WorldWideScience

Sample records for vacuum extraction test

  1. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two-part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validation of the developed OSATS scale for vac...

  2. Feasibility analysis of vacuum sieve tray for tritium extraction in the HCLL test blanket system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okino, Fumito, E-mail: fumito.okino@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University Institute of Advanced Energy, 611-0011 Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Calderoni, Pattrick [Fusion For Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi [Kyoto University Institute of Advanced Energy, 611-0011 Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The authors discovered faster mass transport on a droplet falling in a vacuum. • Primary cause of the hydrogen release from droplet is by the oscillation of a droplet. • The spherical oscillation induces the internal advection and enhances mass transfer. • This assumption agreed with previous experimental results. - Abstract: This paper describes the quantitative analysis for the design of a tritium extraction system that uses liquid PbLi droplets in vacuum (Vacuum Sieve Tray, VST), for application to the ITER helium-cooled lithium lead (HCLL) test blanket system (TBS). The parametric dependences of tritium extraction efficiency from the main geometrical features such as initial droplet velocity, nozzle head height, nozzle diameter, and flow rate are discussed. With nozzle diameters between 0.4 and 0.6 mm, extraction efficiency is estimated from 0.77 to 0.96 at the falling height of 0.5 m, with flow rate between 0.2 and 1.0 kg/s. The device has a height of 1.6 m, within the external dimensions of the HCLL Test Blanket Module (TBM), and no additional pumping power is required. The attained results are considered attractive not only for ITER, but also in view of the application of the VST concept as a candidate tritium extraction system for the European Union's demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO). The extraction efficiency of a single droplet column, which is the basis of the design analysis presented, has been validated experimentally with hydrogen. However, further experiments are required on an integrated system with size relevant to the proposed HCLL-TBS design to validate system-level effects, particularly regarding the desorption process in an array of multiple droplets.

  3. Evaluating operational vacuum for landfill biogas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbricino, Massimiliano

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a practical methodology for estimating the operational vacuum for landfill biogas extraction from municipal landfills. The procedure is based on two sub-models which simulate landfill gas production from organic waste decomposition and distribution of gas pressure and gas movement induced by suction at a blower station. The two models are coupled in a single mass balance equation, obtaining a relationship between the operational vacuum and the amount of landfill gas that can be extracted from an assigned system of vertical wells. To better illustrate the procedure, it is applied to a case study, where a good agreement between simulated and measured data, within +/- 30%, is obtained.

  4. Experimental tests of vacuum energy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    While the current vacuum energy of the Universe is very small, in our standard cosmological picture it has been much larger at earlier epochs. We try to address the question of what are possible ways to try to experimentally verify this. One direction is to look for systems where vacuum energy constitutes a non-negligible fraction of the total energy, and study the properties of those. Another possibility is to focus on the epochs around cosmic phase transitions, when the vacuum energy is of the same order as the total energy. Along these lines we investigate properties of neutron stars and the imprint of phase transitions on primordial gravitational waves.

  5. Progress in vacuum metal extraction, refining and consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, C.V.; Mukherjee, T.K.; Sharma, B.P.

    1973-01-01

    The unique achievements in the process metallurgy of rare metals in the past quarter century should largely be attributed to advances in vacuum technology. New standards for high purity, increasing demand for pure metals and alloys for established applications, and steady improvement in sophistication and capacity of vacuum furnaces have provided the stimulus for developing and expanding vacuum metal extraction processes, and also exploring totally new processes. The paper discusses the thermochemistry of vacuum metallurgy, carbothermic and metallothermic reduction reactions, consolidation and refining by vacuum arc melting, electron beam melting and high temperature high vacuum sintering, and ultrapurification, with special reference to the reactive and refractory metals of Group IV to VI. (author)

  6. Iatrogenic encephalocele : a rare complication of vacuum extraction delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltema, Hanne-Rinck; Hoving, Eelco

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum extraction is a frequently used form of assisted vaginal delivery. Here we describe a child who was born by vacuum extraction delivery. Days after the birth, a frontal swelling, which was thought to be a caput succedaneum, enlarged. Imaging revealed an iatrogenic encephalocele with a large

  7. Vacuum leak test technique of JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminaga, Atsushi; Arai, Takashi; Kodama, Kozo; Sasaki, Noboru; Saidoh, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    Since a vacuum vessel of JT-60 is very large (167 m 3 ) and is combined with many components, such as magnetic coils, neutral beam injection systems and RF heating systems, etc., the position of leak testing exceeds 700. The two kind of techniques for vacuum leak test used in JT-60 has been described. Firstly the probe helium gas can be fed remotely in the three-dimensionally sectioned 54 regions of the JT-60 torus. The leak test was very rapidly performed by using this method. Secondly the helium detector system has been modified by the additional installation of the cryopump, which reduced the background level of the deuterium gas. The sensitivity of vacuum leak test with the cryopump was two orders of magnitude larger than that of without it. The examples of the performed vacuum leak test are stated. The vacuum leaks during experiments were 9 times. They were caused by thermal strain and plasma discharge. The vacuum leaks just after maintenance are 36 times which mainly caused by mis-installation. (author)

  8. Advances in vacuum extraction technology for effective subsurface remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Pezzullo, J.A.; Piniewski, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Vacuum extraction technology has become one of the most widely acclaimed methods for remediating soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Removal of the source of contamination in the soil is often the first step in effective control of groundwater contamination. Though originally thought effective only for removal of light-end hydrocarbons from permeable vadose-zone soils, vacuum extraction can now be adapted to address situations of low-permeable soils, heavier-end hydrocarbons and groundwater contamination. This paper reviews four innovative modifications to the vacuum extraction process and how they solve a wide variety of subsurface contamination problems. The modifications, or processes, reviewed include: vacuum-extraction-enhanced bioremediation, groundwater sparging, pneumatic soil fracturing, and soil heating

  9. Manufacture of superhigh vacuum testing tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Kusuo; Suzui, Koichi; Horigome, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    This apparatus is one of the preliminary experiment equipments for the vacuum system of a UVSOR, and the main objective is to obtain the clean vacuum below 10 - 10 Torr. From the viewpoint of manufacture, there is no problem, but all the works from the design through manufacture, assembling and adjustment of the apparatus, to the obtaining of required vacuum were carried out by the authors themselves. The design and its points, and manufacture are described. In order to obtain clean vacuum and maintain it for long period, the surface cleaning of vacuum tanks is very important. Therefore the method of electrolytic polishing was adopted for the purpose, and its effectiveness was examined. After the surface treatment by two methods, the evacuation test was carried out, and the attained pressure was compared. Electrolytic polishing seemed to be effective. As the method of suppressing surface degasification, there is argon bombardment method. It was attempted to improve the pressure attained by baking only further by this method. By baking at 250 deg C for 30 hr only, the final pressure attained was 1.7 x 10 - 10 Torr, and by making argon bombardment twice during baking, it was 0.9 x 10 - 10 Torr, thus slight improvement was obtained. The main objective to obtain vacuum below 10 - 10 Torr was accomplished, but surface treatment requires more experience. (Kako, I.)

  10. [Caesarean section with vacuum extraction of the head].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, A; Pavlova, E; Krŭsteva, K; Nikolov, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the benefits and the limits in using the soft cup vacuum extractor on the fetal scalp during the caesarean section. The prospective study includes 19 cases of caesarean sections (group A), with vacuum assisted delivery using the soft cup vacuum extractor on the fetal scalp (diameter 6 cm) and 25 cases (group B) of caesarean sections with usual, manual extraction of the head assisted by fundal compression. All of the patients had undergone a planned caesarean section on term in absence of uterine activity and preserved amniotic membranes. Our results doesn't show differences in the Apgar score on the first and 5-th minute in the newborns of the two groups. The duration of the scalp traction was significantly shorter (30 +/- 4 sec) in comparison to the classical manual extraction (53 +/- 21 sec). The mean duration for applying the vacuum cup was 10 sec and 25 sec for tractions. The total blood loose and total duration of the caesarean sections were shorter than in the control group. The applied traction with the vacuum cup was sufficient for head extraction and there was no need for additional fundal compression. In conclusion we consider that the extraction of the fetal head in high position in caesarean section with vacuum extractor is an easy, non traumatic and rapid method which can put away the need of rough and prolonged fundal compression and its consequences.

  11. Fetal macrosomia as a risk factor for shoulder dystocia during vacuum extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Shmuel; Kabiri, Doron; Mordechai, Tzlil; Haj Yahya, Rani; Chill, Henry; Levitt, Lorinne; Amsalem, Hagai; Ezra, Yossef

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum extraction of a macrosomic fetus is considered a risk factor for shoulder dystocia (SD). We evaluated maternal and fetal outcomes following vacuum extraction of macrosomic infants. A retrospective cohort study conducted in two large teaching hospitals. All deliveries of macrosomic infants by vacuum extraction and vaginal delivery were compared. The primary outcome measure was SD. Secondary outcome measures were severe perineal lacerations and postpartum hemorrhage. For statistical analysis, we used McNemar's test and χ 2 or Fisher's exact tests. Odds ratios were analyzed via a logistic regression model. From 2003 to 2013, there were 6019 (5.45%) deliveries of macrosomic fetuses, and 230 (0.21%) were delivered by vacuum extraction. There were 23 (10%) and seven (3.04%) cases of SD in the study and control groups, respectively. The risk of SD was significantly higher in the study group (p > 0.05). We found a significant association between SD and vacuum delivery [p = 0.003; OR = 3.54 (95% CI: 1.49-8.42)]. The composite adverse neonatal outcome rate was 6.5% (15/230) and 1.7% (4/230) in the study and control groups, respectively (p = 0.009). Vacuum extraction of a macrosomic infant is a risk factor for shoulder dystocia but not for postpartum hemorrhage or severe vaginal tears.

  12. Assessment of proposed electromagnetic quantum vacuum energy extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Moddel, Garret

    2009-01-01

    In research articles and patents several methods have been proposed for the extraction of zero-point energy from the vacuum. None has been reliably demonstrated, but the proposals remain largely unchallenged. In this paper the feasibility of these methods is assessed in terms of underlying thermodynamics principles of equilibrium, detailed balance, and conservation laws. The methods are separated into three classes: nonlinear processing of the zero-point field, mechanical extraction using Cas...

  13. Vacuum system for Advanced Test Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhoy, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed linear electron beam accelerator designed to study charged particle beam propagation. ATA is designed to produce a 10,000 amp 50 MeV, 70 ns electron beam. The electron beam acceleration is accomplished in ferrite loaded cells. Each cell is capable of maintaining a 70 ns 250 kV voltage pulse across a 1 inch gap. The electron beam is contained in a 5 inch diameter, 300 foot long tube. Cryopumps turbomolecular pumps, and mechanical pumps are used to maintain a base pressure of 2 x 10 -6 torr in the beam tube. The accelerator will be installed in an underground tunnel. Due to the radiation environment in the tunnel, the controlling and monitoring of the vacuum equipment, pressures and temperatures will be done from the control room through a computer interface. This paper describes the vacuum system design, the type of vacuum pumps specified, the reasons behind the selection of the pumps and the techniques used for computer interfacing

  14. Vacuum system for Advanced Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denhoy, B.S.

    1981-09-03

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed linear electron beam accelerator designed to study charged particle beam propagation. ATA is designed to produce a 10,000 amp 50 MeV, 70 ns electron beam. The electron beam acceleration is accomplished in ferrite loaded cells. Each cell is capable of maintaining a 70 ns 250 kV voltage pulse across a 1 inch gap. The electron beam is contained in a 5 inch diameter, 300 foot long tube. Cryopumps turbomolecular pumps, and mechanical pumps are used to maintain a base pressure of 2 x 10/sup -6/ torr in the beam tube. The accelerator will be installed in an underground tunnel. Due to the radiation environment in the tunnel, the controlling and monitoring of the vacuum equipment, pressures and temperatures will be done from the control room through a computer interface. This paper describes the vacuum system design, the type of vacuum pumps specified, the reasons behind the selection of the pumps and the techniques used for computer interfacing.

  15. Procurement specification high vacuum test chamber and pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The specification establishes requirements for a high-vacuum test chamber, associated vacuum pumps, valves, controls, and instrumentation that shall be designed and fabricated for use as a test chamber for testing a closed loop Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Ground Demonstration System (GDS). The vacuum system shall include all instrumentation required for pressure measurement and control of the vacuum pumping system. A general outline of the BIPS-GDS in the vacuum chamber and the preliminary piping and instrumentation interface to the vacuum chamber are shown

  16. Apollo telescope mount thermal systems unit thermal vacuum test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks, H. F.; Hueter, U.; Wise, J. H.; Bachtel, F. D.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount's thermal systems unit was utilized to conduct a full-scale thermal vacuum test to verify the thermal design and the analytical techniques used to develop the thermal mathematical models. Thermal vacuum test philosophy, test objectives configuration, test monitoring, environment simulation, vehicle test performance, and data correlation are discussed. Emphasis is placed on planning and execution of the thermal vacuum test with particular attention on problems encountered in conducting a test of this maguitude.

  17. Test of an undulated vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    This picture shows mechanical tests of an undulated vacuum chamber for downstream arms of ISR intersections. This chamber, made of 0.3 mm thick inconel, had inner dimensions of 150 mm by 50 mm. The deflection under vacuum is measured by dial gauges. On the left one sees the large vessel where vacuum chambers were tested at pressures above atmospheric pressure.

  18. Remediation in clay using two-phase vacuum extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhult, E.C.; Tarsavage, J.M.; Foukaris, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination in a tight clay usually requires costly and/or time consuming remediation, due to the inherently low hydraulic conductivity of the soil. However, Dames and Moore is successfully using an innovative, cost-effective two-phase vacuum extraction (VE) technology at a former gasoline service station. Dramatic decreases in BTEX concentrations in onsite and downgradient monitoring wells are apparent

  19. Simulations and Vacuum Tests of a CLIC Accelerating Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2011-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider, under study, is based on room temperature high gradient structures. The vacuum specificities of these cavities are low conductance, large surface areas and a non-baked system. The main issue is to reach UHV conditions (typically 10-7 Pa) in a system where the residual vacuum is driven by water outgassing. A finite element model based on an analogy thermal/vacuum has been built to estimate the vacuum profile in an accelerating structure. Vacuum tests are carried out in a dedicated set-up, the vacuum performances of different configurations are presented and compared with the predictions.

  20. High temperature high vacuum creep testing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Creep is the term used to describe time-dependent plastic flow of metals under conditions of constant load or stress at constant high temperature. Creep has an important considerations for materials operating under stresses at high temperatures for long time such as cladding materials, pressure vessels, steam turbines, boilers,...etc. These two creep machines measures the creep of materials and alloys at high temperature under high vacuum at constant stress. By the two chart recorders attached to the system one could register time and temperature versus strain during the test . This report consists of three chapters, chapter I is the introduction, chapter II is the technical description of the creep machines while chapter III discuss some experimental data on the creep behaviour. Of helium implanted stainless steel. 13 fig., 3 tab

  1. Vacuum Acceptance Tests for the UHV Room Temperature Vacuum System of the LHC during LS1

    CERN Document Server

    Cattenoz, G; Bregliozzi, G; Calegari, D; Gallagher, J; Marraffa, A; Chiggiato, P

    2014-01-01

    During the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) first long shut down (LS1), a large number of vacuum tests are carried out on consolidated or newly fabricated devices. In such a way, the vacuum compatibility is assessed before installation in the UHV system of the LHC. According to the equipment’s nature, the vacuum acceptance tests consist in functional checks, leak test, outgassing rate measurements, evaluation of contaminants by Residual Gas Analysis (RGA), pumping speed measurements and qualification of the H2 sticking probability of Non-Evaporable-Getter (NEG) coating. In this paper, the methods used for the tests and the acceptance criteria are described. A summary of the measured vacuum characteristics for the tested components is also given.

  2. Case study of shallow soil mixing and soil vacuum extraction remediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, M.J.; Day, S.R.; Pinewski, R.; Schroder, D.

    1995-01-01

    Shallow Soil Mixing (SSM) and Soil Vacuum Extraction (SVE) are techniques which have been increasingly relied on for the insitu remediation of contaminated soils. The primary applications of SSM have been to mix cement, bentonite, or other reagents to modify properties and thereby remediate contaminated soils or sludges. Soil vacuum extraction has been used at numerous applications for insitu removal of contaminants from soils. At a recent project in southern Ohio, the two technologies were integrated and enhanced to extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soils at a Department of Energy facility. Advantages of the integrated SSM/SVE technology over alternative technologies include a relatively rapid remediation compared to other in-situ techniques at a lower cost, less exposure of waste to the surface environment and elimination of off-site disposal. These advantages led to the selection of the use of both technologies on the project in Southern Ohio. The information presented in this paper is intended to provide Engineers and owners with the level of understanding necessary to apply soil mixing and vacuum extraction technology to a specific site. The most important steps in implementing the technology are site investigation, feasibility estimate, selection of performance criteria, selection of appropriate materials, bench scale testing and construction

  3. Multiple (Two) Met Bel 601 In Series Ultimate Vacuum Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-30

    SRNL Environmental and Chemical Process Technology (E&CPT) was requested to perform testing of vacuum pumps per a verbal request from the Customer, SRNL Hydrogen Processing Technology. Tritium Operations is currently having difficulties procuring the Normetex™® Model 15 m3/hr (9 CFM) vacuum pump (formerly Normetex Pompes, now EumecaSARL). One possible solution proposed by Hydrogen Processing Technology personnel is to use two Senior Aerospace Metal Bellows MB-601 vacuum pumps piped with the heads in series, and the pumps in series (Figure 1 below). This memorandum documents the ultimate vacuum testing that was performed to determine if this concept was a viable alternate vacuum pump strategy. This testing dovetails with previous pump evaluations documented in references 1 and 2.

  4. Evaluation tests of industrial vacuum bearings for space use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, S.; Sasaki, A.; Haraguchi, M.; Imagawa, K.; Nishimura, M.; Kawashima, N.

    2001-09-01

    Tribological performance of industrial vacuum bearings was experimentally evaluated for space use. The bearings selected for investigation were an 8 mm bore-sized deep-groove ball bearing lubricated with a sputtered MoS2 film and that lubricated with an ion-plated Ag film, commercially delivered from three Japanese domestic bearing-manufacturers. Based on survey results of tribological requirements for the existing satellite mechanisms, four types of bearing tests were defined and conducted: a vacuum test at room temperature, an atmosphere-resistant test, a thermal vacuum test and a vibration test. In addition to these tests, variation in tribological performance of the industrial bearings was also investigated. The results of more than eighty tests demonstrated that the industrial vacuum bearings had sufficient lubrication lives with low frictional torque and their data were reasonably repeatable, indicating very good potentiality for space use.

  5. Evaluation of vacuum microwave-assisted extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jun-Xia; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jia-Yue; Li, Gong-Ke

    2009-12-18

    In the present work, vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE) was to perform microwave-assisted extraction in vacuum. Two well-known antioxidants, vitamin C from guava and green pepper, and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) from soybean and tea leaves, which were easy to be oxidized, were chosen as representative target compounds for the evaluation of VMAE. The extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in VMAE and those in MAE performed in atmosphere (air-MAE) were compared and the effects of extraction time, extraction temperature and sample matrix were studied. Moreover, the effects of the oxygen and subpressure invacuo were also discussed via performed MAE in N(2) atmosphere (N(2)-MAE). The extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in VMAE were higher than that in air-MAE, 35% increments of vitamin C from green pepper, 22% increments of alpha-tocopherol and 47% increments of gamma-tocopherol from tea leaves were obtained, respectively. The comparable increased extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in N(2)-MAE to that in air-MAE confirmed that oxygen in system was the crucial factor for the oxidation of vitamin C and vitamin E, VMAE was beneficial for the extraction of these oxygen-sensitive compounds. In addition, the subpressure invacuo in the VMAE system also showed positive affect on the extraction yields. On the basis of preventing oxidation and improving extraction efficiency of target compounds because of less oxygen and subpressure invacuo in the extraction system, VMAE has good potential for the extraction of oxygen-sensitive and thermosensitive compounds from plant samples.

  6. UHV testing of upgraded vacuum chambers for Indus-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindal, B.K.; Kumar, K.V.A.N.P.S.; Ramshiroman; Bhange, Nilesh; Yadav, D.P.; Sridhar, R.; Shukla, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Indus-1 is a 450 MeV, 100 mA dedicated electron storage ring operating at pressure 10 -10 mbar range without beam and 10 -9 mbar range with beam using triode sputter ion pump (SIP) and titanium sublimation pump (TSP) combination. Indus-1 storage ring is presently working with six operational beam lines installed at three bending magnets. To accommodate two more beam lines and to reduce number of demountable joints, up-gradation of Indus-1 UHV system was planned. Salient features of upgraded vacuum system are bending magnet vacuum chambers with one extra port for additional beam line and straight section vacuum chambers with integrated TSP body. Half of the Indus-1 storage ring vacuum envelope with two bending magnet vacuum chamber and six straight section vacuum chambers were assembled with pumps, gauges etc, leak tested and tested for its UHV performance. Ultimate vacuum 5x10 -10 mbar with SIP and 2x10 -10 mbar after TSP pumping were achieved. Residual gas analyser (RGA) spectrum recorded for residual gas analysis indicated the imprints of a typical all metal UHV system having H 2 as major gas. This paper describes UHV testing of upgraded, newly fabricated vacuum chambers for Indus-1 storage ring. (author)

  7. Preliminary results of sugar maple carbohydrate and growth response under vacuum and gravity sap extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Isselhardt; Timothy D. Perkins; Abby K. van den Berg; Paul G. Schaberg

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have increased the amount of sugar-enriched sap that can be extracted from sugar maple (Acer saccharum). This pilot study quantified overall sugar removal and the impacts of vacuum (60 cm Hg) and gravity sap extraction on residual nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and on stem and twig growth. Vacuum...

  8. Vacuum vessel for the tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerich, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy gave the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory approval to design and build a tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) to support the goals of the National Mirror Program. We designed the MFTF-B vacuum vessel both to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum environment and to structurally support the 42 superconducting magnets plus auxiliary internal and external equipment. During our design work, we made extensive use of both simple and complex computer models to arrive at a cost-effective final configuration. As part of this work, we conducted a unique dynamic analysis to study the interaction of the 32,000-tonne concrete-shielding vault with the 2850-tonne vacuum vessel system. To maintain a vacuum of 2 x 10 -8 torr during the physics experiments inside the vessel, we designed a vacuum pumping system of enormous capacity. The vacuum vessel (4200-m 3 internal volume) has been fabricated and erected, and acceptance tests have been completed at the Livermore site. The rest of the machine has been assembled, and individual systems have been successfully checked. On October 1, 1985, we began a series of integrated engineering tests to verify the operation of all components as a complete system

  9. Tests of vacuum interrupters for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.; Parsons, M.; Honig, E.; Lindsay, J.

    1979-04-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project at Princeton University requires the insertion of a resistor in an excited ohmic-heating coil circuit to produce a plasma initiation pulse (PIP). It is expected that the maximum duty for the switching system will be an interruption of 24 kA with an associated recovery voltage of 25 kV. Vacuum interrupters were selected as the most economical means to satisfy these requirements. However, it was felt that some testing of available systems should be performed to determine their reliability under these conditions. Two interrupter systems were tested for over 1000 interruptions each at 24 kA and 25 kV. One system employed special Westinghouse type WL-33552 interrupters in a circuit designed by LASL. This circuit used a commercially available actuator and a minimum size counterpulse bank and saturable reactor. The other used Toshiba type VGB2-D20 interrupters actuated by a Toshiba mechanism in a Toshiba circuit using a larger counterpulse bank and saturable reactor

  10. Precision test of vacuum polarization in heavy muonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubler, T.; Kaeser, K.; Robert-Tissot, B.; Schaller, L.A.; Schellenberg, L.; Schneuwly, H.

    1978-01-01

    In order to test the QED corrections, and in particular the vacuum polarization, muonic 4f-3d transitions in Ba and Ce and 5g-4f transitions in Tl and Pb have been measured using Ge(Li) detectors. An absolute energy accuracy of +- 8 eV corresponding to a relative error of 17-19 ppm has been obtained. The experimental energies agree with theory within the total uncertainty of +- 10 eV. This corresponds to a test of the QED vacuum polarization calculations of between 0.35% and 0.50%. (Auth.)

  11. Tests of a vacuum breaker for the FTU commutation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.; Lovisetto, L.; Cornago, F.

    1984-01-01

    A two poles vacuum breaker, equipped with saturable inductances and capacitor banks to produce an artificial current zero, appears the most suitable solution to satisfy these requirements with high reliability of operation and limited maintenance. Two series of tests have been conducted to evaluate the performance and reliability of the system and in particular the erosion of the electrodes as a function of number of operations. The test results have been very satisfactory. At least 1000 full power pulses can be envisaged before replacing the vacuum bottles. (author)

  12. Thermal Vacuum Integrated System Test at B-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlac, Maureen T.; Weaver, Harold F.; Cmar, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal vacuum facility. It is the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and is perfectly suited to support developmental testing of chemical propulsion systems as well as fully integrated stages. The facility is also capable of providing thermal-vacuum simulation services to support testing of large lightweight structures, Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, electric propulsion test programs, and other In-Space propulsion programs. A recently completed integrated system test demonstrated the refurbished thermal vacuum capabilities of the facility. The test used the modernized data acquisition and control system to monitor the facility during pump down of the vacuum chamber, operation of the liquid nitrogen heat sink (or cold wall) and the infrared lamp array. A vacuum level of 1.3x10(exp -4)Pa (1x10(exp -6)torr) was achieved. The heat sink provided a uniform temperature environment of approximately 77 K (140deg R) along the entire inner surface of the vacuum chamber. The recently rebuilt and modernized infrared lamp array produced a nominal heat flux of 1.4 kW/sq m at a chamber diameter of 6.7 m (22 ft) and along 11 m (36 ft) of the chamber s cylindrical vertical interior. With the lamp array and heat sink operating simultaneously, the thermal systems produced a heat flux pattern simulating radiation to space on one surface and solar exposure on the other surface. The data acquired matched pretest predictions and demonstrated system functionality.

  13. Vacuum Drying Tests for Storage of Aluminum Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.; Large, W.S.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1998-05-01

    A total inventory of up to approximately 32,000 aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al SNF) assemblies are expected to be shipped to Savannah River Site (SRS) from domestic and foreign research reactors over the next several decades. Treatment technologies are being developed as alternatives to processing for the ultimate disposition of Al SNF in the geologic repository. One technology, called Direct/Co-disposal of Al SNF, would place the SNF into a canister ready for disposal in a waste package, with or without canisters containing high-level radioactive waste glass logs, in the repository. The Al SNF would be transferred from wet storage and would need to be dried in the Al SNF canister. The moisture content inside the Al SNF canister is limited to avoid excessive Al SNF corrosion and hydrogen buildup during interim storage before disposal. A vacuum drying process was proposed to dry the Al SNF in a canister. There are two major concerns for the vacuum drying process. One is water inside the canister could become frozen during the vacuum drying process and the other one is the detection of dryness inside the canister. To vacuum dry an irradiated fuel in a heavily shielded canister, it would be very difficult to open the lid to inspect the dryness during the vacuum drying operation. A vacuum drying test program using a mock SNF assembly was conducted to demonstrate feasibility of drying the Al SNF in a canister. These tests also served as a check-out of the drying apparatus for future tests in which irradiated fuel would be loaded into a canister under water followed by drying for storage

  14. Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor neutral beam injection system vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrotti, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    Most of the components of the Neutral Beam Lines of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will be enclosed in a 50 cubic meter box-shaped vacuum chamber. The chamber will have a number of unorthodox features to accomodate both neutral beam and TFTR requirements. The design constraints, and the resulting chamber design, are presented

  15. Testing program for burning plasma experiment vacuum vessel bolted joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsueh, P.K.; Khan, M.Z.; Swanson, J.; Feng, T.; Dinkevich, S.; Warren, J.

    1992-01-01

    As presently designed, the Burning Plasma Experiment vacuum vessel will be segmentally fabricated and assembled by bolted joints in the field. Due to geometry constraints, most of the bolted joints have significant eccentricity which causes the joint behavior to be sensitive to joint clamping forces. Experience indicates that as a result of this eccentricity, the joint will tend to open at the side closest to the applied load with the extent of the opening being dependent on the initial preload. In this paper analytical models coupled with a confirmatory testing program are developed to investigate and predict the non-linear behavior of the vacuum vessel bolted joint

  16. Accelerated vacuum testing of long life ball bearings and sliprings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, C. R.; Christy, R. I.; Cunningham, A. C.

    1971-01-01

    Extensive analytical studies and testing have been conducted on bearings and sliprings in vacuum at temperatures from 30 to 130 F. Thirty-six bearings lubricated with two types of oil were tested in vacuum of less than 10 to the minus 8th power torr at speeds from 55 to 180 rpm. Temperatures, load, speed, and oil viscosity were varied to evaluate the effects on life and wear. All bearings performed successfully during a 7-month test, and the potential merits of the two oils were compared. Over 25 different, dry-lubricated brush/slipring material combinations have been tested, with variations of brush and ring design and surface speed. Test results indicate the probability of 10 years or more of slipring and brush lifetime with properly designed brushes for 1-in.-diameter ring rotating at 60 rpm.

  17. The determination of hydrogen in sodium by vacuum extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Linkun; Wan Gang; Wen Ximeng; Sun Shiping; Jia Yunteng

    1993-05-01

    A method to determine the hydrogen in sodium is introduced. The sodium sample, which is less than 7 g, is put into a thin iron capsule in argon atmosphere, the capsule is sealed by electron beam welding and heated to 700 degree C in a vacuum system with pressure less than 10 -5 Pa, then the hydrogen released from the vacuum system can be determined. The determining limit by this method is 20 ∼ 150 μg and the standard deviation is 20%. This method uses electron beam welding to replace the argon are welding and combines the off-line sampling with on-line measuring. It is an easier off-line measurement to determine hydrogen in sodium

  18. Antibacterial activity of vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) isolated fractions of chloroform extracts of seeds of achyranthes aspera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor-ul-Amin; Qadir, M.I.; Khan, T.J.; Abbas, G.; Ahmad, B.; Janbaz, K.H.; Ali, M.

    2012-01-01

    Antibacterial activities of locally occurring weed Achyranthes aspera were studied. Three solvents (Hexane, Chloroform, and Ethanol) were used successively for the extraction of active principles from the seeds of this plant. The extracts were concentrated on vacuum rotary evaporator. The concentrated extracts were tested for their antibacterial activities after making their solution in gum acacia. The six bacterial strains used in the antibacterial studies were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, and Salmonella chloerasuis. Antibacterial activities of the extracts were compared with streptomycin and ampicillin in terms of zones of inhibition. Chloroform and ethanol extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity. Hexane extract did not demonstrate antibacterial activity. Chloroform extract was more potent than alcohol extract in terms of antibacterial activity. An attempt was made to identify the nature of compound by isolation through vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC). The fractions isolated by VLC were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC). TLC showed the presence of alkaloids and terpenoids. The active fractions were tested for their antibacterial activity. One of the fractions exhibited antibacterial activity. (author)

  19. Preliminary test of vacuum system of SPring-8 synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Hideo; Yoneyama, Katsuji; Shimada, Taihei

    1992-01-01

    In this report, on the several points which it is desirable to be confirmed beforehand when the vacuum system of the synchrotron is designed, the results of the test by making the vacuum system for one normal cell simulating the actual machine are reported. Further by making three types of sample ducts, the ordinary type of 1.65 mm thickness, the rib-reinforced type of 0.3 mm thickness and bellows structure, the rate of released gas and the effect to eddy current were examined, for the purpose of taking the countermeasures to the eddy current accompanying the synchrotron operation. The mockup of the normal cell was composed of a duct of 10 m length, two ion pumps of 20 l/s, and a turbo molecular pump of 50 l/s, and the material of the ducts is SUS316L, and the sectional form is elliptic of 72 x 34. In the vacuum test of the normal cell, the exhaust characteristics at the time of rise and pressure distribution were verified. The measurement of the rate of released gas in the ducts and the measurement of current and voltage induced in the ducts are reported. The sufficient performance can be expected with the exhaust system used, and the time required for the rise of the vacuum system was clarified. (K.I.)

  20. High Charge State Ions Extracted from Metal Plasmas in the Transition Regime from Vacuum Spark to High Current Vacuum Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, A.

    2008-01-01

    Metal ions were extracted from pulsed discharge plasmas operating in the transition region between vacuum spark (transient high voltage of kV) and vacuum arc (arc voltage ∼ 20 V). At a peak current of about 4 kA, and with a pulse duration of 8 (micro)s, we observed mean ion charges states of about 6 for several cathode materials. In the case of platinum, the highest average charge state was 6.74 with ions of charge states as high as 10 present. For gold we found traces of charge state 11, with the highest average charge state of 7.25. At currents higher than 5 kA, non-metallic contaminations started to dominate the ion beam, preventing further enhancement of the metal charge states

  1. He leak testing of Indus-2 dipole vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindal, B.K.; Bhavsar, S.T.; Shukla, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Centre for Advanced Technology is developing its second synchrotron radiation source INDUS-2 which is a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring. Dipole vacuum chambers are the vital components of Indus-2 vacuum system. Each of these chambers is approx. 3.6 m long and 0.67 m wide with 24 nos. of ports of various sizes. The dipole chambers were made by machining two halves and they are then lip welded together. The dipole chamber has approx. 14 m of total weld length and it was leak tested for leak tightness of the order of 10 -10 mbar 1/s. Helium mass spectrometer leak detector (HMSLD) was utilized for the leak testing. Subsequently the leaks of various orders in welding joints were repaired and leak tightness achieved. This paper describes the experiences during leak testing of 20 nos. of aluminum dipole chambers for INDUS-2

  2. Demonstration tests for manufacturing the ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Katsusuke; Onozuka, Masanori; Usui, Yukinori; Urata, Kazuhiro; Tsujita, Yoshihiro; Nakahira, Masataka; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi; Ohmori, Junji; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Demonstration tests for manufacturing and assembly of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) vacuum vessel have been conducted to confirm manufacturing and assembly process of the vacuum vessel (VV). The full-scale partial mock-up fabrication was planned and is in progress. The results will be available in the near future. Field-joint assembly procedure has been demonstrated using a test stand. Due to limited accessibility to the outer shell at the field joint, some operations, including alignment of the splice plates, field-joint welding, and examination, were found to be very difficult. In addition, a demonstration test on the selected back-seal structures was performed. It was found that the tested structures have insufficient sealing capabilities and need further improvement. The applicability of ultrasonic testing methods has been investigated. Although side drilled holes of 2.4 mm in diameter were detected, detection of the slit-type defects and defect characterization were found to be difficult. Feasibility test of liquid penetrant testing has revealed that the selected liquid penetrant testing (LPT) solutions have sufficient low outgas rates and are applicable to the VV

  3. Demonstration tests for manufacturing the ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Katsusuke [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works, Wadasaki-cho 1-1-1, Hyogo-ku, Kobe 652-8585 (Japan)], E-mail: katsusuke_shimizu@mhi.co.jp; Onozuka, Masanori [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Konan 2-16-5, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8215 (Japan); Usui, Yukinori; Urata, Kazuhiro; Tsujita, Yoshihiro [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works, Wadasaki-cho 1-1-1, Hyogo-ku, Kobe 652-8585 (Japan); Nakahira, Masataka; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi; Ohmori, Junji; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukouyama 801-1, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    Demonstration tests for manufacturing and assembly of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) vacuum vessel have been conducted to confirm manufacturing and assembly process of the vacuum vessel (VV). The full-scale partial mock-up fabrication was planned and is in progress. The results will be available in the near future. Field-joint assembly procedure has been demonstrated using a test stand. Due to limited accessibility to the outer shell at the field joint, some operations, including alignment of the splice plates, field-joint welding, and examination, were found to be very difficult. In addition, a demonstration test on the selected back-seal structures was performed. It was found that the tested structures have insufficient sealing capabilities and need further improvement. The applicability of ultrasonic testing methods has been investigated. Although side drilled holes of 2.4 mm in diameter were detected, detection of the slit-type defects and defect characterization were found to be difficult. Feasibility test of liquid penetrant testing has revealed that the selected liquid penetrant testing (LPT) solutions have sufficient low outgas rates and are applicable to the VV.

  4. Cold vacuum drying residual free water test description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Residual free water expected to remain in a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) after processing in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility is investigated based on three alternative models of fuel crevices. Tests and operating conditions for the CVD process are defined based on the analysis of these models. The models consider water pockets constrained by cladding defects, water constrained in a pore or crack by flow through a porous bed, and water constrained in pores by diffusion. An analysis of comparative reaction rate constraints is also presented indicating that a pressure rise test can be used to show MCO's will be thermally stable at operating temperatures up to 75 C

  5. Growing skull fracture - rupture of coronal suture caused by vacuum extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.N.; Pedersen, H.; Petersen, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    Growing skull fracture is a well known complication to calvarian fracture with underlying dural tear and brain injury in infancy and early childhood. This has been reported in three cases after forceps delivery. To our best knowledge it has never been described after disruption of a calvarian suture caused by vacuum extraction delivery. (orig.)

  6. Manufacture, testing and assembly preparation of the JET vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbez, J.; Baeumel, S.; Dean, J.R.; Duesling, G.; Froger, C.; Hemmerich, J.L.; Walravens, M.; Walter, K.; Winkel, T.

    1983-01-01

    To reach the target pressure of 10 -9 mbar, JET's double-walled Inconel vacuum vessel is being manufactured and assembled in clean conditions and with meticulous leak detection. Each octant (1/8 of the torus) is baked in an oven to 520 0 C and leak tested at 350 0 C to reveal leaks as small as 10 -9 mbar l/s, which are repaired. In service the vessel will be baked periodically to 500 0 C by CO 2 passing between its walls. The single-walled ports will be electrically heated. (author)

  7. TV borehole inspection and vacuum testing of roof strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herget, G.

    1982-01-01

    To improve quality control of roof conditions, a program was carried out at Elliot Lake uranium mines in Ontario, Canada to test a portable TV camera system. This camera has a 29 mm diameter probe and is capable of identifying crack locations, crack width and approximate dip direction. The extent of fractures in the roof was checked with the aid of a vacuum system by placing packers in various boreholes and checking for communication. The removal of some rock bolts indicated an increase in fracture extent

  8. Vacuum arc switched inverter tests at 2.5 MVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.N.; Gilmour, A.S. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of the unloaded vacuum arc switch (VAS) inverter is undertaken; a key element in this analysis is the assumption of a constant voltage drop of 50 volts across each VAS while it is conducting. From this analysis a constant VAS-voltage model is developed to explain the VAS inverter operation. A comparison of data obtained from laboratory tests of the inverter is made with data obtained from this model, and agreement is found to be within 10% for up to 15 alternations

  9. Development and Testing of an ISRU Soil Mechanics Vacuum Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2014-01-01

    For extraterrestrial missions, earth based testing in relevant environments is key to successful hardware development. This is true for both early component level development and system level integration. For In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on the moon, hardware must interface with the surface material, or regolith, in a vacuum environment. A relevant test environment will therefore involve a vacuum chamber with a controlled, properly conditioned bed of lunar regolith simulant. However, in earth-based granular media, such as lunar regolith simulant, gases trapped within the material pore structures and water adsorbed to all particle surfaces will release when exposed to vacuum. Early vacuum testing has shown that this gas release can occur violently, which loosens and weakens the simulant, altering the consolidation state. A mid-size chamber (3.66 m tall, 1.5 m inner diameter) at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been modified to create a soil mechanics test facility. A 0.64 m deep by 0.914 m square metric ton bed of lunar simulant was placed under vacuum using a variety of pumping techniques. Both GRC-3 and LHT-3M simulant types were used. Data obtained from an electric cone penetrometer can be used to determine strength properties at vacuum including: cohesion, friction angle, bulk density and shear modulus. Simulant disruptions, caused by off-gassing, affected the strength properties, but could be mitigated by reducing pump rate. No disruptions were observed at pressures below 2.5 Torr, regardless of the pump rate. The slow off-gassing of the soil at low pressure lead to long test times; a full week to reach 10(exp -5) Torr. Robotic soil manipulation would enable multiple ISRU hardware test within the same vacuum cycle. The feasibility of a robotically controlled auger and tamper was explored at vacuum conditions.

  10. Air sparging/high vacuum extraction to remove chlorinated solvents in groundwater and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.M.; Gilliat, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    An air sparging and high vacuum extraction was installed as an alternative to a containment pump and treat system to reduce the long-term remediation schedule. The site is located at the DOE Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, just south of Dayton. The air sparging system consists of 23 wells interspersed between 17 soil vapor extraction wells. The SVE system has extracted about 1,500 lbs of VOCs in five months. The air sparging system operated for about 6 weeks before shutdown due to suspected biochemical fouling. Technical data are presented on the operating characteristics of the system

  11. Integration test of ITER full-scale vacuum vessel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, M.; Koizumi, K.; Oka, K.

    2001-01-01

    The full-scale Sector Model Project, which was initiated in 1995 as one of the Large Seven R and D Projects, completed all R and D activities planned in the ITER-EDA period with the joint effort of the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT), the Japanese, the Russian Federation (RF) and the United States (US) Home Teams. The fabrication of a full-scale 18 toroidal sector, which is composed of two 9 sectors spliced at the port center, was successfully completed in September 1997 with the dimensional accuracy of ± 3 mm for the total height and total width. Both sectors were shipped to the test site in JAERI and the integration test was begun in October 1997. The integration test involves the adjustment of field joints, automatic Narrow Gap Tungsten Inert Gas (NG-TIG) welding of field joints with splice plates, and inspection of the joint by ultrasonic testing (UT), which are required for the initial assembly of ITER vacuum vessel. This first demonstration of field joint welding and performance test on the mechanical characteristics were completed in May 1998 and the all results obtained have satisfied the ITER design. In addition to these tests, the integration with the mid plane port extension fabricated by the Russian Home Team, and the cutting and re-welding test of field joints by using full-remotized welding and cutting system developed by the US Home Team, are planned as post EDA activities. (author)

  12. Integration test of ITER full-scale vacuum vessel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, M.; Koizumi, K.; Oka, K.

    1999-01-01

    The full-scale Sector Model Project, which was initiated in 1995 as one of the Large Seven ITER R and D Projects, completed all R and D activities planned in the ITER-EDA period with the joint effort of the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT), the Japanese, the Russian Federation (RF) and the United States (US) Home Teams. The fabrication of a full-scale 18 toroidal sector, which is composed of two 9 sectors spliced at the port center, was successfully completed in September 1997 with the dimensional accuracy of - 3 mm for the total height and total width. Both sectors were shipped to the test site in JAERI and the integration test was begun in October 1997. The integration test involves the adjustment of field joints, automatic Narrow Gap Tungsten Inert Gas (NG-TIG) welding of field joints with splice plates, and inspection of the joint by ultrasonic testing (UT), which are required for the initial assembly of ITER vacuum vessel. This first demonstration of field joint welding and performance test on the mechanical characteristics were completed in May 1998 and the all results obtained have satisfied the ITER design. In addition to these tests, the integration with the mid plane port extension fabricated by the Russian Home Team, and the cutting and re-welding test of field joints by using full-remotized welding and cutting system developed by the US Home Team, are planned as post EDA activities. (author)

  13. A comparison of the toluene distillation and vacuum/heat methods for extracting soil water for stable isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Neil L.; Shadel, Craig

    1992-12-01

    Hanford Loam, from Richland, Washington, was used as a test soil to determine the precision, accuracy and nature of two methods to extract soil water for stable isotopic analysis: azeotropic distillation using toluene, and simple heating under vacuum. The soil was oven dried, rehydrated with water of known stable isotopic compositions, and the introduced water was then extracted. Compared with the introduced water, initial aliquots of evolved water taken during a toluene extraction were as much as 30 ‰ more depleted in D and 2.7 ‰ more depleted in 18O, whereas final aliquots were as much as 40 ‰ more enriched in D and 14.3 ‰ more enriched in 18O. Initial aliquots collected during the vacuum/heat extraction were as much as 64 ‰ more depleted in D and 8.4 ‰ more depleted in 18O than was the introduced water, whereas the final aliquots were as much as 139 ‰ more enriched in D, and 20.8 ‰ more enriched in 18O. Neither method appears quantitative; however, the difference in stable isotopic composition between the first and last aliquots of water extracted by the toluene method is less than that from the vacuum/heat method. This is attributed to the smaller fractionation factors involved with the higher average temperatures of distillation of the toluene. The average stable isotopic compositions of the extracted water varied from that of the introduced water by up to 1.4 ‰ in δD and 4.2 ‰ in δ18O with the toluene method, and by 11.0 ‰ in δD and 1.8 ‰ in δ18O for the vacuum/heat method. The lack of accuracy of the extraction methods is thought to be due to isotopic fractionation associated with water being weakly bound (not released below 110°C) in the soil. The isotopic effect of this heat-labile water is larger at low water contents (3.6 and 5.2% water by weight) as the water bound in the soil is a commensurately larger fraction of the total. With larger soilwater contents the small volume of water bound with an associated fractionation is

  14. Integrated vacuum extraction/pneumatic soil fracturing system for remediation of low permeability soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaines, A.L.; Piniewski, R.J.; Yarbrough, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    There is wide use of vacuum extraction to remove volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from unsaturated soil. At sites with soil of low permeability, VOC extraction rates may not be sufficient to meet soil clean-up objectives within the desired time frame. During vacuum extraction in low permeability soil, the diffusion rates of VOCs through the soil matrix may limit VOC removal rates. An increase in the number of subsurface paths for advective flow through the contaminated zone results in a larger mass of contaminant being removed in a shorter time frame, accelerating site remediation. One technique for increasing the number of subsurface flow paths is Terra Vac's process of pneumatic soil fracturing (PSF). In this process, pressurized air is injected into the subsurface, creating micro-fractures for the vacuum extraction system to withdraw contaminants. Similar to hydraulic fracturing techniques long used in the petroleum industry for increasing yield from oil and gas production wells, this technique has applications for soil remediation in low permeability conditions. Two case studies, one in Louisiana at a gasoline service station and one at a manufacturing plant in New York, are presented

  15. Thermal vacuum test of space equipment: tests of SIR-2 instrument Chandrayaan-1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, P.

    2008-11-01

    We describe the reasons of proceeding Thermal-Vacuum tests for space electronic. We will answer on following questions: why teams are doing TV tests, what kind of phases should be simulated, which situations are the most critical during TV tests, what kind of results should be expected, which errors can be detect. As an example, will be shown TV-test of SIR-2 instrument for Chandrayaan-1 moon mission.

  16. Regenerated silica gel as stationary phase on vacuum column chromatography to purify temulawak’s extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahyono, Bambang; Maduwu, Ratna Dewi; Widayat,; Suzery, Meiny

    2015-01-01

    Commercial silica gel only used once by many researchers and affected high cost for purification process, also less support the green chemistry program. This research focused in regeneration silica gel that used purification of temulawak’s extracts (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb) by vacuum column chromatography. Sample extracts (contains 10.1195±0.5971% of curcuminoids) was purified by vacuum column chromatography (pressure: 45 kPa, column: 100mm on length and 16mm on diameter). Ethanol 96% and acetone were compared as eluent. The amount of solvent and yield of curcuminoids used as indicator purification. The silica gel was regenerated with heating in 600°C for 8 hours The silica gels were analyzed by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, regenerated silica gel was used as the stationary phase in vacuum column chromatography under the same conditions with the previous purification. All the purification experiments were performed in three repetitions. Based on regression equation, y=0.132x+0.0011 (r 2 =0.9997) the yield of curcuminoids on purified products using ethanol as the eluent was improved 4.26% (to 14.3724±0.5749%) and by acetone was improved 3,03% (to 13.1450 ±0.6318%). The IR spectrum of both silica gel showed the same vibration profile and also there were three crystallinity peaks missing on its X-ray diffraction. Regenerated silica gel has the same performance with new silica gel in purification of temulawak’s extract: by ethanol has increased 4.08% (14.1947±0.7415%) and 2.93% (13.0447±0.4822) by acetone. In addition, all purification products showed similar TLC profiles. Purification using regenerated silica gel as the adsorbent on vacuum column chromatography has exactly same potential with the new silica gel

  17. Regenerated silica gel as stationary phase on vacuum column chromatography to purify temulawak’s extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahyono, Bambang; Maduwu, Ratna Dewi; Widayat,; Suzery, Meiny [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, Departement of Chemistry, Diponegoro University Jln Prof. Soedharto SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia Tel / Fax: (024) 7460058 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Commercial silica gel only used once by many researchers and affected high cost for purification process, also less support the green chemistry program. This research focused in regeneration silica gel that used purification of temulawak’s extracts (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb) by vacuum column chromatography. Sample extracts (contains 10.1195±0.5971% of curcuminoids) was purified by vacuum column chromatography (pressure: 45 kPa, column: 100mm on length and 16mm on diameter). Ethanol 96% and acetone were compared as eluent. The amount of solvent and yield of curcuminoids used as indicator purification. The silica gel was regenerated with heating in 600°C for 8 hours The silica gels were analyzed by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, regenerated silica gel was used as the stationary phase in vacuum column chromatography under the same conditions with the previous purification. All the purification experiments were performed in three repetitions. Based on regression equation, y=0.132x+0.0011 (r{sup 2}=0.9997) the yield of curcuminoids on purified products using ethanol as the eluent was improved 4.26% (to 14.3724±0.5749%) and by acetone was improved 3,03% (to 13.1450 ±0.6318%). The IR spectrum of both silica gel showed the same vibration profile and also there were three crystallinity peaks missing on its X-ray diffraction. Regenerated silica gel has the same performance with new silica gel in purification of temulawak’s extract: by ethanol has increased 4.08% (14.1947±0.7415%) and 2.93% (13.0447±0.4822) by acetone. In addition, all purification products showed similar TLC profiles. Purification using regenerated silica gel as the adsorbent on vacuum column chromatography has exactly same potential with the new silica gel.

  18. Completed Gravity Probe B Undergoes Thermal Vacuum Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. In this photograph, the completed space vehicle is undergoing thermal vacuum environment testing. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Launched April 20, 2004 , the GP-B program was managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Underwood, Lockheed Martin Corporation.)

