heart rate were investigated by studying the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and neurotransmission to CVNs evoked by acute hypoxia-hypercapnia (H-H) and CIHH. In vivo telemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in adult rats during 4 weeks of CIHH exposure. Retrogradely labelled CVNs were identified in an in vitro brainstem slice preparation obtained from adult rats exposed either to air or CIHH for 4 weeks. Postsynaptic inhibitory or excitatory currents were recorded using whole cell voltage clamp techniques. Rats exposed to CIHH had increases in blood pressure, leading to hypertension, and blunted heart rate responses to acute H-H. CIHH induced an increase in GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA and DMNX, respectively; and a reduction in glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs in both nuclei. CIHH blunted the bradycardia evoked by acute H-H and abolished the acute H-H evoked inhibition of GABAergic transmission while enhancing glycinergic neurotransmission to CVNs in NA. These changes with CIHH inhibit CVNs and vagal outflow to the heart, both in acute and chronic exposures to H-H, resulting in diminished levels of cardioprotective parasympathetic activity to the heart as seen in OSA patients. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  18. Differential Activation of Medullary Vagal Nuclei Caused by Stimulation of Different Esophageal Mechanoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ivan M.; Medda, Bidyut K.; Shaker, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal mechanorecptors, i.e. muscular slowly adapting tension receptors and mucosal rapidly adapting touch receptors, mediate different sets of reflexes. The aim of this study was to determine the medullary vagal nuclei involved in the reflex responses to activation of these receptors. Thirty-three cats were anesthetized with alpha-chloralose and the esophagus was stimulated by slow balloon or rapid air distension. The physiological effects of the stimuli (N=4) were identified by recording responses from the pharyngeal, laryngeal, and hyoid muscles, esophagus, and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The effects on the medullary vagal nuclei of the stimuli: slow distension (N=10), rapid distension (N=9), and in control animals (N=10) were identified using the immunohistochemical analysis of c-fos. The experimental groups were stimulated 3 times per minute for 3 hours. After the experiment, the brains were removed and processed for c-fos immunoreactivity or thioinin. We found that slow balloon distension activated the esophago-UES contractile reflex and esophago LES relaxation response, and rapid air injection activated the belch and its component reflexes. Slow balloon distension activated the NTSce, NTSdl, NTSvl, DMNc, DMNr and NAr; and rapid air injection primarily activated AP, NTScd, NTSim, NTSis, NTSdm, NTSvl, NAc and NAr. We concluded that different sets of medullary vagal nuclei mediate different reflexes of the esophagus activated from different sets of mechanoreceptors. The NTScd is the primary NTS subnucleus mediating reflexes from the mucosal rapidly adapting touch receptors, and the NTSce is the primary NTS subnucleus mediating reflexes from the muscular slowly adapting tension receptors. The AP may be involved in mediation of belching. PMID:20971087

  19. Vagally mediated effects of brain stem dopamine on gastric tone and phasic contractions of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, L; Toti, L; Bove, C; Travagli, R A

    2017-11-01

    Dopamine (DA)-containing fibers and neurons are embedded within the brain stem dorsal vagal complex (DVC); we have shown previously that DA modulates the membrane properties of neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) via DA1 and DA2 receptors. The vagally dependent modulation of gastric tone and phasic contractions, i.e., motility, by DA, however, has not been characterized. With the use of microinjections of DA in the DVC while recording gastric tone and motility, the aims of the present study were 1 ) assess the gastric effects of brain stem DA application, 2 ) identify the DA receptor subtype, and, 3 ) identify the postganglionic pathway(s) activated. Dopamine microinjection in the DVC decreased gastric tone and motility in both corpus and antrum in 29 of 34 rats, and the effects were abolished by ipsilateral vagotomy and fourth ventricular treatment with the selective DA2 receptor antagonist L741,626 but not by application of the selective DA1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Systemic administration of the cholinergic antagonist atropine attenuated the inhibition of corpus and antrum tone in response to DA microinjection in the DVC. Conversely, systemic administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-l-arginine methyl ester did not alter the DA-induced decrease in gastric tone and motility. Our data provide evidence of a dopaminergic modulation of a brain stem vagal neurocircuit that controls gastric tone and motility. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Dopamine administration in the brain stem decreases gastric tone and phasic contractions. The gastric effects of dopamine are mediated via dopamine 2 receptors on neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. The inhibitory effects of dopamine are mediated via inhibition of the postganglionic cholinergic pathway. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Modulation of vagal tone enhances gastroduodenal motility and reduces somatic pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjaer, J B; Bergmann, S; Brock, C

    2016-01-01

    algometry, conditioned pain modulation using a cold pressor test and a liquid meal ultrasonographic gastroduodenal motility test were performed. KEY RESULTS: Cardiac vagal tone increased during active treatment with t-VNS and DSB compared to sham (p = 0.009). In comparison to sham, thresholds to bone pain...... increased (p = 0.001), frequency of antral contractions increased (p = 0.004) and gastroduodenal motility index increased (p = 0.016) with active treatment. However, no effect on muscle pain thresholds and conditioned pain modulation was seen. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: This experimental study suggests...

  1. An approach to contouring the dorsal vagal complex for radiotherapy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Steen, Lillie; Amdur, Robert J., E-mail: amdurr@shands.ufl.edu

    2016-04-01

    Multiple studies suggest that radiation dose to the area of the brainstem called the “dorsal vagal complex (DVC)” influences the frequency of nausea and vomiting during radiotherapy. The purpose of this didactic article is to describe the step-by-step process that we use to contour the general area of the DVC on axial computed tomography (CT) images as would be done for radiotherapy planning. The contouring procedure that we describe for contouring the area of the DVC is useful to medical dosimetrists and radiation oncologists.

  2. The effect of vagal nerve blockade using electrical impulses on glucose metabolism in nondiabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathananthan M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Matheni Sathananthan,1 Sayeed Ikramuddin,2 James M Swain,3,6 Meera Shah,1 Francesca Piccinini,4 Chiara Dalla Man,4 Claudio Cobelli,4 Robert A Rizza,1 Michael Camilleri,5 Adrian Vella1 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Division of General Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 3Division of General Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 4Department of Information Engineering, University of Padua, Padua, Italy; 5Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 6Scottsdale Healthcare Bariatric Center, Scottsdale, AZ, USA Purpose: Vagal interruption causes weight loss in humans and decreases endogenous glucose production in animals. However, it is unknown if this is due to a direct effect on glucose metabolism. We sought to determine if vagal blockade using electrical impulses alters glucose metabolism in humans. Patients and methods: We utilized a randomized, cross-over study design where participants were studied after 2 weeks of activation or inactivation of vagal nerve blockade (VNB. Seven obese subjects with impaired fasting glucose previously enrolled in a long-term study to examine the effect of VNB on weight took part. We used a standardized triple-tracer mixed meal to enable measurement of the rate of meal appearance, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disappearance. The 550 kcal meal was also labeled with 111In-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA to measure gastrointestinal transit. Insulin action and ß-cell responsivity indices were estimated using the minimal model. Results: Integrated glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations did not differ between study days. This was also reflected in a lack of effect on β-cell responsivity and insulin action. Furthermore, fasting and postprandial endogenous glucose production, integrated meal appearance, and glucose

  3. A model-based approach for the evaluation of vagal and sympathetic activities in a newborn lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rolle, Virginie; Ojeda, David; Beuchée, Alain; Praud, Jean-Paul; Pladys, Patrick; Hernández, Alfredo I

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a baroreflex model and a recursive identification method to estimate the time-varying vagal and sympathetic contributions to heart rate variability during autonomic maneuvers. The baroreflex model includes baroreceptors, cardiovascular control center, parasympathetic and sympathetic pathways. The gains of the global afferent sympathetic and vagal pathways are identified recursively. The method has been validated on data from newborn lambs, which have been acquired during the application of an autonomic maneuver, without medication and under beta-blockers. Results show a close match between experimental and simulated signals under both conditions. The vagal and sympathetic contributions have been simulated and, as expected, it is possible to observe different baroreflex responses under beta-blockers compared to baseline conditions.

  4. The Role of Baseline Vagal Tone in Dealing with a Stressor during Face to Face and Computer-Based Social Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoni, Daniele; Morganti, Francesca; Braibanti, Paride

    2017-01-01

    Facing a stressor involves a cardiac vagal tone response and a feedback effect produced by social interaction in visceral regulation. This study evaluated the contribution of baseline vagal tone and of social engagement system (SES) functioning on the ability to deal with a stressor. Participants ( n = 70) were grouped into a minimized social interaction condition (procedure administered through a PC) and a social interaction condition (procedure administered by an experimenter). The State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and a debriefing questionnaire were completed by the subjects. The baseline vagal tone was registered during the baseline, stressor and recovery phases. The collected results highlighted a significant effect of the baseline vagal tone on vagal suppression. No effect of minimized vs. social interaction conditions on cardiac vagal tone during stressor and recovery phases was detected. Cardiac vagal tone and the results of the questionnaires appear to be not correlated. The study highlighted the main role of baseline vagal tone on visceral regulation. Some remarks on SES to be deepen in further research were raised.

  5. The Role of Baseline Vagal Tone in Dealing with a Stressor during Face to Face and Computer-Based Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Rigoni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Facing a stressor involves a cardiac vagal tone response and a feedback effect produced by social interaction in visceral regulation. This study evaluated the contribution of baseline vagal tone and of social engagement system (SES functioning on the ability to deal with a stressor. Participants (n = 70 were grouped into a minimized social interaction condition (procedure administered through a PC and a social interaction condition (procedure administered by an experimenter. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and a debriefing questionnaire were completed by the subjects. The baseline vagal tone was registered during the baseline, stressor and recovery phases. The collected results highlighted a significant effect of the baseline vagal tone on vagal suppression. No effect of minimized vs. social interaction conditions on cardiac vagal tone during stressor and recovery phases was detected. Cardiac vagal tone and the results of the questionnaires appear to be not correlated. The study highlighted the main role of baseline vagal tone on visceral regulation. Some remarks on SES to be deepen in further research were raised.

  6. International fragmentation af produktionen og vertikal disintegration af styringsformer i produktionskæderne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    Stigende international økonomisk integration har betydet en stigende fragmentering af produktionen, hvor store dele udføres i forskellige lande. Dertil kommer en stigende disintegration af vertikale styringsformer i produktions-værdikæder (Global Value Chains). Dette konferencepaper diskutere...

  7. For bestemmelse af drivhusgasudledning ved udtagning/Ekstensivering af landbrugsjorder på kulstofrige lavbundsjorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenkærne, Steen; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    Sammenfatning: Rapporten beskriver hvordan man kan beregne ændringen i drivhusgasemissionen ved omlægning af landbrugsjord til naturarealer. Rapporten er primært rettet mod tilskudsordningen vedr. udtagning af organiske lavbundsjorde, men kan også anvendes i andre sammenhænge. Rapporten anvender de...

  8. Identifikation af forkullet lig ved hjælp af ganeaftryk og koralnyresten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Bindslev, Dorthe Arenholt; Kristensen, Ingrid Bayer

    1997-01-01

    En retstodontologisk undersøgelse af en dødfunden, uidentificeret person, bygger almindeligvis på en undersøgelse af tandsættet. Hvis personen er tandløs må andre identifikationsmetoder tages i anvendelse. Fingeraftryk er et almindelig kendt eksempel på en alternativ metode, som bygger på, at cri...

  9. Evaluering af ordning med psykologbehandling af personer med let til moderat depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjeldsted, Rita; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

    Herværende rapport evaluerer den pr. 1.4.2008 indførte ordning med mulighed for henvisning til psykologbehandling med 60 % tilskud for patienter med let til moderat depression. Evalueringen har betjent sig af flere gensidigt supplerende metoder: spørgeskemaundersøgelser overfor patienter, psykolo......Herværende rapport evaluerer den pr. 1.4.2008 indførte ordning med mulighed for henvisning til psykologbehandling med 60 % tilskud for patienter med let til moderat depression. Evalueringen har betjent sig af flere gensidigt supplerende metoder: spørgeskemaundersøgelser overfor patienter...... tidligere evaluering af forsøgsordning af psykologbehandling af depression i perioden 2005-06. 18.419 personer i alderen 18-37 år blev henvist til psykolog i den undersøgte ordning i perioden 1.2.2009 – 31.1.2010, svarende til en henvisningshyppighed på 1,6 % af baggrundsbefolkningen i samme aldersgruppe....... Ordningen giver mulighed for én rehenvisning, og 9 % blev rehenvist i perioden. Spørgeskemaresultater viser, at kun 33 % af de henviste falder ind under henvisningskriteriet ” let til moderat depression” på tidspunktet for opstart af psykologbehandling, 39 % har ingen tegn på depression, og 28 % har svær...

  10. Fermentering af korn øger fordøjeligheden af næringsstoffer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anni Øyan; Jørgensen, Henry; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2010-01-01

    foderblandingerne med ikke-fermentet korn var dog lavere end normalt, hvilket kan have påvirket resultaterne, så effekten af fermentering er større i dette forsøg, end hvad der normalt kan forventes. Kornet var groft formalet (ca. 30 % under 1 mm), hvilket kan have påvirket resultaterne. Ved finere formaling af...

  11. Less Empathic and More Reactive: The Different Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on Facial Mimicry and Vagal Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ardizzi

    Full Text Available Facial mimicry and vagal regulation represent two crucial physiological responses to others' facial expressions of emotions. Facial mimicry, defined as the automatic, rapid and congruent electromyographic activation to others' facial expressions, is implicated in empathy, emotional reciprocity and emotions recognition. Vagal regulation, quantified by the computation of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia (RSA, exemplifies the autonomic adaptation to contingent social cues. Although it has been demonstrated that childhood maltreatment induces alterations in the processing of the facial expression of emotions, both at an explicit and implicit level, the effects of maltreatment on children's facial mimicry and vagal regulation in response to facial expressions of emotions remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to fill this gap, involving 24 street-children (maltreated group and 20 age-matched controls (control group. We recorded their spontaneous facial electromyographic activations of corrugator and zygomaticus muscles and RSA responses during the visualization of the facial expressions of anger, fear, joy and sadness. Results demonstrated a different impact of childhood maltreatment on facial mimicry and vagal regulation. Maltreated children did not show the typical positive-negative modulation of corrugator mimicry. Furthermore, when only negative facial expressions were considered, maltreated children demonstrated lower corrugator mimicry than controls. With respect to vagal regulation, whereas maltreated children manifested the expected and functional inverse correlation between RSA value at rest and RSA response to angry facial expressions, controls did not. These results describe an early and divergent functional adaptation to hostile environment of the two investigated physiological mechanisms. On the one side, maltreatment leads to the suppression of the spontaneous facial mimicry normally concurring to empathic understanding of

  12. Does an interdisciplinary outpatient atrial fibrillation (AF) clinic affect the number of acute AF admissions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydensberg, Vivi Skibdal; Brandes, Axel

    2018-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF-clinic) on the number of acute hospitalizations for atrial fibrillation compared with usual outpatient care for this condition before the establishment of the AF-clinic....... BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend a structured outpatient clinic follow-up in multidisciplinary teams for patients with atrial fibrillation due to fewer hospitalizations and death. However the evidence base is weak. DESIGN: The study is a retrospective cohort study including a total of 129 patients from...... the cardiac outpatient clinic at a large Danish University Hospital. The study population consisted of two groups: a usual care group before a dedicated AF-clinic was established (n=73) and the AF-clinic group (n=56). The primary endpoint was acute hospitalization for AF. METHODS: Cox regression was used...

  13. Optisk scanning af spørgeskemaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    / 1000 felter= 0.370 (95% CI: 0.160-0.729), (p= 0.020)). Der var ingen statistisk forskel mellem optisk scanning (fejl/ 1000 felter= 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258)) og manuel dobbelt indtastning (p=1.000). Konklusioner: Optisk scanning er et godt alternativ til manuel dobbelt indtastning for spørgeskema med......Formål og baggrund: Patient rapporterede outcomes i form af spørgeskemaer bruges i øgende grad i sundhedssektoren både i klinisk praksis og forskning. Ofte bruges spørgeskemaer i papirformat. Manuel dobbelt indtastning er defineret som guld standard for overføring af data til et elektronisk format......, men processen er tidkrævende. Optisk scanning af spørgeskemaer med automatisk registrering af svar kan være et alternativ, men videre validering af metoden er nødvendig. Design: 200 patienter blev tilfældigt udvalgt fra en kohorte på 5777 patienter der tidligere havde svaret på to forskellige...

  14. Evaluering af metoder til risikovurdering af kombinationseffekter og etablering af PBTK/TD modeller for pesticider - et ph.d.-projekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reffstrup, Trine Klein

    2012-01-01

    I dette ph.d.-projekt ved DTU Fødevareinstituttet er den nuværende viden om metoder til risikovurdering af kombinationseffekter af kemiske stoffer med fokus på pesticider gennemgået. Endvidere undersøgtes, hvordan man kan implementere matematiske computermodeller som et værktøj i vurderingen af...

  15. E1AF degradation by a ubiquitin-proteasome pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Akiko; Higashino, Fumihiro; Aoyagi, Mariko; Yoshida, Koichi; Itoh, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Totsuka, Yasunori; Kohgo, Takao; Shindoh, Masanobu

    2005-01-01

    E1AF is a member of the ETS family of transcription factors. In mammary tumors, overexpression of E1AF is associated with tumorigenesis, but E1AF protein has hardly been detected and its degradation mechanism is not yet clear. Here we show that E1AF protein is stabilized by treatment with the 26S protease inhibitor MG132. We found that E1AF was modified by ubiquitin through the C-terminal region and ubiquitinated E1AF aggregated in nuclear dots, and that the inhibition of proteasome-activated transcription from E1AF target promoters. These results suggest that E1AF is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, which has some effect on E1AF function

  16. Lejere der bliver sat ud af deres bolig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gunvor; Nielsen, Torben Heien

    Antallet af lejere, der bliver sat ud af deres bolig, er steget i perioden 2002-06. I 2006 blev 2600 husstande, svarende til 0,1 pct. af samtlige husstande i Danmark, sat ud af deres bolig. Stigningen er især sket i de fem største byer: København, Århus, Odense, Ålborg og Esbjerg. I dette...... skal give viden om, hvilke årsager der er til, at nogle lejere bliver sat ud af deres bolig, og hvorfor der er sket en stigning i antallet af udsættelser. Den endelige afrapportering af undersøgelsen af udsættelser i Danmark vil ske i foråret 2008. Undersøgelsen er finansieret af Socialministeriet....

  17. Produktudvikling af fødevarer med Quality Function Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.

    1998-01-01

    Produktudvikling af fødevarer stiller stadig større krav til virksomhedernes kompetencer. QFD filosofien kan bidrage til at skabe en fælles forståelse af grundlaget for udvikling af nye produkter. Udgangspunktet er en forståelse af forbrugernes behov i relation til virksomhedens muligheder...... konkurrentprodukter. Efterfølgende faser handler om at generere forskellige mulige løsninger, inden der træffes valg af løsningsalternativ. Anvendelse af QFD modellen for produktudvikling betyder, at forbrugernes behov er centrale i hele produktudviklingsforløbet, samt at det udviklede produkt sigter mod at opfylde...... væsentlige identificerede behov set fra forbrugernes synspunkt. At virksomheden ser implementering af QFD som en investering, medarbejdernes commitment og målrettet projekt, er væsentlig for en succesfuld implementering af QFD til produktudvikling. QFD tankegangen illustreres med et eksempel på udvikling af...

  18. Undersøgelsen af brugernes evaluering af kontorpakker på Århus Sygehus og i Psykiatrien i Århus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørlück, Jens

    En analyse af brugernes opfattelse af kvaliteten af tre office pakker: MS Office 2003 / 2007 og OpenOffice.  ......En analyse af brugernes opfattelse af kvaliteten af tre office pakker: MS Office 2003 / 2007 og OpenOffice.  ...

