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Sample records for vaccines including cross

  1. Lung Disease Including Asthma and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can make it hard to breathe. Certain vaccinepreventable diseases can also increase swelling of your airways and lungs. The combination of the two can lead to pneumonia and other serious respiratory illnesses. Vaccines are one of the safest ways ...

  2. Equity and vaccine uptake: a cross-sectional study of measles vaccination in Lasbela District, Pakistan

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    Soberanis José

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving equity means increased uptake of health services for those who need it most. But the poorest families continue to have the poorest service. In Pakistan, large numbers of children do not access vaccination against measles despite the national government's effort to achieve universal coverage. Methods A cross-sectional study of a random sample of 23 rural and 9 urban communities in the Lasbela district of south Pakistan, explored knowledge, attitudes and discussion around measles vaccination. Several socioeconomic variables allowed examination of the role of inequities in vaccination uptake; 2479 mothers provided information about 4007 children aged 10 to 59 months. A Mantel-Haenszel stratification analysis, with and without adjustment for clustering, clarified determinants of measles vaccination in urban and rural areas. Results A high proportion of mothers had appropriate knowledge of and positive attitudes to vaccination; many discussed vaccination, but only one half of children aged 10-59 months accessed vaccination. In urban areas, having an educated mother, discussing vaccinations, having correct knowledge about vaccinations, living in a community with a government vaccination facility within 5 km, and living in houses with better roofs were associated with vaccination uptake after adjusting for the effect of each of these variables and for clustering; maternal education was an equity factor even among those with good access. In rural areas, the combination of roof quality and access (vaccination post within 5 km along with discussion about vaccines and knowledge about vaccines had an effect on uptake. Conclusion Stagnating rates of vaccination coverage may be related to increasing inequities. A hopeful finding is that discussion about vaccines and knowledge about vaccines had a positive effect that was independent of the negative effect of inequity - in both urban and rural areas. At least as a short term

  3. Exploring and Promoting Prosocial Vaccination: A Cross-Cultural Experiment on Vaccination of Health Care Personnel

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    Robert Böhm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza vaccination for health care personnel (HCP is recommended particularly because it indirectly protects patients from contracting the disease. Vaccinating can therefore be interpreted as a prosocial act. However, HCP vaccination rates are often far too low to prevent nosocomial infections. Effective interventions are needed to increase HCP’s influenza vaccine uptake. Here we devise a novel tool to experimentally test interventions that aim at increasing prosocially motivated vaccine uptake under controlled conditions. We conducted a large-scale and cross-cultural experiment with participants from countries with either a collectivistic (South Korea or an individualistic (USA cultural background. Results showed that prosocially motivated vaccination was more likely in South Korea compared to the US, mediated by a greater perception of vaccination as a social act. However, changing the default of vaccination, such that participants had to opt out rather than to opt in, increased vaccine uptake in the US and therefore compensated for the lower level of prosocial vaccination. In sum, the present study provides both a novel method to investigate HCP influenza vaccination behavior and interventions to increase their vaccine uptake.

  4. Exploring and Promoting Prosocial Vaccination: A Cross-Cultural Experiment on Vaccination of Health Care Personnel.

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    Böhm, Robert; Betsch, Cornelia; Korn, Lars; Holtmann, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Influenza vaccination for health care personnel (HCP) is recommended particularly because it indirectly protects patients from contracting the disease. Vaccinating can therefore be interpreted as a prosocial act. However, HCP vaccination rates are often far too low to prevent nosocomial infections. Effective interventions are needed to increase HCP's influenza vaccine uptake. Here we devise a novel tool to experimentally test interventions that aim at increasing prosocially motivated vaccine uptake under controlled conditions. We conducted a large-scale and cross-cultural experiment with participants from countries with either a collectivistic (South Korea) or an individualistic (USA) cultural background. Results showed that prosocially motivated vaccination was more likely in South Korea compared to the US, mediated by a greater perception of vaccination as a social act. However, changing the default of vaccination, such that participants had to opt out rather than to opt in, increased vaccine uptake in the US and therefore compensated for the lower level of prosocial vaccination. In sum, the present study provides both a novel method to investigate HCP influenza vaccination behavior and interventions to increase their vaccine uptake.

  5. Parental Preferences for the Organization of Preschool Vaccination Programs Including Financial Incentives: A Discrete Choice Experiment

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    Darren Flynn PhD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish preferences of parents and guardians of preschool children for the organization of preschool vaccination services, including financial incentives. Design: An online discrete choice experiment. Participants: Parents and guardians of preschool children (up to age 5 years who were (n = 259 and were not (n = 262 classified as at high risk of incompletely vaccinating their children. High risk of incomplete vaccination was defined as any of the following: aged less than 20 years, single parents, living in one of the 20% most deprived areas in England, had a preschool child with a disability, or had more than three children. Main Outcome Measures: Participant preferences expressed as positive (utility or negative (disutility on eight attributes and levels describing the organization of preschool vaccination programs. Results: There was no difference in preference for parental financial incentives compared to no incentive in parents “not at high risk” of incomplete vaccination. Parents who were “at high risk” expressed utility for cash incentives. Parents “at high risk” of incomplete vaccination expressed utility for information on the risks and benefits of vaccinations to be provided as numbers rather than charts or pictures. Both groups preferred universally available, rather than targeted, incentives. Utility was identified for shorter waiting times, and there were variable preferences for who delivered vaccinations. Conclusions: Cash incentives for preschool vaccinations in England would be welcomed by parents who are “at high risk” of incompletely vaccinating their children. Further work is required on the optimal mode and form of presenting probabilistic information on vaccination to parents/guardians, including preferences on mandatory vaccination schemes.

  6. Human rotavirus vaccine is highly efficacious when coadministered with routine expanded program of immunization vaccines including oral poliovirus vaccine in Latin America.

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    Tregnaghi, Miguel W; Abate, Héctor J; Valencia, Alejandra; Lopez, Pio; Da Silveira, Themis Reverbel; Rivera, Luis; Rivera Medina, Doris Maribel; Saez-Llorens, Xavier; Gonzalez Ayala, Silvia Elena; De León, Tirza; Van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Pilar Rubio, Maria Del; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju Venkata; Casellas, Javier M; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; Smolenov, Igor V; Han, Htay-Htay

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis when coadministered with routine Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines including oral polio vaccine (OPV) was evaluated in this study. Double-blind, randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled study conducted across 6 Latin American countries. Healthy infants (N = 6568) 6 to 12 weeks of age received 2 doses of RIX4414 vaccine or placebo following a 0, 1- to 2-month schedule. Routine vaccines including OPV were coadministered according to local EPI schedule. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by circulating wild-type rotavirus from 2 weeks post-Dose 2 until 1 year of age was calculated with 95% confidence interval [CI]. Safety was assessed during the entire study period. Immunogenicity of RIX4414 and OPV was also assessed. During the efficacy follow-up period (mean duration = 7.4 months), 7 and 19 cases of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis were reported in the vaccine and placebo groups, respectively, with a VE of 81.6% (95% CI: 54.4-93.5). VE against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by G1 type was 100% (95% CI: rotavirus types, respectively. There was no difference (P = 0.514) in the incidence of serious adverse events reported in the 2 groups. Antirotavirus IgA seropositivity rate at 1 to 2 months post-Dose 2 was 61.4% (95% CI: 53.7-68.6) in the RIX4414 group; similar seroprotection rates (≥96.0%) against the 3 antipoliovirus types was observed 1 month post-Dose 3 of OPV in both groups. RIX4414 was highly efficacious against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by the circulating wild-type rotavirus (G1 and non-G1) when coadministered with routine EPI vaccines including OPV.