  19. Antimicrobial activity of several herb and spice extracts in culture medium and in vacuum-packaged pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Baohua; Wang, Jinzhi; Xiong, Youling L

    2007-03-01

    Extracts prepared from honeysuckle, Scutellaria, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb), cinnamon, and rosemary with 75% ethanol and from clove oil dissolved in 75% ethanol were applied to inoculated agar media to observe their inhibitory effects on the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Lactobacillus plantarum. All the extracts suppressed the growth of these bacteria; Scutellaria exhibited the strongest effect against E. coli. An orthogonal test revealed that the most effective antimicrobial composite extracts were equal-volume mixtures of 0.125 g/ml Scutellaria + 0.5 g/ml honeysuckle + 0.125 g/ml Forsythia + 0.25 g/ml cinnamon and 0.25 g/ml cinnamon + 0.125 g/ml rosemary + 0.25% clove oil. These mixed extracts also produced strong antimicrobial effects in vacuum-packaged fresh pork, with 1.81- to 2.32-log reductions in microbial counts compared with the control when stored for up to 28 days. The sensory panel detected minimal differences in surface color and off-odors between meat samples treated with herb-spice extracts and the control. These results indicate that combined herb and spice extracts can be used as natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

  20. Vacuum system design considerations of the Los Alamos Accelerator Test Stand (ATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    The accelerator test stand (ATS), in operation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, includes a hydrogen ion source, low- and high-energy beam-transport sections, and a 425-MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator. A 425-MHz drift-tube linac (DTL) and a powered ''buncher'' matching section have been constructed and will be installed on the ATS. The vacuum systems required for the various sections of the ATS are designed to provide: (1) high gas-load capability, as required in the ion source, and (2) high-vacuum capability in the high-power, radio-frequency accelerator sections (where fast vacuum-system response time is of importance) through the use of distributed, differential pumping as a principal vacuum-system feature. This paper describes properties of accelerator materials, vacuum-systems engineering and analysis, vacuum equipment used, and ATS vacuum-system performance

  1. Vacuum system for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, W.J.; Green, D.; Sink, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    The vacuum system for TFTR is described. Insofar as possible, conventional and ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components and technology will be employed. Subassemblies will be prebaked in vacuum to reduce subsequent outgassing, and assembly will employ TIG welding and metal gaskets. It is not anticipated that the totally assembled torus with its numerous diagnostic appendages will be baked in situ to a high temperature, however a lower bakeout temperature (approximately 250 0 C) is under consideration. Final vacuum conditioning will be performed using discharge cleaning to obtain a specific outgassing rate of less than or = to 10 -10 Torr liter/sec cm 2 hydrogen isotopes and less than or = to 10 -12 Torr liter/sec cm 2 of other gases, and a base pressure of less than or = to 5 x 10 -8 Torr

  2. An effective vacuum assisted extraction method for the optimization of labdane diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qi; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Ke, Gang; Yang, Ming

    2014-12-31

    An effective vacuum assisted extraction (VAE) technique was proposed for the first time and applied to extract bioactive components from Andrographis paniculata. The process was carefully optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best results were obtained using a boiling temperature of 65 °C, 50% ethanol concentration, 16 min of extraction time, one extraction cycles and a 12:1 liquid-solid ratio. Compared with conventional ultrasonic assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction, the VAE technique gave shorter extraction times and remarkable higher extraction efficiency, which indicated that a certain degree of vacuum gave the solvent a better penetration of the solvent into the pores and between the matrix particles, and enhanced the process of mass transfer. The present results demonstrated that VAE is an efficient, simple and fast method for extracting bioactive components from A. paniculata, which shows great potential for becoming an alternative technique for industrial scale-up applications.

  3. An Effective Vacuum Assisted Extraction Method for the Optimization of Labdane Diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Qi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective vacuum assisted extraction (VAE technique was proposed for the first time and applied to extract bioactive components from Andrographis paniculata. The process was carefully optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the best results were obtained using a boiling temperature of 65 °C, 50% ethanol concentration, 16 min of extraction time, one extraction cycles and a 12:1 liquid-solid ratio. Compared with conventional ultrasonic assisted extraction and heat reflux extraction, the VAE technique gave shorter extraction times and remarkable higher extraction efficiency, which indicated that a certain degree of vacuum gave the solvent a better penetration of the solvent into the pores and between the matrix particles, and enhanced the process of mass transfer. The present results demonstrated that VAE is an efficient, simple and fast method for extracting bioactive components from A. paniculata, which shows great potential for becoming an alternative technique for industrial scale-up applications.

  4. Multilevel soil-vapor extraction test for heterogeneous soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdowson, M.A.; Haney, O.R.; Reeves, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    The design, performance, and analysis of a field method for quantifying contaminant mass-extraction rates and air-phase permeability at discrete vertical locations of the vadose zones are presented. The test configuration consists of a multiscreen extraction well and multilevel observation probes located in soil layers adjacent to the extraction well. For each level tested an inflatable packer system is used to pneumatically isolate a single screen in the extraction well, and a vacuum is applied to induce air flow through the screen. Test data include contaminant concentration and flow characteristics at the extraction well, and transient or steady-state pressure drawdown data at observation probes located at variable radii from the extraction well. The test method is applicable to the design of soil-vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing remediation systems in a variety of geologic settings, particularly stratified soils. Application of the test method at a gasoline-polluted site located in the Piedmont physiographic region is described. Contaminant mass-extraction rates, expressed in terms of volatile hydrocarbons, varied from 0.16 to 14 kg/d

  5. Vacuum system for the test accumulation ring for the NUMATRON project (TARN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Akira

    1979-01-01

    The vacuum system for the test accumulation ring for the NUMATRON project (TARN) being constructed in the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, for the purpose of accumulating fundamental data on high energy, heavy ion acceleration is presented. The main specifications of TARN are as follows: repetition rate 1 Hz, average radius 5.06 m, the radius of curvature 1.333 m, circumference 31.795 m, the length of a unit cell 3.974 m, the length of a long straight section 1.8 m, the number of unit cells 8, superperiodicity 8, and the structure of a unit cell FODO. The vacuum level of TARN lower than 1 x 10 -10 Torr is necessary. The preliminary test apparatuses, number one and two, for obtaining the basic data on superhigh vacuum were constructed. The characteristics of a molecular vacuum pump and the high temperature baking effect were tested with the number one test apparatus. The glow discharge cleaning effect of the model vacuum chamber for deflecting magnets was tested, utilizing the number two test apparatus. The pressure curve in course of time during pump down, the residual gas components, the residual gas spectrum in vacuum state and the change of residual gas components before and after the glow discharge cleaning are shown as these testing results. The vacuum gauges, which are used for TARN for measuring both the total pressure and the partial pressure of gas, are explained. The vacuum system, the vacuum chamber, the vacuum pumps, the expected exhausting speed and the partial functional test results for the vacuum system are introduced. (Nakai, Y.)

  6. Rolling contact fatigue in a vacuum test equipment and coating analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Danyluk, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with wear and performance testing of thin solid film lubrication and hard coatings in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV), a process which enables rapid accumulation of stress cycles compared with testing in oil at atmospheric pressure. The authors' lucid and authoritative narrative broadens readers' understanding of the benefits of UHV testing: a cleaner, shorter test is achieved in high vacuum, disturbance rejection by the deposition controller may be optimized for maximum fatigue life of the coating using rolling contact fatigue testing (RCF) in a high vacuum, and RCF testing in UHV

  7. Quantum measurement information as a key to energy extraction from local vacuums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a protocol is proposed in which energy extraction from local vacuum states is possible by using quantum measurement information for the vacuum state of quantum fields. In the protocol, Alice, who stays at a spatial point, excites the ground state of the fields by a local measurement. Consequently, wave packets generated by Alice's measurement propagate the vacuum to spatial infinity. Let us assume that Bob stays away from Alice and fails to catch the excitation energy when the wave packets pass in front of him. Next Alice announces her local measurement result to Bob by classical communication. Bob performs a local unitary operation depending on the measurement result. In this process, positive energy is released from the fields to Bob's apparatus of the unitary operation. In the field systems, wave packets are generated with negative energy around Bob's location. Soon afterwards, the negative-energy wave packets begin to chase after the positive-energy wave packets generated by Alice and form loosely bound states.

  8. On the applicability of dye penetrant tests on vacuum components: Allowed or forbidden?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröder, Michael, E-mail: Michael.schroeder@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Biedermann, Christoph; Vilbrandt, Reinhard [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: The study aims to clarify the applicability of dye penetrant tests on components exposed to high-vacuum. The results show, that the PT application on components for use under vacuum conditions can in general be allowed. The test surface should have a simple geometry. No gaps or holes. An efficient cleaning after PT is necessary. If PT is foreseen TIG should used as the welding procedure. PT tested components should be baked out after the cleaning in a vacuum chamber at min 150 °C. -- Abstract: The penetrant testing (PT) is a common non-destructive procedure for the testing of components and in particular of welds. With PT it is possible to detect surface imperfections (e.g. cracks) which have a special potential to lead to the failure of the component or of the weld. PT is substantially more sensitive than a purely visual examination. Because the complicated geometries of fusion experiments make the accessibility for repairs during the operation extremely difficult, very high efforts on testing with sensitive procedures, for instance with dye penetrant testing during assembly is required. In contrast to this desire for widespread penetrant testing, however, is the general fear that dye penetrant tested components or welds, which are used in the vacuum, are contaminated by the dye in such a way that they do not fulfill the cleanliness requirements for vacuum components. Therefore dye penetrant testing of such vacuum components is usually considered problematic. This study aims to clarify the applicability of dye penetrant tests on components exposed to high-vacuum. Recommendations are formulated concerning the PT procedure of vacuum components and the cleaning procedures for penetrant tested areas under vacuum necessary after a dye penetrant test.

  9. Hot vacuum extraction-isotopic dilution mass spectrometry for determination of hydrogen isotopes in zircaloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Y.; Leeson, P.K.; Wilkin, D.; Britton, A.; Macleod, R.

    2016-01-01

    A hot vacuum extraction-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (HVE-IDMS) was studied for determination of hydrogen isotopes in zirconium metal and alloys as nuclear reactor materials. A theoretical assessment of the completeness of the extraction of hydrogen isotopes under the chosen condition was carried out based on the hydrogen and deuterium solubility data for zirconium. The optimal isotopic spiking condition for conventional IDMS was further explored for the special case IDMS where the isotope abundance of the samples is varied and non-natural. Applying the optimal conditions, the accurate IDMS determination was realized. The agreement between the measured values and the certified or prepared values of standard reference materials and homemade standard materials validate the method developed. (author)

  10. New muonic-atom test of vacuum polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, M.S.; Carter, A.L.; Hincks, E.P.; Kessler, D.; Wadden, J.S.; Hargrove, C.K.; McKee, R.J.; Mes, H.; Anderson, H.L.

    1975-01-01

    In order to check the discrepancy between calculation and experiment in muonic atoms, we have remeasured the 5g-4f transitions in Pb and the 5g-4f and the 4f-3d transitions in Ba. Our new results show no discrepancy and confirm recent theoretical calculations of vacuum polarization to within 0.5%

  11. Vacuum sieve tray for tritium extraction from liquid Pb-17Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okino, Fumito, E-mail: fumito.okino@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Noborio, Kazuyuki [Institute of Sustainability Science, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasushi [Faculty of Engineering Science, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Suita-shi, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Konishi, Satoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Formation of droplet of liquid Li-17Pb released from a nozzle into vacuum was studied for the evaluation of the feasibility as a tritium extraction process. Size of droplets formed from the nozzles was estimated by theoretical and experimental methods. For the theoretical estimation, the non-dimensional comparison of the physical bulk property of liquid Pb-17Li with water (H{sub 2}O) at ambient temperature was applied. It was found to be reasonable to apply the Plateau-Rayleigh-Instability theory for the droplet size formula of the fluid Pb-17Li for the nozzle diameter 0.4 mm-1.0 mm, temperature 400 Degree-Sign C-500 Degree-Sign C, at initial velocity of 3 m/s. The experimental results of the droplet size showed good agreement with the theory. This device was used for the parametric study of extraction of deuterium during their free fall in vacuum. The scaling of the device suggests the engineering feasibility of the process.

  12. Design of a permeator against vacuum for tritium extraction from eutectic lithium-lead in a DCLL DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcinuño, Belit, E-mail: belit.garcinuno@ciemat.es [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión), Madrid (Spain); Rapisarda, David [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión), Madrid (Spain); Fernández, Iván [Fundación & Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, UNED, Madrid (Spain); CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, Carlos; Palermo, Iole; Ibarra, Ángel [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión), Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A conceptual design of a Permeator Against Vacuum is presented. • The efficiency is dependent on geometry and Tritium transport. • The use of different membrane materials is discussed. • A squared PAV with alternated PbLi flowing and vacuum flat ducts is designed. • 80% efficiency of Tritium extraction is accomplished under DCLL-BB requirements. - Abstract: One of the most important issues in future fusion power plants is the extraction of tritium generated in the breeders in order to achieve self-sufficiency. When the breeder is a liquid metal one of the most promising techniques is the Permeation Against Vacuum, whose principle is based on tritium diffusion through a permeable membrane in contact with the liquid metal carrier and its further extraction by a vacuum pump. A conceptual design of permeator has been developed, taking into account the features of a DEMO reactor with a Dual Coolant Lithium Lead (DCLL) breeder blanket. The study is based on the analysis of different membranes and geometries aiming at the overall efficiency (extraction capability) of the device, as well as its compatibility with the breeder material. The permeator is based on a rectangular section multi-channel distribution where the liquid metal channels and vacuum channels are alternated in order to maximize the contact area and therefore to promote tritium transport from the bulk to the walls. The resulting permeator design has an excellent estimated extraction efficiency, of 80%, in a relatively compact device.

  13. A method for the determination of low nitrogen concentrations in niobium by vacuum hot extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, W.; Haessner, F.; Schulze, K.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the vacuum hot extraction of gases without the use of crucibles and fluxes is described and applied to the determination of gas contents of high-melting-point metals at low atomic ppm. The Nb-N system is quoted as an example. The reaction vessel (after baking at 150 0 C) was evacuated by means of a turbomolecular pump at an effective rate of 240 l s -1 . Degassing was carried out in ultra-high vacuum employing a residual nitrogen partial pressure of 2 X 10 -10 Torr and liquid and/or solid samples were melted by the levitation method in a radiofrequency field. The evolved gases were detected using a quadrupole mass filter and the quantity of nitrogen evolved calculated by integrating the partial pressure over the time period at a given pumping rate independent of pressure. In addition to giving a chemical analysis of the gas-metal system at low atomic ppm, this method also enables the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters to be determined. The minimum detectable concentration of nitrogen dissolved in niobium was ca. 0.5 at. ppm, the distribution coefficient between solid and liquid niobium 0.76 with the solubility of nitrogen being unaffected by additions of carbon up to 4.5 at.%. The contamination of high purity niobium during sample preparation has also been investigated. (Auth.)

  14. Vapor vacuum extraction treatability study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herd, M.D.; Matthern, G.; Michael, D.L.; Spang, N.; Downs, W.; Weidner, J.; Cleary, P.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1960s and early 1970s, barreled mixed waste containing volatile organic compounds (VOCS) and radioactive waste was buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Over time, some of the barrels have deteriorated allowing, VOC vapors to be released into the vadose zone. The primary VOC contaminates of concern are CCl 4 and trichloroethylene; however, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane have also been detected. Vapor Vacuum Extraction (VVE) is one alternative being considered for remediation of the RWMC SDA vadose zone. A proposed pilot-scale treatability study (TS) will provide operation and maintenance costs for the design of the potential scale-up of the system

  15. Use of in-situ Dual Vacuum Extraction trademark for remediation of soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Trowbridge, B.E.; Ott, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dual Vacuum Extraction trademark provides a rapid and cost-effective method of remediating soil and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The system involves the removal of both water and vapors through the same borehole by use of entrainment. This technology provides for the remediation of the vadose zone, capillary fringe, smear zone, and existing water table. The effectiveness of this technology is shown in a case study. A release from an underground storage tank was responsible for a hydrocarbon plume spreading over approximately 50,000 ft 2 . The release produced vadose-zone contamination in the silty and sandy clays from 10 to 30 ft below ground surface (bgs) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations up to 1,400 mg/kg. In addition, a layer of free-floating liquid hydrocarbon was present on a shallow aquifer located at 25 ft bgs in thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 ft. An in-situ dual-extraction system was installed to remediate the soils and ground water to levels as required by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). The system operated 24 hr a day, with an operating efficiency of over 99%. After 196 days (28 weeks), over 17,000 lb of hydrocarbons had been extracted from the soils. Seven confirmatory soil borings in the area of highest initial hydrocarbon concentrations indicated that TPH and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) concentrations had decreased over 99% from initial soil concentrations

  16. The use of in-situ dual vacuum extraction for remediation of soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, B.E.; Ott, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Dual Extraction provides a rapid and cost-effective method of remediating soil and groundwater impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOC's). Dual Extraction is the removal of both water and vapors through the same borehole using entrainment. This technology provides for the remediation of the vadose zone, capillary fringe, smear zone, and existing water table. The effectiveness of this technology is shown in a case study. A release from an Underground Storage Tank (UST) was responsible for a hydrocarbon plume spreading over approximately 50,000 square feet. The release produced vadose zone contamination in the silty and sandy clays from 10 - 30 feet below ground surface with TPH concentrations up to 1,400 mg/kg. A layer of free floating liquid hydrocarbon was present on a shallow aquifer located at 30 feet bgs in thicknesses ranging from 0.5 feet to 3.0 feet. An in-situ dual-extraction system was installed to remediate the soils and groundwater to levels as required by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). The system operated 24 hours/day for 196 days with an operating efficiency of over 99%. After 196 days, over 17,000 pounds of hydrocarbons had been extracted from the soils. Seven confirmatory soil borings were advanced in the area of highest initial hydrocarbon concentrations and indicated that TPH and BTEX concentrations had decreased over 99% from initial soil concentrations. Three confirmatory groundwater samples were obtained from monitoring wells initially exhibiting up to 3 feet of floating product. Confirmatory samples exhibited non-detectable (ND) concentrations of TPH and BTEX. Based upon the positive confirmatory results, site closure was obtained from the RWQCB in May of 1991. In only 28 weeks of operation, the groundwater contamination was reduced from free floating product to non-detectable concentrations of TPH using Dual Vacuum Extraction

  17. Engineering Sensitivity Improvement of Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection System by Means Global Hard Vacuum Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigit Asmara Santa

    2006-01-01

    The engineering sensitivity improvement of Helium mass spectrometer leak detection using global hard vacuum test configuration has been done. The purpose of this work is to enhance the sensitivity of the current leak detection of pressurized method (sniffer method) with the sensitivity of 10 -3 ∼ 10 -5 std cm 3 /s, to the global hard vacuum test configuration method which can be achieved of up to 10 -8 std cm 3 /s. The goal of this research and development is to obtain a Helium leak test configuration which is suitable and can be used as routine bases in the quality control tests of FPM capsule and AgInCd safety control rod products. The result is an additional instrumented vacuum tube connected with conventional Helium mass spectrometer. The pressure and temperature of the test object during the leak measurement are simulated by means of a 4.1 kW capacity heater and Helium injection to test object, respectively. The addition of auxiliary mechanical vacuum pump of 2.4 l/s pumping speed which is directly connected to the vacuum tube, will reduce 86 % of evacuation time. The reduction of the measured sensitivity due to the auxiliary mechanical vacuum pump can be overcome by shutting off the pump soon after Helium mass spectrometer reaches its operating pressure condition. (author)

  18. Vacuum tests of a beamline front-end mock-up at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Nielsen, R.W.; Kruy, T.L.; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    A-mock-up has been constructed to test the functioning and performance of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) front ends. The mock-up consists of all components of the APS insertion-device beamline front end with a differential pumping system. Primary vacuum tests have been performed and compared with finite element vacuum calculations. Pressure distribution measurements using controlled leaks demonstrate a better than four decades of pressure difference between the two ends of the mock-up. The measured pressure profiles are consistent with results of finite element analyses of the system. The safety-control systems are also being tested. A closing time of ∼20 ms for the photon shutter and ∼7 ms for the fast closing valve have been obtained. Experiments on vacuum protection systems indicate that the front end is well protected in case of a vacuum breach

  19. Manufacturing, assembly and tests of SPIDER Vacuum Vessel to develop and test a prototype of ITER neutral beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaccaria, Pierluigi, E-mail: pierluigi.zaccaria@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete S.p.A.), Padova (Italy); Valente, Matteo; Rigato, Wladi; Dal Bello, Samuele; Marcuzzi, Diego; Agostini, Fabio Degli; Rossetto, Federico; Tollin, Marco [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete S.p.A.), Padova (Italy); Masiello, Antonio [Fusion for Energy F4E, Barcelona (Spain); Corniani, Giorgio; Badalocchi, Matteo; Bettero, Riccardo; Rizzetto, Dario [Ettore Zanon S.p.A., Schio (VI) (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The SPIDER experiment aims to qualify and optimize the ion source for ITER injectors. • The large SPIDER Vacuum Vessel was built and it is under testing at the supplier. • The main working and assembly steps for production are presented in the paper. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment (Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from an RF plasma) aims to qualify and optimize the full size prototype of the negative ion source foreseen for MITICA (full size ITER injector prototype) and the ITER Heating and Current Drive Injectors. Both SPIDER and MITICA experiments are presently under construction at Consorzio RFX in Padova (I), with the financial support from IO (ITER Organization), Fusion for Energy, Italian research institutions and contributions from Japan and India Domestic Agencies. The vacuum vessel hosting the SPIDER in-vessel components (Beam Source and calorimeters) has been manufactured, assembled and tested during the last two years 2013–2014. The cylindrical vessel, about 6 m long and 4 m in diameter, is composed of two cylindrical modules and two torispherical lids at the ends. All the parts are made by AISI 304 L stainless steel. The possibility of opening/closing the vessel for monitoring, maintenance or modifications of internal components is guaranteed by bolted junctions and suitable movable support structures running on rails fixed to the building floor. A large number of ports, about one hundred, are present on the vessel walls for diagnostic and service purposes. The main working steps for construction and specific technological issues encountered and solved for production are presented in the paper. Assembly sequences and tests on site are furthermore described in detail, highlighting all the criteria and requirements for correct positioning and testing of performances.

  20. Manufacturing, assembly and tests of SPIDER Vacuum Vessel to develop and test a prototype of ITER neutral beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaccaria, Pierluigi; Valente, Matteo; Rigato, Wladi; Dal Bello, Samuele; Marcuzzi, Diego; Agostini, Fabio Degli; Rossetto, Federico; Tollin, Marco; Masiello, Antonio; Corniani, Giorgio; Badalocchi, Matteo; Bettero, Riccardo; Rizzetto, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The SPIDER experiment aims to qualify and optimize the ion source for ITER injectors. • The large SPIDER Vacuum Vessel was built and it is under testing at the supplier. • The main working and assembly steps for production are presented in the paper. - Abstract: The SPIDER experiment (Source for the Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from an RF plasma) aims to qualify and optimize the full size prototype of the negative ion source foreseen for MITICA (full size ITER injector prototype) and the ITER Heating and Current Drive Injectors. Both SPIDER and MITICA experiments are presently under construction at Consorzio RFX in Padova (I), with the financial support from IO (ITER Organization), Fusion for Energy, Italian research institutions and contributions from Japan and India Domestic Agencies. The vacuum vessel hosting the SPIDER in-vessel components (Beam Source and calorimeters) has been manufactured, assembled and tested during the last two years 2013–2014. The cylindrical vessel, about 6 m long and 4 m in diameter, is composed of two cylindrical modules and two torispherical lids at the ends. All the parts are made by AISI 304 L stainless steel. The possibility of opening/closing the vessel for monitoring, maintenance or modifications of internal components is guaranteed by bolted junctions and suitable movable support structures running on rails fixed to the building floor. A large number of ports, about one hundred, are present on the vessel walls for diagnostic and service purposes. The main working steps for construction and specific technological issues encountered and solved for production are presented in the paper. Assembly sequences and tests on site are furthermore described in detail, highlighting all the criteria and requirements for correct positioning and testing of performances.

  1. Failure analysis of glass-ceramic insulators of shock tested vacuum (neutron) tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Eight investigative techniques were used to examine the glass-ceramic insulators in vacuum (neutron) tubes. The insulators were extracted from units that had been subjected to low temperature mechanical shock tests. Two of the three units showed reduced neutron output after these tests and an insulator on one of these two was cracked completely through which probably occurred during shock testing. The objective of this study was to determine if any major differences existed between the insulators of these tubes. After eight analyses, it was concluded that no appreciable differences existed. It appeared that cracking of the one glass-ceramic sample was initiated at inner-sleeve interface voids. For this sample, the interface void density was much higher than is presently acceptable. All insulators were made with glass-ceramic having a Na 2 O content of 4.6 wt%. An increased Na 2 O content will cause an increase in the coefficient of expansion and will reduce the residual stress level since the molybdenum has a higher coefficient of thermal expansion than the insulator. Thus, it is believed that a decrease in interface voids and an increase in Na 2 O should aid in reduced cracking of the insulator during these tests

  2. Thermal-vacuum facility with in-situ mechanical loading. [for testing space construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Hansen, J. S.; Holzer, R. P.; Uffen, B.; Mabson, G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a thermal-vacuum space simulator used to assess property changes of fiber-reinforced polymer composite systems. The facility can achieve a vacuum of approximately .0000001 torr with temperatures ranging from -200 to +300 F. Some preliminary experimental results are presented for materials subjected to thermal loading up to 200 F. The tests conducted include the evaluation of matrix modulus and strength, coefficients of thermal expansion, and fracture toughness. Though the experimental program is at an early stage, the data appear to indicate that these parameters are influenced by hard vacuum.

  3. Power Control and Monitoring Requirements for Thermal Vacuum/Thermal Balance Testing of the MAP Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris; Hinkle, R. Kenneth (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The specific heater control requirements for the thermal vacuum and thermal balance testing of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Observatory at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland are described. The testing was conducted in the 10m wide x 18.3m high Space Environment Simulator (SES) Thermal Vacuum Facility. The MAP thermal testing required accurate quantification of spacecraft and fixture power levels while minimizing heater electrical emissions. The special requirements of the MAP test necessitated construction of five (5) new heater racks.

  4. Development of a vacuum leak test method for large-scale superconducting magnet test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Katsumi; Hamada, Kazuya; Okuno, Kiyoshi; Kato, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed leak detection technology for liquid helium temperature experiments in large-scale superconducting magnet test facilities. In JAEA, a cryosorption pump that uses an absorbent cooled by liquid nitrogen with a conventional helium leak detector, is used to detect helium gas that is leaking from pressurized welded joints of pipes and valves in a vacuum chamber. The cryosorption pump plays the role of decreasing aerial components, such as water, nitrogen and oxygen, to increase the sensitivity of helium leak detection. The established detection sensitivity for helium leak testing is 10 -10 to 10 -9 Pam 3 /s. A total of 850 welded and mechanical joints inside the cryogenic test facility for the ITER Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) experiments have been tested. In the test facility, 73 units of glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) insulation break are used. The amount of helium permeation through the GFRP was recorded during helium leak testing. To distinguish helium leaks from insulation-break permeation, the helium permeation characteristic of the GFRP part was measured as a function of the time of helium charging. Helium permeation was absorbed at 6 h after helium charging, and the detected permeation is around 10 -7 Pam 3 /s. Using the helium leak test method developed, CSMC experiments have been successfully completed. (author)

  5. Vacuum seals design and testing for a linear accelerator of the National Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Gautier, C.; Hemez, F.; Bultman, N.K.

    2000-01-01

    Vacuum seals are very important to ensure that the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Linac has an optimum vacuum system. The vacuum joints between flanges must have reliable seals to minimize the leak rate and meet vacuum and electrical requirements. In addition, it is desirable to simplify the installation and thereby also simplify the maintenance required. This report summarizes an investigation of the metal vacuum seals that include the metal C-seal, Energized Spring seal, Helcoflex Copper Delta seal, Aluminum Delta seal, delta seal with limiting ring, and the prototype of the copper diamond seals. The report also contains the material certifications, design, finite element analysis, and testing for all of these seals. It is a valuable reference for any vacuum system design. To evaluate the suitability of several types of metal seals for use in the SNS Linac and to determine the torque applied on the bolts, a series of vacuum leak rate tests on the metal seals have been completed at Los Alamos Laboratory. A copper plated flange, using the same type of delta seal that was used for testing with the stainless steel flange, has also been studied and tested. A vacuum seal is desired that requires significantly less loading than a standard ConFlat flange with a copper gasket for the coupling cavity assembly. To save the intersegment space the authors use thinner flanges in the design. The leak rate of the thin ConFlat flange with a copper gasket is a baseline for the vacuum test on all seals and thin flanges. A finite element analysis of a long coupling cavity flange with a copper delta seal has been performed in order to confirm the design of the long coupling cavity flange and the welded area of a cavity body with the flange. This analysis is also necessary to predict a potential deformation of the cavity under the combined force of atmospheric pressure and the seating load of the seal. Modeling of this assembly has been achieved using both HKS/Abaqus and COSMOS

  6. Vacuum seals design and testing for a linear accelerator of the National Spallation Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Chen; C. Gautier; F. Hemez; N. K. Bultman

    2000-02-01

    Vacuum seals are very important to ensure that the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Linac has an optimum vacuum system. The vacuum joints between flanges must have reliable seals to minimize the leak rate and meet vacuum and electrical requirements. In addition, it is desirable to simplify the installation and thereby also simplify the maintenance required. This report summarizes an investigation of the metal vacuum seals that include the metal C-seal, Energized Spring seal, Helcoflex Copper Delta seal, Aluminum Delta seal, delta seal with limiting ring, and the prototype of the copper diamond seals. The report also contains the material certifications, design, finite element analysis, and testing for all of these seals. It is a valuable reference for any vacuum system design. To evaluate the suitability of several types of metal seals for use in the SNS Linac and to determine the torque applied on the bolts, a series of vacuum leak rate tests on the metal seals have been completed at Los Alamos Laboratory. A copper plated flange, using the same type of delta seal that was used for testing with the stainless steel flange, has also been studied and tested. A vacuum seal is desired that requires significantly less loading than a standard ConFlat flange with a copper gasket for the coupling cavity assembly. To save the intersegment space the authors use thinner flanges in the design. The leak rate of the thin ConFlat flange with a copper gasket is a baseline for the vacuum test on all seals and thin flanges. A finite element analysis of a long coupling cavity flange with a copper delta seal has been performed in order to confirm the design of the long coupling cavity flange and the welded area of a cavity body with the flange. This analysis is also necessary to predict a potential deformation of the cavity under the combined force of atmospheric pressure and the seating load of the seal. Modeling of this assembly has been achieved using both HKS/Abaqus and COSMOS

  7. Portable test bench for the studies concerning ion sources and ion beam extraction and focusing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero Lopez, F.

    1961-01-01

    A portable test bench is described, which was designed to check ion sources, ion beam extraction and focusing systems before its use in a 600 KeV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator. The vacuum possibilities of the system are specially analyzed in connection with its particular use. The whole can be considered as a portable accelerator of low energy (50 keV). (Author)

  8. Vacuum-to-air interface for the advanced test accelerator beam director

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, G.E.; Edwards, W.F.; Kavanagh, D.P.; Addis, R.B.; Weiss, W.C.; Livenspargar, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    A vacuum-to-air transition was created to facilitate the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) electron beam 1-Hz pulse rate. It is necessary that a pulsed particle beam go from a region at 10 -6 torr through a 1-cm-diam maximum aperture into a region at 760 torr. This must be accomplished without the use of windows or solid barriers. Two tests will be conducted on the vacuum-to-air interface. The first determines pressure profiles through 1.0-mm- and 10.0-mm-diam orifices. The second test employs an expendable foil and foil advancement mechanism. In this paper, the experimental results of the orifice test are presented and the analytical results are compared with the empirical results. The foil advancement test will be documented after the test is completed. The mechanism serves both as an orifice and as a fast-acting vacuum valve. In operation, the electron beam penetrates the thin foil, thereby creating an aperture of minimum geometry. During the balance of the pulse cycle, after the beam duration, the foil is advanced to seal the opening and recover the almost negligible loss in vacuum

  9. Determination of occluded oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen in zircalloy-4 by vacuum extraction coupled to gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, O.; Imakuma, K.

    1983-01-01

    The technique of vacuum extraction at high temperatures was used for the liberation of gases from zircalloy-4 samples; oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen were quantitatively analysed by gas chromatography. Two different sets of zircalloy-4 samples were examined. The results for O 2 , N 2 and H 2 quantitative analyses satisfy the requirements for the characterization of the zircalloy-4 quality. (C.L.B.) [pt

  10. Using the method of statistic tests for determining the pressure in the UNC-600 vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiver, A.M.; Mirzoev, K.G.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to simulate the process of pumping-out the UNC-600 vacuum chamber. The simulation is carried out by the Monte-Carlo statistic test method. It is shown that the pressure value in every liner of the chamber may be determined from the pressure in the pump branch pipe, determined by the discharge current of this pump. Therefore, it is possible to precise the working pressure in the ion guide of the UNC-600 vacuum chamber [ru

  11. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Unmanned Vacuum Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in more than 30 years, an advanced space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design was operated inside a vacuum chamber representative of the flight operating environment. The test article, PLSS 2.0, was the second system-level integrated prototype of the advanced PLSS design, following the PLSS 1.0 Breadboard that was developed and tested throughout 2011. Whereas PLSS 1.0 included five technology development components with the balance the system simulated using commercial-off-the-shelf items, PLSS 2.0 featured first generation or later prototypes for all components less instrumentation, tubing and fittings. Developed throughout 2012, PLSS 2.0 was the first attempt to package the system into a flight-like representative volume. PLSS 2.0 testing included an extensive functional evaluation known as Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) testing, Human-in-the-Loop testing in which the PLSS 2.0 prototype was integrated via umbilicals to a manned prototype space suit for 19 two-hour simulated EVAs, and unmanned vacuum environment testing. Unmanned vacuum environment testing took place from 1/9/15-7/9/15 with PLSS 2.0 located inside a vacuum chamber. Test sequences included performance mapping of several components, carbon dioxide removal evaluations at simulated intravehicular activity (IVA) conditions, a regulator pressure schedule assessment, and culminated with 25 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs). During the unmanned vacuum environment test series, PLSS 2.0 accumulated 378 hours of integrated testing including 291 hours of operation in a vacuum environment and 199 hours of simulated EVA time. The PLSS prototype performed nominally throughout the test series, with two notable exceptions including a pump failure and a Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) leak, for which post-test failure investigations were performed. In addition to generating an extensive database of PLSS 2.0 performance data, achievements included requirements and

  12. The Aperture and Layout of the LHC Extraction Septa and TCDS Diluter with an Enlarged MSDC Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B

    2003-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system must safely abort the LHC beams over the whole energy range, under all realistically possible fault conditions. These include normal operation, failure of machine elements and also abnormal performance of subsystems of the beam dumping system itself. To avoid unnecessary irradiation and even equipment damage, the MSD extraction septa must provide sufficient aperture both for the circulating and extracted beams. In order to satisfy this requirement, a modified (enlarged) vacuum chamber design will be used for the limiting MSDC septa. The analysis of the available apertures is presented, with emphasis on the dependence on the local orbit and beam emittance.

  13. SNS EXTRACTION KICKER POWER SUPPLY PROTOTYPE TEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MI, J.L.; SANDBERG, J.; SANDERS, R.; SOUKAS, A.; ZHANG, W.

    2000-01-01

    The SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) accumulator ring Extraction System consists of a Fast kicker and a Lambertson Septum magnet. The proposed design will use 14 kicker magnets powered by an Extraction Kicker Power Supply System. They will eject the high power beam from the SNS accumulator ring into RTBT (Ring to Target Beam Tunnel) through a Lambertson Septum magnet. This paper describes some test results of the SNS Extraction Kicker power supply prototype. The high repetition rate of 60 pulse per second operation is the challenging part of the design. In the prototype testing, a 3 kA damp current of 700ns pulse-width, 200 nS rise time and 60 Hz repetition rate at 32 kV PFN operation voltage has been demonstrated. An Extraction kicker power supply system design diagram is depicted

  14. Night vision imaging system design, integration and verification in spacecraft vacuum thermal test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Gong, Zhe; Li, Xiyuan; Pei, Yifei; Bai, Tingzhu; Zhen, Haijing

    2015-08-01

    The purposes of spacecraft vacuum thermal test are to characterize the thermal control systems of the spacecraft and its component in its cruise configuration and to allow for early retirement of risks associated with mission-specific and novel thermal designs. The orbit heat flux is simulating by infrared lamp, infrared cage or electric heater. As infrared cage and electric heater do not emit visible light, or infrared lamp just emits limited visible light test, ordinary camera could not operate due to low luminous density in test. Moreover, some special instruments such as satellite-borne infrared sensors are sensitive to visible light and it couldn't compensate light during test. For improving the ability of fine monitoring on spacecraft and exhibition of test progress in condition of ultra-low luminous density, night vision imaging system is designed and integrated by BISEE. System is consist of high-gain image intensifier ICCD camera, assistant luminance system, glare protect system, thermal control system and computer control system. The multi-frame accumulation target detect technology is adopted for high quality image recognition in captive test. Optical system, mechanical system and electrical system are designed and integrated highly adaptable to vacuum environment. Molybdenum/Polyimide thin film electrical heater controls the temperature of ICCD camera. The results of performance validation test shown that system could operate under vacuum thermal environment of 1.33×10-3Pa vacuum degree and 100K shroud temperature in the space environment simulator, and its working temperature is maintains at 5° during two-day test. The night vision imaging system could obtain video quality of 60lp/mm resolving power.

  15. Thermal and Alignment Analysis of the Instrument-Level ATLAS Thermal Vacuum Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the thermal analysis and test design performed in preparation for the ATLAS thermal vacuum test. NASA's Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) will be flown as the sole instrument aboard the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2). It will be used to take measurements of topography and ice thickness for Arctic and Antarctic regions, providing crucial data used to predict future changes in worldwide sea levels. Due to the precise measurements ATLAS is taking, the laser altimeter has very tight pointing requirements. Therefore, the instrument is very sensitive to temperature-induced thermal distortions. For this reason, it is necessary to perform a Structural, Thermal, Optical Performance (STOP) analysis not only for flight, but also to ensure performance requirements can be operationally met during instrument-level thermal vacuum testing. This paper describes the thermal model created for the chamber setup, which was used to generate inputs for the environmental STOP analysis. This paper also presents the results of the STOP analysis, which indicate that the test predictions adequately replicate the thermal distortions predicted for flight. This is a new application of an existing process, as STOP analyses are generally performed to predict flight behavior only. Another novel aspect of this test is that it presents the opportunity to verify pointing results of a STOP model, which is not generally done. It is possible in this case, however, because the actual pointing will be measured using flight hardware during thermal vacuum testing and can be compared to STOP predictions.

  16. Hanford spent nuclear fuel cold vacuum drying proof of performance test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides the test procedure for cold testing of the first article skids for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) process at the Facility. The primary objective of this testing is to confirm design choices and provide data for the initial start-up parameters for the process. The current scope of testing in this document includes design verification, drying cycle determination equipment performance testing of the CVD process and MCC components, heat up and cool-down cycle determination, and thermal model validation

  17. Model and simulation of a vacuum sieve tray for T extraction from liquid PbLi breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, M.A.J.; Demange, D.; Frances, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simulation tool was developed to analyse, optimise and scale up VST set-ups. • This tool predicts that efficiencies higher than 90% can be reached. • Upscaling to DEMO breeding blanket flow rates results in feasibly sized designs. - Abstract: Tritium self-sufficiency within a nuclear fusion reactor is necessary to demonstrate nuclear fusion as a viable source of energy. Tritium can be produced within liquid eutectic PbLi but then has to be extracted to be refuelled to the plasma. The vacuum sieve tray (VST) method is based on the extraction of tritium from millimetre-scaled oscillating PbLi droplets falling inside a vacuum chamber. A simulation tool was developed describing the fluid dynamics occurring along the PbLi flow and was used to study the influence of the different geometrical and operational parameters on the VST performance. The simulation predicts that extraction efficiencies over 90% can be easily reached according to theory and previous experimental results. The size of the VST extraction unit for a fusion reactor is estimated based on the findings from our single-nozzle model and assuming no T reabsorption. It is found to be in the feasible range. Nevertheless, two approaches are discussed which may further reduce this size by up to 90%. The simulation tool proved to be an easy and powerful way to analyse and optimise VST set-ups at any scale.

  18. Mercury Conditions for the MESSENGER Mission Simulated in High- Solar-Radiation Vacuum Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2003-01-01

    The MESSENGER (Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft, planned for launch in March 2004, will perform two flybys of Mercury before entering a year-long orbit of the planet in September 2009. The mission will provide opportunities for detailed characterization of the surface, interior, atmosphere, and magnetosphere of the closest planet to the Sun. The NASA Glenn Research Center and the MESSENGER spacecraft integrator, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, have partnered under a Space Act Agreement to characterize a variety of critical components and materials under simulated conditions expected near Mercury. Glenn's Vacuum Facility 6, which is equipped with a solar simulator, can simulate the vacuum and high solar radiation anticipated in Mercury orbit. The MESSENGER test hardware includes a variety of materials and components that are being characterized during the Tank 6 vacuum tests, where the hardware will be exposed to up to 11 suns insolation, simulating conditions expected in Mercury orbit. In 2002, ten solar vacuum tests were conducted, including beginning of life, end of life, backside exposure, and solar panel thermal shock cycling tests. Components tested include candidate solar array panels, sensors, thermal shielding materials, and communication devices. As an example, for the solar panel thermal shock cycling test, two candidate solar array panels were suspended on a lift mechanism that lowered the panels into a liquid-nitrogen-cooled box. After reaching -140 C, the panels were then lifted out of the box and exposed to the equivalent of 6 suns (8.1 kilowatts per square meters). After five cold soak/heating cycles were completed successfully, there was no apparent degradation in panel performance. An anticipated 100-hr thermal shield life test is planned for autumn, followed by solar panel flight qualification tests in winter. Glenn's ongoing support to the MESSENGER program has been instrumental in

  19. HV Test of the CTS Edgeless Silicon Detector in Vacuum and Close to a Grounded Plate

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, Vladimir; Ruggiero, Gennaro

    2007-01-01

    The TOTEM Roman Pot Silicon sensors will be operated in vacuum to minimise the mechanical stress of the thin metal window which separates the detector package from the ultra high vacuum of the beam. To approach the beam axis as close as possible the detectors will be mounted with their edge at a distance of the order 100 - 200 um from the thin metal window. As the detectors will be run in overdepletion mode to allow the full charge collection within the shaping time of the readout electronics, there will be a potential drop of more than 100 V across their edge. Moreover this potential drop might need to be further increased with the accumulated radiation dose. The main goals of the tests described in this note are: - Characterisation of the voltage-current characteristics when the detector edge is in the direct vicinity of a grounded metal plate which simulates the above mentioned vacuum window; - Demonstration of the detector operation in vacuum at different pressures.

  20. Preparation of W/CuCrZr monoblock test mock-up using vacuum brazing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kongkham Premjit; Khirwadkar, Samir S.; Bhope, Kedar; Patel, Nikunj; Mokaria, Prakash K.; Mehta, Mayur

    2015-01-01

    Development of the joining for W/CuCrZr monoblock PFC test mock-up is an interest area in Fusion R and D. W/Cu bimetallic material has prepared using OFHC copper casting approach on the radial surface of W monoblock tile surface. The W/Cu bimetallic material has been joined with CuCrZr tube (heat sink) material with the vacuum brazing route. Vacuum brazing of W/Cu-CuCrZr has been performed @ 970 °C for 10 mins using NiCuMn-37 filler material under deep vacuum environment (10 -6 mbar). Graphite fixtures were used for OFHC copper casting and vacuum brazing experiments. The joint integrity of W/Cu-CuCrZr monoblock mock-up on W/Cu and Cu-CuCrZr has been checked using ultrasonic immersion technique. Micro-structural examination and Spot-wise elemental analysis have been carried out using HR-SEM and EDAX. The results of the experimental work will be discussed in the paper. (author)

  1. Is there Still a Place for Vacuum Extraction (Ventouse) in Modern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2nd stage of labor and other common clinical problems.[2] Thus, instrumental ... an “air tractor vacuum extractor” was devised by the developer ... Currently, about 4‑13% of maternal deaths in Africa, Asia, ..... behavior or health care outcomes?

  2. Optimizing tritium extraction from a Permeator Against Vacuum (PAV) by dimensional design using different tritium transport modeling tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, P., E-mail: pablomiguel.martinez@ciemat.es [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, C. [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain); Martinez, I. [SENER Ingenieria y Sistemas, Provenca 392, 4a 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, L. [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    The Permeator Against Vacuum (PAV) has been conceived as the simplest, cost effective and reliable technology system dedicated to tritium extraction from breeding liquid metals. An optimal design of a PAV requires a detailed hydraulic design optimization for established operational ranges (HCLL at low velocities of {approx}1 mm/s or DCLL in the ranges of tens of cm/s). The present work analyses the PAV extraction efficiency dependency on the design parameters as optimum on-line Tritium Extraction System (TES). Three different models have been built for that purpose: one through physically refined 1D tritium transport computation using TMAP7 (unique simulation tool with QA for ITER); and two further detailed models on 2D/3D FEM tool (COMSOL Multi-physics 4.0). The geometry used in this work is a simplification of Fuskite{sup Registered-Sign} conceptual design developed at CIEMAT, consisting of a set of cylindrical and concentric {alpha}-Fe double membranes enclosing a vacuumed space and in contact with in-pipe flowing LiPb eutectic. The aim of this paper is to give the first steps to establish the optimal design parameters of a PAV and evaluate the state-of-the-art of these models.

  3. Inverse hydrochemical models of aqueous extracts tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2008-10-10

    Aqueous extract test is a laboratory technique commonly used to measure the amount of soluble salts of a soil sample after adding a known mass of distilled water. Measured aqueous extract data have to be re-interpreted in order to infer porewater chemical composition of the sample because porewater chemistry changes significantly due to dilution and chemical reactions which take place during extraction. Here we present an inverse hydrochemical model to estimate porewater chemical composition from measured water content, aqueous extract, and mineralogical data. The model accounts for acid-base, redox, aqueous complexation, mineral dissolution/precipitation, gas dissolution/ex-solution, cation exchange and surface complexation reactions, of which are assumed to take place at local equilibrium. It has been solved with INVERSE-CORE{sup 2D} and been tested with bentonite samples taken from FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test. The inverse model reproduces most of the measured aqueous data except bicarbonate and provides an effective, flexible and comprehensive method to estimate porewater chemical composition of clays. Main uncertainties are related to kinetic calcite dissolution and variations in CO2(g) pressure.

  4. Managing the Mars Science Laboratory Thermal Vacuum Test for Safety and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory is a NASA/JPL mission to send the next generation of rover to Mars. Originally slated for launch in 2009, development problems led to a delay in the project until the next launch opportunity in 2011. Amidst the delay process, the Launch/Cruise Solar Thermal Vacuum Test was undertaken as risk reduction for the project. With varying maturity and capabilities of the flight and ground systems, undertaking the test in a safe manner presented many challenges. This paper describes the technical and management challenges and the actions undertaken that led to the ultimate safe and successful execution of the test.

  5. Cryo-Vacuum Testing of the Integrated Science Instrument Module for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Davila, P. S.; Drury, M. P.; Glazer, S. D.; Krom, J. R.; Lundquist, R. A.; Mann, S. D.; McGuffey, D. B.; Perry, R. L.; Ramey, D. D.

    2011-01-01

    With delivery of the science instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) to Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) expected in 2012, current plans call for the first cryo-vacuum test of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) to be carried out at GSFC in early 2013. Plans are well underway for conducting this ambitious test, which will perform critical verifications of a number of optical, thermal, and operational requirements of the IS 1M hardware, at its deep cryogenic operating temperature. We describe here the facilities, goals, methods, and timeline for this important Integration & Test milestone in the JWST program.

  6. UHV testing of vacuum components and diagnostic devices, related to installation of Undulators in Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnakala, K.C.; Tiwari, S.K.; Bhange, N.J.; Yadav, D.P.; Babbar, L.K.; Netram; Sridhar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Two Insertion Devices, both planar Undulators (U1 and U2), have been successfully installed and commissioned in Indus-2, in Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. The radiation from these Undulators are expected to be 2 to 3 orders of magnitude brighter than the radiation from the Bending Magnets. As required for the installation of these Insertion Devices in Indus-2 ring, two vacuum sections (LS 2 and LS 3) were modified. Apart from the main Undulator chambers (which were procured from the Manufacturer), several other components were developed in UHVT Section and Beam Diagnostic Section, for this purpose. The components include Taper chambers, Beam Position Indicators (both Insertion Device BPI-s and Upgraded BPI-s) and RF shielded bellows.Taper chambers were needed for the smooth transition of cross-section of vacuum envelope, from the normal straight section chamber (with dimensions: 36 mm x 86 mm) to the Undulator chamber (with dimensions: 17 mm x 81 mm). These chambers were required at both entry and exit of Undulator chambers. IDBPI-s and Upgraded BPI-s were needed for the precise monitoring of electron beam position, before the entry into the Undulator and after exiting the Undulator, at various critical positions. Bellows were required to be connected at various positions, during the assembly of vacuum chambers, for the mechanical flexibility. RF shielding was mandatory inside these bellows, to provide a smooth contour of the vacuum envelope, inside these bellows. All these components were tested in the UHV Lab, and confirmed for their UHV compatibility, prior to the actual assembly in the ring. Afterwards, these components were successfully installed in Indus-2 ring, by December, 2014. This paper narrates the UHV-tests carried out, including the assembly, leak-testing, baking, pumping etc. and the results. (author)

  7. Vacuum extraction as a treatment modality of neonatal skull depression in twin infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Adnan M.; Al-Zeky, Alaauddin M.; El-Azm, M.

    2007-01-01

    The management of depressed skull fractures in the newborn infant can be controversial. In this article, we report a case of twin pregnancy wherein one of the fetuses had depressed skull fractures that was not associated with any known trauma during the pregnancy or at delivery. This p ing-pong skull depression was treated by elevation with an obstetrical vacuum extractor. No complications occurred. The possible etiologies and treatment modalities for neonatal depressed fractures, being conservative or operative, are discussed. (author)

  8. High vacuum test of the dynamic components of the cyclotron dee chamber at the 224 cm variable energy cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.; Bandopadhyay, D.K.; Ghosh, D.K.; Gowariker, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    The 224 cm Variable Energy Cyclotron constructed and commissioned at Calcutta comprises a number of dynamic components in the high vacuum Dee Chamber. The static and dynamic conditions of these components have to be tested for high vacuum worthiness prior to their installation in the Dee Tank. A special set up was fabricated and used for simulating the Dee Chamber conditions and testing the components. A high vacuum of the order of 1 x 10 -5 torr was achieved under both dynamic and static conditions with and without coolant hydraulic pressures. The details of the set up, methods employed for the various tests carried out and the results obtained are described. (auth.)

  9. SNS Cryogenic Test Facility Kinney Vacuum Pump Commissioning and Operation at 2 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGraff, B.; Howell, M.; Kim, S.; Neustadt, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has built and commissioned an independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) in support of testing in the Radio-frequency Test Facility (RFTF). Superconducting Radio-frequency Cavity (SRF) testing was initially conducted with the CTF cold box at 4.5 K. A Kinney vacuum pump skid consisting of a roots blower with a liquid ring backing pump was recently added to the CTF system to provide testing capabilities at 2 K. System design, pump refurbishment and installation of the Kinney pump will be presented. During the commissioning and initial testing period with the Kinney pump, several barriers to achieve reliable operation were experienced. Details of these lessons learned and improvements to skid operations will be presented. Pump capacity data will also be presented.

