WorldWideScience

Sample records for vacuum system refurbishing

  1. TRIUMF cyclotron vacuum system refurbishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekachev, I.

    2008-03-01

    The cyclotron at TRIUMF was commissioned to full energy in 1974. The volume of the cyclotron vacuum tank is about 100 m3 and it operates at 5×10-8 Torr pressure during beam production. The pumping is mainly based on a Phillips B-20 cryogenerator (Stirling cycle 4-cylinder engine). The cryogenerator supplies helium gas at 16 K and 70 K to cryopanels in the tank. The decreasing reliability of the B-20 and demanding maintenance requirements triggered the decision to completely overhaul or replace the cryogenerator. Replacement with the LINDE-1630 helium refrigerator was found to be the most attractive (technically and economically) option. The details of the proposal with installation of the helium refrigerator and with a continuous flow liquid nitrogen shield cooling system are presented.

  2. LANSCE RF System Refurbishment

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Daniel; Kwon, Sung-il; Lyles, John T M; Lynch, Michael; Prokop, Mark; Reass, William; Tallerico, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is in the planning phase of a refurbishment project that will sustain reliable facility operations well into the next decade. The LANSCE accelerator was constructed in the late 1960s and early 1970s and is a national user facility that provides pulsed protons and spallation neutrons for defense and civilian research and applications. We will be replacing all the 201 MHz RF systems and a substantial fraction of the 805 MHz RF systems and high voltage systems. The current 44 LANSCE 805 MHz, 1.25 MW klystrons have an average in-service time in excess of 110,000 hours. All 44 must be in service to operate the accelerator. There are only 9 spares left. The klystrons receive their DC power from the power system originally installed in 1960. Although this power system has been extremely reliable, gas analysis of the insulating oil is indicating age related degradation that will need attention in the next few years. This paper will provide the design details of the new R...

  3. Refurbishments of RF systems; Renovation des systemes HF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baelde, J.L. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourdes (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    This document describes the activities of the R.F. System group during the years 1995-1996 in the frame of the refurbishment of the control system at GANIL accelerator. Modifications concerning the following sub-assemblies are mentioned: 1. voltage standards; 2. link card between the step by step motor control and the local control systems; 3. polarization system; 4. computer software for different operations. Also reported is the installation of ECR 4 source for the CO2. In this period the R2 Regrouping system has been installed, tested and put into operation. Several problems concerning the mechanical installation of the coupling loop and other problems related to the electronics operation were solved. The results obtained with the THI machine are presented 4 figs.

  4. Refurbishment of the IEAR1 primary coolant system piping supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fainer, Gerson; Faloppa, Altair A.; Oliveira, Carlos A. de; Mattar Neto, Miguel, E-mail: gfainer@ipen.br, E-mail: afaloppa@ipen.br, E-mail: calberto@ipen.br, E-mail: mmattar@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    A partial replacement of the IEA-R1 piping system was concluded in 2014. This paper presents the study and the structural analysis of the IEA-R1 primary circuit piping supports, considering all the changes involved in the replacement. The IEA-R1 is a nuclear reactor for research purposes designed by Babcox-Willcox that is operated by IPEN since 1957. The reactor life management and modernization program is being conducted for the last two decades and already resulted in a series of changes, especially on the reactor coolant system. This set of components, divided in primary and secondary circuit, is responsible for the circulation of water into the core to remove heat. In the ageing management program that includes regular inspection, some degradation was observed in the primary piping system. As result, the renewing of the piping system was conducted in 2014. Moreover the poor condition of some original piping supports gave rise to the refurbishment of all piping supports. The aim of the present work is to review the design of the primary system piping supports taking into account the current conditions after the changes and refurbishment. (author)

  5. Refurbishment of a used in-vacuum undulator from the National Synchrotron Light Source for the National Synchrotron Light Source-II ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Toshiya; Bassan, Harmanpreet; Broadbent, Andrew; Cappadoro, Peter; Escallier, John; Harder, David; Hetzel, Charles; Hidas, Dean; Kitegi, Charles; Kosciuk, Bernard; Musardo, Marco; Kirkland, Johnny

    2017-09-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) ceased operation in September 2014 and was succeeded by NSLS-II. There were four in-vacuum undulators (IVUs) in operation at NSLS. The most recently constructed IVU for NSLS was the mini-gap undulator (MGU-X25, to be renamed IVU18 for NSLS-II), which was constructed in 2006. This device was selected to be reused for the New York Structural Biology Consortium Microdiffraction beamline at NSLS-II. At the time of construction, IVU18 was a state-of-the-art undulator designed to be operated as a cryogenic permanent-magnet undulator. Due to the more stringent field quality and impedance requirements of the NSLS-II ring, the transition region was redesigned. The control system was also updated to NSLS-II specifications. This paper reports the details of the IVU18 refurbishment activities including additional magnetic measurement and tuning.

  6. ISR vacuum system

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Some of the most important components of the vacuum system are shown. At the left, the rectangular box is a sputter-ion pump inside its bake-out oven. The assembly in the centre includes a sector valve, three roughing valves, a turbomolecular pump, a rotary backing pump and auxiliary equipment. At the right, the small elbow houses a Bayard-

  7. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  8. Systems engineering aspects to installation of the phased multi-year LANSCE-refurbishment project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieck, Martin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Erickson, John E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gulley, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jones, Kevin W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, Larry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The LANSCE Refurbishment Project (LANSCE-R) is a phased, multiyear project. The project is scheduled to start refurbishment in the 2nd quarter of fiscal year 2011. Closeout will occur during the 4th quarter of FY2016. During the LANSCE-R project, installation of project components must be scheduled during six annual 6-month maintenance-outages and not conflict with annual LANSCE operational commitments to its user facilities. The project and operations schedules must be synchronized carefully. Therefore, the scheduled maintenance outages, functional testing (with beam off, by primarily project personnel) and commissioning (with beam on, by primarily Accelerator Operation Technology (AOT) personnel) must be managed to accommodate operation. Active and effective coordination and communication between the project and AOT personnel must be encouraged to identify, as early as possible, any operational issues. This paper will report on the systems engineering approach to the integration and control of engineering activities.

  9. System and method for refurbishing and processing parachutes. [monorial conveyor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, R. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A system and method for refurbishing and processing parachutes is disclosed including an overhead monorail conveyor system on which the parachute is suspended for horizontal conveyance. The parachute is first suspended in a partially opened tented configuration wherein open inspection of the canopy is permitted to remove debris and inspect all areas. Following inspection, the parachute is transported by the monorail conveyor to a washing and drying station with the parachute canopy mounted on the conveyor in a systematic arrangement which permits water and air to pass through the ribbon-like materials of the canopy. Following drying, the chute is conveyed into an interior space where it is finally inspected and removed from the monorial conveyor for folding. The chute is once again mounted on the conveyor and conveyed to a packing area.

  10. Energy Refurbishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumbul, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    Student working paper for the course AR0531/AR0532. Improvements in the building sector have a great potential of change in energy efficiency, instead of demolition of the worst performing building stock in terms of emissions. Refurbished buildings could accomplish the same levels of reduction and

  11. Scout house in Koeniz - Refurbishment of the heating system; Pfadiheim Weiermatt, Sanierung Waermeversorgung - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerli, A. [Neuenschwander - Neutair AG, Berne (Switzerland); Jenni, H. [Heimverein Falkenstein, Koeniz (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project carried out in Koeniz, Switzerland. The report examines how the energy situation at the local scout house was improved. The work included the refurbishment of the heating system using solar collectors, intelligently controlled heat pumps, a photovoltaics installation and even solar-powered street lighting. The project, which received a substantial echo from the general public, is described. The scouts were directly involved in the project and, in part, in the construction work. This, according to the authors, enhanced the educational aspect of the project. The report presents details on the various installations and is illustrated with schematics and photos. Also, the results of monitoring and measurements made are presented.

  12. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaw, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  13. LHC vacuum system

    CERN Document Server

    Gröbner, Oswald

    1999-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, now in the advanced construction phase at CERN, comprises two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7-TeV energy. The machine is housed in the existing LEP tunnel with a circumference of 26.7 km and requires a bending magnetic field of 8.4 T with 14-m long superconducting magnets. The beam vacuum chambers comprise the inner 'cold bore' walls of the magnets. These magnets operate at 1.9 K, and thus serve as very good cryo-pumps. In order to reduce the cryogenic power consumption, both the heat load from synchrotron radiation emitted by the proton beams and the resistive power dissipation by the beam image currents have to be absorbed on a 'beam screen', which operates between 5 and 20 K and is inserted inside the vacuum chamber. The design of this beam screen represents a technological challenge in view of the numerous and often conflicting requirements and the very tight mechanical tolerances imposed. The synchrotron radiation produces strong outgassing from the...

  14. Energy Refurbishment of an Office Building with Hybrid Photovoltaic System and Demand-Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Almeida Dávi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On-site photovoltaic (PV and battery systems intend to improve buildings energy performance, however battery costs and monetary incentives are a major drawback for the introduction of these technologies into the electricity grids. This paper proposes an energy refurbishment of an office building based on multi-objective simulations. An innovative demand-side management approach is analyzed through the PV and battery control with the purpose of reducing grid power peaks and grid imported energy, as well as improving the project economy. Optimization results of load matching and grid interaction parameters, complemented with an economic analysis, are investigated in different scenarios. By means of battery use, the equivalent use of the grid connection is reduced by 12%, enhancing the grid interaction potential, and 10% of load matching rates can be increased. Project improvements indicate the grid connection capacity can be reduced by 13% and significant savings of up to 48% are achieved on yearly bills. The economy demonstrates the grid parity is only achieved for battery costs below 100 €/kWh and the payback period is large: 28 years. In the case with only PV system, the grid parity achieves better outcomes and the payback time is reduced by a half, making this a more attractive option.

  15. Thermal Vacuum Integrated System Test at B-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility during pump down of the vacuum chamber, operation of the liquid nitrogen heat sink (or cold wall) and the infrared lamp array. A vacuum level of 1.3x10(exp -4)Pa (1x10(exp -6)torr) was achieved. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K (140deg R) along the entire inner surface of the vacuum chamber. The recently rebuilt and modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m at a chamber diameter of 6.7 m (22 ft) and along 11 m (36 ft) of the chamber s cylindrical vertical interior. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface. The data acquired matched pretest predictions and demonstrated system functionality.

  16. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  17. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake systems...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe. ...

  20. Densifying the city: urban recycle as a strategic system to refurbish the built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorino Belpoliti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The persisting economic crisis and the necessity for more sustainable construction processes imply the need for innovative strategies to reuse the existing building stock. Retrofit and recycling plans are already active for whole city districts, adopting the urban densification strategy to reduce the consumption of resources, promoting the functional, technological, and energy refurbishment of the existing city districts The study introduces considerations and tools to increase the efficiency of retrofit action onto abandoned and degraded area through the improvement of their energy and environmental performances. 

  1. French experience on renewing I and C systems in NPPs. Feedback from assessing nuclear instrumentation system (RPN) refurbishment at French CP0-series plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsensohn, O.; Fradet, F.; Peron, J.C.; Soubies, B

    2003-01-01

    In 1996, the utility operating France's nuclear power plants launched feasibility studies for the refurbishment of the nuclear instrumentation system (RPN classed category A) installed in its CPO-series (900 MWe) units. The system was ultimately upgraded with digital I and C system, using a SPINLINE 3 platform. This article describes feedback from an evaluation conducted on the refurbishment by the Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), technical support arm of the Directorate General for Nuclear Safety and Radiological Protection (DGSNR). The study begins with a historical overview of the refurbishing operation, then discusses the IRSN assessment method and the lessons learned from this first major revamp of an I and C system in the French nuclear reactor series. Based on its previous experience in evaluating I and C systems for P4/P'4 (1300 MWe) and N4 (1450 MWe) plants and to account for the first-ever aspect of such an upgrade, IRSN partitioned its assessment into four phases. This approach enabled taking into account the impact of RPN refurbishment at every level - system, hardware and qualification, software, operation, onsite requalification, health physics, fire protection and human factors. All six units in the CPO series have now been equipped with the new digital RPN. (authors)

  2. Vacuum sewerage system: an appropriate and economical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, vacuum technology has grown enormously in the last years. This paper reviews the applicability of the vacuum system as opposed to gravity systems, especially in Botswana. It is based on the training and visits to installed systems at Shoshong (Botswana), Dubai (UAE) and Hanau (Germany) offered by Roediger ...

  3. Vacuum systems for the ILC helical undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Malyshev, O B; Clarke, J A; Bailey, I R; Dainton, J B; Malysheva, L I; Barber, D P; Cooke, P; Baynham, E; Bradshaw, T; Brummitt, A; Carr, S; Ivanyushenkov, Y; Rochford, J; Moortgat-Pick, G A

    2007-01-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source uses a helical undulator to generate polarized photons of ∼10MeV∼10MeV at the first harmonic. Unlike many undulators used in synchrotron radiation sources, the ILC helical undulator vacuum chamber will be bombarded by photons, generated by the undulator, with energies mostly below that of the first harmonic. Achieving the vacuum specification of ∼100nTorr∼100nTorr in a narrow chamber of 4–6mm4–6mm inner diameter, with a long length of 100–200m100–200m, makes the design of the vacuum system challenging. This article describes the vacuum specifications and calculations of the flux and energy of photons irradiating the undulator vacuum chamber and considers possible vacuum system design solutions for two cases: cryogenic and room temperature.

  4. LCLS XTOD Tunnel Vacuum System (XVTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beale, R; Duffy, P; Kishiyama, K; Mckernan, M; McMahon, D; Lewis, S; Trent, J; Tung, L; Shen, S

    2005-11-04

    The vacuum system of the XVTS (X-Ray Vacuum Transport System) for the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) XTOD (X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics) system has been analyzed and configured by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's NTED (New Technologies Engineering Division) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, detailed analyses and selection of the vacuum components for the XTOD tunnel section are presented in this preliminary design report. The vacuum system was analyzed and optimized using a coupled gas load balance model of sub-volumes of the components to be evacuated. Also included are the plans for procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.

  5. An Improved Vacuum System for COLLAPS

    CERN Document Server

    Bruchim, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The COLLAPS beamline in general, and the current ROC setup specifically, has very many valves and pumps. We require a safety system in order to prevent action that would cause damage to vacuum components, i.e. opening a valve between atmosphere and vacuum. The system needs to be adaptable (programmable) to the various possible setups of COLLAPS and needs to be as robust as possible in order to prevent damage of equipment.

  6. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  7. Leak Tightness of LHC Cold Vacuum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cruikshank, P; Maan, M; Mourier, L; Perrier-Cornet, A; Provot, N

    2011-01-01

    The cold vacuum systems of the LHC machine have been in operation since 2008. While a number of acceptable helium leaks were known to exist prior to cool down and have not significantly evolved over the last years, several new leaks have occurred which required immediate repair activities or mitigating solutions to permit operation of the LHC. The LHC vacuum system is described together with a summary and timetable of known air and helium leaks and their impact on the functioning of the cryogenic and vacuum systems. Where leaks have been investigated and repaired, the cause and failure mechanism is described. We elaborate the mitigating solutions that have been implemented to avoid degradation of known leaks and minimize their impact on cryogenic operation and LHC availability, and finally a recall of the consolidation program to be implemented in the next LHC shutdown.

  8. SNS Vacuum Instrumentation and Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Y. Tang; L. A. Smart; H. C. Hseuh; P. S. Marroquin; L. R. Dalesio; S. A. Lewis; C. A. Lionberger; K. Kishiyama; D. P. Gurd; M. Hechler; W. Schneider

    2001-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) vacuum instrumentation and control systems are being designed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator facility (TJNAF) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Each participating lab is responsible for a different section of the machine: LBNL for the Front-End section, LANL for the warm LINAC section, TJNAF for the cold LINAC section and BNL for the Ring and transfer line sections. The vacuum instrumentation and control systems are scheduled to be installed and be in operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 or 2005. Although the requirements vary for different sections of the machine, a collaborative effort has been made to standardize vacuum instrumentation components and the global control system interfaces. This paper summarizes the design of each sub-section of vacuum instrumentation and control system and discusses SNS standards for Ion Pump and Gauge controllers, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) interfaces, Ladder Logic programming and the SNS global control system interfaces.

  9. Managing Refurbishment Projects Through Selection of Procurement System: The Case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Azlan Shah Ali; Au Yong Cheong Peng; Susie Chieng Ling

    2014-01-01

    The type of procurement method determines how the project would be managed. This is because project uncertainty could be found in the way that projects are awarded and howthe construction project is managed into a system of contract. Procurement methods also influenced the time performance of construction projects. Time would be affected by theflow of project that was driven by different type of procurement method. However, it’s still inconclusive to what extent that different types of procur...

  10. The HIE-ISOLDE Vacuum System

    CERN Document Server

    Vandoni, G; Radwan, K; Chiggiato, P

    2014-01-01

    The High Intensity and Energy Isolde (HIE-Isolde) project aims at increasing the energy and intensity of the radioactive ion beams (RIB) delivered by the present Rex-Isolde facility. Energy up to 10MeV/amu will be reached by a new post-accelerating, superconducting (SC) linac. Beam will be delivered via a HEBT to three experimental stations for nuclear physics. To keep the SC linac compact and avoid cold-warm transitions, the cryomodules feature a common beam and insulation vacuum. Radioactive ion beams require a hermetically sealed vacuum, with transfer of the effluents to the nuclear ventilation chimney. Hermetically sealed, dry, gas transfer vacuum pumps are preferred to gas binding pumps, for an optimized management of radioactive contamination risk during maintenance and intervention. The vacuum system of the SC-linac is isolated by two fast valves, triggered by fast reacting cold cathode gauges installed on the warm linac, the HEBT and the experimental stations. Rough pumping is distributed, while the H...

  11. Last PS magnet refurbished

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    PS Magnet Refurbishment Programme Completed. The 51st and final refurbished magnet was transported to the PS on Tuesday 3 February. The repair and consolidation work on the PS started back in 2003 when two magnets and a busbar connection were found to be faulty during routine high-voltage tests. The cause of the fault was a combination of age and radiation on electrical insulation. After further investigation the decision was taken to overhaul half of the PS’s 100 magnets to reduce the risk of a similar fault. As from 20 February the PS ring will start a five-week test programme to be ready for operation at the end of March.

  12. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  13. E-waste Management and Refurbishment Prediction (EMARP) Model for Refurbishment Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmi, N G; Fasila, K A

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel algorithm for establishing a standard methodology to manage and refurbish e-waste called E-waste Management And Refurbishment Prediction (EMARP), which can be adapted by refurbishing industries in order to improve their performance. Waste management, particularly, e-waste management is a serious issue nowadays. Computerization has been into waste management in different ways. Much of the computerization has happened in planning the waste collection, recycling and disposal process and also managing documents and reports related to waste management. This paper proposes a computerized model to make predictions for e-waste refurbishment. All possibilities for reusing the common components among the collected e-waste samples are predicted, thus minimizing the wastage. Simulation of the model has been done to analyse the accuracy in the predictions made by the system. The model can be scaled to accommodate the real-world scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Passow, Christian; Bilski, Steve

    2013-01-01

    NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other miniature analytical instruments. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was created based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive- to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by the development of a miniature, veryhigh- speed, rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-ofthe- art vacuum pumps. The vacuum system consists of the MDP coupled to a ruggedized rough pump (for terrestrial applications or for planets with substantial atmospheres). The rotor in the MDP consists of a simple smooth cylinder of aluminum spinning at approximately 200,000 RPM inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the motor. The compressed gas then flows down channels in the motor housing to the exhaust port of the pump. The exhaust port of the pump is connected to a diaphragm or scroll pump. This pump delivers very high performance in a very small envelope. The design was simplified so that a smaller compression ratio, easier manufacturing process, and enhanced ruggedness can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate TMP

  15. The AD vacuum system construction and commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Brouet, M; Klette, H; Strubin, Pierre M

    1999-01-01

    CERN has built a new experimental facility, called the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), by transforming two existing machines: the "Antiproton Collector" (AC) and the "Antiproton Accumulator" (AA). To achieve adequate beam performance once the antiproton beam is decelerated to its final value of 0.1 GeV/c, it was necessary to lower the average pressure by nearly two orders of magnitude. For this purpose, a large number of additional pumps were installed and a very careful preparation was applied to a variety of special machine equipment which, in its original construction, was not designed for ultra-high vacuum operation. An important improvement in the outgassing rates was achieved through an extended, mild bake-out of tanks and vacuum vessels containing large amounts of ferrite material and multi-layer thermal insulation. This paper describes the necessary modifications of the vacuum system and in more detail the various steps taken to obtain the required pressure in the low 10/sup -10/ mbar range. It will also...

  16. The AD Vacuum System Construction and Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Brouet, M; Klette, H; Strubin, Pierre M

    1999-01-01

    CERN has built a new experimental facility, called the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), by transforming two existing machines: the "Antiproton Collector" (AC) and the "Antiproton Accumulator" (AA). To achieve adequate beam performance once the antiproton beam is decelerated to its final value of 0.1 GeV/c, it was necessary to lower the average pressure by nearly two orders of magnitude. For this purpose, a large number of additional pumps were installed and a very careful preparation was applied to a variety of special machine equipment which, in its original construction, was not designed for ultra-high vacuum operation. An important improvement in the outgassing rates was achieved through an extended, mild bake-out of tanks and vacuum vessels containing large amounts of ferrite material and multi-layer thermal insulation. This paper describes the necessary modifications of the vacuum system and in more detail the various steps taken to obtain the required pressure in the low 10-10 mbar range. It will also repor...

  17. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization of Complex Chemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostko, Oleg; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2016-05-27

    Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation coupled to mass spectrometry is applied to the study of complex chemical systems. The identification of novel reactive intermediates and radicals is revealed in flame, pulsed photolysis, and pyrolysis reactors, leading to the elucidation of spectroscopy, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics. Mass-resolved threshold photoelectron photoion coincidence measurements provide unprecedented access to vibrationally resolved spectra of free radicals present in high-temperature reactors. Photoionization measurements in water clusters, nucleic acid base dimers, and their complexes with water provide signatures of proton transfer in hydrogen-bonded and π-stacked systems. Experimental and theoretical methods to track ion-molecule reactions and fragmentation pathways in intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems in sugars and alcohols are described. Photoionization of laser-ablated molecules, clusters, and their reaction products inform thermodynamics and spectroscopy that are relevant to astrochemistry and catalysis. New directions in coupling VUV radiation to interrogate complex chemical systems are discussed.

  18. Integration of remote refurbishment performed on ITER components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammann, A., E-mail: alexis.dammann@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Antola, L. [AMEC, 31 Parc du Golf, CS 90519, 13596 Aix en Provence (France); Beaudoin, V. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Dremel, C. [Westinghouse, Electrique France/Astare, 122 Avenue de Hambourg, 13008 Marseille (France); Evrard, D. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue René Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France); Friconneau, J.P. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Lemée, A. [SOGETI High Tech, 180 Rue René Descartes, 13851 Aix en Provence (France); Levesy, B.; Pitcher, C.S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • System engineering approach to consolidate requirements to modify the layout of the Hot Cell. • Illustration of the loop between requirement and design. • Verification process. - Abstract: Internal components of the ITER Tokamak are replaced and transferred to the Hot Cell by remote handling equipment. These components include port plugs, cryopumps, divertor cassettes, blanket modules, etc. They are brought to the refurbishment area of the ITER Hot Cell Building for cleaning and maintenance, using remote handling techniques. The ITER refurbishment area will be unique in the world, when considering combination of size, quantity of complex component to refurbish in presence of radiation, activated dust and tritium. The refurbishment process to integrate covers a number of workstations to perform specific remote operations fully covered by a mast on crane system. This paper describes the integration of the Refurbishment Area, explaining the functions, the methodology followed, some illustrations of trade-off and safety improvements.

  19. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility vacuum and purge system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Vacuum and Purge System (VPS) . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the VPS equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  20. Vacuum Control Systems of the Cyclotrons in VECC, Kolkata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anindya; Akhtar, Javed; Yadav, R. C.; Bhole, R. B.; Pal, Sarbajit; Sarkar, D.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    VECC has undertaken the modernization of the K-130 Room Temperature Cyclotron (RTC) (operational since 1978) and commissioning of K-500 Superconducting Cyclotron (SCC) at present. The control system of RTC vacuum system has been upgraded to Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based automated system from relay based manual system. A distributed PLC based system is under installation for SCC vacuum system. The requirement of high vacuum in both the cyclotrons (1×10-6 mbar for RTC and 5 × 10-8 mbar SCC) imposes the reliable local and remote operation of all vacuum components and instrumentation. The design and development of the vacuum control system of two cyclotrons using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) distributed real-time software tools are presented.

  1. Bake-Out Mobile Controls for Large Vacuum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, S; Gomes, P; Pereira, H; Kopylov, L; Merker, S; Mikheev, M

    2014-01-01

    Large vacuum systems at CERN (Large Hadron Collider - LHC, Low Energy Ion Rings - LEIR...) require bake-out to achieve ultra-high vacuum specifications. The bake-out cycle is used to decrease the outgassing rate of the vacuum vessel and to activate the Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) thin film. Bake-out control is a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) regulation with complex recipes, interlocks and troubleshooting management and remote control. It is based on mobile Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) cabinets, fieldbus network and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) application. The CERN vacuum installations include more than 7 km of baked vessels; using mobile cabinets reduces considerably the cost of the control system. The cabinets are installed close to the vacuum vessels during the time of the bake-out cycle. Mobile cabinets can be used in any of the CERN vacuum facilities. Remote control is provided through a fieldbus network and a SCADA application

  2. Refurbishment and open source software

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza, S

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Slides include: Mereka Institute; Meraka Open Scource Centre; OS Centre objectives; 4 Rs in EWaste management: Reduce, Refurbish, ReUse, Recycle; Background to OSS; Extending life span using OSS; Different choices for different scenarios; OSS...

  3. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  4. Analysis of RFQ vacuum system for HINS tests at MDB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piekarz, Henryk; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    The arrangement of RFQ vacuum system is briefly described. The projections of the vacuum level using standard out-gassing rates for the RFQ major components are compared with measurements. The permeation of water through the Viton O-rings of the LCW manifold inside the RFQ vacuum vessel is analyzed and compared with RGA data. A model where the out-gassing water from the vanes inner surfaces affects seriously RFQ operation is devised and compared with RFQ performance. The rate of a hydrogen gas spill from the LEBT into the RFQ vacuum space is also projected. Suggestions to correct and improve RFQ operation are presented.

  5. Overview of the LHC vacuum system

    CERN Document Server

    Gröbner, Oswald

    2001-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, now in the advanced construction phase at CERN, comprises two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7+7 TeV energy. The machine is housed in the existing LEP tunnel with a circumference of 26.7 km and requires a bending magnetic field of 8.3 T with 14 m long superconducting magnets operating at 1.9 K. The beam vacuum system comprises the inner `cold bore' walls of the magnets which provide a nearly perfect cryopump. In view of reducing the cryogenic power consumption, both the heat load from synchrotron radiation emitted by the proton beams and the resistive power dissipation by the beam image currents have to be absorbed on a `beam screen', which operates between 5 and 20 K and is inserted inside the cold bore. The design operating pressure must provide a beam lifetime of several days and this requirement comes from the power deposition in the superconducting magnet coils due to protons scattered on the residual gas which could lead to a magnet quench and inter...

  6. Questions of aerodynamics the vacuum-levitation transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomin, V. M.; Nalivaychenko, D. G.

    2017-10-01

    Some issues of aerodynamics of a vehicle moving in a vacuum transportation system are formulated and considered. Expected values of aerodynamic forces are estimated in wide ranges of vacuum pressures and velocities of vehicle motion. A problem of gas-dynamic starting of a pipeline-central body configuration is formulated.

  7. Troubleshooting vacuum systems steam turbine surface condensers and refinery vacuum towers

    CERN Document Server

    Lieberman, Norman P

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum systems are in wide spread use in the petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries and power generation plants. The existing texts on this subject are theoretical in nature and only deal with how the equipment functions when in good mechanical conditions, from the viewpoint of the equipment vendor.  In this much-anticipated volume, one of the most well-respected and prolific process engineers in the world takes on troubleshooting vacuum systems, and especially steam ejectors, an extremely complex and difficult subject that greatly effects the profitability of the majority of the world'

  8. LHC : The World's Largest Vacuum Systems being commissioned at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, J M

    2008-01-01

    When it switches on in 2008, the 26.7 km Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, will have the world's largest vacuum system operating over a wide range of pressures and employing an impressive array of vacuum technologies. This system is composed by 54 km of UHV vacuum for the circulating beams and 50 km of insulation vacuum around the cryogenic magnets and the liquid helium transfer lines. Over the 54 km of UHV beam vacuum, 48 km of this are at cryogenic temperature (1.9 K). The remaining 6 km of beam vacuum containing the insertions for "cleaning" the proton beams, radiofrequency cavities for accelerating the protons as well as beam-monitoring equipment is at ambient temperature and uses non-evaporable getter (NEG) coatings - a vacuum technology that was born and industrialized at CERN. The pumping scheme is completed using 780 ion pumps to remove noble gases and to provide pressure interlocks to the 303 vacuum safety valves. Pressure readings are provided by 170 Bayard-Alpert gauges and 1084 gauges (Pirani a...

  9. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  10. Sustainability Potentials of Housing Refurbishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Sodagar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of choosing refurbishment over new build have recently been brought into focus for reducing environmental impacts of buildings. This is due to the fact that the existing buildings will comprise the majority of the total building stocks for years to come and hence will remain responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions from the sector. This paper investigates the total potentials of sustainable refurbishment and conversion of the existing buildings by adopting a holistic approach to sustainability. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and questionnaires have been used to analyse the environmental impact savings (Co2e, improved health and well-being, and satisfaction of people living in refurbished homes. The results reported in the paper are based on a two year externally funded research project completed in January 2013.

  11. Vacuum system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    This report presents a review of vacuum system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space simulation chamber, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of vacuum system component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with vacuum systems are discussed, including personnel safety, foreign material intrusion, and factors relevant to vacuum systems being the primary confinement boundary for tritium and activated dusts. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  12. Automatic control system for the COSY-TOF vacuum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Bary, M. [Atomic Energy Authority, NRC, Cyclotron Project, 13759 Cairo (Egypt); Abdel-Samad, S. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, IKP, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: s.abdel-samad@fz-juelich.de; Kilian, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, IKP, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2005-02-21

    An automatic control system (ACS) for the vacuum installations of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) spectrometer at the COoler SYnchrotron (COSY) was developed. SIMATIC S7 software and hardware was used to build the control program and Windows Control Center (WinCC) software was taken to make the human-machine interface. The ACS can work automatically or manually. In both cases there are safety interlocks in order to prevent damage of the accelerator or detector components. The testing was firstly done by using external signals and a simulator in WinCC, then secondly we connected it to a real, small vacuum system. The communication between the SIMATIC S7 hardware and the WinCC, which run in a PC computer, is done by Multi Point Interface (MPI). The ACS is now installed in the COSY-TOF experiment and runs routinely.

  13. Automatic control system for the COSY-TOF vacuum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Bary, M.; Abdel-Samad, S.; Kilian, K.

    2005-02-01

    An automatic control system (ACS) for the vacuum installations of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) spectrometer at the COoler SYnchrotron (COSY) was developed. SIMATIC S7 software and hardware was used to build the control program and Windows Control Center (WinCC) software was taken to make the human-machine interface. The ACS can work automatically or manually. In both cases there are safety interlocks in order to prevent damage of the accelerator or detector components. The testing was firstly done by using external signals and a simulator in WinCC, then secondly we connected it to a real, small vacuum system. The communication between the SIMATIC S7 hardware and the WinCC, which run in a PC computer, is done by Multi Point Interface (MPI). The ACS is now installed in the COSY-TOF experiment and runs routinely.

  14. Large high-vacuum systems for CERN accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubin, P.

    2008-05-01

    CERN operated over the more than 50 years of its existence particle accelerators and storage rings ranging from a few tens of metre to 27 km, the size of its latest project, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is under construction and will be started in 2008. The challenges began with the Intersection Storage Rings (ISR) in the seventies. With a beam pipe length of 2 × 1 km, this accelerator required innovative solutions like bake-out and glow discharge to achieve the required static vacuum level, fight against beam-induced pressure increases and cancel beam neutralisation by trapped electrons. The vacuum system of the Large Electron Positron (LEP) storage ring (in operation between 1989 and 2001) of a total length of 27 km had to cope with very high levels of synchrotron power. The beam vacuum system of LHC (2 × 27 km) integrates some parts at 1.9 K and others at room temperature and will also have to cope with dynamic effects. In addition to the beam vacuum system, LHC requires insulation vacuum for the superconducting magnets and the helium distribution line. Whereas the required pressure is not very low, the leak detection and localisation is significantly more demanding for the insulation vacuum than for the beam vacuum because of the large volumes and the thermal insulation. When the size of an accelerator grows, the difficulties are not only to get a clean and leak tight vacuum system, but also to be able to measure reliably pressure or gas composition over long distances. Furthermore, in the case of LHC the integration of the beam vacuum system was particularly difficult because of the complexity induced by a superconducting magnet scheme and the reduced space available for the beam pipes. Planning and logistics aspects during installation, including the usage of mobile pumping and diagnostic means, were much more difficult to manage in LHC than in previous projects.

  15. Refurbishment and optimisation of the district heating system and the Morettina central heating station in Locarno, Switzerland; Sanierung und Optimierung des Waermeverbundes und der Heizzentrale Morettina in Locarno. Erfolgskontrolle der Betriebsoptimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanz, S. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG, Berne (Switzerland); Ceschi, P. A. [Calore SA, c/o S.E.S., Locarno (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the successful operational optimisation of a district heating system in Locarno in southern Switzerland. The system supplies various public and private buildings with heat and cold. This pilot installation features boilers fired with liquefied gas, a combined heat and power unit and a combined heat-pump/refrigeration system. The refurbishment of the installations after three years of operation is described, which included changes to the system's hydraulics and control system as well as improvements to various sub-stations in the heating network. The results of the refurbishment, including better co-ordination of the various aggregates and lower operating temperatures, are discussed. Recommendations are also made on the planning, organisation and operation of future projects of this type.

  16. Highly sensitive vacuum ion pump current measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansknecht, John Christopher [Williamsburg, VA

    2006-02-21

    A vacuum system comprising: 1) an ion pump; 2) power supply; 3) a high voltage DC--DC converter drawing power from the power supply and powering the vacuum pump; 4) a feedback network comprising an ammeter circuit including an operational amplifier and a series of relay controlled scaling resistors of different resistance for detecting circuit feedback; 5) an optional power block section intermediate the power supply and the high voltage DC--DC converter; and 6) a microprocessor receiving feedback information from the feedback network, controlling which of the scaling resistors should be in the circuit and manipulating data from the feedback network to provide accurate vacuum measurement to an operator.

  17. New Mathematical Functions for Vacuum System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    A new bivariate function has been found that provides solutions of integrals having the form u (sup minus eta) e (sup u) du which arise when developing predictions for the behavior of pressure within a rigid volume under high vacuum conditions in the presence of venting as well as sources characterized by power law transient decay over the range [0,1] for eta and for u greater than or equal to 0. A few properties of the new function are explored in this work. For instance the eta equals 1/2 case reproduces the Dawson function. In addition, a slight variation of the solution technique reproduces the exponential integral for eta equals 1. The technique used to generate these functions leads to an approach for solving a more general class of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, with the potential for identifying other new functions that solve other integrals.

  18. Cold Vacuum Drying facility HVAC system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-09-22

    This System Design Description (SDD) addresses the HVAC system for the CVDF. The CVDF HVAC system consists of five subsystems: (1) Administration building HVAC system; (2) Process bay recirculation HVAC system; (3) Process bay local exhaust HVAC and process vent system; (4) Process general supply/exhaust HVAC system; and (5) Reference air system. The HVAC and reference air systems interface with the following systems: the fire protection control system, Monitoring and Control System (MCS), electrical power distribution system (including standby power), compressed air system, Chilled Water (CHW) system, drainage system, and other Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) control systems not addressed in this SDD.

  19. The New Control System for the Vacuum of ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, S; Bernard, FB; Blanco, E; Gomes, P; Vestergard, H; Willeman, D

    2011-01-01

    The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator (ISOLDE) is a facility dedicated to the production of radioactive ion beams for nuclear and atomic physics. From ISOLDE vacuum sectors to the pressurized exhaust gas storage tanks there are up to five stages of pumping for a total of more than one hundred pumps including turbo-molecular, cryogenic, dry, membrane and oil pumps. The ISOLDE vacuum control system is critical; the volatile radioactive elements present in the exhaust gases and the high and ultra high vacuum pressure specifications require a complex control and interlock system. This paper describes the reengineering of the control system developed using the CERN UNICOS-CPC framework. An additional challenge has been the usage of the UNICOS-CPC in a vacuum domain for the first time. The process automation provides multiple operating modes (rough pumping, bake-out, high vacuum pumping, regeneration for cryo-pumped sectors, venting, etc). The control system is composed of local controllers driven by...

  20. Systems and methods for analyzing liquids under vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Li; Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.; Zhu, Zihua

    2013-10-15

    Systems and methods for supporting a liquid against a vacuum pressure in a chamber can enable analysis of the liquid surface using vacuum-based chemical analysis instruments. No electrical or fluid connections are required to pass through the chamber walls. The systems can include a reservoir, a pump, and a liquid flow path. The reservoir contains a liquid-phase sample. The pump drives flow of the sample from the reservoir, through the liquid flow path, and back to the reservoir. The flow of the sample is not substantially driven by a differential between pressures inside and outside of the liquid flow path. An aperture in the liquid flow path exposes a stable portion of the liquid-phase sample to the vacuum pressure within the chamber. The radius, or size, of the aperture is less than or equal to a critical value required to support a meniscus of the liquid-phase sample by surface tension.

  1. Automation of Aditya vacuum control system based on CODAC Core System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulji, Vismaysinh D., E-mail: vismay@ipr.res.in; Pujara, Harshad; Arambhadiya, Bharat; Jadeja, Kumarpalsinh; Bhatt, Shailesh; Rajpal, Rachana

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Monitor and control of vacuum control system based on CODAC Core System. • Communication between SIEMENS PLC and open source software EPICS. • With CODAC Core easy to configure and programming of slow controller. - Abstract: The main objective of vacuum control system is to provide ultrahigh vacuum for Aditya Tokamak operations. Aditya Vacuum vessel is having four vacuum pumping lines. To demonstrate implementation of automation; a study case is under taken by automating single Pumping Line of the Aditya vacuum system using CODAC Core System (CCS). Currently, vacuum system is operated manually. The CCS based control system allows remote control, monitoring, alarm handling of vacuum parameters. The CODAC Core System is the Linux based software package that is distributed by ITER Organization for the development of Plant System I&C software. CODAC Core System includes EPICS, CSS (Control System Studio) etc. CSS is used for HMI (Human Machine Interface), alarms and archives. SDD (Self Description Data) tool is used to configure plant system I&C. SDD Editor is an Eclipse based application to define the plant system, interface, I&C component, interfaced signals, configure variable. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system is developed in CSS. Data is transferred between PLC and CSS through EPICS. The complete system is tested with Aditya Vacuum Control System with process interlocks. Operator interface is also developed using Lab VIEW as a choice of the user. This paper will describe the salient features of the developed control system in detail.

  2. Vacuum system - how to get ready for beam ?

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V

    2009-01-01

    During the incident of sector 3-4, the two beam vacuum sectors of 2.8 km each and four insulation vacuum sectors i.e. 750 m were vented to atmospheric pressure. Besides the mechanical damages of the nested bellows and plug-in-modules due to the mouvement of the cold masses under the helium pressure, soot and debris of superinsulation were spread inside the beam and insulation vacua. The presentation will cover the extend of the damage from Q6R3 till Q6L4. The strategy deployed to repair, to clean and to qualify the damaged vacuum systems will be discussed. Scheduling and compatibilty with beam operation issues will be also adressed.

  3. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Stack Air Sampling System Qualification Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2001-01-24

    This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that the air monitoring system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility ventilation exhaust stack meets the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe, sample transport, and stack flow measurement accuracy.

  4. Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System: Applications Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an evaluation of the Terra Vac in situ vacuum extraction system and its applicability as a treatment method for waste site cleanup. This report analyzes the results from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program’s 56-day demonstration at t...

  5. Model for Refurbishment of Heritage Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A model intended for the selection of feasible refurbishment measures for heritage buildings was developed. The model showed how to choose, evaluate and implement measures that create synergy between the interests in preserving heritage values and creating cost efficient refurbishment that complies...... with the requirements for the use of the building. The model focuses on the cooperation and dialogue between authorities and owners, who refurbish heritage buildings. The developed model was used for the refurbishment of the listed complex, Fæstningens Materialgård. Fæstningens Materialgård is a case study where...... the Heritage Agency, the Danish Working Environment Authority and the owner as a team cooperated in identifying feasible refurbishments. In this case, the focus centered on restoring and identifying potential energy savings and deciding on energy upgrading measures for the listed complex. The refurbished...

  6. The vacuum system for technological unit development and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukeshov, A. M.; Gabdullina, A. T.; Amrenova, A. U.; Giniyatova, Sh G.; Kaibar, A.; Sundetov, A.; Fermakhan, K.

    2015-11-01

    The paper shows results of development of plasma technological unit on the basis of accelerator of vacuum arc and automated system. During the previous years, the authors investigated the operation of pulsed plasma accelerator and developed unique technologies for hardening of materials. Principles of plasma formation in pulsed plasma accelerator were put into basis of the developed unit. Operation of the pulsed arc accelerator was investigated at different parameters of the charge. The developed vacuum system is designed for production of hi-tech plasma units in high technologies in fields of nanomaterials, mechanical and power engineering and production with high added value. Unlike integrated solutions, the system is a module one to allow its low cost, high reliability and simple maintenance. The problems of use of robots are discussed to modernize the technological process.

  7. Integrated refurbishment planning for sustainable office buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbert, T.

    2012-01-01

    Europe's cities are full of office buildings which are technically and visually outdated. Research has demonstrated that more than 60% of German office stock is in acute need for refurbishment. Building planning needs intelligent approaches to façade refurbishment in order to tackle this enormous

  8. Vacuum-assisted closure system in treatment of postoperative mediastinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elawadi, Mohamed Ahmed; Oueida, Farouk

    2013-12-01

    Post-cardiac surgery mediastinitis is a serious complication with high morbidity and high financial costs. Using a vacuum-assisted closure system is the established line of treatment for mediastinitis, which improves outcome, especially in the high-risk group of patients. From January 2007 to April 2011, a retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the outcome of vacuum-assisted closure in the treatment of postoperative mediastinitis. There were 34 patients; 27 were male and 7 female. Mean time from infection to vacuum-assisted closure was 3.34 ± 1.10 days. The duration of vacuum-assisted closure was 6.51 ± 1.85 days (3-9 days). The mean amount of discharge was 759.60 ± 175.28 mL (range, 354-990 mL). Of the 34 patients, 21 (61.76%) had direct surgical wound closure and 13 (41.16%) had re-wiring. Two patients had bilateral pectoral flaps. One patient had chronic fistula formation, and one had a tear in the right ventricle. Mean hospital stay was 11.28 ± 2.09 days (range, 6-16 days). Vacuum-assisted closure therapy is a safe, reliable, and cost-effective modality of treatment for postoperative mediastinitis. It improves the outcome and can be combined with other modalities of conventional treatment, especially in high-risk groups such as the elderly or patients with diabetes.

  9. Entanglement dynamics of a bipartite system in squeezed vacuum reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bougouffa, Smail [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, PO Box 30002, Madinah (Saudi Arabia); Hindi, Awatif, E-mail: sbougouffa@taibahu.edu.sa, E-mail: sbougouffa@hotmail.com [Physics Department, College of Science, PO Box 22452, King Saud University, Riyadh 11495 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-02-15

    Entanglement plays a crucial role in quantum information protocols; thus the dynamical behavior of entangled states is of great importance. In this paper, we suggest a useful scheme that permits a direct measure of entanglement in a two-qubit cavity system. It is realized through cavity-QED technology utilizing atoms as flying qubits. To quantify entanglement we use the concurrence. We derive the conditions that ensure that the state remains entangled in spite of the interaction with the reservoir. The phenomenon of entanglement sudden death in a bipartite system subjected to a squeezed vacuum reservoir is examined. We show that the sudden death time of the entangled states depends on the initial preparation of the entangled state and the parameters of the squeezed vacuum reservoir.

  10. Vacuum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Eichmeier, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen experts from the electronics industry, research institutes and universities have joined forces to prepare this book. ""Vacuum Electronics"" covers the electrophysical fundamentals, the present state of the art and applications, as well as the future prospects of microwave tubes and systems, optoelectronics vacuum devices, electron and ion beam devices, light and X-ray emitters, particle accelerators and vacuum interrupters. These topics are supplemented by useful information about the materials and technologies of vacuum electronics and vacuum technology.

  11. Low-Cost, Rugged High-Vacuum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A need exists for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other analytical instruments such as scanning electron microscopes. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was developed based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive-to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by a miniature, very-high-speed (200,000 rpm), rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. The key advantages of the pump are reduced cost and improved ruggedness compared to other mechanical hig-hvacuum pumps. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate rotor and stator blades for other pump designs. Also, the symmetry of the rotor is such that dynamic balancing of the rotor will likely not be necessary. Finally, the number of parts in the unit is cut by nearly a factor of three over competing designs. The new pump forms the heart of a complete vacuum system optimized to support analytical instruments in terrestrial applications and on spacecraft and planetary landers. The MDP achieves high vacuum coupled to a ruggedized diaphragm rough pump. Instead of the relatively complicated rotor and stator blades used in turbomolecular pumps, the rotor in the MDP consists of a simple, smooth cylinder of aluminum. This will turn at approximately 200,000 rpm inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the

  12. Technology Demonstration Summary: Terra Vac In Situ Vacuum Extraction System, Groveland, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra Vac Inc's vacuum extraction system was demonstrated at the Valley Manufactured Products Company, Inc., site in Groveland, Massachusetts. The property is part of the Groveland Wells Superfund site and is contaminated mainly by trichloroethylene (TCE). Vacuum extraction...

  13. Vacuum system of the compact Energy Recovery Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T., E-mail: tohru.honda@kek.jp; Tanimoto, Y.; Nogami, T.; Takai, R.; Obina, T.; Asaoka, S.; Uchiyama, T.; Nakamura, N. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan) (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    The compact Energy Recovery Linac (cERL), a test accelerator to establish important technologies demanded for future ERL-based light sources, was constructed in late 2013 at KEK. The accelerator was successfully commissioned in early 2014, and demonstrated beam circulation with energy recovery. In the cERL vacuum system, low-impedance vacuum components are required to circulate high-intensity, low-emittance and short-bunch electron beams. We therefore developed ultra-high-vacuum (UHV)-compatible flanges that can connect beam tubes seamlessly, and employed retractable beam monitors, namely, a movable Faraday cup and screen monitors. In most parts of the accelerator, pressures below 1×10{sup −7} Pa are required to mitigate beam-gas interactions. Particularly, near the photocathode electron gun and the superconducting (SC) cavities, pressures below 1×10{sup −8} Pa are required. The beam tubes in the sections adjoining the SC cavities were coated with non-evaporable getter (NEG) materials, to reduce gas condensation on the cryo-surfaces. During the accelerator commissioning, stray magnetic fields from the permanent magnets of some cold cathode gauges (CCGs) were identified as a source of the disturbance to the beam orbit. Magnetic shielding was specially designed as a remedy for this issue.

  14. Simulated thermal energy demand and actual energy consumption in refurbished and non-refurbished buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, C. A.; Visa, I.; Duta, A.