  7. Parents' views of including young boys in the Swedish national school-based HPV vaccination programme: a qualitative study.

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    Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria

    2017-02-28

    To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11-12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease . Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Attitudes and perceptions among the pediatric health care providers toward influenza vaccination in Qatar: A cross-sectional study.

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    Alhammadi, Ahmed; Khalifa, Mohamed; Abdulrahman, Hatem; Almuslemani, Eman; Alhothi, Abdullah; Janahi, Mohamed

    2015-07-31

    Influenza is a communicable but preventable viral illness. Despite safe and effective vaccine availability, compliance rates are globally low. Neither local data on percentage of vaccination nor reasons for poor compliance among pediatric health providers are available in Qatar. To estimate the percentage of vaccinated health care providers at pediatrics department and know their perception and attitudes toward influenza vaccinations. Cross-sectional survey, conducted on 300 pediatrics healthcare professionals from January through April 2013 at the main tertiary teaching hospital in Qatar, included details of demographics, frequency, perceptions and suggestive ways to improve the compliance. From among 230 respondents, 90 physicians and 133 allied health care professionals participated in this survey. Our study showed that percentages of participants who received flu vaccination were 67.7% and those who did not receive vaccination were 32.3%. Allied HCPs (69%) are more likely to get the vaccine compared to the physicians (66%). flu vaccination was approximately 5 times likely to be higher in the age group more than 40 years (P=0.002) compared to age less than or equals 40 years. Overall 70% healthcare providers were willing to recommend immunization to colleagues and patients compared to 30%, who were not willing. The reasons for noncompliance included fear of side effects, contracting the flu, vaccine safety and lack of awareness about the effectiveness. In order to promote immunization, participants believe that use of evidence-based statement, participating in an educational campaign, provides no cost/on site campaigns and leadership support is the most practical interventions. In the present study, the vaccine coverage among pediatrics HCPs seems higher than previously reported rates. Despite their positive attitude toward influenza vaccination, low acceptance and misconceptions of seasonal influenza vaccination by pediatric HCPs may have a negative effect on

  9. Modeling the impact of the difference in cross-protection data between a human papillomavirus (HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and a human papillomavirus (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in Canada

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    Kohli Michele

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background In Canada, two vaccines that have demonstrated high efficacy against infection with human papillomavirus (HPV types −16 and −18 are available. The HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine provides protection against genital warts (GW while the HPV-16/18 vaccine may provide better protection against other oncogenic HPV types. In this analysis, the estimated clinical and economic benefit of each of these vaccines was compared in the Canadian setting. Methods A Markov model of the natural history of HPV infection among women, cervical cancer (CC and GW was used to estimate the impact of vaccinating a cohort of 100,000 12-year-old females on lifetime outcomes and healthcare system costs (no indirect benefit in males included. A budget impact model was used to estimate the impact of each vaccine by province. Results In the base case, vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 48 additional CC cases, and 16 additional CC deaths, while vaccination with the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was predicted to prevent 6,933 additional GW cases. Vaccination with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was estimated to save 1 additional discounted quality adjusted life year (QALY at an overall lower lifetime cost to the healthcare system compared to the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (assuming vaccine price parity. In sensitivity analyses, the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was associated with greater QALYs saved when the cross-protection efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine was reduced, or the burden of GW due to HPV-6/11 was increased. In most scenarios with price parity, the lifetime healthcare cost of the strategy with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was predicted to be lower than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. In the probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the HPV-16/18 vaccine provided more QALY benefit than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in 49.2% of scenarios, with lower relative lifetime costs in 83.5% of scenarios. Conclusions Overall, the predicted lifetime healthcare costs and QALYs saved by

  10. Cross-reactivity of antibodies against PorA after vaccination with a meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermont, C. L.; van Dijken, H. H.; Kuipers, A. J.; van Limpt, C. J. P.; Keijzers, W. C. M.; van der Ende, A.; de Groot, R.; van Alphen, L.; van den Dobbelsteen, G. P. J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The cross-reactivity of PorA-specific antibodies induced by a monovalent P1.7-2,4 (MonoMen) and/or a hexavalent (HexaMen) meningococcal B outer membrane vesicle vaccine (OMV) in toddlers and school children was studied by serum bactericidal assays (SBA). First, isogenic vaccine strains and

  11. Predictors of seasonal influenza vaccination behaviour among nurses and implications for interventions to increase vaccination uptake: A cross-sectional survey.

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    Kan, Ting; Ai, Jiaqi; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xiaohong

    2018-03-01

    Vaccination has been proven the most effective method to prevent seasonal influenza. Nurses' vaccination can provide protection against influenza not only for themselves but also for patients they take care of. However, vaccination coverage of nurses is suboptimal worldwide, especially in China. The influencing factors need to be explored so as to develop specific, workable strategies to improve nurses' vaccination behaviour. To explore predictors of their vaccination behaviour, identify the motivators and barriers of vaccination, and provide implications for future interventions. A cross-sectional convenience sampling questionnaire survey. Nine hospitals including five tertiary hospitals, two secondary hospitals, and two primary hospitals in Shanghai, China. A total of 1000 nurses from the nine hospitals were invited to participate in this survey. Among them, 921 nurses responded and 895 returned valid questionnaires that were used in data analysis. The Chinese version of the King's Nurses' Influenza Vaccination Questionnaire was used as the survey instrument and distributed to the participants during February-November 2012. Descriptive statistics, univariate analyses, and multivariate analyses were conducted to explore the predictors of nurses' vaccination behaviour. Overall, 8.8% of the respondents received seasonal influenza vaccination in the past influenza season (2011/2012 season). Nurses had averagely received 0.38 ± 0.71 influenza vaccines during the past five influenza seasons (2007/2008 to 2011/2012 season). Predictors of nurses' vaccination status were clinical specialty, knowledge about influenza vaccination [1.331 (1.102, 1.608), p = 0.003], internal health locus of control [0.910 (0.845, 0.980), p = 0.013], chance health locus of control [1.075 (1.023, 1.130), p = 0.004]and powerful others health of locus control [1.166 (1.083, 1.255), p behaviour against seasonal influenza. Vaccination coverage in this population was suboptimal

  12. Maternal education, empowerment, economic status and child polio vaccination uptake in Pakistan: a population based cross sectional study.

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    Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Zaheer, Sidra; Shafique, Kashif

    2017-03-10

    To explore the association of maternal education and empowerment with childhood polio vaccination using nationally representative data of Pakistani mothers in a reproductive age group. Cross-sectional. Secondary analysis of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS), 2012-2013 data was performed. Of the 13 558 mothers included in the survey sample, 6982 mothers were able to provide information regarding polio vaccinations. Polio vaccination coverage among children aged up to 5 years was categorised as complete vaccination (all four oral polio vaccine (OPV) doses), incomplete vaccination, and no vaccination (zero OPV dose received). Mothers' empowerment status was assessed using standard 'Measure DHS' questions regarding their involvement in decision-making related to health, household possessions and visits among family and friends. Education was categorised as no education, primary, secondary and higher education. Results of multinomial regression analyses were reported as adjusted OR with 95% CI. We adjusted for age, wealth index, urban/rural residence, place of delivery, and antenatal and postnatal visits. Only 56.4% (n=3936) of the children received complete polio vaccination. Women with no education had significantly higher odds of their child receiving no polio vaccination (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.05 to 5.18; pchild for any polio vaccination (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.12; p<0.01) and incomplete vaccination (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.41; p=0.04). Illiteracy, socioeconomic status and empowerment of women remained significant factors linked to poorer uptake of routine polio vaccination. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Vaccination behaviour influences self-report of influenza vaccination status: a cross-sectional study among health care workers.