  10. SNS Cryogenic Test Facility Kinney Vacuum Pump Commissioning and Operation at 2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degraff, Brian D. [ORNL; Howell, Matthew P. [ORNL; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL; Neustadt, Thomas S. [ORNL

    2017-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has built and commissioned an independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) in support of testing in the Radio-frequency Test Facility (RFTF). Superconducting Radio-frequency Cavity (SRF) testing was initially conducted with the CTF cold box at 4.5 K. A Kinney vacuum pump skid consisting of a roots blower with a liquid ring backing pump was recently added to the CTF system to provide testing capabilities at 2 K. System design, pump refurbishment and installation of the Kinney pump will be presented. During the commissioning and initial testing period with the Kinney pump, several barriers to achieve reliable operation were experienced. Details of these lessons learned and improvements to skid operations will be presented. Pump capacity data will also be presented.

  11. Vacuum mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  12. Preliminary hazard analysis for the Brayton Isotope Ground Demonstration System (including vacuum test chamber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.

    1975-01-01

    The Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA) of the BIPS-GDS is a tabular summary of hazards and undesired events which may lead to system damage or failure and/or hazard to personnel. The PHA reviews the GDS as it is envisioned to operate in the Vacuum Test Chamber (VTC) of the GDS Test Facility. The VTC and other equipment which will comprise the test facility are presently in an early stage of preliminary design and will undoubtedly undergo numerous changes before the design is frozen. The PHA and the FMECA to follow are intended to aid the design effort by identifying areas of concern which are critical to the safety and reliability of the BIPS-GDS and test facility

  13. Design of vacuum vessel for Indian Test Facility (INTF) for 100 keV neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Jaydeep; Yadav, Ashish; Gangadharan, Roopesh; Prasad, Rambilas; Ulahannan, Shino; Rotti, Chandramouli; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thickness calculation and optimization for the main shell, ducts, Dishends and top lid on the main shell. • Nozzle and flange design for the port openings. • Support structure design for the main shell and ducts. • FEA validation of the INTF vessel for operational, seismic and lifting condition. - Abstract: The Indian Test Facility (INTF) vacuum vessel is designed to install a full-scale test set-up of Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) [1] for the qualification of beam parameters and the behavior of beam-line components prior to installation and operation in ITER. Vacuum vessel is designed in cylindrical shape having length of ∼9 m with diameter of ∼4.5 m and has a detachable top-lid for mounting as well as removal of internal components during installation and maintenance phases. The Vessel has hemispherical dish-ends with large openings for high-voltage bushing on one side and duct on another side. Vessel is provided with openings for hydraulic, cryo, gas-feed and diagnostics. Vessel duct is composed of three segments with length ranges from 3 m to 5 m with diameter of ∼1.5 m and one vessel at the end to house the second calorimeter. The objective of this paper is to present the design and analysis of vacuum vessel, with respect to its functional and operational requirements. The design calculations are done as per ASME-BPVC SectionVIII-Div.1 and subsequently Finite Element Analysis (FEM) method has been adopted to verify the design.

  14. Design of vacuum vessel for Indian Test Facility (INTF) for 100 keV neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Jaydeep, E-mail: Jaydeep.joshi@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Gandhinagar 382016, Gujarat (India); Yadav, Ashish; Gangadharan, Roopesh [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Gandhinagar 382016, Gujarat (India); Prasad, Rambilas [Madan Mohan Malaviya University of Technology, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh 273001 (India); Ulahannan, Shino [Airframe Aerodesigns Pvt. Ltd., HAL Airport Exit Road, Old Airport Road, Bengaluru 17 (India); Rotti, Chandramouli; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, Arun [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Gandhinagar 382016, Gujarat (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Thickness calculation and optimization for the main shell, ducts, Dishends and top lid on the main shell. • Nozzle and flange design for the port openings. • Support structure design for the main shell and ducts. • FEA validation of the INTF vessel for operational, seismic and lifting condition. - Abstract: The Indian Test Facility (INTF) vacuum vessel is designed to install a full-scale test set-up of Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) [1] for the qualification of beam parameters and the behavior of beam-line components prior to installation and operation in ITER. Vacuum vessel is designed in cylindrical shape having length of ∼9 m with diameter of ∼4.5 m and has a detachable top-lid for mounting as well as removal of internal components during installation and maintenance phases. The Vessel has hemispherical dish-ends with large openings for high-voltage bushing on one side and duct on another side. Vessel is provided with openings for hydraulic, cryo, gas-feed and diagnostics. Vessel duct is composed of three segments with length ranges from 3 m to 5 m with diameter of ∼1.5 m and one vessel at the end to house the second calorimeter. The objective of this paper is to present the design and analysis of vacuum vessel, with respect to its functional and operational requirements. The design calculations are done as per ASME-BPVC SectionVIII-Div.1 and subsequently Finite Element Analysis (FEM) method has been adopted to verify the design.

  15. The use of high vacuum soil vapor extraction to improve contaminant recovery from ground water zones of low transmissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.; Farrow, J.R.C.; Burgess, W.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the potential for enhancing hydrocarbon contaminant mass recovery from ground water using high vacuum soil vapor extraction (SVE). The effectiveness of this form of remediation is compared with the effectiveness of conventional pump-and-treat. This study focuses on the performance of a high vacuum SVE system at two ground water monitoring wells (MW-17 and MW-65b) at a site in Santa Barbara, California, US. The site is a highly characterized site with vadose zone and ground water petroleum hydrocarbon contamination (gasoline). The ground water wells are located beyond a defined area of vadose zone soil contamination. Ground water hydrocarbon contamination [light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) and dissolved phase] is present at each of the wells. the ground water wells have been part of a low-flow, pump-and-treat, ground water treatment system (GWTS) since August, 1986. The low transmissivity of the aquifer sediments prevent flow rates above approximately 0.02 gpm (0.01 l/min) per well

  16. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Source For System-Level Testing Of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance.

  17. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Summer D.; Broerman, Craig D.; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O control become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solidamine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with nonregenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA implements radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrated the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or sub-ambient atmosphere.

  18. Thermal Vacuum Test Correlation of a Zero Propellant Load Case Thermal Capacitance Propellant Gauging Analytical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckim, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and correlation of a thermal model that forms the foundation of a thermal capacitance spacecraft propellant load estimator. Specific details of creating the thermal model for the diaphragm propellant tank used on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft using ANSYS and the correlation process implemented are presented. The thermal model was correlated to within plus or minus 3 degrees Celsius of the thermal vacuum test data, and was determined sufficient to make future propellant predictions on MMS. The model was also found to be relatively sensitive to uncertainties in applied heat flux and mass knowledge of the tank. More work is needed to improve temperature predictions in the upper hemisphere of the propellant tank where predictions were found to be 2 to 2.5 C lower than the test data. A road map for applying the model to predict propellant loads on the actual MMS spacecraft toward its end of life in 2017-2018 is also presented.

  19. Structural integrity testing of glass-ceramic/molybdenum vacuum tube frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    In this study, vacuum tube subassemblies made of glass-ceramic insulators sealed to inner and outer molybdenum frames were loaded in compression to failure with a tensile test machine. Several factors were varied in processing these subassemblies. These factors included etching and nonetching of molybdenum piece parts, annealing and nonannealing of subassemblies, and vapor and non-vapor honing of insulators after sealing. After failure, the subassemblies were examined for fracture patterns. In most cases, fracture started at points near the lower portion of the inner sleeve-insulator interface. More load was carried by subassemblies having molybdenum piece parts that were acid etched. No difference appeared between the strength of subassemblies having annealed and nonannealed glass-ceramic insulators. Parts with vapor-honed insulators failed at substantially lower loads

  20. Design and test of a vacuum distillation method for determining carbon in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irmisch, R.; Rettig, D.; Woelke, K.

    1976-08-01

    A method is described for determining total and carbonate carbon in sodium samples until 10 g. Sodium is removed by vacuum distillation at 300 0 C and the carbon in the residue is converted to carbon dioxide by combustion in a stream of air or thermic splitting in a stream of cover gas at 1000 0 C. The carbon dioxide is measured manometrically. It is therefore not necessary to carry out calibration. Distillation and combustion rig are combined with inertgas filled transfer box. Therefore the sodium sample does not get into touch with air. Test of this method was carried out with Na 2 CO 3 and WC. Carbon recoveries were for Na 2 CO 3 between 103 and 107% and for WC between 92 and 96%. The blank value found being 9 μg C and sensitivity 3 μg C. (author)

  1. Numerical investigation for combustion characteristics of vacuum residue (VR) in a test furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreedhara, S.; Huh, Kang Y.; Park, Hoyoung

    2007-01-01

    It has become inevitable to search for alternative fuels due to current worldwide energy crisis. In this paper combustion characteristics of vacuum residue (VR) is investigated numerically against experimental data in typical operating conditions of a furnace. Heat release reaction is modeled as sequential steps of devolatilization, simplified gas phase reaction and char oxidation as for pulverized coal. Thermal and fuel NO are predicted by the conditional moment closure (CMC) method for estimation of elementary reaction rates. It turns out that Sauter mean diameter (SMD) of VR droplets is a crucial parameter for better combustion efficiency and lower NO. Reasonable agreement is achieved for spatial distributions of major species, temperature and NO for all test cases with different fuel and steam flow rates

  2. Reconfiguration of NASA GRC's Vacuum Facility 6 for Testing of Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Peter Y.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John T.; Haag, Thomas W.; Mackey, Jonathan A.; McVetta, Michael S.; Sorrelle, Luke T.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Gilligan, Ryan P.; hide

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight propulsion system. The HERMeS thruster is being developed and tested at NASA GRC and NASA JPL through support of the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) and is intended to be used as the electric propulsion system on the Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) of the recently announced Deep Space Gateway (DSG). The Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) contract was awarded to Aerojet-Rocketdyne to develop the HERMeS system into a flight system for use by NASA. To address the hardware test needs of the AEPS project, NASA GRC launched an effort to reconfigure Vacuum Facility 6 (VF-6) for high-power electric propulsion testing including upgrades and reconfigurations necessary to conduct performance, plasma plume, and system level integration testing. Results of the verification and validation testing with HERMeS Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU)-1 and TDU-3 Hall thrusters are also included.

  3. Vacuum system design and tritium inventory for the charge exchange diagnostic on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    The application of charge exchange analyzers for the measurement of ion temperature in fusion plasma experiments requires a direct connection between the diagnostic and plasma-discharge vacuum chambers. Differential pumping of the gas load from the diagnostic stripping cell operated at > or approx. = 10 -3 Torr is required to maintain the analyzer chamber at a pressure of -6 Torr. The migration of gases between the diagnostic and plasma vacuum chambers must be minimized. In particular, introduction of the analyzer stripping cell gas into the plasma chamber having a base pressure of -8 Torr must be suppressed. The charge exchange diagnostic for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is comprised of two analyzer systems designed to contain a total of 18 independent mass/energy analyzers and one diagnostic neutral beam rated at 80 keV, 15 A. The associated arrays of multiple, interconnected vacuum systems were analyzed using the Vacuum System Transient Simulator (Vsts) computer program which models the transient transport of multigas species through complex networks of ducts, valves, traps, vacuum pumps, and other related vacuum system components. In addition to providing improved design performance at reduced costs, the analysis yields estimates for the exchange of tritium from the torus to the diagnostic components and of the diagnostic working gases to the torus

  4. The vacuum system reform and test of the super-critical 600mw unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tao; Wan, Zhonghai; Lu, Jin; Chen, Wen; Cai, Wen

    2017-11-01

    The deficiencies of the designed vacuum system of the super-critical unit is pointed out in this paper, and then it is reformed by the steam ejector. The experimental results show that the vacuum of the condenser can be improved, the coal consumption can be reduced and the plant electricity consumption can be lowered dramatically at a small cost of the steam energy consumption. Meanwhile, the water-ring vacuum pumps cavitation problems can be solved.

  5. Six movements measurement system employed for GAIA secondary mirror positioning system vacuum tests at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Garranzo García-Ibarrola, Daniel; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás

    2008-07-01

    In this work, the optical measurement system employed to evaluate the performance of a 6 degrees of freedom (dof) positioning mechanism under cryogenic conditions is explored. The mechanism, the flight model of three translations and three rotations positioning mechanism, was developed by the Spanish company SENER (for ASTRIUM) to fulfil the high performance requirements from ESA technology preparatory program for the positioning of a secondary mirror within the GAIA Astrometric Mission. Its performance has been evaluated under vacuum and temperature controlled conditions (up to a 10-6mbar and 100K) at the facilities of the Space Instrumentation Laboratory (LINES) of the Aerospace Technical Nacional Institute of Spain (INTA). After the description of the 'alignment tool' developed to compare a fixed reference with the optical signal corresponding to the movement under evaluation, the optical system that allows measuring the displacements and the rotations in the three space directions is reported on. Two similar bread-boards were defined and mounted for the measurements purpose, one containing two distancemeters, in order to measure the displacements through the corresponding axis, and an autocollimator in order to obtain the rotations on the plane whose normal vector is the axis mentioned before, and other one containing one distancemeter and one autocollimator. Both distancemeter and autocollimator measurements have been combined in order to extract the information about the accuracy of the mechanism movements as well as their repeatability under adverse environmental conditions.

  6. Design and performance tests of gas circulation heating of JT-60U vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsuga, M.; Masuzaki, T.; Sago, H.; Nishikane, M.; Uchikawa, T.; Iritani, Y.; Murakami, T.; Horiike, H.; Neyatani, Y.; Ninomiya, H.; Matsukawa, M.; Ando, T.; Miyachi, I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in the final stage of construction of the upgraded JT-60 device (JT-60U), baking tests of the vacuum vessel was performed. The vessel torus was heated-up to 300 degrees C by means of the nitrogen gas circulation system and electric heaters mounted on the outboard solid wall of the vessel. The design of the gas flow channels inside the double-wall structure of the vessel was done based on flow model tests, fluid analysis, and flow network analysis. The results of the baking tests were satisfactory. In maintaining 300 degrees C bake-out temperature, required heating power of the gas circulation system and outboard heaters was 520kW and 50kW, respectively. The temperature distribution over the vessel wall was within 300 ± 30 degrees C. It was also shown or suggested that heat-up and cool-down time is about 30 hours. The baking tests data have been reflected on operations for plasma experiments

  7. Full-size solar dynamic heat receiver thermal-vacuum tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, L. M.; Kaufmann, K. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Kerslake, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    The testing of a full-size, 102 kW, solar dynamic heat receiver utilizing high-temperature thermal energy storage is described. The purpose of the test program was to quantify receiver thermodynamic performance, operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber with liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate to partly simulate a low-Earth-orbit environment. The cavity of the receiver was heated by an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones to allow axially and circumferentially varied flux distributions. A closed-Brayton cycle engine simulator conditioned a helium-xenon gas mixture to specific interface conditions to simulate the various operational modes of the solar dynamic power module on the Space Station Freedom. Inlet gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate were independently varied. A total of 58 simulated orbital cycles, each 94 minutes in duration, was completed during the test period.

  8. Impact of Drilling Operations on Lunar Volatiles Capture: Thermal Vacuum Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Paulsen, Gale; Zacny, Kris; Smith, Jim

    2015-01-01

    In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) enables future planetary exploration by using local resources to supply mission consumables. This idea of 'living off the land' has the potential to reduce mission cost and risk. On the moon, water has been identified as a potential resource (for life support or propellant) at the lunar poles, where it exists as ice in the subsurface. However, the depth and content of this resource has yet to be confirmed on the ground; only remote detection data exists. The upcoming Resource Prospector mission (RP) will 'ground-truth' the water using a rover, drill, and the RESOLVE science package. As the 2020 planned mission date nears, component level hardware is being tested in relevant lunar conditions (thermal vacuum). In August 2014 a series of drilling tests were performed using the Honeybee Robotics Lunar Prospecting Drill inside a 'dirty' thermal vacuum chamber at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The drill used a unique auger design to capture and retain the lunar regolith simulant. The goal of these tests was to investigate volatiles (water) loss during drilling and sample transfer to a sample crucible in order to validate this regolith sampling method. Twelve soil samples were captured over the course of two tests at pressures of 10(exp-5) Torr and ambient temperatures between -80C to -20C. Each sample was obtained from a depth of 40 cm to 50 cm within a cryogenically frozen bed of NU-LHT-3M lunar regolith simulant doped with 5 wt% water. Upon acquisition, each sample was transferred and hermetically sealed inside a crucible. The samples were later baked out to determine water wt% and in turn volatile loss by following ASTM standard practices. Of the twelve tests, four sealed properly and lost an average of 30% of their available water during drilling and transfer. The variability in the results correlated well with ambient temperature (lower the temperature lower volatiles loss) and the trend agreed with the sublimation rates for the

  9. Multi-parameter fibre Bragg grating sensor-array for thermal vacuum cycling test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Ahlers, B.; Toet, P.; Casarosa, G.; Appolloni, M.

    2017-11-01

    Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor systems based on optical fibres are gaining interest in space applications. Studies on Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of the reusable launchers using FBG sensors have been carried out in the Future European Space Transportation Investigations Programme (FESTIP). Increasing investment in the development on FBG sensor applications is foreseen for the Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP). TNO has performed different SHM measurements with FBGs including on the VEGA interstage [1, 2] in 2006. Within the current project, a multi-parameter FBG sensor array demonstrator system for temperature and strain measurements is designed, fabricated and tested under ambient as well as Thermal Vacuum (TV) conditions in a TV chamber of the European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC site. The aim is the development of a multi-parameters measuring system based on FBG technology for space applications. During the TV tests of a Space Craft (S/C) or its subsystems, thermal measurements, as well as strain measurements are needed by the engineers in order to verify their prediction and to validate their models. Because of the dimensions of the test specimen and the accuracy requested to the measurement, a large number of observation/measuring points are needed. Conventional sensor systems require a complex routing of the cables connecting the sensors to their acquisition unit. This will add extra weight to the construction under test. FBG sensors are potentially light-weight and can easily be multiplexed in an array configuration. The different tasks comply of a demonstrator system design; its component selection, procurement, manufacturing and finally its assembly. The temperature FBG sensor is calibrated in a dedicated laboratory setup down to liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature at TNO. A temperature-wavelength calibration curve is generated. After a test programme definition a setup in thermal vacuum is realised at ESA premises including a mechanical

  10. Thermal Vacuum Test of Ice as a Phase Change Material Integrated with a Radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steve A.; Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Stephan, Ryan; Le, Hung V.

    2010-01-01

    Water may be used as radiation shielding for Solar Particle Events (SPE) to protect crewmembers in the Lunar Electric Rover (LER). Because the water is already present for radiation protection, it could also provide a mass efficient solution to the vehicle's thermal control system. This water can be frozen by heat rejection from a radiator and used as a Phase Change Material (PC1V1) for thermal storage. Use of this water as a PCM can eliminate the need for a pumped fluid loop thermal control system as well as reduce the required size of the radiator. This paper describes the testing and analysis performed for the Rover Engineering Development Unit (REDU), a scaled-down version of a water PCM heat sink for the LER. The REDU was tested in a thermal-vacuum chamber at environmental temperatures similar to those of a horizontal radiator panel on the lunar surface. Testing included complete freeze and melt cycles along with scaled transient heat load profiles simulating a 24-hour day for the rover.

  11. Systematic vacuum study of the ITER model cryopump by test particle Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xueli; Haas, Horst; Day, Christian [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The primary pumping systems on the ITER torus are based on eight tailor-made cryogenic pumps because not any standard commercial vacuum pump can meet the ITER working criteria. This kind of cryopump can provide high pumping speed, especially for light gases, by the cryosorption on activated charcoal at 4.5 K. In this paper we will present the systematic Monte Carlo simulation results of the model pump in a reduced scale by ProVac3D, a new Test Particle Monte Carlo simulation program developed by KIT. The simulation model has included the most important mechanical structures such as sixteen cryogenic panels working at 4.5 K, the 80 K radiation shield envelope with baffles, the pump housing, inlet valve and the TIMO (Test facility for the ITER Model Pump) test facility. Three typical gas species, i.e., deuterium, protium and helium are simulated. The pumping characteristics have been obtained. The result is in good agreement with the experiment data up to the gas throughput of 1000 sccm, which marks the limit for free molecular flow. This means that ProVac3D is a useful tool in the design of the prototype cryopump of ITER. Meanwhile, the capture factors at different critical positions are calculated. They can be used as the important input parameters for a follow-up Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulation for higher gas throughput.

  12. Thermal Vacuum Test Correlation of A Zero Propellant Load Case Thermal Capacitance Propellant Gauging Analytics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and test data validation of the thermal model that is the foundation of a thermal capacitance spacecraft propellant load estimator. Specific details of creating the thermal model for the diaphragm propellant tank used on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft using ANSYS and the correlation process implemented to validate the model are presented. The thermal model was correlated to within plus or minus 3 degrees Centigrade of the thermal vacuum test data, and was found to be relatively insensitive to uncertainties in applied heat flux and mass knowledge of the tank. More work is needed, however, to refine the thermal model to further improve temperature predictions in the upper hemisphere of the propellant tank. Temperatures predictions in this portion were found to be 2-2.5 degrees Centigrade lower than the test data. A road map to apply the model to predict propellant loads on the actual MMS spacecraft toward its end of life in 2017-2018 is also presented.

  13. Hadronic vacuum polarization and the test of quantum electrodynamics at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.; Faustov, R.N.; Karimkhodzhaev, A.

    1978-01-01

    A hadronic vacuum polarization correction to the photon propagator is found by using the Dubnicka-Meshcheryakov parametrization of the pion electromagnetic form factor and new experimental data on the e + e - hadrons annihilation cross section. The contribution from the hadronic vacuum polarization to the muon anomalous magnetic moment and the Lamb shift in muonic atoms are calculated

  14. Beam Extraction for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator at the 300 kV Test Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Yu-Seok [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [KOMAC, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been developing a 300-kV test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator ion source. The ion source in the high-pressure vessel is required to have a high reliability. The test stand has been proposed and developed to confirm the stable operating conditions of the ion source. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify the long-time operating conditions. The test stand comprises a 300-kV high-voltage terminal, a battery for the ion-source power, a 60-Hz inverter, 200-MHz RF power, a 5-kV extraction power supply, a 300-kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. A beam extraction experiment for the test stand was performed, and the beam current was measured using a faraday cup in the chamber. A beam extraction results for the RF ion source will be presented. Beam extraction from the RF ion source of the test stand is verified by measuring the beam current with a faraday cup in the chamber. Thus far NI Labview, PLC and faraday cup have been used to measure the beam current. The OPC server is useful for monitoring the PLC values. The average beam current of (a), (b) and (c) shown in figure 2 are 110.241µA, 105.8597µA and 103.5278µA respectively.

  15. 3D thermography for improving temperature measurements in thermal vacuum testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. W.; Simpson, R.; Parian, J. A.; Cozzani, A.; Casarosa, G.; Sablerolle, S.; Ertel, H.

    2017-09-01

    The application of thermography to thermal vacuum (TV) testing of spacecrafts is becoming a vital additional tool in the mapping of structures during thermal cycles and thermal balance (TB) testing. Many of the customers at the European Space Agency (ESA) test centre, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), The Netherlands, now make use of a thermal camera during TB-TV campaigns. This complements the use of embedded thermocouples on the structure, providing the prospect of monitoring temperatures at high resolution and high frequency. For simple flat structures with a well-defined emissivity, it is possible to determine the surface temperatures with reasonable confidence. However, for most real spacecraft and sub-systems, the complexity of the structure's shape and its test environment creates inter-reflections from external structures. This and the additional complication of angular and spectral variations of the spacecraft surface emissivity make the interpretation of the radiation detected by a thermal camera more difficult in terms of determining a validated temperature with high confidence and well-defined uncertainty. One solution to this problem is: to map the geometry of the test specimen and thermal test environment; to model the surface temperatures and emissivity variations of the structures and materials; and to use this model to correct the apparent temperatures recorded by the thermal camera. This approach has been used by a team from NPL (National Physical Laboratory), Psi-tran, and PhotoCore, working with ESA, to develop a 3D thermography system to provide a means to validate thermal camera temperatures, based on a combination of thermal imaging photogrammetry and ray-tracing scene modeling. The system has been tested at ESTEC in ambient conditions with a dummy spacecraft structure containing a representative set of surface temperatures, shapes, and spacecraft materials, and with hot external sources and a high power lamp as a sun

  16. Cleanup and treatment (CAT) test: a land-area decontamination project utilizing a vacuum method of soil removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orcutt, J.A.

    1982-08-01

    Areas 11 and 13 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are contaminated with varying concentrations of Pu-239, 240 and Am-241. An investigation of a vacuum method of soil removal, the Cleanup and Treatment (CAT) test, was conducted over a 3-month period in the plutonium safety shot or Plutonium Valley portion of Area 11. Soil in Plutonium Valley is of the Aridisol Order. The surface 0 to 10 cm is a gravelly loam, and is strongly alkaline (pH 8.8). A large truck-mounted vacuum unit, rather than conventional earth-moving equipment, was used as the primary soil collection unit. Effectiveness of the vacuum method of soil removal was evaluated in relation to conventional earthmoving procedures, particularly in terms of volume reduction of removed soil achieved over conventional techniques. Radiological safety considerations associated with use of the vacuum unit were evaluated in relation to their impact on a full-scale land decontamination program. Environmental and operational impacts of devegetation with retention of root crowns or root systems were investigated. It is concluded that the CAT test was successful under difficult environmental conditions

  17. Construction of a Thermal Vacuum Chamber for Environment Test of Triple CubeSat Mission TRIO-CINEMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jeheon; Lee, Seongwhan; Yoon, Seyoung; Seon, Jongho; Jin, Ho; Lee, Donghun; Lin, Robert P.

    2013-12-01

    TRiplet Ionospheric Observatory-CubeSat for Ion, Neutron, Electron & MAgnetic fields (TRIO-CINEMA) is a CubeSat with 3.14 kg in weight and 3-U (10 × 10 × 30 cm) in size, jointly developed by Kyung Hee University and UC Berkeley to measure magnetic fields of near Earth space and detect plasma particles. When a satellite is launched into orbit, it encounters ultrahigh vacuum and extreme temperature. To verify the operation and survivability of the satellite in such an extreme space environment, experimental tests are conducted on the ground using thermal vacuum chamber. This paper describes the temperature control device and monitoring system suitable for CubeSat test environment using the thermal vacuum chamber of the School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University. To build the chamber, we use a general purpose thermal analysis program and NX 6.0 TMG program. We carry out thermal vacuum tests on the two flight models developed by Kyung Hee University based on the thermal model of the TRIO-CINEMA satellite. It is expected from this experiment that proper operation of the satellite in the space environment will be achieved.

  18. Construction of a Thermal Vacuum Chamber for Environment Test of Triple CubeSat Mission TRIO-CINEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeheon Jeon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available TRiplet Ionospheric Observatory-CubeSat for Ion, Neutron, Electron & MAgnetic fields (TRIO-CINEMA is a CubeSat with 3.14 kg in weight and 3-U (10 × 10 × 30 cm in size, jointly developed by Kyung Hee University and UC Berkeley to measure magnetic fields of near Earth space and detect plasma particles. When a satellite is launched into orbit, it encounters ultrahigh vacuum and extreme temperature. To verify the operation and survivability of the satellite in such an extreme space environment, experimental tests are conducted on the ground using thermal vacuum chamber. This paper describes the temperature control device and monitoring system suitable for CubeSat test environment using the thermal vacuum chamber of the School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University. To build the chamber, we use a general purpose thermal analysis program and NX 6.0 TMG program. We carry out thermal vacuum tests on the two flight models developed by Kyung Hee University based on the thermal model of the TRIO-CINEMA satellite. It is expected from this experiment that proper operation of the satellite in the space environment will be achieved.

  19. Development of a Methodology for Conducting Hall Thruster EMI Tests in Metal Vacuum Chambers of Arbitrary Shape and Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Alec D.

    2000-01-01

    While the closed-drift Hall thruster (CDT) offers significant improvement in performance over conventional chemical rockets and other advanced propulsion systems such as the arcjet, its potential impact on spacecraft communication signals must be carefully assessed before widespread use of this device can take place. To this end, many of the potentially unique issues that are associated with these thrusters center on its plume plasma characteristics and the its interaction with electromagnetic waves. Although a great deal of experiments have been made in characterizing the electromagnetic interference (EMI) potential of these thrusters, the interpretation of the resulting data is difficult because most of these measurements have been made in vacuum chambers with metal walls which reflect radio waves emanating from the thruster. This project developed a means of assessing the impact of metal vacuum chambers of arbitrary size or shape on EMI experiments, thereby allowing for test results to be interpreted properly. Chamber calibration techniques were developed and initially tested at RIAME using their vacuum chamber. Calibration experiments were to have been made at Tank 5 of NASA GRC and the 6 m by 9 m vacuum chamber at the University of Michigan to test the new procedure, however the subcontract to RIAME was cancelled by NASA memorandum on Feb. 26. 1999.

  20. Mimicking Mars: A vacuum simulation chamber for testing environmental instrumentation for Mars exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrado, J. M., E-mail: sobradovj@inta.es; Martín-Soler, J. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Gago, J. A. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-03-15

    We have built a Mars environmental simulation chamber, designed to test new electromechanical devices and instruments that could be used in space missions. We have developed this environmental system aiming at validating the meteorological station Rover Environment Monitoring Station of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission currently installed on Curiosity rover. The vacuum chamber has been built following a modular configuration and operates at pressures ranging from 1000 to 10{sup −6} mbars, and it is possible to control the gas composition (the atmosphere) within this pressure range. The device (or sample) under study can be irradiated by an ultraviolet source and its temperature can be controlled in the range from 108 to 423 K. As an important improvement with respect to other simulation chambers, the atmospheric gas into the experimental chamber is cooled at the walls by the use of liquid-nitrogen heat exchangers. This chamber incorporates a dust generation mechanism designed to study Martian-dust deposition while modifying the conditions of temperature, and UV irradiated.

  1. Mimicking Mars: a vacuum simulation chamber for testing environmental instrumentation for Mars exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrado, J M; Martín-Soler, J; Martín-Gago, J A

    2014-03-01

    We have built a Mars environmental simulation chamber, designed to test new electromechanical devices and instruments that could be used in space missions. We have developed this environmental system aiming at validating the meteorological station Rover Environment Monitoring Station of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission currently installed on Curiosity rover. The vacuum chamber has been built following a modular configuration and operates at pressures ranging from 1000 to 10(-6) mbars, and it is possible to control the gas composition (the atmosphere) within this pressure range. The device (or sample) under study can be irradiated by an ultraviolet source and its temperature can be controlled in the range from 108 to 423 K. As an important improvement with respect to other simulation chambers, the atmospheric gas into the experimental chamber is cooled at the walls by the use of liquid-nitrogen heat exchangers. This chamber incorporates a dust generation mechanism designed to study Martian-dust deposition while modifying the conditions of temperature, and UV irradiated.

  2. Lifetime of Manet steel in load-cycling tests in vacuum at 20 and 550deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmaier, H.; Schmitz, W.

    1989-01-01

    Fatigue tests in vacuum were carried out on the Manet heat of DIN 1.4914 martensitic steel (X13Cr10.7Ni0.85Mo0.75V0.22) in push-pull type, stress-controlled experiments at room temperature and 823 K. The fatigue life was determined as a function of stress amplitude, mean stress, frequency and hold time. At 823 K creep has a strong influence on the life time, particularly at low frequencies and long hold times in tension. The results are phenomenologically described by a simple linear damage summation approach. Even at room temperature the life time of specimens tested in vacuum is about an order of magnitude higher than of those tested in air. This stresses the importance of providing the correct test environment in collecting fatigue data for the design of fusion devices. (orig./MM)

  3. Characteristics of a large vacuum wave precursor on the SABRE voltage adder MITL and extraction ion diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuneo, M.E.; Hanson, D.L.; Menge, P.R.; Poukey, J.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    SABRE (Sandia Accelerator and Beam Research Experiment) is a ten-cavity linear induction magnetically insulated voltage adder (6 MV, 300 kA) operated in positive polarity to investigate issues relevant to ion beam production and propagation for inertial confinement fusion. The voltage adder section is coupled to an applied-B extraction ion diode via a long coaxial output transmission line. Observations indicate that the power propagates in a vacuum wave prior to electron emission. After the electron emission threshold is reached, power propagates in a magnetically insulated wave. The precursor is observed to have a dominant impact on he turn-on, impedance history, and beam characteristics of applied-B ion diodes since the precursor voltage is large enough to cause electron emission at the diode from both the cathode feed and cathode tips. The amplitude of the precursor at the load (3--4.5 MV) is a significant fraction of the maximum load voltage (5--6 MV) because (1) the transmission line gaps ( ∼ 9 cm at output) and therefore impedances are relatively large, and hence the electric field threshold for electron emission (200 to 300 kV/cm) is not reached until well into the power pulse rise time; and (2) the rapidly falling forward wave and diode impedance reduces the ratio of main pulse voltage to precursor voltage. Experimental voltage and current data from the transmission line and the ion diode will be presented and compared with TWOQUICK (2-D electromagnetic PIC code) simulations and analytic models

  4. Successive use of vacuum-enhanced extraction, in situ chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation and mathematical modeling for the restoration of impacted soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, A.; Lauzon, J.M. [TechnoRem Inc., Laval, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A leak from an active gasoline service station in northern Quebec was discussed. Leaking petroleum from an underground storage tank (UST) in June 2005 resulted in a 4,000 m{sup 2} light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) plume causing both soil and groundwater contamination. This presentation described the site, environmental issues, selected remedial technologies, worked performed and results. TechnoRem conducted laboratory and bench-scale testing to determine the optimal treatment products and conditions for mitigation. The LNAPL was recovered using vacuum-enhanced extraction (VEE). Chemical oxidation (CO) and bioaugmentation (BA) was also used to restore the site. The soil and groundwater targets for various parameters were tabulated for total petroleum hydrocarbons and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes). It was noted that groundwater was flowing south towards a lake 100 metres downgradient. Schematics of the VEE, CO and BA equipment were presented along with several images of the design, installation, commission and operation of the systems. A total of 128 pumping/injection wells were used to sample soil, groundwater and LNAPL. In November 2006, soil analyses indicated that the total petroleum hydrocarbons and BTEX met the applicable criteria. The contaminated groundwater plume is now minor and in regression. Groundwater monitoring and supply of nutrients and oxygen will be performed for the coming years to allow for enhanced natural attenuation to mitigate the residual contaminants. tabs., figs.

  5. James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) Cryo-Vacuum (CV) Test Campaign Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Calinda; Whitehouse, Paul; Lui, Yan; Banks, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    JWST Integrated Science Instruments Module (ISIM) has completed its system-level testing program at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In March 2016, ISIM was successfully delivered for integration with the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) after the successful verification of the system through a series of three cryo-vacuum (CV) tests. The first test served as a risk reduction test; the second test provided the initial verification of the fully-integrated flight instruments; and the third test verified the system in its final flight configuration. The complexity of the mission has generated challenging requirements that demand highly reliable system performance and capabilities from the Space Environment Simulator (SES) vacuum chamber. As JWST progressed through its CV testing campaign, deficiencies in the test configuration and support equipment were uncovered from one test to the next. Subsequent upgrades and modifications were implemented to improve the facility support capabilities required to achieve test requirements. This paper: (1) provides an overview of the integrated mechanical and thermal facility systems required to achieve the objectives of JWST ISIM testing, (2) compares the overall facility performance and instrumentation results from the three ISIM CV tests, and (3) summarizes lessons learned from the ISIM testing campaign.

  6. Homogenate-assisted Vacuum-powered Bubble Extraction of Moso Bamboo Flavonoids for On-line Scavenging Free Radical Capacity Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yinnan; Yang, Kui; Cao, Qin; Sun, Jinde; Xia, Yu; Wang, Yinhang; Li, Wei; Ma, Chunhui; Liu, Shouxin

    2017-07-11

    A homogenate-assisted vacuum-powered bubble extraction (HVBE) method using ethanol was applied for extraction of flavonoids from Phyllostachys pubescens (P. pubescens) leaves. The mechanisms of homogenate-assisted extraction and vacuum-powered bubble generation were discussed in detail. Furthermore, a method for the rapid determination of flavonoids by HPLC was established. HVBE followed by HPLC was successfully applied for the extraction and quantification of four flavonoids in P. pubescens , including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin. This method provides a fast and effective means for the preparation and determination of plant active components. Moreover, the on-line antioxidant capacity, including scavenging positive ion and negative ion free radical capacity of different fractions from the bamboo flavonoid extract was evaluated. Results showed that the scavenging DPPH ˙ free radical capacity of vitexin and isovitexin was larger than that of isoorientin and orientin. On the contrary, the scavenging ABTS⁺ ˙ free radical capacity of isoorientin and orientin was larger than that of vitexin and isovitexin.

  7. HISTRAP [Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics] vacuum test stand for pressures of 10-12 Torr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.W.; Atkins, W.H.; Dowling, D.T.; McConnell, J.W.; Milner, W.T.; Olsen, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    HISTRAP, Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics, is a proposed synchrotron/cooler/storage ring accelerator optimized for advanced atomic physics research. The ring has a circumference of 46.8 m, a bore diameter of about 15 cm, and requires a vacuum of 10 -12 Torr in order to decelerate highly-charged very-heavy ions down to low energies. To be able to test components and procedures to achieve this pressure, a test stand approximately modeling one-sixteenth of the ring vacuum chamber has been built. The 3.5-m-long test stand has been fabricated from 10-cm-diameter components, with 316LN stainless steel flanges. Prior to assembly, these components were vacuum fired at 950/degree/C at a pressure of 10 -4 Torr. The test stand is bakeable in situ at 300/degree/C. Pumping is achieved with two 750-L/s titanium sublimator pumps and one 60-L/s ion pump. Pressure is measured with two extractor ion gauges and a 10 -14 PP RGA. The roughing for the test stand consists of cryosorption pumps followed by a cryopump. A pressure of 4 x 10 -12 Torr has been achieved. 7 refs., 5 figs

  8. Design and Operation of an IR-CAGE For Thermal Vacuum Testing of a Communication Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuersching, C.

    2004-08-01

    A specific infrared radiation device was designed and manufactured for infrared simulation on a communication satellite. For the thermal vacuum test of this satellite, radiation fields with different sizes, shapes and radiation intensities were required to deliver additional heating power onto the space- craft panels. Five of the six sides of the cube- shaped satellite had to be equipped with flat IR- frames so that a cage surrounding the S/C had to be designed. The following features of the IR-cage were re- quired: A lightweight, but still rigid construction of the frame with space-proofed materials; using of standard components for cost reasons; radiation intensities of 400 to 1100 W/m2; a computer-based system for individual control of the heating circuits; a user friendly and safe handling of the operation panel and the recording of all operational parame- ter. The mechanical construction was realised by using aluminium profiles. The standard components al- lowed completing the mechanical set-up within a short time. After some investigation concerning the heating devices it was decided to use heating strips for the radiation fields of low intensity and com- mercial IR-quartz radiators for fields with higher intensity. A special suspension for the heating strips was designed to keep them under defined tension. The power supplies for the heating circuits were computer-controlled. The software allowed the individual power setting of each heater. Addition- ally an automatic mode for controlling the heaters by a reference thermocouple was foreseen. Beside design features of the cage, this paper will also describe the heater concept and the control system, and it will have a look at QA relevant mat- ters.

  9. Pore Water Extraction Test Near 241-SX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlein, Susan J.; Parker, Danny L.; Tabor, Cynthia L.; Holm, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    A proof-of-principle test is underway near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. The test will evaluate a potential remediation technology that will use tank farm-deployable equipment to remove contaminated pore water from vadose zone soils. The test system was designed and built to address the constraints of working within a tank farm. Due to radioactive soil contamination and limitations in drilling near tanks, small-diameter direct push drilling techniques applicable to tank farms are being utilized for well placement. To address space and weight limitations in working around tanks and obstacles within tank farms, the above ground portions of the test system have been constructed to allow deployment flexibility. The test system utilizes low vacuum over a sealed well screen to establish flow into an extraction well. Extracted pore water is collected in a well sump,and then pumped to the surface using a small-diameter bladder pump.If pore water extraction using this system can be successfully demonstrated, it may be possible to target local contamination in the vadose zone around underground storage tanks. It is anticipated that the results of this proof-of-principle test will support future decision making regarding interim and final actions for soil contamination within the tank farms

  10. Vacuum decay container/closure integrity testing technology. Part 1. ASTM F2338-09 precision and bias studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Heinz; Stauffer, Tony; Chen, Shu-Chen Y; Lee, Yoojin; Forster, Ronald; Ludzinski, Miron; Kamat, Madhav; Godorov, Phillip; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2009-01-01

    ASTM F2338-09 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Detection of Leaks in Packages by Vacuum Decay Method is applicable for leak-testing rigid and semi-rigid non-lidded trays; trays or cups sealed with porous barrier lidding materials; rigid, nonporous packages; and flexible, nonporous packages. Part 1 of this series describes the precision and bias studies performed in 2008 to expand this method's scope to include rigid, nonporous packages completely or partially filled with liquid. Round robin tests using three VeriPac 325/LV vacuum decay leak testers (Packaging Technologies & Inspection, LLC, Tuckahoe, NY) were performed at three test sites. Test packages were 1-mL glass syringes. Positive controls had laser-drilled holes in the barrel ranging from about 5 to 15 microm in nominal diameter. Two different leak tests methods were performed at each site: a "gas leak test" performed at 250 mbar (absolute) and a "liquid leak test" performed at about 1 mbar (absolute). The gas leak test was used to test empty, air-filled syringes. All defects with holes > or = 5.0 microm and all no-defect controls were correctly identified. The only false negative result was attributed to a single syringe with a ASTM F2338-09 test method and the precision and bias study report are available by contacting ASTM International in West Conshohocken, PA, USA (www.astm.org).

  11. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Chng, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  12. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian, E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chng, Brenda [Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2016-07-25

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  13. Analysis of conditions for magnetron discharge initiation at vacuum camera testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeneva, Raina; Dineff, Peter; Darjanova, Denitza

    2002-01-01

    Models of electric field distribution for two typical cases of vacuum camera internal pressure control are investigated. New relations between the maximum magnetron discharge current value I max and the maximum electric field strength radial component value E τ max are established. (Author)

  14. Centrifugal contractors for laboratory-scale solvent extraction tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.

    1995-01-01

    A 2-cm contactor (minicontactor) was developed and used at Argonne National Laboratory for laboratory-scale testing of solvent extraction flowsheets. This new contactor requires only 1 L of simulated waste feed, which is significantly less than the 10 L required for the 4-cm unit that had previously been used. In addition, the volume requirements for the other aqueous and organic feeds are reduced correspondingly. This paper (1) discusses the design of the minicontactor, (2) describes results from having applied the minicontactor to testing various solvent extraction flowsheets, and (3) compares the minicontactor with the 4-cm contactor as a device for testing solvent extraction flowsheets on a laboratory scale

  15. Results of a cleanup and treatment test at the Nevada test site: Evaluation of vacuum removal of Pu-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.; Essington, E.H.; Miller, F.L. Jr.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Orcutt, J.A.; Romney, E.M.; Shugart, J.W.; Sorom, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    We have conducted experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of removing contaminated soils from the Nevada Test Site with a large truck-mounted vacuum cleaner. Our results show that this method is effective, relatively easy, and safe for equipment operators. With four passes of the truck-mounted vacuum, 92% of the 241Am (and the accompanying 239 + 240Pu) was removed and resuspension rates were reduced by more than 99%. The ecological impact was, however, serious in terms of soil erosion and destruction of small animal habitats. Compared to standard earth-moving techniques, vacuuming permits a significant reduction in the volume of soil collected to achieve the desired level of decontamination, and the volume reduction could result in cost savings for packaging, shipment, and burial. This cost savings would only be realized for projects involving decontamination of the top 5 cm of soil

  16. Study on chromosome aberrations test determinated by micro-whole blood culture in vacuum blood collection tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhihong; Han Fang'an; Ge Qinjuan; Wu Xiao; Chen Juan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop an easier and efficient method of culturing the chromosome and analyzing the aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes. Methods: Micro whole was cultured for 54 hours in home-made vacuum blood collection tube, and then collection, slice-making, microscopy detection for the chromosome aberrations was done. The difference of the results was analysed by comparing with the common method. Results: For 60 radiologists and 30 contrasts, the chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes were examed by this system, the lymphocytes and chromosome were clear and alive and easier to analyse. Compared with the common method, there was no significantly difference between the two analyzing results. Conclusion: The chromosome aberrations test by micro whole blood culture in vacuum blood collection tube is easier and efficient, and is worthy of being widely popularized. (authors)

  17. Thermo-optical vacuum testing of IRNSS laser retroreflector array qualification model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, L.; Boni, A.; Ciocci, E.; Contessa, S.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G.; Intaglietta, N.; Martini, M.; Mondaini, C.; Patrizi, G.; Salvatori, L.; Tibuzzi, M.; Lops, C.; Cantone, C.; Tuscano, P.; Maiello, M.; Venkateswaran, R.; Chakraborty, P.; Ramana Reddy, C. V.; Sriram, K. V.

    2017-09-01

    We describe the activities performed by SCF_Lab (Satellite/lunar/GNSS laser ranging/altimetry and cube/microsat Characterization Facilities Laboratory) of INFN-LNF for the thermo-optical vacuum testing activity of a IRNSS (Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System) LRA (Laser Retroreflector Array), under contract for ISRO-LEOS. To our knowledge, this is the first publication on the characterization of the optical performance of an LRA operating at about 36,000 km altitude (typical of regional GNSS segments, namely QZSS, COMPASS-G) executed in fully representative, carefully lab-simulated space conditions. In particular, this is the only such publication concerning IRNSS. Since laser ranging to its altitude is more challenging than to GNSS altitudes (from about 19,100 km for GLONASS to about 23,200 km for Galileo), comparative measurements were long awaited by ILRS (International Laser Ranging Service) and we present measurements of the absolute laser return to ground stations of the ILRS in terms of lidar OCS (Optical Cross Section) at the IRNSS relevant value of velocity aberration, in turn derived from measurements of the full FFDP (Far Field Diffraction Pattern) over a very large range of velocity aberrations. These measurements were acquired: (i) on a full-size qualification model of a IRNSS CCR (Cube Corner Retroreflector) LRA that ISRO-LEOS provided to INFN-LNF; (ii) during the lab-simulation of a 1/4 orbit segment, in which the LRA CCRs are exposed to the perturbation of the sun heat at varying angles, from grazing incidence (90° with respect to the direction perpendicular to the plane of array), up to the perpendicular to the LRA, with a same time variation consistent with the actual space orbit. In this 1/4 orbit condition, the LRA experiences potentially large thermal degradations of the OCS, depending on the detailed thermal and mechanical design of the LRA. Since all GNSS constellations have different LRA designs or configurations, this is another

  18. Design, fabrication and test of double-wall vacuum vessel for JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikawa, Takashi; Ioki, Kimihiro; Ninomiya, Hiromasa.

    1994-01-01

    A double-wall vacuum vessel was designed and fabricated for JT-60U (an upgraded machine of JT-60), which has a plasma current up to 6 MA and a large plasma volume (100 m 3 ). A new concept of Inconel 625 all-welded structure was adopted to the vessel, that comprises an inner plate, square tubes and an outer plate. The vacuum vessel with a multi-arc D-shaped cross section was fabricated by using hot-sizing press. The electromagnetic and structural analysis has been performed for plasma disruption loads. Dynamic responses of the vessel were measured during plasma disruptions, and the observed displacement had a good agreement with the result of FEM analysis. (author)

  19. A Conclusive Test of Abelian Dominance Hypothesis for Topological Charge in the QCD Vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Shoichi; Miyamura, Osamu

    1998-01-01

    We study the topological feature in the QCD vacuum based on the hypothesis of abelian dominance. The topological charge $Q_{\\rm SU(2)}$ can be explicitly represented in terms of the monopole current in the abelian dominated system. To appreciate its justification, we directly measure the corresponding topological charge $Q_{\\rm Mono}$, which is reconstructed only from the monopole current and the abelian component of gauge fields, by using the Monte Carlo simulation on SU(2) lattice. We find ...

  20. Integrated enhanced bioremediation and vacuum extraction for remediation of a hydrocarbon release in response to oscillating hydrologic conditions 'Traverse Co-Bio-Vac'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korreck, W.M.; Armstrong, J.M.; Douglass, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The use of enhanced in-situ biological treatment and vacuum extraction has been demonstrated to be successful in the remediation of ground water and soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. Seasonal fluctuations in the ground water causes the zone of contamination to be in the either saturated or unsaturated zone of the aquifer. In order to address these conditions, an integrated engineering design approach is being taken for the full scale remediation of an aviation of an aviation gasoline spill at the US Coast Guard Air Station at Traverse City, Township, Michigan. Enhanced aerobic biodegradation will be utilized during the periods of high water table whereby most of the contaminated interval is saturated. Carbon treated water will be utilized from the existing ground water plume. Oxygen will be injected via an oxygen generator to saturate the process stream prior to discharge to the aquifer. During low water table conditions, the same infrastructure will be utilized as a modified vacuum extraction system. The same injection wells used during the high water table would then be used during the low table condition as vapor extraction wells. The vapors will be routed to an above-ground catalytic incinerator for compound destruction. This integrated approach, entitled 'Traverse Co-Bio-Vac,' should reduce the capital costs of installing a full scale remedial system as well allowing the system to operate efficiently depending on water table conditions. The system is expected to be constructed in 1992

  1. Final dimensional test with alu-jig travelling through the CMS Inner vacuum tank

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert Gerwig

    2001-01-01

    The inner vacuum tank is an object of 13m lenght and 6m diameter that is completely made of stainless steel SS304. To allow insertion of the inner detectors, especially the hadronic calorimeter, a rail at 9 and 3 o'clock position is integral part of the cylindrical tank. To insert, weld and finally machine this rail was a big challenge for the manufacturer. The dummy jig presented on the pictures represents the diameter of the most outer corner of the hadronic calorimeter plus a scintillator and some cables.

  2. Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf (Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Del) and sniper. 1000EC (2,3 ... man and animals.1 It is estimated that 80% of the popula- ..... evaluation of waste, surface and ground water quality using the Allium test ...

  3. The use of non-destructive testing in COSY, an ultrahigh vacuum research plant of KFA, Juelich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, G.; Pauly, F.; Stechemesser, H.

    1993-01-01

    This report shows that the development, the construction and the later successful operation of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) plants in the pressure range of ≤ 10 -10 mbar is not possible without the use of highly sensitive non-destructive testing. Using the example of the large scale precision plant COSY, it is shown that only by observing basic UHV manufacturing conditions and the thorough use of the helium leak-finding technique and mass-spectrometric residual gas analysis can the required leakage rates ( -10 mbar. 1 . s -1 ) and surface cleanliness be achieved. (orig.) [de

  4. Factors influencing extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa staining of rat testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, R B; Bakare, A A; Peter, A I; Oremosu, A A; Osinubi, A A

    2012-08-01

    Some plant extracts can be used in biology and medicine to reveal or identify cellular components and tissues. We investigated the effects of time and concentration on staining of histological sections of rat testes by an acidified extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. An ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa was diluted using 1% acetic acid in 70% ethanol to stain histological sections of testes at concentrations of 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 g/ml for 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. The sections of testes were stained deep red. The staining efficiency of H. sabdariffa was greater at a high concentration and required less time to achieve optimal staining. H. sabdariffa is a strongly basic dye that can be used for various diagnostic purposes. Staining time and concentration must be considered to achieve optimal results.