    2016-08-01

    The EU legal frame imposes the Nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) status to any new public building starting with January 1st, 2019 and for any other new building starting with 2021. Basically, nZEB represents a Low Energy Building (LEB) that covers more than half of the energy demand by using renewable energy systems installed on or close to it. Thus, two steps have to be followed in developing nZEB: (1) reaching the LEB status through state- of-the art architectural and construction solutions (for the new buildings) or through refurbishing for the already existent buildings, followed by (2) implementing renewables; in Romania, over 65% of the energy demand in a building is directly linked to heating, domestic hot water (DHW), and - in certain areas - for cooling. Thus, effort should be directed to reduce the thermal energy demand to be further covered by using clean and affordable systems: solar- thermal systems, heat pumps, biomass, etc. or their hybrid combinations. Obviously this demand is influenced by the onsite climatic profile and by the building performance. An almost worst case scenario is approached in the paper, considering a community implemented in a mountain area, with cold and long winters and mild summers (Odorheiul Secuiesc city, Harghita county, Romania). Three representative types of buildings are analysed: multi-family households (in blocks of flats), single-family houses and administrative buildings. For the first two types, old and refurbished buildings were comparatively discussed.

  15. Cryogenic thermal storage system for discontinuous industrial vacuum processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzi, M.; Chesi, A.; Baldi, A.; Tarani, F.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Carnevale, E.

    2012-10-01

    Phase Change Materials are proposed for refrigerating systems in discontinuous industrial vacuum processes where temperatures as low as -140 ÷ -100°C are necessary within time-frames representing 10÷20% of total operating time. An application is proposed for cooling systems used in a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) apparatus. A prototype has been manufactured which couples a cryopump with a reservoir filled with MethylCycloPentane (MCP-C6H12) and a distribution line where nitrogen in the gaseous state is flowing. Preliminary tests show that temperatures of about -120°C are actually achieved within time windows compatible with PVD applications.

  16. ATLAS magnet common cryogenic, vacuum, electrical and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Miele, P; Delruelle, N; Geich-Gimbel, C; Haug, F; Olesen, G; Pengo, R; Sbrissa, E; Tyrvainen, H; ten Kate, H H J

    2004-01-01

    The superconducting Magnet System for the ATLAS detector at the LHC at CERN comprises a Barrel Toroid, two End Cap Toroids and a Central Solenoid with overall dimensions of 20 m diameter by 26 m length and a stored energy of 1.6 GJ. Common proximity cryogenic and electrical systems for the toroids are implemented. The Cryogenic System provides the cooling power for the 3 toroid magnets considered as a single cold mass (600 tons) and for the CS. The 21 kA toroid and the 8 kA solenoid electrical circuits comprise both a switch-mode power supply, two circuit breakers, water cooled bus bars, He cooled current leads and the diode resistor ramp-down unit. The Vacuum System consists of a group of primary rotary pumps and sets of high vacuum diffusion pumps connected to each individual cryostat. The Magnet Safety System guarantees the magnet protection and human safety through slow and fast dump treatment. The Magnet Control System ensures control, regulation and monitoring of the operation of the magnets. The update...

  17. Energetic Refurbishment of Historic Brick Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagorskas, Jurgis; Mykolas Paliulis, Grazvydas; Burinskiene, Marija

    2013-01-01

    Building standards for energy effectiveness are increasing constantly and the market follows these changes by constructing new buildings in accordance with standards and refurbishment of the existing housing stock. Comprehensive trends in European construction market show tremendous increase in b...

  18. Container Refurbishment Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloi, t.; anthony, p; blair, t; forester, c; hall, k; hawk, t; gordon, b; johnsen, s; keck, g; clifford, m; reichert, d; rogers, p; richards, w; smallen, p; tilley, e

    2000-05-15

    In mid-1999, a Cycle Time Reduction (CTR) project was initiated by senior management to improve the overall efficiency of the Container Refurbishment process. A cross-functional team was formed by the Industrial Engineering Services group within Product Certification Organization to evaluate the current process and to propose necessary changes for improvement. The CTR team efforts have resulted in increased productivity equaling approximately $450K per year. The effort also significantly reduced the wait time required necessary to start assembly work on the shop floor. Increasing daily production time and identifying delays were key team goals. Following is a brief summary of accomplishments: (A) Productivity Improvements: (1) Reduced Radcon survey time for empty containers: (i) 50% at 9720-3 (ii) 67% at 9204-2 and (iii) 100% at 9212; (2) Eliminated container inspections at 9720-3; (3) Reduced charged time (includes hands-on labor and support functions) per empty container by 25%; (4) Reduced cycle time to refurbish a container by 25%. (Dramatic wait time reduction -Assembly); (5) Reduced the time for 9212 to receive empty, refurbished containers by 67-80%; (6) Reduced the time for 9204-2E to receive empty, refurbished containers from 1 day to immediate; (7) Implemented software to track time charged per container for continuous improvement; (8) Initiated continuous improvement efforts between Workstream experts and Refurbishment personnel, reworded complex Workstream prompts to allow worker data corrections, and reduces time of support groups, Workstream personnel, and Refurbishment personnel; (9) Consolidated refurbished, container warehousing areas, eliminated long travel times to areas outside the protected area portals to an area in the vicinity of the refurbishment area and a process area, benefits are improved container flow and better housekeeping; and (10) improved overall communication of team by flowcharting entire process. B. Annual Cost Savings: $453K

  19. Water purification through vacuum system; Purificacion de agua bajo vacio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armenta-Deu, C.

    2004-07-01

    Fresh water production through vacuum systems are today a reasonable option at a much lower cost than tray conventional units, also based on evaporation-condensation process. The use of simple devices such as vacuum ejectors allows to reduce pressure down to 5 kPa at a very low cost, only 7. The requirement of having a constant water flow to reduce pressure has been easily solved using a close circuit and a low power pump which is powered by solar energy. The energy cost has been reduced dramatically, as the system operates at a very reduced temperature, 45 degree Celsius, and even as low as 35 degree Celsius, what causes a much lower energy requirement. The results obtained during the tests have shown that is possible to save up to 230 kJ per litre of fresh water, and up to 40 W per l/h. The system is fully compatible with thermal solar collectors of low temperature, and can be electrically powered by a solar panel of low power. (Author)

  20. Development of a control system for the teat-end vacuum in individual quarter milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströbel, Ulrich; Rose-Meierhöfer, Sandra; Oz, Hülya; Brunsch, Reiner

    2013-06-13

    Progress in sensor technique and electronics has led to a decrease in the costs of electronic and sensor components. In modern dairy farms, having udders in good condition, a lower frequency of udder disease and an extended service life of dairy cows will help ensure competitiveness. The objective of this study was to develop a teat-end vacuum control system with individual quarter actor reaction. Based on a review of the literature, this system is assumed to protect the teat tissue. It reduces the mean teat-end vacuum in the maximum vacuum phase (b) to a level of 20 kPa at a flow rate of 0.25 L/min per quarter. At flow rates higher than 1.50 L/min per quarter, the teat-end vacuum can be controlled to a level of 30 kPa, because in this case it is desirable to have a higher vacuum for the transportation of the milk to the receiver. With this system it is possible for the first time to supply the teat end with low vacuum at low flow rates and with higher vacuum at increasing flow rates in a continuous process with a three second reaction-rate on individual quarter level. This system is completely automated.

  1. Mitigation of Radiation and EMI Effects on the Vacuum Control System of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pigny, G; Krakowski, P; Rio, B

    2014-01-01

    The 26 km of vacuum chambers where circulates the beam of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) must be maintained under Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) to minimize the beam interactions with residual gases, and allow the operation of specific systems. The vacuum level is measured by several thousands of gauges along the accelerator. Bad vacuum quality may trigger a beam dump and close the associated sector valves. The effects of radiation or Electromagnetic Interferences (EMI) on components that may stop the machine must be evaluated and minimized. We report on the actions implemented to mitigate their impact on the vacuum control system.

  2. Cryogenic thermal storage system for discontinuous industrial vacuum processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaringella M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase Change Materials are proposed for refrigerating systems in discontinuous industrial vacuum processes where temperatures as low as −140 ÷ −100°C are necessary within time-frames representing 10÷20% of total operating time. An application is proposed for cooling systems used in a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD apparatus. A prototype has been manufactured which couples a cryopump with a reservoir filled with MethylCycloPentane (MCP-C6H12 and a distribution line where nitrogen in the gaseous state is flowing. Preliminary tests show that temperatures of about −120°C are actually achieved within time windows compatible with PVD applications.

  3. Caps Seal Boltholes On Vacuum-System Flanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Sealing caps devised for boltholes on vacuum-system flanges. Used in place of leak-prone gaskets, and provide solid metal-to-metal interfaces. Each sealing cap contains square-cut circular groove in which O-ring placed. Mounted on studs protruding into access ports, providing positive seal around each bolthole. Each cap mates directly with surface of flange, in solid metal-to-metal fit, with O-ring completely captured in groove. Assembly immune to misalignment, leakage caused by vibration, and creeping distortion caused by weight of port. O-ring material chosen for resistance to high temperature; with appropriate choice of material, temperature raised to as much as 315 degrees C.

  4. LCLS XTOD Tunnel Vacuum Transport System (XVTS) Final Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, S

    2006-10-16

    The design of the X-Ray Vacuum Transport System (XVTS) for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been analyzed and configured by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. A preliminary design review was held on 11/14/05 [1][2]. This FDR (Final Design Report) presents system configuration, detailed analyses and selection of the mechanical and electrical components for the XTOD tunnel section, as well as the response to all issues raised in the review committee report. Also included are the plans for procurement, mechanical integration, schedule and the cost estimates. It should be noticed that, after the XVTS PDR, LCLS management has decided to lower the number of beamlines from three to one, and shorten the tunnel length from 212 m to 184 m. [3][4] The final design of XVTS system is completed. The major subjects presented in this report are: (1) Design of the complete system. (2) System analysis results. (3) ES&H issues and plan. (4) Project cost estimates and schedule.

  5. Comparing 193 nm photoresist roughening in an inductively coupled plasma system and vacuum beam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, M. J.; Nest, D. G.; Chung, T.-Y.; Graves, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    We present a comparison of blanket 193 nm photoresist (PR) roughening and chemical modifications of samples processed in a well-characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system and an ultra-high vacuum beam system. In the ICP system, PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and Ar ions, while in the vacuum beam system, samples are irradiated with either a Xe-line VUV source or Ar-lamp VUV source with Ar ions. Sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that under VUV-only conditions in the vacuum beam and ICP (with no substrate bias applied) systems 193 nm PR does not roughen. However, roughness increases with simultaneous high energy (>70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV irradiation and is a function of VUV fluence, substrate temperature and photon-to-ion flux ratio. PR processed in the ICP system experiences increased etching, probably due to release of H- and O-containing gaseous products and subsequent chemical etching, in contrast to samples in the vacuum beam system where etch-products are rapidly pumped away. The surface roughness structure and behaviour, however, remain similar and this is attributed to the synergy between VUV-photon and positive ions.

  6. Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

  7. Modelling of pressure increase protection system for the vacuum vessel of W7-X device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliatka, Tadas, E-mail: tadas.kaliatka@lei.lt; Uspuras, Eugenijus; Kaliatka, Algirdas

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Two in-vessel LOCAs (partial and guillotine break of 40 mm diameter pipe of cooling system) for Wendelstein 7-X fusion device were analyzed. • The analysis of the processes in the cooling system, vacuum vessel and pressure increase protection system were performed using thermal-hydraulic RELAP5 Mod3.3 code. • The suitability of pressure increase protection system was assessed. - Abstract: In fusion devices, plasma is contained in a vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel cannot withstand a pressure above atmospheric. Any damage of in-vessel components could lead to water ingress and may lead to pressure increase and possible damage of vacuum vessel. In order to avoid such undesirable consequences, the pressure increase protection system is designed. In this article, the processes occurring in the vacuum vessel and pressure increase protection system of W7-X device during LOCA (small and guillotine pipe break) event are analyzed. The model of W7-X cooling system, vacuum vessel and pressure increase protection system was developed using RELAP5 code. Numerical analysis of partial and guillotine break of 40 mm diameter pipe of cooling system was performed. Calculation results showed that burst disc of the pressure increase protection system does not open when the cross section area of partial break in the cooling system is smaller than 1 mm{sup 2}. During the guillotine break of cooling system, the burst disc opens, but pressure increase protection system is capable to prevent overpressure of the vacuum vessel.

  8. Two year operational experience with the TPS vacuum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y. C.; Chan, C. K.; Sheng, I. C.; Huang, I. T.; Y Chung, J.; Liang, C. C.

    2017-07-01

    The Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), a 3-GeV third generation synchrotron light source, was commissioned in 2014 December and is now currently operated in top-up mode at 300mA for users. During the past two years, the machine was completed to meet design goals with among others the installation of superconducting cavities (SRF), the installation of insertion devices (ID) and the correction of vacuum chamber structure downstream from the IDs. The design goal of 500mA beam current was achieved with a total accumulated beam dose of more than 1000Ah, resulting in three orders of magnitude reduction of out-gassing. As the beam current was increased, a few vacuum problems were encountered, including vacuum leaks, unexpected pressure bursts, etc. Vacuum related issues including high pressure events, lessons learned and operational experience will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  9. Vacuum properties of TiZrV non-evaporable getter films [for LHC vacuum system

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Cristoforo; Costa-Pinto, P; Escudeiro-Santana, A; Hedley, T; Mongelluzzo, A; Ruzinov, V; Wevers, I

    2001-01-01

    Sputter-deposited thin films of TiZrV are fully activated after 24 h "in situ" heating at 180 degrees C. This activation temperature is the lowest of some 18 different getter coatings studied so far, and it allows the use of the getter thin film technology with aluminium alloy vacuum chambers, which cannot be baked at temperatures higher than 200 degrees C. An updated review is given of the most recent results obtained on TiZrV coatings, covering the following topics: influence of the elemental composition and crystal structure on activation temperature, discharge gas trapping and degassing, dependence of pumping speed and surface saturation capacity on film morphology, ageing consequent to activation-air-venting cycles and ultimate pressures. Furthermore, the results obtained when exposing a coated particle beam chamber to synchrotron radiation in a real accelerator environment (ESRF Grenoble) are presented and discussed. (13 refs).

  10. Design and performance of vacuum system for high heat flux test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy Kidambi, Rajamannar; Mokaria, Prakash; Khirwadkar, Samir; Belsare, Sunil; Khan, M. S.; Patel, Tushar; Krishnan, Deepu S.

    2017-04-01

    High heat flux test facility (HHFTF) at IPR is used for testing thermal performance of plasma facing materials or components. It consists of various subsystems like vacuum system, high power electron beam system, diagnostic and calibration system, data acquisition and control system and high pressure high temperature water circulation system. Vacuum system consists of large D-shaped chamber, target handling system, pumping systems and support structure. The net volume of vacuum chamber is 5 m3 was maintained at the base pressure of the order of 10-6 mbar for operation of electron gun with minimum beam diameter which is achieved with turbo-molecular pump (TMP) and cryo pump. A variable conductance gate valve is used for maintaining required vacuum in the chamber. Initial pumping of the chamber was carried out by using suitable rotary and root pumps. PXI and PLC based faster real time data acquisition and control system is implemented for performing the various operations like remote operation, online vacuum data measurements, display and status indication of all vacuum equipments. This paper describes in detail the design and implementation of various vacuum system for HHFTF.

  11. 77 FR 6122 - Providing Refurbishment Services to Federal Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... refurbished equipment) fit into viable business models for computer refurbishment companies? 4. How do the... process for disposing and recycling of failed equipment. Have all facilities in your recycling and... refurbishment services, including those developed specifically for recycling facilities (e.g., R2 and e-Stewards...

  12. VACUUM TRAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  13. Comparison of occlusion break responses and vacuum rise times of phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif-Kashani, Pooria; Fanney, Douglas; Injev, Val

    2014-07-30

    Occlusion break surge during phacoemulsification cataract surgery can lead to potential surgical complications. The purpose of this study was to quantify occlusion break surge and vacuum rise time of current phacoemulsification systems used in cataract surgery. Occlusion break surge at vacuum pressures between 200 and 600 mmHg was assessed with the Infiniti® Vision System, the WhiteStar Signature® Phacoemulsification System, and the Centurion® Vision System using gravity-fed fluidics. Centurion Active FluidicsTM were also tested at multiple intraoperative pressure target settings. Vacuum rise time was evaluated for Infiniti, WhiteStar Signature, Centurion, and Stellaris® Vision Enhancement systems. Rise time to vacuum limits of 400 and 600 mmHg was assessed at flow rates of 30 and 60 cc/minute. Occlusion break surge was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance. The Centurion system exhibited substantially less occlusion break surge than the other systems tested. Surge area with Centurion Active Fluidics was similar to gravity fluidics at an equivalent bottle height. At all Centurion Active Fluidics intraoperative pressure target settings tested, surge was smaller than with Infiniti and WhiteStar Signature. Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise time and Stellaris had the slowest. No system tested reached the 600-mmHg vacuum limit. In this laboratory study, Centurion had the least occlusion break surge and similar vacuum rise times compared with the other systems tested. Reducing occlusion break surge may increase safety of phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

  14. Can observations inside the Solar System reveal the gravitational properties of the quantum vacuum?

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, Dragan Slavkov

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the gravitational properties of the quantum vacuum might be the next scientific revolution.It was recently proposed that the quantum vacuum contains the virtual gravitational dipoles; we argue that this hypothesis might be tested within the Solar System. The key point is that quantum vacuum ("enriched" with the gravitational dipoles) induces a retrograde precession of the perihelion. It is obvious that this phenomenon might eventually be revealed by more accurate studies of orbits of planets and orbits of the artificial Earth satellites. However, we suggest that potentialy the best "laboratory" for the study of the gravitational properties of the quantum vacuum is the Dwarf Planet Eris and its satellite Dysnomia; the distance of nearly 100AU makes it the unique system in which the precession of the perihelion of Dysnomia (around Eris) is strongly dominated by the quantum vacuum.

  15. CUSTOM MADE VACUUM-ASSISTED CLOSURE SYSTEM IN ORTHOPAEDICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkat R

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND VAC AKA-negative pressure wound therapy “the VAC acts as a new step in the ‘reconstruction ladder’. The VAC enhances the tissue granulation, which makes it possible to use less complex reconstruction options, e.g., converting the wounds acceptable for the skin grafting, which otherwise would have required flap coverage.” MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedics, S. V. R. R. G. G. Hospital, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati, from January 2014 to September 2015. 34 patients were treated for various fractures with significant soft tissue loss during this period with the proposed method and were included in the present study. This is a prospective study with longitudinal follow up of patients throughout the study period. RESULTS In our study, a total of 35 patients were treated with custom made vacuum-assisted closure system. All of them were initially opined to be requiring flap cover surgery by plastic surgeon to fill for the soft tissue defect, however, with our method, out of 35, only 2 required flap cover and rest of them could be managed with a lesser invasive method of split skin grafting. Out of 35 patients, 33 were lower limb injuries and 2 have sustained upper limb injuries. Average number of dressing required were 2.69 and average duration for wound healing was 5.3 days. There were no significant complications in the present study. CONCLUSION Homemade VAC is a cost effective, equally efficacious and a valuable alternative modality of treatment in traumatic soft tissue defects with decreased morbidity, improved compliance and fruitful outcomes.

  16. Design package for vacuum wand for fuel retrieval system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROACH, H.L.

    1999-07-28

    This is a design package that contains the details for the design, fabrication, and testing of a vacuum wand that will pick up sludge and corrosion products generated during fuel assembly handling operations at K-Basin. This document contains requirements, development design information, design calculations, tests, and test reports.

  17. Vacuum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  18. The Control System of CERN Accelerators Vacuum (Current Status and Recent Improvements)

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, P; Blanchard, S; Boccioli, M; Girardot, G; Vestergard, H; Kopylov, L; Mikheev, M

    2011-01-01

    The vacuum control system of most of the CERN accelerators is based on Siemens PLCs and on PVSS SCADA. After the transition from the LHC commissioning phase to its regular operation, there has been a number of additions and improvements to the vacuum control system. They were driven by new technical requirements and by feedback from the accelerator operators and vacuum specialists. New control functions have been implemented in the PLCs; new tools have been developed for the SCADA, while its ergonomics and navigation have been enhanced.

  19. Paraformaldehyde pellet not necessary in vacuum-pumped maple sap system

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Carter B. Gibbs

    1970-01-01

    In a study of sugar maple sap collection through a vacuum-pumped plastic tubing system, yields were compared between tapholes in which paraformaldehyde pellets were used and tapholes without pellets, Use of the pellets did not increase yield.

  20. Very Low-Cost, Rugged, High-Vacuum System for Mass Spectrometers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a pressing need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology at NASA and...

  1. Very Low-Cost, Rugged, High-Vacuum System for Mass Spectrometers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA, the DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a pressing need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost, high vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology at...

  2. EAST-AIA deployment under vacuum: Calibration of laser diagnostic system using computer vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang, E-mail: yangyang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Song, Yuntao; Cheng, Yong; Feng, Hansheng; Wu, Zhenwei; Li, Yingying; Sun, Yongjun; Zheng, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Rd, Hefei, Anhui (China); Bruno, Vincent; Eric, Villedieu [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The first deployment of the EAST articulated inspection arm robot under vacuum is presented. • A computer vision based approach to measure the laser spot displacement is proposed. • An experiment on the real EAST tokamak is performed to validate the proposed measure approach, and the results shows that the measurement accuracy satisfies the requirement. - Abstract: For the operation of EAST tokamak, it is crucial to ensure that all the diagnostic systems are in the good condition in order to reflect the plasma status properly. However, most of the diagnostic systems are mounted inside the tokamak vacuum vessel, which makes them extremely difficult to maintain under high vacuum condition during the tokamak operation. Thanks to a system called EAST articulated inspection arm robot (EAST-AIA), the examination of these in-vessel diagnostic systems can be performed by an embedded camera carried by the robot. In this paper, a computer vision algorithm has been developed to calibrate a laser diagnostic system with the help of a monocular camera at the robot end. In order to estimate the displacement of the laser diagnostic system with respect to the vacuum vessel, several visual markers were attached to the inner wall. This experiment was conducted both on the EAST vacuum vessel mock-up and the real EAST tokamak under vacuum condition. As a result, the accuracy of the displacement measurement was within 3 mm under the current camera resolution, which satisfied the laser diagnostic system calibration.

  3. Thermal vacuum testing of the power supply system of the nanosatellite NTUU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliseyev Ye. N.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of thermal vacuum testing of experimental model of the nanosatellite NTUU "KPI" in a vacuum chamber ТВК-0,2 are shown in the article. Objective of the tests was to check the power system of the nanosatellite. Tests have shown that when exposed to factors that simulate space, the power system of the nanosatellite is operating normally.

  4. ITER cryostat main chamber and vacuum vessel pressure suppression system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Akira; Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakashima, Yoshitane; Ueno, Osamu

    1999-03-01

    Design of Cryostat Main Chamber and Vacuum Vessel Pressure Suppression System (VVPS) of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has been conducted. The cryostat is a cylindrical vessel that includes in-vessel component such as vacuum vessel, superconducting toroidal coils and poloidal coils. This cryostat provides the adiabatic vacuum about 10{sup -4} Pa for the superconducting coils operating at 4 K and forms the second confinement barrier to tritium. The adiabatic vacuum is to reduce thermal loads applied to the superconducting coils and their supports so as to keep their temperature 4 K. The VVPS consists of a suppression tank located under the lower bio-shield and 4 relief pipes to connect the vacuum vessel and the suppression tank. The VVPS is to keep the maximum pressure rise of the vacuum vessel below the design value of 0.5 MPa in case of the in-vessel LOCA (water spillage from in-vessel component). The spilled water and steam are lead to the suppression tank through the relief pipes when the internal pressure of vacuum vessel is over 0.2 MPa, and then the internal pressure is kept below 0.5 MPa. This report summarizes the structural design of the cryostat main chamber and pressure suppression system, together with their fabrication and installation. (author)

  5. Thermal properties of high temperature vacuum receivers used for parabolic trough solar thermal power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghe Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The receiver's emittance and vacuum pressure are the two of great significance issues on the heat-loss which is the main factor reducing the efficiency of the parabolic though systems. In this paper, the thermal steady-state equilibrium method was used to test the receivers’ heat-loss. The receivers with increasing emittance were tested to study the variation of heat-loss. Meanwhile, the variable vacuum pressure in the annulus that affects the efficiency of the system was investigated. The influence of vacuumizing rate and getters on the vacuum pressure and heat-loss were discussed. The result shows that the emittance and vacuum pressure affect the receiver's heat-loss dramatically, and the emittance is the major influence factor on the thermal properties. The receiver with 0.08 emittance and 10−3 Pa vacuum pressure has a satisfactory heat-loss of 215.6 W/m at 400 °C. The analysis further reveals that the synergistic effect of both emittance and vacuum pressure on the heat-loss can be reflected by the packaging temperature of the glass tube, and a fitting formula has been established to estimate the receivers’ heat-loss according to the packaging temperature of the glass tube.

  6. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Anindya, E-mail: r-ani@vecc.gov.in; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2015-03-15

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  7. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  8. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Carbon Nanotube-Based Vacuum Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Toda, Risaku (Inventor); Del Castillo, Linda Y. (Inventor); Murthy, Rakesh (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention proficiently produce carbon nanotube-based vacuum electronic devices. In one embodiment a method of fabricating a carbon nanotube-based vacuum electronic device includes: growing carbon nanotubes onto a substrate to form a cathode; assembling a stack that includes the cathode, an anode, and a first layer that includes an alignment slot; disposing a microsphere partially into the alignment slot during the assembling of the stack such that the microsphere protrudes from the alignment slot and can thereby separate the first layer from an adjacent layer; and encasing the stack in a vacuum sealed container.

  9. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE SNS RING VACUUM INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HSEUH,H.C.; SMART,L.A.; TANG,J.Y.

    2001-06-18

    BNL is undertaking the design, construction and commissioning of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring and the beam transport lines [l]. Ultrahigh vacuum of 10{sup {minus}9} Torr is required in the accumulator ring to minimize beam-gas ionization, a contributing factor to the e-p instability observed in a few high-intensity proton storage rings. All vacuum instrumentation must be capable of local and remote operation to achieve a reliable vacuum system, especially in this extremely high intensity accelerator. The design and development of the SNS ring vacuum instrumentation and control through the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) distributed real-time software tools are presented.

  10. Refurbishing Fæstningens Materialgård

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Fæstningens Materialgård is a listed complex located in downtown Copenhagen. The refurbishment of the listed complex was studied to provide knowledge on how a process for refurbishing heritage buildings can be carried out successfully, as refurbishment of heritage buildings is often a complicated...... process. The process shows how to choose, evaluate and implement measures creating synergy between the interests of preserving heritage values and to develop affordable refurbishment that meets the requirements for the future use of the building. The refurbishment followed included restoration, energy...... upgrading and refurbishment of the individual buildings that make up the listed complex. The process focuses on the cooperation and dialogue between the parties involved. Fæstningens Materialgård is a case study where the Heritage Agency, the Danish Working Environment Authority and the owner as a team...

  11. A vacuum cleaner for the pelvicalyceal system during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezrek, Mohammed; Qarro, Abdelmounim; Bazine, Khalil; Najoui, Mohammed; Asseban, Mohammed; Benjelloun, Mohammed; Kasmaoui, El Hassan; Beddouch, Amoqran; Alami, Mohammed

    2010-06-01

    Removing small stones, fragments and debris, clots, or clusters of small stones can be bothersome and time consuming. We perform a technique to sweep out fragments from the kidney during percutaneous nephrolithotomy using suction. The nephroscope is used as a vacuum cleaner by adapting the suction tube to the nephroscope operating channel. The fragments are quickly aspirated through the nephroscope working channel under direct vision. This technique gives the best opportunities to render a patient stone-free from even the fine sand debris.

  12. Evaluation of three refurbished Guralp CMG-3TB seismometers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Darren M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Merchant, Bion J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The overall objective of testing the Guralp CMG-3TB refurbished seismometers is to determine whether or not the refurbished sensors exhibit better data quality and require less maintenance when deployed than the original Guralp CMG-3TBs. SNL will test these 3 refurbished Guralps to verify performance specifications. The specifications that will be evaluated are sensitivity, bandwidth, self-noise, output impedance, clip-level, dynamic range over application passband, verify mathematical response and calibration response parameters for amplitude and phase.

  13. Vacuum-assisted closure with a portable system for treatment of poststernotomy mediastinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohi, Shizuyuki; Inaba, Hirotaka; Tanbara, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Taira; Kikuchi, Keita; Shimada, Akie; Amano, Atsushi

    2010-08-01

    The patient was a 50-year-old man with diabetes who was on insulin. Complications of mediastinitis developed after coronary bypass surgery, which had been performed for unstable angina. Upon hospital admission, the patient was treated with antibiotics, and the wound was cleaned on a daily basis. However, because the patient's fever persisted, the wound was completely opened surgically and found to be deep and large. Because the patient's condition was relatively stable, minimally invasive vacuum-assisted closure was selected. We fabricated a portable vacuum-assisted closure system that imposed few limitations on individual movement. Vacuum-assisted closure treatment resulted in both rapid abatement of fever and improved granulation. Dressings were changed once a week; the wound was closed 4 weeks after vacuum-assisted closure and healed completely. Vacuum-assisted closure may be an effective therapy for postoperative mediastinitis, and our portable vacuum-assisted closure system may significantly reduce patient distress as well as direct medical care.

  14. Engineering Specification Document (ESD) of X-ray Vacuum Transport System (XVTS) for LCLS XTOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, S

    2006-01-25

    The vacuum system of the X-Ray Vacuum Transport System (XVTS) for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics (XTOD) system has been analyzed and configured by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The preliminary system layout, detailed analyses and suggested selection of the vacuum components for the XTOD tunnel section are presented in the preliminary design report [1]. This document briefly reviews the preliminary design and provides engineering specifications for the system, which can be used as 'design to' specifications for the final design. Also included are the requirements of plans for procurement, mechanical integration, schedule and the cost estimates.

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying facility HVAC system design description (SYS 30-1 THRU 30-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVAC). The CVDF HVAC system consists of the Administrative building HVAC system, the process bay recirculation HVAC system, the process bay local HVAC and process vent system, the process general supply/exhaust HVAC system, and the Reference air system. These HVAC sub-systems support the CVDF process and provide secondary confinement of contamination and the required filtration of exhaust.

  16. Upgrade of RHIC Vacuum Systems for High Luminosity Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Smart, Loralie; Todd, Robert J; Weiss, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    With increasing ion beam intensity during recent RHIC operations, pressure rises of several decades were observed at most room temperature sections and at a few cold sections. The pressure rises are associated with electron multi-pacting, electron stimulated desorption and beam ion induced desorption and have been one of the major intensity and luminosity limiting factors for RHIC. Improvement of the warm sections has been carried out in the last few years. Extensive in-situ bakes, additional UHV pumping, anti-grazing ridges and beam tube solenoids have been implemented. Several hundred meters of NEG coated beam pipes have been installed and activated. Vacuum monitoring and interlock were enhanced to reduce premature beam aborts. Preliminary measures, such as pumping before cool down to reduce monolayer condensates, were also taken to suppress the pressure rises in the cold sections. The effectiveness of these measures in reducing the pressure rises during machine studies and during physics runs are discussed...

  17. UPGRADE OF RHIC VACUUM SYSTEMS FOR HIGH LUMINOSITY OPERATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HSEUH, H.C.; MAPES, M.; SMART, L.A.; TODD, R.; WEISS, D.

    2005-05-16

    With increasing ion beam intensity during recent RHIC operations, rapid pressure rises of several decades were observed at most warm sections and at a few cold sections. The pressure rises are associated with electron multi-pacting, electron stimulated desorption and beam ion induced desorption and have been one of the major intensity and luminosity limiting factors for RHIC. Improvement of the warm sections has been carried out in the last few years. Extensive in-situ bakes, additional UHV pumping and anti-grazing ridges have been implemented. Several hundred meters of NEG coated beam pipes have been installed and activated. Vacuum monitoring and logging were enhanced. Preventive measures, such as pumping before cool down to reduce monolayer condensates, were also taken to suppress the pressure rises in the cold sections. The effectiveness of these measures in reducing the pressure rises during machine studies and during physics runs are discussed and summarized.

  18. Methods for identification and verification using vacuum XRF system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Fred (Inventor); Kaiser, Bruce (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Apparatus and methods in which one or more elemental taggants that are intrinsically located in an object are detected by x-ray fluorescence analysis under vacuum conditions to identify or verify the object's elemental content for elements with lower atomic numbers. By using x-ray fluorescence analysis, the apparatus and methods of the invention are simple and easy to use, as well as provide detection by a non line-of-sight method to establish the origin of objects, as well as their point of manufacture, authenticity, verification, security, and the presence of impurities. The invention is extremely advantageous because it provides the capability to measure lower atomic number elements in the field with a portable instrument.

  19. First commissioning of the SuperKEKB vacuum system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Suetsugu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The first (Phase-1 commissioning of SuperKEKB, an asymmetric-energy electron-positron collider at KEK, began in February 2016, after more than five years of upgradation work on KEKB and successfully ended in June 2016. A major task of the Phase-1 commissioning was the vacuum scrubbing of new beam pipes in anticipation of a sufficiently long beam lifetime and low background noise in the next commissioning, prior to which a new particle detector will be installed. The pressure rise per unit beam current decreased steadily with increasing beam dose, as expected. Another important task was to check the stabilities of various new vacuum components at high beam currents of approximately 1 A. The temperature increases of the bellows chambers, gate valves, connection flanges, and so on were less than several degrees at 1 A, and no serious problems were found. The effectiveness of the antechambers and TiN coating in suppressing the electron-cloud effect (ECE in the positron ring was also confirmed. However, the ECE in the Al-alloy bellows chambers was observed where TiN had not been coated. The use of permanent magnets to create an axial magnetic field of approximately 100 G successfully suppressed this effect. Pressure bursts accompanying beam losses were also frequently observed in the positron ring. This phenomenon is still under investigation, but it is likely caused by collisions between the circulating beams and dust particles, especially in the dipole magnet beam pipes.

  20. The efficacy of a removable vacuum-cushioned cast replacement system in reducing plantar forefoot pressures in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, S A; Waaijman, R; Arts, M; Manning, H

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the plantar forefoot offloading efficacy of a new prefabricated vacuum-cushioned cast replacement system designed for foot ulcer treatment in neuropathic diabetic patients. Fifteen diabetic subjects with peripheral neuropathy underwent in-shoe plantar pressure assessment while walking in five different footwear types: a standard vacuum-cushioned system with instantly moldable vacuum cushion and roller outsole, two modified vacuum-cushioned systems, one with flat surface vacuum cushion and one with flat outsole, a forefoot offloading shoe, and a control shoe. Regional peak pressures, pressure-time integrals, and inter-regional load transfers were calculated to determine the mechanical action of the footwear. Perceived walking comfort was tested using a 10-point visual analogue scale. Forefoot peak pressures and pressure-time integrals were significantly lower (by 41-56%) in the vacuum-cushioned system compared to control. Compared to the forefoot offloading shoe, the vacuum-cushioned system showed significantly higher metatarsal head peak pressures, similar metatarsal head pressure-time integrals, and significantly lower hallux peak pressures and pressure-time integrals. A major transfer of forefoot load to the midfoot explained the offloading efficacy of the vacuum-cushioned system. Few significant differences were present between the modified and standard vacuum-cushioned systems. Perceived walking comfort was significantly higher in the vacuum-cushioned system (score 6.6) than in the forefoot offloading shoe (score 3.4). The results showed that the vacuum-cushioned cast replacement system was effective in offloading the plantar forefoot of diabetic patients at risk for ulceration, although the contribution of the instantly moldable vacuum cushion and roller outsole were relatively small. The combined peak pressure, pressure-time integral and walking comfort results indicate that the vacuum-cushioned system may be a

  1. Characterization of the CEBAF 100 kV DC GaAs Photoelectron Gun Vacuum System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzman, M L; Adderley, P; Brittian, J; Clark, J; Grames, J; Hansknecht, J; Myneni, G R; Poelker, M

    2007-05-01

    A vacuum system with pressure in the low ultra-high vacuum (UHV) range is essential for long photocathode lifetimes in DC high voltage GaAs photoguns. A discrepancy between predicted and measured base pressure in the CEBAF photoguns motivated this study of outgassing rates of three 304 stainless steel chambers with different pretreatments and pump speed measurements of non-evaporable getter (NEG) pumps. Outgassing rates were measured using two independent techniques. Lower outgassing rates were achieved by electropolishing and vacuum firing the chamber. The second part of the paper describes NEG pump speed measurements as a function of pressure through the lower part of the UHV range. Measured NEG pump speed is high at pressures above 5×10-11 Torr, but may decrease at lower pressures depending on the interpretation of the data. The final section investigates the pump speed of a locally produced NEG coating applied to the vacuum chamber walls. These studies represent the first detailed vacuum measurements of CEBAF photogun vacuum chambers.

  2. Ion beam analysis of gas turbine blades: evaluation of refurbishment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ration industry, include two turbine blades corroded during operation in the power plant and two refurbished turbine blades by applying the MCrAlY thermal barrier ..... revealed the cluster distribution of rather large amounts of. Si in the refurbished coating layer. The cluster distribution of Si, which could reduce the lifetime of ...

  3. Ion beam analysis of gas turbine blades: evaluation of refurbishment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the cross-sections of refurbished and used samples, distinct regions were identified corresponding to the base superalloy, original protection layer and applied coating for refurbishment. The elemental composition of each of these regions was measured by Micro-PIXE analysis. Inhomogeneous and high content of Si as ...

  4. Pressure Model for the Vacuum System for the Electron Gun and Injector for LCLS Final Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, L S; Eriksson, L

    2006-04-28

    The vacuum system of the injector for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has been analyzed and configured by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The vacuum system layout and detailed analyses for the injector are presented in this final design report. The vacuum system was analyzed and optimized using a coupled gas load balance model of sub-volumes of the components to be evacuated.

  5. Automatic gas-levitation system for vacuum deposition of laser-fusion targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, C.W.; Cameron, G.R.; Krenik, R.M.; Crane, J.K.

    1981-09-08

    An improved simple system has been developed to gas-levitate microspheres during vacuum-deposition processes. The automatic operation relies on two effects: a lateral stabilizing force provided by a centering-ring; and an automatically incremented gas metering system to offset weight increases during coating.

  6. TCODE: a computer code for analysis of tritium and vacuum systems for tokamak fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmer, R.G.

    1978-08-01

    TCODE can be used for either near-term experimental reactors or for commercial reactors. The code provides options for items that may be included in a commercial reactor such as a divertor, neutral beam heating, and a breeding blanket. The code was used to calculate tritium and vacuum system parameters for the near term reactors ITR, TNS-UP and EPR as well as for some commercial reactor designs, the UWMAK series. A selected sample of the tritium and vacuum parameters for these reactor designs is shown. Also shown are parameters for a hypothetical reactor UWMAK-III M having similar characteristics to UWMAK-III but with a higher fractional burnup (5.0% cf. 0.83%). The impact of the reactor design scenario upon major tritium and vacuum systems is discussed.

  7. JACoW Integration of the vacuum SCADA with CERN's Enterprise Asset Management system

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Andre; Fraga, Jorge; Gkioka, Georgia; Gomes, Paulo; Gonzalez, Luis; Krastev, Tsvetelin; Riddone, Germana; Widegren, David

    2018-01-01

    With over 128Km of vacuum chambers, reaching pressures as low as in interstellar space, CERN is home to the largest vacuum system in the world. Its underlying architecture comprises approximately 15 000 pieces of control equipment, supervised and controlled by 7 Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) servers, and over 300 Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). Their configuration files are automatically generated from a set of ORACLE databases (vacDB) using a Java application (vacDB-Editor). The maintenance management of such an amount of equipment requires the usage of an Enterprise Asset Management system (EAM), where the life cycle of every equipment is tracked from reception through decommissioning. The equipment displayed in the vacuum SCADA is automatically integrated in its user interfaces (UIs) based on data available on vacDB. On the other hand, the equipment available in Infor-EAM for maintenance management activities (creation of work-orders, stock management, location tracking) resides i...

  8. Schematics of ISO and Japanese Standards on Flange Sealing Systems and Fittings for Vacuum Equipments, and Their Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokouchi, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Toshio; Akimichi, Hitoshi; Hirata, Masahiro

    To keep flexibility on construction of vacuum system, understanding of standardization scheme for demountable sealing system consisting of flanges and metal gasket or elastomer O-ring is highly beneficial for both suppliers and users of vacuum equipments. Here we present main contents of international and national standards of flange sealing systems and their correlation, along with some commentaries on states of conformity with standards of commercially available vacuum flanges. Outlines of standards of vacuum fittings, and recent activities for revision and establishment of standards are also reported.

  9. Vacuum generation in pneumatic artificial heart drives with a specially designed ejector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schima, H; Huber, L; Spitaler, F

    1990-06-01

    To improve the filling characteristics of pneumatically driven membrane artificial hearts (AHs), a vacuum is applied during diastole. This paper describes an ejector system for AH-drivers based on the Venturi effect, which was designed for this purpose. It provides vacuums of more than -40 mmHg at flow rates up to 50 l/min requiring a supplying primary gas pressure of less than 150 kPa (1140 mmHg). Under normal working conditions, the necessary supply flow was less than 5l/min. The device is small, cheap, quiet and fail-safe, and has been evaluated successfully in experimental and clinical use.

  10. Multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of building refurbishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaklauskas, A.; Zavadskas, E. K.; Raslanas, S. [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2005-07-01

    In order to design and realize an efficient building refurbishment, it is necessary to carry out an exhaustive investigation of all solutions that form it. The efficiency level of the considered building's refurbishment depends on a great many of factors, including: cost of refurbishment, annual fuel economy after refurbishment, tentative pay-back time, harmfulness to health of the materials used, aesthetics, maintenance properties, functionality, comfort, sound insulation and longevity, etc. Solutions of an alternative character allow for a more rational and realistic assessment of economic, ecological, legislative, climatic, social and political conditions, traditions and for better the satisfaction of customer requirements. They also enable one to cut down on refurbishment costs. In carrying out the multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of a building refurbishment much data was processed and evaluated. Feasible alternatives could be as many as 100,000. How to perform a multivariant design and multiple criteria analysis of alternate alternatives based on the enormous amount of information became the problem. Method of multivariant design and multiple criteria of a building refurbishment's analysis were developed by the authors to solve the above problems. In order to demonstrate the developed method, a practical example is presented in this paper. (author)

  11. Improvements of vacuum system in J-PARC 3 GeV synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, J.; Hikichi, Y.; Namekawa, Y.; Takeishi, K.; Yanagibashi, T.; Kinsho, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Sato, A.

    2017-07-01

    The RCS vacuum system has been upgraded since the completion of its construction towards the objectives of both better vacuum quality and higher reliability of the components. For the better vacuum quality, (1) pressure of the injection beam line was improved to prevent the H-beam from converting to H0; (2) leakage in the beam injection area due to the thermal expansion was eliminated by applying the adequate torque amount for the clamps; (3) new in-situ degassing method of the kicker magnet was developed. For the reliability increase of the components, (1) A considerable number of fluoroelastmer seal was exchanged to metal seal with the low spring constant bellows and the light clamps; (2) TMP controller for the long cable was developed to prevent the controller failure by the severe electrical noise; (3) A number of TMP were installed instead of ion pumps in the RF cavity section as an insurance for the case of pump trouble.

  12. LECA refurbishment project or how to get ready for the next ten years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussard, Francois; Bois, Dominique; Blanc, Jean Yves

    2005-01-01

    Around 1995, CEA decided a strategy for its hot laboratories: Closing LAMA - Grenoble and LHA - Saclay, after RM2 - Fontenay-aux-Roses. Refurbishing and gathering irradiated material studies in LECI - Saclay. Refurbishing LECA - Cadarache for irradiated fuel examinations. Reprocessing pilot experiments being located in Atalante - Marcoule. Started up in 1964, LECA has got an exploitation license up to August 2005. In 2001, safety authorities agreed to extend it up to 2015, provided an extensive refurbishment is undertaken which includes civil engineering works to achieve the building earthquake resistance, based on 3D-computations and withstanding maximum historically likely earthquake, improving confinement by decontaminating, adding steel boxes inside cells, changing ventilation system and creating a mobile upper cell on the cell roof, changing power supplies, shielded glasses and most manipulators, improving travelling crane, fire protection, radioactivity monitoring and alarms, installing a new device for characterizing and evacuating wastes, decreasing the fissile mass stored inside the facility (source term). Most of the work should be ended by the end of 2005. Afterwards five cells, which do not withstand earthquake, will be deconstructed within 3 years. By mid 2004, 60 % of tasks are completed and all contracts are awarded. The total final cost is 97 M Euro, 80% of which regarding the only LECA refurbishment. (Author)

  13. Vacuum System Performance for the First Sextant Test of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hseuh, H. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pate, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smart, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Todd, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Weiss, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-10-14

    One of the major milestones during the construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is the completion and successful testing of the first one sixth of the ring. This report summarizes the performance of the vacuum systems as it relates to the First Sextant Test (FST), and the design changes which precipitated.

  14. Waveguide transition with vacuum window for multiband dynamic nuclear polarization systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr; Bowen, Sean; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    A low loss waveguide transition section and oversized microwave vacuum window covering several frequency bands (94 GHz, 140 GHz, 188 GHz) is presented. The transition is compact and was optimized for multiband Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) systems in a full-wave simulator. The window is more...

  15. Development and fabrication of the vacuum systems for an elliptically polarized undulator at Taiwan Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chin-Chun, E-mail: chinchun@nsrrc.org.tw; Chan, Che-Kai; Wu, Ling-Hui; Shueh, Chin; Shen, I.-Ching; Cheng, Chia-Mu; Yang, I.-Chen

    2017-05-01

    Three sets of a vacuum system were developed and fabricated for elliptically polarized undulators (EPU) of a 3-GeV synchrotron facility. These chambers were shaped with low roughness extrusion and oil-free machining; the design combines aluminium and stainless steel. The use of a bimetallic material to connect the EPU to the vacuum system achieves the vacuum sealing and to resolve the leakage issue due to bake process induced thermal expansion difference. The interior of the EPU chamber consists of a non-evaporable-getter strip pump in a narrow space to absorb photon-stimulated desorption and to provide a RF bridge design to decrease impedance effect in the two ends of EPU chamber. To fabricate these chambers and to evaluate the related performance, we performed a computer simulation to optimize the structure. During the machining and welding, the least deformation was achieved, less than 0.1 mm near 4 m. In the installation, the linear slider can provide a stable and precision moved along parallel the electron beam direction smoothly for the EPU chamber to decrease the twist issue during baking process. The pressure of the EPU chamber attained less than 2×10{sup −8} Pa through baking. These vacuum systems of the EPU magnet have been installed in the electron storage ring of Taiwan Photon Source in 2015 May and have normally operated at 300 mA continuously since, and to keep beam life time achieved over than 12 h.

  16. Development and fabrication of the vacuum systems for an elliptically polarized undulator at Taiwan Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chun; Chan, Che-Kai; Wu, Ling-Hui; Shueh, Chin; Shen, I.-Ching; Cheng, Chia-Mu; Yang, I.-Chen

    2017-05-01

    Three sets of a vacuum system were developed and fabricated for elliptically polarized undulators (EPU) of a 3-GeV synchrotron facility. These chambers were shaped with low roughness extrusion and oil-free machining; the design combines aluminium and stainless steel. The use of a bimetallic material to connect the EPU to the vacuum system achieves the vacuum sealing and to resolve the leakage issue due to bake process induced thermal expansion difference. The interior of the EPU chamber consists of a non-evaporable-getter strip pump in a narrow space to absorb photon-stimulated desorption and to provide a RF bridge design to decrease impedance effect in the two ends of EPU chamber. To fabricate these chambers and to evaluate the related performance, we performed a computer simulation to optimize the structure. During the machining and welding, the least deformation was achieved, less than 0.1 mm near 4 m. In the installation, the linear slider can provide a stable and precision moved along parallel the electron beam direction smoothly for the EPU chamber to decrease the twist issue during baking process. The pressure of the EPU chamber attained less than 2×10-8 Pa through baking. These vacuum systems of the EPU magnet have been installed in the electron storage ring of Taiwan Photon Source in 2015 May and have normally operated at 300 mA continuously since, and to keep beam life time achieved over than 12 h.