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    Anna Llupià

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Published influenza vaccination coverage in health care workers (HCW are calculated using two sources: self-report and vaccination records. The objective of this study was to determine whether self-report is a good proxy for recorded vaccination in HCW, as the degree of the relationship is not known, and whether vaccine behaviour influences self-reporting. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered survey during September 2010. Considering the vaccination record as the gold standard of vaccination, the properties of self-report as a proxy of the record (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were calculated. Concordance between the vaccination campaigns studied (2007-2010 was made using the Kappa index, and discordance was analyzed using McNemar's test. RESULTS: 248 HCW responded. The 95% confidence intervals of coverage according to the vaccination record and to self-report overlapped, except for 2007, and the Kappa index showed a substantial concordance, except for 2007. McNemar's test suggested that differences between discordant cases were not due to chance and it was found that the proportion of unvaccinated discordant cases was higher than that of vaccinated discordant cases. CONCLUSIONS: In our study population, self-reported influenza vaccination coverage in HCW in the previous two years is a good proxy of the vaccination record. However, vaccination behaviour influences the self-report and explains a trend to overestimate coverage in self-reporting compared to the vaccination record. The sources of coverage should be taken into account whenever comparisons are made.

  14. Household characteristics and influenza vaccination uptake in the community-dwelling elderly: a cross-sectional study

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    Chan, Denise P.C.; Wong, Ngai Sze; Wong, Eliza L.Y.; Cheung, Annie W.L.; Lee, Shui Shan

    2015-01-01

    Elderly people are at higher risk of influenza diseases. The morbidity benefit of vaccination is often offset by its low and variable coverage in elderly people in the community. To assess household and individual factors associated with influenza vaccination uptake in the community-dwelling elderly of age ≥ 65, data from a cross-sectional Thematic Household Survey conducted in 2011/12 in Hong Kong were analysed, using vaccination in the past 12 months as the outcome variable. Households comprising an elderly person living with non-elderly member(s) of age ≤ 64 were also evaluated. Data fields included socio-demographics, household structures, health status, eligibility to financial subsidy, and subscription to health insurance. The influenza vaccination rate was 27% in 4204 elderly persons from 3224 households. Being male, being economically active, attaining primary education, having smoking behaviours were negatively associated with vaccination, while chronic illness and age ≥ 70 were positively associated factors. Elderly people living alone gave a variable rate of vaccination ranging from 16.4% in males of age 65–69 to 36.3% in females ≥ 70. Household size per se was not associated with vaccination, but a positive correlation could be seen if the household was composed of vaccinated non-elderly member(s). Influenza vaccination uptake in the community-dwelling elderly is dependent on both individual and household characteristics, the latter including the influence of vaccinated non-elderly member(s). The low vaccination coverage of “younger” (age 65–69) elderly men living alone is particularly worrisome. Interventions focusing on vulnerable elderly people and their social networks would be desirable. PMID:26844153

  15. Cross-neutralization of antibodies induced by vaccination with Purified Chick Embryo Cell Vaccine (PCECV) against different Lyssavirus species.

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    Malerczyk, Claudius; Freuling, Conrad; Gniel, Dieter; Giesen, Alexandra; Selhorst, Thomas; Müller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Rabies is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by viruses belonging to the genus lyssavirus. In endemic countries of Asia and Africa, where the majority of the estimated 60,000 human rabies deaths occur, it is mainly caused by the classical rabies virus (RABV) transmitted by dogs. Over the last decade new species within the genus lyssavirus have been identified. Meanwhile 15 (proposed or classified) species exist, including Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), European bat lyssavirus (EBLV-1 and -2), Duvenhage virus (DUVV), as well as Lagos bat virus (LBV) and Mokola virus (MOKV) and recently identified novel species like Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), Ikoma bat lyssavirus (IKOV) or Lleida bat lyssavirus (LLBV). The majority of these lyssavirus species are found in bat reservoirs and some have caused human infection and deaths. Previous work has demonstrated that Purified Chick Embryo Cell Rabies Vaccine (PCECV) not only induces immune responses against classical RABV, but also elicits cross-neutralizing antibodies against ABLV, EBLV-1 and EBLV-2. Using the same serum samples as in our previous study, this study extension investigated cross-neutralizing activities of serum antibodies measured by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) against selected other non-classical lyssavirus species of interest, namely DUVV and BBLV, as well as MOKV and LBV. Antibodies developed after vaccination with PCECV have neutralizing capability against BBLV and DUVV in the same range as against ABLV and EBLV-1 and -2. As expected, for the phylogenetically more distant species LBV no cross-neutralizing activity was found. Interestingly, 15 of 94 serum samples (16%) with a positive neutralizing antibody titer against RABV displayed specific cross-neutralizing activity (65-fold lower than against RABV) against one specific MOKV strain (Ethiopia isolate), which was not seen against a different strain (Nigeria isolate). Cross-neutralizing activities partly correlate with the

  16. Microscopic description of production cross sections including deexcitation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    Background: At the forefront of the nuclear science, production of new neutron-rich isotopes is continuously pursued at accelerator laboratories all over the world. To explore the currently unknown territories in the nuclear chart far away from the stability, reliable theoretical predictions are inevitable. Purpose: To provide a reliable prediction of production cross sections taking into account secondary deexcitation processes, both particle evaporation and fission, a new method called TDHF+GEMINI is proposed, which combines the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory with a sophisticated statistical compound-nucleus deexcitation model, GEMINI++. Methods: Low-energy heavy ion reactions are described based on three-dimensional Skyrme-TDHF calculations. Using the particle-number projection method, production probabilities, total angular momenta, and excitation energies of primary reaction products are extracted from the TDHF wave function after collision. Production cross sections for secondary reaction products are evaluated employing GEMINI++. Results are compared with available experimental data and widely used grazing calculations. Results: The method is applied to describe cross sections for multinucleon transfer processes in 40Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃128.54 MeV ), 48Ca+124Sn (Ec .m .≃125.44 MeV ), 40Ca+208Pb (Ec .m .≃208.84 MeV ), 58Ni+208Pb (Ec .m .≃256.79 MeV ), 64Ni+238U (Ec .m .≃307.35 MeV ), and 136Xe+198Pt (Ec .m .≃644.98 MeV ) reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier. It is shown that the inclusion of secondary deexcitation processes, which are dominated by neutron evaporation in the present systems, substantially improves agreement with the experimental data. The magnitude of the evaporation effects is very similar to the one observed in grazing calculations. TDHF+GEMINI provides better description of the absolute value of the cross sections for channels involving transfer of more than one proton, compared to the grazing

  17. Vaccine-induced cross-genotype reactive neutralizing antibodies against hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Gottwein, Judith M; Houghton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We detected cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chimpanzees vaccinated with HCV-1 (genotype 1a) recombinant E1/E2 envelope glycoproteins. Five vaccinated chimpanzees, protected following HCV-1 challenge, were initially studied using the heterologous H77......a, with limited reactivity against 2a and 3a. Our study provides encouragement for the development of a recombinant envelope-based vaccine against hepatitis C....

  18. Cross sectional study investigating the differences in knowledge and behaviors about HPV between vaccinated and non-vaccinated girls.