  5. COR1 Engineering Test Unit Measurements at the NCAR/HAO Vacuum Tunnel Facility, October-November 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William

    2002-01-01

    The Engineering Test Unit (ETU) of COR1 was made in two configurations. The first configuration, ETU-1, was for vibration testing, while the second, ETU-2, was for optical testing. This is a report on the optical testing performed on ETU-2 at the NCAR/HAO Vacuum Tunnel Facility during the months of October and November, 2002. This was the same facility used to test the two previous breadboard models. In both configurations, the first two tube sections were complete, with all optical elements aligned. The vibration model ETU-1 had the remaining tube sections attached, with mass models for the remaining optics, for the various mechanisms, and for the focal plane assembly. It was then converted into the optical model ETU-2 by removing tube sections 3 to 5, and mounting the remaining optics on commercial mounts. (The bandpass filter was also installed into tube 2, which had been replaced in ETU-1 by a mass model, so that pre- and post-vibration optical measurements could be made.) Doublet 2 was installed in a Newport LP-2 carrier, and aligned to the other optics in the first two tube sections. The LP-2 adjustment screws were then uralened so that the alignment could be maintained during shipping. Because neither the flight polarizer nor Hollow Core Motor were available, they were simulated by a commercial polarizer and rotational mount, both from Oriel corporation. The Oriel rotational stage was not designed for vacuum use, but it was determined after consultation with the company, and lab testing, that the stage could be used in the moderate vacuum conditions at the NCAR/HAO facility. The shutter and focal plane assembly were simulated with the same camera used for the previous two breadboard tests. The focal plane mask was simulated with a plane of BK7 glass with a mask glued on, using the same procedure as for the Lyot spot on Doublet 1, and mounted in an adjustable LP-2 carrier. Two masks were made, one made to the precise specifications of the optical design, the

  6. Test of the beam effect on vacuum arc occurrence in a high-gradient accelerating structure for the CLIC project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2130409; Gagliardi, Martino

    A new generation of lepton colliders capable of reaching TeV energies is pres- ently under development, and to succeed in this task it is necessary to show that the technology for such a machine is available. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a possible design option among the future lepton collider projects. It consists of two normal-conducting linacs. Accelerating structures with a gradient of the order of 100 MV/m are necessary to reach the required high energies within a reasonable machine length. One of the strictest require- ments for such accelerating structures is a relatively low occurrence of vacuum arcs. CLIC prototype structures have been tested in the past, but only in absence of beam. In order to proof the feasibility of the high gradient technology for building a functional collider, it is necessary to understand the effect of the beam presence on the vacuum breakdowns. Tests of this type have never been performed previously. The main goal of this work is to provide a first measurement of t...

  7. Pressure-Fed LOX/LCH4 Reaction Control System for Spacecraft: Transient Modeling and Thermal Vacuum Hotfire Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Melcher, J. C.; Morehead, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    An integrated cryogenic liquid oxygen, liquid methane (LOX/LCH4) reaction control system (RCS) was tested at NASA Glenn Research Center's Plum Brook Station in the Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility (B-2) under vacuum and thermal vacuum conditions. The RCS is a subsystem of the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA), a pressure-fed LOX/LCH4 propulsion system composed of a single 2,800 lbf main engine, two 28 lbf RCS engines, and two 7 lbf RCS engines. Propellants are stored in four 48 inch diameter 5083 aluminum tanks that feed both the main engine and RCS engines in parallel. Helium stored cryogenically in a composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) flows through a heat exchanger on the main engine before being used to pressurize the propellant tanks to a design operating pressure of 325 psi. The ICPTA is capable of simultaneous main engine and RCS operation. The RCS engines utilize a coil-on-plug (COP) ignition system designed for operation in a vacuum environment, eliminating corona discharge issues associated with a high voltage lead. There are two RCS pods on the ICPTA, with two engines on each pod. One of these two engines is a heritage flight engine from Project Morpheus. Its sea level nozzle was removed and replaced by an 85:1 nozzle machined using Inconel 718, resulting in a maximum thrust of 28 lbf under altitude conditions. The other engine is a scaled down version of the 28 lbf engine, designed to match the core and overall mixture ratios as well as other injector characteristics. This engine can produce a maximum thrust of 7 lbf with an 85:1 nozzle that was additively manufactured using Inconel 718. Both engines are film-cooled and capable of limited duration gas-gas and gas-liquid operation, as well as steady-state liquid-liquid operation. Each pod contains one of each version, such that two engines of the same thrust level can be fired as a couple on opposite pods. The RCS feed system is composed of symmetrical 3/8 inch lines

  8. Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity testing of aqueous extract of bitter leaf ( Vernonia amygdalina Del ) and sniper 1000EC (2,3 dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) using the Alium cepa ... 96 hours and EC50 values at 95% confidence interval was determined from a plot of root length against sample concentrations using Microsoft Excel software.

  9. Scattering extraction of ions at CRYRING for SEU testing

    CERN Document Server

    Novák, D; Klamra, W; Norlin, L O; Bagge, L; Kaellberg, A; Paál, A; Rensfelt, K G; Molnár, J

    1999-01-01

    A measuring station has been built at the CRYRING heavy ion accelerator to test the Single Event Upset (SEU) phenomena in working Static RAM circuits. The setup extracts the beam using Rutherford scattering and the ions are monitored with a BaF sub 2 scintillator. SEU measurements have been performed for standard bulk CMOS memory circuits.

  10. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrado, J. M.; Martín-Soler, J.; Martín-Gago, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration

  11. Mimicking Martian dust: An in-vacuum dust deposition system for testing the ultraviolet sensors on the Curiosity rover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrado, J. M., E-mail: sobradovj@inta.es; Martín-Soler, J. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Gago, J. A. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB), INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM–CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    We have designed and developed an in-vacuum dust deposition system specifically conceived to simulate and study the effect of accumulation of Martian dust on the electronic instruments of scientific planetary exploration missions. We have used this device to characterize the dust effect on the UV sensor of the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station in the Mars science Laboratory mission of NASA in similar conditions to those found on Mars surface. The UV sensor includes six photodiodes for measuring the radiation in all UV wavelengths (direct incidence and reflected); it is placed on the body of Curiosity rover and it is severely affected by the dust deposited on it. Our experimental setup can help to estimate the duration of reliable reading of this instrument during operation. We have used an analogous of the Martian dust in chemical composition (magnetic species), color, and density, which has been characterized by X-ray spectroscopy. To ensure a Brownian motion of the dust during its fall and a homogeneous coverage on the instrumentation, the operating conditions of the vacuum vessel, determined by partial pressures and temperature, have to be modified to account for the different gravities of Mars with respect to Earth. We propose that our designed device and operational protocol can be of interest to test optoelectronic instrumentation affected by the opacity of dust, as can be the degradation of UV photodiodes in planetary exploration.

  12. Transport of liquid state nitrogen through long length service lines during thermal/vacuum testing. [in a Nimbus 6 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and analytical aspects associated with the transport are presented. Included is a definition of the problems and difficulties imposed by the servicing of a typical solid cryogen system, as well as a discussion of the transport requirements and of the rationale which governed their solution. A successful detailed transport configuration is defined, and the application of established mathematics to the design approach is demonstrated. The significance of head pressure, pressure drop, line friction, heat leak, Reynolds number, and the fundamental equilibrium demands of pressure and temperature were examined as they relate to the achievement of liquid state flow. Performance predictions were made for the transport system, and several analytical quantities are tabulated. These data are analyzed and compared with measured and calculated results obtained while actually servicing a solid cryogen system during thermal/vacuum testing.

  13. Results of testing the frontal AK-3 extraction unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, N I; Dolinskii, A M; Kolesnikov, M A

    1978-10-01

    From August to November 1970, on site testing of a protype frontal AK excavating rig developed by Giprouglemesh for use on gentle sloping seams was conducted in the Novaya mine of the Kuzbass Ugol Consolidated. The AK-3 consists of a cutting assembly in the form of a ring frontal slicer with two drives, hydraulic operated sectionalized support timbers of the enclosed lift type, conjugated timbering with ventilation and conveyor shafts, personnel elevator and hydraulic and electrical ancillary equipment. The production capacity of the rig in longwalls is 2.2 times greater on the average than by using drillhole blasting methods. Tests demonstrated that the main advantage of the Ak-3 was the single operation, continuous flow mode of coal extraction and remote frontal movement of timber sections, which ensured high capacity loading at the face and the capability of automating all procedures and eliminating all workers from the extraction face.

  14. Tests of dry mechanical forepumps for use in the ITER vacuum pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhof, U.; Kammerer, B.; Perinic, D.

    1995-04-01

    This report is a description of the design and construction of FORTE (Forepumps Test Facility) which has been built in order to enable testing of the pumping speeds of prototypical mechanical forepumps connected in series, as proposed for the ITER forepump system. Three NORMETEX pumps (1300, 600, 60 m 3 /h) and one METAL BELLOWS pump (6m 3 /h) have been integrated into the test bench. Measurements of the pumping characteristics were performed, both with the single pumps and with trains of series connected pumps, using the gases N 2 , H 2 , D 2 , He as well as ITER typical gas mixture. The results of the tests are presented. (orig.)

  15. Patch test with ether extracts in salicaceae allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawhney M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 23 cases suggestive of airborne contact dermatitis were patch tested with ether extracts of flowers and leaves of populus sp. and salix sp. in a study conducted in Ladakh at an altitude of 3445 meters above sea level. Overall positivity was found in 12 (52.17%, with populus sp. alone in 7 (30. 43%, salix sp. alone in 4 17.39% and to both in one (8.33%.

  16. Structural design of shield-integrated thin-wall vacuum vessel and manufacturing qualification tests for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Katsusuke; Shibui, Masanao; Koizumi, Koichi; Kanamori, Naokazu; Nishio, Satoshi; Sasaki, Takashi; Tada, Eisuke

    1992-09-01

    Conceptual design of shield-integrated thin-wall vacuum vessel has been done for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). The vacuum vessel concept is based on a thin-double-wall structure, which consists of inner and outer plates and rib stiffeners. Internal shielding structures, which provide neutron irradiation shielding to protect TF coils, are set up between the inner plate and the outer plate of the vessel to avoid complexity of machine systems such as supporting systems of blanket modules. The vacuum vessel is assembled/disassembled by remote handling, so that welding joints are chosen as on-site joint method from reliability of mechanical strength. From a view point of assembling TF coils, the vacuum vessel is separated at the side of port, and is divided into 32 segments similar to the ITER-CDA reference design. Separatrix sweeping coils are located in the vacuum vessel to reduce heat fluxes onto divertor plates. Here, the coil structure and attachment to the vacuum vessel have been investigated. A sectorized saddle-loop coil is available for assembling and disassembling the coil. To support electromagnetic loads on the coils, they are attached to the groove in the vacuum vessel by welding. Flexible multi-plate supporting structure (compression-type gravity support), which was designed during CDA, is optimized by investigating buckling and frequency response properties, and concept on manufacturing and fabrication of the gravity support are proposed. Partial model of the vacuum vessel is manufactured for trial, so that fundamental data on welding and fabrication are obtained. From mechanical property tests of weldment and partial models, mechanical intensity and behaviors of the weldment are obtained. Informations on FEM-modeling are obtained by comparing analysis results with experimental results. (author)

  17. Vacuum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  18. In situ remediation of Jet A in soil and ground water by high vacuum, dual phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshner, M.; Pressly, N.C.; Roth, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial results of subsurface remediation at Terminal 1, Kennedy International Airport, to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with Jet A fuel. The project was driven and constrained by the construction schedule of a major new terminal at the facility. The remediation system used a combination of ground water pumping, air injection, and soil vapor extraction. In the first five months of operation, the combined processes of dewatering, volatilization, and biodegradation removed a total of 36,689 pounds of total volatile and semivolatile organic jet fuel hydrocarbons from subsurface soil and ground water. The results of this case study have shown that 62% of the removal resulted from biodegradation, 27% occurred as a result of liquid removal, and 11% resulted from the extraction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  19. Non-destructive vacuum decay method for pre-filled syringe closure integrity testing compared with dye ingress testing and high-voltage leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Andrea; Amari, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    In reaction to the limitations of the traditional sterility test methods, in 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued the guidance "Container and Closure System Integrity Testing in Lieu of Sterility Testing as a Component of the Stability Protocol for Sterile Products" encouraging sterile drug manufacturers to use properly validated physical methods, apart from conventional microbial challenge testing, to confirm container closure integrity as part of the stability protocol. The case study presented in this article investigated the capability of four container closure integrity testing methods to detect simulated defects of different sizes and types on glass syringes, prefilled both with drug product intended for parenteral administration and sterile water. The drug product was a flu vaccine (Agrippal, Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Vacuum decay, pharmacopoeial dye ingress test, Novartis specific dye ingress test, and high-voltage leak detection were, in succession, the methods involved in the comparative studies. The case study execution was preceded by the preparation of two independent sets of reference prefilled syringes, classified, respectively, as examples of conforming to closure integrity requirements (negative controls) and as defective (positive controls). Positive controls were, in turn, split in six groups, three of with holes laser-drilled through the prefilled syringe glass barrel, while the other three with capillary tubes embedded in the prefilled syringe plunger. These reference populations were then investigated by means of validated equipment used for container closure integrity testing of prefilled syringe commercial production; data were collected and analyzed to determine the detection rate and the percentage of false results. Results showed that the vacuum decay method had the highest performance in terms of detection sensitivity and also ensured the best reliability and repeatability of measurements. An innovative technical

  20. Integration of test modules in the main blanket and vacuum vessel design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Kurasawa, Toshimasa; Sato, Satoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Togami, Ikuhide; Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa.

    1995-07-01

    Typical test modules for water-cooled and helium-cooled ceramic breeder blankets have been designed, and their major design parameters are summarized. Among various candidates studied in Japan at present, BOT (Breeder Out of Tube) type of blanket is exemplified here. The integration scheme of the test module into ITER basic machine is also shown. Even with other type of blanket, the integration scheme won't be affected. The composition and space requirement of cooling and tritium recovery systems for the test module have also been studied. (author)

  1. Comparison of a wellpoint vacuum pump system to dual pump recovery system effectiveness for the extraction of light non-aqueous phase liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koll, C.S.; Palmerton, D.L. Jr.; Kunzel, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of two light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) extraction systems is compared at a site in the Mid-New Jersey Atlantic Coastal Plains Region: an existing dual pump recovery system and a wellpoint vacuum pump system. Home heating oil was released to a shallow sand and gravel aquifer by a leaky underground distribution system in the early 1970s. Eight-inch-diameter dual pump recovery wells were used for the last nine years, to lower the water table and extract LNAPL at several spill sites located throughout a residential community of 1,500 homes. Several small LNAPL plumes still exist today with surface areas ranging from 400 ft 2 to over 28,000 ft 2 . LNAPL recovery peaked in 1985 using dual pump recovery systems, averaging 33 gallons per day (gpd). In 1987, four 24-inch wells were replaced by 11 8-inch-diameter recovery wells at six sites, and LNAPL recovery rates averaged 5 gpd. In recent years, the recovery of LNAPL has declined and when graphed, is asymptotic. In 1993, dual pump recovery of LNAPL averaged 0.3 gpd for all six sites

  2. Test plan for demonstrating plutonium extraction from 10-L solutions using EIChrom extraction chromatographic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    Corrosive plutonium solutions stored in 10-L containers at the Plutonium Finishing Plant must be treated to convert the plutonium to a safe, solid form for storage and to remove the americium so that radiation exposure can be reduced. Extraction chromatographic resins will be tested for separating plutonium from these solutions in the laboratory. Separation parameters will be developed during the testing for large scale processing of the 10-L solutions and solutions of similar composition. Use of chromatographic resins will allow plutonium separation with minimum of chemical addition to the feed and without the need for plutonium valence adjustment. The separated plutonium will be calcined to plutonium oxide by direct solution calcination

  3. ULTRARAPID VACUUM-MICROWAVE HISTOPROCESSING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOK, LP; BOON, ME

    A novel histoprocessing method for paraffin sections is presented in which the combination of vacuum and microwave exposure is the key element. By exploiting the decrease in boiling temperature under vacuum, the liquid molecules in the tissues have been successfully extracted and exchanged at

  4. Fast Extraction Kicker for the Accelerator Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Santis, Stefano; Urakawa, Junji; Naito, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a study for the design of a fast extraction kicker to be installed in the Accelerator Test Facility ring at KEK. This activity is carried on in the framework of the ATF2 project, which will be built on the KEK Tsukuba campus as an extension of the existing ATF, taking advantage of the worlds smallest normalized emittance achieved there. ATF2's primary goal is to operate as a test facility and establish the hardware and beam handling technologies envisaged for the International Linear Collider. In particular, the fast extraction kicker object of the present paper is an important component of the ILC damping rings, since its rise and fall time define the minimum distance between bunches and ultimately the damping rings length itself. Building on the initial results presented at EPAC '06, we report on the present status of the kicker design and define the minimum characteristics for pulsers and other subsystems. In addition to the original scheme with multiple stripline modules producing a total deflection of 5 mrad, we also investigated a scheme with a single kicker module for a reduced deflection of 1 mrad placed inside a closed orbit bump, which takes the electron closer to the extraction septum

  5. Planetary Airplane Extraction System Development and Subscale Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, John E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) project will employ an airplane as the science platform from which to collect science data in the previously inaccessible, thin atmosphere of Mars. In order for the airplane to arrive safely in the Martian atmosphere, a number of sequences must occur. A critical element in the entry sequence at Mars is an extraction maneuver to separate the airplane quickly (in less than a second) from its protective backshell to reduce the possibility of re-contact, potentially leading to mission failure. This paper describes the development, testing, and lessons learned from building a 1/3 scale model of this airplane extraction system. This design, based on the successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extraction mechanism, employs a series of trucks rolling along tracks located on the surface of the central parachute can. Numerous tests using high speed video were conducted at the Langley Research Center to validate this concept. One area of concern was that that although the airplane released cleanly, a pitching moment could be introduced. While targeted for a Mars mission, this concept will enable environmental surveys by aircraft in other planetary bodies with a sensible atmosphere such as Venus or Saturn's moon, Titan.

  6. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  7. Effectiveness testing of some vegetal extracts comparing with clasical anthelmintics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie M.S.,

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We have tested the efficacy of some vegetal extracts (Parazitol –Medica Laboratories, a natural product with an anthelmintic effect and a Cucurbita sp. oil extract compared to the classic anthelmintics (Rombendazol – Romvac and Dehelman – KRKA Slovenia at domestic poultry, whose parasitical status had been previously established through animal killing and necropsies. Parazitol and the pumpkin oil have had a lower efficacy than the levamisole and albendazole upon the species Ascaridia galli. Heterakis gallinarum was not affected by the pumpkin oil. Parazitol have a moderate efficacy (36%, while levamisole and albendazole were very efficient (100%. The treatments with albendazole upon the cestods belonging to the genus Raillietina have had a 100% efficacy. In cestods, Parazitol had a better efficacy (57% than the pumpkin oil (14%.

  8. Analyses and tests for the baking system of the RFX vacuum vessel by eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collarin, P.; Sonato, P.; Zaccaria, P.; Zollino, G.

    1995-01-01

    The electrical, thermal and mechanical analyses carried out for the design of a new baking system for RFX by eddy currents are presented. The results of an experimental test on RFX with low heating power are reported as well. They gave confidence in the numerical analyses so as the working conditions with the nominal heating power were computed. (orig.)

  9. Analyses and tests for the baking system of the RFX vacuum vessel by eddy currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collarin, P. [Gruppo di Padova per Ricerche sulla Fusione, Univ. di Padova (Italy); Sonato, P. [Gruppo di Padova per Ricerche sulla Fusione, Univ. di Padova (Italy); Zaccaria, P. [Gruppo di Padova per Ricerche sulla Fusione, Univ. di Padova (Italy); Zollino, G. [Gruppo di Padova per Ricerche sulla Fusione, Univ. di Padova (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    The electrical, thermal and mechanical analyses carried out for the design of a new baking system for RFX by eddy currents are presented. The results of an experimental test on RFX with low heating power are reported as well. They gave confidence in the numerical analyses so as the working conditions with the nominal heating power were computed. (orig.).

  10. High power test of RF window and coaxial line in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, D.; Champion, M.; Gormley, M.; Kerns, Q.; Koepke, K.; Moretti, A.

    1993-01-01

    Primary rf input couplers for the superconducting accelerating cavities of the TESLA electron linear accelerator test to be performed at DESY, Hamburg, Germany are under development at both DESY and Fermilab. The input couplers consist of a WR650 waveguide to coaxial line transition with an integral ceramic window, a coaxial connection to the superconducting accelerating cavity with a second ceramic window located at the liquid nitrogen heat intercept location, and bellows on both sides of the cold window to allow for cavity motion during cooldown, coupling adjustments and easier assembly. To permit in situ high peak power processing of the TESLA superconducting accelerating cavities, the input couplers are designed to transmit nominally 1 ms long, 2 MW peak, 1.3 GHz rf pulses from the WR650 waveguide at room temperature to the cavities at 1.8 K. The coaxial part of the Fermilab TESLA input coupler design has been tested up to 1.7 MW using the prototype 805 MHz rf source located at the A0 service building of the Tevatron. The rf source, the testing system and the test results are described

  11. Development and testing of bumper limiter of aluminum alloy vacuum vessel for reacting plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikawa, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Ioki, K.; Irie, T.; Nayama, R.; Nishikawa, M.; Onozuka, M.; Tomita, M.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of graphite bumper limiters were designed and trially fabricated for a reacting plasma device, R-tokamak. High heat load tests were conducted to examine thermal behavior and thermal shock resistance of the limiters by using a 100kW electron beam facility. The experimental data were compared with the results of 3-D thermal analysis

  12. Development and testing of bumper limiter of aluminum alloy vacuum vessel for reacting plasma experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchikawa, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Ioki, K.; Irie, T.; Nayama, R.; Nishikawa, M.; Onozuka, M.; Tomita, M.

    1985-07-01

    Two types of graphite bumper limiters were designed and trially fabricated for a reacting plasma device, R-tokamak. High heat load tests were conducted to examine thermal behavior and thermal shock resistance of the limiters by using a 100kW electron beam facility. The experimental data were compared with the results of 3-D thermal analysis.

  13. Tritium handling experience in vacuum systems at TSTA [Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.; Jenkins, E.M.; Walthers, C.R.; Yoshida, H.; Fukui, H.; Naruse, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Compound cryopumps have been added to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) integrated fusion fuel loop. Operations have been performed which closely simulate an actual fusion reactor pumping scenario. In addition, performance data have been taken that support the concept of using coconut charcoal as a sorbent at 4K for pumping helium. Later tests show that coconut charcoal may be used to co-pump D,T and He mixtures on a single 4K panel. Rotary spiral pumps have been used successfully in several applications at TSTA and have acquired more than 9000 hours of maintenance-free operation. Metal bellows pumps have been used to back the spiral pumps and have been relatively trouble free in loop operations. Bellows pumps also have more than 9000 hours of maintenance-free operation. 5 refs., 6 figs

  14. Modernization of NASA's Johnson Space Center Chamber: A Payload Transport Rail System to Support Cryogenic Vacuum Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sam; Homan, Jonathan; Speed, John

    2016-01-01

    NASA is the mission lead for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next of the "Great Observatories", scheduled for launch in 2018. It is directly responsible for the integration and test (I&T) program that will culminate in an end-to-end cryo vacuum optical test of the flight telescope and instrument module in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center. Historic Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center and one of the largest space simulation chambers in the world. Chamber A has undergone a major modernization effort to support the deep cryogenic, vacuum and cleanliness requirements for testing the JWST. This paper describe the challenges of developing, integrating and modifying new payload rails capable of transporting payloads within the thermal vacuum chamber up to 65,000 pounds. Ambient and Cryogenic Operations required to configure for testing will be explained. Lastly review historical payload configurations stretching from the Apollo program era to current James Webb Space Telescope testing.

  15. Modernization of NASA's Johnson Space Center Chamber: A Liquid Nitrogen System to Support Cryogenic Vacuum Optical Testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sammy; Homan, Jonathan; Montz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA is the mission lead for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), the next of the “Great Observatories”, scheduled for launch in 2018. It is directly responsible for the integration and test (I&T) program that will culminate in an end-to-end cryo vacuum optical test of the flight telescope and instrument module in Chamber A at NASA Johnson Space Center. Historic Chamber A is the largest thermal vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center and one of the largest space simulation chambers in the world. Chamber A has undergone a major modernization effort to support the deep cryogenic, vacuum and cleanliness requirements for testing the JWST. This paper describes the steps performed in efforts to convert the existing the 60’s era Liquid Nitrogen System from a forced flow (pumped) process to a natural circulation (thermo-siphon) process. In addition, the paper will describe the dramatic conservation of liquid nitrogen to support the long duration thermal vacuum testing. Lastly, describe the simplistic and effective control system which results in zero to minimal human inputs during steady state conditions.

  16. Cosmic vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernin, Artur D

    2001-01-01

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered. (reviews of topical problems)

  17. Cosmic vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernin, Artur D [P.K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute at the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-11-30

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered. (reviews of topical problems)

  18. Vacuum pumping concepts for ETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homeyer, W.G.

    1980-09-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) poses unique vacuum pumping requirements due to its large size and long burn characteristics. These requirements include torus vacuum pumping initially and between burns and pumping of neutralized gas from divertor collector chambers. It was found that the requirements could be met by compound cryopumps in which molecular sieve 5A is used as the cryosorbent. The pumps, ducts, and vacuum valves required are large but fit with other ETF components and do not require major advances in vacuum pumping technology. Several additional design, analytical, and experimental studies were identified as needed to optimize designs and provide better design definition for the ETF vacuum pumping systems

  19. Portable test bench for the studies concerning ion sources and ion beam extraction and focusing systems; Banco de pruebas portatil para el estudio de fuentes de iones y de la extraccion y enfoque del haz de iones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero Lopez, F

    1961-07-01

    A portable test bench is described, which was designed to check ion sources, ion beam extraction and focusing systems before its use in a 600 KeV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator. The vacuum possibilities of the system are specially analyzed in connection with its particular use. The whole can be considered as a portable accelerator of low energy (50 keV). (Author)

  20. Static and dynamic analyses on the MFTF [Mirror Fusion Test Facility]-B Axicell Vacuum Vessel System: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, D.S.

    1986-09-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a large-scale, tandem-mirror-fusion experiment. MFTF-B comprises many highly interconnected systems, including a magnet array and a vacuum vessel. The vessel, which houses the magnet array, is supported by reinforced concrete piers and steel frames resting on an array of foundations and surrounded by a 7-ft-thick concrete shielding vault. The Pittsburgh-Des Moines (PDM) Corporation, which was awarded the contract to design and construct the vessel, carried out fixed-base static and dynamic analyses of a finite-element model of the axicell vessel and magnet systems, including the simulation of various loading conditions and three postulated earthquake excitations. Meanwhile, LLNL monitored PDM's analyses with modeling studies of its own, and independently evaluated the structural responses of the vessel in order to define design criteria for the interface members and other project equipment. The assumptions underlying the finite-element model and the behavior of the axicell vessel are described in detail in this report, with particular emphasis placed on comparing the LLNL and PDM studies and on analyzing the fixed-base behavior with the soil-structure interaction, which occurs between the vessel and the massive concrete vault wall during a postulated seismic event. The structural members that proved sensitive to the soil effect are also reevaluated

  1. A proposal of ITER vacuum vessel fabrication specification and results of the full-scale partial mock-up test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takeda, Nobukazu; Onozuka, Masanori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Kakudate, Satoshi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    The structure and fabrication methods of the ITER vacuum vessel have been investigated and defined by the ITER international team. However, some of the current specifications are very difficult to be achieved from the manufacturing point of view and will lead to cost increase. In the mock-up fabrication, it is planned to conduct the following items: 1. Feasibility of the Japanese proposed VV structure and fabrication methods and the applicability to the ITER are to be confirmed; 2. Assembly procedure and inspection procedure are to be confirmed; 3. Manufacturing tolerances are to be assessed; 4. Manufacturing schedule is to be assessed. This report summarizes the Japanese proposed specification of the VV mock-up describing differences between the ITER supplied design. General scope of the mock-up fabrication and the detailed dimensions are also shown. In the VV fabrication, several types of weld joint configuration will be used. This report shows the joint configurations proposed by Japan to be used for the inner shell connection, the rib-to-shell connection and outer shell connection, and the housing-to-shell connection, respectively. Non-destructive testing considered to be applied to each joint configuration is also presented. A series of the fabrication and assembly procedures for the mock-up are presented in this report, together with candidates of welding configurations. Finally, the report summarizes the results of mock-up fabrication, including results of nondestructive examination of weld lines, obtained welding deformation and issues revealed from the fabrication experience. (orig.)

  2. Determination of diffusion coefficients of hydrogen and deuterium in Zr–2.5%Nb pressure tube material using hot vacuum extraction-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, Komal Chandra, E-mail: komal@barc.gov.in [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kulkarni, A.S.; Ramanjaneyulu, P.S. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sunil, Saurav [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Saxena, M.K. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.N. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tomar, B.S.; Ramakumar, K.L. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The diffusion coefficients of hydrogen and deuterium in Zr–2.5%Nb alloy were measured in the temperature range 523 to 673 K, employing hot vacuum extraction-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HVE-QMS). One end of the Zr–2.5%Nb alloy specimens was charged electrolytically with the desired hydrogen isotope. After annealing at different temperatures for a predetermined time, the specimens were cut into thin slices, which were analyzed for their H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} content using the HVE-QMS technique. The depth profile data were fitted into the equation representing the solution of Fick’s second law of diffusion. The activation energy of hydrogen/deuterium diffusion was obtained from the Arrhenius relation between the diffusion coefficient and temperature. The temperature dependent diffusion coefficient can be represented as D{sub H} = 1.41 × 10{sup −7} exp(−36,000/RT) and D{sub D} = 6.16 × 10{sup −8} exp(−35,262/RT) for hydrogen and deuterium, respectively.

  3. Development and test of a cryocatcher-prototype for the control of the dynamic vacuum in SIS100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozyk, Lars

    2012-01-01

    In the FAIR project (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, high intensity heavy ion beams will be provided by the superconducting synchrotron SIS100. Medium charge state ions will be used instead of high charge state ions. The medium charge state ions on the one hand shift the space charge limit towards higher intensities and, on the other hand, avoid intensity losses in stripper stages. The most demanding challenges in the operation with medium charge state heavy ions are beam losses due to charge exchange in collisions with residual gas molecules. Further ionized ions are separated from the circulating beam and get lost on the chamber wall, while releasing a big amount of gas via ion stimulated desorption. The local pressure rise increases the probability for further charge exchange of beam ions, and a self-amplification can evolve. This process may result in a complete beam loss. One way to damp this amplification is given by the installation of ion-catchers or collimators, which ensure perpendicular loss on special low desorbing surfaces at the positions of beam loss. The ion optical lattice of the SIS100 of the FAIR accelerator complex has been optimized for the usage of collimators. Almost 100% of the ionization losses can be caught by the ion-catcher system. In the arcs of the synchrotron, a total of 60 ion-catchers is located between the superconducting quadrupoles in a cryogenic environment. This thesis adresses the development, the construction, and the test of a cryocatcher prototype. In SIS18, an ion-catcher system has been installed successfully. In this work it is compared to the ion-catcher system of SIS100, and different measurements with the existing system are presented. Based on the requirements for the new system, the collimator block and its support structure, as well as the surrounding cryogenic, copper plated vacuum chamber is described. The cold surface of the vacuum chamber acts

  4. Accelerated Shelf Life Testing of Jackfruit Extract Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enny Hawani Loebis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jackfruit is a potential tropical fruit as raw material for food industry. Jackfruit could be processed by co-crystallization technique to extend its shelf life and increase its value. This research was conducted to study and to determine the shelf life of jackfruit powder extract. Shelf life test is conducted using variety of treatments such as: anti-caking types and temperature storage. The results showed that the shelf life of the jackfruit extract powder using anti-caking of magnesium oxide (MO, magnesium carbonate (MC, dan magnesium silicate (MS, which is store in the temperature of 27°C, were: 8.06, 5.42, and 5.5 months respectively. The variation of anti-caking type was significantly affect the product shelf life.  The effect of storage temperature on the product shelf life is more significant for the product using anti-caking MO compared with product using anti-caking MC and MS.

  5. Standardization of food allergen extracts for skin prick test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Skov, P S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to standardize and evaluate technically optimized food allergen extracts for use in skin prick test (SPT). The standardization procedure comprised 36 allergic histories in 32 food allergic patients with 21 healthy, non-atopic individuals serving as controls. The patients...... had a history of allergic symptoms upon ingestion of either cow's milk (n=3), hen's egg (n=9), wheat (n=4), hazelnut (n=14) or cod (n=6). They also had specific IgE in serum to the food in question and a positive SPT with a fresh preparation of the food. The diagnosis had been confirmed by a double......-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, except for the hazelnut-allergic patients. The controls were subjected to an open food challenge with all the foods to ensure tolerance. The standardization was performed by means of titrated SPT in accordance with the guidelines on biological standardization from...

  6. The Use of the Molecular Adsorber Coating Technology to Mitigate Vacuum Chamber Contamination During Pathfinder Testing for the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Wooldridge, Eve M.; Henderson-Nelson, Kelly A.

    2016-01-01

    As a coating made of highly porous zeolite materials, the Molecular Adsorber Coating (MAC) was developed to capture outgassed molecular contaminants, such as hydrocarbons and silicones. For spaceflight applications, the adsorptive capabilities of the coating can alleviate on-orbit outgassing concerns on or near sensitive surfaces and instruments within the spacecraft. Similarly, this sprayable paint technology has proven to be significantly beneficial for ground based space applications, in particular, for vacuum chamber environments. This paper describes the recent use of the MAC technology during Pathfinder testing of the Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The coating was used as a mitigation tool to entrap persistent outgassed contaminants, specifically silicone based diffusion pump oil, from within JSC's cryogenic optical vacuum chamber test facility called Chamber A. This paper summarizes the sample fabrication, installation, laboratory testing, post-test chemical analysis results, and future plans for the MAC technology, which was effectively used to protect the JWST test equipment from vacuum chamber contamination.

  7. Preliminary test of remote manual instrumentation & control type system for vacuum unit of 350 KeV / 10 mA electron beam machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyanto

    2003-01-01

    Remote manual instrumentation & control type for vacuum unit of 350 KeV/10 mA Electron Beam Machine is being completed. The system consisting of a remote manual controlled and a remote acquisition system. A remote manual (50 m) controlled is based on the on/off status of 220 Volt terminal supply for pneumatic valves and vacuum pumps, in this case the power supply switch of pneumatic valves and pumps have already been selected On. Remote acquisition of vacuum level can be done by using a CCTV camera which is place in front of the panning gauge and TGP.300 Balzer unit.The CCTV system equipped with 6 cameras, one TV monitor and a multiplexer unit to arranged a selected picture on it. One of the camera was mounted on the rotator unit, it can be controlled (rotating left / right) for different monitoring orientations required by using infrared controller. A trial test of the remote manual control system for vacuum unit of the Electron Beam Machine showed a good performance. (author)

  8. Vacuum gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, B.D.; Priestland, C.R.D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to vacuum gauges, particularly of the type known as Penning gauges, which are cold cathode ionisation gauges, in which a magnetic field is used to lengthen the electron path and thereby increase the number of ions produced. (author)

  9. Multi-contaminant analysis of organophosphate and halogenated flame retardants in food matrices using ultrasonication and vacuum assisted extraction, multi-stage cleanup and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuchao; García-Bermejo, Ángel; Malarvannan, Govindan; Gómara, Belén; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-07-03

    A multi-residue analytical method was developed for the determination of a range of flame retardants (FRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging halogenated FRs (EFRs) and organophosphate FRs (PFRs), in food matrices. An ultrasonication and vacuum assisted extraction (UVAE), followed by a multi-stage clean-up procedure, enabled the removal of up to 1g of lipid from 2.5 g of freeze-dried food samples and significantly reduce matrix effects. UVAE achieves a waste factor (WF) of about 10%, while the WFs of classical QuEChERS methods range usually between 50 and 90%. The low WF of UVAE leads to a dramatic improvement in the sensitivity along with saving up to 90% of spiking (internal) standards. Moreover, a two-stage clean-up on Florisil and aminopropyl silica was introduced after UVAE, for an efficient removal of pigments and residual lipids, which led to cleaner extracts than normally achieved by dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE). In this way, the extracts could be concentrated to low volumes, e.g. analysis of PFRs was performed on GC-EI-MS, while PBDEs and EFRs were measured by GC-ECNI-MS. Validation tests were performed with three food matrices (lean beef, whole chicken egg and salmon filet), obtaining acceptable recoveries (66-135%) with good repeatability (RSD 1-24%, mean 7%). Method LOQs ranged between 0.008 and 0.04 ng/g dw for PBDEs, between 0.08 and 0.20 ng/g dw for EFRs, and between 1.4 and 3.6 ng/g dw for PFRs. The method was further applied to eight types of food samples (including meat, eggs, fish, and seafood) with lipid contents ranging from 0.1 to 22%. Various FRs were detected above MLOQ levels, demonstrating the wide-range applicability of our method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method reported for simultaneous analysis of brominated and organophosphate FRs in food matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy efficiency analysis of steam ejector and electric vacuum pump for a turbine condenser air extraction system based on supervised machine learning modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strušnik, Dušan; Marčič, Milan; Golob, Marjan; Hribernik, Aleš; Živić, Marija; Avsec, Jurij

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam ejector pump and electric liquid ring vacuum pump are analysed and modelled. • A supervised machine learning models by using real process data are applied. • The equation of ejector pumped mass flow from steam turbine condenser was solved. • The loss of specific energy capable of work in a SEPS or LRVP component was analysed. • The economic efficiency analysis per different coal heating values was made. - Abstract: This paper compares the vapour ejector and electric vacuum pump power consumptions with machine learning algorithms by using real process data and presents some novelty guideline for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pump system of a steam turbine power plant. The machine learning algorithms are made by using the supervised machine learning methods such as artificial neural network model and local linear neuro-fuzzy models. The proposed non-linear models are designed by using a wide range of real process operation data sets from the CHP system in the thermal power plant. The novelty guideline for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pumps system is expressed in the comparative analysis of the energy consumption and use of specific energy capable of work. Furthermore, the novelty is expressed in the economic efficiency analysis of the investment taking into consideration the operating costs of the vacuum pump systems and may serve as basic guidelines for the selection of an appropriate condenser vacuum pump system of a steam turbine.

  11. Testing the reliability of information extracted from ancient zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielman, Ross; Whitehouse, Martin; Nemchin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Studies combining zircon U-Pb chronology, trace element distribution as well as O and Hf isotope systematics are a powerful way to gain understanding of the processes shaping Earth's evolution, especially in detrital populations where constraints from the original host are missing. Such studies of the Hadean detrital zircon population abundant in sedimentary rocks in Western Australia have involved analysis of an unusually large number of individual grains, but also highlighted potential problems with the approach, only apparent when multiple analyses are obtained from individual grains. A common feature of the Hadean as well as many early Archaean zircon populations is their apparent inhomogeneity, which reduces confidence in conclusions based on studies combining chemistry and isotopic characteristics of zircon. In order to test the reliability of information extracted from early Earth zircon, we report results from one of the first in-depth multi-method study of zircon from a relatively simple early Archean magmatic rock, used as an analogue to ancient detrital zircon. The approach involves making multiple SIMS analyses in individual grains in order to be comparable to the most advanced studies of detrital zircon populations. The investigated sample is a relatively undeformed, non-migmatitic ca. 3.8 Ga tonalite collected a few kms south of the Isua Greenstone Belt, southwest Greenland. Extracted zircon grains can be combined into three different groups based on the behavior of their U-Pb systems: (i) grains that show internally consistent and concordant ages and define an average age of 3805±15 Ma, taken to be the age of the rock, (ii) grains that are distributed close to the concordia line, but with significant variability between multiple analyses, suggesting an ancient Pb loss and (iii) grains that have multiple analyses distributed along a discordia pointing towards a zero intercept, indicating geologically recent Pb-loss. This overall behavior has

  12. Extraction, Scrub, and Strip Test Results for the Salt Waste Processing Facility Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges. This revision was created to correct an error. The previous revision used an incorrect set of temperature correction coefficients which resulted in slight deviations from the correct D(Cs) results.

  13. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the salt waste processing facility caustic side solvent extraction solvent example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.9, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  14. Testing of improved polyimide actuator rod seals at high temperature and under vacuum conditions for use in advanced aircraft hydraulic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellereite, B. K.; Waterman, A. W.; Nelson, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Polyimide second-stage rod seals were evaluated to determine their suitability for applications in space station environments. The 6.35-cm (2.5-in.)K-section seal was verified for thermal cycling operation between room temperature and 478 K (400 F) and for operation in a 133 micron PA(0.000001 mm Hg) vacuum environment. The test seal completed the scheduled 96 thermal cycles and 1438 hr in vacuum with external rod seal leakage well within the maximum allowable of two drops per 25 actuation cycles. At program completion, the seals showed no signs of structural degradation. Posttest inspection showed the seals retained a snug fit against the shaft and housing walls, indicating additional wear life capability. Evaluation of a molecular flow section during vacuum testing, to inhibit fluid loss through vaporization, showed it to be beneficial with MIL-H-5606, a petroleum-base fluid, in comparison with MIL-H-83282, a synthetic hydrocarbon-base fluid.

  15. Detecting leaks in vacuum bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    Small leaks in vacuum bag can be readily detected by eye, using simple chemical reaction: combination of ammonia and acetic acid vapors to produce cloudy white smoke. Technique has been successfully used to test seam integrity and to identify minute pinholes in vacuum bag used in assembly of ceramic-tile heat shield for Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  16. The electric dipole moment of the nucleon from simulations at imaginary vacuum angle theta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S. [RIKEN-BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton (United States)]|[Tsukuba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences; Horsley, R.; Zanotti, J. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Izubuchi, T. [RIKEN-BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton (United States)]|[Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Nakamura, Y.; Pleiter, D.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division. Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    2008-07-15

    We compute the electric dipole moment of proton and neutron from lattice QCD simulations with N{sub f}=2 flavors of dynamical quarks at imaginary vacuum angle {theta}. The calculation proceeds via the CP odd form factor F{sub 3}. A novel feature of our calculation is that we use partially twisted boundary conditions to extract F{sub 3} at zero momentum transfer. As a byproduct, we test the QCD vacuum at nonvanishing {theta}. (orig.)

  17. Aluminium, extractable from soil samples by the acid ammonium acetate soil-testing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Mäkitie

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available The extractant, 0.5 M acetic acid –0.5 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.65, which is used in soil-testing, extracts relatively high amounts of aluminium from acid soils. The mean values of acetate-extractable aluminium at pH 4.65, 1.75 meq Al/100 g of soil, and of exchangeable aluminium (M KCI extraction, 0.41 meq Al were obtained from a material of 30 samples of acid soils (Table 2. Several other acetic acid ammonium acetate extractants, from M acetic acid to M ammonium acetate solution were also used for studying the extractability of soil aluminium. The soil-testing extractant can be used for the estimation of the soluble amounts of aluminium in acid soils, however, further studies are needed for a better interpretation of the ammonium acetate extractable (at pH 4.65 aluminium in our soils.

  18. Regulating vacuum pump speed with feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludington, D.C.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Pellerin, R.; Guo, F.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable energy is wasted by the vacuum pump/motor on dairy farms. The output capacity (m 3 /min or cfm) of the vacuum pump always exceeds the capacity needed to milk cows and wash pipelines. Vacuum pumps run at full speed and load regardless of actual need for air. Excess air is admitted through a controller. Energy can be saved from electrical demand reduced by regulating vacuum pump speed according to air based on air usage. An adjustable speed drive (ASD) on the motor and controlled based upon air usage, can reduce the energy used by the vacuum pump. However, the ASD unit tested could not maintain vacuum levels within generally accepted guidelines when air usage changed. Adding a high vacuum reserve and a dual vacuum controller between the vacuum pump and the milking pipeline brought vacuum stability within guidelines. The ASD/dual vacuum system can reduce energy consumption and demand by at least 50 percent during milking and provide better vacuum stability than conventional systems. Tests were not run during washing cycles. Using 1990 costs and only the energy saved during milking, the simple payback on investment in new equipment for a 5 hp motor, speed controller and vacuum regulator would be about 5 years

  19. Research on vacuum insulation for cryocables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graneau, P.

    1974-01-01

    Vacuum insulation, as compared with solid insulation, simplifies the construction of both resistive or superconducting cryogenic cables. The common vacuum space in the cable can furnish thermal insulation between the environment and the cryogenic coolant, provide electrical insulation between conductors, and establish thermal isolation between go- and return-coolant streams. The differences between solid and vacuum high voltage insulation are discussed, and research on the design, materials selection, and testing of vacuum insulated cryogenic cables is described

  20. Hadron Contribution to Vacuum Polarisation

    CERN Document Server

    Davier, M; Malaescu, B; Zhang, Z

    2016-01-01

    Precision tests of the Standard Theory require theoretical predictions taking into account higher-order quantum corrections. Among these vacuum polarisation plays a predominant role. Vacuum polarisation originates from creation and annihilation of virtual particle–antiparticle states. Leptonic vacuum polarisation can be computed from quantum electrodynamics. Hadronic vacuum polarisation cannot because of the non-perturbative nature of QCD at low energy. The problem is remedied by establishing dispersion relations involving experimental data on the cross section for e+ e− annihilation into hadrons. This chapter sets the theoretical and experimental scene and reviews the progress achieved in the last decades thanks to more precise and complete data sets. Among the various applications of hadronic vacuum polarisation calculations, two are emphasised: the contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the running of the fine structure constant α to the Z mass scale. They are fundamental ingre...

  1. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  2. A proposal of ITER vacuum vessel fabrication specification and results of the full-scale partial mock-up test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, M.; Takeda, N.; Kakudate, S.; Onozuka, M.

    2008-01-01

    The structure and fabrication methods of the ITER vacuum vessel (VV) have been investigated and defined by the ITER International Team (IT). However, some of the current technical specifications are difficult to be achieved from the manufacturing point of view. To solve such an issue, this paper proposes an alternative specification of the VV to the IT's design. A series of the fabrication and assembly procedures for the mock-up are presented, together with candidates of welding configurations. Finally, the paper summarizes the results of mock-up fabrication, such as non-destructive examination of weld lines, obtained welding deformation and issues revealed from the fabrication experience. Based on the results, it is suggested that several issues such as clarification of conditions of repair welding, demonstration of welding distortion control and detectability/localization of internal defects should be solved before manufacturing the ITER VV

  3. A proposal of ITER vacuum vessel fabrication specification and results of the full-scale partial mock-up test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahira, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukouyama 801-1, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)], E-mail: nakahira.masataka@jaea.go.jp; Takeda, N.; Kakudate, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukouyama 801-1, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Nuclear Energy Systems, Inc., 1700K Street NW, Suite 440, Washington, DC 20006 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The structure and fabrication methods of the ITER vacuum vessel (VV) have been investigated and defined by the ITER International Team (IT). However, some of the current technical specifications are difficult to be achieved from the manufacturing point of view. To solve such an issue, this paper proposes an alternative specification of the VV to the IT's design. A series of the fabrication and assembly procedures for the mock-up are presented, together with candidates of welding configurations. Finally, the paper summarizes the results of mock-up fabrication, such as non-destructive examination of weld lines, obtained welding deformation and issues revealed from the fabrication experience. Based on the results, it is suggested that several issues such as clarification of conditions of repair welding, demonstration of welding distortion control and detectability/localization of internal defects should be solved before manufacturing the ITER VV.

  4. Effects of seasonal and well construction variables on soil vapor extraction pilot tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.; Hudon, N.; Bass, D.

    1995-01-01

    The selection and design of an effective soil vapor extraction system is dependent upon data generated from pilot testing. Therefore, it is critical to understand factors that may affect the testing prior to selecting or designing a system. In Sebago Lake Village, Maine, two adjacent gasoline stations experienced a release. Gasoline migrated through fine sand into the groundwater and discharged to a small stream. Soil vapor extraction was investigated as a remedial alternative to reduce volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated soil. Three soil vapor extraction pilot tests were performed at one of the sites and one test at the other site. The results of the testing varied. Data collected during a summer test indicated soil vapor extraction was less likely to work. The wells tested were installed using an excavator. An adequate surface seal was not present in any of the tested wells. An additional test was performed in the winter using wells installed by a drill rig. Winter test results indicated that soil vapor extraction could be effective. Another test was performed after a horizontal soil vapor extraction system with a surface seal was installed. The results of this testing indicated that soil vapor extraction was more effective than predicted by the earlier tests. Tests performed on the other property indicated that the horizontal wells were more effective than the vertical wells. Testing results were affected by the well installation method, well construction, proximity to manmade structures, and the season in which testing was performed. Understanding factors that affect the testing is critical in selecting and designing the system

  5. A micro hot test of the Chalmers-GANEX extraction system on used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauhn, L.; Hedberg, M.; Aneheim, E.; Ekberg, C.; Loefstroem-Engdahl, E.; Skarnemark, G. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivaegen 4, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, a 'micro hot test' has been performed using the Chalmers-GANEX (Group Actinide Extraction) system for partitioning of used nuclear fuel. The test included a pre-extraction step using N,N-di-2- ethylhexyl-butyramide (DEHBA) in n-octanol to remove the bulk part of the uranium. This pre-extraction was followed by a group extraction of actinides using the mixture of TBP and CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP in cyclohexanone as suggested in the Chalmers-GANEX process, and a three stage stripping of the extracted actinides. Distribution ratios for the extractions and stripping were determined based on a combination of γ- and α-spectrometry, as well as ICP-MS measurements. Successful extraction of uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides neptunium, americium and curium was achieved. However, measurements also indicated that co-extraction of europium occurs to some extent during the separation. These results were expected based on previous experiments using trace concentrations of actinides and lanthanides. Since this test was only performed in one stage with respect to the group actinide extraction, it is expected that multi stage tests will give even better results. (authors)

  6. Evacuation of the NET vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Parametric calculations of the evacuation process were carried out for the NET-vacuum chamber involving two blanket designs. The results show that with an acceptable vacuum pumping capacity the required start vacuum conditions can be realized within reasonable time. The two blanket concepts do not differ remarkably in their evacuation behaviour. The remaining large pressure differences between the different locations of the vacuum chamber can be reduced if approximately 30% of the total gas flow is extracted from the heads of the blanket replacement ports

  7. Evacuation of the NET vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.

    1986-01-01

    Parametric calculations of the evacuation process were carried out for the NET-vacuum chamber involving two blanket designs. The results show that with an acceptable vacuum pumping capacity the required start vacuum conditions can be realized within reasonable time. The two blanket concepts do not differ remarkably in their evacuation behaviour. The remaining large pressure differences between the different locations of the vacuum chamber can be reduced if approximately 30% of the total gas flow is extracted from the heads of the blanket replacement ports. (author)

  8. Leybold vacuum handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Diels, K; Diels, Kurt

    1966-01-01

    Leybold Vacuum Handbook presents a collection of data sets that are essential for numerical calculation of vacuum plants and vacuum processes. The title first covers vacuum physics, which includes gas kinetics, flow phenomena, vacuum gauges, and vapor removal. Next, the selection presents data on vacuum, high vacuum process technology, and gas desorption and gettering. The text also deals with materials, vapor pressure, boiling and melting points, and gas permeability. The book will be of great interest to engineers and technicians that deals with vacuum related technologies.