  17. Cold Vacuum Drying facility civil structural system design description (SYS 06)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility civil - structural system. This system consists of the facility structure, including the administrative and process areas. The system's primary purpose is to provide for a facility to house the CVD process and personnel and to provide a tertiary level of containment. The document provides a description of the facility and demonstrates how the design meets the various requirements imposed by the safety analysis report and the design requirements document.

  18. PTC-6 vacuum system: WallWalker{trademark} and Blastrac{reg_sign} shot blast cleaning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The LTC Americas, Inc. wall decontamination technology consisted of two pneumatic hand-held tools: (1) a roto-peen scaler that used star cutters and (2) a 3-piston hammer with reciprocating bits. The hand-held tools were used in conjunction with the LTC PTC-6 vacuum system which captured dust and debris as the wall decontamination took place. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during use of the PTC-6 vacuum system with hand-held tools include: (1) keeping all hoses and lines as orderly as possible in compliance with good housekeeping requirements; (2) ergonomic training to include techniques in lifting, bending, stooping, twisting, etc.; (3) use of a clamping system to hold hoses to the vacuum system; (4) a safety line on the air line connections; (5) use of a mechanical lifting system for waste drum removal; and (6) the use of ergonomically designed tools.

  19. Source Recertification, Refurbishment, and Transfer Logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Duckworth, Leesa L.; Greenfield, Bryce A.; Doll, Stephanie R.

    2013-09-01

    The 2012 Gap Analysis of Department of Energy Radiological Sealed Sources, Standards, and Materials for Safeguards Technology Development [1] report, and the subsequent Reconciliation of Source Needs and Surpluses across the U.S. Department of Energy National Laboratory Complex [2] report, resulted in the identification of 33 requests for nuclear or radiological sealed sources for which there was potentially available, suitable material from within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex to fill the source need. Available, suitable material was defined by DOE laboratories as material slated for excess, or that required recertification or refurbishment before being used for safeguards technology development. This report begins by outlining the logistical considerations required for the shipment of nuclear and radiological materials between DOE laboratories. Then, because of the limited need for transfer of matching sources, the report also offers considerations for an alternative approach – the shipment of safeguards equipment between DOE laboratories or technology testing centers. Finally, this report addresses repackaging needs for the two source requests for which there was available, suitable material within the DOE complex.

  20. Development of a control system for compression and expansion cycles of critical valve for high vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Jyoti, E-mail: jagarwal@ipr.res.in; Sharma, H.; Patel, Haresh; Gangradey, R.; Lambade, Vrushabh

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Control system with feedback loop of pressure gauge is developed for measuring the life cycle of vacuum isolation valve. • GUI based software developed for easy use and handling of control system. • Control system tested with an experiment showcasing the capability of the control system. • Control system can operate valve based on pressure inside the chamber, which helps to know the degradation of sealing capabilities of valve. • Control system can monitor the total closing and opening time of valve, cycles and pressure inside the vessel. - Abstract: A control system with feedback loop is designed, developed and tested to monitor the life cycles of the axial valve and bellows used in vacuum valves. The control system monitors number of compression cycles of any bellow or closing and opening cycle of a valve. It also interfaces vacuum gauges or pressure gauges to get pressure values inside the system. To find life cycle of valve, the developed control and monitoring system is integrated with an axial valve experimental test set up. In this system, feedback from the vacuum gauge attached to valve enclosure, is given and the life cycle test is automated. This paper describes the control and monitoring system in details and briefs the experiment carried out for valve life cycle. The same system can be used for life cycle estimate for bellows. A suitable GUI is also developed to control the function of the components and resister the number of cycles.

  1. Refurbishment of Railroad Crossties : A Technical and Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    An analysis of the principal modes of failure for wooden railroad crossties was conducted and an evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of refurbishing these ties was conducted. Among the principal modes of structural deterioration, onl...

  2. Vehicle-Level Oxygen/Methane Propulsion System Hotfire Testing at Thermal Vacuum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehead, Robert L.; Melcher, J. C.; Atwell, Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Desai, Pooja; Werlink, Rudy

    2017-01-01

    A prototype integrated liquid oxygen/liquid methane propulsion system was hot-fire tested at a variety of simulated altitude and thermal conditions in the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station In-Space Propulsion Thermal Vacuum Chamber (formerly B2). This test campaign served two purposes: 1) Characterize the performance of the Plum Brook facility in vacuum accumulator mode and 2) Collect the unique data set of an integrated LOX/Methane propulsion system operating in high altitude and thermal vacuum environments (a first). Data from this propulsion system prototype could inform the design of future spacecraft in-space propulsion systems, including landers. The test vehicle for this campaign was the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA), which was constructed for this project using assets from the former Morpheus Project rebuilt and outfitted with additional new hardware. The ICPTA utilizes one 2,800 lbf main engine, two 28 lbf and two 7 lbf reaction control engines mounted in two pods, four 48-inch propellant tanks (two each for liquid oxygen and liquid methane), and a cold helium system for propellant tank pressurization. Several hundred sensors on the ICPTA and many more in the test cell collected data to characterize the operation of the vehicle and facility. Multiple notable experiments were performed during this test campaign, many for the first time, including pressure-fed cryogenic reaction control system characterization over a wide range of conditions, coil-on-plug ignition system demonstration at the vehicle level, integrated main engine/RCS operation, and a non-intrusive propellant mass gauging system. The test data includes water-hammer and thermal heat leak data critical to validating models for use in future vehicle design activities. This successful test campaign demonstrated the performance of the updated Plum Brook In-Space Propulsion thermal vacuum chamber and incrementally advanced the state of LOX/Methane propulsion

  3. Project W-320 high vacuum 241-AY-102 annulus ventilation system operability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-03-12

    This report documents the test results of OTP-320-001, Tank 241-AY-102 Annulus Ventilation System Testing. Included in the appendices are: (1) Supporting documentation prepared to demonstrate the structural integrity of the tank at high annulus vacuum (<20 INWG), and (2) a report that identifies potential cross connections between the primary and annulus ventilation systems. These cross connections were verified to be eliminated prior to the start of testing.

  4. Analysis of the Vacuum Arc Interruption Process in Aviation Intermediate-Frequency Power Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present our research into the interruption performance of vacuum circuit breakers in aviation intermediate-frequency (360 Hz to 800 Hz power supply systems. Intermediate-frequency vacuum arc experiments were carried out in interrupters with a diameter of 41 mm and CuCr50 alloy contact material. The results show that, as the frequency and peak value of the current increase, both the peak value and rise rate of the intermediate-frequency vacuum arc voltage also increase, and the interruption ability decreases. However, compared to the power frequency current at the same value, the erosion of the contacts is weaker over a shorter arc period. When the vacuum arc reignites, metal droplets are emitted from the contacts. The drive force is from the center of the contact to the edge. If the density of the plasmas and metal vapors and the number of the metal droplets reaches a certain level, the arc may break down, which will cause the interruption to fail.

  5. The Control System of CERN Accelerators Vacuum (LS1 Activities and New Developments)

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, P; Bellorini, F; Blanchard, S; Boivin, J P; Gama, J; Girardot, G; Pigny, G; Rio, B; Vestergard, H; Kopylov, L; Merker, S; Mikheev, M

    2014-01-01

    After 3 years of operation, the LHC entered its first Long Shutdown period (LS1), in February 2013 [1]. Major consolidation and maintenance works are being performed across the whole CERN’s Accelerator chain, in order to prepare the LHC to restart at higher energy, in 2015. The injector chain shall resume earlier, in mid-14. We report about the on-going vacuum-controls projects. Some of them concern the renovation of the controls of certain machines; others are associated with the consolidations of the vacuum systems of LHC and its injectors; and a few are completely new installations. ue to the wide age-span of the existing vacuum installations, there is a mix of design philosophies and of control-equipment generations. The renovations and the novel projects offer an opportunity to improve the uniformity and efficiency of vacuum controls by: reducing the number of equipment versions with similar functionality; identifying, naming, labelling, and documenting all pieces of equipment; homogenizing the contr...

  6. A vacuum system for the thermal insulation of the SciFi distribution lines and manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Joram, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This note describes some calculations and estimates for the layout, technology choice and performance of a vacuum system which shall ensure thermal insulation of the distribution lines and manifolds of the SiPM cooling system of the LHCb SciFi detector. We estimate the heat losses in concentric corrugated stainless steel pipes which leads to the conclusion that the pipes need to be evacuated to a pressure of about 1·10$^{-4}$ mbar. We then estimate the pumping conductance of the pipes and find that it will dominate over the effective pumping speed of any pump. We therefore conclude that a turbo molecular pump of small nominal pumping speed, which can easily achieve end pressures below 10$^{-5}$ mbar is adequate for this purpose. A preliminary layout of the vacuum system is being discussed at the end of the document.

  7. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2013-12-03

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  8. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  9. Ultra-High Vacuum Compatible Optical Chopper System for Synchrotron X-ray Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hao; Cummings, Marvin L.; Shirato, Nozomi; Stripe, Benjamin D.; Rosenmann, Daniel; Preissner, Curt A.; Freeland, John W.; Kersell, Heath R.; Hla, Saw Wai; Rose, Volker

    2015-01-01

    High-speed beam choppers are a crucial part of time-resolved x-ray studies as well as a necessary component to enable elemental contrast in synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM). However, many chopper systems are not capable of operation in vacuum, which restricts their application to x-ray studies with high photon energies, where air absorption does not present a significant problem. To overcome this limitation, we present a fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible chopper system capable of operating at variable chopping frequencies up to 4 kHz. The lightweight aluminum chopper disk is coated with Ti and Au films to provide the required beam attenuation for soft and hard x-rays with photon energies up to about 12 keV. The chopper is used for lock-in detection of x-ray enhanced signals in SX-STM.

  10. Ultra-high vacuum compatible optical chopper system for synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hao, E-mail: hc000211@ohio.edu [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Cummings, Marvin; Shirato, Nozomi; Stripe, Benjamin; Preissner, Curt; Freeland, John W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rosenmann, Daniel [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kersell, Heath; Hla, Saw-Wai [Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rose, Volker, E-mail: vrose@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    High-speed beam choppers are a crucial part of time-resolved x-ray studies as well as a necessary component to enable elemental contrast in synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM). However, many chopper systems are not capable of operation in vacuum, which restricts their application to x-ray studies with high photon energies, where air absorption does not present a significant problem. To overcome this limitation, we present a fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible chopper system capable of operating at variable chopping frequencies up to 4 kHz. The lightweight aluminum chopper disk is coated with Ti and Au films to provide the required beam attenuation for soft and hard x-rays with photon energies up to about 12 keV. The chopper is used for lock-in detection of x-ray enhanced signals in SX-STM.

  11. Waveguide transition with vacuum window for multiband dynamic nuclear polarization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr; Bowen, Sean; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy [Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads 349, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik, E-mail: jhar@elektro.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, Ørsteds Plads 349, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); GE Healthcare, Park Alle 295, Brøndby (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    A low loss waveguide transition section and oversized microwave vacuum window covering several frequency bands (94 GHz, 140 GHz, 188 GHz) is presented. The transition is compact and was optimized for multiband Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) systems in a full-wave simulator. The window is more broadband than commercially available windows, which are usually optimized for single band operation. It is demonstrated that high-density polyethylene with urethane adhesive can be used as a low loss microwave vacuum window in multiband DNP systems. The overall assembly performance and dimensions are found using full-wave simulations. The practical aspects of the window implementation in the waveguide are discussed. To verify the design and simulation results, the window is tested experimentally at the three frequencies of interest.

  12. Control of Vacuum Induction Brazing System for Sealing of Instrumentation Feedthrough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sung Ho; Hong, Jintae; Joung, Chang Young; Heo, Sung Ho

    2017-04-01

    The integrity of instrumentation cables is an important performance parameter in the brazing process, along with the sealing performance. In this paper, an accurate control scheme for brazing of the instrumentation feedthrough in a vacuum induction brazing system was developed. The experimental results show that the accurate brazing temperature control performance is achieved by the developed control scheme. It is demonstrated that the sealing performances of the instrumentation feedthrough and the integrity of the instrumentation cables are to be acceptable after brazing.

  13. A Comparison of the Thermodynamic Efficiency of Vacuum Tube and Flat Plate Solar Collector Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Bielskus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents simulation based exergy analysis used for comparing solar thermal systems applied for preparing domestic hot water. The simulation of flat and vacuum tube solar collector systems was performed in TRNSYS simulation environment. A period of one year under Lithuanian climate conditions was chosen. Simulation was performed on 6 min time step resolution by calculating energy and exergy flows and creating balance calculation. Assessment results at system and element levels have been presented as monthly variation in efficiency. The conducted analysis has revealed that the systems designed to cover equal heat energy demand operates in different exergetic efficiencies.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Single Vacuum Bagging and Autoclave Curing System Influence on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Phenolic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mirzapour

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production of thermoset composite components involves the application of a vacuum bagging and autoclave pressure to minimize void percentage, usually to less than 5%. Phenolic resin systems generate water as a reaction byproduct via condensation reactions during curing at elevated temperatures. In this paper, vacuum bagging and simple manufactured autoclave curing systems are used for manufacturing of asbestos/phenolic composites and the effects of processing conditions on manufactured composites are investigated. The traditional single-vacuum-bag process is unable to manage the volatiles effectively, resulting in inferior laminates having voids. The autoclave process cure cycle (temperature/pressure profiles for the selected composite system is designed to emit volatiles during curing reactions effectively and produce composites with low void contents and excellent mechanical properties. Laminate consolidation quality is characterized by optical photomicrography for the cross-sections and measurements of void content and mechanical properties. The void content of phenolic composites as opposed to other composites increases as pressure increases up to 3 bar and it is then decreased beyond it. A product of 124% lower void content, 13% higher density, 24% higher flexural strength and 27% higher flexural modulus can be fabricated in composites obtainedby autoclave processing.

  15. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure system (E-VAC): case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borejsza-Wysocki, Maciej; Szmyt, Krzysztof; Bobkiewicz, Adam; Malinger, Stanisław; Świrkowicz, Józef; Hermann, Jacek; Drews, Michał; Banasiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has become a standard in the treatment of chronic and difficult healing wounds. Negative pressure wound therapy is applied to the wound via a special vacuum-sealed sponge. Nowadays, the endoscopic vacuum-assisted wound closure system (E-VAC) has been proven to be an important alternative in patients with upper and lower intestinal leakage not responding to standard endoscopic and/or surgical treatment procedures. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted wound closure system provides perfect wound drainage and closure of various kinds of defect and promotes tissue granulation. Our experience has shown that E-VAC may significantly improve the morbidity and mortality rate. Moreover, E-VAC may be useful in a multidisciplinary approach - from upper gastrointestinal to rectal surgery complications. On the other hand, major limitations of the E-VAC system are the necessity of repeated endoscopic interventions and constant presence of well-trained staff. Further, large-cohort studies need to be performed to establish the applicability and effectiveness of E-VAC before routine widespread use can be recommended.

  16. Building elements and systems using vacuum insulated panels in external walling; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a research project concerning vacuum-insulated building elements and systems. The advantages of the thin vacuum insulation panels (VIP) are listed and compared with the increasingly thick layers of conventional insulation required for low energy consumption buildings that meet so-called 'passive house' standard. The aims of the research project are discussed which addressed the particular requirements placed on the materials and their protection against external damage. The monitoring of vacuum state using RFID chips is discussed. Various protective elements are examined. Also, facade constructions and the avoidance of thermal short circuits are discussed. Illustrated examples of applications are presented and developments in this fast-moving area are commented on.

  17. Synthesis of the system modeling and signal detecting circuit of a novel vacuum microelectronic accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongling; Wen, Zhiyu; Wen, Zhongquan; He, Xuefeng; Yang, Yinchuan; Shang, Zhengguo

    2009-01-01

    A novel high-precision vacuum microelectronic accelerometer has been successfully fabricated and tested in our laboratory. This accelerometer has unique advantages of high sensitivity, fast response, and anti-radiation stability. It is a prototype intended for navigation applications and is required to feature micro-g resolution. This paper briefly describes the structure and working principle of our vacuum microelectronic accelerometer, and the mathematical model is also established. The performances of the accelerometer system are discussed after Matlab modeling. The results show that, the dynamic response of the accelerometer system is significantly improved by choosing appropriate parameters of signal detecting circuit, and the signal detecting circuit is designed. In order to attain good linearity and performance, the closed-loop control mode is adopted. Weak current detection technology is studied, and integral T-style feedback network is used in I/V conversion, which will eliminate high-frequency noise at the front of the circuit. According to the modeling parameters, the low-pass filter is designed. This circuit is simple, reliable, and has high precision. Experiments are done and the results show that the vacuum microelectronic accelerometer exhibits good linearity over -1 g to +1 g, an output sensitivity of 543 mV/g, and a nonlinearity of 0.94 %.

  18. Synthesis of the System Modeling and Signal Detecting Circuit of a Novel Vacuum Microelectronic Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengguo Shang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel high-precision vacuum microelectronic accelerometer has been successfully fabricated and tested in our laboratory. This accelerometer has unique advantages of high sensitivity, fast response, and anti-radiation stability. It is a prototype intended for navigation applications and is required to feature micro-g resolution. This paper briefly describes the structure and working principle of our vacuum microelectronic accelerometer, and the mathematical model is also established. The performances of the accelerometer system are discussed after Matlab modeling. The results show that, the dynamic response of the accelerometer system is significantly improved by choosing appropriate parameters of signal detecting circuit, and the signal detecting circuit is designed. In order to attain good linearity and performance, the closed-loop control mode is adopted. Weak current detection technology is studied, and integral T-style feedback network is used in I/V conversion, which will eliminate high-frequency noise at the front of the circuit. According to the modeling parameters, the low-pass filter is designed. This circuit is simple, reliable, and has high precision. Experiments are done and the results show that the vacuum microelectronic accelerometer exhibits good linearity over -1 g to +1 g, an output sensitivity of 543 mV/g, and a nonlinearity of 0.94 %.

  19. Vertically configured collimator for cryogenic vacuum testing of meter scale optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatke, Derek; Meyer, Steve; Siegel, Noah; Byrd, Don; Spuhler, Peter; Atcheson, Paul; Martella, Mark; Penniman, Edwin

    2007-09-01

    Ball Aerospace has constructed a new collimator for interferometric and image quality testing of meter scale optical systems under cryogenic, vacuum conditions. Termed the Vertical Collimator Assembly (VCA), it features 1.5 m diameter off-axis parabolic and calibration flat mirrors. In order to preserve as large a volume as possible for the unit under test, the main platform is suspended inside its vacuum chamber by a hexapod, with the parabolic mirror mounted overhead. A simultaneous interferometer facilitates collimator alignment and monitoring, as well as wavefront quality measurements for the test unit. Diffusely illuminated targets may be employed for through-focus image quality measurements with pinholes and bar targets. Mechanical alignment errors induced by thermal and structural perturbations are monitored with a three-beam distance measuring interferometer to enable mid-test compensation. Sources for both interferometer systems are maintained at atmospheric pressure while still directly mounted to the main platform, reducing vibration and stability problems associated with thermal vacuum testing. Because path lengths inside the ambient pressure vessels are extremely short, problems related to air turbulence and layering are also mitigated. In-chamber support equipment is insulated and temperature controlled, allowing testing while the chamber shrouds and test unit are brought to cryogenic temperatures.

  20. Repeating pulsed magnet system for axion-like particle searches and vacuum birefringence experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, T., E-mail: yamazaki@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Inada, T.; Namba, T. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Asai, S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsuo, A.; Kindo, K. [The Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Nojiri, H. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-10-11

    We have developed a repeating pulsed magnet system which generates magnetic fields of about 10 T in a direction transverse to an incident beam over a length of 0.8 m with a repetition rate of 0.2 Hz. Its repetition rate is by two orders of magnitude higher than usual pulsed magnets. It is composed of four low resistance racetrack coils and a 30 kJ transportable capacitor bank as a power supply. The system aims at axion-like particle searches with a pulsed light source and vacuum birefringence measurements. We report on the details of the system and its performances.

  1. Versatile, low-cost, computer-controlled, sample positioning system for vacuum applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Liff, Dale R.

    1991-01-01

    A versatile, low-cost, easy to implement, microprocessor-based motorized positioning system (MPS) suitable for accurate sample manipulation in a Second Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) system, and for other ultra-high vacuum (UHV) applications was designed and built at NASA LeRC. The system can be operated manually or under computer control. In the latter case, local, as well as remote operation is possible via the IEEE-488 bus. The position of the sample can be controlled in three linear orthogonal and one angular coordinates.

  2. Multivariant simulator for vacuum cooling processes of three component electrolyte systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suljkanović Midhat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a computer aided analysis and synthesis of the crystallization processes from multicomponent electrolyte systems were studied. In addition, the vacuum crystallization processes with adiabatic cooling of the system are presented. The cooling process of a multicomponent electrolyte system can be considered as a process with the concentration of the system and/or the crystallization of the solid phase from the system. Requirements for multivariant options of the process simulator are the result of practical needs in the design of new processes or the improvement of exploitation processes. According to this, there are needs for a simulation of a simple flashing of the system as well as for the vacuum cooling crystallization processes with the cyclic structure. The possibilities of the created process simulator are illustrated on three component electrolyte systems. Application of the process simulator for any other electrolyte systems requires only an update of the thermodynamic model, and physico-chemical properties related to electrolyte system.

  3. Progress on the Design of the Storage Ring Vacuum System for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillwell, B.; Billett, B.; Brajuskovic, B.; Carter, J.; Kirkus, E.; Lale, M.; Lerch, J.; Noonan, J.; O' Neill, M.; Rocke, B.; Suthar, K.; Walters, D.; Wiemerslage, G.; Zientek, J.

    2017-06-20

    Recent work on the design of the storage ring vacuum system for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade project (APS-U) includes: revising the vacuum system design to accommodate a new lattice with reverse bend magnets, modifying the designs of vacuum chambers in the FODO sections for more intense incident synchrotron radiation power, modifying the design of rf-shielding bellows liners for better performance and reliability, modifying photon absorber designs to make better use of available space, and integrated planning of components needed in the injection, extraction and rf cavity straight sections. An overview of progress in these areas is presented.

  4. Acoustical qualification of Teatro Nuovo in Spoleto before refurbishing works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, Alessandro; Cesare Consumi, Marco; Shimokura, Ryota

    2004-05-01

    To qualify the acoustical quality of an opera house two different approaches are now available: one is based on responses of qualified listeners (subjective judgments) compared with objective values of selected parameters, the other on comparison tests conducted in suited rooms and on a model of the auditory brain system (preference). In the occasion of the refurbishment of an opera house known for the Two Worlds Festival edited yearly by the Italian Composer G. C. Menotti, a large number of measurements were taken with different techniques, so it is possible to compare the different methods and also the results with some geometrical criterion, based on the most simple rules of musical harmony, now neglected as our attention is attracted to computer simulations, computer aided measurement techniques and similar modern methods. From this work some link between well known acoustical parameters (not known at the time when architects sketched the shape of ancient opera houses) and geometrical criteria (well known at the time when ancient opera houses were built) will be shown.

  5. Conduction of Complex Elements of Vacuum Systems in a Wide Range of Pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Shemarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a statistical mathematical model of a rarefied gas flow based on the method of particles in cells. This approach enables to define basic parameters of gas flow and vacuum systems in a wide range of pressures, including such an important parameter as conductivity of the vacuum system.Key assumptions in designing a mathematical model are: describing the collision of the molecules as hard spheres of elastic collision; considering the collisions to be paired and instant; the molecules velocity distribution corresponding to the Maxwell distribution. The essential feature is simulation of waiting time for the next collision. It depends on the state of the entire system of particles and is independent of what pair is involved in collision.The paper presents a detailed algorithm for implementation of a mathematical model to calculate conductivity. It includes three main stages. The first stage simulates only collisions of particles within the fixed cell of grid. The second stage simulates displacement of particles in accordance with their speed and time step, as well as interaction with the internal surfaces of the vacuum system. The final stage determines system conductivity.As an example, numerical experiments were conducted to determine conductivity of the long cylindrical channel in a wide range of pressures and conductivity of chevron screens too. Obtained data are compared with experimental data, and an error is evaluated. In molecular and transient conditions of gas flow the method of particles in cells gives high accuracy. In the viscous conditions the accuracy decreases because of originating region of continuous medium.This model can be used not only to determine conductivity of vacuum systems, but also to calculate gas flow parameters in systems with large flows (no restrictions for the flow rate value for the channels and profiles with geometry of any complexity. An important feature is that it allows taking into account

  6. Refurbishment and Testing of the 1970's Era LASS Solenoid Coils for JLab's Hall D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anumagalla, Ravi; Biallas, George; Brindza, Paul; Carstens, Thomas; Creel, Jonathan; Egiyan, Hovanes; Martin, Floyd; Qiang, Yi; Spiegel, Scot; Stevens, Mark; Wissmann, Mark

    2012-07-01

    JLab refurbished the LASS1, 1.85 m bore Solenoid, consisting of four superconducting coils to act as the principal analysis magnet for nuclear physics in the newly constructed, Hall D at Jefferson Lab. The coils, built in 1971 at Stanford Linier Accelerator Center and used a second time at the MEGA Experiment at Los Alamos, had electrical shorts and leaks to the insulating vacuum along with deteriorated superinsulation & instrumentation. Root cause diagnosis of the problems and the repair methods are described along with the measures used to qualify the vessels and piping within the Laboratory's Pressure Safety Program (mandated by 10CFR851). The extraordinary refrigerator operational methods used to utilize the obsolete cryogenic apparatus gathered for the off-line, single coil tests are described.

  7. Aluminium ultrahigh vacuum system for the 3 GeV TPS synchrotron light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, G. Y.; Chang, C. C.; Chen, C. L.; Wu, L. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Chan, C. K.; Yang, Y. C.; Hsueh, H. P.; Hsu, S. N.; Chen, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    The 3-GeV Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) is a large accelerator and synchrotron light source of circumference 518.4 m. The electron storage ring of TPS requires an ultrahigh-vacuum pressure per beam current less than 2×10-10 Pa/mA in the beam duct to maintain a long life of the circulating beam without scattering of ions by residual gases. Aluminium alloys used for the beam ducts have a benefit of greater thermal conductivity that simplifies the structure of vacuum vessels built with the cooling components. Machining completely free of oil applied to the aluminium chambers followed by cleaning with ozonized water and welding in house provide a precise dimensional control within 0.3 mm and a clean surface with a small rate ~ 6.4×10-12 Pa m/s of thermal outgassing after baking at 150 °C for 24 h. The assembled ion pump with non-evaporable getter pump is capable of evacuating the chamber to a pressure < 1×10-9 Pa. The average pressure inside the duct is expected to be sufficiently small. The clean process to manufacture the aluminium ultrahigh vacuum system is described.

  8. Building materials and systems with vacuum insulation panels for external walls; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at materials and systems using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) for the construction of external walls. The aim of this research project was the development, practical use and market introduction of VIP systems that take account of the special properties of VIP. Along with partners in industry, applications involving external and internal insulation were examined. The need for protecting the vacuum panels against mechanical damage is stressed. The specific needs for the protection of external and internal applications are discussed. The dynamic developments in this relatively new area are commented on. Various mounting systems are examined and commented on. The thermal properties of such insulation systems and applications are noted and commented on.

  9. A Versatile High-Vacuum Cryo-transfer System for Cryo-microscopy and Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacke, Sebastian; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Nüsse, Harald; Wepf, Roger Albert; Klingauf, Jürgen; Reichelt, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic microscopy methods have gained increasing popularity, as they offer an unaltered view on the architecture of biological specimens. As a prerequisite, samples must be handled under cryogenic conditions below their recrystallization temperature, and contamination during sample transfer and handling must be prevented. We present a high-vacuum cryo-transfer system that streamlines the entire handling of frozen-hydrated samples from the vitrification process to low temperature imaging for scanning transmission electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A template for cryo-electron microscopy and multimodal cryo-imaging approaches with numerous sample transfer steps is presented. PMID:26910419

  10. Zone 4 Study: Shielded Lift Truck Refurbishment/Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AMAI, WENDY A.; JONES, JAMES F.; LENNOX, R. CHARLEENE; SIMON, RONALD W.; JONES, JAMES F

    2002-09-01

    The Zone 4 Stage Right Shielded Lift Trucks (SLT's) will likely need refurbishment or replacement within the next two to five years, due to wear. This document discusses the options to provide a long term and reliable means of satisfying Zone 4 material movement and inventory requirements.

  11. An Integrated Refurbishment Design Process to Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinou, T.; Knaack, U.

    2013-01-01

    Given the very low renewal rate of the building stock, the efforts to reduce energy demand must focus on the existing residential buildings. Even though awareness has been raised, the effect on energy efficiency is often neglected during the design phase of refurbishment projects. This paper

  12. Modeling of complex gas distribution systems operating under any vacuum conditions: Simulations of the ITER divertor pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasileiadis, N.; Tatsios, G.; Misdanitis, S.; Valougeorgis, D., E-mail: diva@mie.uth.gr

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • An integrated s/w for modeling complex rarefied gas distribution systems is presented. • Analysis is based on kinetic theory of gases. • Code effectiveness is demonstrated by simulating the ITER divertor pumping system. • The present s/w has the potential to support design work in large vacuum systems. - Abstract: An integrated software tool for modeling and simulation of complex gas distribution systems operating under any vacuum conditions is presented and validated. The algorithm structure includes (a) the input geometrical and operational data of the network, (b) the definition of the fundamental set of network loops and pseudoloops, (c) the formulation and solution of the mass and energy conservation equations, (d) the kinetic data base of the flow rates for channels of any length in the whole range of the Knudsen number, supporting, in an explicit manner, the solution of the conservation equations and (e) the network output data (mainly node pressures and channel flow rates/conductance). The code validity is benchmarked under rough vacuum conditions by comparison with hydrodynamic solutions in the slip regime. Then, its feasibility, effectiveness and potential are demonstrated by simulating the ITER torus vacuum system with the six direct pumps based on the 2012 design of the ITER divertor. Detailed results of the flow patterns and paths in the cassettes, in the gaps between the cassettes and along the divertor ring, as well as of the total throughput for various pumping scenarios and dome pressures are provided. A comparison with previous results available in the literature is included.

  13. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  14. Field tests of a natural vacuum solar desalination system using hybrid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Eko Y.; Napitupulu, Richard A. M.; Siagian, Parulian; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    This study deals with field test of a natural vacuum solar desalination system using hybrid type solar collector. In order to perform the tests, a natural vacuum solar desalination has been designed and fabricated. The dimension of evaporator is 1000 mm ×1000 mm × 200 mm, while dimension of solar collector is 1000 mm ×1500 mm. The system is tested by exposing to solar radiation in Medan city of Indonesia for five days. The solar radiations during test are 8.79 MJ/m2, 10.14 MJ/m2, 6.88 MJ/m2, 11.05 MJ/m2, and 11.36 MJ/m2, respectively. The produced fresh waters are 160 ml, 180 ml, 118 ml, 206 ml, 220 ml, respectively. The conclusions are as follows. The produced fresh water is still very low due to the heat from the solar collector is not transferred perfectly to the evaporator. There produced fresh water is strongly affected by solar irradiation. It is recommended to minimize the heat loss from the evaporator and the transfer fluid.

  15. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, J., E-mail: joseph.street@mines.sdsmt.edu; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D. [Department of Physics, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m{sup −3}. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m{sup −3} to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m{sup −3}.

  16. Energetic and exploitation characteristics of a two-phase ejecting vacuum system built in the paper machine at A.D. Komuna Skopje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarevski Milan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the concept of a two-phase ejecting vacuum system. The energetic characteristics of these systems were analyzed and compared to those with mechanical pumps with water ring and turbo compressor vacuum pumps. A method for optimizing a two-phase thermo compressor vacuum systems is presented. The analysis included the exploitation characteristics of the system developed at A.D. "Komuna" Skopje.

  17. Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (vagmed) module, multi-stage vagmed systems, and vagmed processes

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-06-30

    Vacuumed gap membrane distillation (VAGMED) modules, and multi-stage VAGMED systems and processes using the modules are provided. In an embodiment, the membrane distillation modules (10) can comprise: a) a condenser (12) including a condensation surface (15); b) a first passageway (13) having an inlet for receiving a first feed stream (14) and an outlet through which the first stream can pass out of the first passageway, the first passageway configured to bring the first feed stream into thermal communication with the condensation surface; c) an evaporator (17) including a permeable evaporation surface allowing condensable gas to pass there through; d) a second passageway (18) having an inlet for receiving a second feed stream (19) and an outlet through which the second feed stream can pass out of the second passageway, the second passageway configured to bring the second feed stream into communication with the permeable evaporation surface; and e) an enclosure (24) providing a vacuum compartment within which the condenser, the evaporator and the first and second passageways of the module are contained.

  18. Entanglement of a two-atom system driven by the quantum vacuum in arbitrary cavity size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Hidalgo, G., E-mail: gfloreshidalgo@unifei.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Química, Universidade Federal de Itajubá, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rojas, M., E-mail: moises.leyva@dfi.ufla.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Lavras, CP 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Rojas, Onofre, E-mail: ors@dfi.ufla.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Lavras, CP 3037, 37200-000, Lavras, MG (Brazil)

    2017-05-10

    We study the entanglement dynamics of two distinguishable atoms confined into a cavity and interacting with a quantum vacuum field. As a simplified model for this system, we consider two harmonic oscillators linearly coupled to a massless scalar field which are inside a spherical cavity of radius R. Through the concurrence, the entanglement dynamics for the two-atom system is discussed for a range of initial states composed of a superposition of atomic states. Our results reveal how the entanglement of the two atoms behaves through the time evolution, in a precise way, for arbitrary cavity size and for arbitrary coupling constant. All our computations are analytical and only the final step is numerical. - Highlights: • Entanglement time evolution in arbitrary cavity size is considered. • In free space concurrence approaches a fixed value at large time. • For finite cavity, concurrence behaves almost as a periodic function of time.

  19. Entanglement of a two-atom system driven by the quantum vacuum in arbitrary cavity size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Hidalgo, G.; Rojas, M.; Rojas, Onofre

    2017-05-01

    We study the entanglement dynamics of two distinguishable atoms confined into a cavity and interacting with a quantum vacuum field. As a simplified model for this system, we consider two harmonic oscillators linearly coupled to a massless scalar field which are inside a spherical cavity of radius R. Through the concurrence, the entanglement dynamics for the two-atom system is discussed for a range of initial states composed of a superposition of atomic states. Our results reveal how the entanglement of the two atoms behaves through the time evolution, in a precise way, for arbitrary cavity size and for arbitrary coupling constant. All our computations are analytical and only the final step is numerical.

  20. Tokamak DEMO-FNS: Concept of magnet system and vacuum chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizov, E. A.; Ananyev, S. S.; Belyakov, V. A.; Bondarchuk, E. N.; Voronova, A. A.; Golikov, A. A.; Goncharov, P. R.; Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Zapretilina, E. R.; Ivanov, D. P.; Kavin, A. A.; Kedrov, I. V.; Klischenko, A. V.; Kolbasov, B. N.; Krasnov, S. V.; Krylov, A. I.; Krylov, V. A.; Kuzmin, E. G.; Kuteev, B. V.; Labusov, A. N.; Lukash, V. E.; Maximova, I. I.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Mineev, A. B.; Muratov, V. P.; Petrov, V. S.; Rodin, I. Yu.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Tanchuk, V. N.; Trofimov, V. A.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.; Khokhlov, M. V.; Shpanskiy, Yu. S.

    2016-12-01

    The level of knowledge accumulated to date in the physics and technologies of controlled thermonuclear fusion (CTF) makes it possible to begin designing fusion—fission hybrid systems that would involve a fusion neutron source (FNS) and which would admit employment for the production of fissile materials and for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel. Modern Russian strategies for CTF development plan the construction to 2023 of tokamak-based demonstration hybrid FNS for implementing steady-state plasma burning, testing hybrid blankets, and evolving nuclear technologies. Work on designing the DEMO-FNS facility is still in its infancy. The Efremov Institute began designing its magnet system and vacuum chamber, while the Kurchatov Institute developed plasma-physics design aspects and determined basic parameters of the facility. The major radius of the plasma in the DEMO-FNS facility is R = 2.75 m, while its minor radius is a = 1 m; the plasma elongation is k 95 = 2. The fusion power is P FUS = 40 MW. The toroidal magnetic field on the plasma-filament axis is B t0 = 5 T. The plasma current is I p = 5 MA. The application of superconductors in the magnet system permits drastically reducing the power consumed by its magnets but requires arranging a thick radiation shield between the plasma and magnet system. The central solenoid, toroidal-field coils, and poloidal-field coils are manufactured from, respectively, Nb3Sn, NbTi and Nb3Sn, and NbTi. The vacuum chamber is a double-wall vessel. The space between the walls manufactured from 316L austenitic steel is filled with an iron—water radiation shield (70% of stainless steel and 30% of water).

  1. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...

  2. Construction and measurements of a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnee, R. W.; Bunker, R.; Ghulam, G.; Jardin, D.; Kos, M.; Tenney, A. S. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the {sup 222}Rn decay chain on (and near) detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay, and in screening detectors. In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto the wires of the Beta Cage during its assembly, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at Syracuse University using a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system. The radon filter shows ∼20× reduction at its output, from 7.47±0.56 to 0.37±0.12 Bq/m{sup 3}, and the cleanroom radon activity meets project requirements, with a lowest achieved value consistent with that of the filter, and levels consistently < 2 Bq/m{sup 3}.

  3. Be{sub 2}C formation in beryllium-carbon binary system by vacuum heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Kan; Watanabe, Kuniaki [Toyama Univ. (Japan). Hydrogen Isotope Research Center

    1998-01-01

    The surface chemical states of beryllium and carbon binary systems at elevated temperature were investigated by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The XPS measurements revealed that the mixed subsurface layers containing Be and C readily yield Be{sub 2}C layers by vacuum heating and ion bombardment. The SIMS measurements showed that hydrogen isotope atoms are trapped by three distinct sites; namely Be, C, and O-sites on the sample surface. The SIMS measurements also showed that carbon atoms lose its ability to bind with hydrogen isotope atoms on forming Be{sub 2}C. It would be a key to control hydrogen inventory when Be and C are used together as PFM. (author)

  4. Research and Development on the Storage Ring Vacuum System for the APS Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillwell, B.; Brajuskovic, B.; Carter, J.; Cease, H.; Lill, R.; Navrotski, G.; Noonan, J.; Suthar, K.; Walters, D.; Wiemerslage, G.; Zientek, J.; Sangroula, M.

    2016-01-01

    A number of research and development activities are underway at Argonne National Laboratory to build confidence in the designs for the storage ring vacuum system required for the Advanced Photon Source Up-grade project (APS-U) [1]. The predominant technical risks are: excessive residual gas pressures during operation; insufficient beam position monitor stability; excessive beam impedance; excessive heating by induced electrical surface currents; and insufficient operational reliability. Present efforts to mitigate these risks include: building and evaluating mockup assemblies; performing mechanical testing of chamber weld joints; developing computational tools; investigating design alternatives; and performing electrical bench measurements. Status of these activities and some of what has been learned to date will be shared.

  5. Reconfiguration of NASA GRC's Vacuum Facility 6 for Testing of Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Peter Y.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John T.; Haag, Thomas W.; Mackey, Jonathan A.; McVetta, Michael S.; Sorrelle, Luke T.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Gilligan, Ryan P.; hide

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight propulsion system. The HERMeS thruster is being developed and tested at NASA GRC and NASA JPL through support of the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) and is intended to be used as the electric propulsion system on the Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) of the recently announced Deep Space Gateway (DSG). The Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) contract was awarded to Aerojet-Rocketdyne to develop the HERMeS system into a flight system for use by NASA. To address the hardware test needs of the AEPS project, NASA GRC launched an effort to reconfigure Vacuum Facility 6 (VF-6) for high-power electric propulsion testing including upgrades and reconfigurations necessary to conduct performance, plasma plume, and system level integration testing. Results of the verification and validation testing with HERMeS Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU)-1 and TDU-3 Hall thrusters are also included.

  6. Reconfiguration of NASA GRC's Vacuum Facility 6 for Testing of Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Peter Y.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John; Haag, Tom; Mackey, Jonathan; McVetta, Mike; Sorrelle, Luke; Tomsik, Tom; Gilligan, Ryan; hide

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kilowatt Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight propulsion system. The HERMeS thruster is being developed and tested at NASA GRC and NASA JPL through support of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and is intended to be used as the electric propulsion system on the Power and Propulsion Element of the recently announced Deep Space Gateway. The Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) contract was awarded to Aerojet Rocketdyne to develop the HERMeS system into a flight system for use by NASA. To address the hardware test needs of the AEPS project, NASA GRC launched an effort to reconfigure Vacuum Facility 6 for high-power electric propulsion testing including upgrades and reconfigurations necessary to conduct performance, plasma plume, and system level integration testing. Results of the verification and validation testing with HERMeS Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) 1 and TDU-3 Hall thrusters are also included.

  7. Thermal Insulation System for Non-Vacuum Applications Including a Multilayer Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The thermal insulation system of the present invention is for non-vacuum applications and is specifically tailored to the ambient pressure environment with any level of humidity or moisture. The thermal insulation system includes a multilayered composite including i) at least one thermal insulation layer and at least one compressible barrier layer provided as alternating, successive layers, and ii) at least one reflective film provided on at least one surface of the thermal insulation layer and/or said compressible barrier layer. The different layers and materials and their combinations are designed to provide low effective thermal conductivity for the system by managing all modes of heat transfer. The thermal insulation system includes an optional outer casing surrounding the multilayered composite. The thermal insulation system is particularly suited for use in any sub-ambient temperature environment where moisture or its adverse effects are a concern. The thermal insulation system provides physical resilience against damaging mechanical effects including compression, flexure, impact, vibration, and thermal expansion/contraction.

  8. Kiwi omnicup handheld versus Mityvac M-style conventional vacuum system: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbach, Tal; Hag-Yahia, Nasreen; Ovadia, Michal; Tzadikevitch Geffen, Keren; Weitzner, Omer; Biron-Shental, Tal

    2017-08-24

    To improve the choice of vacuum-assisted delivery (VAD) system, we compared the outcomes of Kiwi handheld system and Mityvac M-style conventional system (both use disposable plastic cups). Retrospective observational study with data collection from electronic medical records. The study was conducted at a tertiary medical center, with approximately 7000 deliveries annually. Categorical and continuous variables were analyzed using chi-square test and t-test, respectively. p value Kiwi-assisted and 143 Mityvac-assisted. Background characteristics were similar. The handheld system had more failures overall (9.6 versus 0.7%), at OA (7.6 versus 0.9%), and non-OA positions (17.3% versus none), at +1 (13.25 versus 0.96%) and at +2/3 stations (6.1% versus none), than the conventional system did, respectively. There was a higher rate of early post-partum hemorrhage (15.3 versus 7.4%) in the conventional group. Both systems had similar rates of third/fourth degree perineal tears, shoulder dystocia and adverse neonatal outcomes. Our results suggest more failures with Kiwi compared to Mityvac, overall and at any fetal position/station, without a significant difference in adverse outcome profile.

  9. Evaluation of static mixer flow enhancements for cryogenic viscous compressor prototype for ITER vacuum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, Robert C.; Baylor, Larry R.; Meitner, Steven J.; Combs, Stephen K.; Ha, Tam; Morrow, Michael; Biewer, T. [Fusion and Materials for Nuclear System Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Rasmussen, David A.; Hechler, Michael P. [U.S. ITER Project Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Pearce, Robert J. H.; Dremel, Mattias [ITER Organization, 13115 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France); Boissin, J.-C. [Consultant, Grenoble (France)

    2014-01-29

    As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (up to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype.

  10. Evaluation of static mixer flow enhancements for cryogenic viscous compressor prototype for ITER vacuum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Robert C.; Baylor, Larry R.; Meitner, Steven J.; Combs, Stephen K.; Ha, Tam; Morrow, Michael; Biewer, T.; Rasmussen, David A.; Hechler, Michael P.; Pearce, Robert J. H.; Dremel, Mattias; Boissin, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (up to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype.

  11. Evaluation of Static Mixer Flow Enhancements for Cryogenic Viscous Compressor Prototype for ITER Vacuum System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Ha, Tam T [ORNL; Morrow, Michael [ORNL; Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Hechler, Michael P [ORNL; Pearce, R.J.H. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Dremel, M. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Boissin, Jean Claude [Consultant

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (50 to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype

  12. Management of orocutaneous fistulas using a vacuum-assisted closure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Brian; Khoo, Deborah; Tay, Ai Choo; Soo, Khee-Chee; Tan, Ngian Chye; Tan, Hiang Khoon; Iyer, N Gopalakrishna

    2014-06-01

    The vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) system has been used to manage complicated wounds. The purpose of this study was to describe a novel technique in using the VAC system for orocutaneous fistulas. A retrospective study was performed on 10 patients treated at the National Cancer Centre, Singapore, who developed postoperative orocutaneous fistulas. Hydrogum dental paste was used as a sealant together with the VAC system to close the fistulas. We used either the RENASYS or VAC ATS system with 50 mm Hg to 125 mm Hg continuous suction. The 10 patients developed 11 fistulas. The median age of this cohort was 67 years (range, 33-80 years). Nine patients had successful closure of their fistulas with VAC therapy whereas 1 patient had unsuccessful VAC therapy and required flap reconstruction. The median time to fistula closure was 19 days (range, 6-36 days). The median time to radiotherapy after surgery was 46 days (range, 26-62 days). VAC therapy is an effective treatment option for orocutaneous fistulas. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Numerical Simulation Of The Beam Transmission Efficiency For Design Of Vacuum System Of The Dc-72 Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Tikhomirov, A V; Gulbekyan, G G; Oganesyan, R T

    2004-01-01

    The results of a numerical modelling of the transmission efficiency of ion beams in conditions of ion recharge on the residual gas in the channel of the axial injection, in the cyclotron vacuum chamber, as well as in transport lines of accelerated beams are presented. The computer simulation programs GENAP and VACLOS have been developed and tested on the basis of experiments on four cyclotrons of heavy ions of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions. They estimate beam losses on the basis of calculations of pressure distributions in vacuum chambers of any arbitrary geometry and cross sections of a recharge of ions in exchange reactions by electrons with molecules of residual gas in a wide range of energies and masses of ions. The outcomes of simulation have provided determination of main parameters and technical requirements for the vacuum system of the DC-72 cyclotron.

  14. Vacuum-Assisted Continuous Circular Capsulorhexis Using Bimanual Irrigation and Aspiration System of Phaco Machine in Immature Cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Huseyin; Daglioglu, Mutlu C.; Coskun, Mesut; İlhan, Özgür; Tuzcu, Esra Ayhan; Ilhan, Nilufer; Ayıntap, Emre; Keskin, Uğurcan; Taşkın, İbrahim

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-eight eye of 65 patients were enrolled in this retrospective clinical study. Two-side ports are made with a 23-gauge stiletto knife. The irrigation handpiece is introduced into the anterior chamber through one side port and 27-gauge cystotome is introduced through the other one. Anterior capsular flap is created with cystotome. The capsular flap is vacuumed with a 25-gauge visco elastic's cannula, which connected to the phaco machine vacuum. The continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) is completed with the using bimanual irrigation and aspiration system of phaco machine. Vacuum-assisted CCC technique was used in 78 cases of uncomplicated immature senile cataracts. All cases were done under sub-Tenon's anesthesia. A complete CCC was achieved in all cases. Performing CCC with our technique is easy, safe, and cheap. It may be an alternative method to CCC by using OVD and forceps. PMID:24303209

  15. Development of a surface conductivity measurement system for ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minoda, H. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Hatano, K.; Yazawa, H. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    The surface conductivity measurement system using a micro-four-point probe (M4PP) had been developed for the ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscope (UHV-TEM). Since the current distribution in the sample crystals during the current voltage measurement by the M4PP is localized within the depth of several micrometers from the surface, the system is sensitive to the surface conductivity, which is related with the surface superstructure. It was installed in the main chamber of the TEM and the surface conductivity can be measured in situ. The surface structures were observed by reflection electron microscopy and diffraction (REM-RHEED). REM-RHEED enables us to observe the surface superstructures and their structure defects such as surface atomic steps and domain boundaries of the surface superstructure. Thus the effects of the defects on the surface conductivity can be investigated. In the present paper we present the surface conductivity measurement system and its application to the Si(111)-{radical}(3)x{radical}(3)-Ag surface prepared on the Si(111) vicinal surfaces. The result clearly showed that the surface conductivity was affected by step configuration.