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    Gualano, M R; Stillo, M; Mussa, M V; Zotti, C M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the presents study was to compare the level of knowledge about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in vaccinated and non-vaccinated girls and to highlight the reasons why non-vaccinated girls refuse vaccination. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2012 to June 2013 in Turin (Piemonte Region, Italy). Questionnaires were administered to girls attending secondary and high schools randomly selected. A total of 576 were compiled. The principle sources of information were parents and health workers. The main reported reasons for non-adherence to vaccination were the disagreement of the parents among the 11-12 years group (45.3%) and the lack of evidence on efficacy among the 18 years group (26.8%). By comparing the level of knowledge there was a statistically significant difference between groups: vaccinated girls reported higher score than the unvaccinated group in several questions (p ≤ 0.05). Our findings show a lack of information about HPV infection. Parents, school and health care workers have a central role in girl's education and choices about HPV vaccination. The communication campaign for the prevention of cervical cancer must therefore be characterised by messages able to clarify and consolidate messages that may have been partially received or misunderstood.

  19. Cross-sectional study about primary health care professionals views on the inclusion of the vaccine against human papillomavirus in the vaccine schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, M Reyes Oliver; Violeta, Victoria Bravo; Del Campo, Ana Vazquez; Ruiz, Cristina; Castaño, Sonia Yáñez; Conde, Laura P Pérez; López, Jesús S Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Although the inclusion of the HPV vaccine has been registered in Spain since 2007, vaccination rates are lower than expected. The patients wish to be vaccinated is heavily influenced by information they have received from many source. The Knowledge of primary health care professionals affects the information provided to patients and is fundamental in the decision making. The aim of this study is to assess the opinions of primary health care professionals on the vaccine against HPV and their knowledge about HPV infection and its links to with gynecological and oropharyngeal cancer. Cross-sectional study. A 19-item survey was drawn up. It included questions on basic aspects of HPV infection and marketed vaccines, personal opinion about the inclusion in the immunization schedules and their level of prescription and recommendation to patients in their clinical practice. From October 2013 to December 2013, 607 surveys were distributed among 20 primary health centers affiliated to the University Hospital 12 de Octubre. The results were analyzed using SPSS statistical package. One hundred sixty four successfully completed surveys were obtained for analysis. 89 % of the professionals knew about the relationship between HPV infection and cervical cancer, 57.3 % did not know any of the serotypes against which vaccines are targeted; 40.4 % believed that there is insufficient data to support the commercialization of the vaccines. Of these, 65.7 % argue that there is no data of its long-term effectiveness, 13.4 % that there is no data as to its side effects, 13.4 % believed that the cost effectiveness is not worthwhile. There is a strong controversy among health professionals regarding the marketing and inclusion of HPV vaccine in immunization schedules. However, the knowledge of the primary care health professionals on key aspects of infection and vaccine protection are insufficient. The training of professionals in vaccination, cervical pathology and HPV infection

  20. Microneedle delivery of trivalent influenza vaccine to the skin induces long-term cross-protection.

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    Kim, Yeu-Chun; Lee, Su-Hwa; Choi, Won-Hyung; Choi, Hyo-Jick; Goo, Tae-Won; Lee, Ju-Hie; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2016-12-01

    A painless self-immunization method with effective and broad cross-protection is urgently needed to prevent infections against newly emerging influenza viruses. In this study, we investigated the cross-protection efficacy of trivalent influenza vaccine containing inactivated A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2) and B/Lee/40 after skin vaccination using microneedle patches coated with this vaccine. Microneedle vaccination of mice in the skin provided 100% protection against lethal challenges with heterologous pandemic strain influenza A/California/04/09, heterogeneous A/Philippines/2/82 and B/Victoria/287 viruses 8 months after boost immunization. Cross-reactive serum IgG antibody responses against heterologous influenza viruses A/California/04/09, A/Philippines/2/82 and B/Victoria/287 were induced at high levels. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were also maintained at high levels against these heterogeneous viruses. Microneedle vaccination induced substantial levels of cross-reactive IgG antibody responses in the lung and cellular immune responses, as well as cross-reactive antibody-secreting plasma cells in the spleen. Viral loads in the lung were significantly (p skin vaccination with trivalent vaccine using a microneedle array could provide protection against seasonal epidemic or new pandemic strain of influenza viruses.

  1. A multivalent and cross-protective vaccine strategy against arenaviruses associated with human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya F Kotturi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses are the causative pathogens of severe hemorrhagic fever and aseptic meningitis in humans, for which no licensed vaccines are currently available. Pathogen heterogeneity within the Arenaviridae family poses a significant challenge for vaccine development. The main hypothesis we tested in the present study was whether it is possible to design a universal vaccine strategy capable of inducing simultaneous HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell responses against 7 pathogenic arenaviruses (including the lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Lassa, Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Whitewater Arroyo viruses, either through the identification of widely conserved epitopes, or by the identification of a collection of epitopes derived from multiple arenavirus species. By inoculating HLA transgenic mice with a panel of recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs expressing the different arenavirus proteins, we identified 10 HLA-A02 and 10 HLA-A03-restricted epitopes that are naturally processed in human antigen-presenting cells. For some of these epitopes we were able to demonstrate cross-reactive CD8+ T cell responses, further increasing the coverage afforded by the epitope set against each different arenavirus species. Importantly, we showed that immunization of HLA transgenic mice with an epitope cocktail generated simultaneous CD8+ T cell responses against all 7 arenaviruses, and protected mice against challenge with rVACVs expressing either Old or New World arenavirus glycoproteins. In conclusion, the set of identified epitopes allows broad, non-ethnically biased coverage of all 7 viral species targeted by our studies.

  2. Antibody titers in animal bite victims after post exposure vaccination with intradermally administered purified vero cell rabies vaccine using modified thai red cross regimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, S.; Tahir, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the seroconversion following rabies vaccination by intradermal route in cases of animal bite attending Anti rabies center, Lahore for post exposure prophylaxis. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration: Antirabies center, Birdwood road Lahore, Microbiology laboratory, office of Bacteriologist, Government of Punjab, Lahore. Patients and Methods: Victims of all ages and both sexes having exposure with suspected rabid animal within 24 - 72 hours were included, fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria, over 3 months period from February to April 20. Patients of Category II and III wounds were included. Purified vero cell vaccine (PVR V) with antigenic content> 2.5 ml was used for intradermal vaccination according to modified Thai Red Cross regimen (2-2-2-0-2). Each victim received 0.1 ml intradermal dose on each deltoid on day 0, 3, 7 and 28th day of bite. Blood samples from victims were taken on day 0, 14 and 35. Antibody titers were estimated by ELISA kit. Results: Fifty cases were studied including 20 children. Male female ratio was 4:1. Optimum serocon version (> 0.5 IU/ml) was achieved in all cases by day 14. Antibody levels increased further (> 4 IV/ml) in 92% cases on day 35. Geometric mean titers were 3.2 IU/ml and 6.2 IU/ml on day 14 and 35 respectively. Conclusion: Intradermal route for cell culture rabies vaccine for postexposure prophylaxis in animal bite victims was efficacious and safe. The smaller dosage of vaccine was economically affordable by patients in referral centers. (author)

  3. Activation of cross-reactive mucosal T and B cell responses in human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue in vitro by Modified Vaccinia Ankara-vectored influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Jennifer; Ahmed, Muhammed S; Sharma, Ravi; Upile, Navdeep; Beer, Helen; Achar, Priya; Puksuriwong, Suttida; Ferrara, Francesca; Temperton, Nigel; McNamara, Paul; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C; Zhang, Qibo