  9. Pengaruh unsur Tembaga (Cu terhadap fluiditas paduan Al-Si 11.8 wt% (ADC 12 dengan metode Vacuum Suction Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Suharno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Al-Si 11.8 wt% alloy which classified to eutectic Al-Si composition usually used to produce a flat casting product with high pressure die casting process. Alloying element become an important things to determine behavior and characteristic of aluminum. Copper added into aluminum to improve strength and hardness, but there has no many studies on the effect of copper on fluidity. This fluidity study is using vacuum suction test method and the microstructure is observed with SEM/EDS. Spectrometer test has been used to find out chemical composition of sample. The result of this study shows that with copper addition from 2.25 wt% to 3.11 wt%, the fluidity value has increased 24.11% on 680oC pouring temperature. On 3.11 wt% copper composition, fluidity value has increased 14.38% from 640oC pouring temperature to 700oC pouring temperature.

  10. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1-1/2 in. inner pipe size, 3 in. vacuum jacket, and 4 in. inner pipe size, 6 in. vacuum jacket The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 in. and 6 in. pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year

  11. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1 1/2 inches inner pipe size, 3 inches vacuum jacket, and 4 inches inner pipe size, 6 inches vacuum jacket. The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 inch and 6 inch pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year

  12. On the problem of nonsense correlations in allergological tests after routine extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijckaert, G

    1981-01-01

    The influence of extraction procedures and culturing methods of material used for the preparation of allergenic extracts on correlation patterns found in allergological testing (skin test and RAST) was investigated. In our laboratory a short extraction procedure performed at O degrees C was used for Aspergillus repens. A. penicilloides, Wallemia sebi, their rearing media and non-inoculated medium. For the commercially available extracts from house dust, house-dust mite, pollen of Dactylus glomerata and A. penicilloides a longer procedure (several days) performed at room temperature was used. Statistical analysis showed a separation of all test results into two clusters, each cluster being composed of correlations between extracts from only one the manufacturers did not show any correlation. The correlations found between the short time incubated extracts of the xerophilic fungi and their rearing media could be explained by genetical and biochemical relationships between these fungi depending on ecological conditions. However, while the correlation found between house dust and house-dust mite is understandable, correlations found between long time incubated extracts from house-dust mite and D. glomerata or A. penicilloides may be nonsense correlations, that do not adequately describe the in vivo situation. The similarity of these extracts is presumably artificially created during extraction.

  13. Nonperturbative QED vacuum birefringence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, V.I.; Dolgaya, E.E.; Sokolov, V.A. [Physics Department, Moscow State University,Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-19

    In this paper we represent nonperturbative calculation for one-loop Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) vacuum birefringence in presence of strong magnetic field. The dispersion relations for electromagnetic wave propagating in strong magnetic field point to retention of vacuum birefringence even in case when the field strength greatly exceeds Sauter-Schwinger limit. This gives a possibility to extend some predictions of perturbative QED such as electromagnetic waves delay in pulsars neighbourhood or wave polarization state changing (tested in PVLAS) to arbitrary magnetic field values. Such expansion is especially important in astrophysics because magnetic fields of some pulsars and magnetars greatly exceed quantum magnetic field limit, so the estimates of perturbative QED effects in this case require clarification.

  14. Design and fabrication of the vacuum systems for TPS pulsed septum magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. K.; Chang, C. C.; Chen, C. L.; Yang, C. S.; Chen, C. S.; Lin, F. Y.; Chen, J. R.

    2014-11-01

    Three in-air pulsed septum magnets were developed to inject and extract electron beams for the 3 GeV synchrotron facility, the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS). The vacuum chamber is a novel combined aluminium-stainless steel design, using a bimetallic flange to connect the two material types. To evaluate the vacuum performances of these vacuum chambers, we set up a test bench at which we simultaneously measure the rates of thermal outgassing of the aluminium chamber and the septum tube with a throughput method. The test result indicates that the rate q72 of thermal outgassing measured after 1 day from baking at 150 °C was 1×10-13 mbar L s-1 cm-2. The magnetic leakage measurements show the combination of conductor slitting, magnetic shielding and the aluminium vacuum chamber reduce the peak value of the leakage field integral to ~10 G cm along the trajectory of the stored beam.

  15. MEA vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroo, R.; Schwebke, H.; Heine, E.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes construction and operation of the MEA vacuum system of NIKHEF (Netherlands). First, the klystron vacuum system, beam transport system, diode pump and a triode pump are described. Next, the isolation valve and the fast valves of the vacuum system are considered. Measuring instruments, vacuum system commands and messages of failures are treated in the last chapter. (G.J.P.)

  16. Vacuum system for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the proposed vacuum system for the planned ISABELLE storage rings with respect to acceptability and practicality from the vacuum viewport. A comparison is made between the proposed vacuum system and the vacuum system at the CERN ISR, and some comments on various design and operational parameters are made

  17. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10 -5 to 10 -11 Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components

  18. Formulation and Physical Test of Ethanolic Extract Sambiloto Leaves (Andrographis paniculata Ointment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indri Kusuma Dewi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Andrographis paniculata had known contained active substance such as andrographolida, atsiri oil, flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, and saponin which functions as antibacterial, antitoxic, analgesic, and anti-pyretic. Based on its antibacterial properties, an ointment form of Andrographis paniculata leaf is then formulated, for practical usage. Ointment formula is semi solid for topical use in the skin or mucosal membranes. Objectives: to know the result of ointment physical test of etanolic extract Andrographis paniculata leaf. Methods: physical tests contain organoleptic test, pH, homogenity, adhesion test and dispersive test. Results: Ointment shaped semi solid, blacky green and special smell of Andrographis paniculata, pH 6, homogenity test obtained homogenous results, adhesion test was 82 second and dispersive test was 5.6 cm. Conclusion: the result of physical tests of etanolic Andrographis paniculata leaf extract ointment appropriate with quality standard.

  19. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the solvent transfer to salt waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared approximately 240 gallons of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for use at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of the prepared solvent using a salt solution prepared by Parsons to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams. This data will be used by Parsons to help qualify the solvent for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 15.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  20. Field Test Design Simulations of Pore-Water Extraction for the SX Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A proof of principle test of pore water extraction is being performed by Washington River Protection Solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection. This test is being conducted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M 045-20, and is described in RPP-PLAN-53808, 200 West Area Tank Farms Interim Measures Investigation Work Plan. To support design of this test, numerical simulations were conducted to help define equipment and operational parameters. The modeling effort builds from information collected in laboratory studies and from field characterization information collected at the test site near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate pore-water extraction performance as a function of the test site properties and for the type of extraction well configuration that can be constructed using the direct-push installation technique. Output of simulations included rates of water and soil-gas production as a function of operational conditions for use in supporting field equipment design. The simulations also investigated the impact of subsurface heterogeneities in sediment properties and moisture distribution on pore-water extraction performance. Phenomena near the extraction well were also investigated because of their importance for pore-water extraction performance.

  1. Papaver Rhoeas L. Hydroalcoholic Extract Exacerbates Forced Swimming Test-Induced Depression in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanloo, Naser; Najafi-Abedi, Akram; Jafari, Fatemeh; Javid, Farshid; Pirpiran, Mohsen; Memar Jafari, Mohammad-Reza; Mousavi Khosravi, Seyed Ali; Rahimzadeh Behzadi, Mohammad; Ranjbaran, Mina; Sahraei, Hedayat

    2016-07-01

    Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the world with occurs with higher incidence in women. In the present study, the effect of water-alcoholic extract of Papaver rhoeas L. on forced swimming test (FST) in Swiss-Webster mice were examined. We used Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g) to execute FST on them. The plant extract (1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) was injected to the animals 30 minutes before each session. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) was used as standard antidepressant drug. In another group of animals, 30 minutes after extract administration, blood samples were taken from retro-orbital sinus for corticosterone assay. Yet in third group, the drugs were injected to the animals and 30 minutes later, their activities were tested in an open field apparatus. Our experiments showed that the extract efficiently reduced FST time both in male and female mice dose-dependently. This effect was comparable with fluoxetine. In addition, corticosterone assay indicated that plasma corticosterone in animals which received extract was higher than those amounts in fluoxetine and saline controls. Moreover, the animals did not show any motor activity deficit in all doses of the extract and fluoxetine compared to saline control. The extract of Papaver rhoeas can reduce immobility time which is comparable to the effect of fluoxetine. Also the effect of the extract is contrary to its effects on plasma corticosterone level and or animals' activity.

  2. CMOS-MEMS Test-Key for Extracting Wafer-Level Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Zen Chang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops the technologies of mechanical characterization of CMOS-MEMS devices, and presents a robust algorithm for extracting mechanical properties, such as Young’s modulus, and mean stress, through the external electrical circuit behavior of the micro test-key. An approximate analytical solution for the pull-in voltage of bridge-type test-key subjected to electrostatic load and initial stress is derived based on Euler’s beam model and the minimum energy method. Then one can use the aforesaid closed form solution of the pull-in voltage to extract the Young’s modulus and mean stress of the test structures. The test cases include the test-key fabricated by a TSMC 0.18 μm standard CMOS process, and the experimental results refer to Osterberg’s work on the pull-in voltage of single crystal silicone microbridges. The extracted material properties calculated by the present algorithm are valid. Besides, this paper also analyzes the robustness of this algorithm regarding the dimension effects of test-keys. This mechanical properties extracting method is expected to be applicable to the wafer-level testing in micro-device manufacture and compatible with the wafer-level testing in IC industry since the test process is non-destructive.

  3. ITER diagnostic system: Vacuum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K.M.; Udintsev, V.S.; Hughes, S.; Walker, C.I.; Andrew, P.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L.; Drevon, J.M.; Encheva, A.; Kashchuk, Y.; Maquet, Ph.; Pearce, R.; Taylor, N.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostics play an essential role for the successful operation of the ITER tokamak. They provide the means to observe control and to measure plasma during the operation of ITER tokamak. The components of the diagnostic system in the ITER tokamak will be installed in the vacuum vessel, in the cryostat, in the upper, equatorial and divertor ports, in the divertor cassettes and racks, as well as in various buildings. Diagnostic components that are placed in a high radiation environment are expected to operate for the life of ITER. There are approx. 45 diagnostic systems located on ITER. Some diagnostics incorporate direct or independently pumped extensions to maintain their necessary vacuum conditions. They require a base pressure less than 10 −7 Pa, irrespective of plasma operation, and a leak rate of less than 10 −10 Pa m 3 s −1 . In all the cases it is essential to maintain the ITER closed fuel cycle. These directly coupled diagnostic systems are an integral part of the ITER vacuum containment and are therefore subject to the same design requirements for tritium and active gas confinement, for all normal and accidental conditions. All the diagnostics, whether or not pumped, incorporate penetration of the vacuum boundary (i.e. window assembly, vacuum feedthrough etc.) and demountable joints. Monitored guard volumes are provided for all elements of the vacuum boundary that are judged to be vulnerable by virtue of their construction, material, load specification etc. Standard arrangements are made for their construction and for the monitoring, evacuating and leak testing of these volumes. Diagnostic systems are incorporated at more than 20 ports on ITER. This paper will describe typical and particular arrangements of pumped diagnostic and monitored guard volume. The status of the diagnostic vacuum systems, which are at the start of their detailed design, will be outlined and the specific features of the vacuum systems in ports and extensions will be described

  4. ITER diagnostic system: Vacuum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, K.M., E-mail: Kaushal.Patel@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Udintsev, V.S.; Hughes, S.; Walker, C.I.; Andrew, P.; Barnsley, R.; Bertalot, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Drevon, J.M. [Bertin Technologies, BP 22, 13762 Aix-en Provence cedex 3 (France); Encheva, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Kashchuk, Y. [Institution “PROJECT CENTER ITER”, 1, Akademika Kurchatova pl., Moscow (Russian Federation); Maquet, Ph. [Bertin Technologies, BP 22, 13762 Aix-en Provence cedex 3 (France); Pearce, R.; Taylor, N.; Vayakis, G.; Walsh, M.J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Diagnostics play an essential role for the successful operation of the ITER tokamak. They provide the means to observe control and to measure plasma during the operation of ITER tokamak. The components of the diagnostic system in the ITER tokamak will be installed in the vacuum vessel, in the cryostat, in the upper, equatorial and divertor ports, in the divertor cassettes and racks, as well as in various buildings. Diagnostic components that are placed in a high radiation environment are expected to operate for the life of ITER. There are approx. 45 diagnostic systems located on ITER. Some diagnostics incorporate direct or independently pumped extensions to maintain their necessary vacuum conditions. They require a base pressure less than 10{sup −7} Pa, irrespective of plasma operation, and a leak rate of less than 10{sup −10} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup −1}. In all the cases it is essential to maintain the ITER closed fuel cycle. These directly coupled diagnostic systems are an integral part of the ITER vacuum containment and are therefore subject to the same design requirements for tritium and active gas confinement, for all normal and accidental conditions. All the diagnostics, whether or not pumped, incorporate penetration of the vacuum boundary (i.e. window assembly, vacuum feedthrough etc.) and demountable joints. Monitored guard volumes are provided for all elements of the vacuum boundary that are judged to be vulnerable by virtue of their construction, material, load specification etc. Standard arrangements are made for their construction and for the monitoring, evacuating and leak testing of these volumes. Diagnostic systems are incorporated at more than 20 ports on ITER. This paper will describe typical and particular arrangements of pumped diagnostic and monitored guard volume. The status of the diagnostic vacuum systems, which are at the start of their detailed design, will be outlined and the specific features of the vacuum systems in ports and extensions

  5. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  6. EKSTRAKSI MINYAK ATSIRI KULIT JERUK MANIS DENGAN METODE VACUUM MICROWAVE ASISSTED HYDRODISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megawati Megawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to extract essential oil of sweet orange peel (Citrus sinensis using vacuum microwave assisted hydrodistillation (VMAHD method. The operation condition was at various orange peel mass (50, 100, and 150 g and extraction times (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 min. The volume of water as solvent was about 300 mL. Before extraction, analysis of oil content in orange peel was conducted using solvent extraction by soxhlet method with 100 mL of n-hexane and 20 cycles number. The analysis resulted in the oils of sweet orange peel is about 3.2% v/w. Effect of extraction in vacuum conditions is studied by comparing the result of extraction in vacuum pressure to extraction at atmospheric pressure. The boiling temperature in atmospheric pressure was 80 oC and in vacuum pressure decreased to 50 oC. Thus oil yield in vacuum pressure is greater than at atmospheric pressure for 8 min of time. The experimental data showed that the oil yield is influenced by time; the longer time of extraction, oil yield obtained tends to be increased. In the material’s mass variation, oil yield tends to be decreased in percentage with increasing mass of material. The VMAHD method results on the oil content of 0.22% v/w yield obtained materials, test oil density of 0.84 g / mL, and essential oil dissolved in alcohol 70%. GC-MS analysis indicates that orange peel oil is composed of Limonene (96.69%, and Pinene (3.31%, which are in the class of sesquiterpenes

  7. The Variation Test and Extraction Equipment to Optimum Asphalt by Using Gasoline Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehardi, Fitridawati

    2017-12-01

    Based on the Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision, the extraction test should be carried out using the specimen from the loose asphalt mixture extracted from the back of the finisher bitumen machine. The purpose of this research is to find out the result of pretest and posttest extraction asphalt content. The Extraction test using two equipment, they are Soklet and Centrifuge. The specimens was used AMP, Asphalt Finisher and Core, which involved gasoline solvent. Based on the asphalt level extraction test results, the appropriate equipment was used centrifuge with the level accuracy as requirement of Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision and the level of ease used as equipment in the field study. The asphalt content obtained for AMP 5,51%, Asphalt Finisher5,46% and Core 5.34%. As for the socket asphalt content obtained is AMP 5.55%, Asphalt Finisher 5.50% and Core core 5. 41%. The extract test value of asphalt content decreased, so it can be formulated KA JMF value of Job mix used was 5.56% with the tolerance given according to Binamarga Specification 2010 at third revision is ± 0.30%. In accordance with the results obtained then the results of a centrifuge tool that matches and meets the requirements of time, accuracy of results and economic value.

  8. Test results from a prototype lead tungstate crystal calorimeter with vacuum phototriode readout for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollonio, M; Barber, G; Bell, K; Britton, D; Brooke, J; Brown, R; Bourotte, J; Camanzi, B; Cockerill, D; Davies, G; Devitsin, E; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Goussev, Y; Grafstroem, P; Haguenauer, M; Head, R; Heath, H; Hobson, P; Inyakin, A; Katchanov, V; Kirsanov, M; Lintern, L; Lodge, A; Mcleod, E; Nash, S; Newbold, D; Ukhanov, M; Postoev, V; Patalakha, D; Presland, A; Probert, M; Seez, C; Semeniouk, I; Seliverstov, D; Smith, B; Sproston, M; Tapper, R; Tchuiko, B

    2002-05-21

    Tests of a prototype for the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) of the compact muon solenoid experiment (CMS) at the large hadron collider are described. The basic unit for the endcap ECAL in CMS is a 'supercrystal' of 25 lead tungstate crystals. Results are presented from tests of the first full-sized supercrystal in electron beams and in a 3 T magnetic field. The supercrystal was exposed to electron beams with energies from 25 to 180 GeV. An energy resolution ({sigma}{sub E}/E) of (0.48{+-}0.01)% was measured at 180 GeV.

  9. Aqueous CO2 vs. aqueous extraction of soils as a preparative procedure for acute toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, G.W.; Burks, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    This study was to determine if contaminated soils extracted with supercritical CO 2 (SFE) would yield different results from soils extracted with an aqueous media. Soil samples from an abandoned oil refinery were subjected to aqueous and SFE extraction. Uncontaminated control sites were compared with contaminated sites. Each extract was analyzed for 48 hour acute Ceriodaphnia LC50s and Microtox reg-sign EC50s. Comparisons were then made between the aqueous extracts and the SFE extracts. An additional study was made with HPLC chromatographs of the SFE contaminated site extracts to determine if there was a correlation between LC50 results and peak area of different sections of the chromatograph. The 48 hour Ceriodaphnia LC50 of one contaminated site showed a significant increase in toxicity with the supercritical extract compared to the aqueous extract. All contaminated sites gave toxic responses with the supercritical procedure. The Microtox reg-sign assay showed a toxic response with 2 of the 3 contaminated sites for both aqueous and SFE extracts. Results indicate that the Ceriodaphnia assays were more sensitive than Microtox reg-sign to contaminants found in the refinery soil. SFE controls did not show adverse effects with the Ceriodaphnia, but did have a slight effect with Microtox reg-sign. The best correlation (r 2 > 0.90) between the Ceriodaphnia LC50s and the peak areas of the chromatographs was obtained for sections with an estimated log K ow of 1 to 5. SFE extraction provided a fast, efficient and inexpensive method of collecting and testing moderately non-polar to strongly non-polar organic contaminants from contaminated soils

  10. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts with Allium Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Aşkin Çelik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I. viscosa has been used for years in folk medicine for its anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, and paper antiphlogistic activities. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of I. viscosa leaf extracts on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa have been examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to 2.5 mg/ml, 5 mg/ml, and 10 mg/ml concentrations of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analysis. Tap water has been used as a negative control and Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS (2⋅10−2 M has been used as a positive control. The test concentrations have been determined according to doses which are recommended for use in alternative medicine. There has been statistically significant (P<.05 inhibition of root growth depending on concentration by the extracts when compared with the control groups. All the tested extracts have been observed to have cytotoxic effects on cell division in A. cepa. I. viscosa leaf extract induces the total number of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei (MNC formations in A. cepa root tip cells significantly when compared with control groups. Also, this paper shows for the first time the induction of cell death, ghost cells, cells with membrane damage, and binucleated cells by extract treatment. These results suggest the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the I. viscosa leaf extracts on A. cepa.

  11. Soil solution extraction techniques for microbial ecotoxicity testing: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiensing, T; Preston, S; Strachan, N; Paton, G I

    2001-02-01

    The suitability of two different techniques (centrifugation and Rhizon sampler) for obtaining the interstitial pore water of soil (soil solution), integral to the ecotoxicity assessment of metal contaminated soil, were investigated by combining chemical analyses and a luminescence-based microbial biosensor. Two different techniques, centrifugation and Rhizon sampler, were used to extract the soil solution from Insch (a loamy sand) and Boyndie (a sandy loam) soils, which had been amended with different concentrations of Zn and Cd. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major anions (F- , CI-, NO3, SO4(2-)) and major cations (K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) in the soil solutions varied depending on the extraction technique used. Overall, the concentrations of Zn and Cd were significantly higher in the soil solution extracted using the centrifugation technique compared with that extracted using the Rhizon sampler technique. Furthermore, the differences observed between the two extraction techniques depended on the type of soil from which the solution was being extracted. The luminescence-based biosensor Escherichia coli HB101 pUCD607 was shown to respond to the free metal concentrations in the soil solutions and showed that different toxicities were associated with each soil, depending on the technique used to extract the soil solution. This study highlights the need to characterise the type of extraction technique used to obtain the soil solution for ecotoxicity testing in order that a representative ecotoxicity assessment can be carried out.

  12. Advanced Photon Source accelerator ultrahigh vacuum guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Noonan, J.

    1994-03-01

    In this document the authors summarize the following: (1) an overview of basic concepts of ultrahigh vacuum needed for the APS project, (2) a description of vacuum design and calculations for major parts of APS, including linac, linac waveguide, low energy undulator test line, positron accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron ring, storage ring, and insertion devices, and (3) cleaning procedures of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components presently used at APS

  13. A new vacuum for loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittrich, Bianca; Geiller, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We construct a new vacuum and representation for loop quantum gravity. Because the new vacuum is based on BF theory, it is physical for (2+1)-dimensional gravity, and much closer to the spirit of spin foam quantization in general. To construct this new vacuum and the associated representation of quantum observables, we introduce a modified holonomy–flux algebra that is cylindrically consistent with respect to the notion of refinement by time evolution suggested in Dittrich and Steinhaus (2013 arXiv:1311.7565). This supports the proposal for a construction of the physical vacuum made in Dittrich and Steinhaus (2013 arXiv:1311.7565) and Dittrich (2012 New J. Phys. 14 123004), and for (3+1)-dimensional gravity. We expect that the vacuum introduced here will facilitate the extraction of large scale physics and cosmological predictions from loop quantum gravity. (fast track communication)

  14. Vacuum-assisted delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000514.htm Vacuum-assisted delivery To use the sharing features on this page, ... through the birth canal. When is Vacuum-assisted Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...

  15. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at Ptest groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats.

  16. Influence of Gap Distance on Vacuum Arc Characteristics of Cup Type AMF Electrode in Vacuum Interrupters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shaoyong; Xiu Shixin; Wang Jimei; Shen Zhengchao

    2006-01-01

    The greenhouse effect of SF 6 is a great concern today. The development of high voltage vacuum circuit breakers becomes more important. The vacuum circuit breaker has minimum pollution to the environment. The vacuum interrupter is the key part of a vacuum circuit breaker. The interrupting characteristics in vacuum and arc-controlling technique are the main problems to be solved for a longer gap distance in developing high voltage vacuum interrupters. To understand the vacuum arc characteristics and provide effective technique to control vacuum arc in a long gap distance, the arc mode transition of a cup-type axial magnetic field electrode is observed by a high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) video camera under different gap distances while the arc voltage and arc current are recorded. The controlling ability of the axial magnetic field on vacuum arc obviously decreases when the gap distance is longer than 40 mm. The noise components and mean value of the arc voltage significantly increase. The effective method for controlling the vacuum arc characteristics is provided by long gap distances based on the test results. The test results can be used as a reference to develop high voltage and large capacity vacuum interrupters

  17. Changing MFTF vacuum environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolies, D.; Valby, L.

    1982-12-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) vacuum vessel will be about 60m long and 10m in diameter at the widest point. The allowable operating densities range from 2 x 10 9 to 5 x 10 10 particles per cc. The maximum leak rate of 10 - 6 tl/sec is dominated during operation by the deliberately injected cold gas of 250 tl/sec. This gas is pumped by over 1000 square meters of cryopanels, external sorption pumps and getters. The design and requirements have changed radically over the past several years, and they are still not in final form. The vacuum system design has also changed, but more slowly and less radically. This paper discusses the engineering effort necessary to meet these stringent and changing requirements. Much of the analysis of the internal systems has been carried out using a 3-D Monte Carlo computer code, which can estimate time dependent operational pressures. This code and its use will also be described

  18. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  19. Inhibitory and bactericidal power of mangosteen rind extract towards Porphyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Laboratory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Hendiani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The bacteria that cause the occurrence of pathogens of periodontal disease are gram negative anaerobes. These bacteria include Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans. Mangosteen skin extract is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti microbial, and anti oxidant properties. The extract of the mangosteen peel is altered in gel preparation in order to streamline its clinical application in periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial power of the ginger mangosteen tree extract gel against Pophyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans. Methods: This research was conducted by experimental laboratory. Mangosteen fruit extract gel with concentration of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5%, 6,25%, 3,125% and 0,78% were tested against Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans with agar diffusion method. Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that for Actinobacilus Aggregatibacter bacteria minimal inhibitory concentration at a concentration of 6.25% with a diameter of 13,5mm inhibition. Minimal bactericidal concentration at 12,5% concentration with 14,7mm inhibitory diameter. In the test of Pophyromonas Gingivalis bacteria, minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained at a concentration of 1.56% and a minimum bactericidal concentration was obtained at a concentration of 3.125%. Conclusion: The conclusion that mangosteen peel skin gel extract can inhibit bacterial growth and is bactericidal against Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Aggregatibacter Actinomycetecomitans.

  20. Vacuum arc ion sources - micro to macro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, R.A.; Dickinson, M.R.; Brown, I.G.

    1995-08-01

    Vacuum arc ion sources provide a convenient tool for the production of intense beams of metal ions. The sources are relatively easy to construct and they can produce beams from all of the solid metals as well as of compounds, alloys and mixtures. We have made a number of different kinds of such sources over the course of our development work at LBL in the past decade, from very small open-quote thumb-size close-quote versions to a very large one with 50-cm diameter extractor. Beam current ranges from a few milliamperes up to almost 10 amperes and extraction voltage from about 1 kV to 100 kV. Multicathode versions have been made so that one can switch between metal ion species simply and quickly. Most of the sources have been operated in a repetitively pulsed mode, and we've tested a dc version also. Here we outline some construction features of the array of vacuum arc ion sources that we've developed and used, and describe their performance and limitations

  1. An open-source framework for stress-testing non-invasive foetal ECG extraction algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Fernando; Behar, Joachim; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Oster, Julien; Clifford, Gari D

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decades, many studies have been published on the extraction of non-invasive foetal electrocardiogram (NI-FECG) from abdominal recordings. Most of these contributions claim to obtain excellent results in detecting foetal QRS (FQRS) complexes in terms of location. A small subset of authors have investigated the extraction of morphological features from the NI-FECG. However, due to the shortage of available public databases, the large variety of performance measures employed and the lack of open-source reference algorithms, most contributions cannot be meaningfully assessed. This article attempts to address these issues by presenting a standardised methodology for stress testing NI-FECG algorithms, including absolute data, as well as extraction and evaluation routines. To that end, a large database of realistic artificial signals was created, totaling 145.8 h of multichannel data and over one million FQRS complexes. An important characteristic of this dataset is the inclusion of several non-stationary events (e.g. foetal movements, uterine contractions and heart rate fluctuations) that are critical for evaluating extraction routines. To demonstrate our testing methodology, three classes of NI-FECG extraction algorithms were evaluated: blind source separation (BSS), template subtraction (TS) and adaptive methods (AM). Experiments were conducted to benchmark the performance of eight NI-FECG extraction algorithms on the artificial database focusing on: FQRS detection and morphological analysis (foetal QT and T/QRS ratio). The overall median FQRS detection accuracies (i.e. considering all non-stationary events) for the best performing methods in each group were 99.9% for BSS, 97.9% for AM and 96.0% for TS. Both FQRS detections and morphological parameters were shown to heavily depend on the extraction techniques and signal-to-noise ratio. Particularly, it is shown that their evaluation in the source domain, obtained after using a BSS technique, should be

  2. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A

    1998-06-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1,115 MeV. At about 5 NeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted ut of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models

  3. Vacuum improvements for ultra high charge state ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.; Clark, D.J.; Guy, A.; Lundgren, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The installation of a second cryo panel has significantly improved the vacuum in the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutral pressure in the extraction region decreased from 1.2 x 10 -6 down to about 7 x 10 -7 Torr. The vacuum improvement reduces beam loss from charge changing collisions and enhances the cyclotron beam transmission, especially for the high charge state heavy ions. Tests with improved vacuum show the cyclotron transmission increased more than 50% (from 5.7% to 9.0%) for a Xe 27+ at 603 MeV, more than doubled for a Bi 41+ beam (from 1.9% % to 4.6%) at 904 MeV and tripled for a U 47+ beam (from 1.2% to 3.6%) at 1115 MeV. At about 5 MeV/nucleon 92 enA (2.2 pnA) for Bi 41+ and 14 enA (0.3 pnA) for U 47+ were extracted out of the 88-Inch Cyclotron Ion beams with charge states as high as U 64+ have been produced by the LBNL AECR-U ion source and accelerated through the cyclotron for the first time. The beam losses for a variety of ultra high charge state ions were measured as a function of cyclotron pressure and compared with the calculations from the existing models. (authors)

  4. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.

  5. Papaver Rhoeas L. Hydroalcoholic Extract Exacerbates Forced Swimming Test-Induced Depression in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Osanloo; Akram Najafi-Abedi; Fatemeh Jafari; Farshid Javid; Mohsen Pirpiran; Mohammad-Reza Memar-Jafari; Seyed Ali Mousavi-Khosravi; Mohammad Rahimzadeh-Behzadi; Mina Ranjbaran; Hedayat Sahraei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the world with occurs with higher incidence in women. In the present study, the effect of water-alcoholic extract of Papaver rhoeas L. on forced swimming test (FST) in Swiss-Webster mice were examined. Methods: We used Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g) to execute FST on them. The plant extract (1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) was injected to the animals 30 minutes before each session. Fluoxetine (20 mg/k...

  6. CONSTRUCTION AND POWER TEST OF THE EXTRACTION KICKER MAGNET FOR SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAI, C.; HAHN, H.; HSEUH, H.; LEE, Y.; MENG, W.; MI, J.; SANDBERG, J.; TODD, R.

    2005-01-01

    Two extraction kicker magnet assemblies that contain seven individual pulsed magnet modules each will kick the proton beam vertically out of the SNS accumulator ring into the aperture of the extraction Lambertson septum magnet. The proton beam then travels to the 1.4 MW SNS target assembly. The 14 kicker magnets and major components of the kicker assembly have been fabricated in BNL. The inner surfaces of the kicker magnets were coated with TiN to reduce the secondary electron yield. All 14 PFN power supplies have been built, tested and delivered to OWL. Before final installation, a partial assembly of the kicker system with three kicker magnets was assembled to test the functions of each critical component in the system. In this paper we report the progress of the construction of the kicker components, the TIN coating of the magnets, the installation procedure of the magnets and the full power test of the kicker with the PFN power supply

  7. Magnetically induced vacuum decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Shesheng

    2003-01-01

    We study the fermionic vacuum energy of vacua with and without application of an external magnetic field. The energetic difference of two vacua leads to the vacuum decaying and the vacuum energy being released. In the context of quantum field theories, we discuss why and how the vacuum energy can be released by spontaneous photon emission and/or paramagnetically screening the external magnetic field. In addition, we quantitatively compute the vacuum energy released, the paramagnetic screening effect, and the rate and spectrum of spontaneous photon emission. The possibilities of experimentally detecting such an effect of vacuum-energy release and that this effect accounts for the anomalous x-ray pulsar are discussed

  8. Effectiveness test of bay leaf extract (Eugenia polyantha on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Azhari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is a facultative anaerobic bacteria and one of the normal microflora in the mouth. However, if it is influenced by predisposing factors, it would be pathogenic. Bay leaves have an active ingredient that is tannins, flavonoids, and essential oils are believed to have antibacterial effects. The purpose of this study is to determine how much the effectiveness of extracts of leaves produced by the growth of S.aureus. This research is an experimental laboratory. The research sample is S. aureus in preparations. Dilution bay leaf extract, among others, 12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively. Inhibition was obtained by measuring the inhibition zone formed around the paper disks using calipers. Statistical analyzes were performed using one way ANOVA test. The results showed that the diameter of the zone of inhibition for S.aureus at a concentration of 12.5% leaves extract (7.29 mm; 25% (7.7 mm; 50% (8.75 mm; 75% (9.34 mm; 100% (9.78 mm. In the statistical analysis of the results showed a significant difference from the respective bay leaf extract concentration. Bay leaf extract can inhibit the growth of S. aureus bacteria. However, it is still not effective to inhibit bacteria as the result of inhibition zones obtained relatively small at less than 10 mm.

  9. Gravitation and vacuum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevikyan, R.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents equations that describe particles with spins s = 0, 1/2, 1 completely and which also describe 2s + 2 limiting fields as E → ∞. It is shown that the ordinary Hilbert-Einstein action for the gravitation field must be augmented by the action for the Bose vacuum field. This means that one must introduce in the gravitational equations a cosmological term proportional to the square of the strength of the Bose vacuum field. It is shown that the theory of gravitation describes three realities: matter, field, and vacuum field. A new form of matter--the vacuum field--is introduced into field theory

  10. Conceptual design of Tritium Extraction System for the European HCPB Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciampichetti, A.; Nitti, F.S.; Aiello, A.; Ricapito, I.; Liger, K.; Demange, D.; Sedano, L.; Moreno, C.; Succi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested in ITER. ► Tritium extraction by gas purging, removal and transfer to the Tritium Plant. ► Conceptual design of TES and revision of the previous configuration. ► Main components: adsorption column, ZrCo getter beds and PERMCAT reactor. - Abstract: The HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) Test Blanket Module (TBM), developed in EU to be tested in ITER, adopts a ceramic containing lithium as breeder material, beryllium as neutron multiplier and helium at 80 bar as primary coolant. In HCPB-TBM the main function of Tritium Extraction System (TES) is to extract tritium from the breeder by gas purging, to remove it from the purge gas and to route it to the ITER Tritium Plant for the final tritium processing. In this paper, starting from a revision of the so far reference process considered for HCPB-TES and considering a new modeling activity aimed to evaluate tritium concentration in purge gas, an updated conceptual design of TES is reported.

  11. Doping control in Japan. An automated extraction procedure for the doping test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, T.; Matsumoto, T.

    1976-01-01

    Horse racing in Japan consists of two systems, the National (10 racecourses) and the Regional public racing (32 racecourses) having about 2,500 racing meetings in total per year. Urine or saliva samples for dope testing are collected by the officials from thw winner, second and third, and transported to the laboratory in a frozen state. In 1975, 76, 117 samples were analyzed by this laboratory. The laboratory provides the following four methods of analysis, which are variously combined by request. (1) Method for detection of drugs extracted by chloroform from alkalinized sample. (2) Methods for detection of camphor and its derivatives. (3) Method for detection of barbiturates. (4) Method for detection of ethanol. These methods consist of screening, mainly by thin layer chromatography and confirmatory tests using ultra violet spectrophotometry, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography. In the screening test of doping drugs, alkalinized samples are extracted with chloroform. In order to automate the extraction procedure, the authors contrived a new automatic extractor. They also devised a means of pH adjustment of horse urine by using buffer solution and an efficient mechanism of evaporation of organic solvent. Analytical data obtained by the automatic extractor are presented in this paper. In 1972, we started research work to automate the extraction procedure in method (1) above, and the Automatic Extractor has been in use in routine work since last July. One hundred and twnety samples per hour are extracted automatically by three automatic extractors. The analytical data using this apparatus is presented below. PMID:1000163

  12. Genotoxic and teratogenic potential of marine sediment extracts investigated with comet assay and zebrafish test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammann, Ulrike; Biselli, Scarlett; Huehnerfuss, Heinrich; Reineke, Ninja; Theobald, Norbert; Vobach, Michael; Wosniok, Werner

    2004-01-01

    Organic extracts of marine sediments from the North Sea and the Baltic Sea were investigated with two toxicity assays. The comet assay based on the fish cell line Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) was applied to determine the genotoxic potential; zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) were used to quantify the teratogenic potential of the samples. EC 50 values were calculated from dose-response curves for both test systems. Highest teratogenic and genotoxic effects normalised to total organic carbon (TOC) content were detected in sediment samples of different origins. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are not likely to be the causes of the observed effects, as demonstrated by a two-step fractionation procedure of selected extracts. The toxic potential was more pronounced in fractions having polarity higher than those possessed by PAHs and PCBs. The suitability of the two in vitro test systems for assessing genotoxic and teratogenic effects of marine sediment extracts could be demonstrated. - Capsule: In vitro toxicity assays are used to assess genotoxic and teratogenic effects of environmental extracts

  13. Vacuum compatibility of 3D-printed materials

    OpenAIRE

    Povilus, AP; Wurden, CJ; Vendeiro, Z; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Fajans, J

    2014-01-01

    The fabrication fidelity and vacuum properties are tested for currently available 3D-printed materials including polyamide, glass, acrylic, and sterling silver. The silver was the only material found to be suitable to ultrahigh vacuum environments due to outgassing and sublimation observed in other materials. © 2014 American Vacuum Society.

  14. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  15. In vitro preliminary cytotoxicity testing of vegetal extracts, using colorimetric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Cordero Camacho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To advance in the study of the Colombian vegetal biodiversity, considered as a potential source of pharmacologically active products, the establishment of biological activity evaluation systems is necessary, which allow the detection of active products against pathologies with high social and economical impact, such as cancer. This work describes the implementation of a preliminary in vitro methodology for the determination of potential anticancer activity in vegetal extracts, by cytotoxicity testing upon human tumor cell lines, measuring the cellular mass indirectly with the colorimetric assays of MTT (methyl tetrazolium tiazole reduction and SRB (sulforhodamine Bstaining. HT-29, MCF-7, SiHa and HEp-2 cell lines cultures were adapted, MTT concentration, cellular density and treatment period parameters for the cytotoxicity assay were selected. Cell lines sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin HCl was determined. Colombian vegetal species extracts cytotoxicity was tested and usefulness of the assay as a tool to bioguide the search of active products was evidenced.

  16. In vitro preliminary cytotoxicity testing of vegetal extracts, using colorimetric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Cordero Camacho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To advance in the study of the Colombian vegetal biodiversity, considered as a potential source of pharmacologically active products, the establishment of biological activity evaluation systems is necessary, which allow the detection of active products against pathologies with high social and economical impact, such as cancer. This work describes the implementation of a preliminary in vitro methodology for the determination of potential anticancer activity in vegetal extracts, by cytotoxicity testing upon human tumor cell lines, measuring the cellular mass indirectly with the colorimetric assays of MTT (methyl tetrazolium tiazole reduction and SRB (sulforhodamine Bstaining. HT-29, MCF-7, SiHa and HEp-2 cell lines cultures were adapted, MTT concentration, cellular density and treatment period parameters for the cytotoxicity assay were selected. Cell lines sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic agent Doxorubicin HCl was determined. Colombian vegetal species extracts cytotoxicity was tested and usefulness of the assay as a tool to bioguide the search of active products was evidenced.

  17. Valx: A System for Extracting and Structuring Numeric Lab Test Comparison Statements from Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tianyong; Liu, Hongfang; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-05-17

    To develop an automated method for extracting and structuring numeric lab test comparison statements from text and evaluate the method using clinical trial eligibility criteria text. Leveraging semantic knowledge from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and domain knowledge acquired from the Internet, Valx takes seven steps to extract and normalize numeric lab test expressions: 1) text preprocessing, 2) numeric, unit, and comparison operator extraction, 3) variable identification using hybrid knowledge, 4) variable - numeric association, 5) context-based association filtering, 6) measurement unit normalization, and 7) heuristic rule-based comparison statements verification. Our reference standard was the consensus-based annotation among three raters for all comparison statements for two variables, i.e., HbA1c and glucose, identified from all of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes trials in ClinicalTrials.gov. The precision, recall, and F-measure for structuring HbA1c comparison statements were 99.6%, 98.1%, 98.8% for Type 1 diabetes trials, and 98.8%, 96.9%, 97.8% for Type 2 diabetes trials, respectively. The precision, recall, and F-measure for structuring glucose comparison statements were 97.3%, 94.8%, 96.1% for Type 1 diabetes trials, and 92.3%, 92.3%, 92.3% for Type 2 diabetes trials, respectively. Valx is effective at extracting and structuring free-text lab test comparison statements in clinical trial summaries. Future studies are warranted to test its generalizability beyond eligibility criteria text. The open-source Valx enables its further evaluation and continued improvement among the collaborative scientific community.

  18. Shallow geothermal field in Lanzarote (Canary Island). Potential evaluation and heat extraction test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Gil, J.L.; Valentin, A. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain); Torres, F. [Universidad de Barcelona (Spain); Albert, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    Boreholes were used to perform various experiments. A thermometry was carried out, as well as chemical analysis and an hydrodynamic modelling. This paper presents the scientific aims and conclusions of the whole project called ``Shallow H.D.R. geothermal field`` in Lanzarote (Canary Islands). Potential evaluation and heat extraction test are presented. (Project JOUG-0004 ES -JR - JOULE Program of the EEC). (TEC). 2 tabs.

  19. Experimental Test Of Whether Electrostatically Charged Micro-organisms And Their Spores Contribute To The Onset Of Arcs Across Vacuum Gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,; Grisham, Larry R.

    2014-02-24

    Recently it was proposed [L.R. Grisham, A. vonHalle, A.F. Carpe, Guy Rossi, K.R. Gilton, E.D. McBride, E.P. Gilson, A. Stepanov, T.N. Stevenson, Physics of Plasma 19 023107 (2012)] that one of the initiators of vacuum voltage breakdown between condu cting electrodes might be micro-organisms and their spores, previously deposited during exposure to air, which tnen become electrostatically charged when an electric potential is applied across the vacuum gap. The note describes a simple experiment to compare the number of voltage-conditioning pulses required to reach the nominal maxium operating voltage across a gap between two metallic conductors in a vacuum, comparing cases in which biological cleaning was done just prior to pump-down with cases where this was not done, with each preceded by exposure to ambient air for three days. Based upon these results, it does not appear that air-deposited microbes and their spores constitute a major pathway for arc initiation, at least for exposure periods of a few days, and for vacuum gaps of a few millimeters, in the regime where voltage holding is usually observed to vary linearly with gap distance

  20. FIELD IMPLEMENTATION PLAN FOR A WILLISTON BASIN BRINE EXTRACTION AND STORAGE TEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamling, John; Klapperich, Ryan; Stepan, Daniel; Sorensen, James; Pekot, Lawrence; Peck, Wesley; Jacobson, Lonny; Bosshart, Nicholas; Hurley, John; Wilson, William; Kurz, Marc; Burnison, Shaughn; Salako, Olarinre; Musich, Mark; Botnen, Barry; Kalenze, Nicholas; Ayash, Scott; Ge, Jun; Jiang, Tao; Dalkhaa, Chantsalmaa; Oster, Benjamin; Peterson, Kyle; Feole, Ian; Gorecki, Charles; Steadman, Edward

    2016-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) successfully completed all technical work of Phase I, including development of a field implementation plan (FIP) for a brine extraction and storage test (BEST) in the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin. This implementation plan was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a proxy for managing formation pressure plumes and measuring/monitoring the movement of differential pressure and CO2 plumes in the subsurface for future saline CO2 storage projects. BEST comprises the demonstration and validation of active reservoir management (ARM) strategies and extracted brine treatment technologies. Two prospective commercial brine injection sites were evaluated for BEST to satisfy DOE’s goals. Ultimately, an active saltwater disposal (SWD) site, Johnsons Corner, was selected because it possesses an ideal combination of key factors making it uniquely suited to host BEST. This site is located in western North Dakota and operated by Nuverra Environmental Solutions (Nuverra), a national leader in brine handling, treatment, and injection. An integrated management approach was used to incorporate local and regional geologic characterization activities with geologic and simulation models, inform a monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) plan, and to conduct a risk assessment. This approach was used to design a FIP for an ARM schema and an extracted brine treatment technology test bed facility. The FIP leverages an existing pressure plume generated by two commercial SWD wells. These wells, in conjunction with a new brine extraction well, will be used to conduct the ARM schema. Results of these tests will be quantified based on their impact on the performance of the existing SWD wells and the surrounding reservoir system. Extracted brine will be injected into an underlying deep saline formation through a new injection well. The locations of proposed

  1. Insulation vacuum and beam vacuum overpressure release

    CERN Document Server

    Parma, V

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that the incident of 19th September caused a high pressure build-up inside the cryostat insulation vacuum which the existing overpressure devices could not contain. As a result, high longitudinal forces acting on the insulation vacuum barriers developed and broke the floor and the floor fixations of the SSS with vacuum barriers. The consequent large longitudinal displacements of the SSS damaged chains of adjacent dipole cryo-magnets. Estimates of the helium mass flow and the pressure build- up experienced in the incident are presented together with the pressure build-up for an even more hazardous event, the Maximum Credible Incident (MCI). The strategy of limiting the maximum pressure by the installation of addition pressure relieve devices is presented and discussed. Both beam vacuum lines were ruptured during the incident in sector 3-4 giving rise to both mechanical damage and pollution of the system. The sequence, causes and effects of this damage will be briefly reviewed. We will then an...

  2. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  3. Comparison of vacuum rise time, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of 3 new phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young Keun; Miller, Kevin M

    2009-08-01

    To compare vacuum rise time, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of 3 new phacoemulsification machines. Jules Stein Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA. The vacuum rise time under normal and enhanced aspiration modes, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of the Infiniti Vision System, Stellaris Vision Enhancement System, and WhiteStar Signature Phacoemulsification System were tested. Vacuum rise time and limit accuracy were measured at limit settings of 400 mm Hg and 600 mm Hg. Surge area was recorded at vacuum limit settings of 200 mm Hg, 300 mm Hg, 400 mm Hg, and 500 mm Hg. The Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise times under normal and enhanced aspiration modes. At 4 seconds, the vacuum limit accuracy was greatest with the Infiniti at the 400 mm Hg limit and the Signature at the 600 mm Hg limit. The Stellaris did not reach either vacuum target. The Infiniti performed better than the other 2 machines during testing of occlusion break surge at all vacuum limit settings above 200 mm Hg. Under controlled laboratory test conditions, the Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise time, greatest vacuum limit accuracy at 400 mm Hg, and least occlusion break surge. These results can be explained by the lower compliance of the Infiniti system.

  4. DC photogun vacuum characterization through photocathode lifetime studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcy Stutzman; Joseph Grames; Matt Poelker; Kenneth Surles-Law; Philip Adderley

    2007-01-01

    Excellent vacuum is essential for long photocathode lifetimes in DC high voltage photoelectron guns. Vacuum Research at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has focused on characterizing the existing vacuum systems at the CEBAF polarized photoinjector and on quantifying improvements for new systems. Vacuum chamber preprocessing, full activation of NEG pumps and NEG coating the chamber walls should improve the vacuum within the electron gun, however, pressure measurement is difficult at pressures approaching the extreme-high-vacuum (XHV) region and extractor gauge readings are not significantly different between the improved and original systems. The ultimate test of vacuum in a DC high voltage photogun is the photocathode lifetime, which is limited by the ionization and back-bombardment of residual gasses. Discussion will include our new load-locked gun design as well as lifetime measurements in both our operational and new photo-guns, and the correlations between measured vacuum and lifetimes will be investigated

  5. Delamination propensity of pharmaceutical glass containers by accelerated testing with different extraction media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnino, Emanuel; Zuccato, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The delamination of pharmaceutical glass is a serious issue, as it can cause glass particles to appear in vials, a problem that has forced a number of drug product recalls in recent years. In Type I pharmaceutical glass vials, delamination occurs generally at the bottom and shoulder, where extensive flaming during the conversion process can favor a strong evaporation of alkali and borate species and the formation of heavily enriched silica layers. The contact with parenteral preparations dissolved in an alkaline medium increases the rate of glass corrosion, while the differential hydration of these layers can cause the detachment of flakes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the pH and the composition of the extraction solutions on the propensity of different glass types to delaminate. Repeated autoclave extractions at 121 °C were carried out on different glass types with different extraction media, including organic extractants like citric and glutaric acid. When vials were in contact with alkaline solutions and similarly aggressive media, an increase in silica extraction values indicated glass corrosion and an increasing risk for further delamination. Under such conditions expansion 33 glass is extensively corroded, showing high silica concentration and heavy flaking as compared to other glass types. Sulfur-treated glass also showed early flaking, even if SiO(2) concentration was very low. A similar ranking was observed with extractions carried out with glutaric and citric acids, but at far much higher SiO(2) concentration levels. Extractions with 0.9% KCl solution can be used as an accelerated test to highlight the propensity of a glass to delaminate, but in no case it can be taken as a guarantee that the glass will not delaminate when exposed to the pharmaceutical drug, whose extraction ability requires case-by-case study. How can injectable drug manufacturers prevent glass delamination? The issue of delamination is a serious one, as it

  6. Compactified vacuum in ten dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurmser, D.

    1987-01-01

    Since the 1920's, theories which unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have called for more than the four observed dimensions of space-time. According to such a theory, the vacuum consists of flat four-dimensional space-time described by the Minkowski metric M 4 and a compactified space B. The dimensions of B are small, and the space can only be observed at distance scales smaller than the present experimental limit. These theories have had serious difficulties. The equations of gravity severely restrict the possible choices for the space B. The allowed spaces are complicated and difficult to study. The vacuum is furthermore unstable in the sense that a small perturbation causes the compactified dimensions to expand indefinitely. There is an addition a semi-classical argument which implies that the compactified vacuum by annihilated by virtual black holes. It follows that a universe with compactified extra dimensions could not have survived to the present. These results were derived by applying the equations of general relativity to spaces of more than four dimensions. The form of these equations was assumed to be unchanged by an increase in the number of dimensions. The authors illustrate the effect of such terms by considering the example B = S 6 where S 6 is the six-dimensional sphere. Only when the extra terms are included is this choice of the compactified space allowed. He explore the effect of a small perturbation on such a vacuum. The ten-dimensional spherically symmetric potential is examined, and I determine conditions under which the formation of virtual black holes is forbidden. The examples M 4 x S 6 is still plagued by the semi-classical instability, but this result does not hold in general. The requirement that virtual black holes be forbidden provides a test for any theory which predicts a compactified vacuum

  7. Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Eric; Philpot, Brian; Trott, Aaron; Lawrence, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC's) large rocket engine test facility requires the use of liquid propellants, including the use of cryogenic fluids like liquid hydrogen as fuel, and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer (gases which have been liquefied at very low temperatures). These fluids require special handling, storage, and transfer technology. The biggest problem associated with transferring cryogenic liquids is product loss due to heat transfer. Vacuum jacketed piping is specifically designed to maintain high thermal efficiency so that cryogenic liquids can be transferred with minimal heat transfer. A vacuum jacketed pipe is essentially two pipes in one. There is an inner carrier pipe, in which the cryogenic liquid is actually transferred, and an outer jacket pipe that supports and seals the vacuum insulation, forming the "vacuum jacket." The integrity of the vacuum jacketed transmission lines that transfer the cryogenic fluid from delivery barges to the test stand must be maintained prior to and during engine testing. To monitor the vacuum in these vacuum jacketed transmission lines, vacuum gauge readings are used. At SSC, vacuum gauge measurements are done on a manual rotation basis with two technicians, each using a handheld instrument. Manual collection of vacuum data is labor intensive and uses valuable personnel time. Additionally, there are times when personnel cannot collect the data in a timely fashion (i.e., when a leak is detected, measurements must be taken more often). Additionally, distribution of this data to all interested parties can be cumbersome. To simplify the vacuum-gauge data collection process, automate the data collection, and decrease the labor costs associated with acquiring these measurements, an automated system that monitors the existing gauges was developed by Invocon, Inc. For this project, Invocon developed a Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System (WIMVSS) that provides the ability to gather vacuum

  8. Test plan for the FY 1997 rebound study at the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.; Tranbarger, R.K.