  19. Vagal Nerve Stimulator Malfunction with Change in Neck Position: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Erin; Makler, Vyacheslav; Bauer, David F

    2018-06-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation is a safe and well-tolerated treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy. Complications and failure of the device can result from lead fracture, device malfunction, disconnection, or battery displacement and can result in a variety of symptoms. We present an interesting case of stimulator malfunction with increased impedance change seen only with a change in head position. The patient is a 25-year-old male with a vagal nerve stimulator (VNs) placed for medically refractory epilepsy who presented with neck pain and an electrical pulling sensation in his neck whenever he turned his head to the right. Initial interrogation of the VNs showed normal impedance. Subsequent interrogation with the patient's head turned found increased impedance only when the head was turned to the right. The patient had successful removal and replacement of the device with resolution of his preoperative complaints. Partial lead fracture was seen at explant. VNs malfunction can present in atypical ways. Positional maneuvers may help with its timely diagnosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of cardiac vagal tone and inhibitory control in pre-schoolers' listening comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Patron, Elisabetta; Florit, Elena; Palomba, Daniela; Mason, Lucia

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the role of basal cardiac activity and inhibitory control at the beginning of the school year in predicting oral comprehension at the end of the year in pre-schoolers. Forty-three, 4-year-olds participated in the study. At the beginning of the school year children's electrocardiogram at rest was registered followed by the assessment of inhibitory control as well as verbal working memory and verbal ability. At the end of the year all children were administered a listening comprehension ability measure. A stepwise regression showed a significant effect of basal cardiac vagal tone in predicting listening comprehension together with inhibitory control and verbal ability. These results are among the first to show the predictive role of basal cardiac vagal tone and inhibitory control in pre-schoolers' oral text comprehension, and offer new insight into the association between autonomic regulation of the heart, inhibitory control, and cognitive activity at a young age. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dynamic changes in parent affect and adolescent cardiac vagal regulation: a real-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W; Larzelere, Robert E; Criss, Michael M

    2015-04-01

    The current study explored the role of parents' negative and positive affect in adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during a parent-adolescent conflict discussion task and the moderating effects of adolescent sex and age. Questionnaire data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years of age; M = 13.37 years) and their primary caregivers (83.3% biological mothers). Electrocardiogram and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA variables were computed. Parent affect was coded during the conflict discussion task. Multilevel modeling was used to distinguish the between- and within-individual effects of parent affect on adolescent RSA. Results indicated that observed within-parent-teen dyad anger was negatively associated with adolescent RSA, controlling for previous-minute RSA level, particularly among adolescents 13 years and older. In addition, observed between-dyad positive affect was positively linked to RSA for both boys and girls when previous-minute RSA level was controlled. Within-dyad positive affect was positively related to girl's RSA only. These findings suggest that expressions of positive affect may be related to better vagal regulation (RSA increases), whereas expressions of anger may be related to poor vagal regulation (RSA decreases) during social engagement. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Vagal afferents contribute to exacerbated airway responses following ozone and allergen challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, Edward S; Walby, William F

    2012-05-31

    Brown-Norway rats (n=113) sensitized and challenged with nDer f 1 allergen were used to examine the contribution of lung sensory nerves to ozone (O(3)) exacerbation of asthma. Prior to their third challenge rats inhaled 1.0ppm O(3) for 8h. There were three groups: (1) control; (2) vagus perineural capsaicin treatment (PCT) with or without hexamethonium; and (3) vagotomy. O(3) inhalation resulted in a significant increase in lung resistance (R(L)) and an exaggerated response to subsequent allergen challenge. PCT abolished the O(3)-induced increase in R(L) and significantly reduced the increase in R(L) induced by a subsequent allergen challenge, while hexamethonium treatment reestablished bronchoconstriction induced by allergen challenge. Vagotomy resulted in a significant increase in the bronchoconstriction induced by O(3) inhalation and subsequent challenge with allergen. In this model of O(3) exacerbation of asthma, vagal C-fibers initiate reflex bronchoconstriction, vagal myelinated fibers initiate reflex bronchodilation, and mediators released within the airway initiate bronchoconstriction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychoactive bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) elicits rapid frequency facilitation in vagal afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Burgos, Azucena; Wang, Bingxian; Mao, Yu-Kang; Mistry, Bhavik; McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang

    2013-01-15

    Mounting evidence supports the influence of the gut microbiome on the local enteric nervous system and its effects on brain chemistry and relevant behavior. Vagal afferents are involved in some of these effects. We previously showed that ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) caused extensive neurochemical changes in the brain and behavior that were abrogated by prior vagotomy. Because information can be transmitted to the brain via primary afferents encoded as neuronal spike trains, our goal was to record those induced by JB-1 in vagal afferents in the mesenteric nerve bundle and thus determine the nature of the signals sent to the brain. Male Swiss Webster mice jejunal segments were cannulated ex vivo, and serosal and luminal compartments were perfused separately. Bacteria were added intraluminally. We found no evidence for translocation of labeled bacteria across the epithelium during the experiment. We recorded extracellular multi- and single-unit neuronal activity with glass suction pipettes. Within minutes of application, JB-1 increased the constitutive single- and multiunit firing rate of the mesenteric nerve bundle, but Lactobacillus salivarius (a negative control) or media alone were ineffective. JB-1 significantly augmented multiunit discharge responses to an intraluminal distension pressure of 31 hPa. Prior subdiaphragmatic vagotomy abolished all of the JB-1-evoked effects. This detailed exploration of the neuronal spike firing that encodes behavioral signaling to the brain may be useful to identify effective psychoactive bacteria and thereby offer an alternative new perspective in the field of psychiatry and comorbid conditions.

  4. Svingningsundersøgelse af betonskorsten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Lars-Bo; Kristensen, Peter

    Dette projekt omhandler en teoretisk og en eksperimentel undersøgelse af svingningsforholdene for en 110 meter høj betonskorsten. Skorstenen tilhører I/S Nordjyllands elektricitetsforsyning(NEFO) og er opført i forbindelse med en udbygning af Vendsysselværket med en sektion II med en turbine effe...... på 300 MW. Vendsysselværkets sektion I og II er afbilledet i figur 1.1.1, hvor værket er set fra nordøst med den undersøgte skorsten til højre i billedet. Skorstenen er projekteret af firmaet Rambøll og Hannemann og taget i brug i foråret 1977....

  5. Bestemmelse af spormetaller i organisk materiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Jens Christian; Palfeldt, Kirsten

    Behovet for pålidelige analysemetoder til bestemmelse af spormetalindhold i organiske materialer, f.eks. planter, slam og dyrevæv er stigende på grund af den stigende erkendelse af disse stoffers betydning for organismers fysiologi, både hvor disse stoffer optræder i uønskede koncentrationer som...... der over de sidste år udviklet en analyseprocedure hvorefter det er muligt at analysere for metallerne Mn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Zn, Cd og Pb i planter, dyrevæv, jord, slam og andre materialer med standardafvigelser på mellem 5 og 10%. Der gøres rede for denne metode....

  6. Diet-driven microbiota dysbiosis is associated with vagal remodeling and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Tanusree; Cawthon, Carolina R; Ihde, Benjamin Thomas; Hajnal, Andras; DiLorenzo, Patricia M; de La Serre, Claire B; Czaja, Krzysztof

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is one of the major health issues in the United States. Consumption of diets rich in energy, notably from fats and sugars (high-fat/high-sugar diet: HF/HSD) is linked to the development of obesity and a popular dietary approach for weight loss is to reduce fat intake. Obesity research traditionally uses low and high fat diets and there has been limited investigation of the potential detrimental effects of a low-fat/high-sugar diet (LF/HSD) on body fat accumulation and health. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of HF/HSD and LF/HSD on microbiota composition, gut inflammation, gut-brain vagal communication and body fat accumulation. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that LF/HSD changes the gut microbiota, induces gut inflammation and alters vagal gut-brain communication, associated with increased body fat accumulation. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an HF/HSD, LF/HSD or control low-fat/low-sugar diet (LF/LSD) for 4weeks. Body weight, caloric intake, and body composition were monitored daily and fecal samples were collected at baseline, 1, 6 and 27days after the dietary switch. After four weeks, blood and tissues (gut, brain, liver and nodose ganglia) were sampled. Both HF/HSD and LF/HSD-fed rats displayed significant increases in body weight and body fat compared to LF/LSD-fed rats. 16S rRNA sequencing showed that both HF/HSD and LF/HSD-fed animals exhibited gut microbiota dysbiosis characterized by an overall decrease in bacterial diversity and an increase in Firmicutes/Bacteriodetes ratio. Dysbiosis was typified by a bloom in Clostridia and Bacilli and a marked decrease in Lactobacillus spp. LF/HSD-fed animals showed a specific increase in Sutterella and Bilophila, both Proteobacteria, abundances of which have been associated with liver damage. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα, was upregulated in the cecum while levels of tight junction protein occludin were downregulated in both HF

  7. MR-AFS: a global hierarchical file-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, H.

    2000-01-01

    The next generation of fusion experiments will use object-oriented technology creating the need for world wide sharing of an underlying hierarchical file-system. The Andrew file system (AFS) is a well known and widely spread global distributed file-system. Multiple-resident-AFS (MR-AFS) combines the features of AFS with hierarchical storage management systems. Files in MR-AFS therefore may be migrated on secondary storage, such as roboted tape libraries. MR-AFS is in use at IPP for the current experiments and data originating from super-computer applications. Experiences and scalability issues are discussed

  8. Leagile Manufacturing - implementering af modulariserede produktplatforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Ole-Christian

    2003-01-01

    Lean og Agile (Leagile) Manufacturing indebærer ikke blot den rette balance (dekobling) mellem lean producerede komponenter og agile konfigurerede færdigvarer, og dermed til levering af individualiserede produkter til konkurrencedygtige priser og høj kvalitet, men også til effektivitet og...... fleksibilitet i produktudvikling og produktion. For at opnå integrationen mellem agile og lean kan der arbejdes med en vifte af integrationsmekanismer inden for organisatoriske og teknologiske virkemidler. Projektet har til formål at identificere, strukturere og modellere de centrale analyse- og...

  9. Medicinsk teknologivurdering af akupunktur til gravide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Johansen, Marianne; Sørensen, Lisbeth Falborg

    -, organisatorisk- og økonomisk perspektiv. Metode: Der blev udarbejdet en medicinsk teknologivurdering (MTV). En alsidig og systematisk litteraturgennemgang af akupunkturbehandling til gravide med emesis/hyperemesis gravidarum, bækkenrelaterede smerter eller depression/angst blev udført. Den udvalgte litteratur...... behandlingen udføres korrekt af TCM-uddannet sundhedspersonale. Undersøgelser har vist høj patienttilfredshed blandt gravide ved akupunkturbehandling. Økonomiske beregninger dokumenterer, at akupunktur er et billigt behandlingstilbud. Konsekvenser for praksis: Det anbefales, at tilbyde gravide med emesis...

  10. Supervision af psykologkandidater i privat praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Birgitte

    et litteratur review over relevante temaer i supervisionslitteraturen samt overvejelser om læring i supervision. Afhandlingens empiriske resultater vil blive belyst og diskuteret med udgangspunkt i tilsvarende fænomener i supervisionslitteraturen. Resultaterne af undersøgelsen viser, at der er en...... række vigtige elementer ved supervision, der skal være opfyldt, hvis den skal opleves som udviklende og lærerig af praksiskandidaterne. Det er elementer som kontraktetablering, rådgivning og teoretisk refleksion, en tydelig teoretisk referenceramme samt støtte og anerkendelse fra supervisor. Det...

  11. Design og analyse af eksperimenter i R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Malte Rokkjær

    2017-01-01

    eksperimentelle studier med afsæt i statistikprogrammet R. Det er håbet, at notatet vil være en hjælp til at reflektere over, designe, og analysere eksperimenter i forbindelse med bachelorprojekter eller specialer - og forhåbentligt også i arbejde med eksperimenter uden for instituttets mure. Notatet berører......, herunder balancetest, hypotesetest med og uden kovariatjustering, interaktioner samt udledning af konfidensintervaller. Det antages, at læseren har et grundlæggende kendskab til R samt til *potentiel outcomes*-frameworket. De indledende kapitler i Gerber & Green (2012) eller Imbens & Athey (2017) er gode...

  12. Epichlorhydrin og bisphenol A i mat-kontaktmaterialer af epoxylakeret metal og/eller af plast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Foverskov, Annie

    Det er ikke længere tilladt af bruge bisphenol A baseret polycarbonatplast til fremstilling af tåteflasker. Mattilsynet udtog i vinteren 2012/2013 7 typer af sutteflasker som blev kontrolleret for om de indeholdt polycarbonatbaserede plastdele. I alt 28 enkeltdele blev kontrolleret ved infrarød...... spektrometri. Herudover blev 6 tutekopper, bestående af 38 enkeltdele, analyseret med samme teknik. Der blev ikke påvist bisphenol A baseret plast ved analyserne. Dåser, bægre, tuber og skruelåg kan være lakeret på matkontaktsiden med epoxylakker fremstillet af monomererne epichlorhydrin og bisphenol A. Alle...... 50 enkeltdele fra disse prøver blev undersøgt ved infrarød spektrometri og 9 af prøverne viste tegn på at indeholde epoxylak. Disse prøver blev undersøgt ved en ”worst case” ekstraktionstest hvor der kunne påvises små indhold af bisphenol A i ekstrakterne mens der ikke kunne påvises epichlorhydrin...

  13. Test af to versioner af Modflow-LGR til simulering af grundvandsstrømninger i områder med begravede dale – syntetisk studie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Christensen, Steen

    .eks. findes i begravede dale. Manglende opløsning af geologiske aflejringer på lokal skala kan potentielt resultere i fejlagtige prædiktioner af konsekvensen af grundvandsindvinding på kildeplads niveau. For i højere grad at kunne forvalte disse grundvandsressourcerne skal nye metoder undersøges. Dette er...... specielt gældende for komplekse begravede dalsystemer, som interagerer med omkringliggende regionale grundvandsystemer. I dette syntetiske studie er to versioner af MODFLOW - Local Grid Refinment (LGR) testet til simulering af grundvandsstrømninger i områder med begravede dale. Forsøgene er gennemført som...

  14. Global opvarmning neutraliserer effekten af parasitisme på strandsnegles konsumption af makroalger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin H.; Mouritsen, Kim Nørgaard

    Det er veldokumenteret, at parasitter kan påvirke værternes adfærd, overlevelse, reproduktion, fysiologi og evolution. Disse parasit-vært interaktioner kan føre til radikale ændringer af naturlige samfunds struktur og diversitet. Eksperimenter har eksempelvis vist, at trematoder indirekte kan ændre...... strukturen af makroalgesamfund ved at reducere konsumptionsraten hos den herbivore strandsnegl Littorina littorea. Det er endvidere vist, at produktionen af trematode-larver (cercarier) i sneglens fordøjelseskanal og gonade kompleks øges kraftigt når vandtemperaturen stiger. Man kan derfor forvente...

  15. Domesticeringen af Ford i Danmark:Den kulturelle tilegnelse af Ford og fordismen, 1920-1940

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Det amerikanske automobilfirma Ford Motor Company med hovedkvarter i Detroit begyndte at drive forretning i Danmark omkring 1906. De første aktiviteter blev konsolideret samme år ved udnævnelsen af motorforhandleren F. Bülow & Co. til salgsagent i Danmark og importør af Ford automobiler til det skandinaviske marked. Dermed havde Ford tidligt fået et stærkt fodfæste i Nordeuropa, som udviklingen i salget af Ford autobiler de næste årtier til fulde skulle demonstrere. Ford Motor Company er ...

  16. Degradation of AF1Q by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng; Ji, Min; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Jingru; Li, Huanjie; Cui, Taixing; Li Wang, Xing; Tang, Dongqi; Ji, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    AF1Q, a mixed lineage leukemia gene fusion partner, is identified as a poor prognostic biomarker for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), adult AML with normal cytogenetic and adult myelodysplastic syndrome. AF1Q is highly regulated during hematopoietic progenitor differentiation and development but its regulatory mechanism has not been defined clearly. In the present study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to influence chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and explored the degradation mechanism of AF1Q. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as chloroquine, increased AF1Q levels, whereas activators of CMA, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased AF1Q levels. AF1Q interacts with HSPA8 and LAMP-2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Knockdown of HSPA8 or LAMP-2A increased AF1Q protein levels, whereas overexpression showed the opposite effect. Using an amino acid deletion AF1Q mutation plasmid, we identified that AF1Q had a KFERQ-like motif which was recognized by HSPA8 for CMA-dependent proteolysis. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that AF1Q can be degraded in lysosomes by CMA. - Highlights: • Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is involved in the degradation of AF1Q. • Macroautophagy does not contribute to the AF1Q degradation. • AF1Q has a KFERQ-like motif that is recognized by CMA core components

  17. Degradation of AF1Q by chaperone-mediated autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng; Ji, Min; Lu, Fei; Zhang, Jingru [Department of Hematology, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Li, Huanjie; Cui, Taixing; Li Wang, Xing [Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Tang, Dongqi, E-mail: tangdq@sdu.edu.cn [Research Center for Cell Therapy, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250033 (China); Ji, Chunyan, E-mail: jichunyan@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Hematology, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2014-09-10

    AF1Q, a mixed lineage leukemia gene fusion partner, is identified as a poor prognostic biomarker for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), adult AML with normal cytogenetic and adult myelodysplastic syndrome. AF1Q is highly regulated during hematopoietic progenitor differentiation and development but its regulatory mechanism has not been defined clearly. In the present study, we used pharmacological and genetic approaches to influence chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) and explored the degradation mechanism of AF1Q. Pharmacological inhibitors of lysosomal degradation, such as chloroquine, increased AF1Q levels, whereas activators of CMA, including 6-aminonicotinamide and nutrient starvation, decreased AF1Q levels. AF1Q interacts with HSPA8 and LAMP-2A, which are core components of the CMA machinery. Knockdown of HSPA8 or LAMP-2A increased AF1Q protein levels, whereas overexpression showed the opposite effect. Using an amino acid deletion AF1Q mutation plasmid, we identified that AF1Q had a KFERQ-like motif which was recognized by HSPA8 for CMA-dependent proteolysis. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that AF1Q can be degraded in lysosomes by CMA. - Highlights: • Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is involved in the degradation of AF1Q. • Macroautophagy does not contribute to the AF1Q degradation. • AF1Q has a KFERQ-like motif that is recognized by CMA core components.

  18. Getting to the Heart of Masculinity Stressors: Masculinity Threats Induce Pronounced Vagal Withdrawal During a Speaking Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Brandon L; Himmelstein, Mary S; Springer, Kristen W

    2017-12-01

    Previous work has found that traditional masculinity ideals and behaviors play a crucial role in higher rates of morbidity and mortality for men. Some studies also suggest that threatening men's masculinity can be stressful. Over time, this stress can weigh on men's cardiovascular and metabolic systems, which may contribute to men's higher rates of cardiometabolic health issues. The purpose of this study is to explore how masculinity threats affect men's heart rate and heart rate variability reactivity (i.e., vagal withdrawal) to masculinity feedback on a social speaking task. Two hundred and eighty-five undergraduate males were randomly assigned to one of six conditions during a laboratory-based speech task. They received one of two feedback types (masculinity or control) and one of three feedback levels (low, high, or dropping) in order to assess whether masculinity threats influence heart rate reactivity and vagal withdrawal patterns during the speech task. Men who receive low masculinity feedback during the speech task experienced more pronounced vagal withdrawal relative to those who received the control. Masculinity threats can induce vagal withdrawal that may accumulate over the life course to contribute to men's relatively worse cardiometabolic health.