    2016-03-29

    Recent efforts have been focused on the development of vaccines that could induce broad immunity against influenza virus, either through T cell responses to conserved internal antigens or B cell response to cross-reactive haemagglutinin (HA). We studied the capacity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-vectored influenza vaccines to induce cross-reactive immunity to influenza virus in human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) in vitro. Adenotonsillar cells were isolated and stimulated with MVA vaccines expressing either conserved nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein 1 (M1) (MVA-NP-M1) or pandemic H1N1 HA (MVA-pdmH1HA). The MVA vaccine uptake and expression, and T and B cell responses were analyzed. MVA-vectored vaccines were highly efficient infecting NALT and vaccine antigens were highly expressed by B cells. MVA-NP-M1 elicited T cell response with greater numbers of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells and tissue-resident memory T cells than controls. MVA-pdmH1HA induced cross-reactive anti-HA antibodies to a number of influenza subtypes, in an age-dependent manner. The cross-reactive antibodies include anti-avian H5N1 and mainly target HA2 domain. MVA vaccines are efficient in infecting NALT and the vaccine antigen is highly expressed by B cells. MVA vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens induce cross-reactive T and B cell responses in human NALT in vitro, suggesting the potential as mucosal vaccines for broader immunity against influenza. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A cross-sectional study of HPV vaccine acceptability in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Taylor DiAngi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in Botswana and elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to examine whether HPV vaccine is acceptable among parents in Botswana, which recently licensed the vaccine to prevent cervical cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2009, around the time the vaccine was first licensed, with adults recruited in general medicine and HIV clinics in Gaborone, the capital of Botswana. Although only 9% (32/376 of respondents had heard of HPV vaccine prior to the survey, 88% (329/376 said they definitely will have their adolescent daughters receive HPV vaccine. Most respondents would get the vaccine for their daughters at a public or community clinic (42% or a gynecology or obstetrician's office (39%, and 74% would get it for a daughter if it were available at her school. Respondents were more likely to say that they definitely will get HPV vaccine for their daughters if they had less education (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.07-0.58 or lived more than 30 kilometers from the capital, Gaborone (OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.06-4.93. Other correlates of acceptability were expecting to be involved in the decision to get HPV vaccine, thinking the vaccine would be hard to obtain, and perceiving greater severity of HPV-related diseases. CONCLUSIONS: HPV vaccination of adolescent girls would be highly acceptable if the vaccine became widely available to the daughters of healthcare seeking parents in Gaborone, Botswana. Potential HPV vaccination campaigns should provide more information about HPV and the vaccine as well as work to minimize barriers.

  5. Adult vaccination strategies for the control of pertussis in the United States: an economic evaluation including the dynamic population effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Coudeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior economic evaluations of adult and adolescent vaccination strategies against pertussis have reached disparate conclusions. Using static approaches only, previous studies failed to analytically include the indirect benefits derived from herd immunity as well as the impact of vaccination on the evolution of disease incidence over time. METHODS: We assessed the impact of different pertussis vaccination strategies using a dynamic compartmental model able to consider pertussis transmission. We then combined the results with economic data to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of pertussis immunization strategies for adolescents and adults in the US. The analysis compares combinations of programs targeting adolescents, parents of newborns (i.e. cocoon strategy, or adults of various ages. RESULTS: In the absence of adolescent or adult vaccination, pertussis incidence among adults is predicted to more than double in 20 years. Implementing an adult program in addition to childhood and adolescent vaccination either based on 1 a cocoon strategy and a single booster dose or 2 a decennial routine vaccination would maintain a low level of pertussis incidence in the long run for all age groups (respectively 30 and 20 cases per 100,000 person years. These strategies would also result in significant reductions of pertussis costs (between -77% and -80% including additional vaccination costs. The cocoon strategy complemented by a single booster dose is the most cost-effective one, whereas the decennial adult vaccination is slightly more effective in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: By providing a high level of disease control, the implementation of an adult vaccination program against pertussis appears to be highly cost-effective and often cost-saving.

  6. A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess HPV Knowledge and HPV Vaccine Acceptability in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Danielle N.; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Levitz, Lauren; Rochas, Mali; Sangare, Kotou; Yekta, Shahla; Tounkara, Karamoko; Aboubacar, Ben; Koita, Ousmane; Lurie, Mark; De Groot, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccination is not currently available in Mali. Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in Mali, and thereby vaccine readiness, may be limited. Research staff visited homes in a radial pattern from a central location to recruit adolescent females and males aged 12–17 years and men and women aged ≥18 years (N = 51) in a peri-urban village of Bamako, Mali. Participants took part in structured interviews assessing knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccination. We found low levels of HPV and cervical cancer knowledge. While only 2.0% of respondents knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI), 100% said they would be willing to receive HPV vaccination and would like the HPV vaccine to be available in Mali. Moreover, 74.5% said they would vaccinate their child(ren) against HPV. Men were found to have significantly greater autonomy in the decision to vaccinate themselves than women and adolescents (p = 0.005), a potential barrier to be addressed by immunization campaigns. HPV vaccination would be highly acceptable if the vaccine became widely available in Bamako, Mali. This study demonstrates the need for a significant investment in health education if truly informed consent is to be obtained for HPV vaccination. Potential HPV vaccination campaigns should provide more information about HPV and the vaccine. Barriers to vaccination, including the significantly lower ability of the majority of the target population to autonomously decide to get vaccinated, must also be addressed in future HPV vaccine campaigns. PMID:23431375

  7. A cross-sectional study to assess HPV knowledge and HPV vaccine acceptability in Mali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N Poole

    Full Text Available Despite a high prevalence of oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV infection and cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccination is not currently available in Mali. Knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer in Mali, and thereby vaccine readiness, may be limited. Research staff visited homes in a radial pattern from a central location to recruit adolescent females and males aged 12-17 years and men and women aged ≥ 18 years (N = 51 in a peri-urban village of Bamako, Mali. Participants took part in structured interviews assessing knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HPV, cervical cancer, and HPV vaccination. We found low levels of HPV and cervical cancer knowledge. While only 2.0% of respondents knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI, 100% said they would be willing to receive HPV vaccination and would like the HPV vaccine to be available in Mali. Moreover, 74.5% said they would vaccinate their child(ren against HPV. Men were found to have significantly greater autonomy in the decision to vaccinate themselves than women and adolescents (p = 0.005, a potential barrier to be addressed by immunization campaigns. HPV vaccination would be highly acceptable if the vaccine became widely available in Bamako, Mali. This study demonstrates the need for a significant investment in health education if truly informed consent is to be obtained for HPV vaccination. Potential HPV vaccination campaigns should provide more information about HPV and the vaccine. Barriers to vaccination, including the significantly lower ability of the majority of the target population to autonomously decide to get vaccinated, must also be addressed in future HPV vaccine campaigns.

  8. 78 FR 67369 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... individuals who have been injured by covered childhood vaccines. Prior to this publication, trivalent... later of: (A) The first day of the first month which begins more than 4 weeks after the date of the... is the first day of the first month beginning more than 4 weeks after the effective date of Public...

  9. A cross-sectional survey to assess community attitudes to introduction of Human papillomavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Helen; Ryan, Philip; Roberton, Don; Baghurst, Peter

    2007-06-01

    A vaccine to prevent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection has been licensed recently in the United States of America and Australia. The aim of this study was to assess community attitudes to the introduction of HPV vaccine in the State of South Australia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by computer-aided telephone interviews in February 2006. The survey assessed adult and parental attitudes to the introduction of HPV vaccine to provide protection against a sexually transmitted disease caused by HPV and against cervical cancer. Two thousand interviews were conducted in metropolitan and rural households. Two per cent of respondents knew that persistent HPV infection caused cervical cancer and a further 7% were aware that the cause was viral. The majority of adults interviewed (83%) considered that both men and women should receive HPV vaccine and 77% of parents agreed that they would have their child/children immunised. Parents were mainly concerned about possible side effects of the vaccine (66%), with only 0.2% being concerned about discussing a sexually transmitted disease with their children and 5% being concerned that use of the vaccine may lead to promiscuity. Our findings suggest that public health education campaigns for HPV vaccination will find a majority of parents receptive to their children being vaccinated, but attention must be paid to appropriate explanation about HPV infection as the cause of cervical cancer and education about the safety of the HPV vaccine.