  16. System on chip thermal vacuum sensor based on standard CMOS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jinfeng; Tang Zhenan; Wang Jiaqi, E-mail: ljf970204@yahoo.com.c [Department of Electronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2009-03-15

    An on-chip microelectromechanical system was fabricated in a 0.5 mum standard CMOS process for gas pressure detection. The sensor was based on a micro-hotplate (MHP) and had been integrated with a rail to rail operational amplifier and an 8-bit successive approximation register (SAR) A/D converter. A tungsten resistor was manufactured on the MHP as the sensing element, and the sacrificial layer of the sensor was made from polysilicon and etched by surface-micromachining technology. The operational amplifier was configured to make the sensor operate in constant current mode. A digital bit stream was provided as the system output. The measurement results demonstrate that the gas pressure sensitive range of the vacuum sensor extends from 1 to 10{sup 5} Pa. In the gas pressure range from 1 to 100 Pa, the sensitivity of the sensor is 0.23 mV/ Pa, the linearity is 4.95%, and the hysteresis is 8.69%. The operational amplifier can drive 200 omega resistors distortionlessly, and the SAR A/D converter achieves a resolution of 7.4 bit with 100 kHz sample rate. The performance of the operational amplifier and the SAR A/D converter meets the requirements of the sensor system.

  17. The benefits of using a vacuum-assisted socket system to improve balance and gait in elderly transtibial amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samitier, C Beatriz; Guirao, Lluis; Costea, Maria; Camós, Josep M; Pleguezuelos, Eulogio

    2016-02-01

    Lower limb amputation leads to impaired balance, ambulation, and transfers. Proper fit of the prosthesis is a determining factor for successful ambulation. Vacuum-assisted socket systems extract air from the socket, which decreases pistoning and probability of soft-tissue injuries and increases proprioception and socket comfort. To investigate the effect of vacuum-assisted socket system on transtibial amputees' performance-based and perceived balance, transfers, and gait. Quasi-experimental before-and-after study. Subjects were initially assessed using their prosthesis with the regular socket and re-evaluated 4 weeks after fitting including the vacuum-assisted socket system. We evaluated the mobility grade using Medicare Functional Classification Level, Berg Balance Scale, Four Square Step Test, Timed Up and Go Test, the 6-Min Walk Test, the Locomotor Capabilities Index, Satisfaction with Prosthesis (SAT-PRO questionnaire), and Houghton Scale. A total of 16 unilateral transtibial dysvascular amputees, mean age 65.12 (standard deviation = 10.15) years. Using the vacuum-assisted socket system, the patients significantly improved in balance, gait, and transfers: scores of the Berg Balance Scale increased from 45.75 (standard deviation = 6.91) to 49.06 (standard deviation = 5.62) (p transtibial amputees. This study gives more insight into the use of vacuum-assisted socket systems to improve elderly transtibial dysvascular amputees' functionality and decrease their risk of falls. The use of an additional distal valve in the socket should be considered in patients with a lower activity level. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  18. NASA Plum Brook's B-2 Test Facility: Thermal Vacuum and Propellant Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA's third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of upper stage chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K. The modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface.

  19. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  20. Fabrication of graphene from graphite by a thermal assisted vacuum arc discharge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo-Wei; Chu, Kevin; Chen, Jeng Shiung; Tsai, Jeff T. H.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, graphene was fabricated on copper foils using a high temperature furnace embedded in a vacuum arc discharge method. Combining the advantages of chemical vapor deposition and vacuum arc discharge, single-layer graphene can be fabricated at 600 °C base temperature from the mini furnace embedded with a fast heating via the photon radiation from the vacuum arc to 1100 °C on the substrates' surface. The optimal fabrication condition was determined through a series of experiments on ambient pressure, processing time, arc currents, and the cooling process. Observations by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and optical microscopy showed that the main products were single-layer graphene, which has a uniform thickness across the entire substrate. The results demonstrated that the combination of a vacuum arc with a thermal method that uses graphite as a carbon source provides a low-cost and straight forward method to synthesize graphene films for graphene-based applications.

  1. AM2 Brickwork Pattern Evaluation with Refurbished Matting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    operations. Therefore, previous design versions of AM2 that have not been produced since the 1960s, such as two-piece (i.e., two 1-ft-wide welded ...1.5 in. and fabricated from a single 6061-T6 aluminum alloy extrusion with end connectors welded to the 2-ft ends to form a complete panel. The core...surface friction . Pertinent properties of AM2 mat are shown in Table 4. All AM2 mat used for testing, including new Mod 5 and refurbished matting

  2. Vacuum mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  3. SNS Cryogenic Test Facility Kinney Vacuum Pump Commissioning and Operation at 2 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraff, B.; Howell, M.; Kim, S.; Neustadt, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has built and commissioned an independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) in support of testing in the Radio-frequency Test Facility (RFTF). Superconducting Radio-frequency Cavity (SRF) testing was initially conducted with the CTF cold box at 4.5 K. A Kinney vacuum pump skid consisting of a roots blower with a liquid ring backing pump was recently added to the CTF system to provide testing capabilities at 2 K. System design, pump refurbishment and installation of the Kinney pump will be presented. During the commissioning and initial testing period with the Kinney pump, several barriers to achieve reliable operation were experienced. Details of these lessons learned and improvements to skid operations will be presented. Pump capacity data will also be presented.

  4. Direct-current cathodic vacuum arc system with magnetic-field mechanism for plasma stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H-S; Komvopoulos, K

    2008-07-01

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition is characterized by plasma beam directionality, plasma energy adjustment via substrate biasing, macroparticle filtering, and independent substrate temperature control. Between the two modes of FCVA deposition, namely, direct current (dc) and pulsed arc, the dc mode yields higher deposition rates than the pulsed mode. However, maintaining the dc arc discharge is challenging because of its inherent plasma instabilities. A system generating a special configuration of magnetic field that stabilizes the dc arc discharge during film deposition is presented. This magnetic field is also part of the out-of-plane magnetic filter used to focus the plasma beam and prevent macroparticle film contamination. The efficiency of the plasma-stabilizing magnetic-field mechanism is demonstrated by the deposition of amorphous carbon (a-C) films exhibiting significantly high hardness and tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp3) contents higher than 70%. Such high-quality films cannot be produced by dc arc deposition without the plasma-stabilizing mechanism presented in this study.

  5. Thermal Vacuum/Balance Test Results of Swift BAT with Loop Heat Pipe Thermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) Detector Array is thermally well coupled to eight constant conductance heat pipes (CCHPs) embedded in the Detector Array Plate PAP), and two loop heat pipes (LHPs) transport heat from the CCHPs to a radiator. The CCHPs have ammonia as the working fluid and the LHPs have propylene as the working fluid. Precision heater controllers, which have adjustable set points in flight, are used to control the LHP compensation chamber and Detector Array xA1 ASIC temperatures. The radiator has AZ-Tek's AZW-LA-II low solar absorptance white paint as the thermal coating, and is located on the anti-sun side of the spacecraft. A thermal balance (T/B) test on the BAT was successfully completed. It validated that the thermal design satisfies the temperature requirements of the BAT in the flight thermal environments. Instrument level and observatory level thermal vacuum (TN) cycling tests of the BAT Detector Array by using the LHP thermal system were successfully completed. This paper presents the results of the T/B test and T N cycling tests.

  6. Ultra high vacuum technology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    A short introduction for some basic facts and equations. Subsquently, discussion about: Building blocks of an ultrahigh vacuum system - Various types of pumps required to reach uhv and methods to reduce these effects - Outgassing phenomena induced by the presence of a particle beam and the most common methods to reduce these effects It will be given some practical examples from existing CERN accelerators and discuss the novel features of the future LHC vacuum system.

  7. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    expert members on the subject to deliver lectures and take part in devising courses in the universities. IVS publishes a quarterly called the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society' since its inception, in which articles on vacuum and related topics are published. NIRVAT, news, announcements, and reports are the other features of the Bulletin. The articles in the Bulletin are internationally abstracted. The Bulletin is distributed free to all the members of the society. The society also publishes proceedings of national/international symposia and seminars, manuals, lecture notes etc. It has published a `Vacuum Directory' containing very useful information on vacuum technology. IVS has also set up its own website http://www.ivsnet.org in January 2002. The website contains information about IVS, list of members, list of EC members, events and news, abstracts of articles published in the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society', utilities, announcements, reports, membership and other forms which can be completed online and also gives links to other vacuum societies. Our Society has been a member of the executive council of the International Union of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications (IUVSTA) and its various committees since 1970. In 1983 IVS conducted an International Symposium on Vacuum Technology and Nuclear Applications in BARC, Mumbai, under the sponsorship of IUVSTA. In 1987 IVS arranged the Triennial International Conference on Thin Films in New Delhi, where more than 200 foreign delegates participated. IVS also hosted the IUVSTA Executive Council Meeting along with the conference. The society organized yet again an International Conference on Vacuum Science and Technology and SRS Vacuum Systems at CAT, Indore in1995. IVS arranges the prestigious Professor Balakrishnan Memorial Lecture in memory of its founder vice-president. Leading scientists from India and abroad in the field are invited to deliver the talks. So far 23 lectures have been held in this series. IVS

  8. Portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system for polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Yoshihide; Nishimura, Yusaku F.; Suzuki, Ryo; Uehara, Hiromitsu; Nimura, Tomoyuki; Beniya, Atsushi; Isomura, Noritake; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Takakusagi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    A portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system was designed and built to investigate the detailed geometric structures of mass-selected metal clusters on oxide substrates by polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (PTRF-XAFS). This ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) sample storage system provides the handover of samples between two different sample manipulating systems. The sample storage system is adaptable for public transportation, facilitat...

  9. Invariant vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Pérez, Salvador

    2017-11-01

    We apply the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant method for the harmonic oscillator with time dependent mass and frequency to the modes of a charged scalar field that propagates in a curved, homogeneous and isotropic spacetime. We recover the Bunch-Davies vacuum in the case of a flat DeSitter spacetime, the equivalent one in the case of a closed DeSitter spacetime and the invariant vacuum in a curved spacetime that evolves adiabatically. In the three cases, it is computed the thermodynamical magnitudes of entanglement between the modes of the particles and antiparticles of the invariant vacuum, and the modification of the Friedmann equation caused by the existence of the energy density of entanglement. The amplitude of the vacuum fluctuations are also computed.

  10. Cosmic vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernin, Artur D [P.K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute at the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-11-30

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered. (reviews of topical problems)

  11. The Lorentz Transformation as a Planck Vacuum Phenomenon in a Galilean Coordinate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a seminal Masters' dissertation Pemper derived the relativistic electric and magnetic fields of a uniformly moving charge from the response of some continuum to the perturbation from the charge's Coulomb field. The results seem to imply that the Maxwell equations and the Lorentz transformation are associated with some type of vacuum state. Unbeknownst at the time, Pemper had discovered the Planck vacuum (PV quasi-continuum and its interaction with the free charge. The importance of this derivation, its obscurity in the literature, and its connection to the PV justifies the following rework of that derivation.

  12. The Lorentz Transformation as a Planck Vacuum Phenomenon in a Galilean Coordinate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In a seminal Masters’ dissertation [1] Pemper derived the relativistic electric and mag- netic fields of a uniformly moving charge from the response of some continuum to the perturbation from the charge’s Coulomb field. The results seem to imply that the Maxwell equations and the Lorentz transformation are associated with some type of vacuum state. Unbeknownst at the time, Pemper had discovered the Planck vacuum (PV quasi-continuum [2] and its interaction with the free charge. The importance of this derivation, its obscurity in the literature, and its connection to the PV justifies the following rework of that derivation.

  13. Vacuum II

    CERN Document Server

    Franchetti, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper continues the presentation of pumps begun in ‘Vacuum I’. The main topic here is gauges and partial-pressure measurements. Starting from the kinetics of gases, the various strategies for measuring vacuum pressures are presented at an introductory level, with some reference to hardware devices. Partial-pressure measurement techniques are introduced, showing that the principles of ion selection have a direct similarity to particle dynamics in accelerators.

  14. Concept design of the DEMO divertor cassette-to-vacuum vessel locking system adopting a systems engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Gironimo, G., E-mail: giuseppe.digironimo@unina.it [Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80135 Napoli (Italy); Carfora, D. [Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 6, 33720 Tampere (Finland); VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tekniikankatu 1, PO Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80135 Napoli (Italy); Esposito, G.; Lanzotti, A.; Marzullo, D. [Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Piazzale Tecchio 80, 80135 Napoli (Italy); Siuko, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tekniikankatu 1, PO Box 1300, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • An iterative and incremental design process for cassette-to-VV locking system of DEMO divertor is presented. • Three different concepts have been developed with a systematic design approach. • The final concept has been selected with Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process in virtual reality. - Abstract: This paper deals with pre-concept studies of DEMO divertor cassette-to-vacuum vessel locking system under the work program WP13-DAS-07-T06: Divertor Remote Maintenance System pre-concept study. An iterative design process, consistent with Systems Engineering guidelines and named Iterative and Participative Axiomatic Design Process (IPADeP), is used in this paper to propose new innovative solutions for divertor locking system, which can overcome the difficulties in applying the ITER principles to DEMO. The solutions conceived have been analysed from the structural point of view using the software Ansys and, eventually, evaluated using the methodology known as Fuzzy-Analytic Hierarchy Process. Due to the lack and the uncertainty of the requirements in this early conceptual design stage, the aim is to cover a first iteration of an iterative and incremental process to propose an innovative design concept to be developed in more details as the information will be completed.

  15. Use of a vacuum-assisted closure system for the management of enteroatmospheric fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavusbay, Cengiz; Genc, Hudai; Cin, Necat; Kar, Haldun; Kamer, Erdinc; Atahan, Kemal; Haciyanli, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the management of enteroatmospheric fistulae (EAF) in an open abdomen using vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy. Eighteen patients (ten male/eight female) were treated in our surgical department for the management of EAF. VAC therapy was used to manage both complex and open abdominal wounds and for effluent control in all patients except one until definitive surgery could be performed or spontaneous closure of the EAF occurred. The median age of the patients was 61.1 years (range 29-84 years). Their average hospital stay was 88.89 days (range 22-129 days). The median number of VAC applications was 22.5, and the median duration of VAC applications was 43.6 days (range 14-114 days). Non-surgical spontaneous closure of the fistulae with negative pressure wound therapy could be achieved in four patients. In the other six patients, after the EAF were controlled with VAC therapy, definitive surgery was performed. Primary fascial repair was performed in two patients, and the component separation technique was synchronously performed in another two patients. Ventral hernia repair using polypropylene mesh was performed in a patient 1 year after discharge from the hospital. One patient was discharged with skin grafting plus ileostomy after the EAF was managed with VAC therapy. Eight patients (44.4%) died due to intraabdominal infections and sepsis, which could not be controlled despite all precautions. No VAC-related complications were observed in this study. A VAC system can be successfully used for wound management in the control of fistula effluent in patients with an EAF in an open abdomen until spontaneous fistula closure occurs or definitive fistula surgery can be performed.

  16. Vacuum-Compatible Wideband White Light and Laser Combiner Source System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Alineza; Ryan, Daniel J.; Tang, Hong; Demers, Richard T.; Kadogawa, Hiroshi; An, Xin; Sun, George Y.

    2010-01-01

    For the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) Spectrum Calibration Development Unit (SCDU) testbed, wideband white light is used to simulate starlight. The white light source mount requires extremely stable pointing accuracy (light from a single-mode fiber was combined, through a beam splitter window with special coating from broadband wavelengths, with light from multimode fiber. Both lights were coupled to a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). In many optical systems, simulating a point star with broadband spectrum with stability of microradians for white light interferometry is a challenge. In this case, the cameras use the white light interference to balance two optical paths, and to maintain close tracking. In order to coarse align the optical paths, a laser light is sent into the system to allow tracking of fringes because a narrow band laser has a great range of interference. The design requirements forced the innovators to use a new type of optical fiber, and to take a large amount of care in aligning the input sources. The testbed required better than 1% throughput, or enough output power on the lowest spectrum to be detectable by the CCD camera (6 nW at camera). The system needed to be vacuum-compatible and to have the capability for combining a visible laser light at any time for calibration purposes. The red laser is a commercially produced 635-nm laser 5-mW diode, and the white light source is a commercially produced tungsten halogen lamp that gives a broad spectrum of about 525 to 800 nm full width at half maximum (FWHM), with about 1.4 mW of power at 630 nm. A custom-made beam splitter window with special coating for broadband wavelengths is used with the white light input via a 50-mm multi-mode fiber. The large mode area PCF is an LMA-8 made by Crystal Fibre (core diameter of 8.5 mm, mode field diameter of 6 mm, and numerical aperture at 625 nm of 0.083). Any science interferometer that needs a tracking laser fringe to assist in alignment can use this system.

  17. High performance thermal insulation systems (HiPTI). Vacuum insulated products (VIP). Proceedings of the international conference and workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, M.; Bertschinger, H.

    2001-07-01

    These are the proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop held at EMPA Duebendorf, Switzerland, in January 2001. The papers presented at the conference's first day included contributions on the role of high-performance insulation in energy efficiency - providing an overview of available technologies and reviewing physical aspects of heat transfer and the development of thermal insulation as well as the state of the art of glazing technologies such as high-performance and vacuum glazing. Also, vacuum-insulated products (VIP) with fumed silica, applications of VIP systems in technical building systems, nanogels, VIP packaging materials and technologies, measurement of physical properties, VIP for advanced retrofit solutions for buildings and existing and future applications for advanced low energy building are discussed. Finally, research and development concerning VIP for buildings are reported on. The workshops held on the second day covered a preliminary study on high-performance thermal insulation materials with gastight porosity, flexible pipes with high performance thermal insulation, evaluation of modern insulation systems by simulation methods as well as the development of vacuum insulation panels with a stainless steel envelope.

  18. Willingness to Pay for Eco-Certified Refurbished Products: The Effects of Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Rainer; Linton, Jonathan D.; Linton, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Refurbishing products, which are increasingly sold in business-to-consumer markets, is a key strategy to reduce waste. Nevertheless, research finds that consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for refurbished products is low. Strategies for a higher WTP are needed in order to grow consumer markets for

  19. Was It Really Worth Pain? Refurbishment of Mercedes-Benz Trucks by Botswana Defence Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Refurbishment Site Visit Prior to the questionnaires above, a site visit was conducted and several oral interviews were carried out as well as gathering...refurbishment project. Hopefully you will be provided a copy. 104 105 LIST OF REFERENCES Abelard, P. Historia calamitatum:The story of

  20. Refurbishment of Residential Buildings : A Design Approach to Energy-Efficiency Upgrades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinou, T.; Knaack, U.

    Refurbishing the existing building stock is an acknowledged issue in the building industry. Even though awareness has been raised, the design phase of refurbishment projects is often problematic. The decisions taken in the early stages of the design determine the final result; however, the

  1. PEP-2 vacuum system: Joining SS flanges to copper beam chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzko, S.; Hoyt, E.; Cummings, U.

    1994-06-01

    Various methods of joining stainless steel flanges to the copper PEP-II high-energy ring vacuum chambers were investigated with regard to metallurgical soundness, reliability, complexity, and cost. The most promising method appears to be direct electron-beam welding.

  2. Observing supernova 1987A with the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Heng, Kevin; Kirshner, Robert P; Challis, Peter; Bouchet, Patrice; Crotts, Arlin; Dwek, Eli; Fransson, Claes; Garnavich, Peter M; Larsson, Josefin; Lawrence, Stephen S; Lundqvist, Peter; Panagia, Nino; Pun, Chun S J; Smith, Nathan; Sollerman, Jesper; Sonneborn, George; Stocke, John T; Wang, Lifan; Wheeler, J Craig

    2010-09-24

    Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), conducted since 1990, now offer an unprecedented glimpse into fast astrophysical shocks in the young remnant of supernova 1987A. Comparing observations taken in 2010 with the use of the refurbished instruments on HST with data taken in 2004, just before the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed, we find that the Lyα and Hα lines from shock emission continue to brighten, whereas their maximum velocities continue to decrease. We observe broad, blueshifted Lyα, which we attribute to resonant scattering of photons emitted from hot spots on the equatorial ring. We also detect N v λλ1239, 1243 angstrom line emission, but only to the red of Lyα. The profiles of the N v lines differ markedly from that of Hα, suggesting that the N4+ ions are scattered and accelerated by turbulent electromagnetic fields that isotropize the ions in the collisionless shock.

  3. Refurbishment and extension of the terrace of Restaurant No.1

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Work to refurbish and extend part of the terrace of Restaurant No.1 started in the first week of October and should last about two months. This is just a small part of the wide-ranging site infrastructure consolidation programme that began in April 2009. The new terrace, covering a surface area of 1770 m2 (compared with 1650 m2 today), is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010 and will run all the way around the Restaurant No.1 extension. Work on the latter will affect part of Building 501 during the period from April to October 2010. The new dining room will seat some 275 additional customers (see picture). Part of the Cedars car-park will remain closed until some time in December to provide site access for trucks transporting construction materials, plant, etc. CERN Bulletin

  4. Effects of multilayered graphene on the performance of near-field thermophotovoltaic system at longer vacuum gap distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mikyung; Lee, Seung S.; Lee, Bong Jae

    2017-08-01

    The present work aims to enhance the performance of near-field thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system operated at low temperature by introducing multilayered graphene on top of the TPV cell. The multilayered graphene shifts the surface plasmon polariton to the condition where heat flux occurs efficiently at vacuum gap longer than 50 nm. It is found that three-layer graphene can increase the power output by 5.8 times at 50-nm vacuum gap, whereas a monolayer of graphene has a negligible effect at such distance. The fundamental mechanism for the enhancement by the multilayered graphene is explored by analyzing the heat transfer and corresponding photocurrent generation through three modes: propagating, frustrated, and surface modes. Through the detailed analysis, the optimal number of the graphene layers depending on the vacuum gap distance can be predicted. Considering a penetration depth inside the TPV cell, the effect of the width of p-region of the cell on the power output is discussed. It is shown that the change of the width of p-region can either improve or suppress the effect of graphene. The results obtained in this study can facilitate future development of practical TPV system with high performance.

  5. SOL-PAC: Integrated solar heating and heat pump systems for refurbished buildings - Performance analysis; SOL-PAC: analyse des performances du couplage d'une pompe a chaleur avec une installation solaire thermique pour la renovation - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citherlet, C.; Bony, J.; Nguyen, B.

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the energetic and economic performances of various types of brine/water heat pumps coupled with a fan coil fitted with solar collectors. Different indicators such as the annual coefficient of performance or the electricity consumption have been compared between the different analysed systems. The optimization of the energy control system and energy storage was investigated in order to reduce the operation time of the fan coil. This study has been performed using the TRNSYS computerized simulation package. The icing of the fan coil as well as its defrosting cycles could not been taken into account within the framework of this project, because of a lack of a numerical model. At current electricity prices, the most economical solution remains the heat pump without solar collectors. However, from an energy point of view, the annual overall coefficient of performance of the installation may be improved by 15 to 36%, depending on the climate, thanks to the coupling with solar collectors. (author)

  6. Vacuum spin squeezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiazhong; Chen, Wenlan; Vendeiro, Zachary; Urvoy, Alban; Braverman, Boris; Vuletić, Vladan

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the generation of entanglement (spin squeezing) in an optical-transition atomic clock through the coupling to an optical cavity in its vacuum state. We show that if each atom is prepared in a superposition of the ground state and a long-lived electronic excited state, and viewed as a spin-1/2 system, then the collective vacuum light shift entangles the atoms, resulting in a squeezed distribution of the ensemble collective spin, without any light applied. This scheme reveals that even an electromagnetic vacuum can constitute a useful resource for entanglement and quantum manipulation. By rotating the spin direction while coupling to the vacuum, the scheme can be extended to implement two-axis twisting resulting in stronger squeezing.

  7. CERN Vacuum-System Activities during the Long Shutdown 1: The LHC’s Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, J A

    2014-01-01

    During the long shutdown 1 (LS1), several maintenance, consolidation and upgrade activities have been carried out in LHC’s injector chain. Each machine has specific vacuum requirements and different history, which determine the present status of the vacuum components, their maintenance and consolidation needs. The present work presents the priorities agreed at the beginning of the LS1 period and their implementation. Of particular relevance are the interventions in radioactive controlled areas where several leaks due to stress corrosions stopped the operations in the past years. The strategy to reduce the collective dose is presented, in particular the use of remote controlled robots. An important part of the work performed during this period involves supporting other teams (acceptance tests, new equipment installation, etc.). Finally, as a result of the LS1 experience, a medium to long term strategy is depicted, focusing on the preparation of the next shutdown (LS2) and the integration of LINAC4 in the in...

  8. Successful treatment of perineal necrotising fasciitis and associated pubic bone osteomyelitis with the vacuum assisted closure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Susim; O'Donnell, Mark E; Khan, Khalid; Dunne, Gillian; Carey, P Declan; Lee, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Background Acute necrotising fasciitis is a life-threatening condition, which requires urgent surgical intervention. Surgical debridement is invariably associated with large areas of tissue loss. Case presentation We present a 58-year old woman with a past history of cervical carcinoma who presented with necrotising fasciitis of the perineum and upper thighs with associated pubic bone osteomyelitis. Following extensive debridement, a Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) system was applied to the large residual defect to facilitate skin graft application and optimise wound healing. Conclusion This case demonstrates the successful management of a complex and potentially lethal wound of the perineum with debridement, skin grafting and the VAC system. PMID:18577204

  9. Successful treatment of perineal necrotising fasciitis and associated pubic bone osteomyelitis with the vacuum assisted closure system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunne Gillian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute necrotising fasciitis is a life-threatening condition, which requires urgent surgical intervention. Surgical debridement is invariably associated with large areas of tissue loss. Case presentation We present a 58-year old woman with a past history of cervical carcinoma who presented with necrotising fasciitis of the perineum and upper thighs with associated pubic bone osteomyelitis. Following extensive debridement, a Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC system was applied to the large residual defect to facilitate skin graft application and optimise wound healing. Conclusion This case demonstrates the successful management of a complex and potentially lethal wound of the perineum with debridement, skin grafting and the VAC system.

  10. Two-brane system in a vacuum bulk with a single equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Juan L; Urena-Lopez, L Arturo; 10.1063/1.4748545

    2012-01-01

    We study the cosmology of a two-brane model in a five-dimensional spacetime, where the extra spatial coordinate is compactifed on an orbifold. Additionally, we consider the existence on each brane of matter fields that evolve in time. Solving the Einstein equations in a vacuum bulk, we can show how the matter fields in both branes are connected and they do not evolve independently

  11. Vacuum Valve

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    This valve was used in the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) to protect against the shock waves that would be caused if air were to enter the vacuum tube. Some of the ISR chambers were very fragile, with very thin walls - a design required by physicists on the lookout for new particles.

  12. Insulation vacuum and beam vacuum overpressure release

    CERN Document Server

    Parma, V

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that the incident of 19th September caused a high pressure build-up inside the cryostat insulation vacuum which the existing overpressure devices could not contain. As a result, high longitudinal forces acting on the insulation vacuum barriers developed and broke the floor and the floor fixations of the SSS with vacuum barriers. The consequent large longitudinal displacements of the SSS damaged chains of adjacent dipole cryo-magnets. Estimates of the helium mass flow and the pressure build- up experienced in the incident are presented together with the pressure build-up for an even more hazardous event, the Maximum Credible Incident (MCI). The strategy of limiting the maximum pressure by the installation of addition pressure relieve devices is presented and discussed. Both beam vacuum lines were ruptured during the incident in sector 3-4 giving rise to both mechanical damage and pollution of the system. The sequence, causes and effects of this damage will be briefly reviewed. We will then an...

  13. Eco-sewerage System Design for Modern Office Buildings: based on Vacuum and Source-separation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kangning; Wang, Chengwen; Zheng, Min; Yuan, Xin

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to construct an on-site eco-sewerage system for modern office buildings in urban area based on combined innovative technologies of vacuum and source-separation. Results showed that source-separated grey water had low concentrations of pollutants, which helped the reuse of grey water. However, the system had a low separation efficiency between the yellow water and the brown water, which was caused by the plug problem in the urine collection from the urine-diverting toilets. During the storage of yellow water for liquid fertilizer production, nearly all urea nitrogen transferred to ammonium nitrogen and about 2/3 phosphorus was lost because of the struvite precipitation. Total bacteria and coliforms increased first in the storage, but then decreased to low concentrations. The anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic MBR had high elimination rates of COD, ammonium nitrogen and total nitrogen of the brown water, which were 94.2%, 98.1% and 95.1%, respectively. However, the effluent still had high contents of colority, nitrate and phosphorus, which affected the application of the effluent for flushing water. Even though, the effluent might be used as dilution water for the yellow water fertilizer. Based on the results and the assumption of an ideal operation of the vacuum source-separation system, a future plan for on-site eco-sewerage system of modern office buildings was constructed. Its sustainability was validated by the analysis of the substances flow of water and nutrients.

  14. On the solution of the outgassing equation for the pump-down of an unbaked vacuum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaishi, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The outgassing equation based on the Temkin isotherm is presented to consider the outgassing behaviour in the pump-down of an unbaked vacuum system. A method to solve approximately the equation is discussed first and then solutions of outgassing rates are derived. Discussion is made how to derive appropriate solutions from the equation which are possible to predict the dependence of outgassing rate on pumping time and pumping speed. Solutions obtained finally are possible to explain consistently the outgassing behaviour observed experimentally for 304 stainless steel chamber after exposure to moist air concerning the dependence of outgassing rate on time and pumping speed. (author)

  15. Gas Condensates onto a LHC Type Cryogenic Vacuum System Subjected to Electron Cloud

    CERN Multimedia

    Baglin, V

    2004-01-01

    In the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the gas desorbed via photon stimulated molecular desorption or electron stimulated molecular desorption will be physisorbed onto the beam screen held between 5 and 20 K. Studies of the effects of the electron cloud onto a LHC type cryogenic vacuum chamber have been done with the cold bore experiment (COLDEX) installed in the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). Experiments performed with gas condensates such as H2, H2O, CO and CO2 are described. Implications for the LHC design and operation are discussed.

  16. Liquid ring vacuum pumps, compressors and systems conventional and hermetic design

    CERN Document Server

    Bannwarth, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Based on the very successful German editions, this English version has been thoroughly updated and revised to reflect the developments of the last years and the latest innovations in the field.Throughout, the author makes excellent use of real-life examples and highly praised didactics to disseminate his expert knowledge needed by vacuum technology users and engineers in their daily work at industrial plants, as consultants or in design offices. He covers in detail the most modern liquid ring pumps, with chapters dedicated to maintenance, explosion prevention and general procedures for saf

  17. Electron fluctuation induced resonance broadening in nano electromechanical systems: the origin of shear force in vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siria, A; Barois, T; Vilella, K; Perisanu, S; Ayari, A; Guillot, D; Purcell, S T; Poncharal, P

    2012-07-11

    This article presents a study of the poorly understood "shear-force" used in an important class of near-field instruments that use mechanical resonance feedback detection. In the case of a metallic probe near a metallic surface in vacuum, we show that in the 10-60 nm range there is no such a thing as a shear-force in the sense of the nonconservative friction force. Fluctuations of the oscillator resonance frequency, likely induced by local charge variations, could account for the reported effects in the literature without introducing a dissipative force.

  18. Technological energy and environmental refurbishment of historical Italian libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Battisti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Active libraries in Italy are around 13.000 and, taken as a whole, the property and management relate mainly to public institutions such as the state, regions, local authorities, cultural institutions, universities, and partly to religious institutions and individuals. In this paper is presented the work of studies and research, commissioned to the authors by the General Direction for Libraries of the Ministry of Heritage and Culture (Mibac, which ended recently, addressing the architectural, energy and environmental refurbishment of national historic libraries distributed on the Italian territory, with special focus on 4 among 46 owned by the Ministry of Culture (the Nazionale Centrale di Roma, the Nazionale Centrale in Florence, the national University of Turin and the Angelica in Rome believed by the authors and client as examples of recurring issues and ideals to lend itself to the construction of a model of intervention replicable on other historical Italian libraries.The main objective of the project is the identification of physical and perceptual factors of wear2, which threaten the conservation of the historical and artistic heritage of the historic center of Venice, with a particular focus on the effects of anthropogenic pressure linked to tourism, and the evaluation of their level of danger. A further objective is the recognition of measurable parameters (indicators for monitoring and, subsequently, mitigation strategies for the most significant phenomena.

  19. Gas metal arc welding in refurbishment of cobalt base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriary, M. S.; Miladi Gorji, Y.; Kolagar, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Refurbishments of superalloys which are used in manufacturing gas turbine hot components usually consists of removing cracks and other defects by blending and then repair welding in order to reconstruct damaged area. In this study, the effects of welding parameters on repair of FSX-414 superalloy, as the most applicable cobalt base superalloy in order to manufacture gas turbine nozzles, by use of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) technic were investigated. Results then were compared by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). Metallographic and SEM studies of the microstructure of the weld and HAZ showed that there are no noticeable defects in the microstructure by use of GMAW. Also, chemical analysis and morphologies of carbide in both methods are similar. Hardness profile of the GM AW structure then also compared with GTAW and no noticeable difference was observed between the profiles. Also, proper tensile properties, compared with GTAW, can be achieved by use of optimum parameters that can be obtained by examining the current and welding speed. Tensile properties of optimized condition of the GMAW then were compared with GTAW. It was seen that the room and high temperature tensile properties of the GMAW structure is very similar and results confirmed that changing the technic did not have any significant influence on the properties.

  20. Aperture and Field Constraints for the Vacuum System in the LHC Injection Septa

    CERN Document Server

    Gyr, Marcel; Jiménez, J M; Lacroix, Jean Michel; Sgobba, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Each beam arriving from the SPS has to pass through five injection septum magnets before being kicked onto the LHC orbit. The injection layout implies that the vacuum chambers for the two circulating beams pass through the septum magnet yokes at a flange distance from the chamber of the beam to be injected. Specially designed vacuum chambers and interconnections provide the required straightness and alignment precision, thus optimising the aperture for both the circulating and injected beams, without affecting the quality of the magnetic dipole field seen by the injected beam. The circulating beams are shielded against the magnetic stray field by using µ-metal chambers with a thickness of 0.9 mm to avoid saturation of the µ-metal (0.8 T), coated with copper (0.4 mm) for impedance reasons and NEG for pumping and electron cloud purposes. A 2 mm gap between the iron yoke and the µ-metal chamber allows an in-situ bake-out at 200°C, based on a polyimide/stainless steel/polyimide sandwich structure with an over...

  1. Novel technique of creating a seal for the vacuum-assisted closure system application in complex head and neck wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Brian; Iyer, N Gopalakrishna; Tan, Hiang Khoon; Tay, Ai Choo; Soo, Khee Chee; Tan, Ngian Chye

    2016-12-01

    Achieving a good seal for the application of the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) system in complex head and neck wounds is difficult. A case series of 4 patients who developed postoperative orocutaneous or pharyngocutaneous fistulas were studied. A sterile green glove was used as a sealant together with the VAC system. With utilization of a green glove, a good seal for the VAC system was obtained. This gave ample time to cleanse the wound and allow granulation tissue to form before proceeding on to the next stage of treatment. A green glove technique allows for a good seal for the VAC system to work, especially when applied to complex head and neck wounds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2523-E2526, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Accuracy of corneal trephination depth using the Moria single-use adjustable depth vacuum trephine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenzl CR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carlton R Fenzl,1 Adam J Gess,2 Majid Moshirfar31John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Eye Doctors of Washington, Washington, DC, 3Cornea and Refractive Surgery Division, Department of Ophthalmology, Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The Moria single-use adjustable depth trephine is a device that allows a goal trephination depth to be set prior to the surgical procedure.Methods: Eleven fresh human cadaveric eyes were trephined using 8.0 mm Moria single-use adjustable vacuum trephines. Prior to trephination, the average corneal pachymetry in the peripheral 7–10 mm range was obtained using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The trephination depth was set to 80% of that value. Light microscopy was used to image anteroposterior cross-sections of each corneal specimen. Digital protractor software was used to evaluate the trephination angle, depth, and length. All adequately processed specimens were included in the analysis. In addition, trephination angle data from a previous publication by Moshirfar et al were used as a comparison with those of this study.Results: Trephination analysis of depth compared with pachymetry revealed a mean of 83.7%±6.53% (95% confidence interval 79.8–87.6. Maximum and minimum trephined depths were 95.35% and 71.3%, respectively. Trephination depth compared with angular corneal thickness yielded a mean of 66.2%±4.79% (95% confidence interval 63.0–69.4. Maximum and minimum depths were 73.7% and 59.7%, respectively. Analysis of trephination angle yielded a mean of 130.2±3.57 degrees (95% confidence interval 127.8–132.61. Maximum and minimum angles were 135.5 degrees and 126 degrees, respectively. The standard deviation of the trephination angle of the Moria trephine was found to be significantly less than that of Hessburg-Barron and Hanna trephines calculated in the previous study.Conclusion: The Moria

  3. Energy Efficiency Performance in Refurbishment Projects with Design Team Attributes As A Mediator: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekak, Siti Nor Azniza Ahmad; Rahmat Dr, Ismail, Prof.; Yunus, Julitta; Saád, Sri Rahayu Mohd; Hanafi Azman Ong, Mohd

    2017-12-01

    The Energy Efficiency (EE) plays an important role over the building life cycle and the implementation of EE in refurbishment projects has a significant potential towards the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the involvement of the design team at the early stage of the refurbishment projects will determine the success of EE implementations. Thus, a pilot study was conducted at the initial stage of the data collection process of this research to validate and verify the questionnaires.

  4. R&D ERL: Vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The

  5. Theoretical consideration for the outgassing characteristics of an unbaked vacuum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaishi, K.

    1995-10-01

    Recently the outgassing rate of an unbaked vacuum chamber has been measured with a variable orifice pumping by the author, and it has been shown that the outgassing rate q obeys the power law of pumping time t as q = q{sub O}(t{sub 1}/t){sup X}, 0.8 < x < 1.1 and the initial outgassing rate q{sub O} is dependent on the pumping speed S of orifice as q{sub O} {proportional_to} S{sup m}, 0 < m < 1. This paper describes the theoretical verification for the outgassing characteristics in the light of adsorption - desorption of molecules on the wall surface and the pump-down of gas phase molecules out of the chamber. (author).

  6. System and method for preventing stator permanent magnet demagnetization during vacuum pressure impregnation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Alexander, James Pellegrino; EL-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi

    2017-06-06

    A permanent magnet electrical machine includes a stator having conductive windings wound thereon and one or more permanent magnets embedded in the stator. A magnetic keeper element is positioned on the stator so as to form a magnetic flux path with the permanent magnets, with the magnetic keeper element closing the magnetic flux path of the permanent magnets by providing a low reluctance flux path to magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnets. A vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) process is performed on the stator to increase a thermal conductivity of the windings, with the VPI process including a curing step that is performed at a selected temperature. The magnetic keeper element sets an operating point of the permanent magnets to an internal flux density level above a demagnetization threshold associated with the selected temperature at which the curing step is performed.

  7. Essential BIM Input Data Study for Housing Refurbishment: Homeowners’ Preferences in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Sungho Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction customers are persistently seeking to achieve sustainability and maximize value as sustainability has become a major consideration in the construction industry. In particular, it is essential to refurbish a whole house to achieve the sustainability agenda of 80% CO2 reduction by 2050 as the housing sector accounts for 28% of the total UK CO2 emission. However, whole house refurbishment seems to be challenging due to the highly fragmented nature of construction practice, which makes the integration of diverse information throughout the project lifecycle difficult. Consequently, Building Information Modeling (BIM is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore in order to manage construction projects in a collaborative manner, although the current uptake of the housing sector is low at 25%. This research aims to investigate homeowners’ decision making factors for housing refurbishment projects and to provide a valuable dataset as an essential input to BIM for such projects. One-hundred and twelve homeowners and 39 construction professionals involved in UK housing refurbishment were surveyed. It was revealed that homeowners value initial cost more while construction professionals value thermal performance. The results supported that homeowners and professionals both considered the first priority to be roof refurbishment. This research revealed that BIM requires a proper BIM dataset and objects for housing refurbishment.

  8. Vacuum Technology for Superconducting Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chiggiato, P

    2014-01-01

    The basic notions of vacuum technology for superconducting applications are presented, with an emphasis on mass and heat transport in free molecular regimes. The working principles and practical details of turbomolecular pumps and cryopumps are introduced. The specific case of the Large Hadron Collider’s cryogenic vacuum system is briefly reviewed.

  9. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  10. Refurbishment works in a hospital during normal operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Birgit; Hansen, Dorothea; Lieske, Tim; Krude, Joschka; Saner, Fuat; Marggraf, Günter; Paul, Andreas; Jakob, Heinz G; Popp, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Construction and renovation work in hospitals pose risks of fungal airborne infections for immunosuppressed patients. If possible, reconstruction work will be postponed to periods without patient treatment. However, in many situations urgent damage demands immediate refurbishment works before the transferring of patients to other wards or closure of wards is possible. Reported here are infection control related measures and implemented procedures after two incidents of water damage which occurred on a surgical ward and an intensive care unit at the University hospital of Essen. Between January and April 2009 and between September and October 2009, respectively, concentration of air-borne particles and number of viable fungi were measured at two surgical wards and one ICU. Preventive Infection Control Measures included erection of protective walls and HEPA filtration of air from the renovation area. During the renovation work on the surgical ward concentrations of moulds and particles ≥5 µm were significantly higher on the left side of the renovation area than on the right side (p=0.036 and pwork. Aspergillus fumigatus could neither be cultured of the air of cardiac surgery intensive care unit nor of the intermediate care unit (control ward). During renovation works there was no nosocomial mould infection of patients treated on the two wards. Provided that the renovation area is tightly insulated from the areas of patient care on a ward, closure does not seem to be necessary during renovation works because variation of airborne fungi is similar to that of outdoor or control air. However a multidisciplinary team should be established. This team should perform risk assessment and determine necessary protective measures before starting any construction, renovation or maintenance work in health care settings.

  11. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrado, J. M., E-mail: sobradovj@inta.es; Martín-Soler, J. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Gago, J. A. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM–CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration.

  12. Parametrically driven hybrid qubit-photon systems: Dissipation-induced quantum entanglement and photon production from vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remizov, S. V.; Zhukov, A. A.; Shapiro, D. S.; Pogosov, W. V.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2017-10-01

    We consider a dissipative evolution of a parametrically driven qubit-cavity system under the periodic modulation of coupling energy between two subsystems, which leads to the amplification of counter-rotating processes. We reveal a very rich dynamical behavior of this hybrid system. In particular, we find that the energy dissipation in one of the subsystems can enhance quantum effects in another subsystem. For instance, optimal cavity decay assists the stabilization of entanglement and quantum correlations between qubits even in the steady state and the compensation of finite qubit relaxation. On the contrary, energy dissipation in qubit subsystems results in enhanced photon production from vacuum for strong modulation but destroys both quantum concurrence and quantum mutual information between qubits. Our results provide deeper insights to nonstationary cavity quantum electrodynamics in the context of quantum information processing and might be of importance for dissipative quantum state engineering.

  13. Pressure-Fed LOX/LCH4 Reaction Control System for Spacecraft: Transient Modeling and Thermal Vacuum Hotfire Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Melcher, J. C.; Morehead, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    An integrated cryogenic liquid oxygen, liquid methane (LOX/LCH4) reaction control system (RCS) was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) under vacuum and thermal vacuum conditions. The RCS is a subsystem of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA), a pressure-fed LOX/LCH4 propulsion system composed of a single 2,800 lbf main engine, two 28 lbf RCS engines, and two 7 lbf RCS engines. Propellants are stored in four 48 inch diameter 5083 aluminum tanks that feed both the main engine and RCS engines in parallel. Helium stored cryogenically in a composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) flows through a heat exchanger on the main engine before being used to pressurize the propellant tanks to a design operating pressure of 325 psi. The ICPTA is capable of simultaneous main engine and RCS operation. The RCS engines utilize a coil-on-plug (COP) ignition system designed for operation in a vacuum environment, eliminating corona discharge issues associated with a high voltage lead. There are two RCS pods on the ICPTA, with two engines on each pod. One of these two engines is a heritage flight engine from Project Morpheus. Its sea level nozzle was removed and replaced by an 85:1 nozzle machined using Inconel 718, resulting in a maximum thrust of 28 lbf under altitude conditions. The other engine is a scaled down version of the 28 lbf engine, designed to match the core and overall mixture ratios as well as other injector characteristics. This engine can produce a maximum thrust of 7 lbf with an 85:1 nozzle that was additively manufactured using Inconel 718. Both engines are film-cooled and capable of limited duration gas-gas and gas-liquid operation, as well as steady-state liquid-liquid operation. Each pod contains one of each version, such that two engines of the same thrust level can be fired as a couple on opposite pods. The RCS feed system is composed of symmetrical 3/8 inch lines

  14. Vacuum decay container closure integrity leak test method development and validation for a lyophilized product-package system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jayshree; Mulhall, Brian; Wolf, Heinz; Klohr, Steven; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2011-01-01

    A leak test performed according to ASTM F2338-09 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Detection of Leaks in Packages by Vacuum Decay Method was developed and validated for container-closure integrity verification of a lyophilized product in a parenteral vial package system. This nondestructive leak test method is intended for use in manufacturing as an in-process package integrity check, and for testing product stored on stability in lieu of sterility tests. Method development and optimization challenge studies incorporated artificially defective packages representing a range of glass vial wall and sealing surface defects, as well as various elastomeric stopper defects. Method validation required 3 days of random-order replicate testing of a test sample population of negative-control, no-defect packages and positive-control, with-defect packages. Positive-control packages were prepared using vials each with a single hole laser-drilled through the glass vial wall. Hole creation and hole size certification was performed by Lenox Laser. Validation study results successfully demonstrated the vacuum decay leak test method's ability to accurately and reliably detect those packages with laser-drilled holes greater than or equal to approximately 5 μm in nominal diameter. All development and validation studies were performed at Whitehouse Analytical Laboratories in Whitehouse, NJ, under the direction of consultant Dana Guazzo of RxPax, LLC, using a VeriPac 455 Micro Leak Test System by Packaging Technologies & Inspection (Tuckahoe, NY). Bristol Myers Squibb (New Brunswick, NJ) fully subsidized all work. A leak test performed according to ASTM F2338-09 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Detection of Leaks in Packages by Vacuum Decay Method was developed and validated to detect defects in stoppered vial packages containing lyophilized product for injection. This nondestructive leak test method is intended for use in manufacturing as an in-process package integrity

  15. Development of a radio frequency heating system for sterilization of vacuum-packed fish in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Kunihiko; Kanafusa, Sumiyo; Takahashi, Chieko; Kobayashi, Isao

    2017-04-01

    We developed equipment that quickly and uniformly heats packed whole fish in circulating tap water using radio frequency (RF) heating. Four vacuumed plastic-packed Pacific sauries in tap water were set in a radial arrangement between coaxial cylindrical electrodes in a closed vessel. For sterilization testing, Bacillus subtilis spores added in the center of the sauries were counted after treatment. For quality assurance, meat color and backbone hardness were measured after treatment. The temperature at the center of the sauries was increased up to 130 °C for 19 min using 9 kW RF heating, and up to 119 °C for 45 min using conventional heating (CH) at 120 °C. B. subtilis spores were decreased by five logarithmic orders using RF heating and by four logarithmic orders using CH. The RF-treated meat was brighter than the CH-treated meat, and the RF-treated backbone was softer than CH-treated one.