    1996-11-01

    This test plan describes the strategy and field measurements designed to evaluate the potential rebound of carbon tetrachloride vapor concentrations following cessation of soil vapor extraction (SVE) operations at the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. Soil vapor extraction was initiated in February 1992 as the preferred remedial alternative of the Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action for removal of carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath the primary carbon tetrachloride disposal sites. The magnitude, extent, and rate of rebound in carbon tetrachloride vapor concentrations will help determine the availability of additional carbon tetrachloride for removal using SVE. At the conclusion of the field measurements, a report will be completed to evaluate the results of the rebound study

  9. Application of FT-IR Classification Method in Silica-Plant Extracts Composites Quality Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicu, A.; Drumea, V.; Mihaiescu, D. E.; Purcareanu, B.; Florea, M. A.; Trică, B.; Vasilievici, G.; Draga, S.; Buse, E.; Olariu, L.

    2018-06-01

    Our present work is concerned with the validation and quality testing efforts of mesoporous silica - plant extracts composites, in order to sustain the standardization process of plant-based pharmaceutical products. The synthesis of the silica support were performed by using a TEOS based synthetic route and CTAB as a template, at room temperature and normal pressure. The silica support was analyzed by advanced characterization methods (SEM, TEM, BET, DLS and FT-IR), and loaded with Calendula officinalis and Salvia officinalis standardized extracts. Further desorption studies were performed in order to prove the sustained release properties of the final materials. Intermediate and final product identification was performed by a FT-IR classification method, using the MID-range of the IR spectra, and statistical representative samples from repetitive synthetic stages. The obtained results recommend this analytical method as a fast and cost effective alternative to the classic identification methods.

  10. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  11. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material

  12. Plasma instability of a vacuum arc centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hole, M.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Simpson, S.W.; Del Bosco, E.

    2002-01-01

    Ever since conception of the vacuum arc centrifuge in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a vacuum arc centrifuge. In this work we develop a linearized theoretical model to describe a range of instabilities in the vacuum arc centrifuge plasma column, and then test the validity of the description through comparison with experiment. We conclude that the observed instability is a 'universal' instability, driven by the density gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity

  13. Vacuum level effects on gait characteristics for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The elevated vacuum suspension system has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on gait characteristics is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated vacuum levels on temporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics for unilateral transtibial amputees. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted in 9 unilateral transtibial amputees walking at a controlled speed with five vacuum levels ranging from 0 to 20inHg, and also in 9 able-bodied subjects walking at self-preferred speed. Repeated ANOVA and Dunnett's t-test were performed to determine the effect of vacuum level and limb for within subject and between groups. The effect of vacuum level significantly affected peak hip external rotation and external knee adduction moment. Maximum braking and propulsive ground reaction forces generally increased for the residual limb and decreased for the intact limb with increasing vacuum. Additionally, the intact limb experienced an increased loading due to gait asymmetry for several variables. There was no systematic vacuum level effect on gait. Higher vacuum levels, such as 15 and 20inHg, were more comfortable and provided some relief to the intact limb, but may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis of the residual limb due to the increased peak external hip and knee adduction moments. Very low vacuum should be avoided because of the negative effects on gait symmetry. A moderate vacuum level at 15inHg is suggested for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Machine for extrusion under vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, A.

    1958-01-01

    In a study of the behaviour of easily oxidised metals during the extrusion process, it is first necessary to find an effective mean of fighting corrosion, since this, even when barely detectable, has an important influence on the validity of the results recorded. The neatest and also the most efficient of all the methods tried consists in creating a vacuum around the test piece. Working on this principle, and at the same time respecting the conventional rules for extrusion tests (loading the sample after stabilisation at the testing temperature, differential measurements of lengthening, etc.) we found it necessary to construct an original machine. (author) [fr

  15. Modern vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Austin

    2005-01-01

    Modern Vacuum Physics presents the principles and practices of vacuum science and technology along with a number of applications in research and industrial production. The first half of the book builds a foundation in gases and vapors under rarefied conditions, The second half presents examples of the analysis of representative systems and describes some of the exciting developments in which vacuum plays an important role. The final chapter addresses practical matters, such as materials, components, and leak detection. Throughout the book, the author''s explanations are presented in terms of first principles and basic physics, augmented by illustrative worked examples and numerous figures.

  16. Evaporation under vacuum condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Satoshi; Shibata, Yuki; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear fusion reactor design, an event of water coolant ingress into its vacuum vessel is now being considered as one of the most probable accidents. In this report, the evaporation under vacuum condition is evaluated by using the evaporation model we have developed. The results show that shock-wave by the evaporation occurs whose behavior strongly depends on the initial conditions of vacuum. And in the case of lower initial pressure and temperature, the surface temp finally becomes higher than other conditions. (author)

  17. Design of the CLIC Quadrupole Vacuum Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Garion, C

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider, under study, requires vacuum chambers with a very small aperture, of the order of 8 mm in diameter, and with a length up to around 2 m for the main beam quadrupoles. To keep the very tight geometrical tolerances on the quadrupoles, no bake out is allowed. The main issue is to reach UHV conditions (typically 10-9 mbar static pressure) in a system where the vacuum performance is driven by water outgassing. For this application, a thinwalled stainless steel vacuum chamber with two ante chambers equipped with NEG strips, is proposed. The mechanical design, especially the stability analysis, is shown. The key technologies of the prototype fabrication are given. Vacuum tests are carried out on the prototypes. The test set-up as well as the pumping system conditions are presented.

  18. Extraction methods and test techniques for detection of vegetable proteins in meat products. I. Qualitative detection of soya derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, N S

    1976-06-01

    Extracts of 3 soya bean preparations, used commercially in certain countries to replace part of the meat in popular meat products, were made by treatment with (i) sodium dodecyl sulphate, (ii) Triton-X100 or (iii) n-Butanol. Similar extracts were made from beef and pork. All extracts were examined by electrophoretic and immunological techniques. Stained polyacrylamide gels revealed distinctive protein bands after electrophoresis. The migration rates of corresponding bands differed between beef and pork extracts. However, the migration rates of vegetable bands revealed certain similarities, but differed very greatly from those of animal origin. Characteristic fast-migrating S-bands were distinguishable only in extracts of vegetable protein. Immunodiffusion tests, using antisera produced in rabbits against each extract, revealed varying degrees of similarity between extracts of vegetable origin, but the antisera were specific for either vegetable or animal protein.

  19. IR-RF dating of sand-sized K-feldspar extracts: A test of accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Jain, Mayank; Murray, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use a recently developed radioluminescence (RL) attachment to the Risø TL/OSL reader to test the InfraRed-RadioFluorescence (IR-RF) dating method applied to K-feldspar rich extracts from our known-age archive samples. We present experiments to characterise the instrument performa......In this paper we use a recently developed radioluminescence (RL) attachment to the Risø TL/OSL reader to test the InfraRed-RadioFluorescence (IR-RF) dating method applied to K-feldspar rich extracts from our known-age archive samples. We present experiments to characterise the instrument...... performance and to test the reproducibility of IR-RF measurements. These experiments illustrate the high sensitivity and dose rate of our RL system, the negligible influence of the turntable movement on IR-RF signals and the effectiveness of the built in 395 nm LED at bleaching IR-RF signals. We measure IR......-RF ages on a set of samples with independent age control using a robust analytical method, which is able to detect any possible sensitivity change. Our IR-RF ages do not agree well with the independent age control; the ages of the younger samples (20–45 ka) are significantly over-estimated while the ages...

  20. Straw man 900-1000 GeV crystal extraction test beam for Fermilab collider operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    A design for a 900-1000 GeV, 100 khz parasitic test beam for use during collider operations has been developed. The beam makes use of two bent crystals, one for extraction and the other one for redirecting the beam in to the present Switchyard beam system. The beam requires only a few modifications in the A0 area and largely uses existing devices. It should be straight-forward to modify one or two beam lines in the fixed target experimental areas to work above 800 GeV. Possibilities for improvements to the design,to operate at higher fluxes are discussed

  1. Helical type vacuum container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, Kimio.

    1989-01-01

    Helical type vacuum containers in the prior art lack in considerations for thermal expansion stresses to helical coils, and there is a possibility of coil ruptures. The object of the present invention is to avoid the rupture of helical coils wound around the outer surface of a vacuum container against heat expansion if any. That is, bellows or heat expansion absorbing means are disposed to a cross section of a helical type vacuum container. With such a constitution, thermal expansion of helical coils per se due to temperature elevation of the coils during electric supply can be absorbed by expansion of the bellows or absorption of the heat expansion absorbing means. Further, this can be attained by arranging shear pins in the direction perpendicular to the bellows axis so that the bellows are not distorted when the helical coils are wound around the helical type vacuum container. (I.S.)

  2. Vacuum considerations: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blechschmidt, D.; Halama, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    A summary is given of the efforts of a vacuum systems study group of the workshop on a Heavy Ion Demonstration Experiment (HIDE) for heavy ion fusion. An inadequate knowledge of cross-sections prevents a more concrete vacuum system design. Experiments leading to trustworthy numbers for charge exchange, stripping and capture cross-sections are badly needed and should start as soon as possible. In linacs, beam loss will be almost directly proportional to the pressure inside the tanks. The tanks should, therefore, be built in such a way that they can be baked-out in situ to improve their vacuum, especially if the cross-sections turn out to be higher than anticipated. Using standard UHV techniques and existing pumps, an even lower pressure can be achieved. The vacuum system design for circular machines will be very difficult, and in some cases, beyond the present state-of-the-art

  3. Handbook of vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive, standard work has been updated to remain an important resource for all those needing detailed knowledge of the theory and applications of vacuum technology. With many numerical examples and illustrations to visualize the theoretical issues.

  4. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  5. Test of the combined method for extracting spectroscopic factors in N =50 nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, David; Cizewski, J. A.; Baugher, T.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Pain, S. D.; Nunes, F. M.; Ahn, S.; Cerizza, G.; Jones, K. L.; Manning, B.; Thornsberry, C.

    2017-09-01

    The single-particle properties of nuclei near shell closures and r-process waiting points can be observed using single-nucleon transfer reactions with beams of rare isotopes. However, approximations have to be made about the final bound state to extract spectroscopic information. An approach to constrain the bound state potential has been proposed by Mukhamedzhanov and Nunes. At peripheral reaction energies ( 5 MeV/u), the ANC for the nucleus can be extracted, and is combined with the same reaction at higher energies ( 40 MeV/u). These combined measurements can constrain the shape of the bound state potential, and the spectroscopic factor can be reliably extracted. To test this method, the 86Kr(d , p) reaction was performed in inverse kinematics with a 35 MeV/u beam at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) with the ORRUBA and SIDAR arrays of silicon strip detectors coupled to the S800 spectrometer. Successful results supported the measurement of a radioactive ion beam of 84Se at 45 MeV/u at the NSCL to be measured at the end of 2017. Results from the 86Kr(d , p) measurement will be presented as well as preparations for the upcoming 84Se(d , p) measurement. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation and U.S. D.O.E.

  6. Masculinization of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using extract of bull testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustiati, A.; Bangkit, I.; Zidni, I.

    2018-03-01

    Tilapia males grow faster to increase the production of the fish, there is a necessity to produce all males by using extract of bull testes. The research method used in this study was the experimental Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments and three replications. The treatments were A: without immersion and without oral treatment (control); B; immersion 600 μg·L-1 without oral treatment; C: immersion 600 μg·L-1 and oral at a dose of 30 mg·kg-1 feeds, D: immersion 600 μg·L-1 and oral at a dose of 40 mg·kg-1 feeds, E: immersion 600 μg·L-1 and oral at a dose of 50 mg·kg-1 feeds. Results showed that the use of bull testicle extract mixed to media at concentration of 3 ml L-1 produced red male nile of 69.07 %. In addition, the immersion of the extract at 500 μg·L-1 resulted the male of 86.71 %. Sex reversal by dipping at 600 μg·L-1 17α-methyltestosterone combined with oral administration at 40 mg·kg-1 produced the highest male of Nile Tilapia Java carp (86.67 %) compared with dipping, which produced 65.56 % of male. These results suggested that combination of dipping and oral is more effective for sex reversal.

  7. Vacuum mechatronics first international workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinski, S.E.; Shirazi, M.; Hackwood, S.; Beni, G. (eds.) (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: proposed epitaxial thin film growth in the ultra-vacuum of space; particle monitoring and control in vacuum processing equipment; electrostatic dust collector for use in vacuum systems; materials evaluation of an electrically noisy vacuum slip ring assembly; an overview of lubrication and associated materials for vacuum service; the usage of lubricants in a vacuum environment; guidelines and practical applications for lubrication in vacuum; recent development in leak detector and calibrator designs; the durability of ballscrews for ultrahigh vacuum; vacuum-compatible robot for self-contained manufacturing systems; the design, fabrication, and assembly of an advanced vacuum robotics system for space payload calibration; design criteria for mechanisms used in space; and concepts and requirements for semiconductor multiprocess integration in vacuum. These papers are indexed separately elsewhere.

  8. Past, Present and Future of Linac 2 Vacuum System

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E

    2011-01-01

    This note aims to review the past, present, and future operation of CERN's Linac 2 vacuum system. The machine vacuum system layout with its major components is summarized. Operational problems arising in 2006 yielded to a leak test campaign of the whole machine, which detected a new, major leak on tank 3. Details about the mitigation of this leak are described as well as additional diagnostics installed during shutdown 2006/07. The pressure evolution of the most critical vacuum sector is analyzed. A statistics of vacuum system faults observed since 2000 is presented and compared with other systems. Finally, a perspective for the vacuum system operation until 2017/18 is outlined.

  9. Mirror Fusion vacuum technology developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10 7 to 10 8 l/s for D 2 , T 2 and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility

  10. Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10 7 to 10 8 l/s for D 2 , T 2 and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility

  11. Changing MFTF vacuum environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolies, D.; Valby, L.

    1982-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) vaccum vessel will be about 60m long and 10m in diameter at the widest point. The allowable operating densities range from 2 x 10 9 to 5 x 10 10 particles per cc. The maximum leak rate of 10 -6 tl/sec is dominated during operation by the deliberately injected cold gas of 250 tl/sec. This gas is pumped by over 1000 square meters of cryopanels, external sorbtion pumps and getters. The design and requirements have changed radically over the past several years, and they are still not in final form. The vacuum system design has also changed, but more slowly and less radically. This paper discusses the engineering effort necessary to meet these stringent and changing requirements. Much of the analysis of the internal systems has been carried out using a 3-D Monte Carlo computer code, which can estimate time dependent operational pressures. This code and its use will also be described

  12. Effects of Achyrocline satureioides Inflorescence Extracts against Pathogenic Intestinal Bacteria: Chemical Characterization, In Vitro Tests, and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Suzana Moresco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three Achyrocline satureioides (AS inflorescences extracts were characterized: (i a freeze-dried extract prepared from the aqueous extractive solution and (ii a freeze-dried and (iii a spray-dried extract prepared from hydroethanol extractive solution (80% ethanol. The chemical profile, antioxidant potential, and antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogenic bacteria of AS extracts were evaluated. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP assay. In vivo analysis and characterization of intestinal microbiota were performed in male Wistar rats (saline versus treated animals with AS dried extracts by high-throughput sequencing analysis: metabarcoding. Antimicrobial activity was tested in vitro by the disc diffusion tests. Moisture content of the extracts ranged from 10 to 15% and 5.7 to 17 mg kg−1 of fluorine. AS exhibited antioxidant activity, especially in its freeze-dried form which also exhibited a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity against intestinal pathogenic bacteria greater than those observed by the antibiotic, amoxicillin, when tested against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of AS extracts seemed to be positively correlated with the present amount of flavonoids. These findings suggest a potential use of AS as a coadjuvant agent for treating bacterial-induced intestinal diseases with high rates of antibiotic resistance.

  13. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller

  14. Ultra high vacuum technology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    A short introduction for some basic facts and equations. Subsquently, discussion about: Building blocks of an ultrahigh vacuum system - Various types of pumps required to reach uhv and methods to reduce these effects - Outgassing phenomena induced by the presence of a particle beam and the most common methods to reduce these effects It will be given some practical examples from existing CERN accelerators and discuss the novel features of the future LHC vacuum system.

  15. A Planck Vacuum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.

  16. Leach and EP [extraction procedure] toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 99Tc, 129I, 137Cs, and 241 Am), stable major components (NO 3 - , NO 2 - , F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 99 Tc, 3 to 7 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 129 I, 4 to 6 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for 99 Tc and 129 I are 7.4 ± 1.2 and 7.6 ± 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs

  17. Mass extraction container closure integrity physical testing method development for parenteral container closure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung-Yil; Sagi, Hemi; Goldhammer, Craig; Li, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Container closure integrity (CCI) is a critical factor to ensure that product sterility is maintained over its entire shelf life. Assuring the CCI during container closure (C/C) system qualification, routine manufacturing and stability is important. FDA guidance also encourages industry to develop a CCI physical testing method in lieu of sterility testing in a stability program. A mass extraction system has been developed to check CCI for a variety of container closure systems such as vials, syringes, and cartridges. Various types of defects (e.g., glass micropipette, laser drill, wire) were created and used to demonstrate a detection limit. Leakage, detected as mass flow in this study, changes as a function of defect length and diameter. Therefore, the morphology of defects has been examined in detail with fluid theories. This study demonstrated that a mass extraction system was able to distinguish between intact samples and samples with 2 μm defects reliably when the defect was exposed to air, water, placebo, or drug product (3 mg/mL concentration) solution. Also, it has been verified that the method was robust, and capable of determining the acceptance limit using 3σ for syringes and 6σ for vials. Sterile products must maintain their sterility over their entire shelf life. Container closure systems such as those found in syringes and vials provide a seal between rubber and glass containers. This seal must be ensured to maintain product sterility. A mass extraction system has been developed to check container closure integrity for a variety of container closure systems such as vials, syringes, and cartridges. In order to demonstrate the method's capability, various types of defects (e.g., glass micropipette, laser drill, wire) were created in syringes and vials and were tested. This study demonstrated that a mass extraction system was able to distinguish between intact samples and samples with 2 μm defects reliably when the defect was exposed to air, water

  18. Film self-assembly properties of vacuum residua from crude oil and correlation to the stability of water/crude oil emulsions[Supercritical fluid extraction and fractional technology (SFEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Bo

    2005-07-01

    In this thesis, SFEF technology has been used to obtain a fine separation of vacuum residua. Three kinds of vacuum residua from Iranian Heavy Crude Oil, Iranian Light Crude Oil and Daqing Crude Oil have been separated respectively into three series narrow cut fractions as a function of the average molecular weight. And their molecular parameters have been characterized by Vapour Pressure Osmometry(VPO) system, Ultraviolet(UV) spectroscopy, Infrared(IR) spectroscopy as well as by elemental analysis. The various fractions of vacuum residua have been added to an oil/water model system. The oil phase used was pure heptane, pure toluene, a mixture of heptane and toluene etc. Various properties of the interfacial film have been studied such as the self-assembly properties, interfacial tension and interfacial viscosity, etc. The self-assembly procedure of interfacial film of vacuum residua fractions were focused by means of the Wilhelmy plate method (Paper 1). The self-assembly states of interfacial film of vacuum residua fraction from Iranian Heavy and Daqing crude oil have been revealed by using Langmuir-Blodgett technology respectively (Paper II and Paper III). From measurement of the interfacial shear viscosity, the mechanical strength of the interfacial film formed by the vacuum residua fraction has been described (Paper IV) and the roles of the surfactants added in the interfacial film have been confirmed (Paper V). At the same time, the oil/water interfacial tensions of vacuum residua fractions from the three kinds of crude oil have been studied and compared (Paper VI and Paper VII). Characteristic properties of emulsions stabilized by the vacuum residua, such as Zeta potential (Paper VIII) and particle size distribution (Paper IX), have also been studied. An attempt has been made to explain the variations of emulsion properties in terms of the interfacial self-assembly of vacuum residua fractions. Finally, based up the above research and using chemometric methods

  19. Design Implementation and Testing of a VLSI High Performance ASIC for Extracting the Phase of a Complex Signal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altmeyer, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    This thesis documents the research, circuit design, and simulation testing of a VLSI ASIC which extracts phase angle information from a complex sampled signal using the arctangent relationship: (phi=tan/-1 (Q/1...

  20. Test~of~Beam~Extraction~by~Crystal~Channeling~at~the~SPS: A First Step towards a LHC Extracted Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD22 \\\\ \\\\ The availability of a beam extracted out of the LHC accelerator would open up very interesting possibilities for B-physics, in particular for the study of CP-violation. Channeling in bent crystals appears to be the most promising method to produce an extracted beam of intensity $\\sim$~10$^{8}$ p/sec. This would provide as many as 10$^{10}$ $ B \\bar{B} $ pairs per year of run, two orders of magnitude more than could be produced by an e$^+$e$^-$ B-factory with L~=~10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ We propose a R\\&D program to study beam extraction at the CERN SPS, using a silicon bent crystal to be installed in the SPS beam pipe and placed next to the beam in such a way as to intercept the beam halo. Transverse excitation of the beam in presence of non-linearities will be used to create halo conditions similar to what are expected for LHC.

  1. Running jobs in the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNab, A; Stagni, F; Garcia, M Ubeda

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously 'in the vacuum' rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  2. Extraction of Uranium from Seawater: Design and Testing of a Symbiotic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slocum, Alex [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2018-02-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy in October 2014 awarded the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) a Nuclear Energy University Program grant (DE-NE0008268) to investigate the design and testing of a symbiotic system to harvest uranium from seawater. As defined in the proposal, the goals for the project are: 1. Address the design of machines for seawater uranium mining. 2. Develop design rules for a uranium harvesting system that would be integrated into an offshore wind power tower. 3. Fabricate a 1/50th size scale prototype for bench and pool-testing to verify initial analysis and theory. 4. Design, build, and test a second 1/10th size scale prototype in the ocean for more comprehensive testing and validation. This report describes work done as part of DE-NE0008268 from 10/01/2014 to 11/30/2017 entitled, “Extraction of Uranium from Seawater: Design and Testing of a Symbiotic System.” This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program. This report details the publications and presentations to date on the project, an introduction to the project’s goals and background research into previous work done to achieve these goals thus far. From there, the report describes an algorithm developed during the project used to optimize the adsorption of uranium by changing mechanical parameters such as immersion time and adsorbent reuses is described. Next, a design tool developed as part of the project to determine the global feasibility of symbiotic uranium harvesting systems. Additionally, the report details work done on shell enclosures for uranium adsorption. Moving on, the results from the design, building, and testing of a 1/50th physical scale prototype of a highly feasible symbiotic uranium harvester is described. Then, the report describes the results from flume experiment used to determine the affect of enclosure shells on the uptake of uranium by the adsorbent they enclose. From there the report details the design of a Symbiotic Machine for Ocean u

  3. Testing sequential extraction methods for the analysis of multiple stable isotope systems from a bone sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlstedt, Elina; Arppe, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Stable isotope composition of bones, analysed either from the mineral phase (hydroxyapatite) or from the organic phase (mainly collagen) carry important climatological and ecological information and are therefore widely used in paleontological and archaeological research. For the analysis of the stable isotope compositions, both of the phases, hydroxyapatite and collagen, have their more or less well established separation and analytical techniques. Recent development in IRMS and wet chemical extraction methods have facilitated the analysis of very small bone fractions (500 μg or less starting material) for PO43-O isotope composition. However, the uniqueness and (pre-) historical value of each archaeological and paleontological finding lead to preciously little material available for stable isotope analyses, encouraging further development of microanalytical methods for the use of stable isotope analyses. Here we present the first results in developing extraction methods for combining collagen C- and N-isotope analyses to PO43-O-isotope analyses from a single bone sample fraction. We tested sequential extraction starting with dilute acid demineralization and collection of both collagen and PO43-fractions, followed by further purification step by H2O2 (PO43-fraction). First results show that bone sample separates as small as 2 mg may be analysed for their δ15N, δ13C and δ18OPO4 values. The method may be incorporated in detailed investigation of sequentially developing skeletal material such as teeth, potentially allowing for the investigation of interannual variability in climatological/environmental signals or investigation of the early life history of an individual.

  4. Analgesic effect of leaf extract from Ageratina glabrata in the hot plate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe García P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ageratina glabrata (Kunth R.M. King & H. Rob., Asteraceae (syn. Eupatorium glabratum Kunth is widely distributed throughout Mexico and popularly known as "chamizo blanco" and "hierba del golpe" for its traditional use as external analgesic remedy. Though glabrata species has been chemically studied, there are no experimentally asserted reports about possible analgesic effects which can be inferred from its genus Ageratina. To fill the gap, we evaluated A. glabrata extracts in an animal model of nociception exploiting thermal stimuli. NMR and mass analyses identified a new thymol derivative, 10-benzoiloxy-6,8,9-trihydroxy-thymol isobutyrate (1, which was computationally converted into a ring-closed structure to explain interaction with the COX-2 enzyme in a ligand-receptor docking study. The resulting docked pose is in line with reported crystal complexes of COX-2 with chromene ligands. Based on the present results of dichloromethane extracts from its dried leaves, it is safe to utter that the plant possesses analgesic effects in animal tests which are mediated through inhibition of COX-2 enzyme.

  5. Vacuum arc anode phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation

  6. Haertel's turbidity test and extraction of conifer needles by benzene as methods for the determination of smoke-induced damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Materna, J; Hrncirova, L

    1960-01-01

    The applicability of the Haertel turbidity test to the assessment of smoke damage to conifers is based on the observation that needles from smoke damage to conifers is based on the observation that needles from smoke-damaged areas eliminate less wax than undamaged needles. Of the various organic solvent and extraction methods tested, best results were obtained by a half-hour extraction of the wax from the needle surface with cold benzene. The evaporation residue from this extraction method contained only traces of components from the inside of the needles; microscopic examination of the surface of the needles revealed that all wax was removed from the needle surface fissures. Comparison of wax quantities extracted from needles from smoke-damage areas with those from healthy needles and comparison of wax yields from areas which suffered different degrees of smoke damage confirmed that higher wax yields are obtained from healthy than from smoke-damaged needles. Comparison with results of turbidity tests disclosed that benzene extraction yields decreased with increasing turbidity test values, indicating that increased turbidity of smoke-damaged needles is not caused by wax. In the Haertel test extract, silicon, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, iron, nitrogenous substances, tannin, glycides, and waxes were found. It is as yet unresolved which substances contribute to increased turbidity from smoke damage.

  7. Screening potential genotoxic effect of aquatic plant extracts using the mussel micronucleus test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Eck-Varanka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the genotoxic potential of selected aquatic macrophytes: Ceratophyllum demersum L. (hornwort, family Ceratophyllaceae, Typha angustifolia L. (narrowleaf cattail, family Typhaceae, Stratiotes aloides L. (water soldier, family Butomaceae, and Oenanthe aquatica (L. Poir. (water dropwort, family Umbelliferae. Methods: For genotoxicity assessment, the mussel micronucleus test was applied. Micronucleus frequency was determined from the haemolymph of Unio pictorum L. (painter’s mussel. In parallel, total and hydrolisable tannin contents were determined. Results: All plant extracts elucidated significant mutagenic effect. Significant correlation was determined between tannin content and mutagenic capacity. Conclusions: The significant correlation between genotoxicity as expressed by micronucleus frequency and tannin content (both total and hydrolisable tannins indicate that tannin is amongst the main compounds being responsible for the genotoxic potential. It might be suggested that genotoxic capacity of these plants elucidate a real ecological effect in the ecosystem.

  8. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I.

    2013-12-16

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  9. Vacuum fusion of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.A.

    1957-01-01

    After having outlined that vacuum fusion and moulding of uranium and of its alloys have some technical and economic benefits (vacuum operations avoid uranium oxidation and result in some purification; precision moulding avoids machining, chip production and chemical reprocessing of these chips; direct production of the desired shape is possible by precision moulding), this report presents the uranium fusion unit (its low pressure enclosure and pumping device, the crucible-mould assembly, and the MF supply device). The author describes the different steps of cast production, and briefly comments the obtained results

  10. Baryogenesis in false vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta [KEK Theory Center, IPNS, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi [Kanazawa University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    The null result in the LHC may indicate that the standard model is not drastically modified up to very high scales, such as the GUT/string scale. Having this in the mind, we suggest a novel leptogenesis scenario realized in the false vacuum of the Higgs field. If the Higgs field develops a large vacuum expectation value in the early universe, a lepton number violating process is enhanced, which we use for baryogenesis. To demonstrate the scenario, several models are discussed. For example, we show that the observed baryon asymmetry is successfully generated in the standard model with higher-dimensional operators. (orig.)

  11. Vacuum considerations summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The vacuum system for Heavy Ion Fusion machines can be divided according to pressure into 4 parts: (a) Ion Sources; (b) Linear Accelerators; (c) Circular Accelerators, Accumulators and Storage Rings; and (d) Reactors. Since ion sources will need rather conventional pumping arrangements and reactors will operate with greater pressures, depending on their mode of operation, only items b and c will be treated in this report. In particular, the vacuum system design will be suggested for the machines proposed by various scenarios arrived at during the workshop. High mass numbers will be assumed

  12. Handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    1964-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 3: Technology is a handbook of vacuum physics, with emphasis on the properties of miscellaneous materials such as mica, oils, greases, waxes, and rubber. Accurate modern tables of physical constants, properties of materials, laboratory techniques, and properties of commercial pumps, gauges, and leak detectors are presented. This volume is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with a discussion on pump oils, divided into rotary pump oils and vapor pump oils. The next chapter deals with the properties and applications of greases, including outgassing and vapor pr

  13. Vacuum phonon tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A; Roy, Ajit K

    2010-10-15

    Field-induced phonon tunneling, a previously unknown mechanism of interfacial thermal transport, has been revealed by ultrahigh vacuum inelastic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Using thermally broadened Fermi-Dirac distribution in the STM tip as in situ atomic-scale thermometer we found that thermal vibrations of the last tip atom are effectively transmitted to sample surface despite few angstroms wide vacuum gap. We show that phonon tunneling is driven by interfacial electric field and thermally vibrating image charges, and its rate is enhanced by surface electron-phonon interaction.

  14. Performance evaluation on vacuum pumps using nanolubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, Yeou Feng; Hsu, Yu Chun; Teng, Tun Ping [Dept. of Industrial EducationNational Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-15

    This study produced alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanovacuum-pump lubricants (NVALs) by involving the dispersion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in a vacuum-pump lubricant (VAL) with oleic as a dispersant. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the suspension performance, thermal conductivity, viscosity, specific heat, tribological performance and vacuum-pump performance of the NVALs. The experimental results obtained from the vacuum-pump performance tests show that the NVALs with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration of 0.2 wt.% and oleic concentration of 0.025 wt.% yielded the lowest electricity consumption, conserving 2.39% of electricity compared with the VAL. No marked difference was observed between the temperatures of the vacuum pump using VAL and NVAL. Furthermore, evacuation (i.e., the minimal pressure of -99.5 kPa) was reached faster by the vacuum pump with the NVALs, and the evacuation time could be reduced by 4.91% under optimal conditions. In addition, the vacuum pump with the NVALs exhibited superior overall effectiveness under relatively lower ambient temperatures.

  15. Tracer gas diffusion sampling test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts are under way to employ active and passive vapor extraction to remove carbon tetrachloride from the soil in the 200 West Area an the Hanford Site as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action. In the active approach, a vacuum is applied to a well, which causes soil gas surrounding the well to be drawn up to the surface. The contaminated air is cleaned by passage through a granular activated carbon bed. There are questions concerning the radius of influence associated with application of the vacuum system and related uncertainties about the soil-gas diffusion rates with and without the vacuum system present. To address these questions, a series of tracer gas diffusion sampling tests is proposed in which an inert, nontoxic tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), will be injected into a well, and the rates of SF 6 diffusion through the surrounding soil horizon will be measured by sampling in nearby wells. Tracer gas tests will be conducted at sites very near the active vacuum extraction system and also at sites beyond the radius of influence of the active vacuum system. In the passive vapor extraction approach, barometric pressure fluctuations cause soil gas to be drawn to the surface through the well. At the passive sites, the effects of barometric ''pumping'' due to changes in atmospheric pressure will be investigated. Application of tracer gas testing to both the active and passive vapor extraction methods is described in the wellfield enhancement work plan (Rohay and Cameron 1993)

  16. LEP vacuum chamber, prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Final prototype for the LEP vacuum chamber, see 8305170 for more details. Here we see the strips of the NEG pump, providing "distributed pumping". The strips are made from a Zr-Ti-Fe alloy. By passing an electrical current, they were heated to 700 deg C.

  17. Cryogenic vacuum pump design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, A.J.; Lessard, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the problems and tradeoffs involved in cryogenic vacuum pump analysis, design and manufacture. Particular attention is paid to the several issues unique to cryopumps, e.g., radiation loading, adsorption of noncondensible gases, and regeneration. A general algorithm for cryopump design is also proposed. 12 references

  18. ISR vacuum system

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Some of the most important components of the vacuum system are shown. At the left, the rectangular box is a sputter-ion pump inside its bake-out oven. The assembly in the centre includes a sector valve, three roughing valves, a turbomolecular pump, a rotary backing pump and auxiliary equipment. At the right, the small elbow houses a Bayard-

  19. ISR vacuum system

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    A pressure of 5 x 10-11 Torr has been obtained repreatedly in this pilot section of the ISR vacuum system. The pilot section is 45 m long is pumped by 9 sputter-ion pumps pf 350 l/s pumping speed, and is baked out at 200 degrees C before each pump down.

  20. LEP Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This is a cut-out of a LEP vacuum chamber for dipole magnets showing the beam channel and the pumping channel with the getter (NEG) strip and its insulating supports. A water pipe connected to the cooling channel can also be seen at the back.The lead radiation shield lining is also shown. See also 8305563X.

  1. Vacuum distilling vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reik, H

    1928-12-27

    Vacuum distilling vessel for mineral oil and the like, characterized by the ring-form or polyconal stiffeners arranged inside, suitably eccentric to the casing, being held at a distance from the casing by connecting members of such a height that in the resulting space if necessary can be arranged vapor-distributing pipes and a complete removal of the residue is possible.

  2. Scroll vacuum pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Etsuo; Suganami, Takuya; Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Kitora, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Sakuei; Fujii, Kosaburo

    1988-02-25

    An effort is made to apply a scroll machine to development of a vacuum pump. In view of mechanical simplification and load patterns, the vacuum pump uses a rotating mechanism to produce paired vortices rotating around each center. Chip seal and atmospheric pressure are utilized for axial gap sealing while a spring and atmospheric pressure for the radial gap sealing. In both gaps, the sealing direction is stationary relative to the environment during rotation, making it much easier to achieve effective sealing as compared to oscillating pumps. Since the compression ratio is high in vacuum pumps, a zero top clearance form is adopted for the central portion of vortices and an gas release valve is installed in the rotating axis. A compact Oldham coupling with a small inertia force is installed behind the vortices to maintain the required phase relations between the vortices. These improvements result in a vacuum of 1 Pa for dry operation and 10/sup -2/ Pa for oil flooded operation of a single-stage scroll machine at 1800 rpm. (5 figs, 1 tab, 4 refs)

  3. On Lovelock vacuum solution

    OpenAIRE

    Dadhich, Naresh

    2010-01-01

    We show that the asymptotic large $r$ limit of all Lovelock vacuum and electrovac solutions with $\\Lambda$ is always the Einstein solution in $d \\geq 2n+1$ dimensions. It is completely free of the order $n$ of the Lovelock polynomial indicating universal asymptotic behaviour.

  4. Continuing assessment of the 5 day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay as an indicator test for silicon fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The five day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay has been proposed by the AAFPCO as a standard test to identify fertilizers that provide plant-available Si. A single-lab validation test was previously performed; however, the analysis lacked any correlation to a grow-out study. To do...

  5. Design and fabrication of the vacuum systems for TPS pulsed septum magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, C.K.; Chang, C.C.; Chen, C.L.; Yang, C.S.; Chen, C.S.; Lin, F.Y.; Chen, J.R.

    2014-11-01

    Three in-air pulsed septum magnets were developed to inject and extract electron beams for the 3 GeV synchrotron facility, the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS). The vacuum chamber is a novel combined aluminium-stainless steel design, using a bimetallic flange to connect the two material types. To evaluate the vacuum performances of these vacuum chambers, we set up a test bench at which we simultaneously measure the rates of thermal outgassing of the aluminium chamber and the septum tube with a throughput method. The test result indicates that the rate q{sub 72} of thermal outgassing measured after 1 day from baking at 150 °C was 1×10{sup −13} mbar L s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. The magnetic leakage measurements show the combination of conductor slitting, magnetic shielding and the aluminium vacuum chamber reduce the peak value of the leakage field integral to ∼10 G cm along the trajectory of the stored beam.

  6. Use of the modified Ames test as an indicator of the carcinogenicity of residual aromatic extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogaard, P.; Hedelin, A.; Riley, A.; Rushton, E.; Vaissiere, M.; Minsavage, G.; Rohde, A.; Dalbey, W.

    2013-01-15

    Existing data demonstrate that residual aromatic extracts (RAEs) can be either carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic. CONCAWE had previously concluded that 'Although limited data available indicate that some RAEs are weakly carcinogenic, it is not possible to provide a general recommendation. Classify on a case-by-case basis' (CONCAWE 2005). Therefore CONCAWE's Health/Toxicology Subgroup (H/TSG) has developed a proposal for the use of the modified Ames test as a short-term predictive screening tool for decisions on the classification of RAEs for carcinogenicity. The relationship between RAE chemistry and carcinogenic potential is not as well understood as it is for some other categories of substances, e.g. Other Lubricant Base Oils (OLBO). However, a correlation has been found between the results of the skin carcinogenicity bioassay and the mutagenicity index (MI) obtained from the modified Ames test. Data supporting this correlation are summarised in this report. The H/TSG confirmed that the modified Ames test can be used as a predictive screening tool and that a cut-off value can be established to make a distinction between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic products. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 demonstrated carcinogenic potential upon dermal application to mouse skin with chronic exposure. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 did not demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. To justify the use of the modified Ames test with RAEs, additional analysis of the repeatability of the test with RAEs was required. With this objective, CONCAWE sponsored a round robin study with different samples of RAEs from member companies, at three different laboratories. The repeatability demonstrated in the round robin study with RAEs support the proposed use of the modified Ames test. As part of the tools available for use by member companies, the H/TSG proposed a standard operating procedure (SOP) (included as an Appendix to this report) on the conduct of the modified Ames test with RAEs. The H

  7. Experimental studies and tests on An(III)/Ln(III) separation using the TODGA extractant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heres, Xavier; Sorel, Christian; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Cames, Beatrice; Hill, Clement; Bisel, Isabelle; Espinoux, Denis; Viallesoubranne, Carole; Baron, Pascal; Lorrain, Brigitte [CEA/DEN/MAR/DRCP, Marcoule, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols/Ceze (France)

    2009-06-15

    Minor actinide recycling by separation and transmutation is worldwide considered as one of the most promising strategies to reduce the inventory of radioactive waste, thus contributing to make nuclear energy more sustainable. One of the different options investigated at the CEA Marcoule and within the ACSEPT project (a European collaborative project partly funded by the 7. EURATOM Framework Program) to separate trivalent minor actinide (Am(III)-Cf(III)) from the fission and activation products contained in PUREX raffinates is the TODGA process, which consists in: 1. Co-extracting trivalent 4f and 5f elements from highly acidic PUREX raffinates by a mixture of TODGA (tetraoctyl-diglycolamide) and TBP (tributyl-phosphate), dissolved in HTP (hydrogenated tetra-propene). 2. Selectively stripping the trivalent minor actinides by a hydrophilic poly-aminocarboxylic acid used as a complexing agent in a buffered aqueous solution, while the trivalent lanthanides are kept in the organic solvent thanks to a sodium nitrate salting-out effect. 3. Stripping the lanthanides in a diluted nitric acid solution. The major difficulty of this TODGA separation process is to tune the pH in a very narrow range of operating conditions in the second step, because of the high sensitivity of the performances of the flow-sheet vs pH. This difficulty was however overcome. This paper describes the development of the TODGA process from experimental studies to hot test implementation in shielded cells of the ATALANTE facility, including (i) the optimization of the extraction system (both the formulation of the organic solvent and those of the aqueous scrubbing and stripping solutions), (ii) the implementation of a cold test in small scale mixer-settlers in the G1 facility (MARCEL loop), using a surrogate feed composed of major fission products, (iii) the validation of some steps of the process, using a surrogate feed, spiked with Am-241 and Eu-152, and similar laboratory contactors (medium activity

  8. Basic Test Framework for the Evaluation of Text Line Segmentation and Text Parameter Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Brodić

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Text line segmentation is an essential stage in off-line optical character recognition (OCR systems. It is a key because inaccurately segmented text lines will lead to OCR failure. Text line segmentation of handwritten documents is a complex and diverse problem, complicated by the nature of handwriting. Hence, text line segmentation is a leading challenge in handwritten document image processing. Due to inconsistencies in measurement and evaluation of text segmentation algorithm quality, some basic set of measurement methods is required. Currently, there is no commonly accepted one and all algorithm evaluation is custom oriented. In this paper, a basic test framework for the evaluation of text feature extraction algorithms is proposed. This test framework consists of a few experiments primarily linked to text line segmentation, skew rate and reference text line evaluation. Although they are mutually independent, the results obtained are strongly cross linked. In the end, its suitability for different types of letters and languages as well as its adaptability are its main advantages. Thus, the paper presents an efficient evaluation method for text analysis algorithms.

  9. Effects of Dietary Extract on Growth, Feed Utilization and Challenge Test of Olive Flounder (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary Scutellaria baicalensis extract (SBE on growth, feed utilization and challenge test of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus were determined. Six hundred thirty fish averaging 5.0 g were distributed into 18, 180-L tanks. Six experimental diets were prepared in triplicate: SBE-0, SBE-0.5, SBE-1, SBE-2, SBE-3 and SBE-5 diets containing SBE at the concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5%, respectively. Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiation twice a day for 8 wks. At the end of 8-wk feeding trial, ten fish from each tank were infected by Edwardsiella tarda for challenge test. Survival and weight gain of fish were not affected by dietary concentrations of SBE. However, specific growth rate of fish fed the SBE-2 diet was higher than that of fish fed the SBE-0, SBE-1, SBE-3 and SBE-5 diets. Neither feed efficiency nor serum chemical composition of fish was affected by dietary concentrations of SBE. The cumulative mortality of fish fed the SBE-0 diet was 100% at 96 h after E. tarda infection, but 77 to 87% for fish fed the other diets. Dietary inclusion of 2% SBE appears to be recommendable to improve specific growth rate of fish and SBE had the potential to mitigate mortality of fish at E. tarda infection.

  10. IR-RF dating of sand-sized K-feldspar extracts: A test of accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buylaert, J.-P.; Jain, M.; Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, K.J.; Lapp, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use a recently developed radioluminescence (RL) attachment to the Risø TL/OSL reader to test the InfraRed-RadioFluorescence (IR-RF) dating method applied to K-feldspar rich extracts from our known-age archive samples. We present experiments to characterise the instrument performance and to test the reproducibility of IR-RF measurements. These experiments illustrate the high sensitivity and dose rate of our RL system, the negligible influence of the turntable movement on IR-RF signals and the effectiveness of the built in 395 nm LED at bleaching IR-RF signals. We measure IR-RF ages on a set of samples with independent age control using a robust analytical method, which is able to detect any possible sensitivity change. Our IR-RF ages do not agree well with the independent age control; the ages of the younger samples (20–45 ka) are significantly over-estimated while the ages of the older samples (∼130 ka) are significantly under-estimated. Experiments are undertaken to investigate this disagreement and our results indicate that they can most likely be explained by 1) the difficulty of defining the correct bleaching level prior to regeneration measurements, 2) signal instability, 3) sensitivity changes between the additive dose and regenerative dose measurements, or a combination of these three factors.

  11. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Lindera obtusiloba Extracts on the Immobility Behavior of Rats in the Forced Swim Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lindera obtusiloba extracts are commonly used as an alternative medicine due to its numerous health benefits in Korea. However, the antidepressant-like effects of L. obtusiloba extracts have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine whether L. obtusiloba extracts exhibited antidepressant-like activity in rats subjected to forced swim test (FST-induced depression. Acute treatment of rats with L. obtusiloba extracts (200 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reduced immobility time and increased swimming time without any significant change in climbing. Rats treated with L. obtusiloba extracts also exhibited a decrease in the limbic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to the FST, as indicated by attenuation of the corticosterone response and decreased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampus CA3 region. In addition, L. obtusiloba extracts, at concentrations that were not affected by cell viability, significantly decreased luciferase activity in response to cortisol in a concentration-dependent manner by the glucocorticoid binding assay in HeLa cells. Our findings suggested that the antidepressant-like effects of L. obtusiloba extracts were likely mediated via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of L. obtusiloba extracts as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression.

  12. Tritium extraction technologies and DEMO requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demange, D., E-mail: david.demange@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Antunes, R.; Borisevich, O.; Frances, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rapisarda, D. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santucci, A. [ENEA for EUROfusion, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Utili, M. [ENEA CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We detail the R&D plan for tritium technology of the European DEMO breeding blanket. • We study advanced and efficient extraction techniques to improve tritium management. • We consider inorganic membranes and catalytic membrane reactor for solid blankets. • We consider permeator against vacuum and vacuum sieve tray for liquid blankets. - Abstract: The conceptual design of the tritium extraction system (TES) for the European DEMO reactor is worked out in parallel for four different breeding blankets (BB) retained by EUROfusion. The TES design has to be tackled in an integrated manner optimizing the synergy with the directly interfacing inner fuel cycle, while minimizing the tritium permeation into the coolant. Considering DEMO requirements, it is most likely that only advanced technologies will be suitable for the tritium extraction systems of the BB. This paper overviews the European work programme for R&D on tritium technology for the DEMO BB, summaries the general first outcomes, and details the specific and comprehensive R&D program to study experimentally immature but promising technologies such as vacuum sieve tray or permeator against vacuum for tritium extraction from PbLi, and advanced inorganic membranes and catalytic membrane reactor for tritium extraction from He. These techniques are simple, fully continuous, likely compact with contained energy consumption. Several European Laboratories are joining their efforts to deploy several new experimental setups to accommodate the tests campaigns that will cover small scale experiments with tritium and inactive medium scale tests so as to improve the technology readiness level of these advanced processes.

  13. High current vacuum closing switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Maslennikov, D.D.; Romanov, A.S.; Ushakov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a powerful pulsed closing vacuum switch for high current commutation consisting of series of the vacuum diodes with near 1 mm gaps having closing time determined by the gaps shortening with the near-electrode plasmas [ru

  14. Vacuum Mechatronics And Insvection For Self-Contained Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinski, Steve E.; Shirazi, Majid; Seidel, Thomas E.; Hackwood, Susan

    1990-02-01

    The vacuum environment is increasingly being used in manufacturing operations, especially in the semiconductor industry. Shrinking linewidths and feature sizes dictate that cleanliness standards become continually more strict. Studies at the Center for Robotic Systems in Microelectronics (CRSM) indicate that a controlled vacuum enclosure can provide a superior clean environment. In addition, since many microelectronic fabrication steps are already carried out under vacuum, self-contained multichamber processing systems are being developed at a rapid pace. CRSM support of these systems includes the development of a research system, the Self-contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF), a vacuum-compatible robot, and investigations of particulate characterization in vacuum and inspection for multichamber systems. Successful development of complex and expensive multichamber systems is, to a great extent, dependent upon the discipline called vacuum mechatronics, which includes the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. Here the constituents of the vacuum mechatronics discipline are defined and reviewed in the context of the importance to self-contained in-vacuum manufacturing.

  15. ASME Section VIII Recertification of a 33,000 Gallon Vacuum-jacketed LH2 Storage Vessel for Densified Hydrogen Testing at NASA Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, Adam M.; Notardonato, William U.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU-LH2) has been developed at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida. GODU-LH2 has three main objectives: zero-loss storage and transfer, liquefaction, and densification of liquid hydrogen. A cryogenic refrigerator has been integrated into an existing, previously certified, 33,000 gallon vacuum-jacketed storage vessel built by Minnesota Valley Engineering in 1991 for the Titan program. The dewar has an inner diameter of 9.5 and a length of 71.5; original design temperature and pressure ranges are -423 F to 100 F and 0 to 95 psig respectively. During densification operations the liquid temperature will be decreased below the normal boiling point by the refrigerator, and consequently the pressure inside the inner vessel will be sub-atmospheric. These new operational conditions rendered the original certification invalid, so an effort was undertaken to recertify the tank to the new pressure and temperature requirements (-12.7 to 95 psig and -433 F to 100 F respectively) per ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1. This paper will discuss the unique design, analysis and implementation issues encountered during the vessel recertification process.

  16. The symmetries of the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, H.

    1985-01-01

    The vacuum equation of state required by cosmological inflation is taken seriously as a general property of the cosmological vacuum. This correctly restricts the class of theories which admit inflation. A model of such a vacuum is presented that leads naturally to the cosmological principle. (Author) [pt

  17. LiDAR DTMs and anthropogenic feature extraction: testing the feasibility of geomorphometric parameters in floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, G.; Tarolli, P.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2012-04-01

    resolution topography have been proven to be reliable for feasible applications. The use of statistical operators as thresholds for these geomorphic parameters, furthermore, showed a high reliability for feature extraction in mountainous environments. The goal of this research is to test if these morphological indicators and objective thresholds can be feasible also in floodplains, where features assume different characteristics and other artificial disturbances might be present. In the work, three different geomorphic parameters are tested and applied at different scales on a LiDAR DTM of typical alluvial plain's area in the North East of Italy. The box-plot is applied to identify the threshold for feature extraction, and a filtering procedure is proposed, to improve the quality of the final results. The effectiveness of the different geomorphic parameters is analyzed, comparing automatically derived features with the surveyed ones. The results highlight the capability of high resolution topography, geomorphic indicators and statistical thresholds for anthropogenic features extraction and characterization in a floodplains context.