  19. Infant diet, gender and the development of vagal tone stability during the first two years of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnatal nutrition influences neurodevelopment, including autonomic nervous system components associated with cardiac control. In this study resting vagal tone (V) was measured quarterly during infancy and at 2 years in 146 breast-fed, 143 milk formula-fed, and 137 soy formula-fed infants. Stabilit...

  20. Infant diet, gender and the normative development of vagal tone and heart period during the first two years of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relationships between early postnatal diet and the development of cardiac regulation were studied using resting vagal tone and heart period measures obtained quarterly during infancy and at 2 years in 158 breast-fed, 159 milk formula-fed, and 148 soy formula-fed infants. Both measures increased acro...

  1. Low to high frequency ratio of heart rate variability spectra fails to describe sympatho-vagal balance in cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicević, Goran

    2005-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects an influence of autonomic nervous system on heart work. In healthy subjects, ratio between low and high frequency components (LF/HF ratio) of HRV spectra represents a measure of sympatho-vagal balance. The ratio was defined by the authorities as an useful clinical tool, but it seems that it fails to summarise sympatho-vagal balance in a clinical setting. Value of the method was re-evaluated in several categories of cardiac patients. HRV was analysed from 24-hour Holter ECGs in 132 healthy subjects, and 2159 cardiac patients dichotomised by gender, median of age, diagnosis of myocardial infarction or coronary artery surgery, left ventricular systolic function and divided by overall HRV into several categories. In healthy subjects, LF/HF ratio correlated with overall HRV negatively, as expected. The paradoxical finding was obtained in cardiac patients; the lower the overall HRV and the time-domain indices of vagal modulation activity were the lower the LF/HF ratio was. If used as a measure of sympatho-vagal balance, long-term recordings of LF/HF ratio contradict to clinical finding and time-domain HRV indices in cardiac patients. The ratio cannot therefore be used as a reliable marker of autonomic activity in a clinical setting.

  2. Lipid-rich enteral nutrition regulates mucosal mast cell activation via the vagal anti-inflammatory reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Jacco J.; Hadfoune, M.'hamed; Lubbers, Tim; Hodin, Caroline; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ito, Akihiko; Verbaeys, Isabelle; Skynner, Michael J.; Cailotto, Cathy; van der Vliet, Jan; de Jonge, Wouter J.; Greve, Jan-Willem M.; Buurman, Wim A.

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional stimulation of the cholecystokinin-1 receptor (CCK-1R) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated vagal reflex was shown to reduce inflammation and preserve intestinal integrity. Mast cells are important early effectors of the innate immune response; therefore modulation of

  3. Baroreflex deficiency induces additional impairment of vagal tone, diastolic function and calcium handling proteins after myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostarda, Cristiano; Rodrigues, Bruno; Medeiros, Alessandra; Moreira, Edson D; Moraes-Silva, Ivana C; Brum, Patricia C; Angelis, Katia De; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    Baroreflex dysfunction has been considered an important mortality predictor after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the impact of baroreflex deficiency prior to MI on tonic autonomic control and cardiac function, and on the profile of proteins associated with intracellular calcium handling has not yet been studied. The aim of the present study was to analyze how the impairment of baroreflex induced by sinoaortic denervation (SAD) prior to MI in rats affects the tonic autonomic control, ventricular function and cardiomyocyte calcium handling proteins. After 15 days of following or SAD surgery, rats underwent MI. Echocardiographic, hemodynamic, autonomic and molecular evaluations were performed 90 days after MI. Baroreflex impairment led to additional damage on: left ventricular remodeling, diastolic function, vagal tonus and intrinsic heart rate after MI. The loss of vagal component of the arterial baroreflex and vagal tonus were correlated with changes in the cardiac proteins involved in intracellular calcium homeostasis. Furthermore, additional increase in sodium calcium exchanger expression levels was associated with impaired diastolic function in experimental animals. Our findings strongly suggest that previous arterial baroreflex deficiency may induce additional impairment of vagal tonus, which was associated with calcium handling proteins abnormalities, probably triggering ventricular diastolic dysfunction after MI in rats. PMID:24936224

  4. Acute physiological and electrical accentuation of vagal tone has no effect on pain or gastrointestinal motility in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Brock, Christina; Olesen, Soren S.

    2017-01-01

    derived parameters of autonomic tone, quantitative sensory testing of bone and muscle pain pressure, conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and assessments of gastroduodenal motility with ultrasound were performed. Results: In comparison to sham, t-VNS and DSB increased cardiac vagal tone (CVT) (P

  5. Loss of proteostatic control as a substrate for Atrial Fibrillation; a novel target for upstream therapy by Heat Shock Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelien Amanda Marjolein Meijering

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Atrial Fibrillation (AF is the most common, sustained clinical tachyarrhythmia associated with significant morbidity and mortality. AF is a persistent condition with progressive structural remodeling of the atrial cardiomyocytes due to the AF itself, resulting in cellular changes commonly observed in ageing and in other heart diseases. While rhythm control by electrocardioversion or drug treatment is the treatment of choice in symptomatic AF patients, its effectiveness is still limited. Current research is directed at preventing new-onset AF by limiting the development of substrates underlying AF promotion and resembles mechanism-based therapy. Upstream therapy refers to the use of non-ion channel anti-arrhythmic drugs that modify the atrial substrate- or target-specific mechanisms of AF, with the ultimate aim to prevent the occurrence (primary prevention or recurrence of the arrhythmia following (spontaneous conversion (secondary prevention.Heat shock proteins (HSPs are molecular chaperones and comprise a large family of proteins involved in the protection against various forms of cellular stress. Their classical function is the conservation of proteostasis via prevention of toxic protein aggregation by binding to (partially unfolded proteins. Our recent data reveal that HSPs prevent electrical, contractile and structural remodeling of cardiomyocytes, thus attenuating the AF substrate in cellular, Drosophila melanogaster and animal experimental models. Furthermore, studies in humans suggest a protective role for HSPs against the progression from paroxysmal AF to persistent AF and in recurrence of AF. In this review, we discuss upregulation of the heat shock response system as a novel target for upstream therapy to prevent derailment of proteostasis and consequently promotion and recurrence of AF.

  6. Gymnasie ikke absolut fravalg af EUD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Tilde Mette; Pless, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Den faldende søgning til erhvervsuddannelserne har i medierne og den politiske debat ofte været begrundet med, at de unge ikke ser erhvervsuddannelserne som prestigefyldte. Nyt forskningsprojekt fra Center for Ungdomsforskning viser, at de unges opfattelser af erhvervsuddannelserne er mere nuance...

  7. Coaching af ph.d.-studerende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Mirjam Irene

    Rapporten danner grundlag for at etablere et koncept for ph.d.-coaching. Erfaringerne fra et 2-årigt projekt om ph.d.-coaching i SCKK regi beskrives. De centrale temaer er tilrettelæggelse af den individuelle coaching, typiske temaer i coachingen og arbejdsdeling mellem coach og vejleder. Der er...

  8. Indeklimamærkning af byggevarer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.A.; Wolkoff, P.

    I denne rapport beskrives på prototypeniveau en frivillig indeklimamærkningsordning for byggevarer. Ordningen er baseret på bestemmelse af byggevarernes afgasningsprofil, fastlagt ud fra laboratoriemålinger. Ved modelberegning bestemmes dernæst koncentrationsprofilen i et standardrum, og der udfø...

  9. Retsplejelovens regulering af politiets adgang til teledata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lentz, Lene Wacher

    2017-01-01

    Politiet kan som led i en strafferetlig efterforskning få adgang til en række data om telekommunikation efter retsplejeloven, hvis regulering nu må revideres i lyset af ”Tele2-sagen”, hvor EU-domstolen fandt, at en generel logningspligt for teleudbyderne til at sikre teledata til brug for eventue...

  10. Brands som brikker i konstruktionen af identitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Forbrug spiller en vigtig rolle i produktionen af mening og værdier, som kan skabe og vedligeholde både forbrugerens personlige og sociale verden - og derfor er reklame også en vigtig kilde til disse symbolske betydninger. Udgivelsesdato: juni...

  11. Topological ferrimagnetic behaviours of coordination polymers containing manganese(II) chains with mixed azide and carboxylate bridges and alternating F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qin; Liu, Hou-Ting; Qi, Yan; Gao, En-Qing

    2014-08-21

    Two Mn(ii) complexes with azide and a new zwitterionic tetracarboxylate ligand 1,2,4,5-tetrakis(4-carboxylatopyridinium-1-methylene)benzene (L(1)), {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(OH)2]·12H2O}n () and {[Mn5(L(1))2(N3)8(H2O)2](ClO4)2·6H2O}n (), have been synthesized and characterized crystallographically and magnetically. and contain similar alternating chains constructed by azide and carboxylate bridges. The independent sets of bridges alternate in an ABCCB sequence between adjacent Mn(ii) ions: (EO-N3)2 double bridges (EO = end-on) (denoted as A), [(EO-N3)(OCO)2] triple bridges (denoted as B) and [(EO-N3)(OCO)] double bridges (denoted as C). The alternating chains are interlinked into 2D coordination networks by the tetrapyridinium spacers. Magnetic studies demonstrate that the magnetic coupling through the double EO azide bridges is ferromagnetic and that through mixed azide/carboxylate bridges is antiferromagnetic. The unprecedented F/AF/AF'/AF'/AF coupling sequence along the chain dictates an uncompensated ground spin state (S = 5/2 per Mn5 unit) and leads to one-dimensional topological ferrimagnetism, which features a minimum in the χT versus T plot.

  12. Digitalisering af ældre menneskers hverdag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchorst, Ditte Stilling; Sillesen, Agnete; Sommer, Finn M.

    2016-01-01

    Mange kommuner har inddraget frivillige som led i implementeringen af den offentlige digitaliseringsstrategi, der forpligter alle borgere til at kommunikere digitalt med offentlige myndigheder. Artiklen diskuterer erfaringer med at inddrage frivillige til at vejlede ældre mennesker i at anvende d...

  13. Karakterisering af Materialer fra atom til makro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Povl; Somers, Marcel A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Denne årbog er udgivet i forbindelse med Dansk Metallurgisk Selskabs Vintermøde, der fandt sted på Hotel Koldingfjord, Kolding i dagene 2. til 4. januar 2002. Bogen indeholder de foredrag, der blev præsenteret på Vintermødet. Emnet for mødet var " Karakterisering af Materialer - fra atom til makro...

  14. Den teoretiske udvikling af Supply Chain Strategimodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvad Johansen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    segmentering via postponement-princippet, har givet mærkbare forbedringer. Det beskrives endvidere, hvordan produkternes livscyklus påvirker valget af supply chain design. Begrebet Demand Chain Management( DCM), hvormed strategimodeller bruger klassiske marketingelementer sammen med Supply Chain Management...... (SCM), bliver behandlet og der udvikles en DCM-strategimodel....

  15. Så lyt dog til kritikken af Sundhedsplatformen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Søgaard, Jes

    2017-01-01

    Det er på tide, at Region Hovedstaden tager klinikernes bekymringer og kritik af Sundhedsplatformen alvorligt. Tiden er ikke inde til 'gevinstrealisering', men til at løse de alvorlige problemer, man kæmper med ude på hospitalerne...

  16. Konsolidering af læring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Preben Olund; Geisnæs, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    . Opbyggelse af konsolideringsstrategier er en langvarig proces. Processen er lang, fordi vidensabstraktion tager tid. Vidensopbyggelsen skal være så velkendt for eleven, at det er muligt for eleverne at genkende og hermed anvende viden til at kunne analysere fremtidige opgaver. https://www.youtube...

  17. Social praksisteoretiske analyser af unge i partnerskaber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Munkholm, Merete

    Denne bog analyserer lokale partnerskaber mellem produktionsskoler og virksomheder, institutioner og civilsamfund. Bogen illustrerer, hvordan vi med social praksis teori kan forstå partnerskaber som grænsefællesskaber, hvor partnerskaber arrangeres i og på tværs af forskellige fællesskaber og han...

  18. Livsvalg konceptualiseret som dynamisk realisering af livsbaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnieber, Anette

    2009-01-01

    De valgsituationer, man i daglig tale kender som ”tilværelsens store valg”, mangler definition i den psykologiske litteratur, og det er således ikke klart, hvorvidt og evt. hvorledes disse valg adskiller sig fra andre typer. I artiklen gives en definition af ”de store valg”, og de adskilles fra...

  19. Måling af radon i bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    endvidere til at vurdere radon­eksponeringen i forhold til det nationale referenceniveau. Anvisningen dækker radonmåling i boliger og andre bygninger, fx kontorer, skoler og institutioner. Den henvender sig til bygningsejere, bygherrer, projekterende og brugere af bygninger. Desuden henvender anvisningen...

  20. Udvikling af universitetsundervisning - rammer, barrierer og muligheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Sebastian; Jensen, Ane; Johannsen, Bjørn Friis

    2011-01-01

    Dansk Universitetspædagogisk Netværk (DUN) afholdt sin årlige konference i 2011 den 30.-31. maj med temaet “Udvikling af universitetsundervisning - rammer, barrierer og muligheder”. På konferencen arbejdede ca. 100 personer fra alle niveauer i universitetsverdenen på at beskrive hvordan vi kan...

  1. På sporet af magtspillet om dansk naturfagsundervisning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jette Reuss

    Den neoliberale diskurs med tilhørende konkurrencemoment har længe været under beskydning i internationale forskningssammenhænge. Men der savnes konkrete eksempler på, hvordan neoliberal styring kommer til udtryk i nationale uddannelser. I denne afhandling følges derfor nogle af neoliberalismens...

  2. En tegning af æstetik 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2013-01-01

    Denne artikel fremstiller skredet fra det individuelle fokus til den sociale forhandling omkring en situation, som er det nye perspektiv indenfor æstetik. Derigennem identificeres tendenser som er med til at udgøre platformen for børn og unges kulturer, hvor det handler om, at et æstetisk system er...... selvproducerende og stiller sig til rådighed for erkendelse. Disse kulturer udfolder sig i formater, som skolen ikke er gearet til at imødekomme. Som eksempel ville DrawSomething vanskeligt kunne begrundes i forhold til billedkunstfagets af ministeriet fastsatte ”fælles mål” – eller kan det? En central udfordring...... er, hvordan der skal arbejdes med æstetiske praksisformer i en nutidig læringskontekst, når børn og unges kulturer udfolder og udvikler sig i formater, der er præget af foranderlighed og flygtighed; af en uendelig skaben for nogen og med nogen og af situationer, der bebos med attituder? Vi diskuterer...

  3. Hvorfor lejere bliver sat ud af deres bolig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Heien; Christensen, Gunvor

    Antallet af lejere, der bliver sat ud af deres bolig, er steget fra 1499 i 2002 til 2589 i 2006. Lejere kan blive sat ud af deres bolig, hvis de ikke betaler deres husleje til tiden, eller hvis de ikke overholder husordenen det sted de bor. Denne rapport beskriver årsager til, at lejere bliver sat...... ud af deres boliger og baggrunden for stigningen i antallet af udsættelser. desuden beskriver rapporten konsekvenser af en udsættelse og kommer med en række anbefalinger til indsatsområder. Af afgørende betydning for, at lejere bliver sat ud af deres bolig, er lav indkomst, lavt rådighedsbeløb, stor...

  4. Subregional innovation – indikatorer til optimering af den erhvervsrettede innovationspolitik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl; Graversen, Ebbe Krogh; Haase, Sanne Schioldann

    områder tilgodeses bedst muligt. Desuden kan en differentieret, subregional innovations-politik give erhvervslivet bedre udbytte end en samlet regional eller national innovationspolitik. Selvom Danmark er et lille land, er der store geografiske forskelle internt i landets erhvervsstruktur og i...... virksomhedernes innovationsaktiviteter. Som resultat af en udvidelse af den danske del af CIS 2006-undersøgelsen2 med ekstra virksomheder kan der gives en betydeligt mere nuanceret karak-teristik af virksomheder helt ned på subregionalt niveau. Analysen underbygger, at de innovations-politiske tiltag, der sættes......, lokal brug af resultaterne er nødvendig. Først gennemgås de valgte målepunkter. Det primære er en opdeling i praksis- og forsknings-orientering af virksomheders innovationstilgang, hvorved der identificeres fire grupper af innovationsaktive virksomheder. Det andet er korrektion af de anvendte...

  5. Vidensledelse og den sociale dimension i deling af viden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    imidlertid et alternativt syn på viden som i højere grad inddrager den sociale dimension ved vidensdeling - den socialkonstruktivistiske opfattelse. I denne artikel vil jeg beskæftige mig med den socialkonstruktivistiske opfattelse af viden og beskrive, hvorledes denne synsvinkel kan rette fokus mod nogle...... meget væsentlige problemstillinger ved organisatorisk adfærd, som man ofte kommer til at ignorere, hvis man i for høj grad baserer ledelsen på en funktionalistisk opfattelse af viden. Delingen af viden er en aktuel udfordring for anvendelse af viden i forretningssammenhæng. Det er hovedsageligt det, som...... gør vidensbegrebet interessant i forhold til ledelse af virksomheder. - Fokus på de sociale barrierer for deling af viden Jeg vil i det kommende illustrere, hvilke betydninger den sociale dimension i deling af viden kan have for videnledelse. Det vil jeg gøre gennem beskrivelser af to forskellige...

  6. Daith Piercing in a Case of Chronic Migraine: A Possible Vagal Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Cascio Rizzo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Daith piercing is an ear piercing located at the crus of the helix, bilaterally. It is getting great consent on social media as alternative treatment in chronic migraine. No data about its efficacy and action are available in scientific literature so far. We present the case of a 54-year-old male patient suffering from refractory chronic migraine with medication-overuse, who substantially improved after bilateral ear daith piercing. His migraine was refractory to symptomatic as well as prophylactic therapies. He used to treat headaches with up to five symptomatic drugs per attack and had attempted several pharmacological preventive therapies, including Onabotulinumtoxin A. He also underwent detoxification treatments with intravenous steroids and diazepam, without durable benefit. At the time of daith piercing, the headache-related disability measures showed a HIT-6 score of 64, a MIDAS-score of 70, and a 11-point Box scale of 5. On his own free will, he decided to get a “daith piercing.” After that, he experienced a reduction of migraine attacks, which became very rare, and infrequent, less disabling episodes of tension-type headache (HIT-6 score of 56; MIDAS score of 27, 11-point Box scale of 3. Painkiller assumption has much decreased: he takes only one tablet of indomethacin 50 mg to treat tensive headaches, about four times per month. Beyond a placebo effect, we can speculate a vagal modulation as the action mechanism of daith piercing: a nociceptive sensory stimulus applied to trigeminal and vagal areas of the ear can activate ear vagal afferents, which can modulate pain pathways by means of projections to the caudal trigeminal nucleus, to the locus coeruleus and to the nucleus raphe magnus. Currently, daith piercing cannot be recommended as migraine treatment because of the lack of scientific evidence, the unquantified rate of failure and the associated risks with insertion. However, given the increasing but anecdotal evidence, we

  7. IN VITRO EXAMINATION OF ONTOGENESIS OF DEVELOPING NEURONAL CELLS IN VAGAL NUCLEI IN MEDULLA OBLONGATA IN NEWBORNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Hilmi; Shabani, Ragip; Bexheti, Sadi; Behluli, Ibrahim; Šukalo, Aziz; Raka, Denis; Koliqi, Rozafa; Haliti, Naim; Dauti, Hilmi; Krasniqi, Shaip; Disha, Mentor

    2008-01-01

    The development of neuron cells in vagal nerve nuclei in medulla oblongata was studied in vitro in live newborns and stillborns from different cases. Morphological changes were studied in respiratory nuclei of dorsal motor centre (DMNV) and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in medulla oblongata. The material from medulla oblongata was fixated in 10μ buffered formalin solution. Fixated material was cut in series of 10μ thickness, with starting point from obex in ± 4 mm thickness. Special histochemical and histoenzymatic methods for central nervous system were used: cresyl echt violet coloring, tolyidin blue, Sevier-Munger modification and Grimelius coloring. In immature newborns (abortions and immature) in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) population stages S1, S2, S3 are dominant. In neuron population in vagal sensory nuclei (NTS) stages S1, S2 are dominant. In more advanced stages of development of newborns (premature), in DMNV stages S3 and S4 are seen and in NTS stages S2 and S3 are dominant. In mature phase of newborns (maturity) in vagal nucleus DMNV stages S5 and S6 are dominant, while in sensory nucleus NTS stages S4 and S5 are dominant. These data suggest that neuron population in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) are more advanced in neuronal maturity in comparison with sensory neuron population of vagal sensory nucleus NTS. This occurrence shows that phylogenetic development of motor complex is more advanced than the sensory one, which is expected to take new information’s from the extra uterine life after birth (extra uterine vagal phenotype) PMID:19125713

  8. Uddrag af Ph.d.-afhandlingen Den groteske modernisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübker, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Om forholdet mellem "det groteske" og "den groteske modernisme" eksemplificeret i en læsning af E.A. Poes "The Fall of the House of Usher" og flere af Francis Bacons malerier.......Om forholdet mellem "det groteske" og "den groteske modernisme" eksemplificeret i en læsning af E.A. Poes "The Fall of the House of Usher" og flere af Francis Bacons malerier....