  16. Characterization of a Pressure-Fed LOX/LCH4 Reaction Control System Under Simulated Altitude and Thermal Vacuum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, Matthew J.; Melcher, John C.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Morehead, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    A liquid oxygen, liquid methane (LOX/LCH4) reaction control system (RCS) was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) under simulated altitude and thermal vacuum conditions. The RCS is a subsystem of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA) and was initially developed under Project Morpheus. Composed of two 28 lbf-thrust and two 7 lbf-thrust engines, the RCS is fed in parallel with the ICPTA main engine from four propellant tanks. 40 tests consisting of 1,010 individual thruster pulses were performed across 6 different test days. Major test objectives were focused on system dynamics, and included characterization of fluid transients, manifold priming, manifold thermal conditioning, thermodynamic vent system (TVS) performance, and main engine/RCS interaction. Peak surge pressures from valve opening and closing events were examined. It was determined that these events were impacted significantly by vapor cavity formation and collapse. In most cases the valve opening transient was more severe than the valve closing. Under thermal vacuum conditions it was shown that TVS operation is unnecessary to maintain liquid conditions at the thruster inlets. However, under higher heat leak environments the RCS can still be operated in a self-conditioning mode without overboard TVS venting, contingent upon the engines managing a range of potentially severe thermal transients. Lastly, during testing under cold thermal conditions the engines experienced significant ignition problems. Only after warming the thruster bodies with a gaseous nitrogen purge to an intermediate temperature was successful ignition demonstrated.

  17. High Energy-Efficient Windows with Silica Aerogel for Building Refurbishment: Experimental Characterization and Preliminary Simulations in Different Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the potential of high energy-efficient windows with granular silica aerogel for energy saving in building refurbishment. Different glazing systems were investigated considering two kinds of granular silica aerogel and different glass layers. Thermal transmittance and optical properties of the samples were measured and used in building simulations. The aerogel impact on heat transfer is remarkable, allowing a thermal transmittance of 1.0–1.1 W/(m2·K with granular aerogel in interspace only 15 mm in thickness. A 63% reduction in U-value was achieved when compared to the corresponding conventional windows, together with a significant reduction (30% in light transmittance. When assembled with a low-e glass, the U-value reduction was lower (31%, but a moderate reduction in light transmittance (about 10% was observed for larger granules. Energy simulations for a case study in different climate conditions (hot, moderate, and cold showed a reduction in energy demand both for heating and cooling for silica aerogel glazing systems, when compared to the conventional ones. The new glazings are a suitable solution for building refurbishment, thanks to low U-values and total solar transmittance, also in warm climate conditions.

  18. Dynamical creation of entanglement versus disentanglement in a system of three-level atoms with vacuum-induced coherences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derkacz, Lukasz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Plac Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland); Jakobczyk, Lech [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Plac Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail: ljak@ift.uni.wroc.pl

    2008-12-08

    The dynamics of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. We show that the collective effects such as collective damping, dipole-dipole interaction and the cross coupling between orthogonal dipoles, play a crucial role in the process of creation of entanglement. In particular, the additional cross coupling enhances the production of entanglement. For the specific initial states we find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of entanglement, recently invented by Ficek and Tanas [Ficek, R. Tanas, Phys. Rev. A 77 (2008) 054301] in the case of two-level atoms, can also be observed in the system. When the initial state is entangled, the process of spontaneous emission causes destruction of correlations and its disentanglement. We show that the robustness of initial entanglement against the noise can be changed by local operations performed on the state.

  19. Measurements of the vacuum-plasma response in EXTRAP T2R using generic closed-loop subspace system identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olofsson, K. Erik J., E-mail: erik.olofsson@ee.kth.se [School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Brunsell, Per R.; Drake, James R. [School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unstable plasma response safely measured using special signal processing techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prediction-capable MIMO models obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Computational statistics employed to show physical content of these models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multifold cross-validation applied for the supervised learning problem. - Abstract: A multibatch formulation of a multi-input multi-output closed-loop subspace system identification method is employed for the purpose of obtaining control-relevant models of the vacuum-plasma response in the magnetic confinement fusion experiment EXTRAP T2R. The accuracy of the estimate of the plant dynamics is estimated by computing bootstrap replication statistics of the dataset. It is seen that the thus identified models exhibit both predictive capabilities and physical spectral properties.

  20. Kiwi OmniCup Handheld vs. Mityvac M-Style Conventional Vacuum System: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbach, Tal; Hag-Yahia, Nasreen; Ovadia, Michal; Tzadikevitch Geffen, Keren; Weitzner, Omer; Biron-Shental, Tal

    2017-08-17

    To improve choice of vacuum-assisted delivery (VAD) system, we compared outcomes of Kiwi handheld system and Mityvac M-style conventional system (both use disposable plastic cups). Retrospective observational study with data collection from electronic medical records. The study was conducted at a tertiary medical center, with approximately 7000 deliveries annually. Categorical and continuous variables were analyzed using chi-square test and t-test, respectively. p value Kiwi-assisted and 143 Mityvac-assisted. Background characteristics were similar. The handheld system had more failures overall (9.6 vs. 0.7%), at OA (7.6 vs. 0.9%) and non-OA positions (17.3% vs. none), at + 1 (13.25 vs. 0.96%) and at + 2/3 stations (6.1% vs. none), than the conventional system did, respectively. There was a higher rate of early post-partum hemorrhage (15.3 vs. 7.4%) in the conventional group. Both systems had similar rates of third/fourth degree perineal tears, shoulder dystocia and adverse neonatal outcomes. Our results suggest more failures with Kiwi compared to Mityvac, overall and at any fetal position/station, without a significant difference in adverse outcome profile.

  1. The effects of acoustical refurbishment of classrooms on teachers' perceived noise exposure and noise-related health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Lund, Søren Peter; Persson, Roger; Challi, Rasmus; Lindskov, Janni Moon; Nielsen, Per Møberg; Larsen, Per Knudgaard; Toftum, Jørn

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether acoustical refurbishment of classrooms for elementary and lower secondary grade pupils affected teachers' perceived noise exposure during teaching and noise-related health symptoms. Two schools (A and B) with a total of 102 teachers were subjected to an acoustical intervention. Accordingly, 36 classrooms (20 and 16 in school A and school B, respectively) were acoustically refurbished and 31 classrooms (16 and 15 in school A and school B, respectively) were not changed. Thirteen classrooms in school A were interim "sham" refurbished. Control measurements of RT and activity sound levels were measured before and after refurbishment. Data on perceived noise exposure, disturbance attributed to different noise sources, voice symptoms, and fatigue after work were collected over a year in a total of six consecutive questionnaires. Refurbished classrooms were associated with lower perceived noise exposure and lower ratings of disturbance attributed to noise from equipment in the class compared with unrefurbished classrooms. No associations between the classroom refurbishment and health symptoms were observed. Before acoustical refurbishment, the mean classroom reverberation time was 0.68 (school A) and 0.57 (school B) and 0.55 s in sham refurbished classrooms. After refurbishment, the RT was approximately 0.4 s in both schools. Activity sound level measurements confirmed that the intervention had reduced the equivalent sound levels during lessons with circa 2 dB(A) in both schools. The acoustical refurbishment was associated with a reduction in classroom reverberation time and activity sound levels in both schools. The acoustical refurbishment was associated with a reduction in the teachers' perceived noise exposure, and reports of disturbance from equipment in the classroom decreased. There was no significant effect of the refurbishment on the teachers' voice symptoms or fatigue after work.

  2. Vacuum fiber-fiber coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrici, Axel; Bjelajac, Goran; Jonkers, Jeroen; Jakobs, Stefan; Olschok, Simon; Reisgen, Uwe

    2017-02-01

    Research and development carried out by the ISF Welding and Joining Institute of RWTH Aachen University has proven that combining high power laser and low vacuum atmosphere provides a welding performance and quality, which is comparable to electron beam welding. The developed welding machines are still using a beam forming which takes place outside the vacuum and the focusing laser beam has to be introduced to the vacuum via a suitable window. This inflexible design spoils much of the flexibility of modern laser welding. With the target to bring a compact, lightweight flying optics with flexible laser transport fibers into vacuum chambers, a high power fiber-fiber coupler has been adapted by II-VI HIGHYAG that includes a reliable vacuum interface. The vacuum-fiber-fiber coupler (V-FFC) is tested with up to 16 kW sustained laser power and the design is flexible in terms of a wide variety of laser fiber plug systems and vacuum flanges. All that is needed to implement the V-FFC towards an existing or planned vacuum chamber is an aperture of at least 100 mm (4 inch) diameter with any type of vacuum or pressure flange. The V-FFC has a state-of-the-art safety interface which allows for fast fiber breakage detection for both fibers (as supported by fibers) by electric wire breakage and short circuit detection. Moreover, the System also provides connectors for cooling and electric signals for the laser beam optics inside the vacuum. The V-FFC has all necessary adjustment options for coupling the laser radiation to the receiving fiber.

  3. No Project Exists In A Vacuum: Organizational Effects In Enterprise Information System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    In other cases, the system may indirectly support the business, such as human resources systems, customer databases, and ecommerce systems. The... ecommerce system, for example, does not increase sales directly, but enables sales over the internet in order to broaden the company’s potential

  4. Assessment of heavy metals exposure, noise and thermal safety in the ambiance of a vacuum metallurgy separation system for recycling heavy metals from crushed e-wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lu; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-12-01

    Vacuum metallurgy separation (VMS) is a technically feasible method to recover Pb, Cd and other heavy metals from crushed e-wastes. To further determine the environmental impacts and safety of this method, heavy metals exposure, noise and thermal safety in the ambiance of a vacuum metallurgy separation system are evaluated in this article. The mass concentrations of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PM10 are 0.1503 and 0.0973 mg m(-3) near the facilities. The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Sn in TSP samples are 0.0104, 0.1283 and 0.0961 μg m(-3), respectively. Health risk assessments show that the hazard index of Pb is 3.25 × 10(-1) and that of Cd is 1.09 × 10(-1). Carcinogenic risk of Cd through inhalation is 1.08 × 10(-5). The values of the hazard index and risk indicate that Pb and Cd will not cause non-cancerous effects or carcinogenic risk on workers. The noise sources are mainly the mechanical vacuum pump and the water cooling pump. Both of them have the noise levels below 80 dB (A). The thermal safety assessment shows that the temperatures of the vacuum metallurgy separation system surface are all below 303 K after adopting the circulated water cooling and heat insulation measures. This study provides the environmental information of the vacuum metallurgy separation system, which is of assistance to promote the industrialisation of vacuum metallurgy separation for recovering heavy metals from e-wastes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Phase equilibrium in system Ti-Si-C-B and synthesis of MAX phase layers in vacuum under the influence of electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnyagina, N. N.; Khaltanova, V. M.; Dasheev, D. E.; Lapina, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    Composite layers on the basis of carbides and borides the titan and silicon on titanic alloy VТ-1 are generated at diffused saturation by electron beam treatment in vacuum. Formation in a composite of MAX phase Ti3SiC2 is shown. Thermodynamic research of phase equilibrium in systems Ti-Si-C and Ti-B-C in the conditions of high vacuum is executed. The thermodynamics, formation mechanisms of superfirm layers borides and carbides of the titan and silicon are investigated.

  6. Development of a high-speed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) imaging system for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fan; Ming, Tingfeng; Wang, Yumin; Wang, Zhijun; Long, Feifei; Zhuang, Qing; Li, Guoqiang; Liang, Yunfeng; Gao, Xiang

    2017-07-01

    A high-speed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) imaging system for edge plasma studies is being developed on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Its key optics is composed of an inverse type of Schwarzschild telescope made of a set of Mo/Si multilayer mirrors, a micro-channel plate (MCP) equipped with a P47 phosphor screen and a high-speed camera with CMOS sensors. In order to remove the contribution from low-energy photons, a Zr filter is installed in front of the MCP detector. With this optics, VUV photons with a wavelength of 13.5 nm, which mainly come from the line emission from intrinsic carbon (C vi: n = 4-2 transition) or the Ly-α line emission from injected Li iii on the EAST, can be selectively measured two-dimensionally with both high temporal and spatial resolutions. At present, this system is installed to view the plasma from the low field side in a horizontal port in the EAST. It has been operated routinely during the 2016 EAST experiment campaign, and the first result is shown in this work. To roughly evaluate the system performance, synthetic images are created. And it indicates that this system mainly measures the edge localized emissions by comparing the synthetic images and experimental data.

  7. In search of a holistic, sustainable and replicable model for complete energy refurbishment in historic buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija S. Todorović

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in buildings offers one of the most promising opportunities for developed and developing countries to cooperate in achieving the realization of significant energy efficiency improvements. However, achieving sustainability is not an easy task unless there is synergy with/between energy efficiency improvement and renewable energy sources (RES - these are not at present in widespread dissemination and use. This paper recognizes the synergetic relationship between conservation and sustainability. At present, the role of heritage conservation in achieving sustainability has not yet been fully recognized, nor have heritage needs been well integrated into sustainability initiatives. Historic buildings are inherently sustainable. Preservation maximizes the use of existing materials and infrastructures, reduces waste, and preserves the historical character of older towns and cities. Sustainability begins with preservation. Taking into account the original climatic adaptations of historic buildings, today’s sustainable technology can supplement inherent sustainable features without compromising their unique historical character. Furthermore, a number of paper reviews and case studies with related methodologies outline the need to implement the latest current knowledge and technologies (BPS - Building Performance Simulation and CFD - Computational Fluid Dynamics for use in the refurbishment design process, as well as highlighting the crucial importance of sustainability, relevant benchmarking and rating system development.

  8. Comparison of Ice-Bank Actual Results Against Simulated Predicted Results in Carroll Refurbishment Project DKIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel Donnelly

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the selection methods used in the design of an ice-bank thermal energy storage (TES application in the Carroll’s building in Dundalk IT. The complexities of the interaction between the on- site wind turbine, existing campus load and the refurbished building meant that traditional calculation methods and programmes could not be used and specialist software had to be developed during the design process. The research reviews this tool against the actual results obtained from the operation in the building for one college term of full time use. The paper also examines the operation of the system in order to produce recommendations for its potential modification to improve its efficiency and utilisation. Simulation software is evaluated and maximum import capacity is minimised. Significant budget constraints limited the level of control and metering that could be provided for the project, and this paper demonstrates some investigative processes that were used to overcome the limitations on data availability.

  9. Global Classical and Weak Solutions to the Three-Dimensional Full Compressible Navier-Stokes System with Vacuum and Large Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangdi; Li, Jing

    2018-03-01

    For the three-dimensional full compressible Navier-Stokes system describing the motion of a viscous, compressible, heat-conductive, and Newtonian polytropic fluid, we establish the global existence and uniqueness of classical solutions with smooth initial data which are of small energy but possibly large oscillations where the initial density is allowed to vanish. Moreover, for the initial data, which may be discontinuous and contain vacuum states, we also obtain the global existence of weak solutions. These results generalize previous ones on classical and weak solutions for initial density being strictly away from a vacuum, and are the first for global classical and weak solutions which may have large oscillations and can contain vacuum states.

  10. Global Classical and Weak Solutions to the Three-Dimensional Full Compressible Navier-Stokes System with Vacuum and Large Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangdi; Li, Jing

    2017-11-01

    For the three-dimensional full compressible Navier-Stokes system describing the motion of a viscous, compressible, heat-conductive, and Newtonian polytropic fluid, we establish the global existence and uniqueness of classical solutions with smooth initial data which are of small energy but possibly large oscillations where the initial density is allowed to vanish. Moreover, for the initial data, which may be discontinuous and contain vacuum states, we also obtain the global existence of weak solutions. These results generalize previous ones on classical and weak solutions for initial density being strictly away from a vacuum, and are the first for global classical and weak solutions which may have large oscillations and can contain vacuum states.

  11. Power Reactant Storage Assembly (PRSA) (Space Shuttle). PRSA hydrogen and oxygen DVT tank refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Power Reactant Storage Assembly (PRSA) liquid hydrogen Development Verification Test (H2 DVT) tank assembly (Beech Aircraft Corporation P/N 15548-0116-1, S/N 07399000SHT0001) and liquid oxygen (O2) DVT tank assembly (Beech Aircraft Corporation P/N 15548-0115-1, S/N 07399000SXT0001) were refurbished by Ball Electro-Optics and Cryogenics Division to provide NASA JSC, Propulsion and Power Division, the capability of performing engineering tests. The refurbishments incorporated the latest flight configuration hardware and avionics changes necessary to make the tanks function like flight articles. This final report summarizes these refurbishment activities. Also included are up-to-date records of the pressure time and cycle histories.

  12. Vacuum phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Ohsaka, Hiromichi; Jitsuiki, Kei; Yoshizawa, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Ikuto; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Ishikawa, Kouhei

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the theory of the formation of the vacuum phenomenon (VP), the detection of the VP, the different medical causes, the different locations of the presentation of the VP, and the differential diagnoses. In the human body, the cavitation effect is recognized on radiological studies; it is called the VP. The mechanism responsible for the formation of the VP is as follows: if an enclosed tissue space is allowed to expand as a rebound phenomenon after an external impact, the volume within the enclosed space will increase. In the setting of expanding volume, the pressure within the space will decrease. The solubility of the gas in the enclosed space will decrease as the pressure of the space decreases. Decreased solubility allows a gas to leave a solution. Clinically, the pathologies associated with the VP have been reported to mainly include the normal joint motion, degeneration of the intervertebral discs or joints, and trauma. The frequent use of CT for trauma patients and the high spatial resolution of CT images might produce the greatest number of chances to detect the VP in trauma patients. The VP is observed at locations that experience a traumatic impact; thus, an analysis of the VP may be useful for elucidating the mechanism of an injury. When the VP is located in the abdomen, it is important to include perforation of the digestive tract in the differential diagnosis. The presence of the VP in trauma patients does not itself influence the final outcome.

  13. Portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system for polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshihide, E-mail: e0827@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Nishimura, Yusaku F.; Suzuki, Ryo; Beniya, Atsushi; Isomura, Noritake [Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., Yokomichi 41-1, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Uehara, Hiromitsu; Asakura, Kiyotaka; Takakusagi, Satoru [Catalysis Research Center, Hokkaido University, Kita 21-10, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan); Nimura, Tomoyuki [AVC Co., Ltd., Inada 1450-6, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-0061 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    A portable ultrahigh-vacuum sample storage system was designed and built to investigate the detailed geometric structures of mass-selected metal clusters on oxide substrates by polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (PTRF-XAFS). This ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) sample storage system provides the handover of samples between two different sample manipulating systems. The sample storage system is adaptable for public transportation, facilitating experiments using air-sensitive samples in synchrotron radiation or other quantum beam facilities. The samples were transferred by the developed portable UHV transfer system via a public transportation at a distance over 400 km. The performance of the transfer system was demonstrated by a successful PTRF-XAFS study of Pt{sub 4} clusters deposited on a TiO{sub 2}(110) surface.

  14. Experimental tests of vacuum energy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    While the current vacuum energy of the Universe is very small, in our standard cosmological picture it has been much larger at earlier epochs. We try to address the question of what are possible ways to try to experimentally verify this. One direction is to look for systems where vacuum energy constitutes a non-negligible fraction of the total energy, and study the properties of those. Another possibility is to focus on the epochs around cosmic phase transitions, when the vacuum energy is of the same order as the total energy. Along these lines we investigate properties of neutron stars and the imprint of phase transitions on primordial gravitational waves.

  15. Heat flux to the helium cryogenic system elements in the case of incidental vacuum vessel ventilation with atmospheric air

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The selection process for size in safety equipment for cold vessels or process pipes in cryogenic systems should take into consideration the incidental ventilation of the vacuum vessel with atmospheric air. In this case, a significant heat input toward the cold elements of the system can be expected. A number of experimental investigations have been done for the elements at liquid helium temperature which have been covered with 10 layers of MLI. The typical values of the heat flux were measured in a range of 3.7 to 5.0 kW/m2 of the element surface. The helium temperature parts are typically surrounded by thermal shields that are kept in a temperature range of 50-80K. On the external side, the thermal shields are covered with 30-40 layers of MLI while on the internal side, the shields are bare. The theoretical calculations of heat flux to the thermal shield, with respect to the possibility of air condensation and freezing on the bare side of the thermal shield, show that the heat flux to the thermal shield can...

  16. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Source For System-Level Testing Of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance.

  17. Use of dynamic wound closure system in conjunction with vacuum-assisted closure therapy in delayed closure of open abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, A E; Yetişir, F; Aksoy, M; Tokaç, M; Yildirim, M B; Kiliç, M

    2014-02-01

    Definitive abdominal closure may not be possible for several days or weeks after laparotomy in damage-control surgery, abdominal compartment syndrome and intraabdominal sepsis, until the patient has stabilized. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC therapy(®), KCI, San Antonio, TX, USA) and abdominal re-approximation anchor system (ABRA, Canica, Almonte, Ontario, Canada) are novel techniques in delayed closure of open abdomen. Our aim is to present the use of these strategies in the management of 7 patients with open abdomen. Between August 2010 and December 2011, 7 patients with severe peritonitis were stabilized by laparotomy and treated with either ABRA system or ABRA system in conjunction with VAC dressing. VAC dressing applied to 4 patients initially and followed by ABRA. ABRA was applied alone to remaining 3 patients. Demographic data and patient characteristics, timing of VAC dressing and ABRA system were recorded. ICU and hospital stay and development of incisional hernia were also recorded. Stage of open abdomen, width of abdominal defect, extent to damage to fascia, and pressure sores were staged. The mean duration with VAC dressing before ABRA application was 18 days. The mean duration of ABRA application was 53 days. The average width of the abdominal defect was 18 cm. The average length of defect was 20.8 cm. Delayed primary abdominal closure was accomplished in 6 patients without further surgery. Incisional hernia with a small abdominal defect developed in 2 patients. Abdominal re-approximation anchor system and VAC dressing can be used separately or in conjunction with each other for closure of delayed open abdomen successfully.

  18. Vacuum production; Produccion de vacio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, J. L. de

    2010-07-01

    Since the advent of ultra high vacuum in 1958 has been a great demand for new as means of production and to meet the process needs to be done: industry heavy, high technology and space research areas, large accelerator systems particles or nuclear fusion. In this paper we explore the modern media production: dry vacuum pumps, turbo pumps, pump status diffusion ion pumps and cryopumps. (Author)

  19. On Stakeholders and the Decision Making Process Concerning Sustainable Renovation and Refurbishment in Sweden, Denmark and Cyprus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohardani, Navid; Björk, Folke; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the decision making process related to sustainable renovation and refurbishment in buildings. The utilized methodology identifies three distinct phases in order to instigate an engagement in sustainable renovation, by means of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews...... existing instruments for sustainable renovation and refurbishment....

  20. Modernization of NASA's Johnson Space Center Chamber: A Liquid Nitrogen System to Support Cryogenic Vacuum Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sammy; Homan, Jonathan; Montz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA is the mission lead for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next of the “Great Observatories”, scheduled for launch in 2018. It is directly responsible for the integration and test (I&T) program that will culminate in an end-to-end cryo vacuum optical test of the flight telescope and instrument module in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center. Historic Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center and one of the largest space simulation chambers in the world. Chamber A has undergone a major modernization effort to support the deep cryogenic, vacuum and cleanliness requirements for testing the JWST. This paper describes the steps performed in efforts to convert the existing the 60’s era Liquid Nitrogen System from a forced flow (pumped) process to a natural circulation (thermo-siphon) process. In addition, the paper will describe the dramatic conservation of liquid nitrogen to support the long duration thermal vacuum testing. Lastly, describe the simplistic and effective control system which results in zero to minimal human inputs during steady state conditions.

  1. Calculation of a vacuum system of the installation for cleaning the surface of metal rolling by a cathode spot of a vacuum arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. G.; Kurbanov, T. A.; Kostrin, D. K.

    2017-07-01

    In this work are presented the installations for cleaning the surface of rolled products (wire and ribbon) from scale and technological lubricant with gateway systems of open type. The calculation of gateway devices and the optimal selection of pumping systems are shown.

  2. The effects of acoustical refurbishment of classrooms on teachers’ perceived noise exposure and noise-related health symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Lund, Søren Peter; Persson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether acoustical refurbishment of classrooms for elementary and lower secondary grade pupils affected teachers’ perceived noise exposure during teaching and noise-related health symptoms. Methods: Two schools (A and B) with a total of 102 teachers were subjected...... to an acoustical intervention. Accordingly, 36 classrooms (20 and 16 in school A and school B, respectively) were acoustically refurbished and 31 classrooms (16 and 15 in school A and school B, respectively) were not changed. Thirteen classrooms in school A were interim “sham” refurbished. Control measurements...... classrooms were associated with lower perceived noise exposure and lower ratings of disturbance attributed to noise from equipment in the class compared with unrefurbished classrooms. No associations between the classroom refurbishment and health symptoms were observed. Before acoustical refurbishment...

  3. Use of ultraportable vacuum therapy systems in the treatment of venous leg ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Roberto; Nisi, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Luca; Brandi, Cesare; D'Aniello, Carlo

    2017-10-23

    The high incidence of venous leg ulcers and the difficult to give a complete healing involves in an increase of costs for National Health System. Main therapies to obtain a fast healing are compressive bandages, treatment of abnormal venous flow and in-situ-strategies of wound care. Negative pressure therapy does not conventionally used, because these systems not allow the use of compression bandages. Recently the development of ultraportable devices has improved the compliance and the results. Ten patients with venous chronic ulcer on the lower extremities were recruited for this study: all patients had venous leg ulcers from at least one year. We treated the patients with autologous partial thickness skin graft and subsequently we applied NANOVA device included in compressive bandage. We used NANOVA for fourteen days and after we made traditional medications. We submitted a questionnaire to evaluate the impact of dressing and NANOVA device in the quality of life of patients. The device contributed to the formation of granulation tissue and increased the success rate of autologous skin graft without limiting mobility of patient. In addition to this, we have been able to perform compression bandages thanks to small size of this device. Eight ulcers healed within 90 days of medication. We believe that ultraportable negative pressure systems are useful devices for treatment of venous leg ulcers because them allows to realize a compressive bandage without mobility limitations.

  4. Stakeholders View on Commercial Benefits for Energy Neutral Refurbishment of Let Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinou, T.; Schipper, H.R.; Binnekamp, R.; Gerritsen, Esther; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2017-01-01

    In Europe, the DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU requires increasing the number of nearly zero energy buildings. The existing building stock needs to be included in order to achieve the 2020 EU environmental targets. The main barriers of energy neutral refurbishment of existing non-residential buildings appear

  5. BIM-Based Timber Structures Refurbishment of the Immovable Heritage Listed Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henek, Vladan; Venkrbec, Václav

    2017-12-01

    The use of Building information model (BIM) design tools is no longer an exception, but a common issue. When designing new buildings or complex renovations using BIM, the benefits have already been repeatedly published. The essence of BIM is to create a multidimensional geometric model of a planned building electronically on a computer, supplemented with the necessary information in advance of the construction process. Refurbishment is a specific process that combines both - new structures and demolished structures, or structures that need to be dismantled, repaired, and then returned to the original position. Often it can be historically valuable part of the building. BIM-based repairs and refurbishments of the constructions, especially complicated repairs of the structures of roof trusses of immovable heritage listed buildings, have not yet been credibly presented. However, the use of BIM tools may be advantageous in this area, because user can quickly response to the necessary changes that may be needed during refurbishments, but also in connection with the quick assessment and cost estimation of any unexpected additional works. The paper deals with the use of BIM in the field of repairs and refurbishment of the buildings in general. The emphasis on monumentally protected elements was priority. Advantage of the proposal research is demonstrated on case study of the refurbishment of the immovable heritage listed truss roof. According to this study, this construction was realized in the Czech Republic. Case study consists of 3D modelled truss parts and the connected technological workflow base. The project work was carried out in one common model environment.

  6. Development of particle characteristics diagnosis system for nanoparticle analysis in vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongbin; Mun, Jihun; Kim, HyeongU; Yun, Ju-Young; Kim, Yong-Ju; Kim, TaeWan; Kim, Taesung; Kang, Sang-Woo

    2016-02-01

    A particle characteristics diagnosis system (PCDS) was developed to measure nano-sized particle properties by a combination of particle beam mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It allows us to measure the size distributions of nano-sized particles in real time, and the shape and composition can be determined by in situ SEM imaging and EDS scanning. PCDS was calibrated by measuring the size-classified nano-sized NaCl particles generated using an aqueous solution of NaCl by an atomizer. After the calibration, the characteristics of nano-sized particles sampled from the exhaust line of the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process were determined using PCDS.

  7. Beam related thermal losses on the cryogenic and vacuum systems of LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Cavallari, Giorgio; Geschonke, Günther; Kaiser, D; Jiménez, J M

    1997-01-01

    The LEP Collider was operated in 1997 with 60 superconducting four-cavity accelerating modules (about 2600 MV available) installed at the four interaction points. During operation for physics it was o bserved that the dissipated heat in the superconducting cavities is not only a function of the acceleration gradient but it also depends on beam characteristics: number of bunches, bunch length and cu rrent per bunch. These beam effects were not foreseen in the original heat budget of the LEP refrigerators. Three days of LEP Machine Development were dedicated in August 97 to clarifying the correlat ion of the losses with the beam characteristics. The beam dependent heat load of the cryogenic system for the superconducting cavities is described. The dependence on various beam parameters is presen ted and scaling laws are given. A possible explanation will be presented and the consequence for LEP operation will be discussed.

  8. The vacuum platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes GridPP’s Vacuum Platform for managing virtual machines (VMs), which has been used to run production workloads for WLCG and other HEP experiments. The platform provides a uniform interface between VMs and the sites they run at, whether the site is organised as an Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud system such as OpenStack, or an Infrastructure-as-a-Client system such as Vac. The paper describes our experience in using this platform, in developing and operating VM lifecycle managers Vac and Vcycle, and in interacting with VMs provided by LHCb, ATLAS, ALICE, CMS, and the GridPP DIRAC service to run production workloads.

  9. Thermal Distortion Measurements of a Dual Gridded Antenna Reflector with Laser Radar System Integrated to a Thermal Vacuum Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Peter Jens; Doring, Daniel; Ihle, Alexander; Reichmann, Olaf; Maeyaert, Michiel

    2014-06-01

    A dual gridded reflector for Ku-Band applications (KuDGR) with two actually gridded shells made of single and individually shaped CFRP-rods (single carbon fibre reinforced plastic) has been developed by HPS. Due to the fact that these shells are made of CFRP-rods conventional methods for coordinate and thermal-distortion (TD) measuring could not be used. Therefore, the Laser Radar system (LR) was identified as best suitable measurement method for this application.The LR was chosen during the KaDGR study performed by HPS due to its capability to measure points contactless without targets and with high precision and a great number of measurement points in a short time. Furthermore, due to the gridded structure measurement systems using interferometric patterns (ESPI, Shearography) or structured light projection could not be applied.The performance of the Laser Radar system was tested during preliminary measurements on the KuDGR bread- board model. For the first environmental tests on the engineering model, the test methods at IABG were specifically adapted and qualified in order to verify that the Laser Radar system can handle the constrains set by a thermal-vacuum (TV) test facility. During the verification test run the objectives were to verify the compatibility of the LR with the positioning with respect to the chamber, the visibility, the test facilities viewport and setup inside the chamber as well as the achievable measurement accuracy. The general compatibility could be shown and optimisations regarding test setup and better accuracy were identified. Since the active surfaces of the reflector contains a multitude of single rods all with different shapes and lengths the vibration influences of the individual facility systems onto the reflector were investigated.The LR system is widely used in industrial applications but references regarding measuring thermo-elastic distortions in a TV test facility using this method are still rare. IABG has developed and

  10. Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

  11. Managing Coil Epoxy Vacuum Impregnation Systems at the Manufacturing Floor Level To Achieve Ultimate Properties in State-of-the-Art Magnet Assemblies

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, Jeffrey G

    2005-01-01

    Liquid epoxy resin impregnation systems remain a state-of-the-art polymer material for vacuum and vacuum/pressure impregnation applications in the manufacture of both advanced and conventional coil winding configurations. Epoxy resins inherent latitude in processing parameters accounts for their continued popularity in engineering applications, but also for the tendency to overlook or misinterpret the requisite processing parameters on the manufacturing floor. Resin system impregnation must be managed in detail in order to achieve device life cycle reliability. This closer look reveals how manufacturing floor level management of material acceptance, handling and storage, pre- and post- impregnation processing and cure can be built into a manufacturing plan to increase manufacturing yield, lower unit cost and ensure optimum life cycle performance of the coil.

  12. Vacuum Rabi splitting in a coupled system of single quantum dot and photonic crystal cavity: effect of local and propagation Green's functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Cong; Liu, Jing-Feng; Zhuo, Xiao-Lu; Chen, Gengyan; Jin, Chong-Jun; Wang, Xue-Hua

    2013-10-07

    We investigate the light emission characteristics for single two level quantum dot (QD) in a realistic photonic crystal (PC) L3 cavity based upon the local coupling strength between the QD and cavity together with the Green's function in which the propagation function related to the position of the detector is taken into account. We find for a PC cavity that the line shape of the propagation function in frequency domain is identical to that of the cavity and independent on the detector's position. We confirm that this identity is not influenced by the horizontal decay of the cavity. Furthermore, it is revealed that the vacuum fluorescence spectrum of the coupled system never give the triplet in strong coupling regime. Our work demonstrates that the experimental spectral-triplet in coupled system of single QD and PC cavity cannot be individually understood by vacuum Rabi splitting without including other physics mechanism.

  13. Dynamic Models of Vacuum-Evaporator Plants for Dairy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Airapetiants

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies problems of linearized dynamic models intended for synthesis of automatic temperature control systems and vacuum depth in vacuum evaporators. А single-casing vacuum evaporator plant is considered as an object of automatic control. Disturbance input channels are discerned and transfer functions permitting to determine laws of temperature and vacuum regulation and optimum parameters for setting automatic regulators used for various operational modes of vacuum-evaporator plants are obtained on the basis of the executed analysis.

  14. RELATION BETWEEN FUNCTION AND FORM IN VACUUM CLEANERS DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RADU Ștefan

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses how robotic vacuum cleaner works, describing their cleaning capabilities and additional features. The paper illustrates advantages of using robotic vacuum cleaners that have intelligent programming and a vacuum cleaning system, the components of a robotic vacuum cleaner. The paper develops aspects concerning to create 2D scale models for the evaluation of specific features of the new components for a prototype robotic vacuum cleaner.

  15. RELATION BETWEEN FUNCTION AND FORM IN VACUUM CLEANERS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU Ștefan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses how robotic vacuum cleaner works, describing their cleaning capabilities and additional features. The paper illustrates advantages of using robotic vacuum cleaners that have intelligent programming and a vacuum cleaning system, the components of a robotic vacuum cleaner. The paper develops aspects concerning to create 2D scale models for the evaluation of specific features of the new components for a prototype robotic vacuum cleaner.

  16. Prospective study examining clinical outcomes associated with a negative pressure wound therapy system and Barker's vacuum packing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Michael L; Demetriades, Demetrios; Fabian, Timothy C; Kaplan, Mark J; Miles, William S; Schreiber, Martin A; Holcomb, John B; Bochicchio, Grant; Sarani, Babak; Rotondo, Michael F

    2013-09-01

    The open abdomen has become a common procedure in the management of complex abdominal problems and has improved patient survival. The method of temporary abdominal closure (TAC) may play a role in patient outcome. A prospective, observational, open-label study was performed to evaluate two TAC techniques in surgical and trauma patients requiring open abdomen management: Barker's vacuum-packing technique (BVPT) and the ABThera(TM) open abdomen negative pressure therapy system (NPWT). Study endpoints were days to and rate of 30-day primary fascial closure (PFC) and 30-day all-cause mortality. Altogether, 280 patients were enrolled from 20 study sites. Among them, 168 patients underwent at least 48 hours of consistent TAC therapy (111 NPWT, 57 BVPT). The two study groups were well matched demographically. Median days to PFC were 9 days for NPWT versus 12 days for BVPT (p = 0.12). The 30-day PFC rate was 69 % for NPWT and 51 % for BVPT (p = 0.03). The 30-day all-cause mortality was 14 % for NPWT and 30 % for BVPT (p = 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that patients treated with NPWT were significantly more likely to survive than the BVPT patients [odds ratio 3.17 (95 % confidence interval 1.22-8.26); p = 0.02] after controlling for age, severity of illness, and cumulative fluid administration. Active NPWT is associated with significantly higher 30-day PFC rates and lower 30-day all-cause mortality among patients who require an open abdomen for at least 48 h during treatment for critical illness.

  17. Image Analysis of OSIRIS-REx Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS) Thermal Vacuum Test Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett Gordon, Kenneth; Bos, Brent J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of NASA’s OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission, which launched in September 2016, is to travel to the near-Earth asteroid 101955 Bennu, survey and map the asteroid, and return a scientifically interesting sample to Earth in 2023. As a part of its suite of integrated sensors, the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft includes a Touch-And-Go Camera System (TAGCAMS). The purpose of TAGCAMS is to provide imagery during the mission to facilitate navigation to the target asteroid, acquisition of the asteroid sample, and confirmation of the asteroid sample stowage in the spacecraft’s Sample Return Capsule (SRC). After first being calibrated at Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) at the instrument level, the TAGCAMS were then transferred to Lockheed Martin (LM), where they were put through a progressive series of spacecraft-level environmental tests. These tests culminated in a several-week long, spacecraft-level thermal vacuum (TVAC) test during which hundreds of images were recorded. To analyze the images, custom codes were developed using MATLAB R2016a programming software. For analyses of the TAGCAMS dark images, the codes observed the dark current level for each of the images as a function of the camera-head temperature. Results confirm that the detector dark current noise has not increased and follows similar trends to the results measured at the instrument-level by MSSS. This indicates that the electrical performance of the camera system is stable, even after integration with the spacecraft, and will provide imagery with the required signal-to-noise ratio during spaceflight operations. During the TVAC testing, the TAGCAMS were positioned to view optical dot targets suspended in the chamber. Results for the TAGCAMS light images using a centroid analysis on the positions of the optical target holes indicate that the boresight pointing of the two navigation cameras depend on spacecraft temperature, but will not change by more than ten pixels (approximately 2

  18. HiPTI - High Performance Thermal Insulation, Annex 39 to IEA/ECBCS-Implementing Agreement. Vacuum insulation in the building sector. Systems and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Moosmann, A.; Steinke, G.; Schonhardt, U.; Fregnan, F. [Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW), Muttenz (Switzerland); Simmler, H.; Brunner, S.; Ghazi, K.; Bundi, R. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Heinemann, U.; Schwab, H. [ZAE Bayern, Wuerzburg (Germany); Cauberg, H.; Tenpierik, M. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Johannesson, G.; Thorsell, T. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); Erb, M.; Nussbaumer, B. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG, Basel and Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report on vacuum insulation panels (VIP) presents and discusses the work done under IEA/Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS) Annex 39, subtask B on the basis of a wide selection of reports from practice. The report shows how the building trade deals with this new material today, the experience gained and the conclusions drawn from this work. As well as presenting recommendations for the practical use of VIP, the report also addresses questions regarding the effective insulation values to be expected with current VIP, whose insulation performance is stated as being a factor of five to eight times better than conventional insulation. The introduction of this novel material in the building trade is discussed. Open questions and risks are examined. The fundamentals of vacuum insulation panels are discussed and the prerequisites, risks and optimal application of these materials in the building trade are examined.

  19. The Efficacy of Waste Management Plans in Australian Commercial Construction Refurbishment Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hardie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Renovation and refurbishment of the existingcommercial building stock is a growing area oftotal construction activity and a significantgenerator of waste sent to landfill in Australia. Awritten waste management plan (WMP is awidespread regulatory requirement forcommercial office redevelopment projects. Thereis little evidence, however, that WMPs actuallyincrease the quantity of waste that is ultimatelydiverted from landfill. Some reports indicate anabsence of any formal verification or monitoringprocess by regulators to assess the efficacy ofthe plans. In order to gauge the extent of theproblem a survey was conducted of twenty fourconsultants and practitioners involved incommercial office building refurbishment projectsto determine the state of current practice withregard to WMPs and to elicit suggestions withregard to ways of making the process moreeffective. Considerable variation in commitmentto recycling policies was encountered indicatinga need to revisit waste minimisation practices ifthe environmental performance of refurbishmentprojects is to be improved.

  20. Analytical cell decontamination and shielding window refurbishment. Final report, March 1984-March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smokowski, R.T.

    1985-12-01

    This is a report on the decontamination and refurbishment of five inactive contaminated analytical cells and six zinc bromide filled shielding windows. The analytical cells became contaminated during the nuclear fuel reprocessing carried out by Nuclear Fuel Services from 1966 to 1972. The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) work was performed in these cells to make them useful as laboratories in support of the West Valley Demonstration Project. To accomplish this objective, unnecessary equipment was removed from these cells. Necessary equipment and the interior of each cell were decontaminated and repaired. The shielding windows, essentially tanks holding zinc bromide, were drained and disassembled. The deteriorated, opaque zinc bromide was refined to optical clarity and returned to the tanks. All wastes generated in this operation were characterized and disposed of properly. All the decontamination and refurbishment was accomplished within 13 months. The Analytical Hot Cell has been turned over to Analytical Chemistry for the performance high-level waste (HLW) characterization analysis.

  1. What Institutional Dynamics Guide Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Refurbishment and Reuse in Urban China?

    OpenAIRE

    Steuer, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    For over two decades China has faced a veritable e-waste challenge due to the continuous increase in quantities of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) coming from foreign and domestic sources. Over more than a decade, the government’s response has been focussed on developing large-scale recycling facilities so as to recover the valuable materials within WEEE. Simultaneously, China is home to a vast, informal segment, which engages in the collection, refurbishment, and processing ...

  2. Thermal protection and refurbishment of an old building. Lectures; Waermeschutz und Altbausanierung. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the 22nd Hanseatic Reconstruction Symposium at the Baltic Seaside Heringsdorf/Usedom (Federal Republic of Germany) from 3rd to 5th November 2011, the following lectures were held: (1) Energetic refurbishment possibilities for building within existing properties by means of representative examples (F. Deitschum); (2) Constructional thermal insulation and indoor climate - for the good of the environment? (S. Groer); (3) Innovative insulating materials for the structural refurbishment? (O. Fechner); (4) Energetic half-timbering refurbishment (K. Lissner); (5) Wooden solar facades for existing buildings (U. Schwarz); (6) Timber beam bowls in a historic brickwork (U. Mueller); (7) Timber beam bowls and interior insulation (U. Ruisinger); (8) Innovative solutions for cavity filling insulations (A. Stefenelli); (9) Thermal insulating plaster - also for historical buildings (T. Stahl); (10) Experimental tension analysis of the structural behaviour of historical cross vaults (A.-J. Petereit); (10) Investigation of the increase of the flexural strength of stonework constructions with self-compacting steel fibre reinforced concrete (D. Haessler); (11) Dry and dense - the modified WTA leaflet 4-6, 'Subsequent sealing of components in contact with soil' - Content and innovations (R. Spirgatis); (12) What does the new standard DIN 68800 hold? (H. Willeitner); (13) News from the standard DIN 18195 waterproofing of buildings (H.-P. Sommer); (14) Liability of planning of the offering entrepreneur (H. Immoor); (15) Climate change and preservation of structures (W. Zillig); (16) Typical problems and deficiencies of the energetic refurbishment of old store buildings (H. Boehmer); (17) When do ex post horizontal sealings with injection agents make sense - Fundamentals for evaluation, planning and execution (F.-J. Hoelzen); (18) Drying up behaviour of stonework of different quality and at different variants of insulation (F. Antretter).

  3. Refurbishment of SRB aluminum components by walnut hull blast removal of protective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

    1982-01-01

    A test program was conducted to develop, optimize, and scale up an abrasive blasting procedure was developed for refurbishment of specific SRB components: aft skirt, forward skirt, frustrum, and painted piece parts. Test specimens utilizing 2219 T87 aluminum substrate of varying thicknesses were prepared and blasted at progressively increasing pressures with selected abrasives. Specimens were analyzed for material response. The optimum blasting parameters were determined on panel specimens and verified on a large cylindrical integrated test bed.

  4. Do central vacuum cleaners produce less indoor airborne dust or airborne cat allergen, during and after vacuuming, compared with regular vacuum cleaners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, R T; Driessen, M N B M; Oldenwening, M; Doekes, G; Brunekreef, B

    2004-06-01

    Vacuum cleaners with a central exhaust may lead to lower airborne dust and allergen concentrations compared with regular vacuum cleaners. In 12 houses, equipped with a central vacuum cleaning system, a standardized vacuum cleaning protocol was performed comparing airborne dust and allergen concentrations between the central system and a regular cleaner. Airborne dust concentrations during (104 vs. 95 microg/m(3)) and after vacuum cleaning (38 vs. 36 microg/m(3)) were not significantly different. In houses with a cat, Fel d 1 concentrations were also not significantly different either during (6.12 vs.5.91 ng/m(3)) and after (0.64 vs. 0.91 ng/m(3)) use of the vacuum cleaners. Airborne dust and Fel d 1 concentrations increased considerably during use of both vacuum cleaners. Compared with central vacuum cleaning systems, conventional modern vacuum cleaners do not cause higher airborne dust or cat allergen concentrations during and after use. This study shows that the amount of dust or cat allergen in the air during and after vacuum cleaning is similar when comparing a central vacuum cleaner with a regular vacuum cleaner. Therefore, allergen avoidance advice given to reduce exposure of allergic asthmatic patients to allergens, does not necessarily have to include switching to a central vacuum cleaner.

  5. Vacuum technology in the chemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Jorisch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the very successful German edition and a seminar held by the German Engineers` Association (VDI) on a regular basis for years now, this English edition has been thoroughly updated and revised to reflect the latest developments. It supplies in particular the special aspects of vacuum technology, applied vacuum pump types and vacuum engineering in the chemical, pharmaceutical and process industry application-segments. The text includes chapters dedicated to latest European regulations for operating in hazardous zones with vacuum systems, methods for process pressure control and regulati

  6. Simulations and Vacuum Tests of a CLIC Accelerating Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2011-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider, under study, is based on room temperature high gradient structures. The vacuum specificities of these cavities are low conductance, large surface areas and a non-baked system. The main issue is to reach UHV conditions (typically 10-7 Pa) in a system where the residual vacuum is driven by water outgassing. A finite element model based on an analogy thermal/vacuum has been built to estimate the vacuum profile in an accelerating structure. Vacuum tests are carried out in a dedicated set-up, the vacuum performances of different configurations are presented and compared with the predictions.

  7. The Role of Laser Additive Manufacturing Methods of Metals in Repair, Refurbishment and Remanufacturing - Enabling Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leino, Maija; Pekkarinen, Joonas; Soukka, Risto

    Circular economy is an economy model where products, components, and materials are aimed to be kept at their highest utility and value at all times. Repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing processes are procedures aiming at returning the value of the product during its life cycle. Additive manufacturing (AM) is expected to be an enabling technology in circular economy based business models. One of AM process that enables repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing is Directed Energy Deposition. Respectively Powder Bed Fusion enables manufacturing of replacement components on demand. The aim of this study is to identify the current research findings and state of art of utilizing AM in repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing processes of metallic products. The focus is in identifying possibilities of AM in promotion of circular economy and expected environmental benefits based on the found literature. Results of the study indicate significant potential in utilizing AM in repair, refurbishment and remanufacturing activities.

  8. Nanoscale Vacuum Channel Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Moon, Dong-Il; Meyyappan, M

    2017-04-12

    Vacuum tubes that sparked the electronics era had given way to semiconductor transistors. Despite their faster operation and better immunity to noise and radiation compared to the transistors, the vacuum device technology became extinct due to the high power consumption, integration difficulties, and short lifetime of the vacuum tubes. We combine the best of vacuum tubes and modern silicon nanofabrication technology here. The surround gate nanoscale vacuum channel transistor consists of sharp source and drain electrodes separated by sub-50 nm vacuum channel with a source to gate distance of 10 nm. This transistor performs at a low voltage (3 microamperes). The nanoscale vacuum channel transistor can be a possible alternative to semiconductor transistors beyond Moore's law.