  10. Thermostable cross-protective subunit vaccine against Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherwonogrodzky, John W; Barabé, Nicole D; Grigat, Michelle L; Lee, William E; Poirier, Robert T; Jager, Scott J; Berger, Bradley J

    2014-12-01

    A subunit vaccine candidate was produced from Brucella suis 145 (biovar 4; expressing both the A antigen of Brucella abortus and the M antigen of Brucella melitensis). The preparation consisted mostly of polysaccharide (PS; >90% [wt/wt]; both cell-associated PS and exo-PS were combined) and a small amount of protein (1 to 3%) with no apparent nucleic acids. Vaccinated mice were protected (these had a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colonization compared to that of unvaccinated controls) when challenged with representative strains of three Brucella species most pathogenic for humans, i.e., B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. As little as 1 ng of the vaccine, without added adjuvant, protected mice against B. suis 145 infection (5 × 10(5) CFU), and a single injection of 1 μg of this subunit vaccine protected mice from B. suis 145 challenge for at least 14 months. A single immunization induced a serum IgG response to Brucella antigens that remained elevated for up to 9 weeks. The use of heat (i.e., boiling-water bath, autoclaving) in the vaccine preparation showed that it was thermostable. This method also ensured safety and security. The vaccine produced was immunogenic and highly protective against multiple strains of Brucella and represents a promising candidate for further evaluation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Effects of vaccination against paratuberculosis on tuberculosis in goats: diagnostic interferences and cross-protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez de Val Bernat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most countries carrying out campaigns of bovine tuberculosis (TB eradication impose a ban on the use of mycobacterial vaccines in cattle. However, vaccination against paratuberculosis (PTB in goats is often allowed even when its effect on TB diagnosis has not been fully evaluated. To address this issue, goat kids previously vaccinated against PTB were experimentally infected with TB. Results Evaluation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ secretion induced by avian and bovine tuberculins (PPD showed a predominant avian PPD-biased response in the vaccinated group from week 4 post-vaccination onward. Although 60% of the animals were bovine reactors at week 14, avian PPD-biased responses returned at week 16. After challenge with M. caprae, the IFN-γ responses radically changed to show predominant bovine PPD-biased responses from week 18 onward. In addition, cross-reactions with bovine PPD that had been observed in the vaccinated group at week 14 were reduced when using the M. tuberculosis complex-specific antigens ESAT-6/CFP-10 and Rv3615c as new DIVA (differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals reagents, which further maintained sensitivity post-challenge. Ninety percent of the animals reacted positively to the tuberculin cervical comparative intradermal test performed at 12 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, post-mortem analysis showed reductions in tuberculous lesions and bacterial burden in some vaccinated animals, particularly expressed in terms of the degree of extrapulmonary dissemination of TB infection. Conclusions Our results suggest a degree of interference of PTB vaccination with current TB diagnostics that can be fully mitigated when using new DIVA reagents. A partial protective effect associated with vaccination was also observed in some vaccinated animals.

  12. Evaluation of cross-protection by immunization with an experimental trivalent companion animal periodontitis vaccine in the mouse periodontitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardham, John; Sfintescu, Cornelia; Evans, Richard T

    2008-03-01

    Companion animal periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent diseases seen by veterinarians. The goal of this study was to evaluate the vaccine performance of a trivalent canine periodontitis vaccine in the mouse oral challenge model of periodontitis. Mice vaccinated subcutaneously with an inactivated, whole-cell vaccine preparation of Porphyromonas denticanis, Porphyromonas gulae, and Porphyromonas salivosa displayed significantly reduced alveolar bone loss in response to heterologous and cross-species challenges as compared to sham vaccinated animals. Based on the results of these studies, a periodontitis vaccine may be a useful tool in preventing the initiation and progression of periodontitis caused by the most commonly isolated pigmenting anaerobic bacteria in animals.

  13. Immersion vaccination against Yersinia ruckeri O1, biotype 2 confers cross protection against Y. ruckeri O1 biotype 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Neumann, Lukas; Kragelund Strøm, Helene

    A new biotype 2 of Y. ruckeri O1, which lacks motility has proven highly virulent for rainbow trout, and is causing disease in cultured trout even in fish vaccinated with commercial ERM biotype 1 vaccines. Not much is known about immunity against biotype 2, and therefore have we produced a Y...... resulted in very low mortalities with no significant difference in mortality between vaccinated and mock-vaccinated fish. Challenge with biotype 1 resulted in a significantly lower mortality (P=0.0001) in the vaccinated group. This result was confirmed 15 months post vaccination (P... 2 confers significant cross protection against biotype 1....

  14. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practices about Human Papilloma Virus vaccine among the nurses working in a tertiary hospital in China: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Mei; Zhao, Qi-Mei; Zhang, Lei-Ming

    2017-02-01

    To assess the knowledge about human papilloma virus infection and vaccine, to ascertain the attitude and practices about the vaccine, and to ascertain the determinants preventing people from getting themselves vaccinated. The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to August 2015 in Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Henan, China, and comprised all the nursing staff including nursing students. A piloted semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 18. Of the 308 subjects, 190(61.6%) were professional nurses and 118(38.3%) were nursing students. The mean age of the nurses was 36.7±6.2 years and that of the students was 20.4±2.1 years. Overall, 254(82.5%) subjects were aware about the existence of human papilloma virus vaccine; 241(94.9%) thought that the vaccine could effectively prevent the development of cervical cancer; and 108(61.4%) were reluctant to get vaccinated because the vaccine was expensive. There is a need to address the myths and misconceptions associated with vaccines in order to improve the acceptance of human papilloma virus vaccine among them.

  15. Prevention of HPV-related cancers in Norway: cost-effectiveness of expanding the HPV vaccination program to include pre-adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S; Kim, Jane J

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered 'good value for money.' For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY), it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is uniformly more effective and cost-effective than expanding

  16. Vaccination and blood sampling acceptability during Ramadan fasting month: A cross-sectional study in Conakry, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer-Smadja, Nathan; Ouedraogo, Ramatou; D'Ortenzio, Eric; Cissé, Papa Ndiaga; Zeggani, Zahra; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Faye, Sylvain Landry; Le Marcis, Frédéric; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2017-05-02