  9. Portræt af litteraturkritikeren som ungt menneske

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    2004-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer den amerikanske litteraturkritiker Geoffrey Hartmans tidlige forfatterskab og fremdrager dets selvbiografiske undertekst som nødvendig effekt af den unge Hartmans fascination af den engelske romantiker William Wordsworths forfatterskab.......Artiklen præsenterer den amerikanske litteraturkritiker Geoffrey Hartmans tidlige forfatterskab og fremdrager dets selvbiografiske undertekst som nødvendig effekt af den unge Hartmans fascination af den engelske romantiker William Wordsworths forfatterskab....

  10. Anmeldelse af Eigil Lego Andersen: Dirigent og generalforsamling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen er en anmeldelse af advokat, adj. professor, dr. jur. Eigil Lego Andersens juridiske monografi om dirigenten og generalforsamlingen, herunder med lancering af en række nye afstemningsmetoder til brug for generalforsamlingen i (større) aktieselskaber.......Artiklen er en anmeldelse af advokat, adj. professor, dr. jur. Eigil Lego Andersens juridiske monografi om dirigenten og generalforsamlingen, herunder med lancering af en række nye afstemningsmetoder til brug for generalforsamlingen i (større) aktieselskaber....

  11. Udvikling af en internetsøgestrategi til identifikation af ny medicinsk teknologi inden for prostatacancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Marianne; Vondeling, Hindrik; Douw, Karla

    2007-01-01

    internetsider efter efficiens. Her er efficiens forstået som mindst antal minutter brugt pr. fund af information om en ny væsentlig medicinsk teknologi. Resultater: Strategien består af ti sider, som bør benyttes i følgende rækkefølge: YahooHealth, DoctorsGuide, The National Electronic Library for Medicines...

  12. Ekstraktion af æteriske olier fra oregano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellitsgaard Jakobsen, Jens; Ankerfeldt, Dorte; Jensen, Morten Busch

    2010-01-01

    med keratin - Ammoniakforurening reduceres med ny teknologi - Genvinding og genanvendelse af ammoniak fra spildevand og husdyrgødning - Ginseng - en virkningsfuld medicinplante - Ekstraktion af æteriske olier fra oregano "Biotek" er udviklet med udgangspunkt i originalartikler udarbejdet af forskere...

  13. Eksperimentel bakteriofagterapi til behandling af kronisk Pseudomonas aeruginosaotitis hos hund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moodley, Arshnee; Mølgaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Vi beskriver en case med anvendelsen af bakteriofager til behandling af kronisk otitis forårsaget af multiresistente Pseudomonas aeruginosa som en sidste behandlingsmulighed før aflivning. Trods gentagne behandlinger, både topikalt og systemisk, med op til seks forskellige antibiotika over en...

  14. Når ledelse af ledelse rettes mod selvet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Niels Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Der fokuseres på det nye selvledelsesforhold som ledelse af ledelse er med til at fremkalde. Ud fra et signalement af det nye arbejdsliv beskrives det hvordan ledelse af ledelse skal forvalte en indgriben i medarbejderens selvforhold, hvor både magt og afmagt vil gøre sig gældende....

  15. Arbejdsmiljøet ved udbud af renovationsarbejde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Ole Gunni

    Forfatteren gennemførte 2003-2005 en undersøgelse for Branchearbejdsmiljådet for transport af danske kommuners praksis i forbindelse med udbud og udlicitering af renovationsopgaver. Formålet var at kortlægge og analysere erfaringerne med varetagelse af arbejdsmiljøhensyn i kommunernes udbud og dr...

  16. Måling af lydisolation og efterklangstid i praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J.

    Meddelelsen omhandler undersøgelser af mulighederne for at forbedre reproducerbarheden ved måling af luftlydisolation, trinlydniveau og efterklangstid under betingelser, der svarer til måling i den indflytningsfærdige bygning. Der omtales resultater fra måling med to forskellige udformninger af h...

  17. Benchmarking af udsættelser i kommunerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gunvor; Jeppesen, Anders Gade; Markwardt, Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    nuværende tidspunkt stadig mangler relevante forhold i benchmarking-modellen. Eksempelvis antallet af stofmisbrugere, antallet af borgere med psykiatriske indlæggelser samt forekomsten af projekter med henblik på at forebygge udsættelser (fx gældsrådgivning). Disse data er først tilgængelige i 2015....

  18. Anmeldelse af: Afghantsy. The Russians in Afghanistan 1979-89

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David

    2012-01-01

    Baseret på nyligt afklassificeret materiale fra arkiverne i Moskva samt fremstillinger af russiske historikere, tegnes et anderledes og mere nuanceret billede af de sovjetiske erfaringer fra Afghanistan. De første spadestik til opgøret med den amerikanske stempling af den sovjetiske ageren i...

  19. Antitrombotisk behanding af patienter med valvulær atrieflimren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovin, Ann; Christensen, Thomas Decker; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2017-01-01

    with valvular AF. Although the definition of valvular AF is disputed, the lack of evidence regarding the use of NOACs for these patients is not. We discuss the definition of valvular AF, the risk of thromboembolism, and the antithrombotic treatment for stroke prevention in these patients....

  20. Effektivitet af naturligt drevne radontiltag året rundt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haker Høegh, Britt; Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    Denne rapport omhandler projektet Effektivitet af naturligt drevne radontiltag året rundt. Projektet er et spireprojekt finansieret af Innovationsnetværket InnoBYG og Forsknings- og Innovationsstyrelsen. Projektet er gennemført af Teknologisk Institut i samarbejde med Statens Byggeforskningsinsti...

  1. Barriere for Studerendes Læring af Holistisk Systemudvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Madsen, Sabine

    Ud fra aktionsforskning af faget Informationsbehandling på bachelorprogrammet HA/DØK ved Copenhagen Business School undersøger vi i denne artikel hvilke barriere de studerende oplever i forbindelse med læring af holistisk systemudvikling og hvorfor. Siden 1980'erne har man i (dele af) litteraturen...

  2. Afståelsesbeskatning ved flytning af DEMPE-funktioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Louise Fjord; Bundgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    OECD har i den senest opdaterede version af Transfer Pricing Guidelines fastsat en definition af immaterielle aktiver og har samtidig indført konceptet DEMPE-funktioner, der omfatter visse vigtige funktioner relateret til immaterielle aktiver. SKAT synes at være af den opfattelse, at DEMPE...

  3. Rimonabant induced anorexia in rodents is not mediated by vagal or sympathetic gut afferents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Jelsing, Jacob; van de Wall, Esther H E M

    2009-01-01

    The selective CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant is a novel weight control agent. Although CB1 receptors and binding sites are present in both the rodent central and peripheral nervous systems, including the afferent vagus nerve, the role of gut afferents in mediating anorexia following CB1R...... blockade is still debated. In the present study we examined rimonabant-induced anorexia in male C57BL/6J mice with subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VGX) as well as in male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to either subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) alone or in combination with a complete celiac...... system, are required for rimonabant to inhibit food intake leading to the hypothesis that centrally located CB1 receptors are the prime mediators of rimonabant-induced anorexia....

  4. β adrenergic receptor modulation of neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons in the nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, R J; Boychuk, C R; Philbin, K E; Mendelowitz, D

    2012-05-17

    β-adrenergic receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that have essential roles in regulating heart rate, blood pressure, and other cardiorespiratory functions. Although the role of β adrenergic receptors in the peripheral nervous system is well characterized, very little is known about their role in the central nervous system despite being localized in many brain regions involved in autonomic activity and regulation. Since parasympathetic activity to the heart is dominated by cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) originating in the nucleus ambiguus (NA), β adrenergic receptors localized in the NA represent a potential target for modulating cardiac vagal activity and heart rate. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of β adrenergic receptors alters the membrane properties and synaptic neurotransmission to CVNs. CVNs were identified in brainstem slices, and membrane properties and synaptic events were recorded using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique. The nonselective β agonist isoproterenol significantly decreased inhibitory GABAergic and glycinergic as well as excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs. In addition, the β(1)-selective receptor agonist dobutamine, but not β(2) or β(3) receptor agonists, significantly decreased inhibitory GABAergic and glycinergic and excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission to CVNs. These decreases in neurotransmission to CVNs persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). These results provide a mechanism by which activation of adrenergic receptors in the brainstem can alter parasympathetic activity to the heart. Likely physiological roles for this adrenergic receptor activation are coordination of parasympathetic-sympathetic activity and β receptor-mediated increases in heart rate upon arousal. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The link between negative affect, vagal tone, and visceral sensitivity in quiescent Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, A; Pellissier, S; Picot, A; Dantzer, C; Bonaz, B

    2014-08-01

    Autonomic dysfunction and mood disorders are frequently described in Crohn's disease (CD) and are known to influence visceral sensitivity. We addressed the link between vagal tone, negative affect, and visceral sensitivity in CD patients without concomitant features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Rectal distensions to a discomfort threshold of 70% and onset of pain were performed in nine CD patients in remission and eight healthy controls. Autonomic parameters were evaluated with heart rate variability and electrodermal reactivity. We showed that CD patients had (i) higher scores of depressive symptomatology (12 ± 3 in patients vs 4 ± 1 in controls on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; p = 0.038), (ii) reduced vagal tone (HF 257 ± 84 ms(2) vs 1607 ± 1032 ms(2) , p = 0.043; LF 455 ± 153 ms(2) vs 1629 ± 585 ms(2) , p = 0.047), (iii) decreased sympathetic reactivity during an aversive stimulus, and (iv) higher tolerance to rectal distension pressures (43 ± 3 mmHg vs 30 ± 2 mmHg, p = 0.002) and low sensitivity index scores. In conclusion, our results provide preliminary evidence that patients with quiescent CD, in the absence of IBS, are hyposensate to experimental rectal distension. These data provide further evidence that anxiety and depressive symptomatology in addition to autonomic dysfunction modulate visceral pain perception in quiescent CD patients in the absence of IBS. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparison of spontaneous vs. metronome-guided breathing on assessment of vagal modulation using RR variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, D M; Magnano, A; Bigger, J T; Rivadeneira, H; Parides, M; Steinman, R C

    2001-03-01

    R-R interval variability (RR variability) is increasingly being used as an index of autonomic activity. High-frequency (HF) power reflects vagal modulation of the sinus node. Since vagal modulation occurs at the respiratory frequency, some investigators have suggested that HF power cannot be interpreted unless the breathing rate is controlled. We hypothesized that HF power during spontaneous breathing would not differ significantly from HF power during metronome-guided breathing. We measured HF power during spontaneous breathing in 20 healthy subjects and 19 patients with heart disease. Each subject's spontaneous breathing rate was determined, and the calculation of HF power was repeated with a metronome set to his or her average spontaneous breathing rate. There was no significant difference between the logarithm of HF power measured during spontaneous and metronome-guided breathing [4.88 +/- 0.29 vs. 5.29 +/- 0.30 ln(ms(2)), P = 0.32] in the group as a whole and when patients and healthy subjects were examined separately. We did observe a small (9.9%) decrease in HF power with increasing metronome-guided breathing rates (from 9 to 20 breaths/min). These data indicate that HF power during spontaneous and metronome-guided breathing differs at most by very small amounts. This variability is several logarithmic units less than the wide discrepancies observed between healthy subjects and cardiac patients with a heterogeneous group of cardiovascular disorders. In addition, HF power is relatively constant across the range of typical breathing rates. These data indicate that there is no need to control breathing rate to interpret HF power when RR variability (and specifically HF power) is used to identify high-risk cardiac patients.

  7. Loss of vagal tone aggravates systemic inflammation and cardiac impairment in endotoxemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Astrid; Lichtenstern, Christoph; Henrich, Michael; Weigand, Markus A; Uhle, Florian

    2014-05-15

    During the course of sepsis, often myocardial depression with hemodynamic impairment occurs. Acetylcholine, the main transmitter of the parasympathetic Nervus vagus, has been shown to be of importance for the transmission of signals within the immune system and also for a variety of other functions throughout the organism. Hypothesizing a potential correlation between this dysfunction and hemodynamic impairment, we wanted to assess the impact of vagal stimulation on myocardial inflammation and function in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock. As the myocardial tissue is (sparsely) innervated by the N. vagus, there might be an important anti-inflammatory effect in the heart, inhibiting proinflammatory gene expression in cardiomyocytes and improving cardiac function. We performed stimulation of the right cervical branch of the N. vagus in vagotomized, endotoxemic (1 mg/kg body weight LPS, intravenously) rats. Hemodynamic parameters were assessed over time using a left ventricular pressure-volume catheter. After the experiments, hearts and blood plasma were collected, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines was measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After vagotomy, the inflammatory response was aggravated, measurable by elevated cytokine levels in plasma and ventricular tissue. In concordance, cardiac impairment during septic shock was pronounced in these animals. To reverse both hemodynamic and immunologic effects of diminished vagal tone, even a brief stimulation of the N. vagus was enough during initial LPS infusion. Overall, the N. vagus might play a major role in maintaining hemodynamic stability and cardiac immune homeostasis during septic shock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Box Isolation of Fibrotic Areas (BIFA): A Patient-Tailored Substrate Modification Approach for Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottkamp, Hans; Berg, Jan; Bender, Roderich; Rieger, Andreas; Schreiber, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    Catheter ablation strategies beyond pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) are less well defined. Increasing clinical data indicate that atrial fibrosis is a critical common left atrial (LA) substrate in AF patients (pts). We applied a new substrate modification concept according to the individual fibrotic substrate as estimated from electroanatomic voltage mapping (EAVM) in 41 pts undergoing catheter ablation of AF. First, EAVM during sinus rhythm was done in redo cases of 10 pts with paroxysmal AF despite durable PVI. Confluent low-voltage areas (LVA) were found in all pts and were targeted with circumferential isolation, so-called box isolation of fibrotic areas (BIFA). This strategy led to stable sinus rhythm in 9/10 pts and was transferred prospectively to first procedures of 31 pts with nonparoxysmal AF. In 13 pts (42%), no LVA (atrial tachycardia was achieved in 72.2% of pts and in 83.3% of pts with 1.17 procedures/patient. In approximately 40% of pts with nonparoxysmal AF, no substantial LVA were identified, and PVI alone showed high success rate. In pts with paroxysmal AF despite durable PVI and in approximately 60% of pts with nonparoxysmal AF, individually localized LVA were identified and could be targeted successfully with the BIFA strategy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Studerende og underviseres brug af digitale medier - En kvantitativ undersøgelse af Aarhus Universitets studerende og underviseres brug af digitale medier og internettet anno 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hvid Stenalt

    2009-06-01

    • Hvilke medier anvender universitetsstuderende generelt? • Ligner undervisernes medievalg/forbrug de studerendes? • Hvilke medier inddrager underviserne i undervisningen? Nærværende artikel vil forsøge at besvare disse spørgsmål på baggrund af en kvantitativ spørgeskemaundersøgelse af Aarhus Universitets studerende og underviseres brug af digitale medier og internettet. Undersøgelsen blev gennemført i efteråret 2008 af E-læringsenheden ved Aarhus Universitet som led i en almen kvalitetssikring på media- og e-læringsområdet, samt som led i en behovsafklaring vedrørende etablering af et medie- og podcastarkiv. E-læringsenheden er en administrativ enhed, der teknisk og pædagogisk understøtter underviseres inddragelse af digitale medier i undervisningen.

  10. Delevalueringer af teknologi og velfærd i 4skit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja; Haslam, Trine Lolk; Abildgaard, Katrine Copmann

    Som et led i evaluering af satspuljeprojekt i regi af AMU - Aalborg har CEPRA udført en række delevaluering af udvalgte projekter......Som et led i evaluering af satspuljeprojekt i regi af AMU - Aalborg har CEPRA udført en række delevaluering af udvalgte projekter...

  11. An Interface Transformation Strategy for AF-IPPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Oracle, or SAP . Like other AF and Department of Defense (DoD) ERP programs, AF-IPPS is expected to have 100+ interfaces with 90+ external trading partners...platform such as PeopleSoft, Oracle, or SAP . Like other AF and Department of Defense (DoD) ERP programs, AF-IPPS is expected to have 100...currently perform these functions. The core of AF-IPPS will be implemented using an Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) platform such as PeopleSoft

  12. Udvikling af medicinsk behandling mod bipolar lidelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille Kempel

    2015-01-01

    Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase.......Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase....

  13. Obama skal ikke nyde noget af Syrien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    2013-01-01

    Mange har i lang tid undret sig over at konflikten i Syrien har kunnet få lov at stå på i så lang tid, uden at USA har vist lederskab og grebet ind. Det er jo den rolle vi er vant til at se USA i. Men Obama skal ikke nyde noget af at engagere sig i Syrien. Det har USA ikke råd til......Mange har i lang tid undret sig over at konflikten i Syrien har kunnet få lov at stå på i så lang tid, uden at USA har vist lederskab og grebet ind. Det er jo den rolle vi er vant til at se USA i. Men Obama skal ikke nyde noget af at engagere sig i Syrien. Det har USA ikke råd til...

  14. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  15. At afsøge mulige selv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Tove Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger, hvad der karakteriserer den fortid, der gøres levende ifm. en pilgrimsvandring i Frans af Assisis fodspor, og hvilken brugsværdi denne fortid har i nutiden. Undersøgelsen viser, at den fortid, der har brugsværdi i nutiden er en autentisk fortid. Frans er en historisk person, og...... nærværende og bringes i spil ift. deltagernes nutid og fremtid. Fortiden bliver levendegjort på mangfoldige måder: gennem den konkrete både åndelige og kropslige imitation af fortidig praksis, gennem de flerstemmige narrativer om Frans, gennem deltagernes fransinspirerede narrativer om sig selv. Den...

  16. CERN’s AFS replacement project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iven, J.; Lamanna, M.; Pace, A.

    2017-10-01

    OpenAFS is the legacy solution for a variety of use cases at CERN, most notably home-directory services. OpenAFS has been used as the primary shared file-system for Linux (and other) clients for more than 20 years, but despite an excellent track record, the project’s age and architectural limitations are becoming more evident. We are now working to offer an alternative solution based on existing CERN storage services. The new solution will offer evolved functionality, and is expected to eventually benefit from operational synergies. In this paper we will present CERN’s usage and an analysis of our technical choices: we will focus on the alternatives chosen for the various use cases (among them EOS, CERNBox and CASTOR); on implementing the migration process over the coming years; and the challenges and opportunities of the migration.