  9. Fuskite® preliminary experimental tests based on permeation against vacuum for hydrogen recovery as a potential application in Pb15.7Li loop systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacristán, R., E-mail: mrosa.sacristan@sener.es [SENER Ingeniería y Sistemas, C/ Provença 392, 5a, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Veredas, G. [EURATOM-CIEMAT Fusion Assoc., Fusion Technology Division, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bonjoch, I. [SENER Ingeniería y Sistemas, C/ Provença 392, 5a, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Peñalva, I. [UPV/EHU, Departamento de Ingeniería Nuclear y Mecánica de Fluidos, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Calderón, E. [SENER Ingeniería y Sistemas, C/ Provença 392, 5a, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Alberro, G. [UPV/EHU, Departamento de Ingeniería Nuclear y Mecánica de Fluidos, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Balart, D. [SENER Ingeniería y Sistemas, Avda. Zugazarte 56, 48930 Las Arenas, Vizcaya (Spain); Sarrionandia-Ibarra, A. [UPV/EHU, Departamento de Ingeniería Nuclear y Mecánica de Fluidos, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Pérez, V. [SENER Ingeniería y Sistemas, Avda. Zugazarte 56, 48930 Las Arenas, Vizcaya (Spain); Ibarra, A. [EURATOM-CIEMAT Fusion Assoc., Fusion Technology Division, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Legarda, F. [UPV/EHU, Departamento de Ingeniería Nuclear y Mecánica de Fluidos, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Full material characterization as far as hydrogen transport properties are concern. • Quantification of permeator leaks and material degasification. • Analysis of H{sub 2} recovered by means of permeation against vacuum in different conditions. • Hydrogen recovery efficiencies determination. - Abstract: Tritium recovery in fusion reactors is one of the main goals in R and D, as a limited inventory is available and its uneconomic production. That is the reason why efficient technologies are indispensable to be developed in order to achieve fast tritium recovery and its subsequent reuse in the system for increasing its self-sufficiency. In this work a flexible tritium recovery demonstrator prototype based on permeation against vacuum concept has been designed and manufactured, as well as all necessary equipment for a Pb15.7Li loop implementation in order to test and demonstrate that an in-pipe integrated solution is possible, and at the same time, to validate the manufacturing process. Thus, efficient rates for more optimized future models could be then extrapolated. The aim of this paper is to show the different testing results that have been carried out in this research project. These results include permeation properties of the material considered for the permeator, as long as it has been manufactured with a novel technique, Selective Laser Melting. They also include vacuum tests on the permeator to quantify possible leakages and to set up and analyze the capability to generate vacuum inside the permeator, and finally, permeation tests with the prototype, in a first stage with a gas mixture of hydrogen and argon inside the loop instead of Pb15.7Li.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope maintenance and refurbishment planning analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzano, F.; Kincade, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an updated analytical approach toward the identification of Hubble Space Telescope system failures and downstates, maintenance requirements, and overall support to maintenance mission planning. Different sparing options of Orbital Replacement Units are evaluated, and the optimum spares complement that satisfies the expected servicing requirements is identified. Specific Space Telescope Reliability and maintenance Simulation Computer Program (SPATEL) updates and refinements are reported, and input data updates relevant to failure rates, downstate ground rules, and maintenance policy are addressed. A summary of the latest SPATEL outputs is provided along with maintenance analysis results.

  11. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Souce for System-Level Testing of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of an improved vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source used for characterizing and calibrating remote optical sensors, in situ, throughout their testing period. The original flat plate radiometric source was developed for use by the VIIRS instrument during the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). Following this effort, the FPI has had significant upgrades in order to improve both the radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of the VIIRS testing with the reconfigured FPI are reported and discussed.

  12. Microscale Digital Vacuum Electronic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement microscale digital vacuum electronic gates. In one embodiment, a microscale digital vacuum electronic gate includes: a microscale field emitter that can emit electrons and that is a microscale cathode; and a microscale anode; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are disposed within at least a partial vacuum; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are separated by a gap; and where the potential difference between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is controllable such that the flow of electrons between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is thereby controllable; where when the microscale anode receives a flow of electrons, a first logic state is defined; and where when the microscale anode does not receive a flow of electrons, a second logic state is defined.

  13. Quantum vacuum noise in physics and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2001-09-01

    The concept of the vacuum in quantum field theory is a subtle one. Vacuum states have a rich and complex set of properties that produce distinctive, though usually exceedingly small, physical effects. Quantum vacuum noise is familiar in optical and electronic devices, but in this paper I wish to consider extending the discussion to systems in which gravitation, or large accelerations, are important. This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of a viscous fluid. One result is that rapidly changing gravitational fields can create particles from the vacuum, and in turn the backreaction on the gravitational dynamics operates like a damping force. I consider such effects in early universe cosmology and the theory of quantum black holes, including the possibility that the large-scale structure of the universe might be produced by quantum vacuum noise in an early inflationary phase. I also discuss the curious phenomenon that an observer who accelerates through a quantum vacuum perceives a bath of thermal radiation closely analogous to Hawking radiation from black holes, even though an inertial observer registers no particles. The effects predicted raise very deep and unresolved issues about the nature of quantum particles, the role of the observer, and the relationship between the quantum vacuum and the concepts of information and entropy. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  14. DC photogun vacuum characterization through photocathode lifetime studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcy Stutzman; Joseph Grames; Matt Poelker; Kenneth Surles-Law; Philip Adderley

    2007-07-02

    Excellent vacuum is essential for long photocathode lifetimes in DC high voltage photoelectron guns. Vacuum Research at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has focused on characterizing the existing vacuum systems at the CEBAF polarized photoinjector and on quantifying improvements for new systems. Vacuum chamber preprocessing, full activation of NEG pumps and NEG coating the chamber walls should improve the vacuum within the electron gun, however, pressure measurement is difficult at pressures approaching the extreme-high-vacuum (XHV) region and extractor gauge readings are not significantly different between the improved and original systems. The ultimate test of vacuum in a DC high voltage photogun is the photocathode lifetime, which is limited by the ionization and back-bombardment of residual gasses. Discussion will include our new load-locked gun design as well as lifetime measurements in both our operational and new photo-guns, and the correlations between measured vacuum and lifetimes will be investigated.

  15. CHICSi-a compact ultra-high vacuum compatible detector system for nuclear reaction experiments at storage rings. III. readout system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlén, L.; Førre, G.; Golubev, P.; Jakobsson, B.; Kolozhvari, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Siwek, A.; van Veldhuizen, E. J.; Westerberg, L.; Whitlow, H. J.; Østby, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    (CHICSi) Celsius Heavy Ion Collaboration Si detector system is a high granularity, modular detector telescope array for operation around the cluster-jet target/circulating beam intersection of the CELSIUS storage ring at the The. Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden. It is able to provide identity and momentum vector of up to 100 charged particles and fragments from proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at intermediate energies, 50-1000AMeV. All detector telescopes as well as the major part of electronic readout system are placed inside the target chamber in ultra-high vacuum (UHV, 10-9-10-7Pa). This requires Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) microchip for the spectroscopic signal processing and the generation and transport of digital control signals. Eighteen telescopes, read out with chip-on-board technique by ceramics Mother Boards (MB) and corresponding 18 microchips are mounted on a 450×45mm2 Grand Mother Board (GMB), processed on FR4 glass-fibre material. Each of these 28GMB units contains a daisy-chain organisation of the VLSI chips and associated protection circuits. Analogue-to-digital conversion of the spectroscopic signals is performed on a board outside the chamber which is connected on one side to a power distribution board, directly attached to a UHV mounting flange, and on the other side to the VME-based data acquisition system (CHICSiDAQ). This in its turn is connected via a fibre-optic link to the general TSL acquisition system (SVEDAQ), and in this way data from auxiliary detector systems, read out in CAMAC mode, can be stored in coincidence with CHICSi data.

  16. The vacuum disconnector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellekens, H.

    1989-05-01

    After showing the extended experience of Holec with vacuum disconnectors, the difficulties encountered in developing the type SVS vacuum bottle are indicated. The implications of demands imposed on price and dimensions are translated into design features. The function and the design of the getter is explained to show how Holec guarantees a 20 year approved vacuum in the bottle. Finally, the results of switching tests are mentioned to explain the reliability and capability of the new disconnector. 12 figs.

  17. Thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibrium in system Ti-B-Si-C, synthesis and phases composition of borides and carbides layers on titanic alloyVT-1 at electron beam treatment in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnyagina, N. N.; Khaltanova, V. M.; Lapina, A. E.; Dasheev, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    Composite layers on the basis of carbides and borides the titan and silicon on titanic alloy VT-1 are generated at diffused saturation in vacuum. Formation in a composite of MAX phase Ti3SiC2 is shown. Thermodynamic research of phase equilibrium in systems Ti-Si-C and Ti-B-C in the conditions of high vacuum is executed. The thermodynamics, formation mechanisms of superfirm layers borides and carbides of the titan and silicon are investigated.

  18. Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis-vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Baolong; Wang, Zhouwei; Xie, Ming; Song, Jianfeng; Nghiem, Long D; He, Tao; Yang, Chi; Li, Chunxia; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF sample obtained from a drilling site in China, the hybrid system could achieve almost 90% water recovery. Quality of the reclaimed water was comparable to that of bottled water. In the hybrid FO-VMD system, FO functions as a pre-treatment step to remove most contaminants and constituents that may foul or scale the membrane distillation (MD) membrane, whereas MD produces high quality water. It is envisioned that the FO-VMD system can recover high quality water not only from SGDF but also other wastewaters with high salinity and complex compositions.

  19. High-Rise Refurbishment: The Energy-Efficient Upgrade of Multi-Story Residences in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Some 36 million European households are in high-rise residences, one in six of all households, and yet many of the buildings are in urgent need of refurbishment. This study, which is one in a series being conducted on behalf of the International Energy Agency addressing the energy performance of the existing IEA-wide building stock, identifies a Europe-wide cost-effective energy saving potential of 28% from energy-efficient refurbishment of the high-rise residential building stock. Attainment of this potential would imply a 1.5% reduction of Europe's total final energy demand and annual CO2 emissions savings of 35 Mt. In practice only the less efficient buildings need to be refurbished to realise these stockaverage savings and for these buildings typical savings in heating energy from refurbishment of between 70 and 80% are identified. Buildings in general suffer from a variety of barriers that tend to prevent their occupants from maintaining and refurbishing them to levels of comfort and energy performance that would be justified over the longer term, but collective housing in general is particularly susceptible to market failures. Many occupants do not own the property while their landlords usually have little motivation to finance improvements. Refurbishment requires collective agreement on a capital investment, which is difficult to establish especially when some occupants expect to live in the building over the longer-term but others only for the short-term. Furthermore, in most cases the occupants of high-rise residences are not among the wealthier members of society and they find it difficult to raise capital for longer-term investments. It is not surprising, then, to find that this section of the building stock is the most neglected and that there remain significant cost-effective opportunities for it to be refurbished in a way that improves comfort, saves energy, reduces CO2 emissions and significantly improves the urban environment.

  20. Diamagnetic measurements in the STOR-M tokamak by a flux loop system exterior to the vacuum vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembach, Dallas; Xiao, Chijin; Dreval, Mykola; Hirose, Akira

    2009-05-01

    Diamagnetic measurements of poloidal beta have been performed in the STOR-M tokamak by a flux loop placed exterior to the vacuum chamber with compensation for the vacuum toroidal field using a nonenclosing coplanar coil, and vibrational compensation from auxiliary coils. It was found that in STOR-M conditions (20% toroidal magnetic field decay over discharge) there is significant influence on the diamagnetic flux measurements from strong residual signals, presumably from image currents being induced by the toroidal field coils, requiring further compensation. A blank (nonplasma) shot is used specifically to eliminate the residual component which is not proportional to the toroidal magnetic field. Data from normal Ohmic discharge operation is presented and calculations of poloidal beta from coil data (βθ˜0.5) is found to be in reasonable agreement with the values of poloidal beta obtained from measurements of electron density and Spitzer temperature with neoclassical corrections for trapped electrons. Contributions present in the blank shot (residual) signal and the limitations of this method are discussed.

  1. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  2. Refurbishment of single and double-glazed windows; Sanierung von einfach- und doppeltverglasten Fenstern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicher, H.; Erb, M.

    2001-01-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the research program on the efficient use of energy in buildings takes a look at the refurbishment of single and double-glazed windows. Topics examined include the assessment of window frame condition and the addition of seals as a cost-effective measure. Replacement of the window panes with various single and double glazing as well the installation of such glazing with special coatings is discussed. Further topics examined include the grey energy involved and noise protection aspects.

  3. Refurbishment of damaged tools using the combination of GTAW and laser beam welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tušek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of two welding processes for the refurbishment of damaged industrial tools. In the first part the problem is presented followed by the comparison of GTAW and laser welding in terms of repair welding of damaged tools. The macrosections of the welds show the difference between both welding processes in repairing of damaged tools. At the conclusion the main findings are presented. In many cases it is useful to use both welding processes in order to achieve better weld quality and to make welding more economical. The order of the technology used depends on the tool material, the use of the tool and the tool damage.

  4. Effect of electropolishing on vacuum furnace design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanwi Lahiri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermal shields of materials having low emissivity in vacuum furnaces is well-known. However, the surface condition of the heat shields is one of the most important factors governing their efficiency as radiation resistances. The emissivity of the thermal shields dictates the power rating of the heaters in furnace design. The unpolished materials used in the heater tests showed poor performance leading to loss of a signi­ficant percentage of the input power. The present work deals with the refur­bishment of the radiation heat shields used in a furnace for heating graphite structure. The effect of refurbishment of the heat shields by the buffing and subsequently electro­polishing was found to improve the performance of the shields as heat reflectors. The com­position of the electrolyte was chosen in such a way that the large shields of Mo, Inconel and SS can be polished using the same reagents in different ratios. The present work deals with the development of a standard electropolishing procedure for large metallic sheets and subsequently qualifying them by roughness and emissivity measure­ments. The improvement noted in the shielding efficiency of the furnace in the subsequent runs is also discussed here.

  5. Anaerobic polymers as high vacuum leak sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B. R. F.

    1982-01-01

    Anaerobic polymers are useful as solventless leak sealants with good vacuum properties at moderate temperatures. Loctite 290 can seal leaks in a range generally encountered in carefully constructed ultrahigh vacuum and high vacuum systems. It was found that small leaks are sealed best under vacuum, whereas large leaks should be sealed at atmospheric pressure. The high-temperature behavior of Loctite 290 is limited by its fast cure, which prevents deep penetration into small leaks; cracking eventually occurs at the entrance to the leak. Repeated thermal cycling to about 300 C is possible, however, provided viscosity, curing time, and leak size are properly matched to ensure penetration into the body of the leak. This may require special formulations for high temperature vacuum applications.

  6. Mechanics and Physics of Precise Vacuum Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Deulin, E. A; Panfilov, Yu V; Nevshupa, R. A

    2010-01-01

    In this book the Russian expertise in the field of the design of precise vacuum mechanics is summarized. A wide range of physical applications of mechanism design in electronic, optical-electronic, chemical, and aerospace industries is presented in a comprehensible way. Topics treated include the method of microparticles flow regulation and its determination in vacuum equipment and mechanisms of electronics; precise mechanisms of nanoscale precision based on magnetic and electric rheology; precise harmonic rotary and not-coaxial nut-screw linear motion vacuum feedthroughs with technical parameters considered the best in the world; elastically deformed vacuum motion feedthroughs without friction couples usage; the computer system of vacuum mechanisms failure predicting. This English edition incorporates a number of features which should improve its usefulness as a textbook without changing the basic organization or the general philosophy of presentation of the subject matter of the original Russian work. Exper...

  7. Optimal and Sustainable Plant Refurbishment in Historical Buildings: A Study of an Ancient Monastery Converted into a Showroom in Florence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Balocco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the possibility and sustainability of retrofit and refurbishment design solutions on historical buildings converted to different uses and often clashing with their original purpose and architectural features. The building studied is an ancient monastery located in the historical center of Florence (Italy. Today the original cloister is covered over by a single glazed pitched roof and used as a fashion showroom. Our proposed solution concerns a reversible and sustainable plant design integrated with an active transparent building casing. The existing glazed pitched roof was reconsidered and re-designed as part of the existing heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC plant system, based on the functioning of an active thermal buffer to control the high heat flow rates and external thermal loads due to solar radiation. Hourly whole building energy analysis was carried out to check the effectiveness and energy sustainability of our proposed solution. Results obtained showed, from the historical-architectural, energy and environmental points of view, its sustainability due to the building-plant system integration and interaction with its location, the external climatic conditions and defined expected uses, in particular with reference to indoor thermal comfort.

  8. On High Vacuum Densification of Soft Foundation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Mei Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high vacuum densification, which inserted the vacuum tube to increase the drainage channel, set up the improved drainage system so that it can effectively reduce the underground water level, can be used for the reinforcement of the deep soft foundation. According to analyze the preparation and process of high vacuum densification, and summarize the control points of high vacuum densification, it renders great value to the constuction of soft foundation treatment.

  9. 46 CFR 153.368 - Pressure-vacuum valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure-vacuum valves. 153.368 Section 153.368 Shipping... Systems § 153.368 Pressure-vacuum valves. (a) The pressure side of a required pressure-vacuum relief valve must begin to open only at a pressure exceeding 3.5 kPa gauge (approx. 0.5 psig). (b) A pressure-vacuum...

  10. Modular ultrahigh vacuum-compatible gas-injection system with an adjustable gas flow for focused particle beam-induced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingenberger, D.; Huth, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    A gas-injection system (GIS) heats up a powdery substance and transports the resulting gas through a capillary into a vacuum chamber. Such a system can be used to guide a (metal)organic precursor gas very close to the focal area of an electron or ion beam, where a permanent deposit is created and adheres to the substrate. This process is known as focused particle beam-induced deposition. The authors present design principles and give construction details of a GIS suitable for ultrahigh vacuum usage. The GIS is composed of several self-contained components which can be customized rather independently. It allows for a continuously adjustable gas-flow rate. The GIS was attached to a standard scanning electron microscope (JEOL 6100) and tested with the tungsten precursor W(CO){sub 6}. The analysis of the deposits by means of atomic force microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy provides clear evidence that excellent gas-flow-rate stability and ensuing growth rate and metal-content reproducibility are experienced.

  11. Integrating Simplified and Full Life Cycle Approaches in Decision Making for Building Energy Refurbishment: Benefits and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabat Oregi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle assessment (LCA method is a powerful tool that can serve to aid decision making regarding the environmental benefits of refurbishment projects. However, due to the relative complexity of LCA studies, simplified LCA methodologies are frequently used, focusing on just some of the building life cycle phases or a reduced number of indicators. The most common and widespread simplification is to only evaluate the differences a refurbishment project makes on the operational energy use of the building. This paper compares the results of applying full LCA, simplified LCA and operational energy use assessment in a refurbishment case study. Results show that simplified LCA methodologies including building use phase and product manufacturing phase can generally be sufficiently accurate to aid decision making for building energy refurbishment, as other building life cycle phases related to transport of products, on site construction, deconstruction or end of life represent a generally negligible part of the total life cycle impacts, both in terms of resource use or environmental impacts. Barriers and benefits of applying simplified LCA approaches to building energy refurbishment projects are subsequently discussed.

  12. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  13. Ultra-high vacuum technology for accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Hilleret, Noël; Strubin, Pierre M

    2002-01-01

    The lectures will start with a review of the basics of vacuum physics required to build Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) systems, such as static and dynamic outgassing. Before reviewing the various pumping and measurement devices, including the most modern one like Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) coatings, an overview of adequate materials to be used in UHV systems will be given together with their treatment (e.g. cleaning procedures and bake out). Practical examples based on existing or future accelerators will be used to illustrate the topics. Finally, a short overview of modern vacuum controls and interlocks will be given.

  14. Vacuum Stability of Standard Model^{++}

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lust, Dieter; Taylor, Tomasz R.; Vlcek, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The latest results of the ATLAS and CMS experiments point to a preferred narrow Higgs mass range (m_h \\simeq 124 - 126 GeV) in which the effective potential of the Standard Model (SM) develops a vacuum instability at a scale 10^{9} -10^{11} GeV, with the precise scale depending on the precise value of the top quark mass and the strong coupling constant. Motivated by this experimental situation, we present here a detailed investigation about the stability of the SM^{++} vacuum, which is characterized by a simple extension of the SM obtained by adding to the scalar sector a complex SU(2) singlet that has the quantum numbers of the right-handed neutrino, H", and to the gauge sector an U(1) that is broken by the vacuum expectation value of H". We derive the complete set of renormalization group equations at one loop. We then pursue a numerical study of the system to determine the triviality and vacuum stability bounds, using a scan of 10^4 random set of points to fix the initial conditions. We show that, if there...

  15. Refurbishment and optimisation of the heat-pump installation in the 'Kristal' building in Oberwald, Switzerland; Sanierung und Optimierung der Waermepumpenanlage mit Gebirgswasser im Haus Kristall in Oberwald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronig, H.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes how a heat-pump in a building in Oberwald, Switzerland, was refurbished and its operation optimised. The installation is part of a district heating scheme which uses the heat of drainage water from the nearby Furka railway tunnel as a source of heat for heat-pumps that heat various buildings in the village. This report deals with the refurbishment and optimisation of the installation in the 'Kristal' building, a 14-dwelling apartment house with a heating-energy requirement of 42 kW. The operating concept of the heat-pump installation is described and measurements made are presented in graphical form. Figures on the performance of the new, replacement heat-pump are quoted and commented on, as is the effective price for the heating energy delivered by the system.

  16. The Prevelence of SBS and Absenteeism among Children in Urban Refurbished Private Preshools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Naziah Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preschool education is compulsory to children in Malaysia. This regulation has encouraged more premises to be refurbished as a pre-school building. This paper examines the pupils’ absenteeism and the prevalence of Sick Building Symptoms (SBS initiated in congested private preschool with different ventilation strategies. The study analysed data from the attendance record of 10 classrooms and the questionnaire surveys administered to 151 parents about their children health symptoms once they were leaving the schools building. Questions on SBS used 5-point likert scale with symptoms concern on nose, eye, head, throat, skin, breath and tiredness. The descriptive and chi-square test applied to obtain the association of SBS and ventilation strategies in the classrooms. With quantitative and qualitative explanation, the unhealthy environment in refurbished pre-schools explained. Running nose, coughing and sore throat frequently reported in air-conditioning (AC classrooms. The higher absent rate found in AC classrooms. These symptoms show there were weaknesses in ventilation performance and environment in the selected preschools. Further analyses on objective measurements in future research are strongly recommended.

  17. Vacuum level effects on gait characteristics for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The elevated vacuum suspension system has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on gait characteristics is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated vacuum levels on temporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics for unilateral transtibial amputees. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted in 9 unilateral transtibial amputees walking at a controlled speed with five vacuum levels ranging from 0 to 20inHg, and also in 9 able-bodied subjects walking at self-preferred speed. Repeated ANOVA and Dunnett's t-test were performed to determine the effect of vacuum level and limb for within subject and between groups. The effect of vacuum level significantly affected peak hip external rotation and external knee adduction moment. Maximum braking and propulsive ground reaction forces generally increased for the residual limb and decreased for the intact limb with increasing vacuum. Additionally, the intact limb experienced an increased loading due to gait asymmetry for several variables. There was no systematic vacuum level effect on gait. Higher vacuum levels, such as 15 and 20inHg, were more comfortable and provided some relief to the intact limb, but may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis of the residual limb due to the increased peak external hip and knee adduction moments. Very low vacuum should be avoided because of the negative effects on gait symmetry. A moderate vacuum level at 15inHg is suggested for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Running Jobs in the Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Ubeda Garcia, M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously "in the vacuum" rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  19. One laptop per child, local refurbishment or overseas donations? Sustainability assessment of computer supply scenarios for schools in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher-Porte, Martin; Marthaler, Christian; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Camacho, Angel; Hilty, Lorenz M

    2009-08-01

    With the intention of bridging the 'digital divide' many programmes have been launched to provide computers for educational institutions, ranging from refurbishing second hand computers to delivering low cost new computers. The fast and economical provision of large quantities of equipment is one of the many challenges faced by such programmes. If an increase is to be achieved in the sustainability of computer supplies for schools, not only must equipment be provided, but also suitable training and maintenance delivered. Furthermore, appropriate recycling has to be ensured, so that end-of-life equipment can be dealt with properly. This study has evaluated the suitability of three computer supply scenarios to schools in Colombia: (i) 'Colombian refurbishment', -refurbishment of computers donated in Colombia, (ii) 'Overseas refurbishment', -import of computers which were donated and refurbished abroad, and (iii) 'XO Laptop', -purchase of low cost computers manufactured in Korea. The methods applied were: Material Flow Assessment, -to assess the quantities-, Life Cycle Assessment, -to assess the environmental impacts, and the application of the Multiple Attribute Utility Theory, -to analyse, evaluate and compare different scenarios. The most sustainable solution proved to be the local refurbishment of second hand computers of Colombian origin to an appropriate technical standard. The environmental impacts of such practices need to be evaluated carefully, as second hand appliances have to be maintained, require spare parts and sometimes use more energy than newer equipment. Providing schools with second hand computers from overseas and through programmes such as 'One Laptop Per Child' has the disadvantage that the potential for social improvements - such as creation of jobs and local industry involvement - is very low.

  20. The effects of refurbishment on residents' quality of life and wellbeing in two Swedish residential care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Hanna; Wijk, Helle; Persson, Lars-Olof

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to follow a refurbishment aimed at enhancing the supportiveness of the physical environment in two Swedish residential care facilities. Significant differences between intervention and equivalent reference groups were found for quality of life (p=0.007) and wellbeing (p=0.02, 0.01) indicating a deterioration for the intervention group. These results suggest that residential care facilities residents are more frail and sensitive to change than has been assumed. This needs to be considered when facilities accommodating the elderly need refurbishment. It also indicates that interior design features alone have little importance for the care climate in nursing homes.

  1. Oscillations of a polarizable vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Gilson

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A classical basis for one-dimensional Schrödinger quantum theory is constructed from simple vacuum polarization harmonic oscillators within standard stochastic theory. The model is constructed on a two-dimensional phase configuration surface with phase velocity vectors that have a speed of light zitterbewegung behaviour character. The system supplies a natural Hermitian scalar product describing probability density which is derived from angular momentum considerations. The generality of the model which is extensive is discussed.

  2. Development of an extremely thin-wall straw tracker operational in vacuum – The COMET straw tracker system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, H., E-mail: hajime.nishiguchi@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Evtoukhovitch, P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Jolio-Curie Str.6, Dubna, Moscow 141980 (Russian Federation); Fujii, Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), 19B YuquanLu, Shijingshan district, Beijing 1000049 (China); Hamada, E.; Mihara, S. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Moiseenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Jolio-Curie Str.6, Dubna, Moscow 141980 (Russian Federation); Noguchi, K.; Oishi, K.; Tanaka, S.; Tojo, J. [Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tsamalaidze, Z.; Tsverava, N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Jolio-Curie Str.6, Dubna, Moscow 141980 (Russian Federation); Ueno, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Volkov, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Jolio-Curie Str.6, Dubna, Moscow 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-11

    The COMET experiment at J-PARC aims to search for a lepton-flavour violating process of muon to electron conversion in a muonic atom, μ-e conversion, with a branching-ratio sensitivity of better than 10{sup −16}, 4 orders of magnitude better than the present limit, in order to explore the parameter region predicted by most of well-motivated theoretical models beyond the Standard Model. The need for this sensitivity places several stringent requirements on the detector development. The experiment requires to detect the monochromatic electron of 105 MeV, the momentum resolution is primarily limited by the multiple scattering effect for this momentum region. Thus we need the very light material detector in order to achieve an excellent momentum resolution, better than 2%, for 100 MeV region. In order to fulfil such a requirement, the thin-wall straw-tube planar tracker has been developed by an extremely light material which is operational in vacuum. The COMET straw tracker consists of 9.8 mm diameter straw tube, longer than 1 m length, with 20-μm-thick Mylar foil and 70-nm-thick aluminium deposition. Currently even thinner and smaller, 12 μm thick and 5 mm diameter, straw is under development by the ultrasonic welding technique.

  3. A study on the optimal design of a cyclone system for vacuum cleaner with the consideration of house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Gun Ho; Kim, Eung Dal; Kim, Young Soo [LG Electronics, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Keun; Ahn, Young Chull [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Gyu [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Cyclone, a type of particle collector widely used in the field of ambient sampling and industrial particulate control, is the principal type of gas-solids separator that use a centrifugal force. The goal of this study is to transform conventional cyclone into a new type of cyclone that can be used for the household vacuum cleaners. To meet the goal, first, the analysis about local environment and dust is carried out. Second, it must have enough high-efficiency not to reduce suction power due to clogging of exhaust filter unit. Two single cyclones with central-hopper-dust-outlet and side-wall-dust-outlet and a twin cyclone are designed and fabricated to evaluate, and compare, their dust collection efficiencies and pressure drops. The measurements of separation efficiency for dust by using DMT test dust type 08 are carried out. House dust experiment is additionally performed to check the local matters applicability such as tissue papers, fur and hairs. The collection efficiency of the twin cyclone is found to be 3-6% greater than those of two single cyclones with the same body diameter, inlet and inner cylinder diameter. Twin cyclone with a large body diameter, a small inner cylinder diameter, a short inner cylinder, a narrow inlet has high separation efficiency. This result indicates the possibility of achieving higher collection efficiencies with a twin cyclone.

  4. System for time resolved spectral studies of pulsed atmospheric discharges in the visible to vacuum ultraviolet range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laity, G; Neuber, A; Rogers, G; Frank, K

    2010-08-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission is believed to play a major role in the development of plasma streamers in pulsed atmospheric discharges, but detection of VUV light is difficult in pulsed experiments at atmospheric pressures. Since VUV light is absorbed in most standard optical materials as well, careful attention must be given to the selection of the lens and mirror optics used in these studies. Of highest interest is the VUV emission during the initial stage of pulsed atmospheric discharges, which has a typical duration in the nanosecond regime. An experiment was designed to study this fast initial stage of VUV emission coupled with fast optical imaging of streamer propagation, both with temporal resolution on the order of nanoseconds. A repetitive solid-state high voltage pulser was constructed which produces triggered flashover discharges with low jitter and consistent pulse amplitude. VUV emission is captured utilizing both photomultiplier and intensified charge-coupled device detectors during the fast stage of streamer propagation. These results are discussed in context with the streamer formation photographed in the visible wavelength regime with 3 ns exposure time.

  5. Handbook of vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive, standard work has been updated to remain an important resource for all those needing detailed knowledge of the theory and applications of vacuum technology. With many numerical examples and illustrations to visualize the theoretical issues.

  6. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  7. Vacuum-assisted delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the birth canal. The vacuum uses a soft plastic cup that attaches to the baby's head with suction. ... a numbing medicine placed in the vagina. The plastic cup will be placed on the baby's head. Then, ...

  8. Power vacuum tubes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Providing examples of applications, Power Vacuum Tubes Handbook, Third Edition examines the underlying technology of each type of power vacuum tube device in common use today. The author presents basic principles, reports on new development efforts, and discusses implementation and maintenance considerations. Supporting mathematical equations and extensive technical illustrations and schematic diagrams help readers understand the material. Translate Principles into Specific Applications This one-stop reference is a hands-on guide for engineering personnel involved in the design, specification,

  9. A Planck Vacuum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.

  10. Vacuum pumping for controlled thermonuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.S.; Fisher, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactors impose unique vacuum pumping problems involving very high pumping speeds, handling of hazardous materials (tritium), extreme cleanliness requirements, and quantitative recovery of pumped materials. Two principal pumping systems are required for a fusion reactor, a main vacuum system for evacuating the torus and a vacuum system for removing unaccelerated deuterium from neutral beam injectors. The first system must pump hydrogen isotopes and helium while the neutral beam system can operate by pumping only hydrogen isotopes (perhaps only deuterium). The most promising pumping techniques for both systems appear to be cryopumps, but different cryopumping techniques can be considered for each system. The main vacuum system will have to include cryosorption pumps cooled to 4.2/sup 0/K to pump helium, but the unburned deuterium-tritium and other impurities could be pumped with cryocondensation panels (4.2/sup 0/K) or cryosorption panels at higher temperatures. Since pumping speeds will be limited by conductance through the ducts and thermal shields, the pumping performance for both systems will be similar, and other factors such as refrigeration costs are likely to determine the choice. The vacuum pumping system for neutral beam injectors probably will not need to pump helium, and either condensation or higher temperature sorption pumps can be used.

  11. Refurbishment and modification of existing protective shipping packages (for 30-inch UF{sub 6} cylinders) per USDOT specification No. USA-DOT-21PF-1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Housholder, W.R. [Nuclear Containers, Incorporated, Elizabethton, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper addresses the refurbishment procedures for existing shipping containers for 30-inch diameter UF{sub 6} cylinders in accordance with DOT Specification 21PF-1 and the criteria used to determine rejection when such packages are unsuitable for refurbishment.

  12. Assembly of a Vacuum Chamber: A Hands-On Approach to Introduce Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussie`re, Guillaume; Stoodley, Robin; Yajima, Kano; Bagai, Abhimanyu; Popowich, Aleksandra K.; Matthews, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    Although vacuum technology is essential to many aspects of modern physical and analytical chemistry, vacuum experiments are rarely the focus of undergraduate laboratories. We describe an experiment that introduces students to vacuum science and mass spectrometry. The students first assemble a vacuum system, including a mass spectrometer. While…

  13. An integrated design process for a zero-energy refurbishment prototype for post-war residential buildings in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinou, T.; Klein, T.; Guerra Santin, O.; Boess, S.U.; Silvester, S.

    2015-01-01

    Although refurbishment is a necessary step to reach the ambitious energy and decarbonisation targets for 2020 and 2050, which require an eventual reduction up to 90% in CO2 emissions, the rate of renovation is still relatively low. There is an increasing demand to upgrade both the physical condition

  14. In vitro pressure manifolding distribution evaluation of ABThera™ Active Abdominal Therapy System, V.A.C.® Abdominal Dressing System, and Barker’s vacuum packing technique conducted under dynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Temporary abdominal closure methods allow for management of open abdomens where immediate primary closure is not possible and/or where repeat abdominal entries are necessary. We assessed pressure mapping and fluid extraction efficiency of three open abdomen dressing systems: ABThera™ Active Abdominal Therapy System, V.A.C.® Abdominal Dressing System, and Barker’s vacuum packing technique. Methods: An in vitro test model was designed to simulate physical conditions present in an open abdomen. The model consisted of a rigid rest platform with elevated central region and a flexible outer layer with centrally located incision. Constant −125 mmHg negative pressure was applied according to the type of system, under simulated dynamic conditions, using albumin-based solution with a viscosity of 14 cP. Data were collected by pressure sensors located circumferentially into three concentric zones: Zone 1 (closest to negative pressure source, Zone 2 (immediately outside of manifolding material edge, and Zone 3 (area most distal from negative pressure source. Each value was the result of approximately 100 pressure readings/zone/experiment with a total of three experiments for each system. Results: Pressure distribution of ABThera Therapy was significantly (p < 0.05 superior to Barker’s vacuum packing technique in all three evaluated zones. Similarly, V.A.C. Abdominal Dressing System pressure distribution was significantly (p < 0.05 improved compared to Barker’s vacuum packing technique in all zones. There were no pressure distribution differences in Zone 1 between ABThera Therapy and V.A.C. Abdominal Dressing System; however, in Zones 2 and 3, ABThera Therapy was significantly (p < 0.05 superior to V.A.C. Abdominal Dressing System. Conclusions: These data suggest that all approaches to negative pressure therapy for open abdomen treatment are not equal. Additional research should be conducted to elucidate clinical

  15. Vacuum induced photoresist outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Justin; Mbanaso, Chimaobi; Denbeaux, Gregory

    2008-03-01

    In order to continue the trend toward smaller feature sizes in lithography, new methods of lithography will be needed. A likely method for printing features 32 nm and smaller is extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. EUV allows for features to be printed that are smaller than the current methods can achieve. However, outgassing of the photoresist is a concern for EUV lithography. The outgassed components can lead to contamination of the optics, degrading the reflectivity and hence lowering throughput of the exposure tools. Outgassing due to EUV exposure has been investigated by many groups. However, there were no complete investigations available of vacuum induced outgassing. In this paper, several methods were employed to investigate the outgassing due to vacuum. It was found that the vacuum induced outgassing outgassed a similar number of molecules as the outgassing due to EUV exposure. Furthermore, almost all of the outgassing was completed after about two minutes in vacuum. To mitigate the potential concern of outgassing due to vacuum causing contamination of optics, this work shows that photoresist coated silicon wafers only require about two minutes of pumping prior to insertion near the optics within EUV lithography tools.

  16. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I.

    2013-12-16

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  17. Baryogenesis in false vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta [KEK Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi [Kanazawa University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    The null result in the LHC may indicate that the standard model is not drastically modified up to very high scales, such as the GUT/string scale. Having this in the mind, we suggest a novel leptogenesis scenario realized in the false vacuum of the Higgs field. If the Higgs field develops a large vacuum expectation value in the early universe, a lepton number violating process is enhanced, which we use for baryogenesis. To demonstrate the scenario, several models are discussed. For example, we show that the observed baryon asymmetry is successfully generated in the standard model with higher-dimensional operators. (orig.)

  18. A rotating quantum vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenci, V.A. de; Svaiter, N.F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-11-01

    It was investigated which mapping has to be used to compare measurements made in a rotating frame to those made in an inertial frame. Using a non-Galilean coordinate transformation, the creation-annihilation operators of a massive scalar field in the rotating frame are not the same as those of an inertial observer. This leads to a new vacuum state(a rotating vacuum) which is a superposition of positive and negative frequency Minkowski particles. Polarization effects in circular accelerators in the proper frame of the electron making a connection with the inertial frame point of view were analysed. 65 refs.

  19. Handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    1964-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 3: Technology is a handbook of vacuum physics, with emphasis on the properties of miscellaneous materials such as mica, oils, greases, waxes, and rubber. Accurate modern tables of physical constants, properties of materials, laboratory techniques, and properties of commercial pumps, gauges, and leak detectors are presented. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with a discussion on pump oils, divided into rotary pump oils and vapor pump oils. The next chapter deals with the properties and applications of greases, including outgassing and vapor pr

  20. Technology handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, A H

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 3: Technology is part of a series of publications that presents articles featuring the whole spectrum of vacuum physics. This particular volume presents materials that deal with technology concerns in vacuum mechanics. The first material talks about the utilization of ceramic materials in the construction of vacuum devices. The next paper details the application of vacuum physics in soldering and brazing process. The last article deals with the utilization of vacuum technology in high frequency heating. The book will be of great use to professionals involved

  1. Medical abortion and manual vacuum aspiration for legal abortion protect women's health and reduce costs to the health system: findings from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria Isabel; Mendoza, Willis Simancas; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Guzman, Nelson Alvis; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2015-02-01

    The majority of abortions in Colombia continue to take place outside the formal health system under a range of conditions, with the majority of women obtaining misoprostol from a thriving black market for the drug and self-administering the medication. We conducted a cost analysis to compare the costs to the health system of three approaches to the provision of abortion care in Colombia: post-abortion care for complications of unsafe abortions, and for legal abortions in a health facility, misoprostol-only medical abortion and vacuum aspiration abortion. Hospital billing records from three institutions, two large maternity hospitals and one specialist reproductive health clinic, were analysed for procedure and complication rates, and costs by diagnosis. The majority of visits (94%) were to the two hospitals for post-abortion care; the other 6% were for legal abortions. Only one minor complication was found among the women having legal abortions, a complication rate of less than 1%. Among the women presenting for post-abortion care, 5% had complications during their treatment, mainly from infection or haemorrhage. Legal abortions were associated not only with far fewer complications for women, but also lower costs for the health system than for post-abortion care. We calculated based on our findings that for every 1,000 women receiving post-abortion care instead of a legal abortion within the health system, 16 women experienced avoidable complications, and the health system spent US $48,000 managing them. Increasing women's access to safe abortion care would not only reduce complications for women, but would also be a cost-saving strategy for the health system. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Linusson, Per; Eland, John H D; Baker, Neville; Johansson, Erik M J; Rensmo, Håkan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans

    2012-01-01

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of ~8 to ~120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  3. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Haakan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Linusson, Per [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Eland, John H. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Baker, Neville [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of {approx}8 to {approx}120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  4. LEP Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  5. The vacuum strikes back

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Modern physics has shown that the vacuum, previously thought of as a stated of total nothingness, is really a seething background of virtual particles springing in and out of eixstence until they can seize enough energy to materialize as "real" particles." (1,5 page)

  6. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  7. Modification of Ultra-High Vacuum Surfaces Using Free Radicals

    CERN Document Server

    Vorlaufer, G

    2002-01-01

    In ultra-high vacuum systems outgassing from vacuum chamber walls and desorption of surface adsorbates are usually the factors which determine pressure and residual gas composition. In particular in beam vacuum systems of accelerators like the LHC, where surfaces are exposed to intense synchrotron radiation and bombardment by energetic ions and electrons, surface properties like the molecular desorption yield or secondary electron yield can strongly influence the performance of the accelerator. Well-established treatment methods like vacuum bake-out or glow-discharge cleaning have been successfully applied in the past to condition ultra-high vacuum surfaces, but these methods are sometimes difficult to carry out, for example if the vacuum chambers are not accessible. In this work, an alternative treatment method is investigated. This method is based on the strong chemical reactivity of free radicals, electrically neutral fragments of molecules. Free radicals (in the case of this work, nitrogen and oxygen radi...

  8. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  9. Gases vacuum dedusting and cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey А. Burov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Represented are the results of operating the ladle degassing vacuum plant (productivity: 120 tons of liquid steel with various dust collectors. The process gases’ cooling and dedusting, obtained in the closed loop buran study, provides opportunity to install a bag filter after that closed loop and its efficient use. Proven is the effectiveness of the cylindrical cyclone replacement with a multichannel (buran dust collector, based on a system of closed-loop (return coupling serially connected curved ducts, where the dusty gas flow rotation axis is vertically positioned. The system of closed-loop serially connected curvilinear channels creates preconditions for the emergence of a negative feedback at the curvilinear gas flow containing transit and circulating flows. These conditions are embodied with circulating flows connecting the in- and outputs of the whole system each channel. The transit flow multiple continuous filtration through the circulating dust layers leads to the formation and accumulation of particles aggregates in the collection chamber. The validity of such a dusty flow control mechanism is confirmed by experimental data obtained in a vacuum chamber. Therefore, replacing one of the two buran’s forevacuum pumps assemblies with the necessary number of curved channels (closed loop is estimated in a promising method.

  10. Advanced walling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  11. Shakedown Tests for Refurbished and Upgraded Frames and Initiation of Alloy 709 Creep Rupture Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moser, Jeremy L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Charles S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report describes the shakedown tests conducted on the upgraded frames, and initiation of creep rupture tests on refurbished frames. SS316H, a reference material for Alloy 709, was used in shakedown tests, and the tests were conducted at 816 degree C under three stress levels to accumulate 1% creep strain. 1/4” gage diameter specimen design was used. The creep rupture tests on Alloy 709 were initiated at 600 degree C under 330 MPa to target 1,500 h rupture time. 12 specimens with 3/8” gage diameter were prepared from the materials with 6 heat treatment conditions, 2 from each. The required mechanical load under 330MPa was calculated to be 5,286 lb for the 3/8” gage diameter specimen. Among the ART frames, 7 frames are equipped with 10,000 lb load cell including #5 to 8 and #88 to 90, and can be used. 7 tests were thus started in this stage of project, and remaining 5 will be continued whenever any of the 7 tests is completed.

  12. Towards Zero-Emission Refurbishment of Historic Buildings: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Loli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, restoration interventions that aim for minimum environmental impact are conceived for recent buildings. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced using criteria met within a life-cycle analysis, while energy saving is achieved with cost-effective retrofitting actions that secure higher benefits in terms of comfort. However, conservation, restoration and retrofitting interventions in historic buildings do not have the same objectives as in modern buildings. Additional requirements have to be followed, such as the use of materials compatible with the original and the preservation of authenticity to ensure historic, artistic, cultural and social values over time. The paper presents a systematic review—at the intersection between environmental sustainability and conservation—of the state of the art of current methodological approaches applied in the sustainable refurbishment of historic buildings. It identifies research gaps in the field and highlights the paradox seen in the Scandinavian countries that are models in applying environmentally sustainable policies but still poor in integrating preservation issues.

  13. Interim analysis of a prospective, randomized trial of vacuum-assisted closure versus the healthpoint system in the management of pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christian N; Reinhard, Elaine R; Yeh, Daniel; Syrek, David; De Las Morenas, Antonio; Bergman, Susan B; Williams, Steve; Hamori, Christine A

    2002-07-01

    Twenty-eight patients with 41 full-thickness decubitus ulcers were randomized to compare the Vacuum-Assisted Closure device (VAC) with the Healthpoint System (HP) of wound gel products in promoting ulcer healing. A total of 22 patients with 35 full-thickness ulcers completed the 6-week trial of treatment, during which time 2 patients (10%) in the VAC group (N =20) and 2 patients (13%) in the HP group (N = 15) healed completely. The mean percent reduction in ulcer volume was 42.1% with HP and 51.8% with VAC (p = 0.46). The mean number of PMNs and lymphocytes per high-power field decreased in the VAC group and increased in the HP group (p = 0.13, p = 0.41 respectively). The mean number of capillaries per high-power field was greater in the VAC group (p = 0.75). There were 15 cases of biopsy-proven osteomyelitis underlying the ulcers; three (37.5%) improved with VAC and none improved with HP (p = 0.25). VAC promotes an increased rate of wound healing and favorable histological changes in soft tissue and bone compared with HP.

  14. A high-vacuum deposition system for in situ and real-time electrical characterization of organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Santiago David; Shehu, Arian; Albonetti, Cristiano; Murgia, Mauro; Stoliar, Pablo; Borgatti, Francesco; Biscarini, Fabio

    2011-02-01

    We present a home-built high-vacuum system for performing organic semiconductor thin-film growth and its electrical characterization during deposition (real-time) or after deposition (in situ). Since the environment conditions remain unchanged during the deposition and electrical characterization process, a direct correlation between growth mode and electrical properties of thin film can be obtained. Deposition rate and substrate temperature can be systematically set in the range 0.1-10 ML∕min and RT-150 °C, respectively. The sample-holder configuration allows the simultaneous electrical monitoring of up to five organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). The OTFTs parameters such as charge carrier mobility μ, threshold voltage V(TH), and the on-off ratio I(on)∕I(off) are studied as a function of the semiconductor thickness, with a submonolayer accuracy. Design, operation, and performance of the setup are detailed. As an example, the in situ and real-time electrical characterization of pentacene TFTs is reported.

  15. Austro-Hungarian Public Building Refurbishment and Energy Efficiency Measures – A Case Study on a Public Building in Sarajevo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihbegović, Amira; Čaušević, Amir; Rustempašić, Nerman; Avdić, Dženis; Smajlović, Esad

    2017-10-01

    Among other pieces of architectural historical heritage in Sarajevo, and Bosnia-Herzegovina in general, the Austro-Hungarian architecture has preserved its original architectural, artistic and engineering characteristics. Both residential and public representative urban blocks, streets and squares are of distinguishable ambience in the architectural and urban image of the city and are testifying about our architectural past. A number of buildings is valorised and protected by law in terms of their architectural, artistic and historical value. In addition, these buildings have a distinct functional, ambiental, historical, and even aesthetical value. To make them last longer, refurbishment of these buildings is challenging and presents potential and multiple benefits for the city, and beyond. Refurbishing built environment through functional reorganizing, redesign and energy efficiency measures applications could result in prolonged longevity, architectural identity preservation and interior comfort improvement. Besides, implemented measures for energy efficiency, through the refurbishment process, should optimize the needs for energy consumption in treated buildings. This paper defines options in comfort improvements and redesign, without implying risks to the building longevity, analyses interventions and energy efficiency measures which would enable potential energy saving assessment in the refurbishment process of masonry buildings. This paper also discusses the different techniques that can be adopted for conservation and preservation of historical masonry buildings from the Austro-Hungarian period dealing with energy efficiency. The works were preceded by historical research and on-site investigations. This paper describes a methodology to quantify their vulnerability. A scheme of structural retrofitting is suggested following the research conducted. Revitalization of the building consisted in the reconstruction of the old building structure, creating the inner

  16. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2014-07-22

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry and in emerging technologies involving, e.g., microelectromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension, we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line.