    There are few data on the acceptability of vaccination or blood sampling during Ramadan fasting month in Muslim countries. This could impact vaccination campaigns, clinical trials or healthcare during Ramadan. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 201 practising Muslims and 10 religious leaders in Conakry, Guinea in the wake of the recent epidemic Ebola epidemic. Acceptability of vaccination and blood sampling during Ramadan were investigated as well as reasons for refusal. Vaccination was judged acceptable during Ramadan by 46% (93/201, 95% CI 0.40-0.53) of practising Muslims versus 80% (8/10, 95% CI 0.49-0.94) of religious leaders (p=0.11). Blood sampling was judged acceptable during Ramadan by 54% (108/201, 95% CI 0.47-0.60) of practising Muslims versus 80% (8/10, 95% CI 0.49-0.94) of religious leaders (p=0.19). The percentage of participants that judged both blood sampling and vaccination acceptable during Ramadan was 40% (81/201, 95% CI 0.34-0.47) for practising Muslims versus 80% (8/10, 95% CI 0.49-0.94) for religious leaders (p=0.048). The most common reasons for refusal of vaccination or blood sampling were that nothing should enter or leave the body during Ramadan (43%), that adverse events could lead to breaking the fast (32%), that blood should not be seen during Ramadan (9%) and that the Quran explicitly forbids it (9%). Although most Muslims leaders and scientists consider that injections including immunization and blood sampling should be authorized during Ramadan, many Muslims in our study judged vaccination or blood sampling unacceptable when fasting. Widely available recommendations on healthcare during Ramadan would be useful to inform Muslims. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Intranasal P particle vaccine provided partial cross-variant protection against human GII.4 norovirus diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Jacob; Bui, Tammy; Giri-Rachman, Ernawati; Wen, Ke; Li, Guohua; Yang, Xingdong; Liu, Fangning; Tan, Ming; Xia, Ming; Zhong, Weiming; Jiang, Xi; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-09-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide in people of all ages. The P particle is a novel vaccine candidate derived from the protruding (P) domain of the NoV VP1 capsid protein. This study utilized the neonatal gnotobiotic pig model to evaluate the protective efficacies of primary infection, P particles, and virus-like particles (VLPs) against NoV infection and disease and the T cell responses to these treatments. Pigs either were vaccinated intranasally with GII.4/1997 NoV (VA387)-derived P particles or VLPs or were inoculated orally with a GII.4/2006b NoV variant. At postinoculation day (PID) 28, pigs either were euthanized or were challenged with the GII.4/2006b variant and monitored for diarrhea and virus shedding for 7 days. The T cell responses in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues were examined. Primary NoV infection provided 83% homologous protection against diarrhea and 49% homologous protection against virus shedding, while the P particle and VLP vaccines provided cross-variant protection (47% and 60%, respectively) against diarrhea. The protection rates against diarrhea are significantly inversely correlated with T cell expansion in the duodenum and are positively correlated with T cell expansion in the ileum and spleen. The P particle vaccine primed for stronger immune responses than VLPs, including significantly higher numbers of activated CD4+ T cells in all tissues, gamma interferon-producing (IFN-γ+) CD8+ T cells in the duodenum, regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the blood, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-producing CD4+ CD25- FoxP3+ Tregs in the spleen postchallenge, indicating that P particles are more immunogenic than VLPs at the same dose. In conclusion, the P particle vaccine is a promising vaccine candidate worthy of further development. The norovirus (NoV) P particle is a vaccine candidate derived from the protruding (P) domain of the NoV VP1 capsid protein. P particles can be

  18. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine - Knowledge and Attitudes among Parents of Children Aged 10-14 Years: a Cross-sectional Study, Tîrgu Mureş, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voidăzan, Septimiu; Tarcea, Monica; Morariu, Silviu-Horia; Grigore, Adelina; Dobreanu, Minodora

    2016-03-01

    Romania ranks first in Europe in terms of mortality from cervical cancer, recording 6.3 times more deaths than the mean in EU countries. Although vaccination campaigns were launched by health officials in Romania, the acceptance rate remained insignificant and programmes were discontinued. A successful vaccination programme requires a high rate of acceptance and accurate information for health professionals and parents. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of parental knowledge about human papilomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV vaccination including the information obtained from general practitioners and identification of barriers in implementing a vaccination strategy. We performed a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire for the parents of pupils in grades 5-8, in three randomly selected secondary schools in Tîrgu Mureş, Romania. We surveyed 918 parents. Of the respondents, 85.8% have heard of HPV infection. Most reported an average level of knowledge about HPV infection and HPV vaccination. The two main sources of information were specialized healthcare professionals (42.8% for HPV infection, 39.1% for HPV vaccination) and the Internet browsing (42.3% and 42.9%, respectively). Based on current knowledge, only one third of parents would have their child vaccinated against HPV infection. According to most parents surveyed, the main reasons for not wanting to have their child vaccinated is the fear of side effects; the vaccine is new and insufficiently studied; or parents do not know details about the vaccine. The parents showed the average level of knowledge about HPV infection and HPV vaccination. The implementation of an effective programme to increase the acceptance rate of HPV vaccination requires educational strategies aimed at involving parents and their children and supported by general practitioners and public health professionals. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  19. Knowledge, attitude & practice on human papillomavirus vaccination: A cross-sectional study among healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, P Cheena; Chawla, Anil; Chaudhary, Seema

    2016-11-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health problem and a leading cause of death among women in India. Of all the associated risk factors, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections being the principal aetiologic agent, two HPV vaccines are in use for the control of cervical cancer. The present study was undertaken to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on HPV vaccination among the healthcare providers in India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 590 healthcare professionals from 232 hospitals and 80 PHCs of nine districts of Delhi-NCR (National Capital Region). A total of 590 (526 female, 64 male) healthcare providers were surveyed. Only 47 per cent of respondents recommended young women to get vaccinated against HPV. Majority of respondents (81%) were found to be aware about the existence of vaccines for cervical cancer prevention. District-wise, highest (88.3%) awareness about the existence of vaccines against HPV was reported from Gautam Budh Nagar and lowest (64%) in Faridabad. Although 86 per cent of gynaecologists were aware about the names of HPV vaccines available in the market, only 27 per cent of paramedical staff had this knowledge. There was a significant difference between the respondents from government and private sectors regarding their awareness about HPV vaccines. Lack of awareness about the principal cause, risk factors and symptoms for cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was significantly (P< 0.05) reported in the respondents from paramedical staff category. The findings reinforce continued medical education of healthcare providers, particularly those from the government sector on HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention. Public education is also pertinent for a successful HPV vaccination programme in the country.

  20. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  1. Post-vaccinal distemper encephalitis in two Border Collie cross littermates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairley, R A; Knesl, O; Pesavento, P A; Elias, B C

    2015-03-01

    One 4.5-month-old male Border Collie cross presented with aggression and seizures in October 2006. A 16-month-old, female, spayed Border Collie cross presented with hypersalivation and a dropped jaw and rapidly became stuporous in September 2007. The dogs were littermates and developed acute neurological signs 5 and 27 days, respectively, after vaccination with different modified live vaccines containing canine distemper virus. Sections of brain in both dogs showed evidence of encephalitis mainly centred on the grey matter of brainstem nuclei, where there was extensive and intense parenchymal and perivascular infiltration of histiocytes and lymphocytes. Intra-nuclear and intra-cytoplasmic inclusions typical of distemper were plentiful and there was abundant labelling for canine distemper virus using immunohistochemistry. Post-vaccinal canine distemper. Post-vaccinal canine distemper has mainly been attributed to virulent vaccine virus, but it may also occur in dogs whose immunologic nature makes them susceptible to disease induced by a modified-live vaccine virus that is safe and protective for most dogs.

  2. Vaccination Coverage for Infants: Cross-Sectional Studies in Two Regions of Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Objectives. To estimate infant vaccination coverage in the French-speaking region of Belgium (Wallonia and in the Brussels-Capital Region, two cross-sectional studies were performed in 2012. A face-to-face questionnaire was administered by trained investigators. The objective was to evaluate infant vaccination coverage retrospectively in 18- to 24-month-old children. These studies offered the opportunity to assess some factors influencing vaccine uptake in infants. Results and Discussion. Approximately 99% of the children had received the first dose of IPV-DTaP, 90% the fourth dose, 94% the MMR vaccine, 97% the first dose of pneumococcal vaccine, and 90% the third dose. In both regions, when fitting a logistic model, the most associated factor was attendance at maternal and child clinics (MCH. No association was observed between vaccination coverage and the mother’s level of education. For the last immunization session, where the mother was a Belgian native and when she worked more hours, child was better immunized, but only in Brussels. Conclusion. Coverage for the fourth dose of hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HBV/Hib needs to be increased. Indeed, additional effort is needed to increase HIB and pertussis coverage rates because the herd immunity threshold for these two diseases has not been reached.