  17. Den kulturelle dimension af virksomhedens internationalisering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Tine

    1994-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler den kulturelle dimensions indvirkning på virksomhedens internationalisering og diskuterer mulige internationalisieringsstrategier for virksomheder, der konfronteres med kulturforskelle. Med udgangspunkt i en kritik af den hidtidige forskning på området, hvor det såkaldte psykiske...... distancebegreb har haft en central placering, foreslås det, at man som alternativ til dette begreb skal fokusere på virksomhedens markedsbaserede innovationsevne. Denne betegnes som dens interkultu kompetence og vedrører dens evne til at identificere og udnytte muligheder i fremmede kulturelle sammenhænge. Det...... er herved, at den kulturelle dimension påvirker virksomheden og dens fortsatte udvikling. En empirisk analyse i den danske fødevarebranche afdækker virksomheders interkulturelle kompetence ved hjælp af to spørgsmål: (1) Hvorledes formår virksomheder med begrænsede ressourcer til deres disposition...

  18. Nye ledelsesudfordringer i forebyggelse af stress i videnarbejdet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Ipsen, Christine; Mogensen, Mette

    arbejdssituation og muligheder for forebyggelse af arbejdsrelateret stress i vidensarbejdet. – Et kvalitaivt studie af arbejdsrelateret stress i vidensarbejdet. Lyngby, The Technical University of Denmark. Kärreman, Dan, Stefan Svenningson and Mats Alvesson (2003): The Return of the Machine Bureaucracy? Management......Afsættet for projektet ”Forebyggelse af stress i videnarbejdet – mellem begejstring og belastning” er, at der er behov for en ny forståelse af stress i det moderne arbejdsliv, for at kunne arbejde med stressforebyggelse blandt videnarbejdere. I dette paper tager vi udgangspunkt i begrebet...... mangetydighed/ambiguity som en karakteristik af videnarbejdet, da det stiller nogle helt nye udfordringer til hvordan ledelse af videnarbejdet skal foregå, når målet er at forebygge arbejdsrelateret stress. Vi karakteriserer videnarbejdet som mangetydigt og som Alvesson (2004) påpeger, udgør dilemmaerne i...

  19. Organisering af basal uddannelse i laparoskopisk kirurgi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lars; Høj, Lars; Poulsen, Johan

    2010-01-01

    evalueringsmetode er anvendt objective structured clinical examination (OSCE-test) og objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS-test). Resultater: Af de 106 læger er der færdigtrænet 80 læger på modul 1 og 2. Deltagernes fordeling på specialer var ved modul 1: kirurgi 47 læger, urologi 14 læger og...

  20. Vindafstivende vægge af letbetonelementer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhelt, M.

    Rapporten beskriver en forsøgsserie med 18 afstivende vægge opbygget af etagehøje, sammenlimede letbetonelementer. Der redegøres for de nødvendige kraftoverførende samlinger og der angives bæreevner for samlingerne og for væggen som helhed. Det konkluderes at sådanne vægge er velegnede som afstiv...

  1. En kvantitativ analyse af danskernes huskesedler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    .Samlet rummede de 871 sedler 8047 vareemner. Skønsvist drejer det sig om mellem 600 og 800 forskellige produkter. Det præcise tal lader sig ikke helt fastlægge, idet visse vareemner ("grønt", "pålæg" og "tøj" osv. i modsætning til agurker, hamburgerryg og Adidas T-shirt XL) ikke tillader identifikation af et...

  2. Evaluering af Familiehuset i Rebild Kommune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle; Arendt, Kasper Skou; Mehlsen, Line

    Evalueringen af Familiehuset i Rebild Kommuner viser, at børnenes trivsel forbedres, og de får færre følelsesmæssige problemer og adfærdsvanskeligheder. Samtidig falder forældrenes stressniveau i rollen som forældre. Baggrund: Rebild kommune har henvendt sig til VIVE for at få evalueret deres fam...

  3. Pressetørring af parketstave - Simulationsmodel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Pinholt, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Nærværende rapport indgår som en del af det arbejde der er udført under BIPS centeret. Rapporten vedrører modelleringsarbejdet med Junckers pressetørringsproces. Det er målet at opstille en termodynamisk og mekanisk model for parketstavene under pressetørring med henblik på at forklare og om muligt...

  4. Forankring af kvarterløft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazanti, B.

    Kvarterløft er et offentligt initiativ, der har til formål at forbedre sociale, bygningsmæssige og andre forhold i en afgrænset bydel. Kvarterløft er per definition tidsbegrænset til fem eller syv år. Mens et kvarterløft står på, er der ofte en mængde og mangfoldighed af aktiviteter og projekter....

  5. Evaluering af Relationskompetenceprojektet 2012-16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    kollegafællesskab, at have fået øget bevidsthed om relationers betydning og om at være fuldt til stede i en undervisningssituation, og ikke mindst at have mødt og afprøvet konkrete værktøjer i arbejdet med elever i skolen for lærerne eller for de lærerstuderende i praktik. Nogle udfordringer der fremhæves har...... handlet om de såkaldte indre øvelser. Det ser således ud til, at det systematiske arbejde med disse øvelser, der fremstår som særdeles udbytterigt for nogle aktører, er op-levet mindre positivt af andre. Det har også været en udfordring når udefrakommende har været kritiske over for projektet. Projektets...... karakter med samarbejde på tværs af aktørgrupper ser ud til at have været et afgørende perspektiv for det store oplevede udbytte. For de lærerstuderende ser indsatsen over tid ud til at have været vigtig. Den fortsatte deltagelse på 4. år af studiet var frivillig, og de lærerstuderende der valgte dette til...

  6. Distinct projection targets define subpopulations of mouse brainstem vagal neurons that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitakahara, Anna; Wu, Hsiao-Huei; Levitt, Pat

    2017-12-15

    Detailed anatomical tracing and mapping of the viscerotopic organization of the vagal motor nuclei has provided insight into autonomic function in health and disease. To further define specific cellular identities, we paired information based on visceral connectivity with a cell-type specific marker of a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and nucleus ambiguus (nAmb) that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase. As gastrointestinal disturbances are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we sought to define the relationship between MET-expressing (MET+) neurons in the DMV and nAmb, and the gastrointestinal tract. Using wholemount tissue staining and clearing, or retrograde tracing in a MET EGFP transgenic mouse, we identify three novel subpopulations of EGFP+ vagal brainstem neurons: (a) EGFP+ neurons in the nAmb projecting to the esophagus or laryngeal muscles, (b) EGFP+ neurons in the medial DMV projecting to the stomach, and (b) EGFP+ neurons in the lateral DMV projecting to the cecum and/or proximal colon. Expression of the MET ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), by tissues innervated by vagal motor neurons during fetal development reveal potential sites of HGF-MET interaction. Furthermore, similar cellular expression patterns of MET in the brainstem of both the mouse and nonhuman primate suggests that MET expression at these sites is evolutionarily conserved. Together, the data suggest that MET+ neurons in the brainstem vagal motor nuclei are anatomically positioned to regulate distinct portions of the gastrointestinal tract, with implications for the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal comorbidities of ASD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Is pancreatic polypeptide response to food ingestion a reliable index of vagal function in type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damholt, M B; Arlien-Soeborg, P; Hilsted, L

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients is based on cardiovascular reflex tests. Since cardiac function may be affected by arteriosclerosis and cardiomyopathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus, alternative tests reflecting vagal nerve function, in other organ systems, are needed....... In this study the pancreatic polypeptide (PP) response to a mixed meal was evaluated in healthy subjects and in recently diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients....

  8. Anterograde Tracing Method using DiI to Label Vagal Innervation of the Embryonic and Early Postnatal Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michelle C.; Fox, Edward A.

    2007-01-01

    The mouse is an extremely valuable model for studying vagal development in relation to strain differences, genetic variation, gene manipulations, or pharmacological manipulations. Therefore, a method using 1, 1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) was developed for labeling vagal innervation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in embryonic and postnatal mice. DiI labeling was adapted and optimized for this purpose by varying several facets of the method. For example, insertion and crushing of DiI crystals into the nerve led to faster DiI diffusion along vagal axons and diffusion over longer distances as compared with piercing the nerve with a micropipette tip coated with dried DiI oil. Moreover, inclusion of EDTA in the fixative reduced leakage of DiI out of nerve fibers that occurred with long incubations. Also, mounting labeled tissue in PBS was superior to glycerol with n-propyl gallate, which resulted in reduced clarity of DiI labeling that may have been due to DiI leaking out of fibers. Optical sectioning of flattened wholemounts permitted examination of individual tissue layers of the GI tract wall. This procedure aided identification of nerve ending types because in most instances each type innervates a different tissue layer. Between embryonic day 12.5 and postnatal day 8, growth of axons into the GI tract, formation and patterning of fiber bundles in the myenteric plexus and early formation of putative afferent and efferent nerve terminals were observed. Thus, the DiI tracing method developed here has opened up a window for investigation during an important phase of vagal development. PMID:17418900

  9. Duodenal activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase induces vagal afferent firing and lowers glucose production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Brittany A; Breen, Danna M; Luo, Ping; Cheung, Grace W C; Yang, Clair S; Sun, Biying; Kokorovic, Andrea; Rong, Weifang; Lam, Tony K T

    2012-04-01

    The duodenum senses nutrients to maintain energy and glucose homeostasis, but little is known about the signaling and neuronal mechanisms involved. We tested whether duodenal activation of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is sufficient and necessary for cholecystokinin (CCK) signaling to trigger vagal afferent firing and regulate glucose production. In rats, we selectively activated duodenal PKA and evaluated changes in glucose kinetics during the pancreatic (basal insulin) pancreatic clamps and vagal afferent firing. The requirement of duodenal PKA signaling in glucose regulation was evaluated by inhibiting duodenal activation of PKA in the presence of infusion of the intraduodenal PKA agonist (Sp-cAMPS) or CCK1 receptor agonist (CCK-8). We also assessed the involvement of a neuronal network and the metabolic impact of duodenal PKA activation in rats placed on high-fat diets. Intraduodenal infusion of Sp-cAMPS activated duodenal PKA and lowered glucose production, in association with increased vagal afferent firing in control rats. The metabolic and neuronal effects of duodenal Sp-cAMPS were negated by coinfusion with either the PKA inhibitor H89 or Rp-CAMPS. The metabolic effect was also negated by coinfusion with tetracaine, molecular and pharmacologic inhibition of NR1-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors within the dorsal vagal complex, or hepatic vagotomy in rats. Inhibition of duodenal PKA blocked the ability of duodenal CCK-8 to reduce glucose production in control rats, whereas duodenal Sp-cAMPS bypassed duodenal CCK resistance and activated duodenal PKA and lowered glucose production in rats on high-fat diets. We identified a neural glucoregulatory function of duodenal PKA signaling. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Overvågning af orkidéer 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, P.

    resultaterne af orkidéovervågningen (Wind 2001). Hertil kommer præsentationen af projektet og dets resultater efter forløbet af de første tre år (Løjtnant 1991a) og en bearbejdning af projektets resultater for årene 1987-1995 (Wind 1997). I nærværende rapport undersøges skov-hullæbe for en eventuel sammenhæng...... mellem skudanlæggelsen udtrykt ved antallet af blomstrende og vegetative skud i et givet år og nedbørsmængder i august og september året før. Det er en udbredt antagelse at der er en sammenhæng mellem skudanlæggelse og mængden af nedbør det foregående år. Undersøgelser af skov-hullæbe populationer i...... truet og sårbar samt de to arter der er omfattet af Habitatdirektivets bilag 2. I 2000 kan det i forhold til 1999 konstateres at der i 15 bestande er optalt et øget antal skud. I 11 bestande er der noteret en nedgang i antallet af skud sammenlignet med optællingerne i 1999. Af disse er der 2 be...

  11. Evaluering af den ernæringsmæssige kvalitet af madordninger i daginstitutioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Heyn; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Christensen, Lene Møller

    Fokus på madordninger i daginstitutioner og kvaliteten heraf har været stigende de seneste år. Mange nye madordninger er etableret i løbet af 2009 og 2010 især i børnehaver og i børnehavegrupper i de integrerede daginstitutioner. I 2009 opstillede Fødevarestyrelsen anbefalinger for den ernæringsm...... fedt samt at servere fisk, grøntsager, kartofler, samt fuldkornsvarianter af ris, pasta og brød mere hyppigt....

  12. Structural remodeling of the heart and its premotor cardioinhibitory vagal neurons following T(5) spinal cord transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E

    2014-05-01

    Midthoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with enhanced cardiac sympathetic activity and reduced cardiac parasympathetic activity. The enhanced cardiac sympathetic activity is associated with sympathetic structural plasticity within the stellate ganglia, spinal cord segments T1-T4, and heart. However, changes to cardiac parasympathetic centers rostral to an experimental SCI are relatively unknown. Importantly, reduced vagal activity is a predictor of high mortality. Furthermore, this autonomic dysregulation promotes progressive left ventricular (LV) structural remodeling. Accordingly, we hypothesized that midthoracic spinal cord injury is associated with structural plasticity in premotor (preganglionic parasympathetic neurons) cardioinhibitory vagal neurons located within the nucleus ambiguus as well as LV structural remodeling. To test this hypothesis, dendritic arborization and morphology (cholera toxin B immunohistochemistry and Sholl analysis) of cardiac projecting premotor cardioinhibitory vagal neurons located within the nucleus ambiguus were determined in intact (sham transected) and thoracic level 5 transected (T5X) rats. In addition, LV chamber size, wall thickness, and collagen content (Masson trichrome stain and structural analysis) were determined. Midthoracic SCI was associated with structural changes within the nucleus ambiguus and heart. Specifically, following T5 spinal cord transection, there was a significant increase in cardiac parasympathetic preganglionic neuron dendritic arborization, soma area, maximum dendritic length, and number of intersections/animal. This parasympathetic structural remodeling was associated with a profound LV structural remodeling. Specifically, T5 spinal cord transection increased LV chamber area, reduced LV wall thickness, and increased collagen content. Accordingly, results document a dynamic interaction between the heart and its parasympathetic innervation.

  13. At the heart of morality lies neuro-visceral integration: lower cardiac vagal tone predicts utilitarian moral judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Andreas; Rho, Yeojin; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    To not harm others is widely considered the most basic element of human morality. The aversion to harm others can be either rooted in the outcomes of an action (utilitarianism) or reactions to the action itself (deontology). We speculated that the human moral judgments rely on the integration of neural computations of harm and visceral reactions. The present research examined whether utilitarian or deontological aspects of moral judgment are associated with cardiac vagal tone, a physiological proxy for neuro-visceral integration. We investigated the relationship between cardiac vagal tone and moral judgment by using a mix of moral dilemmas, mathematical modeling and psychophysiological measures. An index of bipolar deontology-utilitarianism was correlated with resting heart rate variability (HRV)—an index of cardiac vagal tone—such that more utilitarian judgments were associated with lower HRV. Follow-up analyses using process dissociation, which independently quantifies utilitarian and deontological moral inclinations, provided further evidence that utilitarian (but not deontological) judgments were associated with lower HRV. Our results suggest that the functional integration of neural and visceral systems during moral judgments can restrict outcome-based, utilitarian moral preferences. Implications for theories of moral judgment are discussed. PMID:27317926

  14. At the heart of morality lies neuro-visceral integration: lower cardiac vagal tone predicts utilitarian moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gewnhi; Kappes, Andreas; Rho, Yeojin; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-01

    To not harm others is widely considered the most basic element of human morality. The aversion to harm others can be either rooted in the outcomes of an action (utilitarianism) or reactions to the action itself (deontology). We speculated that the human moral judgments rely on the integration of neural computations of harm and visceral reactions. The present research examined whether utilitarian or deontological aspects of moral judgment are associated with cardiac vagal tone, a physiological proxy for neuro-visceral integration. We investigated the relationship between cardiac vagal tone and moral judgment by using a mix of moral dilemmas, mathematical modeling and psychophysiological measures. An index of bipolar deontology-utilitarianism was correlated with resting heart rate variability (HRV)-an index of cardiac vagal tone-such that more utilitarian judgments were associated with lower HRV. Follow-up analyses using process dissociation, which independently quantifies utilitarian and deontological moral inclinations, provided further evidence that utilitarian (but not deontological) judgments were associated with lower HRV. Our results suggest that the functional integration of neural and visceral systems during moral judgments can restrict outcome-based, utilitarian moral preferences. Implications for theories of moral judgment are discussed. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Cardiac vagal regulation in infancy predicts executive function and social competence in preschool: Indirect effects through language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha A

    2018-05-21

    Parasympathetic nervous system functioning in infancy may serve a foundational role in the development of cognitive and socioemotional skills (Calkins, 2007). In this study (N = 297), we investigated the potential indirect effects of cardiac vagal regulation in infancy on children's executive functioning and social competence in preschool via expressive and receptive language in toddlerhood. Vagal regulation was assessed at 10 months during two attention conditions (social, nonsocial) via task-related changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). A path analysis revealed that decreased RSA from baseline in the nonsocial condition and increased RSA in the social condition were related to larger vocabularies in toddlerhood. Additionally, children's vocabulary sizes were positively related to their executive function and social competence in preschool. Indirect effects from vagal regulation in both contexts to both 4-year outcomes were significant, suggesting that early advances in language may represent a mechanism through which biological functioning in infancy impacts social and cognitive functioning in childhood. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. En litteraturbaseret gennemgang af mulige velfærdsmæssig betydning af brugen af længerevarende smertelindring til kalve efter afhorning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Nielsen, Bodil Højlund

    2018-01-01

    Dette er et udvidet sammendrag af vidensyntesen. Store dele af vidensyntesen er under review til et videnskabeligt tidsskrift, og kan derfor ikke offentliggøres elektronisk før denne proces er afsluttet. Den fulde rapport kan fremsendes pr. mail. Hvis du gerne vil have den tilsendt, så send en mail...

  17. Vurdering af effekten af en vindmøllepark ved Overgaard på forekomsten af fugle i EF-fuglebeskyttelsesområde nr. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P.; Larsen, J. K.

    forekomsten af en række arter der enten yngler eller raster inden for EF-fuglebeskyttelsesområdet, og er omfattet af EF-fuglebeskyttelsesdirektivets bilag I. Det drejer sig om arterne skarv Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, blå kærhøg Circus cyaneus, hjejle Pluvialis apricaria, brushane Philomachus pugnax, klyde...

  18. Nesfatin-1 activates cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus and elicits bradycardia in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Deliu, Elena; Tica, Andrei A; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; Tilley, Douglas G; Benamar, Khalid; Koch, Walter J; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Nesfatin-1, a peptide whose receptor is yet to be identified, has been involved in the modulation of feeding, stress, and metabolic responses. More recently, increasing evidence supports a modulatory role for nesfatin-1 in autonomic and cardiovascular activity. This study was undertaken to test if the expression of nesfatin-1 in the nucleus ambiguus, a key site for parasympathetic cardiac control, may be correlated with a functional role. As we have previously demonstrated that nesfatin-1 elicits Ca²⁺ signaling in hypothalamic neurons, we first assessed the effect of this peptide on cytosolic Ca²⁺ in cardiac pre-ganglionic neurons of nucleus ambiguus. We provide evidence that nesfatin-1 increases cytosolic Ca²⁺ concentration via a Gi/o-coupled mechanism. The nesfatin-1-induced Ca²⁺ rise is critically dependent on Ca²⁺ influx via P/Q-type voltage-activated Ca²⁺ channels. Repeated administration of nesfatin-1 leads to tachyphylaxis. Furthermore, nesfatin-1 produces a dose-dependent depolarization of cardiac vagal neurons via a Gi/o-coupled mechanism. In vivo studies, using telemetric and tail-cuff monitoring of heart rate and blood pressure, indicate that microinjection of nesfatin-1 into the nucleus ambiguus produces bradycardia not accompanied by a change in blood pressure in conscious rats. Taken together, our results identify for the first time that nesfatin-1 decreases heart rate by activating cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus. Our results indicate that nesfatin-1, one of the most potent feeding peptides, increases cytosolic Ca²⁺ by promoting Ca²⁺ influx via P/Q channels and depolarizes nucleus ambiguus neurons; both effects are Gi/o-mediated. In vivo studies indicate that microinjection of nesfatin-1 into nucleus ambiguus produces bradycardia in conscious rats. This is the first report that nesfatin-1 increases the parasympathetic cardiac tone. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Sorter af afgræsningslucerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2011-01-01

    – to nye sorter Verbena og Camboregio og en ældre sort Luzelle. Sorterne blev dyrket i renbestand og to forskellige blandinger med alm. rajgræs. Parcellerne blev afgræsset af kvier, med en forholdsvis hård afgræsning, i to forskellige slæt/afgræsnings systemer. Generelt klarede Verbena sig bedst og...... afgørende forskelle mellem denne ældre og de to nye sorter. Resultaterne for Luzelle lå generelt mellem Verbena og Camporegio....