  18. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  19. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  20. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  1. NH4NO3 extractable trace element contents of soil samples prepared for proficiency testing--a stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, H; Scharf, H

    2001-06-01

    In view of its intended use as a sample for proficiency testing or as a reference material the stability of the extractable trace element contents of a soil from an irrigation field was tested using the extraction with 1 mol/L ammonium nitrate solution according to DIN 19730. Therefore, changes of the extractability of sterilized and non sterilized soil samples stored at different temperatures were evaluated over a period of 18 months. Sets of bottles were kept at -20 degrees C, +4 degrees C, about +20 degrees C and +40 degrees C, respectively. The NH4NO3 extractable contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined immediately after bottling and then after 3, 6, 12 and 18 months with ICP-AES or ETAAS. Appropriate storage conditions are of utmost importance to prevent deterioration of soil samples prepared for the determination of NH4NO3 extractable trace element contents. Temperatures above +20 degrees C must be avoided. The observed changes in the extractability of the metals (especially for Cr and Cu) most likely could be related to thermal degradation of the organic matter of the soil. There is no need to sterilize dry soil samples, because microbiological activity in soils with a low moisture content appears to be negligible with regard to trace element mobilization.

  2. Temperature control in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1986-01-01

    The patent concerns a method for controlling the temperature of silicon wafers (or samples), during ion beam treatment of the wafers, in a vacuum. The apparatus and method are described for irradiation and temperature control of the samples. The wafers are mounted on a drum which is rotated through the ion beam, and are additionally heated by infra-red lamps to achieve the desired temperature. (U.K.)

  3. Electroweak vacuum geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepora, N.; Kibble, T.

    1999-01-01

    We analyse symmetry breaking in the Weinberg-Salam model paying particular attention to the underlying geometry of the theory. In this context we find two natural metrics upon the vacuum manifold: an isotropic metric associated with the scalar sector, and a squashed metric associated with the gauge sector. Physically, the interplay between these metrics gives rise to many of the non-perturbative features of Weinberg-Salam theory. (author)

  4. Vacuum inhomogeneous cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanquin, J.-L.

    1984-01-01

    The author presents some results concerning the vacuum cosmological models which admit a 2-dimensional Abelian group of isometries: classifications of these space-times based on the topological nature of their space-like hypersurfaces and on their time evolution, analysis of the asymptotical behaviours at spatial infinity for hyperbolical models as well as in the neighbourhood of the singularity for the models possessing a time singularity during their evolution. (Auth.)

  5. Herpes Murine Model as a Biological Assay to Test Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohemí Salinas-Jazmín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Transferon, we standardized and validated a murine model of cutaneous HSV-1 infection. Using this model, we evaluated the activity of 27 Transferon batches. All batches improved the survival of HSV-1-infected mice, wherein average survival rose from 20.9% in control mice to 59.6% in Transferon-treated mice. The activity of Transferon correlated with increased serum levels of IFN-γ and reduced IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations. Our results demonstrate that (i this mouse model of cutaneous herpes can be used to examine the activity of DLEs, such as Transferon; (ii the assay can be used as a routine test for batch release; (iii Transferon is produced with high homogeneity between batches; (iv Transferon does not have direct virucidal, cytoprotective, or antireplicative effects; and (v the protective effect of Transferon in vivo correlates with changes in serum cytokines.

  6. Round and Extracted Nb3Sn Strand Tests for LARP Magnet R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzi, Emanuela; Bossert, Rodger; Caspi, Shlomo; Dietderich, Dan; Ferracin, Paolo; Ghosh, Arup; Turrioni, Daniele; Yamada, Ryuji; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2006-01-01

    The first step in the magnet R and D of the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is fabrication of technology quadrupoles TQS01 and TQC01. These are two-layer magnets which use cables of same geometry made of 0.7 mm MJR Nb 3 Sn. Through strand billet qualification and tests of strands extracted from the cables, predictions of magnet performance are made. Measurements included the critical current, I c , using the voltage-current (VI) method at constant field, the stability current, I S , as the minimal quench current obtained with the voltage-field (VH) method at constant current in the sample, and RRR. Magnetization was measured at low and high fields to determine the effective filament size and to detect flux jumps. Effects of heat treatment duration and temperature on I c and I S were also studied. The Nb 3 Sn strand and cable samples, the equipment, measurement procedures, and results are described. Based on these results, strand specifications were formulated for next LARP quadrupole models

  7. ELETTRA vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, M.; Daclon, F.; Giacuzzo, F.; Miertusova, J.; Pradal, F.; Kersevan, R.

    1993-01-01

    Elettra is a third-generation synchrotron light source which is being built especially for the use of high brilliance radiation from insertion devices and bending magnets. The UHV conditions in a storage ring lead to a longer beam lifetime - one of the most important criterion. The Elettra vacuum system presents some pecularities which cannot be found in any already existing machine. The final version of bending magnet vacuum chamber is presented. After chemical and thermal conditioning the specific outgassing rate of about 1.5e-12 Torr. liters sec -1 cm -2 was obtained. A microprocessor-controlled system has been developed to perform bake-out at the uniform temperature. The etched-foil type heaters are glued to the chamber and Microtherm insulation is used. UHV pumps based on standard triode sputter-ion pumps were modified with ST 707 NEG (Non Evaporable Getter) modules. A special installation enables the resistive activation of getters and significantly increases pumping speed for hydrogen and other residual gases (except methane and argon). All these technological innovations improve vacuum conditions in Elettra storage ring and consequently also the other parameters of the light source

  8. PARAFFIN SEPARATION VACUUM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. Abdulrahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulated column performance curves were constructed for existing paraffin separation vacuum distillation column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company/Baiji-Iraq. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top vacuum pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates composition were constructed. Four different thermodynamic model options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.The simulated results show that about 2% to 8 % of paraffin (C10, C11, C12, & C13 present at the bottom stream which may cause a problem in the LAB plant. The major variations were noticed for the top temperature & the  paraffin weight fractions at bottom section with top vacuum pressure. The bottom temperature above 240 oC is not recommended because the total bottom flow rate decreases sharply, where as  the weight fraction of paraffins decrease slightly. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD

  9. Vacuum system for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, O.

    1995-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is planned at CERN will be housed in the tunnel of the Large Electron Positron collider (LEP) and will store two counter-rotating proton beams with energies of up to 7 TeV in a 27 km accelerator/storage ring with superconducting magnets. The vacuum system for the LHC will be at cryogenic temperatures (between 1.9 and 20 K) and will be exposed to synchrotron radiation emitted by the protons. A stringent limitation on the vacuum is given by the energy deposition in the superconducting coils of the magnets due to nuclear scattering of the protons on residual gas molecules because this may provoke a quench. This effect imposes an upper limit to a local region of increased gas density (e.g. a leak), while considerations of beam lifetime (100 h) will determine more stringent requirements on the average gas density. The proton beam creates ions from the residual gas which may strike the vacuum chamber with sufficient energy to lead to a pressure 'run-away' when the net ion induced desorption yield exceeds a stable limit. These dynamic pressure effects will be limited to an acceptable level by installing a perforated 'beam screen' which shields the cryopumped gas molecules at 1.9 K from synchrotron radiation and which also absorbs the synchrotron radiation power at a higher and, therefore, thermodynamically more efficient temperature. (author)

  10. Anomalous vacuum expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.

    1986-01-01

    The anomalous vacuum expectation value is defined as the expectation value of a quantity that vanishes by means of the field equations. Although this value is expected to vanish in quantum systems, regularization in general produces a finite value of this quantity. Calculation of this anomalous vacuum expectation value can be carried out in the general framework of field theory. The result is derived by subtraction of divergences and by zeta-function regularization. Various anomalies are included in these anomalous vacuum expectation values. This method is useful for deriving not only the conformal, chiral, and gravitational anomalies but also the supercurrent anomaly. The supercurrent anomaly is obtained in the case of N = 1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in four, six, and ten dimensions. The original form of the energy-momentum tensor and the supercurrent have anomalies in their conservation laws. But the modification of these quantities to be equivalent to the original one on-shell causes no anomaly in their conservation laws and gives rise to anomalous traces

  11. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  12. Papaver Rhoeas L. Hydroalcoholic Extract Exacerbates Forced Swimming Test-Induced Depression in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Osanloo

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: The extract of Papaver rhoeas can reduce immobility time which is comparable to the effect of fluoxetine. Also the effect of the extract is contrary to its effects on plasma corticosterone level and or animals’ activity.

  13. Vacuum Baking To Remove Volatile Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscari, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Outgassing reduced in some but not all nonmetallic materials. Eleven polymeric materials tested by determining outgassing species as temperature of conditioned and unconditioned materials raised to 300 degrees C. Conditioning process consisted of vacuum bake for 24 hours at 80 degrees C in addition to usual cure. Baking did not change residual gas percentage of water molecules.

  14. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  15. Antibacterial Activity of Different Plant Extracts and Phenolic Phytochemicals Tested on Paenibacillus Larvae Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Mărghitaş

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus larvae, a Gram-positive and spore-forming bacterium is responsible for American foulbrood disease inbees. The antimicrobial activity of different plant extracts and phenolic phytochemical was evaluated onPaenibacillus larvae bacteria. In addition possible correlation with antioxidant activity of the same plant extracts wasstudied. Extracts of the following plants were utilized: Achillea millefolium (yarrow, Ocimum basilicum (basil,Thymus vulgaris (thyme and Urtica dioica (nettle. The extracts that showed antimicrobial activity were later testedto determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. Although nettle present the lowest polyphenolic contentcompared with the other plant extracts, exhibit the highest antimicrobial activity, measured as the inhibition zoneusing Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Basil presented both polyphenolic content and antimicrobial activity at higherlevels, while thyme had the lowest antimicrobial activity, even it present high amount of polyphenols.

  16. icacy test of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seeds for Chrysomya bezziana larvae growth in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H Wardhana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya bezziana is primer agent causing myiasis in livestock and human throughout Africa to Asia. At present, treatment of myiasis using chemical synthetic insecticide causing environment and livestock production contaminations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seed to kill C. bezziana as botanical insecticide. Three level and method preparation of larvae (L1, L2 and L3 were carried out. Meat blood mixture (MBM and larval rearing media (LRM were mixed with hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed and tested to 625 and 750 larvae (L1and L2 respectively, while for L3 625 larvae were soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract. This last preparation was carried out to observe the effect of toxic contact. Each larvae treatment was divided into 5 levels such as negative control using distillation water (PO, given 0.25% hexane extract (P I; 0.50% (P II; 0.75% (P III and positive control was given with 0.10% Asuntol®. This assay was to know digest toxic effect of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for those larvae. Number of 625 instar III larvae (L3 was soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for 10 second, placed into vermicullite and incubated on 36oC. This assay was to know contact toxic effect of them. All of larvae were allowed to become pupae. Parameters oberserve were number of larvae death, pupae weight and number of pupae become into fly. The data was analyzed using Anova (5% and Z test (5% then smallest significant difference test (BNT 5%. The results showed that 0.50% of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed was able to decrease pupae weight for L1 and L2 and to cause fail pupae become fly (P0.05.

  17. Extracting material response from simple mechanical tests on hardening-softening-hardening viscoplastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Nisha

    Compliant foams are usually characterized by a wide range of desirable mechanical properties. These properties include viscoelasticity at different temperatures, energy absorption, recoverability under cyclic loading, impact resistance, and thermal, electrical, acoustic and radiation-resistance. Some foams contain nano-sized features and are used in small-scale devices. This implies that the characteristic dimensions of foams span multiple length scales, rendering modeling their mechanical properties difficult. Continuum mechanics-based models capture some salient experimental features like the linear elastic regime, followed by non-linear plateau stress regime. However, they lack mesostructural physical details. This makes them incapable of accurately predicting local peaks in stress and strain distributions, which significantly affect the deformation paths. Atomistic methods are capable of capturing the physical origins of deformation at smaller scales, but suffer from impractical computational intensity. Capturing deformation at the so-called meso-scale, which is capable of describing the phenomenon at a continuum level, but with some physical insights, requires developing new theoretical approaches. A fundamental question that motivates the modeling of foams is `how to extract the intrinsic material response from simple mechanical test data, such as stress vs. strain response?' A 3D model was developed to simulate the mechanical response of foam-type materials. The novelty of this model includes unique features such as the hardening-softening-hardening material response, strain rate-dependence, and plastically compressible solids with plastic non-normality. Suggestive links from atomistic simulations of foams were borrowed to formulate a physically informed hardening material input function. Motivated by a model that qualitatively captured the response of foam-type vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) pillars under uniaxial compression [2011,"Analysis of

  18. Straw detector: 1 - Vacuum: 0

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The NA62 straw tracker is using pioneering CERN technology to measure charged particles from very rare kaon decays. For the first time, a large straw tracker with a 4.4 m2 coverage will be placed directly into an experiment’s vacuum tank, allowing physicists to measure the direction and momentum of charged particles with extreme precision. NA62 measurements using this technique will help physicists take a clear look at the kaon decay rate, which might be influenced by particles and processes that are not included in the Standard Model.   Straw ends are glued to an aluminium frame, a crucial step in the assembly of a module. The ends are then visually inspected before a leak test is performed.  “Although straw detectors have been around since the 1980s, what makes the NA62 straw trackers different is that they can work under vacuum,” explains Hans Danielsson from the PH-DT group leading the NA62 straw project. Straw detectors are basically small drift cha...

  19. High-vacuum plasma pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorodnov, A.M.; Minajchev, V.E.; Miroshkin, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    The action of an electric-arc high-vacuum pump intended for evacuating the volumes in which the operation processes are followed by a high gas evolution is considered. The operation of the pump is based on the principle of controlling the getter feed according to the gas load and effect of plasma sorbtion pumping. The pump performances are given. The starting pressure is about 5 Pa, the limiting residual pressure is about 5x10 -6 Pa, the pumping out rate of nitrogen in the pressure range 5x10 -5 -5x10 -3 Pa accounts for about 4000 l/s, the power consumption comes to 6 kW. Analyzing the results of the test operation of the pump, it has been concluded that its principal advantages are the high starting pressure, controlled getter feed rate and possibility of pumping out the gases which are usually pumped out with difficulty. The operation reliability of the pump is defined mainly by reliable operation of the ignition system of the vacuum arc [ru

  20. Rising hopes for vacuum tube collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godolphin, D.

    1982-06-01

    The performance, feasibility and use of vacuum tube solar collectors for domestic hot water (DHW) systems are discussed. An introduction to the design of vacuum tube collectors is presented and comparisons are made with flat plate collectors in terms of effectiveness in DHW applications and cost. The use of vacuum tube collectors is well established for high temperature use such as process heat and absorption cooling applications; there is considerable debate concerning their use in DHW and these arguments are presented. It is pointed out that the accepted standardized comparison test (ASHRAE 93-77) is apparently biased towards the flat plate collectors in direct comparisons of collector efficiencies. Recent developments among manufacturers with regard to vacuum tube collectors and their thinking (pro and con) are discussed in some detail. Breakage and other problems are pointed out although advocates look ahead to lower costs, higher efficiencies, and broader markets (particularly in DHW). It is concluded by some that flat plate collector technology has reached its peak and that vacuum tube collectors will be very prominent in the future. (MJJ)

  1. Burning and graphitization of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. T. M. A.; Frangeskou, A. C.; Kim, M. S.; Bose, S.; Morley, G. W.; Barker, P. F.

    2016-02-01

    A nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) centre in a nanodiamond, levitated in high vacuum, has recently been proposed as a probe for demonstrating mesoscopic centre-of-mass superpositions and for testing quantum gravity. Here, we study the behaviour of optically levitated nanodiamonds containing NV- centres at sub-atmospheric pressures and show that while they burn in air, this can be prevented by replacing the air with nitrogen. However, in nitrogen the nanodiamonds graphitize below ≈10 mB. Exploiting the Brownian motion of a levitated nanodiamond, we extract its internal temperature (Ti) and find that it would be detrimental to the NV- centre’s spin coherence time. These values of Ti make it clear that the diamond is not melting, contradicting a recent suggestion. Additionally, using the measured damping rate of a levitated nanoparticle at a given pressure, we propose a new way of determining its size.

  2. Stability Test and Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of the Amino Acids in Pharmacopuncture Extracted from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, GyeYoon; Han, KyuChul; Yoon, JinYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (S. subspinipes mutilans) is known as a traditional medicine and includes various amino acids, peptides and proteins. The amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans by using derivatization methods were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over a 12 month period to confirm its stability. Methods: Amino acids of pharmacopuncture extracted from S. subspinipes mutilans were derived by using O-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) & 9-fluorenyl methoxy carbonyl chloride (FMOC) reagent and were analyzed using HPLC. The amino acids were detected by using a diode array detector (DAD) and a fluorescence detector (FLD) to compare a mixed amino acid standard (STD) to the pharmacopuncture from centipedes. The stability tests on the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were done using HPLC for three conditions: a room temperature test chamber, an acceleration test chamber, and a cold test chamber. Results: The pharmacopuncture from centipedes was prepared by using the method of the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute (KPI) and through quantitative analyses was shown to contain 9 amino acids of the 16 amino acids in the mixed amino acid STD. The amounts of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture from centipedes were 34.37 ppm of aspartate, 123.72 ppm of arginine, 170.63 ppm of alanine, 59.55 ppm of leucine and 57 ppm of lysine. The relative standard deviation (RSD %) results for the pharmacopuncture from centipedes had a maximum value of 14.95% and minimum value of 1.795% on the room temperature test chamber, the acceleration test chamber and the cold test chamber stability tests. Conclusion: Stability tests on and quantitative and qualitative analyses of the amino acids in the pharmacopuncture extracted from centipedes by using derivatization methods were performed by using HPLC. Through research, we hope to determine the relationship between time and the

  3. Analysis of plant extracts antimutagenicity using the Ames test and the cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buňková, R.; Marová, I.; Pokorná, Z.; Lojek, Antonín

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2005), s. 107-112 ISSN 1082-0132 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : plant extracts * antioxidative activity * Ames test Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.724, year: 2005

  4. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: Kimihiro.Ioki@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bayon, A. [F4E, c/ Josep Pla, No. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC “Sintez”, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pathak, H. [ITER-India, A-29, GIDC Electronic Estate, Sector 25, Gandhinagar 382025 (India); Preble, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sa, J.W. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure.

  5. Progress of ITER vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Bayon, A.; Choi, C.H.; Daly, E.; Dani, S.; Davis, J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y.; Hamlyn-Harris, C.; Jun, C.; Levesy, B.; Kim, B.C.; Kuzmin, E.; Le Barbier, R.; Martinez, J.-M.; Pathak, H.; Preble, J.; Sa, J.W.; Terasawa, A.; Utin, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This covers the overall status and progress of the ITER vacuum vessel activities. ► It includes design, R and D, manufacturing and approval process of the regulators. ► The baseline design was completed and now manufacturing designs are on-going. ► R and D includes ISI, dynamic test of keys and lip-seal welding/cutting technology. ► The VV suppliers produced full-scale mock-ups and started VV manufacturing. -- Abstract: Design modifications were implemented in the vacuum vessel (VV) baseline design in 2011–2012 for finalization. The modifications are mostly due to interface components, such as support rails and feedthroughs for the in-vessel coils (IVC). Manufacturing designs are being developed at the domestic agencies (DAs) based on the baseline design. The VV support design was also finalized and tests on scale mock-ups are under preparation. Design of the in-wall shielding (IWS) has progressed, considering the assembly methods and the required tolerances. Further modifications are required to be consistent with the DAs’ manufacturing designs. Dynamic tests on the inter-modular and stub keys to support the blanket modules are being performed to measure the dynamic amplification factor (DAF). An in-service inspection (ISI) plan has been developed and R and D was launched for ISI. Conceptual design of the VV instrumentation has been developed. The VV baseline design was approved by the agreed notified body (ANB) in accordance with the French Nuclear Pressure Equipment Order procedure

  6. Beneficial Effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Maximal Sprint Speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark ET Willems

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC extract has been shown to enhance high-intensity intermittent treadmill running. We examined the effects of NZBC extract during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST which involves 5 × 15 min blocks with intermittent 15-m maximal sprints, interspersed by moderate and high-intensity running to simulate team sport activity, and a subsequent run to exhaustion. Thirteen males (age: 22 ± 1 year, V ˙ O 2 max : 50 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1 participated in three indoor sessions (T: 24 ± 3 °C, humidity: 52% ± 9%. In the first session, a multistage fitness test was completed to determine peak running speed and estimate V ˙ O 2 max . Participants consumed NZBC extract in capsules (300 mg·day−1 CurraNZ™ or placebo (PL (300 mg·day−1 microcrystalline cellulose M102 for seven days in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design (wash-out at least seven days. NZBC extract did not affect average 15-m sprint times in each block. NZBC reduced slowing of the fastest sprint between block 1 and 5 (PL: 0.12 ± 0.07 s; NZBC: 0.06 ± 0.12 s; p < 0.05. NZBC extract had no effect on heart rate, vertical jump power, lactate and time to exhaustion (PL: 13.44 ± 8.09 min, NZBC: 15.78 ± 9.40 min, p > 0.05. However, eight participants had higher running times to exhaustion when consuming NZBC extract. New Zealand blackcurrant extract may enhance performance in team sports with repeated maximal sprints.

  7. Leaf Extracts of Mangifera indica L. Inhibit Quorum Sensing – Regulated Production of Virulence Factors and Biofilm in Test Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing (QS is a global gene regulatory mechanism in bacteria for various traits including virulence factors. Disabling QS system with anti-infective agent is considered as a potential strategy to prevent bacterial infection. Mangifera indica L. (mango has been shown to possess various biological activities including anti-QS. This study investigates the efficacy of leaf extracts on QS-regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation in Gram negative pathogens. Mango leaf (ML extract was tested for QS inhibition and QS-regulated virulence factors using various indicator strains. It was further correlated with the biofilm inhibition and confirmed by electron microscopy. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. In vitro evaluation of anti-QS activity of ML extracts against Chromobacterium violaceum revealed promising dose-dependent interference in violacein production, by methanol extract. QS inhibitory activity is also demonstrated by reduction in elastase (76%, total protease (56%, pyocyanin (89%, chitinase (55%, exopolysaccharide production (58% and swarming motility (74% in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 at 800 μg/ml concentration. Biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa PAO1 and Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was reduced considerably (36–82% over control. The inhibition of biofilm was also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, ML extracts significantly reduced mortality of Caenorhabditis elegans pre-infected with PAO1 at the tested concentration. Phytochemical analysis of active extracts revealed very high content of phenolics in methanol extract and a total of 14 compounds were detected by GC-MS and UPLC. These findings suggest that phytochemicals from the ML could provide bioactive anti-infective and needs further investigation to isolate and uncover their therapeutic efficacy.

  8. Leaf Extracts of Mangifera indica L. Inhibit Quorum Sensing – Regulated Production of Virulence Factors and Biofilm in Test Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Fohad M.; Ahmad, Iqbal; Al-thubiani, Abdullah S.; Abulreesh, Hussein H.; AlHazza, Ibrahim M.; Aqil, Farrukh

    2017-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a global gene regulatory mechanism in bacteria for various traits including virulence factors. Disabling QS system with anti-infective agent is considered as a potential strategy to prevent bacterial infection. Mangifera indica L. (mango) has been shown to possess various biological activities including anti-QS. This study investigates the efficacy of leaf extracts on QS-regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation in Gram negative pathogens. Mango leaf (ML) extract was tested for QS inhibition and QS-regulated virulence factors using various indicator strains. It was further correlated with the biofilm inhibition and confirmed by electron microscopy. Phytochemical analysis was carried out using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. In vitro evaluation of anti-QS activity of ML extracts against Chromobacterium violaceum revealed promising dose-dependent interference in violacein production, by methanol extract. QS inhibitory activity is also demonstrated by reduction in elastase (76%), total protease (56%), pyocyanin (89%), chitinase (55%), exopolysaccharide production (58%) and swarming motility (74%) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 at 800 μg/ml concentration. Biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa PAO1 and Aeromonas hydrophila WAF38 was reduced considerably (36–82%) over control. The inhibition of biofilm was also observed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, ML extracts significantly reduced mortality of Caenorhabditis elegans pre-infected with PAO1 at the tested concentration. Phytochemical analysis of active extracts revealed very high content of phenolics in methanol extract and a total of 14 compounds were detected by GC-MS and UPLC. These findings suggest that phytochemicals from the ML could provide bioactive anti-infective and needs further investigation to isolate and uncover their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:28484444

  9. Recent advances in vacuum arc ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Oks, E.M.

    1995-07-01

    Intense beams of metal ions can be formed from a vacuum arc ion source. Broadbeam extraction is convenient, and the time-averaged ion beam current delivered downstream can readily be in the tens of milliamperes range. The vacuum arc ion source has for these reasons found good application for metallurgical surface modification--it provides relatively simple and inexpensive access to high dose metal ion implantation. Several important source developments have been demonstrated recently, including very broad beam operation, macroparticle removal, charge state enhancement, and formation of gaseous beams. The authors have made a very broad beam source embodiment with beam formation electrodes 50 cm in diameter, producing a beam of width ∼35 cm for a nominal beam area of ∼1,000 cm 2 , and a pulsed Ti beam current of about 7 A was formed at a mean ion energy of ∼100 keV. Separately, they've developed high efficiency macroparticle-removing magnetic filters and incorporated such a filter into a vacuum arc ion source so as to form macroparticle-free ion beams. Jointly with researchers at the High Current Electronics Institute at Tomsk, Russia, and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung at Darmstadt, Germany, they've developed a compact technique for increasing the charge states of ions produced in the vacuum arc plasma and thus providing a simple means of increasing the ion energy at fixed extractor voltage. Finally, operation with mixed metal and gaseous ion species has been demonstrated. Here, they briefly review the operation of vacuum marc ion sources and the typical beam and implantation parameters that can be obtained, and describe these source advances and their bearing on metal ion implantation applications

  10. Conception, construction, and test of ironless quadrupoles for the resonance extraction from ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeling, H.

    1987-09-01

    The extraction from the new stretcher ring ELSA of the Physical Institute of Bonn University results as resonance extraction of third-numbered working points. Because the main aim of the construction of ELSA is the assembly of an extracted beam with timely constant intensity, which corresponds to a touch ratio of 100% first the slope of the approach to the resonance must be optimized with high accuracy and second the working-point shift existing at the end of an extraction cycle must be removed before the beginning of a new injection in order to constrain not the touch ratio. The extraction quadrupoles developed for the working-point shift and presented in this thesis from which four are installed in the ELSA ring were especially because of the second topic designed as ironless magnets. Theoretical calculations showed that for a circular-cylindrical conductor arrangement already a concept with only one conductor per octant yields at the choice of the azimutal conductor width yields to 30 0 an excellent quadrupole field with only small contributions of higher multipoles. Although the disturbing fields are larger than calculated the field quality is yet within the aperture used by the beam completely sufficient. Because of the small conductor number moreover the inductivity of the magnets is extremely small so that from the extraction quadrupoles and their power supplies a touch ratio of above 99% would be possible. As all ELSA components also the extraction quadrupoles are included in the computer concept of the ELSA control system and by this remotely operable - thereby especially during the machine operation the current slope at one extraction cycle and by this the precise slope of the approach to the resonance can be optimized. (orig./HSI) [de

  11. The vacuum platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes GridPP’s Vacuum Platform for managing virtual machines (VMs), which has been used to run production workloads for WLCG and other HEP experiments. The platform provides a uniform interface between VMs and the sites they run at, whether the site is organised as an Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud system such as OpenStack, or an Infrastructure-as-a-Client system such as Vac. The paper describes our experience in using this platform, in developing and operating VM lifecycle managers Vac and Vcycle, and in interacting with VMs provided by LHCb, ATLAS, ALICE, CMS, and the GridPP DIRAC service to run production workloads.

  12. ACTIVITY TEST OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava L. LEAF METHANOL EXTRACT AS CONTRACEPTION ANTIFERTILITY TO WHITE MICE (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Retno Dwi Ariani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know about if the guava (Psidium guajava L. leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages indicate a positive test as contraception antifertility to white mice (Rattus norvegicus. The sample is guava leaf from Mungkid, Magelang Central of Java Indonesia. The animals experiment are the white mice on 140-300 g for female, 200-250 g for male and about 3 months of age in average. The steps of this research are : (1 preparing  sample, i.e. washing, drying on to indirect sunlight and make the sample into powder, (2 isolation the guava leaf powder in soxhlet instrument with hexane, (3 evaporation the sample with rotary evaporator until guava leaf hexane extract produced, (4 maseration the sample with methanol, (5 evaporation the sample with rotary evaporator until guava leaf methanol extract produced, (6 conducting contraception antifertility activity test to guave leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages to mice white. The results of this research are guava leaf methanol extract on 10.5 mg/mL and 21.0 mg/mL dossages indicate a negative contraception antifertility test to white mice but in these dossages have indicated that an antiimplantation effect (the total natality of fetus is less than the total implantation site in mice white.   Keywords: Guava leaf, contraseption antifertility, methanol extract, white mice, implantation

  13. Combination of poroelasticity theory and constant strain rate test in modelling land subsidence due to groundwater extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tien Hung; Rühaak, Wolfram; Sass, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Extensive groundwater extraction leads to a drawdown of the ground water table. Consequently, soil effective stress increases and can cause land subsidence. Analysis of land subsidence generally requires a numerical model based on poroelasticity theory, which was first proposed by Biot (1941). In the review of regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction, Galloway and Burbey (2011) stated that more research and application is needed in coupling of stress-dependent land subsidence process. In geotechnical field, the constant rate of strain tests (CRS) was first introduced in 1969 (Smith and Wahls 1969) and was standardized in 1982 through the designation D4186-82 by American Society for Testing and Materials. From the reading values of CRS tests, the stress-dependent parameters of poroelasticity model can be calculated. So far, there is no research to link poroelasticity theory with CRS tests in modelling land subsidence due to groundwater extraction. One dimensional CRS tests using conventional compression cell and three dimension CRS tests using Rowe cell were performed. The tests were also modelled by using finite element method with mixed elements. Back analysis technique is used to find the suitable values of hydraulic conductivity and bulk modulus that depend on the stress or void ratio. Finally, the obtained results are used in land subsidence models. Biot, M. A. (1941). "General theory of three-dimensional consolidation." Journal of applied physics 12(2): 155-164. Galloway, D. L. and T. J. Burbey (2011). "Review: Regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction." Hydrogeology Journal 19(8): 1459-1486. Smith, R. E. and H. E. Wahls (1969). "Consolidation under constant rates of strain." Journal of Soil Mechanics & Foundations Div.

  14. Antidiabetic Activity Test of Ethanolic Seri Leave’s (Muntingia Calabura L.) Extract in Male Rats Induced by Alloxan

    OpenAIRE

    Herlina Herlina; Annisa Amriani; Indah Solihah; Rizky Sintya

    2018-01-01

    Antidiabetic activity test of ethanol extract of seri leave (Muntingia calabura L.) rats induced by alloxan has been done. Male wistar albino rats are used as animal models which divided into 6 groups, normal group (aquadest), negative control group (Na CMC 0,5%), positive control group (glibenclamide 0,43 mg/200 gBB), and 1, 2, and 3 treatment groups (ethanol extract of seri leave 65, 130, dan 260 mg/kgBB). Rats blood glucose level after induced intraperitoneally by alloxan 130 mg/kgBB can b...

  15. Fusion reactor high vacuum pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedgley, D.W.; Walthers, C.R.; Jenkins, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on recent experiments which have shown the practicality of using activated carbon (coconut charcoal) at 4K to pump helium and hydrogen isotopes for a fusion reactor. Both speed and capacity for deuterium/helium and tritium/helium-3 mixtures were satisfactory. The long-term effects of tritium on the charcoal/cement system developed by Grumman and LLNL was now known; therefore a program was undertaken to see what, if any, effect long-term tritium exposure has on the cryosorber. Several charcoal on aluminum test samples were subjected to six months exposure of tritium at approximately 77 K. The tritium was scanned several times with a residual gas analyzer and the speed-capacity performance of the samples was measured before, approximately one-third way through, and after the exposure. Modest effects were noted which would not seriously restrict the use of charcoal as a cryosorber for fusion reactor high-vacuum pumping applications

  16. MMS Observatory Thermal Vacuum Results Contamination Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrans, Glenn P.; Errigo, Therese; Brieda, Lubos

    2014-01-01

    The MMS mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earths magnetosphere. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Thermal vacuum testing was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in their Big Blue vacuum chamber. The individual spacecraft were tested and enclosed in a cryopanel enclosure called a Hamster cage. Specific contamination control validations were actively monitored by several QCMs, a facility RGA, and at times, with 16 Ion Gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV environment included slow pump downs with represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with Ion gauges. Various data from these TV tests will be shown along with lessons learned.

  17. An ultrahigh vacuum monochromator for photophysics beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi Raja Rao, P.; Padmanabhan, Saraswathy; Raja Sekhar, B.N.; Shastri, Aparna; Khan, H.A.; Sinha, A.K.

    2000-08-01

    The photophysics beamline designed for carrying out photoabsorption and fluorescence studies using the 450 MeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), INDUS-1, uses a 1 metre monochromator as premonochromator for monochromatising the continuum. An ultra high vacuum compatible monochromator in Seya-Namioka mount has been designed and fabricated indigenously. The monochromator was assembled and tested for its performance. Wavelength scanning mechanism was tested for its reproducibility and the monochromator was tested for its resolution using UV and VUV sources. An average spectral resolution of 2.5 A was achieved using a 1200 gr/mm grating. A wavelength repeatability of ± 1A was obtained. An ultra high vacuum of 2 X 10 -8 mbar was also achieved in the monochromator. Details of fabrication, assembly and testing are presented in this report. (author)

  18. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tanacetum Sonbolii (Asteraceae on Pain-related Behaviors during Formalin Test in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tanacetum sonbolii (Asteraceae is an endemic species in Iran. In the present study, we examined the effects of Tanacetum sonbolii hydroalcoholic extract on the formalin test in mice. Methods: 126 Swiss albino mice weighing 230-280g were used as subjects. The formalin test was performed on two control groups (marked as intact and saline groups n = 6 in each group and an experimental group. In all groups, the formalin test was recorded for 60 min after administration of extract and drugs in mice. Results: The results showed that Tanacetum sonbolii (150 and 300 mg/kg produced significant antinociception in phase 2. In addition, different doses of Tanacetum sonbolii extract (600, 900 and 1200 mg/kg also induced antinociceptive effects in phase1 and phase 2. On the other hand, morphine could induce antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg failed to affect the pain scores compared to Tanacetum sonbolii (300 mg/kg group. Discussion: It seems that administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Tanacetum sonbolii has the potential to relieve pain through both central and peripheral mechanisms in persistent inflammatory nociception.

  19. R&D ERL: Vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The

  20. R and D ERL: Vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the ∼10 -9 torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2 o K is reduced to low 10 -11 torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The cryostat vacuum thermally

  1. Effect of two doses of ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the dual-coding test in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, H; Raoul, P; Lieury, A; LeCoz, F; Gandon, J M; d'Arbigny, P

    1993-01-01

    The subjects of this double-blind study were 18 elderly men and women (mean age, 69.3 years) with slight age-related memory impairment. In a crossover-study design, each subject received placebo or an extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) (320 mg or 600 mg) 1 hour before performing a dual-coding test that measures the speed of information processing; the test consists of several coding series of drawings and words presented at decreasing times of 1920, 960, 480, 240, and 120 ms. The dual-coding phenomenon (a break point between coding verbal material and images) was demonstrated in all the tests. After placebo, the break point was observed at 960 ms and dual coding beginning at 1920 ms. After each dose of the ginkgo extract, the break point (at 480 ms) and dual coding (at 960 ms) were significantly shifted toward a shorter presentation time, indicating an improvement in the speed of information processing.

  2. Of vacuum and gas

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A new LHCb programme is delving into uncharted waters for the LHC: exploring how protons interact with noble gases inside the machine pipe. While, at first glance, it may sound risky for the overall quality of the vacuum in the machine, the procedure is safe and potentially very rich in rewards. The results could uncover the high-energy helium-proton cross-section (with all the implications thereof), explore new boundaries of the quark-gluon plasma and much more.   As the beam passes through LHCb, interactions with neon gas allow the experiment to measure the full beam profile. In this diagram, beam 1 (blue) and beam 2 (red) are measured by the surrounding VELO detector. It all begins with luminosity. In 2011, LHCb set out to further improve its notoriously precise measurements of the beam profile, using the so-called Beam-Gas Imaging (BGI) method. BGI does exactly what it says on the tin: a small amount of gas is inserted into the vacuum, increasing the rate of collisions around the interaction ...

  3. LHC vacuum system

    CERN Document Server

    Gröbner, Oswald

    1999-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, now in the advanced construction phase at CERN, comprises two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7-TeV energy. The machine is housed in the existing LEP tunnel with a circumference of 26.7 km and requires a bending magnetic field of 8.4 T with 14-m long superconducting magnets. The beam vacuum chambers comprise the inner 'cold bore' walls of the magnets. These magnets operate at 1.9 K, and thus serve as very good cryo-pumps. In order to reduce the cryogenic power consumption, both the heat load from synchrotron radiation emitted by the proton beams and the resistive power dissipation by the beam image currents have to be absorbed on a 'beam screen', which operates between 5 and 20 K and is inserted inside the vacuum chamber. The design of this beam screen represents a technological challenge in view of the numerous and often conflicting requirements and the very tight mechanical tolerances imposed. The synchrotron radiation produces strong outgassing from the...

  4. Probing the Higgs vacuum with general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheim, Philip D.; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the structure of the Higgs vacuum can be revealed in gravitational experiments which probe the Schwarzschild geometry to only one order in MG/r beyond that needed for the classical tests of general relativity. The possibility that deviations from the conventional geometry are at least theoretically conceivable is explored. The deviations obtained provide a diagnostic test for searching for the existence of macroscopic scalar fields and open up the possiblity for further exploring the Higgs mechanism.

  5. An effective self-assessment based on concept map extraction from test-sheet for personalized learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Keng-Hou; Lin, Yu-Shih; Chang, Yi-Chun; Chu, Chih-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Examination is a traditional way to assess learners' learning status, progress and performance after a learning activity. Except the test grade, a test sheet hides some implicit information such as test concepts, their relationships, importance, and prerequisite. The implicit information can be extracted and constructed a concept map for considering (1) the test concepts covered in the same question means these test concepts have strong relationships, and (2) questions in the same test sheet means the test concepts are relative. Concept map has been successfully employed in many researches to help instructors and learners organize relationships among concepts. However, concept map construction depends on experts who need to take effort and time for the organization of the domain knowledge. In addition, the previous researches regarding to automatic concept map construction are limited to consider all learners of a class, which have not considered personalized learning. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes a new approach to automatically extract and construct concept map based on implicit information in a test sheet. Furthermore, the proposed approach also can help learner for self-assessment and self-diagnosis. Finally, an example is given to depict the effectiveness of proposed approach.

  6. Mouse single oral dose toxicity test of bupleuri radix aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Hu; Gam, Cheol-Ou; Choi, Seong-Hun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the single oral dose toxicity of Bupleuri Radix (BR) aqueous extracts, it has been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory agent, in male and female mice. BR extracts (yield = 16.52%) was administered to female and male ICR mice as an oral dose of 2,000, 1,000 and 500 mg/kg (body weight) according to the recommendation of Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) Guidelines. Animals were monitored for the mortality and changes in body weight, clinical signs and gross observation during 14 days after dosing, upon necropsy; organ weight and histopathology of 14 principal organs were examined. As the results, no BR extracts treatment related mortalities, clinical signs, changes on the body and organ weights, gross and histopathological observations against 14 principal organs were detected up to 2,000 mg/kg in both female and male mice, except for soft feces and related body weight decrease detected in male mice treated with 2,000 mg/kg. Therefore, LD50 (50% lethal dose) and approximate LD of BR aqueous extracts after single oral treatment in female and male mice were considered over 2000 mg/kg, respectively. Although it was also observed that the possibilities of digestive disorders, like soft feces when administered over 2,000 mg/kg of BR extracts in the present study, these possibilities of digestive disorders can be disregard in clinical use because they are transient in the highest dosages male only.

  7. Particle contamination in vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martignac, J.; Bonin, B.; Henriot, C.; Poupeau, J.P.; Koltchakian, I.; Kocic, D.; Herbeaux, Ch.; Marx, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Many vacuum devices, like RF cavities, are sensitive to particle contamination. This fact has motivated a considerable effort of cleanliness from the SRF community. The present paper reports the first results of a general study trying to identify the most contaminating steps during assembly and vacuum operation of the cavity. The steps investigated here are gasket assembly, evacuation and venting of the vacuum system, and operation of sputter ion pumps. (author)

  8. Vacuum guidelines for ISA insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Vacuum requirements place design restrictions on the ISA insertions. The vacuum tube diameter, given a distance L between pumps, is determined by the desorption of molecules from the wall under the impact of ions created by the beam, whereas the thickness of the tube must be sufficient to prevent collapse. In addition, the entire vacuum chamber must be able to be baked out at approximately 200 0 C

  9. Particle contamination in vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martignac, J.; Bonin, B.; Henriot, C.; Poupeau, J.P.; Koltchakian, I.; Kocic, D.; Herbeaux, Ch.; Marx, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Many vacuum devices, like RF cavities, are sensitive to particle contamination. This fact has motivated a considerable effort of cleanliness from the SRF community. The first results of a general study trying to identify the most contaminating steps during assembly and vacuum operation of the cavity is reported. The steps investigated here are gasket assembly, evacuation and venting of the vacuum system, and operation of sputter ion pumps. (author)

  10. Big Bang or vacuum fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Ya.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some general properties of vacuum fluctuations in quantum field theory are described. The connection between the ''energy dominance'' of the energy density of vacuum fluctuations in curved space-time and the presence of singularity is discussed. It is pointed out that a de-Sitter space-time (with the energy density of the vacuum fluctuations in the Einstein equations) that matches the expanding Friedman solution may describe the history of the Universe before the Big Bang. (P.L.)

  11. Test to Extract Soil Properties Using the Seismic HammerTM Active Seismic Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Rebekah F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abbott, Robert E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Geologic material properties are necessary parameters for ground motion modeling and are difficult and expensive to obtain via traditional methods. Alternative methods to estimate soil properties require a measurement of the ground's response to a force. A possible method of obtaining these measurements is active-source seismic surveys, but measurements of the ground response at the source must also be available. The potential of seismic sources to obtain soil properties is limited, however, by the repeatability of the source. Explosives, and hammer surveys are not repeatable because of variable ground coupling or swing strength. On the other hand, the Seismic Hammer TM (SH) is consistent in the amount of energy it inputs into the ground. In addition, it leaves large physical depressions as a result of ground compaction. The volume of ground compaction varies by location. Here, we hypothesize that physical depressions left in the earth by the SH correlate to energy recorded by nearby geophones, and therefore are a measurement of soil physical properties. Using measurements of the volume of shot holes, we compare the spatial distribution of the volume of ground compacted between the different shot locations. We then examine energy recorded by the nearest 50 geophones and compare the change in amplitude across hits at the same location. Finally, we use the percent difference between the energy recorded by the first and later hits at a location to test for a correlation to the volume of the shot depressions. We find that: * Ground compaction at the shot-depression does cluster geographically, but does not correlate to known surface features. * Energy recorded by nearby geophones reflects ground refusal after several hits. * There is no correlation to shot volume and changes in energy at particular shot locations. Deeper material properties (i.e. below the depth of surface compaction) may be contributing to the changes in energy propagation. * Without further

  12. High-Activity ICP-AES Measurements in the ATALANTE Facility Applied to Analytical Monitoring of an Extraction Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbelin, E.; Boyer-Deslys, V.; Beres, A.; Viallesoubranne, C. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DRCP/SE2A/LAMM, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    The Material Analysis and Metrology Laboratory (LAMM) of the Cea's Atalante complex ensures analytical monitoring of enhanced separation tests. Certain fission products, actinides and lanthanides were assayed by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) in the CBA shielded analysis line. These analyses were particularly effective for controlling the Diamex test, and contributed to its success. The Diamex process consists in extracting the actinides and lanthanides from a Purex raffinate using a diamide, DMDOHEMA, followed by stripping at low acidity. The major elements analyzed during the test were Am, Nd, Mo, Fe, and Zr.

  13. High-Activity ICP-AES Measurements in the ATALANTE Facility Applied to Analytical Monitoring of an Extraction Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esbelin, E.; Boyer-Deslys, V.; Beres, A.; Viallesoubranne, C.

    2008-01-01

    The Material Analysis and Metrology Laboratory (LAMM) of the Cea's Atalante complex ensures analytical monitoring of enhanced separation tests. Certain fission products, actinides and lanthanides were assayed by ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy) in the CBA shielded analysis line. These analyses were particularly effective for controlling the Diamex test, and contributed to its success. The Diamex process consists in extracting the actinides and lanthanides from a Purex raffinate using a diamide, DMDOHEMA, followed by stripping at low acidity. The major elements analyzed during the test were Am, Nd, Mo, Fe, and Zr

  14. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burda, Philipp [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street North,Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Moss, Ian G. annd [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University,Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-24

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  15. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G. annd

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  16. PDX vacuum vessel stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.

    1975-01-01

    A stress analysis of PDX vacuum vessel is described and the summary of results is presented. The vacuum vessel is treated as a toroidal shell of revolution subjected to an internal vacuum. The critical buckling pressure is calculated. The effects of the geometrical discontinuity at the juncture of toroidal shell head and cylindrical outside wall, and the concavity of the cylindrical wall are examined. An effect of the poloidal field coil supports and the vessel outside supports on the stress distribution in the vacuum vessel is determined. A method evaluating the influence of circular ports in the vessel wall on the stress level in the vessel is outlined

  17. Vacuum leak detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jr., David

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

  18. Vacuum science, technology, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Naik, Pramod K

    2018-01-01

    Vacuum plays an important role in science and technology. The study of interaction of charged particles, neutrals and radiation with each other and with solid surfaces requires a vacuum environment for reliable investigations. Vacuum has contributed immensely to advancements made in nuclear science, space, metallurgy, electrical/electronic technology, chemical engineering, transportation, robotics and many other fields. This book is intended to assist students, scientists, technicians and engineers to understand the basics of vacuum science and technology for application in their projects. The fundamental theories, concepts, devices, applications, and key inventions are discussed.

  19. Surge-damping vacuum valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, J.C.; Kelley, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    A valve for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system is described. The surge-damping mechanism consists of a slotted, spring-loaded disk adjacent to the valve's vacuum port (the flow passage to the vacuum roughing pump). Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into a sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the gas flow path to narrow slots in the disk's periphery. The increased flow damps out the flow surge. When pressure is equalized on both sides of the valve, the spring load moves the disk away from the port to restore full flow conductance through the valve

  20. Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed ''Mevva,'' for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes.

  1. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130–132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  2. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130-132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid.

  3. Shiva and Argus target diagnostics vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaros, S.S.; Mayo, S.E.; Campbell, D.; Holeman, D.

    1978-09-01

    The normal operation of LLL's Argus and Shiva laser irradiation facilities demand a main vacuum system for the target chamber and a separate local vacuum system for each of the larger appendage dianostics. This paper will describe the Argus and Shiva main vacuum systems, their respective auxiliary vacuum systems and the individual diagnostics with their respective special vacuum requirements and subsequent vacuum systems. Our latest approach to automatic computer-controlled vacuum systems will be presented

  4. Extraction, -scrub, -strip test results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). The Salt Batch 10 characterization results were previously reported.ii,iii An Extraction, -Scrub, -Strip (ESS) test was performed to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)) and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Tank Farm Engineering to project a cesium decontamination factor (DF). This test used actual Tank 21H material, and a sample of the NGS Blend solvent currently being used at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The ESS test showed acceptable performance with an extraction D(Cs) value of 110. This value is consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. This is better than the predicted value of 39.8 from a recently created D(Cs) model.

  5. Melting the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Results presented at the Quark Matter 97 conference, held in December in Tsukuba, Japan, have provided new insights into the confinement of quarks in matter. The current physics paradigm is that the inertial masses of protons and neutrons, and hence of practically all of the matter around us, originate in the zero-point energy caused by the confinement of quarks inside the small volume of the nucleon. Today, 25 years after Harald Fritzsch, Heinrich Leutwyler and Murray Gell-Mann proposed quantum chromodynamics (QCD) as a means for understanding strongly interacting particles such as nucleons and mesons, our understanding of strong interactions and quark confinement remains incomplete. Quarks and the gluons that bind them together have a ''colour'' charge that may be red, green or blue. But quarks are seen in particles that are white: baryons such as protons and neutrons consist of three quarks with different colour charges, while mesons consist of a quark and an antiquark, and again the colour charge cancels out. To prove that confinement arises from quark-gluon fluctuations in the vacuum that quantum theories dictate exists today, we need to find a way of freeing the colour charge of quarks. Experiments must therefore ''melt'' the vacuum to deconfine quarks and the colour charge. By colliding nuclei at high energies, we hope to produce regions of space filled with free quarks and gluons. This deconfined phase is known as the quark-gluon plasma. At the Tsukuba meeting, Scott Pratt of Michigan State University in the US discussed measurements that show that the hot dense state of matter created in these collisions exists for only 2x10 -23 s. So does the quark gluon plasma exist? No-one doubts that it did at one time, before the vacuum froze into its current state about 20 into the life of the universe, causing the nucleons to form as we know them today. The issue is whether we can recreate this early stage of the universe in laboratory experiments. And if we did

  6. Comparison of three-stage sequential extraction and toxicity characteristic leaching tests to evaluate metal mobility in mining wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margui, E.; Salvado, V.; Queralt, I.; Hidalgo, M.

    2004-01-01

    Abandoned mining sites contain residues from ore processing operations that are characterised by high concentrations of heavy metals. The form in which a metal exists strongly influences its mobility and, thus, the effects on the environment. Operational methods of speciation analysis, such as the use of sequential extraction procedures, are commonly applied. In this work, the modified three-stage sequential extraction procedure proposed by the BCR (now the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme) was applied for the fractionation of Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd in mining wastes from old Pb-Zn mining areas located in the Val d'Aran (NE Spain) and Cartagena (SE Spain). Analyses of the extracts were performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedure was evaluated by using a certified reference material, BCR-701. The results of the partitioning study indicate that more easily mobilised forms (acid exchangeable) were predominant for Cd and Zn, particularly in the sample from Cartagena. In contrast, the largest amount of lead was associated with the iron and manganese oxide fractions. On the other hand, the applicability of lixiviation tests commonly used to evaluate the leaching of toxic species from landfill disposal (US-EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and DIN 38414-S4) to mining wastes was also investigated and the obtained results compared with the information on metal mobility derivable from the application of the three-stage sequential extraction procedure

  7. Evaluation of supercapacitors for space applications under thermal vacuum conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Keith C.; Green, Nelson W.; Brandon, Erik J.

    2018-03-01

    Commercially available supercapacitor cells from three separate vendors were evaluated for use in a space environment using thermal vacuum (Tvac) testing. Standard commercial cells are not hermetically sealed, but feature crimp or double seam seals between the header and the can, which may not maintain an adequate seal under vacuum. Cells were placed in a small vacuum chamber, and cycled between three separate temperature set points. Charging and discharging of cells was executed following each temperature soak, to confirm there was no significant impact on performance. A final electrical performance check, visual inspection and mass check following testing were also performed, to confirm the integrity of the cells had not been compromised during exposure to thermal cycling under vacuum. All cells tested were found to survive this testing protocol and exhibited no significant impact on electrical performance.