  17. Materials for high vacuum technology, an overview

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    In modern accelerators stringent requirements are placed on materials of vacuum systems. Their physical and mechanical properties, machinability, weldability or brazeability are key parameters. Adequate strength, ductility, magnetic properties at room as well as low temperatures are important factors for vacuum systems of accelerators working at cryogenic temperatures, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN. In addition, baking or activation of Non-Evaporable Getters (NEG) at high temperatures impose specific choices of material grades of suitable tensile and creep properties in a large temperature range. Today, stainless steels are the dominant materials of vacuum constructions. Their metallurgy is extensively treated. The reasons for specific requirements in terms of metallurgical processes are detailed, in view of obtaining adequate purity, inclusion cleanliness, and fineness of the microstructure. In many cases these requirements are crucial to guarantee the final leak tightnes...

  18. Outgassing of solid material into vacuum thermal insulation spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1994-01-01

    Many cryogenic storage tanks use vacuum between inner and outer tank for thermal insulation. These cryogenic tanks also use a radiation shield barrier in the vacuum space to prevent radiation heat transfer. This shield is usually constructed by using multiple wraps of aluminized mylar and glass paper as inserts. For obtaining maximum thermal performance, a good vacuum level must be maintained with the insulation system. It has been found that over a period of time solid insulation materials will vaporize into the vacuum space and the vacuum will degrade. In order to determine the degradation of vacuum, the rate of outgassing of the insulation materials must be determined. Outgassing rate of several insulation materials obtained from literature search were listed in tabular form.

  19. Nonperturbative QED vacuum birefringence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, V. I.; Dolgaya, E. E.; Sokolov, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we represent nonperturbative calculation for one-loop Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) vacuum birefringence in presence of strong magnetic field. The dispersion relations for electromagnetic wave propagating in strong magnetic field point to retention of vacuum birefringence even in case when the field strength greatly exceeds Sauter-Schwinger limit. This gives a possibility to extend some predictions of perturbative QED such as electromagnetic waves delay in pulsars neighbourhood or wave polarization state changing (tested in PVLAS) to arbitrary magnetic field values. Such expansion is especially important in astrophysics because magnetic fields of some pulsars and magnetars greatly exceed quantum magnetic field limit, so the estimates of perturbative QED effects in this case require clarification.

  20. Vacuum distillation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamer, J.A.; Burg, C.J. Van Der; Kanbier, D.; Heijden, P. Van Der.

    1990-09-18

    This invention relates to a vacuum distillation device comprising a vacuum distillation column, a furnace provided with a heat exchange tube, and a connecting conduit between the column and the heat exchange tube. Such a device is used to fractionate a hydrocarbon-containing feed sometimes referred to as long residue. An object of this invention is to provide a vacuum distillation device which allows vaporization of a major part of the feed upstream of the column inlet. To this end, the device according to the invention comprises a vacuum distillation device as described above, in which the inner diameter of the heat exchange tube increases along its length to between 2.4 and 3 times the inner diameter of the tube inlet, and in which the inner diameter of the connecting conduit gradually increases along its length to between 2.5 and 5.4 times the inner diameter of the tube outlet. During normal operation of the device of the invention, only less than 50 wt % of the feed is vaporized in the heat exchange tube in the furnace, and more feed is vaporized in the connecting conduit, so that at the outlet end of the conduit the feed comprises about 0.9 kg vapor per kg of feed. The invention provides improved heat transfer in the heat exchange tubes such that fouling is reduced, consequently more heat can be applied per unit of time in the heat exchange tube. This allows either heating of the feed to a higher temperature or increasing the throughput for the same temperature.

  1. PARAFFIN SEPARATION VACUUM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. Abdulrahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulated column performance curves were constructed for existing paraffin separation vacuum distillation column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company/Baiji-Iraq. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top vacuum pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates composition were constructed. Four different thermodynamic model options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.The simulated results show that about 2% to 8 % of paraffin (C10, C11, C12, & C13 present at the bottom stream which may cause a problem in the LAB plant. The major variations were noticed for the top temperature & the  paraffin weight fractions at bottom section with top vacuum pressure. The bottom temperature above 240 oC is not recommended because the total bottom flow rate decreases sharply, where as  the weight fraction of paraffins decrease slightly. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD

  2. Energy performance analysis of a detached single-family house to be refurbished

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixo, Kevin; Curado, António

    2017-07-01

    This study was developed with the purpose of analyzing the reinforcement of the energy performance in a detached single-family house to be refurbished, using this building as a case-study for simulation and experimental analysis. The building is located in Viana do Castelo, a city in the northwest of Portugal nearby the Atlantic Ocean. The developed study was carried out in order to characterize the thermal performance of the house, using simulation analysis in a dynamic regime. The energy consumption study was developed in permanent regime analysis, using simulation tools. At the end, the study aimed to propose and define the best retrofitting solutions, both passive and active, and to improve the energy performance of the building. The outcomes of the study provided the importance of passive retrofitting solutions on thermal comfort and energy performance. The use of a set of thermal solutions, as the insulation of the roof, walls and the windows, it is possible to achieve a global gain of 0, 63 °C and to reduce energy consumption in 61, 46 [kWh/m2.year]. The study of the building in a simplified thermal regime, according to the Portuguese energy efficiency regulation, allowed the determination of the energy efficiency class of the house and retrofitting solutions proposed. The initial energy performance class of the building is C. With the application of a passive set of solutions, it's possible to improve the energy performance to a class B. With the implementation of some active solutions, it is possible to reach an energy class A +.

  3. Quality Management of CERN Vacuum Controls

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniotti, F; Fortescue-Beck, E; Gama, J; Gomes, P; Le Roux, P; Pereira, H; Pigny, G

    2014-01-01

    The vacuum controls Section (TE-VSC-ICM) is in charge of the monitoring, maintenance and consolidation of the control systems of all accelerators and detectors in CERN; this represents 6 000 instruments distributed along 128 km of vacuum chambers, often of heterogeneous architectures and of diverse technical generations. In order to improve the efficiency of the services provided by ICM, to vacuum experts and to accelerator operators, a Quality Management Plan is being put into place. The first step was the standardization of the naming convention across different accelerators. The traceability of problems, requests, repairs, and other actions, has also been put into place (VTL). This was combined with the effort to identify each individual device by a coded label, and register it in a central database (MTF). Occurring in parallel, was the gathering of old documents and the centralization of information concerning architectures, procedures, equipment and settings (EDMS). To describe the topology of control c...

  4. Vacuum level effects on knee contact force for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-05-24

    The elevated vacuum suspension system (EVSS) has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on knee contact force (KCF) is still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vacuum levels on KCF for unilateral transtibial amputees (UTA) using the EVSS. Three-dimensional gait was modeled for 9 UTA with five vacuum levels (0-20inHg [67.73kPa], 5inHg [16.93kPa] increments) and 9 non-amputees based on kinematic and ground reaction force data. The results showed that the vacuum level effects were significant for peak axial KCF, which had a relatively large value at 0 and 20inHg (67.73kPa). The intact limb exhibited a comparable peak axial KCF to the non-amputees at 15inHg (50.79kPa). At moderate vacuum levels (5inHg [16.93kPa] to 15inHg [50.79kPa]), co-contraction of quadriceps and hamstrings at peak axial KCF was similar for the intact limb, but was smaller for the residual limb comparing with the non-amputees. The intact limb showed a similar magnitude of quadriceps and hamstrings force at 15inHg (50.79kPa) to the non-amputees, but the muscle coordination patterns varied between the residual and intact limbs. These findings indicate that a proper vacuum level may partially compensate for the lack of ankle plantarflexor and reduce the knee loading. Of the tested vacuum levels, 15inHg (50.79kPa) appears most favorable, although additional analyses with more amputees are suggested to confirm these results prior to establishing clinical guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy I

    CERN Document Server

    Samson, James A; Lucatorto, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    This volume is for practitioners, experimentalists, and graduate students in applied physics, particularly in the fields of atomic and molecular physics, who work with vacuum ultraviolet applications and are in need of choosing the best type of modern instrumentation. It provides first-hand knowledge of the state-of-the-art equipment sources and gives technical information on how to use it, along with a broad reference bibliography.Key Features* Aimed at experimentalists who are in need of choosing the best type of modern instrumentation in this applied field* Contains a detailed chapter on la

  6. High performance thermal insulation systems - HLWD; Hochleistungs-Waermedaemmung HLWD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicher, H.; Erb, M. [Eicher und Pauli AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Binz, A.; Moosmann, A. [Fachhochschule beider Basel, Institut fuer Energie, Muttenz (Switzerland)

    2000-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) by the research program concerning the efficient use of energy in buildings takes a look at high-performance thermal insulation systems (HLWD). Work done on three applications - internal insulation used in the refurbishment of buildings, insulation of hot-water storage tanks and outside doors - is reported on. Economic feasibility is discussed and a number of demonstration projects are reported on. Apart from the above mentioned, the insulation of a terrace, the insulation of a roller-blind housing and the insulation of a deep-freeze cubicle are reviewed. The construction of vacuum insulation panels (VIP) and their manufacture are looked at. Economic aspects are looked at and the use of VIP in practice is discussed.

  7. Modernization of NASA's Johnson Space Center Chamber: A Payload Transport Rail System to Support Cryogenic Vacuum Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sam; Homan, Jonathan; Speed, John

    2016-01-01

    NASA is the mission lead for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next of the "Great Observatories", scheduled for launch in 2018. It is directly responsible for the integration and test (I&T) program that will culminate in an end-to-end cryo vacuum optical test of the flight telescope and instrument module in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center. Historic Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center and one of the largest space simulation chambers in the world. Chamber A has undergone a major modernization effort to support the deep cryogenic, vacuum and cleanliness requirements for testing the JWST. This paper describe the challenges of developing, integrating and modifying new payload rails capable of transporting payloads within the thermal vacuum chamber up to 65,000 pounds. Ambient and Cryogenic Operations required to configure for testing will be explained. Lastly review historical payload configurations stretching from the Apollo program era to current James Webb Space Telescope testing.

  8. Degradation kinetics of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside during hot air and vacuum drying in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit: A comparative study based on solid food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Chen, Qinqin; Bi, Jinfeng; Wang, Yixiu; Wu, Xinye

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the degradation kinetic of anthocyanin in dehydration process of solid food system. Mulberry fruit was treated by hot air and vacuum drying at 60 and 75°C. The contents of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated for analysing the degradation characteristics. Model fitting results showed monomeric anthocyanin degradations were followed the second-order kinetic. Vacuum drying presented high kinetic rate constants and low t1/2 values. Thermodynamic parameters including the activation energy, enthalpy change and entropy change appeared significant differences between hot air and vacuum drying. Both heating techniques showed similar effects on polyphenol oxidase activities. These results indicate the anthocyanin degradation kinetic in solid food system is different from that in liquid and the oxygen can be regarded as a catalyst to accelerate the degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Of vacuum and gas

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A new LHCb programme is delving into uncharted waters for the LHC: exploring how protons interact with noble gases inside the machine pipe. While, at first glance, it may sound risky for the overall quality of the vacuum in the machine, the procedure is safe and potentially very rich in rewards. The results could uncover the high-energy helium-proton cross-section (with all the implications thereof), explore new boundaries of the quark-gluon plasma and much more.   As the beam passes through LHCb, interactions with neon gas allow the experiment to measure the full beam profile. In this diagram, beam 1 (blue) and beam 2 (red) are measured by the surrounding VELO detector. It all begins with luminosity. In 2011, LHCb set out to further improve its notoriously precise measurements of the beam profile, using the so-called Beam-Gas Imaging (BGI) method. BGI does exactly what it says on the tin: a small amount of gas is inserted into the vacuum, increasing the rate of collisions around the interaction ...

  10. Results of vacuum assisted wound closure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay, Tolga; Burc, Halil; Baykal, Yakup Barbaros; Kirdemir, Vecihi

    2013-08-01

    In recent past, various methods have been used for wound treatment purpose. In this study, we aimed to compare our results established from the vacuum-assisted wound closure method, which has gained popularity day by day, with the literature. A total of 48 patients, who received vacuum-assisted wound closure treatment in our clinic between 2007and 2010, were included in this study. Etiological distribution of the patients was as follows: 32 traumatic, 6 pressure sore, 9 diabetic, and 1 iliac disarticulation. All cases were evaluated in terms of age, gender, etiology, period of treatment, and size of the wound. In the patients studied, 42 were men (87.5 %) and 6 were women (12.5 %). Mean age of the patients was 39.6 years (11-61 years). All of our traumatic patients suffered from open fracture. After the vacuum-assisted wound closure application, wound size reduced by 28.8 %, while the mean area of the surface of the wound was 94.7 cm(2) (13.7-216.3 cm(2)) on average. After the wounds became ready for surgery, 15 of them were treated with split-thickness grafting, 9 of them were treated with secondary suture, 18 of them were treated with full-thickness grafting, and 6 of them were treated with flap. Average period of the application of vacuum-assisted wound closure was 11.6 days (7-15 days). Results of vacuum-assisted wound closure can be regarded as satisfactory when cases are selected properly. This system has three different effect mechanisms. Firstly, it increases local blood flow on the wound bed. Secondly, cell proliferation is triggered following the mechanic stress. Thirdly, vacuum removes the proteases from the environment which obstructs healing. Therefore, it is intended to prepare alive wound bed which is required for subsequent soft tissue reconstructions.

  11. Vacuum science, technology, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Naik, Pramod K

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum plays an important role in science and technology. The study of interaction of charged particles, neutrals and radiation with each other and with solid surfaces requires a vacuum environment for reliable investigations. Vacuum has contributed immensely to advancements made in nuclear science, space, metallurgy, electrical/electronic technology, chemical engineering, transportation, robotics and many other fields. This book is intended to assist students, scientists, technicians and engineers to understand the basics of vacuum science and technology for application in their projects. The fundamental theories, concepts, devices, applications, and key inventions are discussed.

  12. The effect of vacuum devices on penile hemodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, P.G.; Haden, H.T.; Mulligan, T.; Zasler, N.D. (Medical College of Virginia, Richmond (USA))

    1990-01-01

    External vacuum devices are being used increasingly for the management of erectile dysfunction. There is limited information regarding the effect of vacuum devices on penile blood flow and potential for ischemic penile injury. The penile xenon washout rate was measured before and after application of 2 vacuum systems in 15 subjects. Compared to flaccid state measurements the xenon washout rate did not change significantly with the Synergist Erection System but it was significantly reduced with the Osbon ErecAid System. However, the degree and duration of decrease in penile blood flow that may result in ischemic changes are unknown.

  13. Vacuum energy sequestering and graviton loops

    OpenAIRE

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    We recently formulated a local mechanism of vacuum energy sequester. This mechanism automatically removes all matter loop contributions to vacuum energy from the stress energy tensor which sources the curvature. Here we adapt the local vacuum energy sequestering mechanism to also cancel all the vacuum energy loops involving virtual gravitons, in addition to the vacuum energy generated by matter fields alone.

  14. THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM GAUGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, G.W.

    1954-08-01

    A protector device is described for use in controlling the pressure within a cyclotron. In particular, an electrical circuit functions to actuate a vacuum pump when a predetermined low pressure is reached and disconnect the pump when the pressure increases abcve a certain value. The principal feature of the control circuit lies in the use of a voltage divider network at the input to a relay control tube comprising two parallel, adjustable resistances wherein one resistor is switched into the circuit when the relay connects the pump to a power source. With this arrangement the relay is energized at one input level received from a sensing element within the cyclotron chamber and is de-energized when a second input level, representing the higher pressure limit, is reached.

  15. Flow Visualization Proposed for Vacuum Cleaner Nozzle Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Kirby Company (a major vacuum cleaner company) began negotiations for a Space Act Agreement to conduct research, technology development, and testing involving the flow behavior of airborne particulate flow behavior. Through these research efforts, we hope to identify ways to improve suction, flow rate, and surface agitation characteristics of nozzles used in vacuum cleaner nozzles. We plan to apply an advanced visualization technology, known as Stereoscopic Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), to a Kirby G-4 vacuum cleaner. Resultant data will be analyzed with a high-speed digital motion analysis system. We also plan to evaluate alternative vacuum cleaner nozzle designs. The overall goal of this project is to quantify both velocity fields and particle trajectories throughout the vacuum cleaner nozzle to optimize its "cleanability"--its ability to disturb and remove embedded dirt and other particulates from carpeting or hard surfaces. Reference

  16. Parametric Amplification of Vacuum Fluctuations in a Spinor Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klempt, C.; Topic, O.; Gebreyesus, G.

    2010-01-01

    Parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations is crucial in modern quantum optics, enabling the creation of squeezing and entanglement. We demonstrate the parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations for matter waves using a spinor F=2 87Rb condensate. Interatomic interactions lead...... to correlated pair creation in the mF=±1 states from an initial mF=0 condensate, which acts as a vacuum for mF≠0. Although this pair creation from a pure mF=0 condensate is ideally triggered by vacuum fluctuations, unavoidable spurious initial mF=±1 atoms induce a classical seed which may become the dominant...... triggering mechanism. We show that pair creation is insensitive to a classical seed for sufficiently large magnetic fields, demonstrating the dominant role of vacuum fluctuations. The presented system thus provides a direct path towards the generation of nonclassical states of matter....

  17. Assessment of differences between products obtained in conventional and vacuum spray dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda de Melo RAMOS; Cíntia Carla Melgaço de OLIVEIRA; SOARES,Ana Silvia Prata; Silveira Junior, Vivaldo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this work, an experimental unit of a vacuum spray dryer was built. This prototype attempted to combine the advantages of freeze-drying (drying at low temperatures due to vacuum) and spray drying (increase of surface area aiming the improvement of heat transfer efficiency). Maltodextrin solutions were dried in the vacuum operated equipment and in conventional spray dryer. The vacuum spray dryer system allowed obtaining powder at low temperatures due to the lowering of pressure cond...

  18. Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjalma, W A A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration.

  19. ULTRARAPID VACUUM-MICROWAVE HISTOPROCESSING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOK, LP; BOON, ME

    A novel histoprocessing method for paraffin sections is presented in which the combination of vacuum and microwave exposure is the key element. By exploiting the decrease in boiling temperature under vacuum, the liquid molecules in the tissues have been successfully extracted and exchanged at

  20. The Eco-Refurbishment of a 19th Century Terraced House: Energy and Cost Performance for Current and Future UK Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniyeh Mohammadpourkarbasi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The UK government, responding to concerns over climate change impacts, has undertaken to reduce CO2 emissions to 80% of 1990 levels by 2050. This scale of reduction will require major improvements in the energy efficiency of the existing UK building stock, which is the dominant consumer of fossil fuel-generated energy. Housing is a key sector, and since 70% of all current homes in the UK will still exist in 2050 then low carbon refurbishment is critical if CO2 reduction goals are to be met. This paper uses computer modeling to examine the annual operational energy performance, long term energy cost savings and internal thermal conditions for a 19th century terraced house that was eco-refurbished to near a Passivhaus standard. The dwelling was modeled for three locations (Edinburgh, Manchester and London using current and future climate scenarios (2020s and 2050s under high carbon emission scenarios. Simulation results suggest that there would be very little diminution in heating demand in the future for the house with no refurbishment, whilst the eco-refurbishment produced a significant reduction in energy demand and CO2 emissions. Analysis of the payback period and net present value indicate that the economic optimum varies according to energy prices and that the high construction costs incurred for an eco-refurbishment to a near Passivhaus standard could not be justified in terms of a cost/benefit analysis.

  1. Proposal for the risk management implementation phase in oil field development project by adding value on the refurbishment of critical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Refurbishment process is a conceptual stage in product life cycle. It is utilized in existing equipment in the field by adding value to recondition and repaired equipment. The main interest of this paper is to implement and design risk management implementation phase in oil field development project on the refurbishment of critical equipment in oil and gas industry. This paper is provided base on research and experiences in risk management and learned from practical team in industry which matched by an application in oil field development project in refurbishment of critical equipment. A framework of implementation phase for risk management in oil field development project in refurbishment critical equipment were reviewed and added value on communication skills of the project team to the stakeholder and organization, which support to external body and vice-versa. Risk management framework can be used for reference of refurbishment process with simply process and developed with same concept for the next wide development project in industry.

  2. Measurement of Heat Losses on The Milking Machine Electric Motor at Various Regulations of Vacuum Using Methods of Thermal Imagery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kudělka, Jan; Fryč, Jiří; Trávníček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    .... These vacuum pumps are driven by a squirrel-cage induction motor. Until recently, the vacuum in the system to achieve the required value was controlled by a main control valve sucking in ambient air into the system...

  3. Microminiature thermionic vacuum flat panel display prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadwick, L.P.; Baker, B.; Chen, C.C.; Petersen, R.; Johnson, S.; Hwu, R.J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The authors report on the fabrication and electrical characteristics of low work microminiature thermionic vacuum (MTV) diodes for use in flat panel display applications. In this work advances in the technology and performance of a novel thermionic analog to field emission vacuum microelectronic emitters that will be referred to by the descriptive name microminiature thermionic vacuum (MTV) emitters will be presented. The salient feature of MTV emitter technology is the use of an air-bridge (suspended) filament that greatly reduces the thermal load and stress on the system. MTV devices can be fabricated using conventional semiconductor and micromachining processing techniques on any thermally stable, vacuum compatible substrate for which a high temperature stable insulating layer can be grown or deposited on. In addition, the small (micron to sub-micron) distances between the cathode and anode allow the possibility of intrinsic operation to high frequencies comparable to that of field emitters since these devices will not suffer from solid-state electron transport effects that limit the upper frequency of operation for all semiconductor devices.

  4. ALICE's first vacuum bakeout a success

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of April, the ALICE central beryllium beam pipe and absorber beam pipes were successfully conditioned. The installation and bakeout shell surround the beam pipe (lower left), running through the middle of the ITS and TPC. Notice the high-tech cooling system, an additional precaution to avoid overheating the ALICE detection equipment.One end of the vacuum sector during the bakeout and pure gas refill. It is unusual for a vacuum sector to end as it does in the middle of a non-accessible detector and made the installation and cabling of the bakeout equipment a more difficult procedure. Just before Easter, the first bakeout and NEG activation of experimental chambers in the LHC was carried out, followed by ultra pure gas refill. The bakeout consisted of externally heating the chambers under vacuum in order to lower their outgassing. This same heating process also activates the NEG, a coating on the inside surface of the beam vacuum chambers, which pumps the residual gas. ALICE's bakeout was pa...

  5. Vacuum Infusion of Low-Cost Aerospce Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labordus, Maarten

    2002-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking TNO Industrie as follows: A mold system will be designed in which the hydrostatic pressure can be measured in the resin during the vacuum infusion process...

  6. Design considerations for achieving high vacuum integrity in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, G.M.; Haines, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Achieving high vacuum integrity in fusion devices requires close attention to both the overall system configuration and the design details of joints and seals. This paper describes the factors in selecting the system configuration, from a vacuum standpoint, for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) DCT-8 Tokamak device. The DCT-8 (driven current tokamak) is the eighth design in a series of tokamak concepts defined to cover the magnetic confinement and development gap between the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR). Leak detection concept development is considered a vital activity, as well as the definition of a configuration that minimizes the consequences of leaks. A major part of the vacuum boundaries of the magnet system and the plasma system is common. For the major penetrations, primary and secondary seals are provided with vacuum control over the region between seals. The intent is to instrument these cavities and provide automated recordings of these measurements for leak maintenance.

  7. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, G

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  8. Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid Vacuum Pump to Provide Vacuum-Assisted Suspension for Above-Knee Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Caldwell, Ryan; Fatone, Stefania

    2015-12-01

    Vacuum-assisted suspension (VAS) of prosthetic sockets utilizes a pump to evacuate air from between the prosthetic liner and socket, and are available as mechanical or electric systems. This technical note describes a hybrid pump that benefits from the advantages of mechanical and electric systems, and evaluates a prototype as proof-of-concept. Cyclical bench testing of the hybrid pump mechanical system was performed using a materials testing system to assess the relationship between compression cycles and vacuum pressure. Phase 1 in vivo testing of the hybrid pump was performed by an able-bodied individual using prosthesis simulator boots walking on a treadmill, and phase 2 involved an above-knee prosthesis user walking with the hybrid pump and a commercial electric pump for comparison. Bench testing of 300 compression cycles produced a maximum vacuum of 24 in-Hg. In vivo testing demonstrated that the hybrid pump continued to pull vacuum during walking, and as opposed to the commercial electric pump, did not require reactivation of the electric system during phase 2 testing. The novelty of the hybrid pump is that while the electric system provides rapid, initial vacuum suspension, the mechanical system provides continuous air evacuation while walking to maintain suspension without reactivation of the electric system, thereby allowing battery power to be reserved for monitoring vacuum levels.

  9. Efficacy and safety of active negative pressure peritoneal therapy for reducing the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy (the Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Jenne, Craig N; Ball, Chad G; Tiruta, Corina; Léger, Caroline; Xiao, Zhengwen; Faris, Peter D; McBeth, Paul B; Doig, Christopher J; Skinner, Christine R; Ruddell, Stacy G; Kubes, Paul; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2013-05-16

    Damage control laparotomy, or abbreviated initial laparotomy followed by temporary abdominal closure (TAC), intensive care unit resuscitation, and planned re-laparotomy, is frequently used to manage intra-abdominal bleeding and contamination among critically ill or injured adults. Animal data suggest that TAC techniques that employ negative pressure to the peritoneal cavity may reduce the systemic inflammatory response and associated organ injury. The primary objective of this study is to determine if use of a TAC dressing that affords active negative pressure peritoneal therapy, the ABThera Open Abdomen Negative Pressure Therapy System, reduces the extent of the systemic inflammatory response after damage control laparotomy for intra-abdominal sepsis or injury as compared to a commonly used TAC method that provides potentially less efficient peritoneal negative pressure, the Barker's vacuum pack. The Intra-peritoneal Vacuum Trial will be a single-center, randomized controlled trial. Adults will be intraoperatively allocated to TAC with either the ABThera or Barker's vacuum pack after the decision has been made by the attending surgeon to perform a damage control laparotomy. The study will use variable block size randomization. On study days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 28, blood will be collected. Whenever possible, peritoneal fluid will also be collected at these time points from the patient's abdomen or TAC device. Luminex technology will be used to quantify the concentrations of 65 mediators relevant to the inflammatory response in peritoneal fluid and plasma. The primary endpoint is the difference in the plasma concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 at 24 and 48 h after TAC dressing application. Secondary endpoints include the differential effects of these dressings on the systemic concentration of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, collective peritoneal and systemic inflammatory mediator profiles, postoperative fluid balance, intra-abdominal pressure, and

  10. HIGH TEMPERATURE VACUUM MIXER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the creation of a new type of mixer to produce homogeneous mixtures of dissimilar materials applied to recycling of housing and communal services waste. The article describes the design of a dual-chamber device of the original high-temperature vacuum mixer, there investigated the processes occurring in the chambers of such devices. The results of theoretical and experimental research of the process of mixing recycled polyethylene with a mixture of "grinded food waste – Eco wool” are presented. The problem of the optimum choice of bending the curvilinear blades in the working volume of the seal, which is achieved by setting their profile in the form of involute arc of several circles of different radii, is examined . The dependences, allowing to define the limits of the changes of the main mode parameters the angular velocity of rotation of the working body of the mixer using two ways of setting the profile of the curvilinear blade mixer are obtained. Represented design of the mixer is proposed to use for a wide range of tasks associated with the mixing of the components with a strongly pronounced difference of physic al chemical properties and, in particular, in the production of composites out of housing and communal services waste.

  11. Vacuum drying plant for evaporator concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, E. [ENSA, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Volume reduction systems applied to evaporator concentrates in PWR and BWR save a significant amount of drums. The concentration to dry product is a technique that reaches the maximum volume reduction, compared to conventional techniques (cementation, polymerisation). Four Spanish N.P.P. (3 PWR and 1 BWR) have selected ENSA's process by means of fixed ''in drum vacuum drying system''. A 130-litre steel drum is used for drying without any additional requirement except vacuum resistance. This steel drum is introduced into a standard 200-litre drum. Five centimeters concrete shielding cylinder exists between both drums. Final package is classified as 19 GO according to ENRESA's acceptance code (dry waste with 5 cm concrete between 130-l and 200-l drum). The generation of cemented waste in five N.P.P. versus dried waste will be reduced 83%. This reduction will save a considerable amount in disposal costs. (authors)

  12. Task sequencing for autonomous robotic vacuum cleaners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, Anna; Popov, Vladimir

    2017-07-01

    Various planning problems for robotic systems are of considerable interest. One of such problems is the problem of task sequencing. In this paper, we consider the problem of task sequencing for autonomous vacuum floor cleaning robots. We consider a graph model for the problem. We propose an efficient approach to solve the problem. In particular, we use an explicit reduction from the decision version of the problem to the satisfiability problem. We present the results of computational experiments for different satisfiability algorithms.

  13. Impacts on Dissipative Sonic Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yichao; Nesterenko, Vitali

    We investigate the propagating compression bell shape stress waves generated by the strikers with different masses impacting the sonic vacuum - the discrete dissipative strongly nonlinear metamaterial with zero long wave sound speed. The metamaterial is composed of alternating steel disks and Nitrile O-rings. Being a solid material, it has exceptionally low speed of the investigated stress waves in the range of 50 - 74 m/s, which is a few times smaller than the speed of sound or shock waves in air generated by blast. The shape of propagating stress waves was dramatically changed by the viscous dissipation. It prevented the incoming pulses from splitting into trains of solitary waves, a phenomenon characteristic of the non-dissipative strongly nonlinear discrete systems when the striker mass is larger than the cell mass. Both high-speed camera images and numerical simulations demonstrate the unusual rattling behavior of the top disk between the striker and the rest of the system. The linear momentum and energy from the striker were completely transferred to the metamaterial. This strongly nonlinear dissipative metamaterial can be designed for the optimal attenuation of dynamic loads generated by impact or contact explosion. Author 1 wants to acknowledge the support provided by UCSD.

  14. CC Cryostat Vacuum Pumping Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

    1987-10-13

    This report calculates the effect of the conductances of the pumping lines on the pumping speeds of the vacuum pumps being used to pump the inner vessel, and annular space, vacuum tight during the CC Cryostat testing. Effective pumping speeds were calculated for various values of pressure via the above stated formulas (see calculations). Conductances of valves, elbows, and tees were calculated with the help of ref. 1, and the volumes of the inner vessel and annular space were calculated wtth the aid of ref. 2. The major results of these calculations follow. The attached graphs show the effective pumping speed vs. pressure, as well as the pressure vs. pumpdown time for both the inner vessel pumpdown and the annular space pumpdown. Many intervals of pressure were chosen in order to give a complete picture of the effects on the pumping speed, and pumpdown time. An important rule of thumb is that the effective pumping speed be close to the intrinsic pump speed in the region of interest for the best efficiency. With an infinite conductance, these quantities become equal. In the case of the annular space pumpdown. the effective pumping speed is within approximately 15% of the intrinsic pump speed for pressures down to 6000{mu}, and at that point, the conductance effects slow the system down and provide a 49% difference at 1000{mu}. To Improve these numbers, the line length must be shortened, or even better, the line diameter increased. As far as pumpdown time is concerned, the actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time, and would have been even better if the pumping system did not lag due to a leaK and its repair time. The inner vessel pumpdown shows a pumpdown time near 1 hour to reach 100{mu} pressure. The effective pumping speed matches to within 10% of the intrinsic pump speed to 6000{mu}, and then the conductance effects become more important and provide a 41% difference at 1000{mu}. The actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time

  15. Alumina barrier for vacuum brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Heating platens of vacuum-brazing press will not stick to workpiece if aluminum oxide "paper" is interposed. Paper does not disintegrate in press, will not contaminate braze alloy, and helps form smoothly contoured, regular fillet at brazed edges.

  16. [Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, J; Lankisch, T

    2013-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage in the upper and lower intestinal tract is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Within the last 10 years endoscopic treatment options have been accepted as sufficient treatment option of these surgical complications. Endoscopic vacuum assisted closure (E-VAC) is a new innovative endoscopic therapeutic option in this field. E-VAC transfers the positive effects of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) on infected cutaneous wounds to infected cavities that can only be reached endoscopically. A sponge connected to a drainage tube is endoscopically placed in the leakage and a continuous vacuum is applied. Sponge and vacuum allow removal of infected fluids and promote granulation of the leakage. This results in clean wound grounds and finally allows wound closure. Meanwhile the method was also successfully used in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis.

  17. SILICON REFINING BY VACUUM TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Alexandrino Lotto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the phosphorus removal by vacuum from metallurgical grade silicon (MGSi (98.5% to 99% Si. Melting experiments were carried out in a vacuum induction furnace, varying parameters such as temperature, time and relation area exposed to the vacuum / volume of molten silicon. The results of chemical analysis were obtained by inductively coupled plasma (ICP, and evaluated based on thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the reaction of vaporization of the phosphorus in the silicon. The phosphorus was decreased from 33 to approximately 1.5 ppm after three hours of vacuum treatment, concluding that the evaporation step is the controlling step of the process for parameters of temperature, pressure and agitation used and refining by this process is technically feasible.

  18. Oak Ridge TNS program: evaluation of a secondary vacuum enclosure for TNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardella, C.

    1979-11-01

    This report investigates the use of a secondary vacuum enclosure (SVE) to eliminate the need for high vacuum joints between torus sectors and thereby improve device maintainability. Several conceptual SVE designs have been identified and evaluated and the vacuum building was selected as the most promising. A mechanically assembled torus having high impedance seals (rather than vacuum tight seals) between sectors is described and the mechanical characteristics of the device are discussed. The size of the vacuum pump system and the pumpdown time for the vacuum building were determined. Studied also were the many aspects of the effect a vacuum environment has on tokamak systems. The potential benefits of using a SVE on a commercial reactor were investigated and stated in terms of improved plant availability. (MOW)

  19. Effect of increased vacuum and aspiration rates on phacoemulsification efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Isha; Cahoon, Judd M; Gardiner, Gareth; Garff, Kevin; Henriksen, Bradley S; Pettey, Jeff H; Barlow, William R; Olson, Randall J

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of vacuum and aspiration rates on phacoemulsification efficiency. John A. Moran Eye Center Laboratories, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Formalin-soaked porcine lenses were divided into 2.0 mm cubes, and 0.9 mm 30-degree beveled 20-degree bent tips were used with micropulse ultrasound (US) (6 milliseconds on and 6 milliseconds off) and a peristaltic flow system. Vacuum levels were tested at 200, 300, 400, and 500 mm Hg, and aspiration rates were tested at 20, 35, and 50 mL/min. Efficiency (time to lens removal) and chatter (number of lens fragment repulsions from the tip) were determined. Increasing vacuum increased efficiency only when going from 200 mm Hg to higher vacuum levels. Increasing aspiration increased efficiency at all points measured (25 mL/min versus 35 mL/min, P vacuum was increased from 200 mm Hg to 300 mm Hg and up. Chatter decreased with increasing flow. Vacuum improved efficiency only up to 300 mm Hg and was more dependent on increasing flow. Similarly, chatter correlated with 200 mm Hg vacuum only and was more correlated with flow. Limitations of this study include use of only 1 US power modulation and hard nuclear material. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultra-high vacuum in superconducting accelerator rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanov, A. M.; Butenko, A. V.; Galimov, A. R.; Lugovnin, A. K.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    Achieving the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) in the collider and booster of the NICA project is one of the main challenges when creating this device. It determines the need for a serious approach to this issue and conducting research in this direction. First, it is necessary to understand the effect of the various components of the vacuum systems on the degree of vacuum. It is also necessary to carry out studies of pumping devices for producing the required vacuum (10-9 Pa) in the beam chamber and choose the most optimal pumping scheme. At the same time, it is necessary to figure out how various operations are carried out with the vacuum chamber: preparation of vacuum surfaces, letting in the atmosphere, and warming the chamber after closing the influence on the degree of vacuum and the composition of the residual gas. The temperature may vary from room temperature to liquid helium temperature due to the difficulty of keeping the beam-chamber walls at a constant temperature, including the inner components. This complicates the processes taking place within it. Additional complexity arises due the heating of the chamber walls by various processes during the operation of the accelerator (for example, cycling the magnetic field).

  1. Edge conduction in vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Applied Physics; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

  2. Vacuum-assisted cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQuivey RW

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ross W McQuivey,1 Jon E Block2 1Clinical Innovations, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Independent consultant, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: There has been a dramatic rise in the frequency of cesarean sections, surpassing 30% of all deliveries in the US. This upsurge, coupled with a decreasing willingness to allow vaginal birth after cesarean section, has resulted in an expansion of the use of vacuum assistance to safely extract the fetal head. By avoiding the use of a delivering hand or forceps blade, the volume being delivered through the uterine incision can be decreased when the vacuum is used properly. Reducing uterine extensions with their associated complications (eg, excessive blood loss in difficult cases is also a theoretical advantage of vacuum delivery. Maternal discomfort related to excessive fundal pressure may also be lessened. To minimize the risk of neonatal morbidity, proper cup placement over the “flexion point” remains essential to maintain vacuum integrity and reduce the chance of inadvertent detachment and uterine extensions. Based on the published literature and pragmatic clinical experience, utilization of the vacuum device is a safe and effective technique to assist delivery during cesarean section. Keywords: cesarean section, vacuum, forceps, birth, delivery

  3. Historical evolution toward achieving ultrahigh vacuum in JEOL electron microscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Nagamitsu

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the developmental history of the vacuum system of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) at the Japan Electron Optics Laboratory (JEOL) from its inception to its use in today’s high-technology microscopes. The author and his colleagues were engaged in developing vacuum technology for electron microscopes (JEM series) at JEOL for many years. This volume presents a summary and explanation of their work and the technology that makes possible a clean ultrahigh vacuum. The typical users of the TEM are top-level researchers working at the frontiers of new materials or with new biological specimens. They often use the TEM under extremely severe conditions, with problems sometimes occurring in the vacuum system of the microscopes. JEOL engineers then must work as quickly as possible to improve the vacuum evacuation system so as to prevent the recurrence of such problems. Among the wealth of explanatory material in this book are examples of users’ reports of problems in the vacuum system of...

  4. Vacuum Large Current Parallel Transfer Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enyuan Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stable operation and reliable breaking of large generator current are a difficult problem in power system. It can be solved successfully by the parallel interrupters and proper timing sequence with phase-control technology, in which the strategy of breaker’s control is decided by the time of both the first-opening phase and second-opening phase. The precise transfer current’s model can provide the proper timing sequence to break the generator circuit breaker. By analysis of the transfer current’s experiments and data, the real vacuum arc resistance and precise correctional model in the large transfer current’s process are obtained in this paper. The transfer time calculated by the correctional model of transfer current is very close to the actual transfer time. It can provide guidance for planning proper timing sequence and breaking the vacuum generator circuit breaker with the parallel interrupters.

  5. LHC Vacuum Upgrade during LS1

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, J M; Chiggiato, P; Cruikshank, P; Gallilee, M; Garion, C; Gomes, P

    2012-01-01

    The last two years of LHC operation have highlighted concerns on the levels of the dynamic vacuum in the long straight sections in presence of high intensity beams. The analysis of the existing data has shown relationship between pressures spikes and beam screen temperature oscillations or micro-sparking in the RF fingers of the bellows on one side and coincidence of pressure bumps with stimulated desorption by electron cloud, beam losses and/or thermal out gassing stimulated by higher order modes (HOM) losses. The electron cloud mitigation solutions will be adapted to the different configurations: cold/warm transitions, non-coated surfaces in direct view of beams, photoelectrons, etc. All scenarios will be presented together with their efficiencies. Additional pumping and reengineering of components will reduce the sensitivity of the vacuum system to beam losses or HOM inducing out gassing. The expected margin at nominal intensity and energy resulting from these consolidations will be summarized. Finally, th...

  6. Towards measuring the Archimedes force of vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Calloni, Enrico; De Rosa, Rosario; Di Fiore, Luciano; Esposito, Giampiero; Garufi, Fabio; Rosa, Luigi; Rovelli, Carlo; Ruggi, Paolo; Tafuri, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the force exerted by the gravitational field on a Casimir cavity in terms of Archimedes' force of vacuum, we identify the force that can be tested against observation and we show that the present technology makes it possible to perform the first experimental tests. We motivate the use of suitable high-Tc superconductors as modulators of Archimedes' force. We analyze the possibility of using gravitational wave interferometers as detectors of the force, transported through an optical spring from the Archimedes vacuum force apparatus to the gravitational interferometers test masses to maintain the two systems well separated. We also analyze the use of balances to actuate and detect the force, we compare different solutions and discuss the most important experimental issues.

  7. Semiconductor cavity QED: Bandgap induced by vacuum fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa-Ortega, T.; Kyriienko, O.; Kibis, O. V.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider theoretically a semiconductor nanostructure embedded in one-dimensional microcavity and study the modification of its electron energy spectrum by the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. To solve the problem, a non-perturbative diagrammatic approach based on the Green's function formalism is developed. It is shown that the interaction of the system with the vacuum fluctuations of the optical cavity opens gaps within the valence band of the semiconductor. The approach ...

  8. The LHC Vacuum Pilot Sectors Project

    CERN Document Server

    Henrist, B; Bregliozzi, G; Chiggiato, P

    2014-01-01

    The operation of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at nominal beam parameters is expected for the next years. Increased synchrotron-radiation stimulated-desorption and electron-cloud build-up are expected. A deep understanding of the interactions between the proton beams and the beam pipe wall is mandatory to control the anticipated beam-induced pressure rise. A Vacuum Pilot Sector (VPS) has been designed to monitor the performance of the vacuum system with time. The VPS is installed along a double LHC room temperature vacuum sector (18 m long, 80 mm inner diameter beam pipes) and includes 8 standard modules, 1.4 m long each. Such modules are equipped with residual gas analysers, Bayard-Alpert gauges, photon and electron flux monitors etc. The chosen modular approach opens the possibility of studying different configurations and implementing future modifications. This contribution will describe the apparatus, the control system designed to drive measurements and possible applications during the LHC Run 2.

  9. The Architectural and Environmental Refurbishment of Industrialised Residential Construction. The example of the Selva Cafaro Quarter in Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Perriccioli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the experimental research conducted over the past years by the CHED (Concept House and Environmental Design Research Unit at the “Eduardo Vittoria” School of Architecture and Design in Ascoli Piceno, focused on the theme of Social Housing. The CHED is a temporary research team that proposes a union between diverse know-how, cultures, skills and specialisations, working towards a method of theoretical and conceptual investigation and design and building experiments in the field of innovative construction for sustainable dwelling. In particular, the experience outlined in this text relates to a design experiment completed between 2010 and 2011 and outside the borders of the Marche region, in agreement with the City of Naples' Assessorato all’Edilizia e al Centro Storico (Department of Building and the Historical Centre and focused on the architectural and environmental refurbishment of the residential quarter of Selva Cafaro in San Pietro a Patierno (Naples.

  10. A Closed-Loop Supply Chain under Retail Price and Quality Dependent Demand with Remanufacturing and Refurbishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, A. Y.; Fauzi, B. N.; Kurdi, N. A.; Jauhari, W. A.; Saputro, D. R. S.

    2017-06-01

    The demand of a product is linearly dependent on the retail price and quality of the product. We address a closed-loop supply chain where the manufacturer manufactures products according to the demand and sells them through a retailer in the market. A third party collects the used products from costumers and sends to the manufacturer to increase the quality. If the products can retrieve the original quality, thus the process is called remanufacturing. Not every products can retrieve the original quality, thus manufacturer refurbish this products with lower price. We construct four different scenarios - centralized and decentralized led by manufacturer, retailer, and third party. From the comparison of the result obtained in the numerical example, we conclude that the joint profit obtained under centralized, manufacturer-led, and retailer-led policies is higher than third party-led policy.

  11. Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photovoltaic Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Lin, Richeng; Ran, Junxue; Zhang, Zhaojun; Ji, Xu; Huang, Feng

    2018-01-23

    Over the past two decades, solar- and astrophysicists and material scientists have been researching and developing new-generation semiconductor-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detectors with low power consumption and small size for replacing traditional heavy and high-energy-consuming microchannel-detection systems, to study the formation and evolution of stars. However, the most desirable semiconductor-based VUV photovoltaic detector capable of achieving zero power consumption has not yet been achieved. With high-crystallinity multistep epitaxial grown AlN as a VUV-absorbing layer for photogenerated carriers and p-type graphene (with unexpected VUV transmittance >96%) as a transparent electrode to collect excited holes, we constructed a heterojunction device with photovoltaic detection for VUV light. The device exhibits an encouraging VUV photoresponse, high external quantum efficiency (EQE) and extremely fast tempera response (80 ns, 10 4 -10 6 times faster than that of the currently reported VUV photoconductive devices). This work has provided an idea for developing zero power consumption and integrated VUV photovoltaic detectors with ultrafast and high-sensitivity VUV detection capability, which not only allows future spacecraft to operate with longer service time and lower launching cost but also ensures an ultrafast evolution of interstellar objects.

  12. NMR and Chemometric Characterization of Vacuum Residues and Vacuum Gas Oils from Crude Oils of Different Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Parlov Vuković

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available NMR spectroscopy in combination with statistical methods was used to study vacuum residues and vacuum gas oils from 32 crude oils of different origin. Two chemometric metodes were applied. Firstly, principal component analysis on complete spectra was used to perform classification of samples and clear distinction between vacuum residues and vacuum light and heavy gas oils were obtained. To quantitatively predict the composition of asphaltenes, principal component regression models using areas of resonance signals spaned by 11 frequency bins of the 1H NMR spectra were build. The first 5 principal components accounted for more than 94 % of variations in the input data set and coefficient of determination for correlation between measured and predicted values was R2 = 0.7421. Although this value is not significant, it shows the underlying linear dependence in the data. Pseudo two-dimensional DOSY NMR experiments were used to assess the composition and structural properties of asphaltenes in a selected crude oil and its vacuum residue on the basis of their different hydrodynamic behavior and translational diffusion coefficients. DOSY spectra showed the presence of several asphaltene aggregates differing in size and interactions they formed. The obtained results have shown that NMR techniques in combination with chemometrics are very useful to analyze vacuum residues and vacuum gas oils. Furthermore, we expect that our ongoing investigation of asphaltenes from crude oils of different origin will elucidate in more details composition, structure and properties of these complex molecular systems.

  13. Water cooling thermal power measurement in a vacuum diffusion pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Cardozo Amorin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion vacuum pumps are used both in industry and in laboratory science for high vacuum production. For its operation they must be refrigerated, and it is done by circulating water in open circuit. Considering that, vacuum systems stays operating by hours, the water consumption may be avoided if the diffusion vacuum pumps refrigeration were done in closed circuit. However, it is necessary to know the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power (the heat transferred to circulate water by time units to implement one of these and get in the refrigeration system dimension. In this paper the diffusion vacuum pump thermal power was obtained by measuring water flow and temperature variation and was calculated through the heat quantity variation equation time function. The thermal power value was 935,6 W, that is 397 W smaller and 35 W bigger than, respectively, the maximum and minimum diffusion pump thermal power suggested by its operation manual. This procedure have been shown useful to precisely determine the diffusion pump thermal power or of any other system that needs to be refrigerated in water closed circuit.

  14. Steam vacuum cleaning. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The baseline technology currently used for washing debris is a high-pressure water cleaning (HPWC) system. The system used at the FEMP is the Hotsy{reg_sign} Model 550B HPWC. Although the HPWC technology has functioned satisfactorily, improvements are being sought in areas related to reduced liquid waste volume, increased productivity, increased washing effectiveness, and decreased airborne contamination. An innovative technology that offers potential improvements in these areas is a steam vacuum cleaning (SVC) system that integrates high-pressure steam cleaning with a vacuum recovery sub-system that simultaneously collects dislodged contaminants thereby reducing airborne contamination. The SVC system selected for demonstration at the FEMP was the Kelly{trademark} Decontamination System shown. This report provides comparative performance and cost analyses between the Hotsy HPWC system and the Kelly Decontamination System. Both technologies were demonstrated at the FEMP site located at Fernald, Ohio from July 29, 1996 through August 15, 1996. The demonstrations were conducted at the FEMP Plant 1 as part of the LSTD project sponsored by the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the US DOE`s Office of Science and Technology.