  20. Innovation af “social kapital”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    I de fleste organisationer anerkendes det positive potentiale ved sociale relationer og organisering i grupper, hvilket fx søges opnået gennem teamorganisering. I nogle sammenhænge omtales det socialpsykologiske potentiale i en organisation som “social kapital”. Forskning fra socialpsykologien...... interesser. Det vil også stille krav til medarbejderne i retningen af øget engagement og involvering. Omvendt vil der være udsigt til at medarbejdernes deltagelse i beslutninger forbedrer muligheder for succes i kombination med kompetenceudvikling og (andre) såkaldte Human Resource Management praktikker....

  1. Energirenovering af større bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Birck Laustsen, Jacob; Vorre, Mette Havgaard

    involverede parter i et renoveringsprojekt om, hvordan energirenoveringsprojekter gennemføres i alle faser. SBi-anvisning 269 kan bruges som styringsredskab for bygherrer og kravgrundlag for rådgivere, entreprenører og andre parter, der leverer ydelser til bygherren. For institutioner, der stiller kapital til......​SBi-anvisning 269 omhandler metode og proces for gennemførelse af energirenoveringsprojekter for større bygninger fra idefase til driftsfase. Større bygninger omfatter etageboliger, bygninger til privat handel- og service samt offentlige institutioner. Anvisningen giver vejledning for de...

  2. Bohr vs. Einstein: Fortolkning af kvantemekanikken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Wade, Andrew Christopher James

    2013-01-01

    Siden 1913, da Bohr fremlagde sin kvantemekaniske model for atomet, har fysikere diskuteret, hvordan kvan- temekanikken skal fortolkes. Specielt aktive i denne diskussion var Bohr og Einstein, som havde modstridende opfattelser af, hvordan kvantemekanikken skulle forstås. Kan katte være både...... levende og døde på samme tid? Kan vi teleportere partikler mellem Månen og Jorden? Disse spørgsmål, og mange flere, forsøgte Bohr og Einstein at besvare, og det vil vi ligeledes i denne artikel....

  3. Er genomisk selektion en revolution af avlsarbejdet med mink?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Peer

    2011-01-01

    Genomisk selektion udnytter, at den enkelte mink kan genotypes for tusindvis af genetiske markører. Et dyrs avlsværdi kan skønnes med ret stor sikkerhed på basis af en blod- eller hårprøve, hvor dyrets sæt af genetiske markører bestemmes. Det er altså ikke nødvendigt at registrere minkens egne eg...

  4. GLP-1 receptor stimulation depresses heart rate variability and inhibits neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Kathleen J; Wan, Ruiqian; Okun, Eitan; Wang, Xin; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Li, Yazhou; Mughal, Mohamed R; Mendelowitz, David; Mattson, Mark P

    2011-01-01

    glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from the gut in response to food intake. Whereas GLP-1 acts in the periphery to inhibit glucagon secretion and stimulate insulin release, it also acts in the central nervous system to mediate autonomic control of feeding, body temperature, and cardiovascular function. Because of its role as an incretin hormone, GLP-1 receptor analogs are used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Central or peripheral administration of GLP-1 increases blood pressure and heart rate, possibly by activating brainstem autonomic nuclei and increasing vagus nerve activity. However, the mechanism(s) by which GLP-1 receptor stimulation affects cardiovascular function are unknown. We used the long-lasting GLP-1 receptor agonist Exendin-4 (Ex-4) to test the hypothesis that GLP-1 signalling modulates central parasympathetic control of heart rate. using a telemetry system, we assessed heart rate in mice during central Ex-4 administration. Heart rate was increased by both acute and chronic central Ex-4 administration. Spectral analysis indicated that the high frequency and low frequency powers of heart rate variability were diminished by Ex-4 treatment. Finally, Ex-4 decreased both excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission to preganglionic parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons. these data suggest that central GLP-1 receptor stimulation diminishes parasympathetic modulation of the heart thereby increasing heart rate.

  5. Urban air pollution targets the dorsal vagal complex and dark chocolate offers neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Osnaya, Norma; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Maronpot, Robert R; Reed, William; Zhu, Hongtu; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2010-12-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents exposed to fine particulate matter and endotoxin exhibit inflammation of the olfactory bulb, substantia nigra, and vagus nerve. The goal of this study was to model these endpoints in mice and examine the neuroprotective effects of chocolate. Mice exposed to MC air received no treatment or oral dark chocolate and were compared to clean-air mice either untreated or treated intraperitoneally with endotoxin. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), and CD14 messenger RNA (mRNA) were quantified after 4, 8, and 16 months of exposure in target brain regions. After 16 months of exposure, the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) exhibited significant inflammation in endotoxin-treated and MC mice (COX-2 and IL-1β P<.001). Mexico City mice had olfactory bulb upregulation of CD14 (P=.002) and significant DVC imbalance in genes for antioxidant defenses, apoptosis, and neurodegeneration. These findings demonstrate sustained DVC inflammation in mice exposed to MC air, which is mitigated by chocolate administration. © The Author(s) 2010

  6. Blood pressure control with selective vagal nerve stimulation and minimal side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Cota, Oscar; Espinosa, Nayeli; Boeser, Fabian; Herrera, Taliana C.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Zentner, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the baroreflex, lowering the BP. Selective electrical stimulation of these nerve fibers reduced BP in rats. However, there is no technique described to localize and stimulate these fibers inside the VN without inadvertent stimulation of non-baroreceptive fibers causing side effects like bradycardia and bradypnea. Approach. We present a novel method for selective VN stimulation to reduce BP without the aforementioned side effects. Baroreceptor compound activity of rat VN (n = 5) was localized using a multichannel cuff electrode, true tripolar recording and a coherent averaging algorithm triggered by BP or electrocardiogram. Main results. Tripolar stimulation over electrodes near the barofibers reduced the BP without triggering significant bradycardia and bradypnea. The BP drop was adjusted to 60% of the initial value by varying the stimulation pulse width and duration, and lasted up to five times longer than the stimulation. Significance. The presented method is robust to impedance changes, independent of the electrode's relative position, does not compromise the nerve and can run on implantable, ultra-low power signal processors.

  7. Vagal afferents modulate cytokine-mediated respiratory control at the neonatal medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Kannan V; Kc, Prabha; Hoxha, Zana; Mayer, Catherine A; Wilson, Christopher G; Martin, Richard J

    2011-09-30

    Perinatal sepsis and inflammation trigger lung and brain injury in preterm infants, and associated apnea of prematurity. We hypothesized that endotoxin exposure in the immature lung would upregulate proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in the medulla oblongata and be associated with impaired respiratory control. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg) or saline was administered intratracheally to rat pups and medulla oblongatas were harvested for quantifying expression of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines. LPS-exposure significantly increased medullary mRNA for IL-1β and IL-6, and vagotomy blunted this increase in IL-1β, but not IL-6. Whole-body flow plethysmography revealed that LPS-exposed pups had an attenuated ventilatory response to hypoxia both before and after carotid sinus nerve transection. Immunochemical expression of IL-1β within the nucleus of the solitary tract and area postrema was increased after LPS-exposure. In summary, intratracheal endotoxin-exposure in rat pups is associated with upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in the medulla oblongata that is vagally mediated for IL-1β and associated with an impaired hypoxic ventilatory response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic work stress and decreased vagal tone impairs decision making and reaction time in jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Kathleen; Maruff, Paul; Horan, Ben; Kingsley, Michael; Kinsella, Glynda; O'Halloran, Paul D; Hale, Matthew W; Wright, Bradley J

    2017-10-01

    The inverse relationship between acute stress and decision-making is well documented, but few studies have investigated the impact of chronic stress. Jockeys work exhaustive schedules and have extremely dangerous occupations, with safe performance requiring quick reaction time and accurate decision-making. We used the effort reward imbalance (ERI) occupational stress model to assess the relationship of work stress with indices of stress physiology and decision-making and reaction time. Jockeys (N=32) completed computerised cognitive tasks (Cogstate) on two occasions; September and November (naturally occurring lower and higher stress periods), either side of an acute stress test. Higher ERI was correlated with the cortisol awakening responses (high stress r=-0.37; low stress r=0.36), and with decrements in decision-making comparable to having a blood alcohol concentration of 0.08 in the high stress period (pdecision-making. Potentially, this may be attributed to a 'tipping point' whereby the higher ERI reported by jockeys in the high stress period decreases vagal tone, which may contribute to reduced decision-making abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: compassion and vagal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Cohen, Adam; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher

    2015-04-01

    Compassion is an affective response to another's suffering and a catalyst of prosocial behavior. In the present studies, we explore the peripheral physiological changes associated with the experience of compassion. Guided by long-standing theoretical claims, we propose that compassion is associated with activation in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through the vagus nerve. Across 4 studies, participants witnessed others suffer while we recorded physiological measures, including heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, and a measure of vagal activity called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Participants exhibited greater RSA during the compassion induction compared with a neutral control (Study 1), another positive emotion (Study 2), and a prosocial emotion lacking appraisals of another person's suffering (Study 3). Greater RSA during the experience of compassion compared with the neutral or control emotion was often accompanied by lower heart rate and respiration but no difference in skin conductance. In Study 4, increases in RSA during compassion positively predicted an established composite of compassion-related words, continuous self-reports of compassion, and nonverbal displays of compassion. Compassion, a core affective component of empathy and prosociality, is associated with heightened parasympathetic activity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. High cardiac vagal control is related to better subjective and objective sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gabriela G; Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC--operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)--will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral film clip. Participants then underwent full polysomnography to obtain objective measures of sleep quality and HF-HRV during a night of sleep. As expected, higher resting HF-HRV was associated with higher subjective and objective sleep quality (i.e., shorter sleep latency and fewer arousals). HF-HRV during sleep (overall or separated by sleep phases) showed less consistent relationships with sleep quality. These findings indicate that high waking CVC may be a key predictor of healthy sleep. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Vagal innervation is required for pulmonary function phenotype in Htr4-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, John S; Nichols, Cody E; Li, Huiling; Brandenberger, Christina; Virgincar, Rohan S; DeGraff, Laura M; Driehuys, Bastiaan; Zeldin, Darryl C; London, Stephanie J

    2017-04-01

    Human genome-wide association studies have identified over 50 loci associated with pulmonary function and related phenotypes, yet follow-up studies to determine causal genes or variants are rare. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in serotonin receptor 4 ( HTR4 ) are associated with human pulmonary function in genome-wide association studies and follow-up animal work has demonstrated that Htr4 is causally associated with pulmonary function in mice, although the precise mechanisms were not identified. We sought to elucidate the role of neural innervation and pulmonary architecture in the lung phenotype of Htr4 -/- animals. We report here that the Htr4 -/- phenotype in mouse is dependent on vagal innervation to the lung. Both ex vivo tracheal ring reactivity and in vivo flexiVent pulmonary functional analyses demonstrate that vagotomy abrogates the Htr4 -/- airway hyperresponsiveness phenotype. Hyperpolarized 3 He gas magnetic resonance imaging and stereological assessment of wild-type and Htr4 -/- mice reveal no observable differences in lung volume, inflation characteristics, or pulmonary microarchitecture. Finally, control of breathing experiments reveal substantive differences in baseline breathing characteristics between mice with/without functional HTR4 in breathing frequency, relaxation time, flow rate, minute volume, time of inspiration and expiration and breathing pauses. These results suggest that HTR4's role in pulmonary function likely relates to neural innervation and control of breathing. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Dopamine Mediates the Vagal Modulation of the Immune System by Electroacupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rosas, Rafael; Yehia, Ghassan; Peña, Geber; Mishra, Priya; del Rocio Thompson-Bonilla, Maria; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes Andrea; Isibasi, Armando; Ulloa, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Previous anti-inflammatory strategies against sepsis, a leading cause of death in hospitals, had limited efficacy in clinical trials, in part because they targeted single cytokines and the experimental models failed to mimic clinical settings1-3. Neuronal networks represent physiological mechanisms selected by evolution to control inflammation that can be exploited for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious disorders3. Here, we report that sciatic nerve activation with electroacupuncture controls systemic inflammation and rescues mice from polymicrobial peritonitis. Electroacupuncture at the sciatic nerve controls systemic inflammation by inducing a vagal activation of DOPA decarboxylase leading to the production of dopamine in the adrenal medulla. Experimental models with adrenolectomized animals mimic clinical adrenal insufficiency4, increase the susceptibility to sepsis, and prevent the anti-inflammatory potential of electroacupuncture. Dopamine inhibits cytokine production via dopaminergic type-1 receptors. Dopaminergic D1-agonists suppress systemic inflammation and rescue mice from polymicrobial peritonitis in animals with adrenal insufficiency. Our results suggest a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism mediated by the sciatic and the vagus nerves modulating the production of catecholamines in the adrenal glands. From a pharmacological perspective, selective dopaminergic agonists mimic the anti-inflammatory potential of electroacupuncture and can provide therapeutic advantages to control inflammation in infectious and inflammatory disorders. PMID:24562381

  13. Preliminary findings of cerebral responses on transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation on experimental heat pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usichenko, Taras; Laqua, René; Leutzow, Bianca; Lotze, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (TVNS) is a promising complementary method of pain relief. However, the neural networks associated with its analgesic effects are still to be elucidated. Therefore, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, in a randomized order, with twenty healthy subjects who were exposed to experimental heat pain stimulation applied to the right forearm using a Contact Heat-Evoked Potential Stimulator. While in one session TVNS was administered bilaterally to the concha auriculae with maximal, non-painful intensity, the stimulation device was switched off in the other session (placebo condition). Pain thresholds were measured before and after each session. Heat stimulation elicited fMRI activation in cerebral pain processing regions. Activation magnitude in the secondary somatosensory cortex, posterior insula, anterior cingulate and caudate nucleus was associated with heat stimulation without TVNS. During TVNS, this association was only seen for the right anterior insula. TVNS decreased fMRI signals in the anterior cingulate cortex in comparison with the placebo condition; however, there was no relevant pain reducing effect over the group as a whole. In contrast, TVNS compared to the placebo condition showed an increased activation in the primary motor cortex, contralateral to the site of heat stimulation, and in the right amygdala. In conclusion, in the protocol used here, TVNS specifically modulated the cerebral response to heat pain, without having a direct effect on pain thresholds.

  14. Lung vagal afferent activity in rats with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, E S; Walby, W F; Mansoor, J K; Chen, A T

    2001-05-01

    Bleomycin treatment in rats results in pulmonary fibrosis that is characterized by a rapid shallow breathing pattern, a decrease in quasi-static lung compliance and a blunting of the Hering-Breuer Inflation Reflex. We examined the impulse activity of pulmonary vagal afferents in anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rats with bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis during the ventilator cycle and static lung inflations/deflations and following the injection of capsaicin into the right atrium. Bleomycin enhanced volume sensitivity of slowly adapting stretch receptors (SARs), while it blunted the sensitivity of these receptors to increasing transpulmonary pressure. Bleomycin treatment increased the inspiratory activity, while it decreased the expiratory activity of rapidly adapting stretch receptors (RARs). Pulmonary C-fiber impulse activity did not appear to be affected by bleomycin treatment. We conclude that the fibrosis-related shift in discharge profile and enhanced volume sensitivity of SARs combined with the increased inspiratory activity of RARs contributes to the observed rapid shallow breathing of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis.

  15. Direct projections from hypothalamic orexin neurons to brainstem cardiac vagal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergacheva, Olga; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Schwartz, Alan R; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Mendelowitz, David

    2016-12-17

    Orexin neurons are known to augment the sympathetic control of cardiovascular function, however the role of orexin neurons in parasympathetic cardiac regulation remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that orexin neurons contribute to parasympathetic control we selectively expressed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in orexin neurons in orexin-Cre transgenic rats and examined postsynaptic currents in cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). Simultaneous photostimulation and recording in ChR2-expressing orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus resulted in reliable action potential firing as well as large whole-cell currents suggesting a strong expression of ChR2 and reliable optogenetic excitation. Photostimulation of ChR2-expressing fibers in the DMV elicited short-latency (ranging from 3.2ms to 8.5ms) postsynaptic currents in 16 out of 44 CVNs tested. These responses were heterogeneous and included excitatory glutamatergic (63%) and inhibitory GABAergic (37%) postsynaptic currents. The results from this study suggest different sub-population of orexin neurons may exert diverse influences on brainstem CVNs and therefore may play distinct functional roles in parasympathetic control of the heart. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Udvikling af informationskompetence i problemorienteret arbejde med brug af digitale værktøjer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Birch Andreasen, Lars; Jørgensen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    vejledningsformer. Visionen for projektet er, at arbejdet med at støtte de studerendes udvikling af informationskompetence ikke alene ses som en opgave for biblioteker biblioteker, men som en opgave der skal løses i et tættere integreret samarbejde mellem biblioteker og faglige uddannelsesmiljøer. Pilotprojektet...

  17. Udvikling af vejledningspraksis i kurser for undervisere i brugen af blended learning-aktiviteter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenalt, Maria Hvid; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Rossen, Dorte Sidelmann

    Hvert semester tilbyder Center for Undervisning og Læring (CUL) ved School of Business and Social Sciences ved Aarhus Universitet et 1-årig langt kompetenceudviklingsforløb i brugen af blended learning for lektorer og professorer. I løbet af denne periode skal deltagerne gennemføre et indledende...... blended learning-kursusforløb på 5 uger efterfulgt af en udviklings- og afprøvningsfase. Som afslutning skal deltagerne skrive en refleksionsrapport. Forløbet indebærer to vejledningsmøder med en eller flere af de undervisningsudviklere fra CUL, der er ansvarlige for forløbet: 1) Et individuelt...... vejledningsmøde, hvor deltagerne skal finde frem til, hvordan de vil eller kan omlægge deres undervisning til blended learning og 2) et kollektivt vejledningsmøde efter første udviklingsfase, hvor deltagerne modtager feedback på deres igangværende udviklingstiltag fra gruppemedlemmer og undervisningsudviklere. Et...

  18. Rensning af et skulpturportræt af maleren C.W. Eckersberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cone, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Rensning af gips er et kompliceret emne. Gips er et hygroskopisk (vand elskende) materiale som let optager vand. Rensning med almindelig vand er derfor helt umuligt, da snavs på overfladen vil blive transporteret ind i porestrukturen sammen med vandet. Når man støber i gips, frigiver den en masse...

  19. Om zeppelinere, forsvaret af København, blokaden af Tyskland og spionanklagen mod ritmester Frederik Moltke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmesen, Michael Hesselholt

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen følger Hærens indkøbschef, ritmester Frederik Moltkes, virksomhed i England fra eftersommeren 1915. Han endte på grund af sin energiske indsats også som fungerende militærattaché samt gennem halvbrorens profil som dansk gesandt i Berlin med at blive spionmistænkt og fanget i den britiske...

  20. En kvalitativ undersøgelse af gravides valg af nakkefoldscanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stina Lou; Dahl, Katja; Beck risør, Mette

    2007-01-01

    valg. Vi ønskede at undersøge informationens rolle i den gravides forståelse og valg af nakkefoldskanning. Materiale og metoder: Seksogtyve gravide blev interviewet efter første svangrekonsultation og igen efter misdannelseskanningen. Undersøgelsesresultaterne i denne artikel stammer primært fra første...