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications

  9. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, G

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  10. Genotoxicity testing of extracts from aflatoxin-contaminated peanut meal, following chemical decontamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Polman, Th.H.G.; Neal, G.E.; Verma, A.; Guyomard, C.; Tulliez, J.; Gautier, J.P.; Coker, R.D.; Nagler, M.J.; Heidenreich, E.; Delort-Laval, J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most important concerns in the decontamination of aflatoxin-containing feed commodities is the safety of the products for food-producing animals and for human consumption of products derived from these animals. A new method, based on the use of florisil and C18 solid phase extraction

  11. Vacuum system transient simulator and its application to TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sredniawski, J.

    1978-01-01

    The vacuum system transient simulator (VSTS) models transient gas transport throughout complex networks of ducts, valves, traps, vacuum pumps, and other related vacuum system components. VSTS is capable of treating gas models of up to 10 species, for all flow regimes from pure molecular to continuum. Viscous interactions between species are considered as well as non-uniform temperature of a system. Although this program was specifically developed for use on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project at Princeton, it is a generalized tool capable of handling a broad range of vacuum system problems. During the TFTR engineering design phase, VSTS has been used in many applications. Two applications selected for presentation are: (1) torus vacuum pumping system performance between 400 Ci tritium pulses and (2) tritium backstreaming to neutral beams during pulses

  12. Vacuum system transient simulator and its application to TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sredniawski, J.

    1977-01-01

    The vacuum system transient simulator (VSTS) models transient gas transport throughout complex networks of ducts, valves, traps, vacuum pumps, and other related vacuum system components. VSTS is capable of treating gas models of up to 10 species, for all flow regimes from pure molecular to continuum. Viscous interactions between species are considered as well as non-uniform temperature of a system. Although this program was specifically developed for use on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project at Princeton, it is a generalized tool capable of handling a broad range of vacuum system problems. During the TFTR engineering design phase, VSTS has been used in many applications. Two applications selected for presentation are: torus vacuum pumping system performance between 400 Ci tritium pulses and tritium backstreaming to neutral beams during pulses

  13. Accelerator vacuum system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivokon', V.V.; Kobets, A.F.; Shvetsov, V.A.; Sivokon', L.V.

    1980-01-01

    Some elements of vacuum systems are investigated. Considerable attention has been given to the investigation into peculiarities in pumping out of a ionoguide for transportation of an accelerated charged particles beam the spread of which often attains a considerable length. The number of pumps over the ionoguide length is experimentally determined. It is shown that as a result of ionoguide warm-up the pumping out time is considerably reduced maximum permissible pressure is decreased by two orders and lesser rate of pump pumping out is required. The investigations have shown that when operating the ionoguide there is no necessity in setting up seals between the ionoguide and magnetodischarged pump. The causes of the phenomenon in which the pressure near the pump is greater than in the end of the ionoguide, are impurities carried in by the pump into the ionoguide volume and the pumping out capacity of the pressure converter

  14. Fundamentals of a moderate thermocracking-deep deasphalting combined process of Karamay vacuum residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiming, X; Tonghua, L.; Suogi, Z.; Renan, W. [University of Petroleum, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Beijing (China); Lailong, L.; Zhen, L. [Karamay Petrochemical Company, Petrochemical Research Institute, Karamay (China)

    2004-07-01

    Thermocracking of heavy oil vacuum residue was carried out to determine the optimum conditions for the thermal cracking of Karamay vacuum residue prior to coke formation. The vacuum residue and the cracked residue after distillation were separated using supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation techniques. Sixteen and thirteen fractions and non-extractable end cuts respectively were separated, and their properties, compositions and average structures determined. Solubility parameters of the end cuts were measured, and those of the fractions calculated. The solubility parameter of the end cut of distilled residue was found to have greatly increased. It was determined that when the difference of the end cut and the extractable fractions amounts to 6.37MPa1/2, in the case of Karamay vacuum residue coke will deposit under thermocracking conditions. Based on the results of a series of solvent deep deasphalting experiments, a scheme for vacuum residue thermocracking and deasphalting of the cracked residue was proposed.

  15. Clinical studies of a purified timothy pollen extract: desensitization therapy with a purified timothy pollen preparation compared to a crude timothy pollen extract. II. Results of the tests in vitro and their relation to symptoms and tests in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvall, S L; Berg, T; Johansson, S G; Lanner, A

    1982-01-01

    Perennial desensitization therapy was given during a period of 3.5 years to 40 children allergic to grass pollen allergens. 20 patients were treated with a crude and another 20 with a purified timothy pollen extract. 8 children served as untreated controls. The concentration of total and specific IgE in the treated groups covaried with those in the control group. Neither a suppression of the seasonal booster effect nor a suppression of IgE synthesis attributable to the treatment was found. The rise of timothy-specific "blocking' IgG antibodies was more pronounced in the group treated with the purified extract than in the group treated with the crude extract. A significant difference was found only after 3.5 years of treatment. The amplitude of rise of IgG antibodies correlated significantly with the effect of the treatment as judged by repeated conjunctival titration test. The results suggest that a good IgG response is an indication of successful therapy and that a better IgG response may be achieved with purified allergen extracts.

  16. Vacuum strings in FRW models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, C C; Oattes, L M; Starkman, G D

    1988-01-01

    The authors find that vacuum string solutions cannot be embedded in an FRW model in the spirit of the swiss cheese model for inhomogeneities. Since all standard lensing calculations rely implicitly on the Swiss Cheese model, this result indicates that the previous lensing results for the vacuum string may be in error.

  17. The realm of the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, D.; Wanzenberg, R.

    1992-01-01

    The spacelike asymptotic structure of physical states in local quantum theory is analysed. It is shown that this structure can be described in terms of a vacuum state if the theory satisfies a condition of timelike asymptotic abelianess. Theories which violate this condition can have an involved asymptotic vacuum structure as is illustrated by a simple example. (orig.)

  18. Vacuum Technology for Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiggiato, P

    2013-01-01

    The basic notions of vacuum technology for ion sources are presented, with emphasis on pressure profile calculation and choice of pumping technique. A Monte Carlo code (Molflow+) for the evaluation of conductances and the vacuum-electrical analogy for the calculation of time-dependent pressure variations are introduced. The specific case of the Linac4 H - source is reviewed. (author)

  19. Vacuum Technology for Superconducting Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiggiato, P [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    The basic notions of vacuum technology for superconducting applications are presented, with an emphasis on mass and heat transport in free molecular regimes. The working principles and practical details of turbomolecular pumps and cryopumps are introduced. The specific case of the Large Hadron Collider’s cryogenic vacuum system is briefly reviewed.

  20. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We study the alignment of the vacuum in gauge theories with $N_f$ Dirac fermions transforming according to a complex representation of the gauge group. The alignment of the vacuum is produced by adding a small mass perturbation to the theory. We study in detail the $N_f=2,3$ and $4$ case. For $N_...

  1. Results Of The Extraction-Scrub-Strip Testing Using An Improved Solvent Formulation And Salt Waste Processing Facility Simulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D Cs in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is ∼15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  2. Requirements and guidelines for NSLS experimental beam line vacuum systems: Revision A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.; Halama, H.; Thomlinson, W.

    1986-10-01

    Requirements are provided for NSLS beam line front ends and vacuum interlocks. Guidelines are provided for UHV beam line vacuum systems, including materials, vacuum hardware (pumps, valves, and flanges), acoustic delay lines and beam line fast valves, instrumentation, fabrication and testing, and the NSLS cleaning facility. Also discussed are the design review for experimenters' equipment that would be connected to the NSLS and acceptance tests for any beam line to be connected with the ring vacuum. Also appended are a description of the acoustic delay line as well as the NSLS vacuum standards and NSLS procedures

  3. The AGS Booster vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hseuh, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10 -11 mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200 degree C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs

  4. Cosmology with decaying vacuum energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freese, K.; Adams, F.; Frieman, J.; Mottola, E.

    1987-09-01

    Motivated by recent attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem, we examine the observational consequences of a vacuum energy density which decays in time. For all times later than t ∼ 1 sec, the ratio of the vacuum to the total energy density of the universe must be small. Although the vacuum cannot provide the ''missing mass'' required to close the universe today, its presence earlier in the history of the universe could have important consequences. We discuss restrictions on the vacuum energy arising from primordial nucleosynthesis, the microwave and gamma ray background spectra, and galaxy formation. A small vacuum component at the era of nucleosynthesis, 0.01 5, but in some cases would severely distort the microwave spectrum. 9 refs., 3 figs

  5. Vacuum transitions in dual models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashnev, A.I.; Volkov, D.V.; Zheltukhin, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The investigation is continued of the spontaneous vacuum transition problem in the Neview-Schwartz dual model (NSDM). It is shown that vacuum transitions allow disclosing of supplementary degeneration in the resonance state spectrum. The dual amplitudes possess an internal structure corresponding to the presence of an infinite number of quarks with increasing masses and retained charges. The Adler principle holds. Analytic continuation on the constant of induced vacuum transitions makes it possible to establish the existence of spontaneous vacuum transitions in the NSDM. The consequence of this fact is the exact SU(2) symmetry of π, rho meson trajectories and the Higgs mechanism in the model. In this case the ratios of masses of particles leading trajectories are analogous to those obtained in the current algebra. It is shown that in the NSDM there arises chiral SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) x U(1) x ... symmetry resulting from spontaneous vacuum transitions

  6. Proposal for Testing and Validation of Vacuum Ultra-Violet Atomic Laser-Induced Fluorescence as a Method to Analyze Carbon Grid Erosion in Ion Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Previous investigation under award NAG3-25 10 sought to determine the best method of LIF to determine the carbon density in a thruster plume. Initial reports from other groups were ambiguous as to the number of carbon clusters that might be present in the plume of a thruster. Carbon clusters would certainly affect the ability to LIF; if they were the dominant species, then perhaps the LIF method should target clusters. The results of quadrupole mass spectroscopy on sputtered carbon determined that minimal numbers of clusters were sputtered from graphite under impact from keV Krypton. There were some investigations in the keV range by other groups that hinted at clusters, but at the time the proposal was presented to NASA, there was no data from low-energy sputtering available. Thus, the proposal sought to develop a method to characterize the population only of atoms sputtered from a graphite target in a test cell. Most of the ground work had been established by the previous two years of investigation. The proposal covering 2003 sought to develop an anti-Stokes Raman shifting cell to generate VUW light and test this cell on two different laser systems, ArF and YAG- pumped dye. The second goal was to measure the lowest detectable amounts of carbon atoms by 156.1 nm and 165.7 nm LIF. If equipment was functioning properly, it was expected that these goals would be met easily during the timeframe of the proposal, and that is the reason only modest funding was requested. The PI was only funded at half- time by Glenn during the summer months. All other work time was paid for by Whitworth College. The college also funded a student, Charles Shawley, who worked on the project during the spring.

  7. CERN News: Slow ejection efficiency at the PS; Vacuum tests on the ISR; Fire in the neutrino beam-line; Prototype r.f . cavity for the Booster; Crane-bridge in ISR experimental hall; Modifications to the r.f . system at the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    1969-01-01

    CERN News: Slow ejection efficiency at the PS; Vacuum tests on the ISR; Fire in the neutrino beam-line; Prototype r.f . cavity for the Booster; Crane-bridge in ISR experimental hall; Modifications to the r.f . system at the PS

  8. In vivo test of bitter (andrographis paniculata nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarmin, R.; Huda, NK; Yuniarti, E.; Violita

    2018-03-01

    Sambiloto or Bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), are often used to treat various diseases, such as influenza, cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-HIV, anti-mitotic and anti-fertility. This study aimed to determine the effects of the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm mice quality (Mus musculus L. Swiss Webster). This research was conducted using Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments, which are 0.0 g/b.w., (P0), 0.2 g/b.w., (P1), 0,4 g/b.w., (P3), or 0.6 g/b.w., (P4) bitter extract orally for 36 days. After treatment, the mice decapitated, dissected and collected the sperm from vas deferens. Then, the number of sperm counted by used the improved Neubauer and then stained by Eosin to count the abnormal sperm. Data analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) then DNMRT. The results showed that the average numbers of sperm are 28.80 x 105 (P0), 19.50 x 105 (P1), 12.50 x105 (P2) and 9.50 x 105 (P3). The average abnormal sperm numbers are 18.33 x 105 (P0), 22.50 x 105 (P1), 31.50 x105 (P2) and 39.33 x 105 (P3). It showed that the effective treatment to decrease sperm number was 0.2 g/b.w., of bitter extract. It can conclude that the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract decreases the quality of the ejaculated sperm of mice (Mus musculus L.)

  9. The design, fabrication and testing of an iron-core current compensated magnetic channel for cyclotron extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxdale, R.E.; Fong, K.; Houtman, H.

    1994-06-01

    An iron-core current compensated magnetic channel has been built ss part of the TRIUMF 450 MeV H - extraction feasibility project. The channel would operate in the 0.5 T cyclotron field and was designed using the two-dimensional code POISSON. Recent beam tests with the channel installed in the TRIUMF cyclotron confirmed that the electro-mechanical design is reliable and that the effect on the circulating beam is in agreement with calculation. The design and hardware details will be described and the beam test results reported. (author)

  10. Design of the MFTF external vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of major experiment success in the LLL mirror program on start-up and stabilization of plasmas in minimum-B magnetic geometry, a Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is under construction. Completion is scheduled for September, 1981. MFTF will be used to bridge the gap between present day small mirror experiments and future fusion-reactor activity based on magnetic mirrors. The focal point of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility is the 35 foot diameter by 60 foot long vacuum vessel which encloses the superconducting magnets. High vacuum conditions in the vessel are required to establish and maintain a plasma, and to create and deliver energetic neutral atoms to heat the plasma at the central region

  11. Continuing Assessment of the 5-Day Sodium Carbonate-Ammonium Nitrate Extraction Assay as an Indicator Test for Silicon Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Wendy; Friedrich, Russell L; Kim, Sujin; Sturtz, Douglas; Frantz, Jonathan; Altland, James; Krause, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The 5-day sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extraction assay (5-day method) has been recognized by the American Association of Plant Food Control Officials as a validated test method to identify fertilizers or beneficial substances that provide plant-available silicon (Si). The test method used the molybdenum blue colorimetric assay to quantify percentage Si; however, laboratories may use inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for elemental analysis. To examine the use of either colorimetric or ICP-OES methods for Si determination, the 5-day method was performed on the following Si-containing compounds; wollastonite, sand, biochar, and a basic oven furnace (BOF) slag. Grow-out studies using Zinnia elegans were also performed using varying rates of the wollastonite, biochar, and BOF slag. Our results show using the 5-day method, wollastonite had the highest extracted amounts of silicic acid (H4SiO4) at 4% followed by biochar (2%), BOF slag (1%), and sand (0%). Extraction values calculated using either the molybdenum blue colorimetric assay or ICP-OES for detection of the H4SiO4 had a significant correlation, supporting the application of either detection method for this type of analysis. However, when extracted values were compared to amounts of Si taken up by the plants, the 5-day method overestimated both wollastonite and biochar. While this method is a valid indicator test for determining a soluble Si source, other plant species and methods should be perused to potentially provide more quantitative analyses for plant-available Si content of all materials.

  12. Development of a large lithium coolant system for operation under vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Schwartz, K.E.; Meadows, G.E.; Berg, J.D.

    1983-11-01

    Argon and vacuum systems for the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) were tested to demonstrate vacuum-break capability, vacuum pumping performance, and vacuum sensor compatibility with a hostile liquid metal vapor/aerosol environment. Mechanical, diffusion and cryogenic vacuum pumps were evaluated. High-vacuum levels in the 10 -3 Pa range were achieved over a 270 0 C flowing lithium system. Ionization, thermal conductivity, capacitance manometer, and compound-type pressure sensors were evaluated to determine the effects of this potentially deleterious environment. Screening elbows were evaluated as pressure sensor protective devices. A dual-purpose vacuum-level/nitrogen partial-pressure sensor was evaluated as a means of detecting air in-leakage. Several types of static mechanical vacuum seals were also evaluated. Measurements of the vapor/aerosol generation were made at several system locations and operating conditions

  13. Selection of a Data Acquisition and Controls System Communications and Software Architecture for Johnson Space Center's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory Thermal and Vacuum Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    Upgrade of data acquisition and controls systems software at Johnson Space Center's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory (SESL) involved the definition, evaluation and selection of a system communication architecture and software components. A brief discussion of the background of the SESL and its data acquisition and controls systems provides a context for discussion of the requirements for each selection. Further framework is provided as upgrades to these systems accomplished in the 1990s and in 2003 are compared to demonstrate the role that technological advances have had in their improvement. Both of the selections were similar in their three phases; 1) definition of requirements, 2) identification of candidate products and their evaluation and testing and 3) selection by comparison of requirement fulfillment. The candidates for the communication architecture selection embraced several different methodologies which are explained and contrasted. Requirements for this selection are presented and the selection process is described. Several candidates for the software component of the data acquisition and controls system are identified, requirements for evaluation and selection are presented, and the evaluation process is described.

  14. Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid Vacuum Pump to Provide Vacuum-Assisted Suspension for Above-Knee Prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Caldwell, Ryan; Fatone, Stefania

    2015-12-01

    Vacuum-assisted suspension (VAS) of prosthetic sockets utilizes a pump to evacuate air from between the prosthetic liner and socket, and are available as mechanical or electric systems. This technical note describes a hybrid pump that benefits from the advantages of mechanical and electric systems, and evaluates a prototype as proof-of-concept. Cyclical bench testing of the hybrid pump mechanical system was performed using a materials testing system to assess the relationship between compression cycles and vacuum pressure. Phase 1 in vivo testing of the hybrid pump was performed by an able-bodied individual using prosthesis simulator boots walking on a treadmill, and phase 2 involved an above-knee prosthesis user walking with the hybrid pump and a commercial electric pump for comparison. Bench testing of 300 compression cycles produced a maximum vacuum of 24 in-Hg. In vivo testing demonstrated that the hybrid pump continued to pull vacuum during walking, and as opposed to the commercial electric pump, did not require reactivation of the electric system during phase 2 testing. The novelty of the hybrid pump is that while the electric system provides rapid, initial vacuum suspension, the mechanical system provides continuous air evacuation while walking to maintain suspension without reactivation of the electric system, thereby allowing battery power to be reserved for monitoring vacuum levels.

  15. Vacuum structure as seen by overlap fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M.

    2006-11-01

    Three complementary views on the QCD vacuum structure, all based on eigenmodes of the overlap operator, are reported in their interrelation: (i) spectral density, localization and chiral properties of the modes, (ii) the possibility of filtering the field strength with the aim to detect selfdual and antiselfdual domains and (iii) the various faces of the topological charge density, with and without a cutoff λ cut = O(Λ QCD ). The techniques are tested on quenched SU(3) configurations. (orig.)

  16. Explosions on a gas-vacuum interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, G.; Klein, L.; Ratcliffe, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    A finite-difference computer code is used to calculate the time development of an explosion on a gas-vacuum interface. An analytic theory of the shape of the shock wave produced in the explosion is compared with the results of the computer simulation. The assumptions used in obtaining this analytic solution are verified, and the degree to which the variables describing the explosion are self-similar is examined. Finally, certain consistency relations among the similarity exponents are tested

  17. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  18. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  19. Genotoxicity test of propolis extract, mineral trioksida aggregat, and calcium hydroxide on fibroblast BHK-21 cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceples Dian Kartika W.P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health industry has always used natural products as an alternative. Propolis, a natural antibiotic, is a resinous yellow brown or dark brown substance derived from honey bees (Apis mellifera. The main chemical compounds contained in propolis are flavonoids, phenolics and other various aromatic compounds. Flavonoids are well known plant compounds that have antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proprieties. Propolis is expected to be an alternative used for root canal treatment with lower toxicity compared to calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 . Over the last decade, a new material, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was developed, and has been used as the gold standard. All materials used in mouth should be biocompatible. The initial level of material biocompatibility evaluation involves toxicity and genotoxicity tests. Purpose: This research is aimed to conduct comparison test of genotoxicity effect of propolis extract, MTA and Ca(OH2 on fibroblast BHK-21 cell culture. Methods: This research was conducted with single-cell gel electrophoresis method. Results: The results indicate that propolis extract cannot cause DNA damage, while MTA can cause apoptosis and Ca(OH2 can cause neucrosis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that propolis extract has genotoxicity effect lower than MTA and Ca(OH2 , but MTA has lower effect on fibroblast BHK-21 cell culture.

  20. IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY TEST OF SOME COMPOUNDS FROM METHANOL EXTRACT PEEL OF BANANA (Musa paradisiaca Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Atun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these research was measured activity as antioxidant some compounds in methanol extracts of peel of banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn., isolated some compounds which had activities as antioxidant, and determined this structure. Method of this study was extracted powdered peel of banana with methanol at room temperature. Extract was concentrated in vaccuo and then successively was partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol. Antioxidant test from each fractions was measured by hydroxyl radical scavenger test with Fenton reaction method. The result of this study showed activity each fractions as  hydroxyl radical scavenger activity of chloroform, etyl acetate, and buthanol fraction were IC50 693.15; 2347.40; and 1071.14 mg/mL respectively. The isolation of secondary metabolite compounds from chloroform fraction obtained two isolate compounds. Identification by spectroscopy IR,  MS, 1H and 13C NMR one and two dimension showed that the compounds are 5,6,7,4'-tetrahidroxy-3,4-flavan-diol and a new compound cyclohexenon derivative (2-cyclohexene-1-on-2,4,4-trimethyl-3-O-2'-hydroxypropyl ether.   Keywords: antioxidant, peel of banana, Musa paradisiaca, hydroxyl radical scavenger

  1. Volatile organic carbon/air separation test using gas membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.V.; Kaschemekat, J.

    1993-08-01

    An estimated 900 metric tons of carbon tetrachloride were discharged to soil columns during the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operations at the Hanford Site. The largest percentage of this volatile organic compound was found in the vadose region of the 200 West Area. Using a Vacuum Extraction System, the volatile organic compound was drawn from the soil in an air mixture at a concentration of about 1,000 parts per million. The volatile organic compounds were absorbed from the air stream using granulated activated carbon canisters. A gas membrane separation system, developed by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., was tested at the Vacuum Extraction System site to determine if the volatile organic compound load on the granulated activated carbon could be reduced. The Vacuum Extraction System condensed most of the volatile organic compound into liquid carbon tetrachloride and vented the residual gas stream into the granulated activated carbon. This system reduced the cost of operation about $5/kilogram of volatile organic compound removed

  2. Uses of the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrlich, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Three problems in quantum field theory are analyzed. Each presents the vacuum in a different role. The connections among these significant roles are discussed in Chapter I. Chapter II contains a calculation of the zero-point energy in the Kaluza-Klein model. The zero-point fluctuations induce a potential which makes the compact dimensional contract. The effective potential is seen to be the four-dimensional version of the Casimir effect. Chapter III contains a Monte Carlo study of asymptotic freedom scales in lattice QCD. Two versions of SU(2) gauge theory, having different representations of the gauge group, are compared. A new method is used to calculate the ratio of scale parameters of the two theories. The method directly uses the weak-coupling behavior of the theories. The Monte-Carlo results are compared with perturbative calculations on the lattice, one of which is presented. They are in good agreement. Chapter IV applies the hypothesis of dimensional reduction to five-dimensional SU(2) and four-dimensional SO(3) lattice gauge theories. New analytic results for the strong- and weak-coupling limits are derived. Monte Carlo calculations show dimensional reduction in the strong coupling phases of both theories. At the phase transition, the two theories show a similar loss of dimensional reduction. An external source of random flux does not induce dimensional reduction where it is not already present

  3. Vacuum type D initial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Parrado Gómez-Lobo, Alfonso

    2016-09-01

    A vacuum type D initial data set is a vacuum initial data set of the Einstein field equations whose data development contains a region where the space–time is of Petrov type D. In this paper we give a systematic characterisation of a vacuum type D initial data set. By systematic we mean that the only quantities involved are those appearing in the vacuum constraints, namely the first fundamental form (Riemannian metric) and the second fundamental form. Our characterisation is a set of conditions consisting of the vacuum constraints and some additional differential equations for the first and second fundamental forms These conditions can be regarded as a system of partial differential equations on a Riemannian manifold and the solutions of the system contain all possible regular vacuum type D initial data sets. As an application we particularise our conditions for the case of vacuum data whose data development is a subset of the Kerr solution. This has applications in the formulation of the nonlinear stability problem of the Kerr black hole.

  4. Effect of Aerial Parts Extract of Echinophora Platyloba.L on Liver and Kidney Function Tests in Obese Hypercholesterolaemia Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aqababa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity and its complications such as hypertension, fatty liver, type 2 diabetes and kidney failure, can be mentioned as the main life-threating elements. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of air parts extract of Echinophora platyloba.L (EP on changes in body weight as well as liver and kidney function tests in hypercholesterolaemia obese rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 male Wistar rats were divided in to five groups (n =8 including a control group with normal control diet, control hyperlipidemia group with fatty food diet and hypertriglyceridemia treatment groups which recieved the minimum dose (100 mg/kg, average dose (200 mg/kg maximum dose (300 mg/kg of EP extract via a gavage. At the end of this period (42 days, to measure cholesterol, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, albumin, total protein, alanine Aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate Aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, the blood samples were collected and the study data were analyzed. Results: Cholesterol, ALT, AST and ALP were reported to significantly decrease (in the minimum and maximum dose groups compared to the control group (P≤0.05. Albumin and total protein in the maximum dose extract group significantly increased compared to the control group (P≤0.05. Moreover, body weight in the group receiving the minimum dose of extract showed a significant decrease compared to the control group (P≤0.05. Conclusion: EP extract, specifically in the minimal doses, in addition to protecting liver, could be recommended as a good candidate in regard with the treatment of blood lipids, and body extra weight.

  5. Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.

  6. Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo, E-mail: zhangbolfrc@caep.cn [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Zhi-meng; Hong, Wei; He, Shu-Kai; Teng, Jian [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Gu, Yu-qiu, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China)

    2017-04-10

    Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED) will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.

  7. Beam Dump TIDV #1 - Vacuum Failure of 17 Oct. 97

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, M; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    A vacuum leak on the internal beam dump TIDV precipitated its replacement in the LSS1 on Monday the 20th of October 1997, the SPS consequently being shut down for three days. The dump had fulfilled its design function since it was installed in the SPS at the beginning of 1988. Prior to the intervention, the Vacuum Group LHC/VAC carried out a number of leak tests, which led to the decision being taken to replace the dump. After the successful intervention, normal machine operation was resumed. Out-gassing of the ten-year-old replacement was initially high, but vacuum pressure is slowly descending to the SPS standard level.

  8. Extractive method for obtaining gas inclusions from ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauch, G.; Kowski, P.

    1982-01-01

    Doubtless important for glaciological investigations of firn and ice is the knowledge about the chemical composition of gases included in ice. A method for quantitative extraction of gases from about 30 kg ice under vacuum is presented in this paper. The procedure was tested with ice cores from a thermoelectrical drill hole near Soviet Antarctic station Novolazarevskaya. The chemical compositions of inclusion gases and the specific gas contents from 6 horizons are pointed out by a table and some graphics. (author)

  9. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Koji; Imura, Yasuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide constituted method for easily performing baking of vacuum vessel, using short-circuiting segments. Constitution: At the time of baking, one turn circuit is formed by the vacuum vessel and short-circuiting segments, and current transformer converting the one turn circuit into a secondary circuit by the primary coil and iron core is formed, and the vacuum vessel is Joule heated by an induction current from the primary coil. After completion of baking, the short-circuiting segments are removed. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Vacuum system for HIMAC synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, M.; Sudou, M.; Sato, K.

    1994-01-01

    HIMAC synchrotrons are now under construction, which require vacuum chambers of large aperture and high vacuum of about 10 -9 torr. Wide thin wall vacuum chamber of 0.3 mm thickness reinforced with ribs has been developed as the chamber at dipole magnet. We have just now started to evacuate the lower ring. The obtained average value was about 5x10 -8 torr with turbo-molecular and sputter ion pumps, and 1.1x10 -9 torr after baking. (author)

  11. The localized quantum vacuum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoman, D

    2008-01-01

    A model for the localized quantum vacuum is proposed in which the zero-point energy (ZPE) of the quantum electromagnetic field originates in energy- and momentum-conserving transitions of material systems from their ground state to an unstable state with negative energy. These transitions are accompanied by emissions and re-absorptions of real photons, which generate a localized quantum vacuum in the neighborhood of material systems. The model could help resolve the cosmological paradox associated with the ZPE of electromagnetic fields, while reclaiming quantum effects associated with quantum vacuum such as the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift. It also offers a new insight into the Zitterbewegung of material particles

  12. The localized quantum vacuum field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragoman, D [Physics Department, University of Bucharest, PO Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: danieladragoman@yahoo.com

    2008-03-15

    A model for the localized quantum vacuum is proposed in which the zero-point energy (ZPE) of the quantum electromagnetic field originates in energy- and momentum-conserving transitions of material systems from their ground state to an unstable state with negative energy. These transitions are accompanied by emissions and re-absorptions of real photons, which generate a localized quantum vacuum in the neighborhood of material systems. The model could help resolve the cosmological paradox associated with the ZPE of electromagnetic fields, while reclaiming quantum effects associated with quantum vacuum such as the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift. It also offers a new insight into the Zitterbewegung of material particles.

  13. Resistor cooling in a vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crittenden, R.; Krider, J.

    1987-01-01

    This note describes thermal measurements which were done on a resistor operating both in air at one atmosphere pressure and in a vacuum of a few milliTorr. The motivation for this measurement was our interest in operating a BGO crystal-photomultiplier tube-base assembly in a vacuum, as a synchrotron radiation detector to tag electrons in the MT beam. We wished to determine what fraction of the total resistor power was dissipated by convection in air, in order to know whether there would be excessive heating of the detector assembly in a vacuum. 3 figs

  14. In vitro and in vivo characterization of hazelnut skin prick test extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerdaas, Jaap H.; Wensing, Marjolein; Knulst, André C.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Hefle, Susan L.; van Ree, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    RATIONALE: Hazelnut allergy ranks among the most frequently observed food allergies. Clinical symptoms range from the oral allergy syndrome to life threatening anaphylaxis. Diagnosis of hazelnut allergy partially relies on in vivo testing by means of skin prick testing (SPT). The aim of this study

  15. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola ME; Brown T; Heitzenroeder P; Malinowski F; Reiersen W; Sutton L; Goranson P; Nelson B; Cole M; Manuel M; McCorkle D.

    2005-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120 o vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1-inch of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120 o vessel segments are formed by welding two 60 o segments together. Each 60 o segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8-inch (20.3 cm) wide spacer ''spool pieces''. The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10 -6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02(micro), and its contours must be within 0.188-inch (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006

  16. Particle creation during vacuum decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubakov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    The hamiltonian approach is developed with regard to the problem of particle creation during the tunneling process, leading to the decay of the false vacuum in quantum field theory. It is shown that, to the lowest order in (h/2π), the particle creation is described by the euclidean Schroedinger equation in an external field of a bounce. A technique for solving this equation is developed in an analogy to the Bogoliubov transformation technique, in the theory of particle creation in the presence of classical background fields. The technique is illustrated by two examples, namely, the particle creation during homogeneous vacuum decay and during the tunneling process leading to the materialization of the thin-wall bubble of a new vacuum in the metastable one. The curious phenomenon of intensive particle annihilation during vacuum decay is discussed and explicitly illustrated within the former example. The non-unitary extension of the Bogoliubov u, v transformations is described in the appendix. (orig.)

  17. Vacuum in intensive gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinian, S.G.

    1977-12-01

    The behaviour of vacuum in a covariantly constant Yang-Mills field is considered. The expressions for the effective Lagrangian in an intensive field representing the asymptotic freedom of the theory are found

  18. Chiral vacuum fluctuations in quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magueijo, João; Benincasa, Dionigi M T

    2011-03-25

    We examine tensor perturbations around a de Sitter background within the framework of Ashtekar's variables and its cousins parameterized by the Immirzi parameter γ. At the classical level we recover standard cosmological perturbation theory, with illuminating insights. Quantization leads to real novelties. In the low energy limit we find a second quantized theory of gravitons which displays different vacuum fluctuations for right and left gravitons. Nonetheless right and left gravitons have the same (positive) energies, resolving a number of paradoxes suggested in the literature. The right-left asymmetry of the vacuum fluctuations depends on γ and the ordering of the Hamiltonian constraint, and it would leave a distinctive imprint in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, thus opening quantum gravity to observational test.

  19. Vacuum polarization and non-Newtonian gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Gell-Mann and Low have emphasized that, as first pointed out by Uehling and Serber, vacuum polarization effects produce a logarithmic modification to the Coulomb potential at small distances. Here, it is pointed out that, if these same considerations are applied to gravitation, the logarithmic term will have a sign opposite to that in the Coulomb case and in agreement with recent laboratory results on the gravitational ''constant''. Of considerable importance is the fact that such vacuum polarization effects cannot be observed in null experiments to test the gravitational inverse square law because the polarizing field is absent. It is a striking circumstance that the coefficient of the logarithm in QED is nearly the same as that found in gravitational experiments. (author)

  20. Initial conditioning of the TFTR vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dylla, H.F.; Blanchard, W.R.; Krawchuk, R.B.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Owens, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    We report on the initial conditioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel prior to the initiation of first plasma discharges, and during subsequent operation with high power ohmically-heated plasmas. Following evacuation of the 86 m 3 vessel with the 10 4 1/s high vacuum pumping system, the vessel was conditioned by a 15 A dc glow discharge in H 2 at a pressure of 5 mTorr. Rapid-pulse discharge cleaning was used subsequently to preferentially condition the graphite plasma limiters. The effectiveness of the discharge cleaning was monitored by measuring the exhaust rates of the primary discharge products (CO/C 2 H 4 , CH 4 , and H 2 O). After 175 hours of glow discharge treatment, the equivalent of 50 monolayers of C and O was removed from the vessel, and the partial pressures of impurity gases were reduced to the range of 10 -9 -10 -10 Torr

  1. Vacuum Analysis of Scanning Horn of Electron Beam Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprapto; Sukidi; Sukaryono; Setyo Atmojo; Djasiman

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum analysis of scanning horn of electron beam machine (EBM) has been carried out. In EBM, electron beam produced by the electron gun is accelerated by the accelerating tube toward the target via scanning horn and window. To avoid the disturbance of electron beam trajectory in side the EBM, it is necessary to evacuate the EBM. In designing and constructing the scanning horn, vacuum analysis must be carried out to find the ultimate vacuum grade based on the analysis as well as on the test resulted by the vacuum pump. The ultimate vacuum grade is important and affecting the electron trajectory from electron gun to the target. The yield of the vacuum analysis show that the load gas to be evacuated were the outgassing, permeation and leakages where each value were 5.96487x10 -6 Torr liter/sec, 6.32083x10 -7 Torr liter/sec, and 1.3116234x10 -4 Torr liter/sec respectively, so that the total gas load was 1.377587x10 -4 Torr liter/sec. The total conductivity according to test result was 15.769 liter/sec, while the effective pumping rate and maximum vacuum obtained by RD 150 pump were 14.269 Torr liter/sec and 9.65x10 -6 Torr respectively, The vacuum steady state indicated by the test result was 3.5x10 -5 Torr. The pressure of 3.5x10 -5 Torr showed by the test is close to the capability of vacuum pump that is 2x10 -5 Torr. The vacuum test indicated a good result and that there was no leakage along the welding joint. In the latter of installation it considered to be has a pressure of 5x10 -6 Torr, because the aluminum gasket will be used to seal the window flanges and will be evacuated by turbomolecular pump with pumping rate of 500 liter/sec and ultimate vacuum of -10 Torr. (author)

  2. Vacuum spark breakdown model based on exploding metal wire phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, J.

    1984-06-01

    Spark source mass spectra (SSMS) indicates that ions are extracted from an expanding and decaying plasma. The intensity distribution shows no dependance on vaporization properties of individual elements which indicates explosive vapour formation. This seems further to be a requirement for bridging a vacuum gap. A model including plasma ejection from a superheated anode spot by a process similar to that of an exploding metal wire is proposed. The appearance of hot plasma points in low inductance vacuum sparks can then be explained as exploding micro particles ejected from a final central anode spot. The phenomenological model is compared with available experimental results from literature, but no extensive quantification is attempted

  3. Vacuum control system of VEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R.B.; Bandopadhyay, D.L.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Pal, Sarbajit; Sarkar, D.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of modernization of VEC (Variable Energy Cyclotron), the Vacuum Control System is being upgraded to PLC based automated system from initial Relay based Manual system. EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), a standard open source software tool for designing distributed control system, is chosen for developing the supervisory control software layer, leading towards a unified distributed control architecture of VEC Control System. A Modbus - TCP based IOC (I/O Controller) has been developed to communicate control data to PLC using Ethernet-TCP LAN. Keeping in mind, the operators' familiarity with MS-Windows, a MS-Windows based operator interface is developed using VB6. It is also used to test and evaluate EPICS compatibility to MS Windows. Several MS Windows ActiveX components e.g. text display, image display, alarm window, set-point input etc. have been developed incorporating Channel Access library of EPICS. Use of such components ease the programming complexity and reduce developmental time of the operator interface. The system is in the final phase of commissioning. (author)

  4. Evaluation of CBA first string full cell vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.L.; Briggs, J.; Christianson, C.; Stattel, P.

    1983-01-01

    The CBA (Colliding Beam Accelerator, formerly known as ISABELLE) Full Cell Magnet System consisting of six superconducting dipole magnets and two superconducting quadrupole magnets requires two separate vacuum systems. One, known as beam vacuum operates below 3 x 10 -11 Torr and the other, known as insulating vacuum, operates at less than 10 -7 Torr to isolate cryo circuits from atmosphere and from the uhv beam tubes. The uhv bore tube is isolated from the 4.0 0 K magnet by thirty-six (36) layers of superinsulation and insulating vacuum. Heat load measurements on the bore tube have been completed and found to agree with data obtained in smaller controlled experiments. Measurements of helium, accumulated on cryogenic pumped charcoal panels over many weeks, have verified sensitive helium mass spectrometer leak detection methods for vacuum integrity, providing sound design of the welded complex. The Full Cell was assembled and operated under conditions that would exist in the completed machine. Pressures below 2 x 10 -11 Torr beam vacuum requirement and below 2 x 10 -7 Torr insulating vacuum, were routinely achieved during all phases of the Full Cell operation and support systems testing

  5. Vacuum production; Produccion de vacio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, J. L. de

    2010-07-01

    Since the advent of ultra high vacuum in 1958 has been a great demand for new as means of production and to meet the process needs to be done: industry heavy, high technology and space research areas, large accelerator systems particles or nuclear fusion. In this paper we explore the modern media production: dry vacuum pumps, turbo pumps, pump status diffusion ion pumps and cryopumps. (Author)

  6. Development of vacuum brazing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Yedle, Kamlesh; Jain, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    In joining of components where welding process is not possible brazing processes are employed. Value added components, high quality RF systems, UHV components of high energy accelerators, carbide tools etc. are produced using different types of brazing methods. Furnace brazing under vacuum atmosphere is the most popular and well accepted method for production of the above mentioned components and systems. For carrying out vacuum brazing successfully it is essential to have a vacuum brazing furnace with latest features of modern vacuum brazing technology. A vacuum brazing furnace has been developed and installed for carrying out brazing of components of copper, stainless steel and components made of dissimilar metals/materials. The above furnace has been designed to accommodate jobs of 700mm diameter x 2000mm long sizes with job weight of 500kgs up to a maximum temperature of 1250 degC at a vacuum of 5 x 10 -5 Torr. Oil diffusion pumping system with a combination of rotary and mechanical booster pump have been employed for obtaining vacuum. Molybdenum heating elements, radiation shield of molybdenum and Stainless Steel Grade 304 have been used. The above furnace is computer controlled with manual over ride facility. PLC and Pentium PC are integrated together to maneuver steps of operation and safety interlocks of the system. Closed loop water supply provides cooling to the system. The installation of the above system is in final stage of completion and it will be ready for use in next few months time. This paper presents insights of design and fabrication of a modern vacuum brazing furnace and its sub-system. (author)

  7. Vacuum energy from noncommutative models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignemi, S.; Samsarov, A.

    2018-04-01

    The vacuum energy is computed for a scalar field in a noncommutative background in several models of noncommutative geometry. One may expect that the noncommutativity introduces a natural cutoff on the ultraviolet divergences of field theory. Our calculations show however that this depends on the particular model considered: in some cases the divergences are suppressed and the vacuum energy is only logarithmically divergent, in other cases they are stronger than in the commutative theory.

  8. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Onozuka, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru.

    1997-01-01

    Heat of inner walls of a vacuum vessel that receive radiation heat from plasmas by way of first walls is removed by a cooling medium flowing in channels for cooling the inner walls. Nuclear heat generation of constitutional materials of the vacuum vessel caused by fast neutrons and γ rays is removed by a cooling medium flowing in cooling channels disposed in the vacuum vessel. Since the heat from plasmas and the nuclear heat generation are removed separately, the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling inner walls is increased for cooling a great amount of heat from plasmas while the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling the inside of the vacuum vessel is reduced for cooling the small amount of nuclear heat generation. Since the amount of the cooling medium can thus be optimized, the capacity of the facilities for circulating the cooling medium can be reduced. In addition, since the channels for cooling the inner walls and the channels of cooling medium formed in the vacuum vessel are disposed to the inner walls of the vacuum vessel on the side opposite to plasmas, integrity of the channels relative to leakage of the cooling medium can be ensured. (N.H.)

  9. Vacuum vessel for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Kurita, Gen-ichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Onozuka, Masaki; Suzuki, Masaru

    1997-07-31

    Heat of inner walls of a vacuum vessel that receive radiation heat from plasmas by way of first walls is removed by a cooling medium flowing in channels for cooling the inner walls. Nuclear heat generation of constitutional materials of the vacuum vessel caused by fast neutrons and {gamma} rays is removed by a cooling medium flowing in cooling channels disposed in the vacuum vessel. Since the heat from plasmas and the nuclear heat generation are removed separately, the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling inner walls is increased for cooling a great amount of heat from plasmas while the amount of the cooling medium flowing in the channels for cooling the inside of the vacuum vessel is reduced for cooling the small amount of nuclear heat generation. Since the amount of the cooling medium can thus be optimized, the capacity of the facilities for circulating the cooling medium can be reduced. In addition, since the channels for cooling the inner walls and the channels of cooling medium formed in the vacuum vessel are disposed to the inner walls of the vacuum vessel on the side opposite to plasmas, integrity of the channels relative to leakage of the cooling medium can be ensured. (N.H.)

  10. Phacoemulsification tip vacuum pressure: Comparison of 4 devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Marielle; Georgescu, Dan; Waite, Aaron N; Olson, Randall J

    2006-08-01

    To determine the vacuum pressure generated by 4 phacoemulsification devices measured at the phacoemulsification tip. University ophthalmology department. The effective vacuum pressures generated by the Sovereign (AMO), Millennium (Bausch & Lomb), Legacy AdvanTec (Alcon Laboratories), and Infiniti (Alcon Laboratories) phacoemulsification machines were measured with a device that isolated the phacoemulsification tip in a chamber connected to a pressure gauge. The 4 machines were tested at multiple vacuum limit settings, and the values were recorded after the foot pedal was fully depressed and the pressure had stabilized. The AdvanTec and Infiniti machines were tested with and without occlusion of the Aspiration Bypass System (ABS) side port (Alcon Laboratories). The Millennium machine was tested using venturi and peristaltic pumps. The machines generated pressures close to the expected at maximum vacuum settings between 100 mm Hg and 500 mm Hg with few intermachine variations. There was no significant difference between pressures generated using 19- or 20-gauge tips (Millennium and Sovereign). The addition of an ABS side port decreased vacuum by a mean of 12.1% (P < .0001). Although there were some variations in vacuum pressures among phacoemulsification machines, particularly when an aspiration bypass tip was used, these discrepancies are probably not clinically significant.

  11. A high current metal vapour vacuum arc ion source for ion implantation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T.; Watt, G.C.; Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The main features of the metal vapour vacuum arc(MEVA) as an ion source are presented. The technology utilizes the plasma production capabilities of a vacuum arc cathode. Some of the ions produced in this discharge flow through the anode and the 3 extraction grids to form an extracted ion beam. The high beam current and the potential for generating broad beams, make this technology suitable for implantation of large surface areas. The composition of the vacuum arc cathode determines the particular ions obtained from the MEVA source. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  12. Antidiabetic Activity Test of Ethanolic Seri Leave’s (Muntingia Calabura L. Extract in Male Rats Induced by Alloxan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina Herlina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic activity test of ethanol extract of seri leave (Muntingia calabura L. rats induced by alloxan has been done. Male wistar albino rats are used as animal models which divided into 6 groups, normal group (aquadest, negative control group (Na CMC 0,5%, positive control group (glibenclamide 0,43 mg/200 gBB, and 1, 2, and 3 treatment groups (ethanol extract of seri leave 65, 130, dan 260 mg/kgBB. Rats blood glucose level after induced intraperitoneally by alloxan 130 mg/kgBB can be stated as diabetes when >200 mg/dL. Preprandial blood glucose levels are measured using DTN-410-K photometer, on day 0, 5, 10, and 15. The average result of AUC0-15 and percentage of decreasing blood glucose level for positive control group are 2732,5 and 37,43%, and 3 treatment groups (65 mg/kgBB, 130 mg/kgBB, and 260 mg/kgBB 3105 and 28,90%; 2962,5 and 32,16%; 2810 and 35,66%. This point indicated that the ethanol extract of seri leave has an antidiabetic activity and there is no significant difference compared with glibenclamide (p<0,05. Percentage of blood glucose decrease level the third treatment group there is no significant difference compare with positive control group. According to the relation between percentage of blood glucose decrease level with dose, value of ED50 of ethanol extract of seri leave is 692,424 mg/kgBB.

  13. Testing the absorption of the extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. in the intestinal canal in rats using an Ussing chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Aierken, Guzhalinuer; Li, Xinxia; Li, Linlin; Mao, Xinmin

    2016-06-20

    Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt mainly distributed in Hetian region of Xinjiang at an altitude of 3000m, which is used as Uyghur traditional medicine because of its clearing heat, promoting circulation and removing toxicity and antihypertension, ect. effect. This research was to study the four ingredients in the extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. that are absorbed in different intestinal segments in rats to lay the foundation for further study on the effective constituents, tissue distribution, metabolism, and spectrum-effect relationships of these extracts. High, medium, and low concentrations were prepared according to their pharmacological effects. Quantitative analysis multi-components by single marker was used to test the cumulative absorption volume Q, absorption rate constant Ka, and apparent permeability coefficient Papp of the four main ingredients in C. tinctoria Nutt. extract in different intestinal segments in rats using a Ussing chamber model and high-performance liquid chromatography. The Papp of chlorogenic acid and flavanomarein in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon were 1.0×10(-6) to 10×10(-6)cms(-1). Papp of marein in the duodenum and jejunum was <1.0×10(-6), and was 1.0×10(-6) to 10×10(-6)cms(-1) in the ileum and colon. Papp of 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid in the duodenum was <1.0×10(-6)cms(-1), while it was 1.0×(1)0(-6) to 10×10(-6)cms(-1) in the jejunum, ileum, and colon. All four chemical components of the plant extract can be absorbed by the intestinal canal of rats, which conforms to zero-order absorption; the ileum presented the best absorption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Test of a new method for seismic indices and granulation parameters extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the data base project SSI (Stellar Seismic Indicesb, we have developed and tested a new method aiming at optimizing the simultaneous measurement of both the seismic indices characterizing the oscillations (Δν, νmax and the indices characterizing the granulation signature. Here, we describe this method which is intended to take advantage of the MLE (maximum likelihood estimate algorithm combined with the parametrized representation of the red giants pulsation spectrum following the Universal Pattern [6]. We report its performances tested on Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Geometrical Feature Extraction from Ultrasonic Time Frequency Responses: An Application to Nondestructive Testing of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo Valery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal processing is an essential tool in nondestructive material characterization. Pulse-echo inspection with ultrasonic energy provides signals (A-scans that can be processed in order to obtain parameters which are related to physical properties of inspected materials. Conventional techniques are based on the use of a short-term frequency analysis of the A-scan, obtaining a time-frequency response (TFR, to isolate the evolution of the different frequency-dependent parameters. The application of geometrical estimators to TFRs provides an innovative way to complement conventional techniques based on the one-dimensional evolution of an A-scan extracted parameter (central or centroid frequency, bandwidth, etc.. This technique also provides an alternative method of obtaining similar meaning and less variance estimators. A comparative study of conventional versus new proposed techniques is presented in this paper. The comparative study shows that working with binarized TFRs and the use of shape descriptors provide estimates with lower bias and variance than conventional techniques. Real scattering materials, with different scatterer sizes, have been measured in order to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed estimators to distinguish among scattering soft tissues. Superior results, using the proposed estimators in real measures, were obtained when classifying according to mean scatterer size.

  16. Design package for vacuum wand for fuel retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROACH, H.L.

    1999-01-01

    This is a design package that contains the details for the design, fabrication, and testing of a vacuum wand that will pick up sludge and corrosion products generated during fuel assembly handling operations at K-Basin. This document contains requirements, development design information, design calculations, tests, and test reports

  17. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombin, M.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-11-01

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors' holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  18. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brombin, M.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-01-01

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors’ holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns

  19. Vacuum distillation of plutonium pyrochemical salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourges, Gilles; Faure, S.; Fiers, B.; Saintignon, S.; Lemoine, O.; Cardona-Barrau, D.; Devillard, D.

    2012-01-01

    A pyrochemical process is developed to upgrade the safety of plutonium spent salts interim storage. The feed material, consisting of alkali or alkali-earth chlorides containing various Pu and Am species, is first oxidized to convert the actinides into oxides. Then the chlorides are removed by vacuum distillation which requires temperature from 750 degrees C to 1100 degrees C. After a comprehensive R and D program, full-scale equipment was built to test the distillation of active salts. Tests with NaCl/KCl oxidized spent salt give decontamination factor of chlorides higher than 20000. The distilled salt meets the radiologic requirements to be discarded as low level waste. (authors)

  20. Drying of encapsulated parts (nuclear fuel rods) in applying vacuum, by introducing dehydratings, vacuum, and filling with an inert gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a decontamination technique, in particular a process and equipment for extracting the water contained in fuel rods and other similar components of a nuclear reactor. The extraction of the contaminants contained in the fuel rods is carried out by a standard method by drilling a small hole in the surface of the cladding and applying a vacuum to bleed the rod of its impurities (moisture and gas). The invention consists for example in applying a vacuum at the hole drilled in the cladding to extract the contaminants and introducing spirit into the rod through the same orifice. The spirit absorbs the remaining liquid and other impurities. The spirit charged with the impurities is then pumped out by the same aperture by means of a regulated atmosphere inside a closed receptacle. This receptacle is then filled with an inert gas cooled to ambient temperature. The rods are then pressurised and the small orifice is sealed [fr