  15. Alignment sensing and control for squeezed vacuum states of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E; Dooley, K L; Vahlbruch, H; Affeldt, C; Bisht, A; Leong, J R; Lough, J; Prijatelj, M; Slutsky, J; Was, M; Wittel, H; Danzmann, K; Grote, H

    2016-01-11

    Beam alignment is an important practical aspect of the application of squeezed states of light. Misalignments in the detection of squeezed light result in a reduction of the observable squeezing level. In the case of squeezed vacuum fields that contain only very few photons, special measures must be taken in order to sense and control the alignment of the essentially dark beam. The GEO 600 gravitational wave detector employs a squeezed vacuum source to improve its detection sensitivity beyond the limits set by classical quantum shot noise. Here, we present our design and implementation of an alignment sensing and control scheme that ensures continuous optimal alignment of the squeezed vacuum field at GEO 600 on long time scales in the presence of free-swinging optics. This first demonstration of a squeezed light automatic alignment system will be of particular interest for future long-term applications of squeezed vacuum states of light.

  16. Investigation of the effects of capacity on asbestos vacuum cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W L; Loflin, W J

    1980-12-01

    Nine industrial vacuum cleaners, designed for collection of asbestos waste, were tested to determine how the performance was affected when the manufacturer's specified capacity was approached, attained, and exceeded. This determination was assessed by measurement of the airborne asbestos fiber concentration in the vacuum cleaner discharge air and the change in vacuum cleaner suction pressure. Airborne fiber concentrations were found to be far below the present OSHA standard; however, the suction pressure of each vacuum cleaner dropped considerably as the capacity was approached and/or exceeded. All of the units tested except one were able to contain 25% more than their specified capacity without any internal problems, filtering system failure, or total loss of suction pressure.

  17. Low emittance coatings and the thermal performance of vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Hyde, Trevor J.; Zhao, Junfu; Wang, Jinlei; Huang, Ye [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB, N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Eames, Philip C. [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2007-01-15

    The thermal performances of vacuum glazings employing coatings with emittance between 0.02 and 0.16 were simulated using a three-dimensional finite volume model. Physical samples of vacuum glazings with hard and soft coatings with emittance of 0.04, 0.12 and 0.16 were fabricated and their thermal performance characterised experimentally using a guarded hot box calorimeter. Good agreement was found between experimental and theoretical thermal performances for both a vacuum glazing with a soft coating (emittance 0.04) and those with hard coatings (emittance 0.12 and 0.16). Simulations showed that for a low value of emittance (e.g. 0.02), the use of two low-emittance coatings gives limited improvement in thermal performance of the glazing system. The use of a single high performance low-emittance coating in a vacuum glazing has been shown to provide excellent performance. (author)

  18. RFQ Vacuum brazing at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mathot, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the vacuum brazing procedure used at CERN for the brazing of Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). The RFQ is made of high precision machined OFE copper pieces assembled together. Vacuum brazing is one of the most promising techniques used to join the individual components leading to vacuum tightness and high precision alignment. The RFQ modules brazed at CERN are made of four 100 or 120 cm long vanes (two major and two minor vanes). Our brazing procedure consists of two steps. The first step involves the brazing of the four vanes in a horizontal position. The second step consists of brazing the vacuum stainless steel flanges to the copper structure in a vertical position. The paper describes the problems encountered with the alignment and the vacuum tightness. The difficulties related to the stress relaxation of the machined copper pieces during the brazing heat treatment are discussed. In addition, the solutions developed to improve the alignment of the brazed RFQ’s are...

  19. Inner cylinder of the CMS vacuum tank.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The vacuum tank of the CMS magnet system consists of inner and outer stainless-steel cylinders and houses the superconducting coil. The inner cylinder contains all the barrel sub-detectors, which it supports via a system of horizontal rails. The cylinder is pictured here in the vertical position on a yellow platform mounted on the ferris-wheel support structure. This will allow it to be pivoted and inserted into the outer cylinder already attached to the innermost ring of the barrel yoke.

  20. New Vacuum Electronic Devices for Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yinfu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum Electronic Devices (VEDs which are considered as the heart of a radar system, play an important role in their development. VEDs and radar systems supplement and promote each other. Some new trends in VEDs have been observed with advancements in the simulation tools for designing VEDs, new materials, new fabrication techniques. Recently, the performance of VEDs has greatly improved. In addition, new devices have been invented, which have laid the foundation for the developments of radar detection technology. This study introduces the recent development trends and research results of VEDs from microwave and millimeter wave devices and power modules, integrated VEDs, terahertz VEDs, and high power VEDs.

  1. Carbon nanotubes based vacuum gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudyk, N. N.; Il’in, O. I.; Il’ina, M. V.; Fedotov, A. A.; Klimin, V. S.; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    We have created an ionization type Vacuum gauge with sensor element based on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Obtained asymmetrical current-voltage characteristics at different voltage polarity on the electrode with the CNTs. It was found that when applying a negative potential on an electrode with the CNTs, the current in the gap is higher than at a positive potential. In the pressure range of 1 ÷ 103 Torr vacuum gauge sensitivity was 6 mV/Torr (at a current of 4.5·10-5 A) and in the range of 10-5 ÷ 1 Torr was 10 mV/Torr (at a current of 1.3·10-5 A). It is shown that the energy efficiency of vacuum gauge can be increased in the case where electrode with CNT operates as an emitter of electrons.

  2. Milking performance evaluation and factors affecting milking claw vacuum levels with flow simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokidani, Masafumi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Yasunori; Watanabe, Aiko

    2017-08-01

    Milking performance of milking machines that matches the production capability of dairy cows is important in reducing the risk of mastitis, particularly in high-producing cows. This study used a simulated milking device to examine the milking performance of the milking system of 73 dairy farms and to analyze the factors affecting claw vacuum. Mean claw vacuum and range of fluctuation of claw vacuum (claw vacuum range) were measured at three different flow rates: 5.7, 7.6 and 8.7 kg/min. At the highest flow rate, only 16 farms (21.9%) met both standards of mean claw vacuum ≥35 kPa and claw vacuum range ≤ 7 kPa, showing that milking systems currently have poor milking performance. The factors affecting mean claw vacuum were claw type, milk-meter and vacuum shut-off device; the factor affecting claw vacuum range was claw type. Examination of the milking performance of the milking system using a simulated milking device allows an examination of the performance that can cope with high producing cows, indicating the possibility of reducing the risk of mastitis caused by inappropriate claw vacuum. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. The effect of glass coating emittance and frame rebate on heat transfer through vacuum and electrochromic vacuum glazed windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Eames, Philip C. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB, N. Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-16

    The thermal performance of an electrochromic vacuum glazing and a vacuum glazing with a range of low-emittance coatings and frame rebate depths were simulated for insolations between 0 and 1000Wm{sup -2} using a three-dimensional finite volume model. The vacuum glazing simulated comprised two 0.4mx0.4m glass panes separated by a 0.12mm wide evacuated space supported by a 0.32mm diameter pillar array spaced at 25mm. The two glass sheets were sealed contiguously by a 6mm wide metal edge seal and had either one or two low-emittance coatings. For the electrochromic vacuum glazing, a third glass pane on which an electrochromic layer was deposited was assumed to be sealed to an evacuated glass unit, to enable control of visible light transmittance and solar gain and thus improve occupant thermal comfort. It is shown that for both vacuum glazing and electrochromic vacuum glazings, when the coating emittance value is very low (close to 0.02), the use of two low-emittance coatings only gives limited improvement in glazing performance. The use of a single currently expensive low-emittance coating in both systems provided acceptable performance. Deeper frame rebate depths gave significant improvements in thermal performance for both glazing systems. (author)

  4. Vacuum Cleaner Fan Being Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the technology utilization program at the NASA Lewis Research Center, efforts are underway to transfer aerospace technologies to new areas of practical application. One such effort involves using advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for turbomachinery to analyze the internal fluid dynamics of low-speed fans and blowers. This year, the Kirby Company in Cleveland, Ohio, approached NASA with a request for technologies that could help them improve their vacuum cleaners. Of particular interest to Kirby is the high-frequency blade-passing noise generation of their vacuum cleaner fan at low airflow rates.

  5. Gases and vacua handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, A H

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 1: Gases and Vacua provides information on the many aspects of vacuum technology, from material on the quantum theoretical aspects of the complex semi-conductors used for thermionic and photo-electric emission to data on the performance of commercially available pumps, gauges, and high-vacuum materials. The handbook satisfies the need of workers using vacuum apparatuses or works on the diverse applications of high-vacuum technology in research and industry. The book is a compilation of long articles prepared by experts in vacuum technology. Sufficient theoret

  6. Treatment of thoracic wounds with adapted vacuum therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Renato L.B. de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of seven cases of infected thoracic wounds treated with an adapted low-cost vacuum therapy in the Thoracic Surgery Unit of Santa Marcelina Hospital. The vacuum system used was designed and adapted to our hospital due to financial limitations on the acquisition of commercial kits. The vacuum-assisted closure kit used in this study consisted of chlorhexidine sponges (which are usually used for antisepsis of the surgical team, a 16F nasogastric tube, and two sterile adhesive films (OPSITE for surgical field reinforcement. The mean duration of vacuum therapy was 13.4 days (range, 10–20 days, with an average of three dressing changes (range, 1–5. After treatment with vacuum-assisted closure, three wounds (3/7 were closed with simple primary sutures, one of the lesions (1/7 was closed by muscle flap rotation, and three wounds (3/7 healed by second intention. This adapted vacuum therapy was safe and easy to apply in our institution, including its use in patients with thoracostomies.

  7. Overview of High Power Vacuum Dry RF Load Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-27

    A specific feature of RF linacs based on the pulsed traveling wave (TW) mode of operation is that only a portion of the RF energy is used for the beam acceleration. The residual RF energy has to be terminated into an RF load. Higher accelerating gradients require higher RF sources and RF loads, which can stably terminate the residual RF power. RF feeders (from the RF source though the accelerating section to the load) are vacuumed to transmit multi-megawatt high power RF. This overview will outline vacuumed RF loads only. A common method to terminate multi-MW RF power is to use circulated water (or other liquid) as an absorbing medium. A solid dielectric interface (a high quality ceramic) is required to separate vacuum and liquid RF absorber mediums. Using such RF load approaches in TW linacs is troubling because there is a fragile ceramic window barrier and a failure could become catastrophic for linac vacuum and RF systems. Traditional loads comprising of a ceramic disk have limited peak and average power handling capability and are therefore not suitable for high gradient TW linacs. This overview will focus on ''vacuum dry'' or ''all-metal'' loads that do not employ any dielectric interface between vacuum and absorber. The first prototype is an original design of RF loads for the Stanford Two-Mile Accelerator.

  8. UNICOS CPC New Domains of Application: Vacuum and Cooling & Ventilation

    CERN Document Server

    Willeman, D; Bradu, B; Ortola, J

    2011-01-01

    The UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) framework, and concretely the CPC (Continuous Process Control) package, has been extensively used in the domain of continuous processes (e.g. cryogenics, gas flows) and also in others specific to the LHC machine as the collimators environmental measurements interlock system. The application of the UNICOS-CPC to other kind of processes: vacuum and the cooling and ventilation cases are depicted here. One of the major challenges was to figure out whether the model and devices created so far were also adapted for other type of processes (e.g. Vacuum). To illustrate this challenge two domain use cases will be shown: ISOLDE vacuum control system and the RFQ4 and STP18 (cooling & ventilation) control systems. Both scenarios will be illustrated emphasizing the adaptability of the UNICOS CPC package to create those applications and highlighting the discovered needed features to include in a future version of the UNICOS CPC package. This paper will a...

  9. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  10. Brine Distribution after Vacuum Saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Kathrine; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with the vacuum saturation method for brine in plugs of chalk showed that a homogeneous distribution of brine cannot be ensured at saturations below 20% volume. Instead of a homogeneous volume distribution the brine becomes concentrated close to the surfaces of the plugs...

  11. Quantum Vacuum Structure and Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafelski, Johann; Labun, Lance; Hadad, Yaron; /Arizona U. /Munich U.; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2011-12-05

    Contemporary physics faces three great riddles that lie at the intersection of quantum theory, particle physics and cosmology. They are: (1) The expansion of the universe is accelerating - an extra factor of two appears in the size; (2) Zero-point fluctuations do not gravitate - a matter of 120 orders of magnitude; and (3) The 'True' quantum vacuum state does not gravitate. The latter two are explicitly problems related to the interpretation and the physical role and relation of the quantum vacuum with and in general relativity. Their resolution may require a major advance in our formulation and understanding of a common unified approach to quantum physics and gravity. To achieve this goal we must develop an experimental basis and much of the discussion we present is devoted to this task. In the following, we examine the observations and the theory contributing to the current framework comprising these riddles. We consider an interpretation of the first riddle within the context of the universe's quantum vacuum state, and propose an experimental concept to probe the vacuum state of the universe.

  12. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The same vacuum chamber as in 7810256, read the detailed description there. Here, the 4 strip-shaped ion-getter pumps are poised at the entrance to their slots. Ion-getter pumps were not retained, thermal getter pumps were chosen instead (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  13. Filling the vacuum at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Last month, the Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings (VSC) group was tasked with an unusually delicate operation in the LHCb experiment cavern: removing the LHC beam pipe while keeping the sensitive Vertex Locator vacuum vessel (VELO) completely isolated from the action.   The VSC group seal off the VELO beam pipe with a flange. Image: Gloria Corti. LHCb’s VELO detector is one of the crown jewels of the experiment. With detector elements surrounded by a vacuum, it gets as close as 5 cm from the beam. Fantastic for physics, but difficult for all-important access. “Because of the sensitivity of the VELO detector and its proximity to the beam, the collaboration decided not to bake (see box) its portion of the beam pipe,” says Giulia Lanza (TE-VSC-LBV), the expert in charge of the beam vacuum operation. “Our group was therefore asked to remove the rest of the LHC beam pipe while keeping the VELO portion of the pipe completely isolated. This work...

  14. Vacuum assisted closure in coloproctology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure has earned its indications in coloproctology. It has been described with variable results in the treatment of large perineal defects after abdominoperineal excision, in the treatment of stoma dehiscence and perirectal abscesses. The most promising indication for

  15. Bioregenerative system components for microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the class was to design, fabricate, and test prototype designs that were independent, yet applicable to a Closed Loop Life Support System. The three prototypes chosen were in the areas of agar plant growth, regnerative filtration, and microgravity food preparation. The plant growth group designed a prototype agar medium growth system that incorporates nutrient solution replenishment and post-harvest refurbishment. In addition, the unit emphasizes material containment and minimization of open interfaces. The second project was a filter used in microgravity that has the capability to clean itself. The filters are perforated plates which slide through a duct and are cleaned outside of the flow with a vacuum system. The air in the duct is prevented from flowing outside of the duct by a network of sliding seals. The food preparation group developed a device which dispenses and mixes ingredients and then cooks the mixture in microgravity. The dry ingredients are dispensed from a canister by a ratchet-operated piston. The wet ingredients are dispensed from plastic bags through tubing attached to a syringe. Once inside the mixing chamber, the ingredients are mixed using a collapsible whisk and then pushed into the cooking device.

  16. Cryogenic Vacuum Insulation for Vessels and Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, A.; Fesmire, J.; Johnson, W.; Minnick, J.

    2010-01-01

    Cryogenic vacuum insulation systems, with proper materials selection and execution, can offer the highest levels of thermal performance. Three areas of consideration are vital to achieve the optimum result: materials, representative test conditions, and engineering approach for the particular application. Deficiency in one of these three areas can prevent optimum performance and lead to severe inefficiency. Materials of interest include micro-fiberglass, multilayer insulation, and composite arrangements. Cylindrical liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimetry methods were used. The need for standard thermal conductivity data is addressed through baseline testing. Engineering analysis and design factors such as layer thickness, density, and practicality are also considered.

  17. Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Shohreh

    Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

  18. In-vacuum active electronics for microfabricated ion traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Nicholas D; Fallek, Spencer D; Hayden, Harley; Pai, C-S; Volin, Curtis; Brown, K R; Merrill, J True; Harter, Alexa W; Amini, Jason M; Lust, Lisa M; Muldoon, Kelly; Carlson, Doug; Budach, Jerry

    2014-06-01

    The advent of microfabricated ion traps for the quantum information community has allowed research groups to build traps that incorporate an unprecedented number of trapping zones. However, as device complexity has grown, the number of digital-to-analog converter (DAC) channels needed to control these devices has grown as well, with some of the largest trap assemblies now requiring nearly one hundred DAC channels. Providing electrical connections for these channels into a vacuum chamber can be bulky and difficult to scale beyond the current numbers of trap electrodes. This paper reports on the development and testing of an in-vacuum DAC system that uses only 9 vacuum feedthrough connections to control a 78-electrode microfabricated ion trap. The system is characterized by trapping single and multiple (40)Ca(+) ions. The measured axial mode stability, ion heating rates, and transport fidelities for a trapped ion are comparable to systems with external (air-side) commercial DACs.

  19. External Cylindrical Nozzle with Controlled Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2015-01-01

    on the vacuum depth in the chamber. Research findings allowed us to express opinion that accepted in the works on "Fluid Mechanics " equality of pressure values in the center of cross-stream gravity and in its surrounding steam-gas medium is incorrect. The paper shows a possibility to create the nozzle design with updated device to connect a chamber to the atmosphere by the air throttle, which is flow pressure-controlled thus providing the nozzle operation as the flow rate stabilizer. The publication supplements information on nozzles provided in literature on " Fluid Mechanics". The developed design of the external cylindrical nozzle with controlled vacuum and of research results of its working capacity can be taken into consideration in designing hydraulic systems and devices of hydro-automatic equipment.

  20. Vacuum arc on the polycrystalline silica cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Duhopel'nikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of silica and its compounds are used in modern technology to produce Li-ion batteries, wear-resistant and protective coatings, thin-films insulators, etc. This coating is produced with CVD methods, with magnetron sputtering systems or with electron-beam evaporation. The vacuum arc evaporation method, presently, is not used.The paper demonstrates a possibility for a long-term operation of vacuum arc evaporator with polycrystalline silica-aluminum alloy (90% of silica cathode and with magnetic system to create a variable form of arch-like magnetic field on the cathode surface. It was shown that archlike configuration of magnetic field provides a stable discharge and uniform cathode spots moving with the velocities up to 5 m/s with magnetic fields induction about 10 mT. Thus, there is no local melting of the cathode, and this provides its long-term work without chips, cracks and destruction. Cathodes spots move over the cathode surface leaving t big craters with melted edges on its surface. The craters size was 150-450μm. The cathode spot movement character and the craters on the cathode surface were like the spots movement, when working on the copper or aluminum cathodes. With the magnetic field induction less than 1 mT, the cathode spots movement was the same as that of on the silica mono-crystal without magnetic field. Thus, the discharge volt-ampere characteristics for different values of magnetic fields were obtained. Voltampere characteristics were increasing and were shifted to the higher voltage with increasing magnetic field. The voltage was 18.7-26.5 V for the arc current 30-140 A.So, it was confirmed that vacuum arc evaporation method could be used for effective evaporation of silica and silica-based alloys and for thin films deposition of this materials.

  1. Gravitational Waves in Decaying Vacuum Cosmologies

    OpenAIRE

    David Alejandro Tamayo Ramirez

    2015-01-01

    In the present monograph we study in detail the primordial gravitational waves in cosmologies with a decaying vacuum. The decaying vacuum models are an alternative to solve the cosmological constant problem attributing a dynamic to the vacuum energy. The problem of primordial gravitational waves is discussed in the framework of an expanding, flat, spatially homogeneous and isotropic FLRW Universe described by General Relativity theory with decaying vacuum energy density of the type $\\\\Lambda ...

  2. Robot Vacuum Cleaner Personality and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, A.F.M.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Boess, S.; Pauws, S.C.; Sonneveld, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report our study on the user experience of robot vacuum cleaner behavior. How do people want to experience this new type of cleaning appliance? Interviews were conducted to elicit a desired robot vacuum cleaner personality. With this knowledge in mind, behavior was designed for a future robot vacuum cleaner. A video prototype was used to evaluate how people experienced the behavior of this robot vacuum cleaner. The results indicate that people recognizedthe intended personali...

  3. Does demolition or refurbishment of old and inefficient homes help to increase our environmental, social and economic viability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Anne [London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom); Sustainable Development Commission, Room 101, 55 Whitehall, c/o 3-8 Whitehall Place, London SW1A 2HH (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    The issue of whether to demolish or refurbish older housing has been debated for over a century. It has been an active policy area since the late 1880s, when the Government first authorised the statutory demolition of insanitary slums. In the 1960s, revulsion at the scale of 'demolition blight' and new building caused a rethink, leading to a major reinvestment in inner city neighbourhoods of older housing. In the past 5 years, debate on demolition and new building has been intensified by the Government's Sustainable Communities Plan of 2003, with its proposals for large-scale clearance and building. Environmental arguments about renovating the existing stock have gained increasing prominence as people have sought to defend their communities from demolition. The evidence on whether demolition would reduce the amount of greenhouse gases we emit into the atmosphere is unclear and disputed. This paper summarises the evidence and arguments, and attempts to clarify the most realistic, achievable route to major reductions in energy use in homes. The arguments that apply to housing also apply to most other buildings and therefore to the overall built environment, which accounts for half of all carbon emissions. Three main sources of evidence have helped in the development of this paper, but there are many other studies we draw on in the discussion.

  4. Utilize Vacuum Forming to Make Interdisciplinary Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Valenza, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The concept of vacuum forming has been around since the 19th century, despite not being fully utilized in industry until the 1950s. In the past, industrial arts classes have used vacuum-forming projects to concentrate solely on the manufacturing process and the final product. However, vacuum forming is not just an old industrial arts activity; it…

  5. The Dirac-Electron Vacuum Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the Dirac equation can be interpreted as an interaction between the electron core and the Planck vacuum state, where the positive and negative solutions represent respectively the dynamics of the electron core and a vacuum wave propagating within the vacuum state. Results show that the nonrelativistic positive solution reduces to the Schrödinger wave equation

  6. Two-dimensional radiation MHD modeling assessment of designs for argon gas puff distributions for future experiments on the refurbished Z machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J. L.; Chong, Y. K.; Velikovich, A. L.; Dasgupta, A.; Apruzese, J. P.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jennings, C. A.; Waisman, E. M.; Lamppa, D. C.; McKenney, J. L.; Cuneo, M. E.; Krishnan, M.; Coleman, P. L.; Madden, R. E.; Elliott, K. W.

    2012-09-01

    Argon Z-pinch experiments are to be performed on the refurbished Z machine (which we will refer to as ZR here in order to distinguish between pre-refurbishment Z) at Sandia National Laboratories with a new 8 cm diameter double-annulus gas puff nozzle constructed by Alameda Applied Sciences Corporation (AASC). The gas exits the nozzle from an outer and inner annulus and a central jet. The amount of gas present in each region can be varied. Here a two-dimensional radiation MHD (2DRMHD) model, MACH2-TCRE, with tabular collisional radiative equilibrium atomic kinetics is used to theoretically investigate stability and K-shell emission properties of several measured (interferometry) initial gas distributions emanating from this new nozzle. Of particular interest is to facilitate that the distributions employed in future experiments have stability and K-shell emission properties that are at least as good as the Titan nozzle generated distribution that was successfully fielded in earlier experiments on the Z machine before it underwent refurbishment. The model incorporates a self-consistent calculation for non-local thermodynamic equilibrium kinetics and ray-trace based radiation transport. This level of detail is necessary in order to model opacity effects, non-local radiation effects, and the high temperature state of K-shell emitting Z-pinch loads. Comparisons of radiation properties and stability of measured AASC gas profiles are made with that of the distribution used in the pre-refurbished Z experiments. Based on these comparisons, an optimal K-shell emission producing initial gas distribution is determined from among the AASC nozzle measured distributions and predictions are made for K-shell yields attainable from future ZR experiments.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility operations manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-05-12

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998) and, the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 3a. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence, and has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  8. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  9. Advanced window incorporating vacuum glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Osamu; Misonou, Masao; Kato, Hidemi; Nagasaka, Shigeki

    1999-10-01

    Vacuum glazing product named SPACIATM, being an unique product with very high levels of thermal insulation properties in a very small thickness, is described in detail. The construction and manufacturing process of SPACIATM are reported. Its design, which was originally established by R.E. Collins et al. of the University of Sydney, has been adjusted in order to meet the requirements of the Japanese market and the requirements of mass production process. SPACIATM is found to have several unique features including airborne sound insulation as well as thermal insulation. Energy required for air conditioning was simulated for Japanese houses with various glazings, and it was revealed that SPACIATM could save the energy efficiently. Finally, hybrid IG unit, where vacuum glazing is incorporated into a conventional IG unit, is proposed for further improvement of thermal insulation.

  10. LEP vacuum chamber, early prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The structure of LEP, with long bending magnets and little access to the vacuum chamber between them, required distributed pumping. This is an early prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, made from extruded aluminium. The main opening is for the beam. The small channel to the right is for cooling water, to carry away the heat deposited by the synchroton radiation from the beam. The 4 slots in the channel to the left house the strip-shaped ion-getter pumps (see 7810255). The ion-getter pumps depended on the magnetic field of the bending magnets, too low at injection energy for the pumps to function well. Also, a different design was required outside the bending magnets. This design was therefore abandoned, in favour of a thermal getter pump (see 8301153 and 8305170).

  11. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    _f=2$ and $N_f=3$ we reproduce earlier known results including the Dashen phase with spontaneous violation of the combined charge conjugation and parity symmetry, CP. For $N_f=4$ we find regions with and without spontaneous CP violation. We then generalize to an arbitrary number of flavors. Here......We study the alignment of the vacuum in gauge theories with $N_f$ Dirac fermions transforming according to a complex representation of the gauge group. The alignment of the vacuum is produced by adding a small mass perturbation to the theory. We study in detail the $N_f=2,3$ and $4$ case. For $N...... it is shown that at the point where $N_f-1$ flavors are degenerate with positive mass $m>0$ and the mass of the $N_f$'th flavor becomes negative and equal to $-m$ CP breaks spontaneously....

  12. Visualizing electromagnetic vacuum by MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrashekar, Chandrika S; Chandrashekar, S; Taylor, Erika A; Taylor, Deanne M

    2016-01-01

    Based upon Maxwell's equations, it has long been established that oscillating electromagnetic (EM) fields incident upon a metal surface decay exponentially inside the conductor, leading to a virtual EM vacuum at sufficient depths. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizes radiofrequency (r.f.) EM fields to produce images. Here we present the first visualization of an EM vacuum inside a bulk metal strip by MRI, amongst several novel findings. We uncover unexpected MRI intensity patterns arising from two orthogonal pairs of faces of a metal strip, and derive formulae for their intensity ratios. Further, we furnish chemical shift imaging (CSI) results that discriminate different faces (surfaces) of a metal block according to their distinct nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts, which holds much promise for monitoring surface chemical reactions noninvasively. Bulk metals are ubiquitous, and MRI is a premier noninvasive diagnostic tool. Combining the two, the emerging field of bulk metal MRI can be expe...

  13. Quantum vacuum and dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, Dragan Slavkov

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum was proposed as alternative to the dark matter paradigm. In the present paper we consider four benchmark measurements: the universality of the central surface density of galaxy dark matter haloes, the cored dark matter haloes in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the non-existence of dark disks in spiral galaxies and distribution of dark matter after collision of clusters of galaxies (the Bullet cluster is a famous example). Only some of these phenomena (but not all of them) can (in principle) be explained by the dark matter and the theories of modified gravity. However, we argue that the framework of the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum allows the understanding of the totality of these phenomena.

  14. LTC vacuum blasting machine (concrete): Baseline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-31

    The LTC shot blast technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers the evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The LTC 1073 Vacuum Blasting Machine uses a high-capacity, direct-pressure blasting system which incorporates a continuous feed for the blast media. The blast media cleans the surface within the contained brush area of the blast. It incorporates a vacuum system which removes dust and debris from the surface as it is blasted. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure during maintenance activities was minimal, but due to mechanical difficulties dust monitoring could not be conducted during operation. Noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place. This may cause the results to be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed environment. In addition, other safety and health issues found were ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, lockout/tagout, and arm-hand vibration.

  15. Predicted thermal performance of triple vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yueping; Hyde, Trevor J.; Hewitt, Neil [School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, N. Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    The simulated triple vacuum glazing (TVG) consists of three 4 mm thick glass panes with two vacuum gaps, with each internal glass surface coated with a low-emittance coating with an emittance of 0.03. The two vacuum gaps are sealed by an indium based sealant and separated by a stainless steel pillar array with a height of 0.12 mm and a pillar diameter of 0.3 mm spaced at 25 mm. The thermal transmission at the centre-of-glazing area of the TVG was predicted to be 0.26 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}. The simulation results show that although the thermal conductivity of solder glass (1 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) and indium (83.7 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) are very different, the difference in thermal transmission of TVGs resulting from the use of an indium and a solder glass edge seal was 0.01 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}. This is because the edge seal is so thin (0.12 mm), consequently there is a negligible temperature drop across it irrespective of the material that the seal is made from relative to the total temperature difference across the glazing. The results also show that there is a relatively large increase in the overall thermal conductance of glazings without a frame when the width of the indium edge seal is increased. Increasing the rebate depth in a solid wood frame decreased the heat transmission of the TVG. The overall heat transmission of the simulated 0.5 m by 0.5 m TVG was 32.6% greater than that of the 1 m by 1 m TVG, since heat conduction through the edge seal of the small glazing has a larger contribution to the total glazing heat transfer than that of the larger glazing system. (author)

  16. Mass dependence of vacuum energy

    OpenAIRE

    Fulling, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    The regularized vacuum energy (or energy density) of a quantum field subjected to static external conditions is shown to satisfy a certain partial differential equation with respect to two variables, the mass and the "time" (ultraviolet cutoff parameter). The equation is solved to provide integral expressions for the regularized energy (more precisely, the cylinder kernel) at positive mass in terms of that for zero mass. Alternatively, for fixed positive mass all coefficients in the short-tim...

  17. Vacuum configuration for inflationary superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baadhio, R.A. (Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The vacuum configuration for the inflationary superstring theory is established. It is argued that the basic physical contents of the inflationary universe are characterized by the Novikov higher signature. Finally it is shown, with respect to the splitting of Paper II, that the index of the Dirac operator defined in our inflated universe, and in the parallel shadow one, is indeed [ital h]-cobordant.

  18. Entanglement in the Bogoliubov vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Meyer, T.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the entanglement properties of the Bogoliubov vacuum, which is obtained as a second-order approximation to the ground state of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We work in one- and two-dimensional lattices and study the entanglement between two groups of sites as a function...... and to be favoured by strong interactions. Conversely, long-range entanglement is favoured by relatively weak interactions. No examples of bound entanglement are found....

  19. Field Emission in Vacuum Microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Fursey, George; Schwoebel, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Field emission is a phenomenon described by quantum mechanics. Its emission capability is millions times higher than that of any other known types of electron emission. Nowadays this phenomenon is experiencing a new life due to wonderful applications in the atomic resolution microscopy, in electronic holography, and in the vacuum micro- and nanoelectronics in general. The main field emission properties, and some most remarkable experimental facts and applications, are described in this book.

  20. Vacuum electronics applications at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, E

    2009-01-01

    CERN operates a large number of vacuum electronics based RF power amplifiers covering a wide frequency range – over 300 sockets with 24 different grid tubes and klystrons are in use and require constant care to insure reliable operation of the accelerators. This is in particular true for the LHC and its injector chain, for which a program of improvement and stepwise upgrade has started. These include IOT’s for the SPS and klystrons and modulators for Linac4 and SPL. The CLIC study and the CTF3 facility are relevant to vacuum electronics in many ways: The CLIC primary RF power, to be provided at 1 GHz, requires highest possible efficiency and phase stability, MBK’s are likely candidates. The CLIC RF power source and CTF3 are themselves large vacuum electronics applications, consequently there are areas of common interest and concern, including fabrication techniques, pulse compression techniques, breakdown and multipactor theory and simulation, material fatigue, numerical analysis of slow-wave structures...

  1. Improved Aerogel Vacuum Thermal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    An improved design concept for aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels calls for multiple layers of aerogel sandwiched between layers of aluminized Mylar (or equivalent) poly(ethylene terephthalate), as depicted in the figure. This concept is applicable to both the rigid (brick) form and the flexible (blanket) form of aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels. Heretofore, the fabrication of a typical aerogel vacuum insulating panel has involved encapsulation of a single layer of aerogel in poly(ethylene terephthalate) and pumping of gases out of the aerogel-filled volume. A multilayer panel according to the improved design concept is fabricated in basically the same way: Multiple alternating layers of aerogel and aluminized poly(ethylene terephthalate) are assembled, then encapsulated in an outer layer of poly(ethylene terephthalate), and then the volume containing the multilayer structure is evacuated as in the single-layer case. The multilayer concept makes it possible to reduce effective thermal conductivity of a panel below that of a comparable single-layer panel, without adding weight or incurring other performance penalties. Implementation of the multilayer concept is simple and relatively inexpensive, involving only a few additional fabrication steps to assemble the multiple layers prior to evacuation. For a panel of the blanket type, the multilayer concept, affords the additional advantage of reduced stiffness.

  2. CERN News: Slow ejection efficiency at the PS; Vacuum tests on the ISR; Fire in the neutrino beam-line; Prototype r.f . cavity for the Booster; Crane-bridge in ISR experimental hall; Modifications to the r.f . system at the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    CERN News: Slow ejection efficiency at the PS; Vacuum tests on the ISR; Fire in the neutrino beam-line; Prototype r.f . cavity for the Booster; Crane-bridge in ISR experimental hall; Modifications to the r.f . system at the PS

  3. Renewable-based low-temperature district heating for existing buildings in various stages of refurbishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    Denmark is aiming for a fossil-free heating sector for buildings by 2035. Judging by the national heating plan, this will be achieved mainly by a further spread of DH (district heating) based on the renewable heat sources. To make the most cost-effective use of these sources, the DH supply...... and, for 98% of the year, to below 60 °C. However for the temperatures below 60 °C a low-temperature DH substation is required for DHW (domestic hot water) heating. This research shows that renewable sources of heat can be integrated into the DH system without problems and contribute to the fossil...

  4. Trombe walls with nanoporous aerogel insulation applied to UK housing refurbishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Dowson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an opportunity to improve the efficiency of passive Trombe walls and active solar air collectors by replacing their conventional glass covers with lightweight polycarbonate panels filled with nanoporous aerogel insulation. This study investigates the thermal performance, energy savings, and financial payback period of passive Aerogel Trombe walls applied to the existing UK housing stock. Using parametric modeling, a series of design guidance tables have been generated, providing estimates of the energy savings and overheating risk associated with applying areas of Trombe wall to four different house types across the UK built to six notional construction standards. Calculated energy savings range from 183 kWh/m2/year for an 8 m2 system retrofitted to a solid walled detached house to 62 kWh/m2/year for a 32 m2 system retrofitted to a super insulated flat. Predicted energy savings from Trombe walls up to 24 m2 are found to exceed the energy savings from external insulation across all house types and constructions. Small areas of Trombe wall can provide a useful energy contribution without creating a significant overheating risk. If larger areas are to be installed, then detailed calculations would be recommended to assess and mitigate potential overheating issues.

  5. ITER remote maintenance system configuration model overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friconneau, J.P., E-mail: jean-pierre.friconneau@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Conesa, C.; Choi, C.H.; Dammann, A.; Kuehn, I.; Levesy, B.; Martins, J.P.; Nakahira, M.; Palmer, J.; Rigoni, G.; Tesini, A. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Damiani, C.; Gutierrez, C. Gonzalez; Locke, D. [Fusion for Energy, c/Josep Pla n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3 - 9th Floor, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A challenge for the ITER project is to manage the design of many systems being developed in parallel. In order to control the machine configuration and ensure proper design integration, the ITER project has implemented the so-called 'configuration management models' (CMMs), aimed at controlling and managing the machine systems' interfaces. Specific issues are raised for modelling the ITER remote maintenance system (IRMS). That system shall provide the mean to support the remote maintenance operations for in-vessel components, remote transfer of activated components between the vacuum vessel (VV) and the hot cell facility and remote repairing, refurbishing and/or processing operations in the hot cell facility. The IRMS are dynamic, constantly changing morphologies, working envelopes and locations within the plant. This raises the issue of how to integrate the dynamic nature of this equipment into the CMM required for design integration. This paper describes the design methodology that is being developed to address the specific nature of the IRMS in the building of the CMM and gives examples to demonstrate the benefits to be gained by adopting this approach.

  6. Cosmological implications of the transition from the false vacuum to the true vacuum state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowski, Aleksander [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Szydlowski, Marek [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Jagiellonian University, Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Centre, Krakow (Poland); Urbanowski, Krzysztof [University of Zielona Gora, Institute of Physics, Zielona Gora (Poland)

    2017-06-15

    We study cosmology with running dark energy. The energy density of dark energy is obtained from the quantum process of transition from the false vacuum state to the true vacuum state. We use the Breit-Wigner energy distribution function to model the quantum unstable systems and obtain the energy density of the dark energy parametrization ρ{sub de}(t). We also use Krauss and Dent's idea linking properties of the quantum mechanical decay of unstable states with the properties of the observed Universe. In the cosmological model with this parametrization there is an energy transfer between dark matter and dark energy. The intensity of this process, measured by a parameter α, distinguishes two scenarios. As the Universe starts from the false vacuum state, for the small value of α (0 < α < 0.4) it goes through an intermediate oscillatory (quantum) regime of the density of dark energy, while for α > 0.4 the density of the dark energy jumps down. In both cases the present value of the density of dark energy is reached. From a statistical analysis we find this model to be in good agreement with the astronomical data and practically indistinguishable from the ΛCDM model. (orig.)

  7. Photonuclear and Radiation Effects Testing with a Refurbished 20 MeV Medical Electron Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Timothy; Beezhold, Wendland; De Veaux, Linda C; Harmon, Frank; Petrisko, Jill E; Spaulding, Randy

    2005-01-01

    An S-band 20 MeV electron linear accelerator formerly used for medical applications has been recommissioned to provide a wide range of photonuclear activation studies as well as various radiation effects on biological and microelectronic systems. Four radiation effect applications involving the electron/photon beams are described. Photonuclear activation of a stable isotope of oxygen provides an active means of characterizing polymer degradation. Biological irradiations of microorganisms including bacteria were used to study total dose and dose rate effects on survivability and the adaptation of these organisms to repeated exposures. Microelectronic devices including bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and diodes were irradiated to study photocurrent from these devices as a function of peak dose rate with comparisons to computer modeling results. In addition, the 20 MeV linac may easily be converted to a medium energy neutron source which has been used to study neutron damage effects on transistors.

  8. A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Andrew R; Mansell, Georgia L; Chua, Sheon S Y; Ward, Robert L; Slagmolen, Bram J J; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E

    2015-12-14

    Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments.

  9. Methods for characterization of mechanical and electrical prosthetic vacuum pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolafe, Oluseeni; Wood, Sean; Caldwell, Ryan; Hansen, Andrew; Fatone, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasingly widespread adoption of vacuum-assisted suspension systems in prosthetic clinical practices, there remain gaps in the body of scientific knowledge guiding clinicians' choices of existing products. In this study, we identified important pump-performance metrics and developed techniques to objectively characterize the evacuation performance of prosthetic vacuum pumps. The sensitivity of the proposed techniques was assessed by characterizing the evacuation performance of two electrical (Harmony e-Pulse [Ottobock; Duderstadt, Germany] and LimbLogic VS [Ohio Willow Wood; Mt. Sterling, Ohio]) and three mechanical (Harmony P2, Harmony HD, and Harmony P3 [Ottobock]) prosthetic pumps in bench-top testing. Five fixed volume chambers ranging from 33 cm(3) (2 in.(3)) to 197 cm(3) (12 in.(3)) were used to represent different air volume spaces between a prosthetic socket and a liner-clad residual limb. All measurements were obtained at a vacuum gauge pressure of 57.6 kPa (17 inHg). The proposed techniques demonstrated sensitivity to the different electrical and mechanical pumps and, to a lesser degree, to the different setting adjustments of each pump. The sensitivity was less pronounced for the mechanical pumps, and future improvements for testing of mechanical vacuum pumps were proposed. Overall, this study successfully offers techniques feasible as standards for assessing the evacuation performance of prosthetic vacuum pump devices.

  10. Vacuum membrane distillation of liquid desiccants Utilizing Hollow Fiber Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2018-01-31

    This paper documents the testing of a vacuum membrane distillation system intended for use with liquid desiccants. Liquid desiccants offer the possibility for low-energy, ambient temperature dehumidification. Effective desalination and purification of diluted desiccants outputs two important products: a concentrated desiccant for reuse in dehumidification and fresh water. In this study, vacuum membrane distillation was used in the laboratory to purify diluted liquid desiccants. Calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were the desiccants selected for testing. Desiccant solutions were pumped through the lumens of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes at varying feed inlet temperatures, solution velocity rates and vacuum set points during membrane distillation. An average flux of 8 kg m-2 h-1 was obtained using 30 wt% magnesium chloride solution at a temperature of 50 °C while applying vacuum to achieve 25 mbar absolute pressure on the air side of the membrane. The results are promising for the development of a full-scale vacuum membrane distillation process for desiccant solution regeneration and fresh water recovery. In addition, the recovered condensate was of sufficient quality for use in agricultural irrigation or drinking water.

  11. Environmental qualification design for NPP refurbishment to comply with revised licensing requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacBeth, M. J.; Hemmings, R. L. [Canatom-NPM, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-04-15

    Recent Canadian Nuclear Regulatory decisions have imposed Environmental Qualification (EQ) requirements for twenty-four Reactor Building (RB) airlocks at the four-unit Pickering Nuclear Generating Station-B (PNGS-B) facility. This paper describes the EQ modification design work completed by CANATOM-NPM for the problematic aspects for such projects. The airlocks allow RB access while providing a containment boundary and are designed to prevent a potential breach of containment for all analysed station conditions. Each PNGS-B unit has three large equipment airlocks and three smaller personnel airlocks. The airlocks must function under postulated worst-case design basis accident(DBA) conditions for assigned mission durations. The design must ensure that accident conditions cannot spuriously initiate an un-requested door opening. CANATOM-NPM reviewed site data to specify the necessary EQ modifications required to satisfy licensing requirements while providing a correct and complete as-found record of the existing airlock installation. The design team assessed the installed airlocks configuration against environmental qualification requirements to finalize the list of necessary modifications. A comprehensive, cross-discipline review of proposed design changes was completed to identify any further changes required to satisfy the final EQ licensing goal. The design team also conducted a design review of the EQ modification installation strategy to integrate the design deliverables with the installation team requirements while attempting to minimize necessary outage time for EQ modification installations. This project was completed on schedule and within the cost limitations required by the client with comprehensive, high quality final design packages. Overall improvements were realized for OPG system drawings and the electronic documentation of design data. The EQ modifications designed by CANATOM-NPM will ensure the continued operation of the PNGS-B NPP past December 31

  12. Analysis of the internal glass surfaces of vacuum glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, L. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)]. E-mail: catwin@physics.usyd.edu.au; Ng, N. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bilek, M. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2007-03-25

    XPS has been used to study the internal glass surfaces of vacuum glazing. In order to retain the vacuum state of the sample and to avoid carbon contamination of the test area, specially evacuated samples were designed in this study. A customized sample holder was made and a lever device was incorporated into the preparation chamber of an XPS system to break these samples in situ. The relative atomic concentration of different elements on commercial low-emittance tin-oxide-coated and uncoated glass was compared. The effect of high temperature outgassing on the carbon concentration on the internal glass surfaces of vacuum glazing has been investigated. The study shows that when the sample is baked at high temperatures, the carbon concentration on the glass surface can be reduced to a low level.

  13. Development of Glassy Carbon Blade for LHC Fast Vacuum Valve

    CERN Document Server

    Coly, P

    2012-01-01

    An unexpected gas inrush in a vacuum chamber leads to the development of a fast pressure wave. It carries small particles that can compromise functionality of sensitive machine systems such as the RF cavities or kickers. In the LHC machine, it has been proposed to protect this sensitive equipment by the installation of fast vacuum valves. The main requirements for the fast valves and in particular for the blade are: fast closure in the 20 ms range, high transparency and melting temperature in case of closure with beam in, dust free material to not contaminate sensitive adjacent elements, and last but not least vacuum compatibility and adequate leak tightness across the blade. In this paper, different designs based on a vitreous carbon blade are presented and a solution is proposed. The main reasons for this material choice are given. The mechanical study of the blade behaviour under dynamic forces is shown.

  14. Vacuum stripping of ethanol during high solids fermentation of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Jameel K; Huang, Haibo; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, Mike E; Singh, Vijay

    2014-05-01

    In corn-ethanol industry, yeast stress inducing glucose concentrations produced during liquefaction and subsequent high ethanol concentrations produced during fermentation restrict slurry solids to 32 % w/w. These limits were circumvented by combining two novel technologies: (1) granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) to break down starch simultaneously with fermentation and (2) vacuum stripping to remove ethanol. A vacuum stripping system was constructed and applied to fermentations at 30, 40, and 45 % solids. As solids increased from 30 to 40 %, ethanol yield decreased from 0.35 to 0.29 L/kg. Ethanol yield from 45 % solids was only 0.18 L/kg. An improvement was conducted by increasing enzyme dose from 0.25 to 0.75 g/g corn and reducing yeast inoculum by half. After improvement, ethanol yield from 40 % solids vacuum treatment increased to 0.36 L/kg, comparable to ethanol yield from 30 % solids (control).

  15. Ultrahigh vacuum process for the deposition of nanotubes and nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswajit; Lee, Myung B

    2015-02-03

    A system and method A method of growing an elongate nanoelement from a growth surface includes: a) cleaning a growth surface on a base element; b) providing an ultrahigh vacuum reaction environment over the cleaned growth surface; c) generating a reactive gas of an atomic material to be used in forming the nanoelement; d) projecting a stream of the reactive gas at the growth surface within the reactive environment while maintaining a vacuum of at most 1.times.10.sup.-4 Pascal; e) growing the elongate nanoelement from the growth surface within the environment while maintaining the pressure of step c); f) after a desired length of nanoelement is attained within the environment, stopping direction of reactive gas into the environment; and g) returning the environment to an ultrahigh vacuum condition.

  16. Evaluation of Drug Load and Polymer by Using a 96-Well Plate Vacuum Dry System for Amorphous Solid Dispersion Drug Delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Ran, Yingqing; Chou, Kang-Jye; Cui, Yong; Sambrone, Amy; Chan, Connie; Hart, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    .... A minimal amount of drug was required to evaluate optimal drug load in three different polymers with respect to solubility improvement and solid-state stability of the amorphous drug–polymer system...

  17. The Press, the Government, and the Ethics Vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, John C.

    Immanuel Kant's idea of a will to do the right thing--to be ethical--is essentially a dead concept with both press and government. The reasons for this "ethics vacuum" are two-fold: the foundations of ethics in both circles are vague, confusing, and beset by relativism and pragmatism so that no system of ethics ever really coalesces; and neither…

  18. Physical sciences: Thermodynamics, cryogenics, and vacuum technology: A compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Technological developments which have potential application outside the aerospace community are reported. A variety of thermodynamic devices including heat pipes and cooling systems are described along with methods of handling cryogenic fluids. Vacuum devices are also described. Pata et information is included.

  19. The phase free, longitudinal, magnetic component of vacuum electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Chubykalo, A. E.; Evans, M. W.; Smirnov-Rueda, R.

    1996-01-01

    A charge $q$ moving in a reference laboratory system with constant velocity {\\bf V} in the $X$-axis produces in the $Z$-axis a longitudinal, phase free, vacuum magnetic field which is identified as the radiated ${\\bf B}^{(3)}$ field of Evans, Vigier and others.

  20. Electromagnetic shock wave in nonlinear vacuum: exact solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, Lubomir M; Georgieva, Daniela A; Kovachev, Kamen L

    2012-10-01

    An analytical approach to the theory of electromagnetic waves in nonlinear vacuum is developed. The evolution of the pulse is governed by a system of nonlinear wave vector equations. An exact solution with its own angular momentum in the form of a shock wave is obtained.