  1. Forekomst af alkohol, narkotika og medicin hos bilister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2011-01-01

    Inden for rammerne af det fælles-europæiske forskningsprojekt DRUID (DRiving Under the Influence of Drugs, alcohol and medicines) er forekomsten af alkohol og/eller andre stoffer blevet undersøgt i et stort antal europæiske lande, bl.a. i Danmark.......Inden for rammerne af det fælles-europæiske forskningsprojekt DRUID (DRiving Under the Influence of Drugs, alcohol and medicines) er forekomsten af alkohol og/eller andre stoffer blevet undersøgt i et stort antal europæiske lande, bl.a. i Danmark....

  2. Overvågning af karplanter i Suserup Skov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, P.

    1999-01-01

    Vejler, i alt ca. 5.500 ha. Feltstationen blev oprettet i 1978, og siden har observatørerne registreret fuglelivet i Vejlerne og de omgivende arealer foruden vandstand, saltholdighed og drift af området. Tipperne ligger i den sydlige del af Ringkøbing Fjord. Fuglelivet blev fredet i 1898. Reservatet blev...... en samlet fredning af Vadehavet, omfatter øen Langli på 80 ha og vandarealer på i alt ca. 8.000 ha. Øen består af klitter og salte strandenge. Vandområdet er præget af tidevand, hvor vidtstrakte sand- og mudderflader og spredte muslingebanker er synlige ved lavvande. Vorsø ligger i Horsens Fjord...... saltholdighed i Ringkøbing Fjord bevirker, at vandplanter vokser dårligt eller forsvinder. Vandplanter udgør en væsentlig del af føden for visse andefugle og kan derfor have stor betydning for antallet af rastende fugle. Der blev registreret lave antal af knortegå, gråand, pibeand og krikand. Af blishøne blev...

  3. Frisættelse af fødderne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Ole Fogh

    2013-01-01

    Kropskultur. Amerikansk journalist og forfatter hævder, at løb - og fødder - giver adgang til livets mening. Anmeldelse af: Christoffer McDougall: Født til løb. Oversat af Jacob Giese efter Born to Run. Forlaget Turbulenz, 400 sider.......Kropskultur. Amerikansk journalist og forfatter hævder, at løb - og fødder - giver adgang til livets mening. Anmeldelse af: Christoffer McDougall: Født til løb. Oversat af Jacob Giese efter Born to Run. Forlaget Turbulenz, 400 sider....

  4. Dilemmaer i musikterapeutisk behandling af en traumatiseret flygtning med musikerbaggrund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolette Daniels Beck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikel præsenterer et single case-studie af et receptivt musikterapiforløb med en 55-årig syrisk flygtning, som har været udsat for fængsling og tortur på grund af sine aktiviteter som protestsanger og musiker. Der beskrives problemstillinger og dilemmaer relateret til at anvende musik, der både kan trigge traumer, men også vække indre ressourcer. Kortlægning af patientens forskellige personlighedsdele og musikkens evne til integration af dem vil blive belyst gennem teorien om strukturel dissociation.

  5. Food-intake dysregulation in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats: hypothesized role of dysfunctional brainstem thyrotropin-releasing hormone and impaired vagal output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, K; Ao, Y; Harper, R M; Go, V L W; Yang, H

    2013-09-05

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), a neuropeptide contained in neural terminals innervating brainstem vagal motor neurons, enhances vagal outflow to modify multisystemic visceral functions and food intake. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are accompanied by impaired vagal functioning. We examined the possibility that impaired brainstem TRH action may contribute to the vagal dysregulation of food intake in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a T2D model with hyperglycemia and impaired central vagal activation by TRH. Food intake induced by intracisternal injection of TRH analog was reduced significantly by 50% in GK rats, compared to Wistar rats. Similarly, natural food intake in the dark phase or food intake after an overnight fast was reduced by 56-81% in GK rats. Fasting (48h) and refeeding (2h)-associated changes in serum ghrelin, insulin, peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide and leptin, and the concomitant changes in orexigenic or anorexigenic peptide expression in the brainstem and hypothalamus, all apparent in Wistar rats, were absent or markedly reduced in GK rats, with hormone release stimulated by vagal activation, such as ghrelin and pancreatic polypeptide, decreased substantially. Fasting-induced Fos expression accompanying endogenous brainstem TRH action decreased by 66% and 91%, respectively, in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) in GK rats, compared to Wistar rats. Refeeding abolished fasting-induced Fos-expression in the NTS, while that in the DMV remained in Wistar but not GK rats. These findings indicate that dysfunctional brainstem TRH-elicited vagal impairment contributes to the disturbed food intake in T2D GK rats, and may provide a pathophysiological mechanism which prevents further weight gain in T2D and obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Gruppebaseret behandling af BED - et faseopdelt behandlingstilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laust, Jakob; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    konsekvenser. BED blev i 2013 optaget i DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) som en selvstændig diagnose og BED forventes medtaget i den forestående revision af det internationale diagnose system, ICD-11. Sundhedsstyrelsen gav på denne baggrund satspuljemidler til erfaringsopsamling...... EDE-Q: 1,7 og ved EDI: 1,5), ligesom de generelle psykiske symptomer blev mindsket i høj grad (effectsize ved WHO-5: 1,0 og ved GSI meanscore: 0,8). I alt 82 % opfyldte før behandlingens start DSM-4’s diagnostiske kriterier for BED mod 11,5 % efter behandling. 52 % fik fuld remission (ingen...... accept af og tilfredshed med behandlingen. Der var stor effekt på antal overspisninger. Før behandling havde patienterne gennemsnitligt 23,7 overspisninger pr. mdr. mod 2,3 efter behandling (effect size: 5,4). Udbyttet i forhold til den samlede spiseforstyrrelsessymptomatologi var høj (effect size ved...

  7. Tilsætning af uorganisk og organisk kobber til smågrisefoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Hanne; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2011-01-01

    Et højt indhold af kobber i foderet udgør en risiko for belastning af miljøet, og en begrænsning i udledningen af kobber er derfor ønskelig. Brug af organisk bundet kobber (kobberlysin) som alternativ til uorganisk kobber (kobbersulfat) i foderblandinger kan muligvis begrænse det totale forbrug af...

  8. Bakteriesensor til on-line identifikation/bestemmelse af mikrobiel drikkevandskvalitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentien, Anders; Tilsted Mogensen, Claus; Østergaard, Else-Marie

    Over det meste af verden defineres den mikrobielle drikkevandskvalitet primært på baggrund af grænseværdier for E. coli, coliforme bakterier og kimtal. Anvendelsen af den totale bakteriekoncentration til bestemmelse af mikrobiel drikkevandskvalitet er (af historiske årsager) ikke udbredt og primært...

  9. Miljøoptimering af afvaskning ved tryk med vandfortyndbar flexotrykfarve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Helweg, Christian; Pedersen, Anne Rathmann

    Rapporten beskriver praksis ved afvaskning af vandfortyndbare flexotrykfarver i emballageindustrien og anviser muligheder for indførelse af renere teknologi til reduktion af spildevandsbelastningen. Anbefalingerne omfatter a) udformning af farveværker med henblik på effektiv tømning af farve og e...

  10. Dansk oversættelse af MiDAS, et redskab til assessment af musikterapi for personer med demens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Lykkegaard, Chris; McDermott, Orii

    2018-01-01

    Music in Dementia Assessment Scales, MiDAS, er udviklet til at vurdere ændringer i trivsel hos borgere med demens som har deltaget i musikterapi. Målingen udføres af 1) personale før og efter musikterapien for at vurdere om der er en indflydelse i hverdagssituationer efterfølgende, eller af 2......) musikterapeuten umiddelbart efter sessionen for at vurdere forandringer i selve sessionen. Der har været stor interesse for at anvende MiDAS i flere Europæiske lande, herunder Danmark. Derfor undersøgte udviklerne af MiDAS hvilke procedurer der anvendes til oversættelse og kulturel tilpasning af...... assessmentredskaber, og anbefalede på den baggrund en ti-trins procedure. Vi anvendte denne procedure til oversættelsen af MiDAS og således udviklingen af den danske MiDAS-DK. Den danske version af MiDAS er afprøvet af mere end 20 fagpersoner på baggrund af 296 udfyldte MiDAS-skemaer. Målet med artiklen er...

  11. Power electronics substrate for direct substrate cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Khiet [Mission Viejo, CA; Ward, Terence G [Redondo Beach, CA; Mann, Brooks S [Redondo Beach, CA; Yankoski, Edward P [Corona, CA; Smith, Gregory S [Woodland Hills, CA

    2012-05-01

    Systems and apparatus are provided for power electronics substrates adapted for direct substrate cooling. A power electronics substrate comprises a first surface configured to have electrical circuitry disposed thereon, a second surface, and a plurality of physical features on the second surface. The physical features are configured to promote a turbulent boundary layer in a coolant impinged upon the second surface.

  12. Relationship between Vagal Tone, Cortisol, TNF-Alpha, Epinephrine and Negative Affects in Crohn’s Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellissier, Sonia; Dantzer, Cécile; Mondillon, Laurie; Trocme, Candice; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Ducros, Véronique; Mathieu, Nicolas; Toussaint, Bertrand; Fournier, Alicia; Canini, Frédéric; Bonaz, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) involve brain-gut dysfunctions where vagus nerve is an important component. The aim of this work was to study the association between vagal tone and markers of stress and inflammation in patients with CD or IBS compared to healthy subjects (controls). The study was performed in 73 subjects (26 controls, 21 CD in remission and 26 IBS patients). The day prior to the experiment, salivary cortisol was measured at 8∶00 AM and 10∶00 PM. The day of the experiment, subjects completed questionnaires for anxiety (STAI) and depressive symptoms (CES-D). After 30 min of rest, ECG was recorded for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Plasma cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were measured in blood samples taken at the end of ECG recording. Compared with controls, CD and IBS patients had higher scores of state-anxiety and depressive symptomatology. A subgroup classification based on HRV-normalized high frequency band (HFnu) as a marker of vagal tone, showed that control subjects with high vagal tone had significantly lower evening salivary cortisol levels than subjects with low vagal tone. Such an effect was not observed in CD and IBS patients. Moreover, an inverse association (r = −0.48; p<0.05) was observed between the vagal tone and TNF-alpha level in CD patients exclusively. In contrast, in IBS patients, vagal tone was inversely correlated with plasma epinephrine (r = −0.39; p<0.05). No relationship was observed between vagal tone and IL-6, norepinephrine or negative affects (anxiety and depressive symptomatology) in any group. In conclusion, these data argue for an imbalance between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the vagal tone in CD and IBS patients. Furthermore, they highlight the specific homeostatic link between vagal tone and TNF-alpha in CD and epinephrine in IBS and argue for the relevance of vagus nerve reinforcement interventions in those diseases. PMID

  13. Sammenligning af laboratorieforsøg med kemiske, biologiske og termiske metoder til oprensning af residual fri fase under grundvandsspejlet i Kærgård Plantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mette; Christensen, Jørgen Fjeldsø; Jørgensen, Torben H.

    , sulfonamider, barbiturater, anilin, cyanid og kviksølv, og det har resulteret i en meget kompleks forurening. Efter afgravning af 4000 tons meget forurenet jord ned til grundvandsspejlet i to af de seks gruber er næste skridt afprøvning af forskellige metoder til fjernelse af den kraftige grundvandsforurening...

  14. Røveri af bil - forbrydelsen der ikke findes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lentz, Lene Wacher

    2018-01-01

    Artiklen behandler den særegne strafferetlige problematik, at røveri af bil ikke straffes som sådan, men alene som ulovlig tvang og brugstyveri. Dette skyldes en formodning om, at tyven kun vil bruge bilen, ikke tilegne sig bilen. Konsekvensen bliver en langt lavere straf for "røveri af bil", end...

  15. Retsbeskyttelsen af fostre og befrugtede æg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    tydeliggøres og analyseres forskellige problemstillinger: -Abort og fosterreduktion - Fosterdiagnostik - Fosteret som patient og forsøgsperson - Anvendelse af føtale celler og væv - Fosterets status som afdød - Fertilitetsbehandling og sortering af befrugtede æg - Fertilitetsturisme - Stamcelleforskning...

  16. Lyv og Død af H Andersen levnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Ejnar Stig

    2016-01-01

    I anledning af 200-året for H.C. Andersens fars død redegøres for friskomager Hans Andersens levned.......I anledning af 200-året for H.C. Andersens fars død redegøres for friskomager Hans Andersens levned....

  17. Erfaringer med dokumentation af musikterapeutisk praksis i kommunal demensomsorg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøier, Julie Kolbe; Jefsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Denne artikel afdækker centrale erfaringer fra etableringen af faste musikterapitilbud i kommunerne Hillerød og Sønderborg. I begge kommuner er musikterapien blevet et fast tilbud på baggrund af en prøvepe- riode, og der er blevet skabt en systematisk dokumentationspraksis. Denne er blevet etable...

  18. Krigens splittelse af det kropslige fællesskab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejberg, Kasper Green

    2015-01-01

    Judith Butlers kritik af krigen mod terror opfordrer os til at bryde med de rammer, der styrer vores tænkning og sansning......Judith Butlers kritik af krigen mod terror opfordrer os til at bryde med de rammer, der styrer vores tænkning og sansning...

  19. Udstilling af børn og fostre med misdannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ion

    2008-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver baggrunden for etableringen af de første anatomiske samlinger og de første samlinger med teratologiske præparater i Sct. Petersborg og Berlin. Den Saxtorphske Samling på Medicinsk Museion indeholder den største samling af teratologiske præparater i Danmark, og bagrunden for sam...

  20. Sparring på evaluering af Destination Trivsel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Anette

    , konklusion – hvor udsagn fra elever i henholdsvis indskolingen, mellemtrinnet og udskolingen indledningsvist behandles separat og deskriptivt. Efterfølgende er data analyseret med afsæt i en kryds-case-analyse, hvor der på baggrund af den deskriptive analyse koblet til de respektive målgrupper er udledt en...

  1. Lukning og indskrænkninger af virksomheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pico Geerdsen, Peter; Høgelund, Jan; Larsen, Mona

    Der tales meget om de negative konsekvenser af globalisering. I denne rapport søger forfatterne at vurdere risikoen for svagere tilknytning til arbejdsmarkedet og forringet indkomstudvikling blandt fratrådte lønmodtagere i de dele af industrien, der er særligt udsat for konkurrence fra...

  2. Kontrol af konserveringsmidler og farvestoffer i legetøjskosmetik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S. C.; Jensen, G. H.

    deklarationerne på de udtagne produkter er indholdet af formaldehyd analyseret i 4 produkter, dehydroacetic acid i 2 produkter og Kathon CG i 9 produkter. Parabener, 2-phenoxy-ethanol samt organiske farvestoffer er analyseret i samtlige udtagne produkter. Det er blevet påvist, at 42% af de udtagne produkter (n=19...

  3. Spilteorien og (et par af) dens fædre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Welling

    2011-01-01

    Boganmeldelse af Robert Leonard's "Von Neumann, Morgenstern, and the Creation of Game Theory: From Chess to Social Science, 1900-1960". Cambridge University Press.......Boganmeldelse af Robert Leonard's "Von Neumann, Morgenstern, and the Creation of Game Theory: From Chess to Social Science, 1900-1960". Cambridge University Press....

  4. Strukturreformens succes afhænger af de offentlige ledere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm

    2005-01-01

    Bliver strukturreformen en succes eller fiasko? Det afhænger af ledernes evner og muligheder for at omstille driften i den offentlige sektors mange institutiner.......Bliver strukturreformen en succes eller fiasko? Det afhænger af ledernes evner og muligheder for at omstille driften i den offentlige sektors mange institutiner....

  5. Evaluering af Senter for flerkulturelt og internasjonalt arbeid (SEFIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensaker, Bjørn; Benedicte, Brøgger; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    Rapporten indeholder en beskrivelse af resultaterne fra en intern og ekstern evaluering af SEFIA - et center der driver undervisning og forsknings- og udviklingsarbejde samt formidling inden for temaerne flerkulturel forståelse og internationalt udviklingsarbejde. Evalueringen er foretaget på gru...

  6. Evaluering af ny kokkeuddannelse for hørehandicappede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels-Henrik Møller

    2010-01-01

    Center for Ungdomsforskning har netop afsluttet en evaluering af en ny uddannelse indenfor madproduktion, rettet imod personer med et hørehandicap. Hensigten med uddannelsen er, at kunne tilbyde døve, døvblinde og hørehæmmede personer et uddannelsestilbud indenfor fremstilling af mad. Konkret han...

  7. Testning af alment ordforråd hos danske universitetsstuderende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Langhoff; Ravn, Ida Elise; Weed, Ethan

    2017-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder udviklingen og afprøvningen af en ordforrådstest designet specielt til universi- tetsstuderende. Testen er en elektronisk, revideret version af ’Hvilket billede passer til ordet’ udviklet med udgangspunkt i de billeder og ord, der bruges i Vejledende Læsetest for Voksne (VLV)....

  8. “All That Jazz” - bagsiden af showbizz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigtved, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Artiklen, der er skrevet til programmet ifbm premieren på musicalen Chicago på Det Ny Teater beskriver den tendens i broadwaymusicals, som begynder i slutningen af 1960’erne med bla forestillingen Cabaret, hvor det er skyggesiden af underholdningens industrien, der selvrefleksivt er emnet for for...

  9. Skattemæssig behandling af virtuelle valutaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Louise Fjord; Weber, Katja Dyppel

    2018-01-01

    Udbredelsen og anvendelsen af virtuelle valutaer er stigende, og der synes derfor behov for en analyse af den skattemæssige kvalifikation og behandling heraf. Skatterådet har ved to lejligheder haft mulighed for at foretage denne analyse; i henholdsvis SKM2014.226.SR om Bitcoins og SKM2017.520.SR...

  10. Fremstilling af CO2-neutral benzin og diesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stummann, Magnus Zingler; Høj, Martin; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2018-01-01

    Siden 1965 er verdens energiforbrug mere end femdoblet og forbruget forventes at fortsætte med at stige i fremtiden. Imens mindskes reserverne af fossilt brændstof hastigt og CO2-udledningen fra forbrændingen af fossile brændstoffer medfører global opvarmning. Vi har derfor brug for hurtigt at fi...

  11. Anvendelse af webkonference på Syddansk Universitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Christopher; Christensen, Inger-Marie F.; Blok, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen videregiver en række praktiske erfaringer med anvendelse af webkonferencesystemet Adobe Connect Pro i forbindelse med undervisning på Syddansk Universitet (SDU). Via tre pilotprojekter fra forskellige fagområder præsenteres de første konkrete og indledende erfaringer med anvendelsen af det...

  12. Test af et satellitbaseret kørselsafgiftssystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Bojer; Lahrmann, Harry

    2007-01-01

    I dette paper beskrives opbygningen af en model af et takstsystem, som skal fungere i et satellitbaseret kørselsafgiftssystem. Modellen er forholdsvis simpel og bygger på et buffersystem, og der anvendes således ikke nogen avanceret map matching. Det beskrives, hvordan modellen afprøves med tilfæ...

  13. En retorisk analyse af en Hodayot-salme fra Qumran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Trine Bjørnung

    2007-01-01

    I salmesamlingen Hodayot (1QHa), fundet blandt Dødehavsrullerne, skelner man mellem to grupper af salmer på baggrund af måden hvorpå salmisten fremtræder. Når forskere diskuterer salmesamlingens organisationsprincip, bygger de ofte deres synspunkter på den antagelse at der har været mindst to for...

  14. Overvågning af influenza i svin 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Influenza i dyr udgør en trussel mod dyresundheden, dyrevelfærden, produktionsøkonomien, fødeva-resikkerheden og har givet anledning til flere pandemier i mennesker. For at kunne agere hurtigt på nye trusler (early warning) og derved holde konsekvensen af fundet af et nyt virus på et minimum, er...

  15. Danske mediers dækning af Rusland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabel, Lars

    eller forstået 2016 – Brexit i Storbritannien og Donald Trumps valg kom som en stor overraskelse – medierne havde igen ikke fat i det magtfulde, der vokser frem i samfundet på trods af eliten. Udenrigsdækningen er delvist ude af sync med den verden, den beskriver. Den er for elitær. Den er for indlejret...

  16. Forhandlinger af mangfoldighed i danske kommunernes kostpolitikker for dagtilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard Warrer, Sarah; Leer, Jonatan

    2018-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer en diskurs analytisk undersøgelse af danske kommuners kostpolitikker. Formålet med studiet er at kortlægge kommunernes forhandling af mangfoldighed og den måltidspædagogiske opgave, hvilket udgør et arbejdsredskab for pædagogerne i kommunale dagtilbud. Studiet er baseret på e...

  17. Målstyring af og frihedsgrader til de menneskelige ressourcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld

    2010-01-01

    bevaring af arbejdspladser. I den voluntaristiske tilgang til ledelse af personale bevæger virksomhederne sig i en ”sociologisk dualisme” mellem hårde og bløde tilgange. Strukturerne på arbejdsmarkedet og kulturelle forhold i samspillet mellem samfund og virksomhed i det danske samfund betyder, at begge...

  18. Overvågning af influenza i svin 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    % af de positive indsendelser. Dette fald kan indikere at dette virus har toppet i udbredelse, men det kan også være en tilfældig variation. I overvågningen 2011 fandt vi udover de forventede subtyper også nye svineinfluenzavirus subtyper. En af de nye subtyper - H1avN2hu - blev fundet i...

  19. Om den sociale og symbolske funktion af uddannelsesevalueringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten

    Afhandlingens teoretiske udgangspunkt er hos Émile Durkheim, Pierre Bourdieu, Ulf P. Lund­gren, Staf Callewaert, det konkrete er en række evalueringer af uddannelser til (semi)professioner inden for sundhedssektoren.                I afhandlingen konstrueres den sociale og symbolske funktion af...

  20. Aftaler om arbejdsmiljø - en analyse af udvalgte overenskomster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Voxtrup; Wiegmann, Inger-Marie; Vogt-Nielsen, Karl

    En analyse af overenskomsters betydning for arbejdsmiljøet indenfor industri, slagterier, rengøring, det grønne område, hotel og restauration og busdrift.......En analyse af overenskomsters betydning for arbejdsmiljøet indenfor industri, slagterier, rengøring, det grønne område, hotel og restauration og busdrift....

  1. African Network Operators Group (AfNOG) Training Workshops and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Network Operators Group (AfNOG) is a forum for technical cooperation and coordination between African network operators and engineers from the region's universities, research institutions and industry. This year, AfNOG's training workshops and meetings will be held in Rabat, Morocco, between 24 May and 6 ...

  2. Spleen vagal denervation inhibits the production of antibodies to circulating antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud M Buijs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently the vagal output of the central nervous system has been shown to suppress the innate immune defense to pathogens. Here we investigated by anatomical and physiological techniques the communication of the brain with the spleen and provided evidence that the brain has the capacity to stimulate the production of antigen specific antibodies by its parasympathetic autonomic output. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This conclusion was reached by successively demonstrating that: 1. The spleen receives not only sympathetic input but also parasympathetic input. 2. Intravenous trinitrophenyl-ovalbumin (TNP-OVA does not activate the brain and does not induce an immune response. 3. Intravenous TNP-OVA with an inducer of inflammation; lipopolysaccharide (LPS, activates the brain and induces TNP-specific IgM. 4. LPS activated neurons are in the same areas of the brain as those that provide parasympathetic autonomic information to the spleen, suggesting a feed back circuit between brain and immune system. Consequently we investigated the interaction of the brain with the spleen and observed that specific parasympathetic denervation but not sympathetic denervation of the spleen eliminates the LPS-induced antibody response to TNP-OVA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings not only show that the brain can stimulate antibody production by its autonomic output, it also suggests that the power of LPS as adjuvant to stimulate antibody production may also depend on its capacity to activate the brain. The role of the autonomic nervous system in the stimulation of the adaptive immune response may explain why mood and sleep have an influence on antibody production.

  3. Udførelse af bygningsakustiske målinger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Hoffmeyer, Dan; Olesen, Henrik S.

    Denne anvisning definerer og beskriver udførelse af bygningsakustiske målinger m.m. i relation til Bygningsreglement 2015 (BR15), kapitel 6.4, Akustisk Indeklima (Trafik- og Byggestyrelen, 2016). Anvisningen er en opdatering af den første udgave fra 2008. Den nye udgave er ajourført med vejledning...... knyttet til blandt andet de nye standarder med feltmålemetoder for lydisolation. Anvisningen henvender sig primært til personer og firmaer, der udfører bygningsakustiske målinger, men vil også være et vigtigt redskab for rådgivere, udførende og leverandører i forbindelse med projektering af bygninger....... Anvisningen er også relevant for kommunerne i forbindelse med kontrol af opfyldelsen af lydbestemmelserne i bygningsreglementet....

  4. Udkantsdanmark: Avisernes (med)produktion af Nordjyllands territorielle stigma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene; Christensen, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger hvordan Region Nordjylland (NJ) beskrives i medierne og hvordan diskursen om Udkanten dominerer avisernes fremstilling af regionen . Baggrunden herfor er en interesse for social ulighed, og i denne sammenhæng Wacquants begreb om territorielt stigma (1996, 2007). Wacquant føjer...... stigma. I Gunnar Lind Haase Svendsens studie af italesættelsen af ’udkanten’ fra 1996-2011 ses fx en gennem de seneste år stigende anvendelse af termer som ’den rådne banan’ og ’Udkantsdanmark’ i medierne (Svendsen 2013: 12). Dette stigma forbindes med flere dele af Danmark (se bl.a. Arbejderbevægelsens...

  5. Skattemæsssig kvalifikation af trusts i praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldthusen, Rasmus Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen har til formål at systematisere og redegøre for skattemyndighedernes fremgangsmåde og kvalifikation af trusts i dansk ret. Baggrunden herfor er, at antallet af trust-sager for såvel de administrative myndigheder som domstolene relativt set er vokset betydeligt siden årtusindeskiftet. Ud...... fra en gennemgang af doms- og administrativ praksis kan det konstateres, at kvalifikationen af trusts kan opdeles i fire hovedkategorier, som er væsentlige at have kendskab til, såfremt en skattesag indeholdende trust-elementer måtte være under opsejling. Endvidere inddrages skattestrafferetlig...... praksis på baggrund af en nyligt afsagt landsretsdom vedrørende en offshore trust....

  6. Forbedring af GIS data til trafikmodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stephen; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2005-01-01

    indbyggere og arbejdspladser er meget inhomogen. Dette er især tilfældet for zonerne i Frederiksborg og Roskilde Amter. For at opnå mere detaljerede resultater er det nødvendigt at opdele disse zoner. I artiklen præsenteres forskellige GIS-baserede metoder, der er blevet benyttet til at forbedre og kombinere...... eksisterende GIS-baserede datakilder, så der er opnået en hidtil uset nøjagtighed i trafikmodellernes geografiske data. Herefter beskrives, hvordan der med udgangspunkt i disse forbedrede data er foretaget analyser af zonerne i modellen, og hvordan zoner som ikke lever op til den ønske detaljegrad, er splittet...

  7. Implementering af tre misbrugsbehandlinger for udsatte unge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; Termansen, Tina

    2015-01-01

    SFI- Det Nationale Forskningscenter for Velfærd skal evaluere ”Projekt misbrugsbehandling for udsatte unge”, som løber fra 2011 til 2014. De tre behandlingsmodeller, som indgår i Socialstyrelsens (SOS) ”Projekt misbrugsbehandling for udsatte unge”, er MST-SA (Multi Systemic Therapy Substance Abuse...... både i Danmark og internationalt. Dog er der et stigende fokus på, at det er et centralt element for at opnå gode evalueringer (Fixen m.fl., 2005; Fixen m.fl., 2009; Durlak & DuPre, 2008), idet implementeringen af en indsats kan have stor betydning for den effekt, der observeres. Ifølge Durlak og Du...

  8. Supervision af nyudnævnte officerer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lennart Schou; Okholm, René

    for instituttet, skoler, lærere og elever, der giver opdateret viden om premierløjtnantens praksis. Projektets effekt kan ikke beskrives fuldstændigt, men dette brief kan ses som et generelt ønske om i højere grad at danne bro mellem Forsvarets skoler og den praksis, vi uddanner til. Projektet har allerede...... ledelseseksamen for hold Pløger i 2016. - Ændret fokus i ledelses- og lederudviklingsundervisningen i retning af: 1) at øge refleksionsevnen hos kadetterne, 2) at styrke deres personaleledelseskompetencer og 3) at indføre Leadership Pipeline-tankegangen. - Input til VUK, særligt i forhold til chefens rolle og...

  9. Arbejdsformer under anvendelse af 4. generationsværktøjer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren; Grønbæk, Kaj; Rolskov, Tove

    En belysning af sammenhængen mellem arbejdsformer og anvendelse af 4. generationsværktøjer i systemudvikling -- baseret på en undersøgelse af 9 systemudviklingsprojekter og et litteraturstudium...

  10. Succesfulde virksomheder ledes af mænd - Ikke succesfulde af kvinder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft; Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle

    fra amerikanske og britiske undersøgelser (Schein, 1973, 75, 96; Ryan et al., 2005a) ved at teste dem i et kulturelt miljø karakteriseret af mere feminine ledertræk (Hofstede, 1991). Undersøgelsen tager udgangspunkt i et sæt af person-karakteristika, der er blevet anvendt til at undersøge sammenfald...... mellem mandlige karakteristika og succesfuld ledelse (Schein, 1973, 75, 96). På lige fod med nyere britiske undersøgelser (Ryan et al. 2005a), er den aktuelle undersøgelse imidlertid udvidet til også at omhandle lederes perceptioner i forhold til ledelse i virksomheder uden succes. Resultaterne viser...

  11. Neurotransmission to parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons in the brain stem is altered with left ventricular hypertrophy-induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Edmund; Wang, Xin; Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Sun, Ke; Garrott, Kara; Kuzmiak-Glancy, Sarah; Kay, Matthew W; Mendelowitz, David

    2015-10-01

    Hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF) are widespread and debilitating cardiovascular diseases that affect nearly 23 million people worldwide. A distinctive hallmark of these cardiovascular diseases is autonomic imbalance, with increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic vagal tone. Recent device-based approaches, such as implantable vagal stimulators that stimulate a multitude of visceral sensory and motor fibers in the vagus nerve, are being evaluated as new therapeutic approaches for these and other diseases. However, little is known about how parasympathetic activity to the heart is altered with these diseases, and this lack of knowledge is an obstacle in the goal of devising selective interventions that can target and selectively restore parasympathetic activity to the heart. To identify the changes that occur within the brain stem to diminish the parasympathetic cardiac activity, left ventricular hypertrophy was elicited in rats by aortic pressure overload using a transaortic constriction approach. Cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the brain stem that generate parasympathetic activity to the heart were identified with a retrograde tracer and studied using patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in vitro. Animals with left cardiac hypertrophy had diminished excitation of CVNs, which was mediated both by an augmented frequency of spontaneous inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission (with no alteration of inhibitory glycinergic activity) as well as a diminished amplitude and frequency of excitatory neurotransmission to CVNs. Opportunities to alter these network pathways and neurotransmitter receptors provide future targets of intervention in the goal to restore parasympathetic activity and autonomic balance to the heart in cardiac hypertrophy and other cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Heart Rate Variability and Cardiac Vagal Tone in Psychophysiological Research – Recommendations for Experiment Planning, Data Analysis, and Data Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Sylvain; Mosley, Emma; Thayer, Julian F.

    2017-01-01

    Psychophysiological research integrating heart rate variability (HRV) has increased during the last two decades, particularly given the fact that HRV is able to index cardiac vagal tone. Cardiac vagal tone, which represents the contribution of the parasympathetic nervous system to cardiac regulation, is acknowledged to be linked with many phenomena relevant for psychophysiological research, including self-regulation at the cognitive, emotional, social, and health levels. The ease of HRV collection and measurement coupled with the fact it is relatively affordable, non-invasive and pain free makes it widely accessible to many researchers. This ease of access should not obscure the difficulty of interpretation of HRV findings that can be easily misconstrued, however, this can be controlled to some extent through correct methodological processes. Standards of measurement were developed two decades ago by a Task Force within HRV research, and recent reviews updated several aspects of the Task Force paper. However, many methodological aspects related to HRV in psychophysiological research have to be considered if one aims to be able to draw sound conclusions, which makes it difficult to interpret findings and to compare results across laboratories. Those methodological issues have mainly been discussed in separate outlets, making difficult to get a grasp on them, and thus this paper aims to address this issue. It will help to provide psychophysiological researchers with recommendations and practical advice concerning experimental designs, data analysis, and data reporting. This will ensure that researchers starting a project with HRV and cardiac vagal tone are well informed regarding methodological considerations in order for their findings to contribute to knowledge advancement in their field. PMID:28265249

  13. Interactions Between Epinephrine, Ascending Vagal Fibers and Central Noradrenergic Systems in Modulating Memory for Emotionally Arousing Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric L. Williams

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that exposure to emotionally laden events initiates secretion of the arousal related hormone epinephrine in the periphery. These neuroendocrine changes and the subsequent increase in peripheral physiological output play an integral role in modulating brain systems involved in memory formation. The impermeability of the blood brain barrier to epinephrine represents an important obstacle in understanding how peripheral hormones initiate neurochemical changes in the brain that lead to effective memory formation. This obstacle necessitated the identity of a putative pathway capable of conveying physiological changes produced by epinephrine to limbic structures that incorporate arousal and affect related information into memory. A major theme of the proposed studies is that ascending fibers of the vagus nerve may represent such a mechanism. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating the contribution of ascending vagal fibers in modulating memory for responses learned under behavioral conditions that produce emotional arousal by manipulating appetitive stimuli. A combination of electrophysiological recording of vagal afferent fibers and in vivo microdialysis was employed in a second study to simultaneously assess how elevations in peripheral levels of epinephrine affect vagal nerve discharge and the subsequent potentiation of norepinephrine release in the basolateral amygdala. The final study used double immunohistochemistry labeling of c-fos and dopamine beta hydroxylase, the enzyme for norepinephrine synthesis to determine if epinephrine administration alone or stimulation of the vagus nerve at an intensity identical to that which improved memory in Experiment 1 produces similar patterns of neuronal activity in brain areas involved in processing memory for emotional events. Findings emerging from this collection of studies establish the importance of ascending fibers of the vagus nerve as an essential pathway for conveying the

  14. Low vagally-mediated heart rate variability and increased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in rats bred for high anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Trombini, Mimosa; Graiani, Gallia; Madeddu, Denise; Quaini, Federico; Landgraf, Rainer; Neumann, Inga D; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2014-04-10

    In humans, there is a documented association between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Putative underlying mechanisms may include an impairment of the autonomic nervous system control of cardiac function. The primary objective of the present study was to characterize cardiac autonomic modulation and susceptibility to arrhythmias in genetic lines of rats that differ largely in their anxiety level. To reach this goal, electrocardiographic recordings were performed in high-anxiety behavior (HAB, n=10) and low-anxiety behavior (LAB, n=10) rats at rest, during stressful stimuli and under autonomic pharmacological manipulations, and analyzed by means of time- and frequency-domain indexes of heart rate variability. During resting conditions, HAB rats displayed a reduced heart rate variability, mostly in terms of lower parasympathetic (vagal) modulation compared to LAB rats. In HAB rats, this relatively low cardiac vagal control was associated with smaller heart rate responsiveness to acute stressors compared to LAB counterparts. In addition, beta-adrenergic pharmacological stimulation induced a larger incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in HABs compared to LABs. At sacrifice, a moderate increase in heart-body weight ratio was observed in HAB rats. We conclude that high levels of anxiety-related behavior in rats are associated with signs of i) impaired autonomic modulation of heart rate (low vagally-mediated heart rate variability), ii) poor adaptive heart rate responsiveness to stressful stimuli, iii) increased arrhythmia susceptibility, and iv) cardiac hypertrophy. These results highlight the utility of the HAB/LAB model for investigating the mechanistic basis of the comorbidity between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cape Newenham AFS, Alaska. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    TEMPERATURE DEPRESION F, ’O.AL 3 - 4 5- 6 8 9- 1 11 12 13 14 𔃿 t 11 1 9 :," 2. 4 :.! 2 2 5 . . I TAL .4’ 373 - .. .. 776 7 7 8 * ... .. H- j4 93 4 5 7...H ;AVETA: PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY; A:Z, %EAT ER SER VCLPI ’ 7 CARUP li i.L -AF -- AM---.- 7-. - _ PAGE 1 2 WET BLLB TEmPEPATURE DEPRESION F, " AL .’ 3

  16. Energi i økologisk jordbrug. Reduktion af fossilt energiforbrug og produktion af vedvarende energi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Målsætningen om at reducere forbruget af fossil energi er klart formuleret i de økologiske principper. Desuden er der både forsyningsmæssige og geopolitiske grunde til, at det kan være klogt at fremtidssikre økologisk jordbrug ved at øge selvforsyningsgraden. På den baggrund iværksatte FØJO i eft...

  17. Læremiddeltjek af Fandange - dansk for 5. klasse af Trine May og Susanne Arne-Hansen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Fandango 5 er skrevet af Trine May og Susanne Arne-Hansen og er første gang udgivet i 2009. Systemet er siden kommet i flere oplag. Fandango – dansk for 5. klasse består af en grundbog (264 sider) Arbejdsbog A (64 sider) Arbejdsbog B (64 sider), en lærervejledning (ca. 220 sider) og en hjemmeside...

  18. Undersøgelse af mulighederne for anvendelse af open source Integrated Library Systems (ILS) i universitetsbiblioteket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Eli; Bøgh Pedersen, Kasper

    Dette projekt har til formål, at to biblioteker med meget forskellige profiler gennemfører test af konkrete open source baserede ILS systemer, formidler resultaterne til FFU-bibliotekerne og deres interessenter, og herved bidrager til en nuancering af beslutningsprocesserne i de kommende år omkring...

  19. Udvikling og afprøvning af it-støttet vejledning af lærerstuderende i praktik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemens, Heidie

    2011-01-01

    samarbejdet mellem læreruddannelsen og praktikinstitutionerne omkring vejledning af de studerende i praktikken via Skype eller VIAs platform og at afprøve en vejledningsform, der har karakter af procesvejledning. Erfaringer med at afprøve den virtuelle mødeform i denne sammenhæng muliggør mødet mellem...

  20. Adrenergic receptors and gastric secretion in dogs. Is a "tonic balance" relationship between vagal and beta 2-adrenergic activity a possibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottrup, F; Hovendal, C; Bech, K

    1984-01-01

    The relative influence of adrenergic receptors on gastric acid secretion in the dog stomach with different vagal activity or "tone" is almost unknown. beta-adrenoceptors seem to be most important for the direct effect of adrenergic stimulation on acid secretion. In this study the effects...... acid secretion was not influenced significantly by beta-blockade. Similar dose-response curves were found for non-vagotomized dogs with high beta 2-adrenergic tone and dogs with low vagal tone (vagotomy) after pentagastrin and histamine stimulated acid secretion. This study indicates...... that a counterbalance between beta 2-adrenergic and cholinergic vagal tone exists. A "tonic balance theory" is suggested and is probably involved in the resulting acid secretion after vagotomy....