  3. A cross-sectional survey to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP regarding seasonal influenza vaccination among European travellers to resource-limited destinations

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    Szucs Thomas D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases in travellers. By performing two cross-sectional questionnaire surveys during winter 2009 and winter 2010 among European travellers to resource-limited destinations, we aimed to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP regarding seasonal influenza vaccination. Methods Questionnaires were distributed in the waiting room to the visitors of the University of Zurich Centre for Travel' Health (CTH in January and February 2009 and January 2010 prior to travel health counselling (CTH09 and CTH10. Questions included demographic data, travel-related characteristics and KAP regarding influenza vaccination. Data were analysed by using SPSS® version 14.0 for Windows. Differences in proportions were compared using the Chi-square test and the significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. Predictors for seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination were determined by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results With a response rate of 96.6%, 906 individuals were enrolled and 868 (92.5% provided complete data. Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage was 13.7% (n = 119. Only 43 (14.2% participants were vaccinated against pandemic influenza A/H1N1, mostly having received both vaccines simultaneously, the seasonal and pandemic one. Job-related purposes (44, 37%, age > 64 yrs (25, 21% and recommendations of the family physician (27, 22.7% were the most often reported reasons for being vaccinated. In the multiple logistic regression analyses of the pooled data increasing age (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.04, a business trip (OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.17 - 0.92 and seasonal influenza vaccination in the previous winter seasons (OR = 12.91, 95% CI 8.09 - 20.58 were independent predictors for seasonal influenza vaccination in 2009 or 2010. Influenza vaccination recommended by the family doctor (327, 37.7%, travel to regions with known high risk of influenza (305, 35.1%, and influenza

  4. Parental Attitudes and Factors Associated With Varicella Vaccination in Preschool and Schoolchildren in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Tam, Wilson W S; Chan, Johnny; Lo, Kenneth K H; Lee, Albert; Chan, Paul K S; Chan, Denise; Nelson, E Anthony S

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates parental attitudes and factors associated with varicella vaccination among preschool and schoolchildren prior to introduction of the vaccine into Hong Kong's universal Childhood Immunization Program.Fourteen kindergartens and 5 primary schools in Hong Kong were randomly selected in 2013. Parents of the students were invited to answer the self-administered questionnaires. Acquired information included demographic characteristics and socioeconomic statuses of families, children's history of chickenpox infection and vaccination, and reasons for getting children vaccinated. Logistic regression was applied to examine the factors associated with vaccination.From the 3484 completed questionnaires, the calculated rates of varicella infection and vaccination were 20.7% and 69.0%, respectively. Barriers to vaccination included parental uncertainties about vaccine effectiveness, lack of recommendation from the government, and concerns on adverse effects. Overall, 71.8%, 69.0%, and 45.7% of the parents rated family doctors, specialists, and the government, respectively, as very important motivators of vaccination. Higher parental educational level and family income, better perceived knowledge of varicella and chance of infection, discussion with a family doctor, and positive health belief towards vaccination were associated with vaccination (all P vaccination in Hong Kong was higher than that of some other countries that also did not include the vaccine in their routine immunization programs. More positive parental attitudes, higher socioeconomic status, and discussion with a family doctor are associated with greater vaccination rates. The important roles that health professionals and the government play in promoting varicella vaccination were emphasized.

  5. Cross-sectional survey: risk-averse French general practitioners are more favorable toward influenza vaccination.

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    Massin, Sophie; Ventelou, Bruno; Nebout, Antoine; Verger, Pierre; Pulcini, Céline

    2015-01-29

    We tested the following hypotheses: (i) risk-averse general practitioners (GPs) are more likely to be vaccinated against influenza; (ii) and risk-averse GPs recommend influenza vaccination more often to their patients. In risk-averse GPs, the perceived benefits of the vaccine and/or the perceived risks of the infectious disease might indeed outweigh the perceived risks of the vaccine. In 2010-2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a nationwide French representative sample of 1136 GPs. Multivariate analyses adjusted for four stratification variables (age, gender, urban/suburban/rural practice location and annual patient consultations) and for GPs' characteristics (group/solo practice, and occasional practice of alternative medicine, e.g., homeopathy) looked for associations between their risk attitudes and self-reported vaccination behavior. Individual risk attitudes were expressed as a continuous variable, from 0 (risk-tolerant) to 10 (risk-averse). Overall, 69% of GPs reported that they were very favorable toward vaccination in general. Self-reported vaccination coverage was 78% for 2009/2010 seasonal influenza and 62% for A/H1N1 pandemic influenza. Most GPs (72%) reported recommending the pandemic influenza vaccination to at-risk young adults in 2009, but few than half (42%) to young adults not at risk. In multivariate analyses, risk-averse GPs were more often vaccinated against seasonal (marginal effect=1.3%, P=0.02) and pandemic influenza (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.02). Risk-averse GPs recommended the pandemic influenza vaccination more often than their more risk-tolerant colleagues to patients without risk factors (marginal effect=1.7%, P=0.01), but not to their at-risk patients and were more favorable toward vaccination in general (marginal effect=1.5%, P=0.04). Individual risk attitudes may influence GPs' practices regarding influenza vaccination, both for themselves and their patients. Our results suggest that risk-averse GPs may perceive the risks

  6. Development and efficacy of an attenuated Vibrio harveyi vaccine candidate with cross protectivity against Vibrio alginolyticus.

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    Hu, Yong-hua; Deng, Tian; Sun, Bo-guang; Sun, Li

    2012-06-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that can infect a wide range of marine animals. In previous studies, we have reported a virulent V. harveyi strain, T4D. In the present study, an attenuated mutant of T4D, T4DM, was obtained by selection of rifampicin resistance. Compared to the wild type, T4DM was different in whole-cell protein profile and much slower in growth rate when cultured in stress conditions caused by iron depletion. Virulence analysis showed that compared to T4D, T4DM exhibited a dramatically increased median lethal dose, impaired tissue dissemination capacity, defective hemolytic activity, and significantly reduced resistance against the killing effect of host serum. To examine the potential of T4DM as a live attenuated vaccine, Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were vaccinated with T4DM via intraperitoneal injection or immersion. The results showed that at one and two months post-vaccination, fish administered with T4DM via both approaches, in particular that of immersion, were effectively protected against not only V. harveyi but also Vibrio alginolyticus, another important fish pathogen. Microbiological analysis showed that following immersion vaccination, T4DM was recovered from the internal organs of the vaccinated fish in a time-dependent manner within the first 6 days post-vaccination. Serum antibodies against V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus were detected in T4DM-vaccinated fish, and, compared to serum from control fish, serum from T4DM-vaccinated fish was significantly enhanced in bactericidal activity. These results indicate that T4DM is an attenuated strain with residual infectivity and that T4DM can induce effective cross-species protection against both V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus when used as a live immersion vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination in relation to their socio-demographics and religious beliefs: A cross-sectional study in Thailand.

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    Grandahl, Maria; Chun Paek, Seung; Grisurapong, Siriwan; Sherer, Penchan; Tydén, Tanja; Lundberg, Pranee

    2018-01-01

    Thailand has one of the world's highest prevalence of cervical cancer, mainly caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV infections can successfully be prevented by vaccination, which is available at a cost but not yet implemented in the national vaccination program. Parents play a critical role in deciding whether to vaccinate their child against HPV. Thus, the aim was to examine the association between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. A cross-sectional design was used among three schools in Thailand: Nakorn Phatom province (suburban) and Bangkok (urban). Parents of 9-12-year-old daughters completed the questionnaires, guided by the Health Belief Model. In total, 359 parents completed the questionnaires; of those, 301 were included in the final analyses. The ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis showed that background knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine was positively related to knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer. For beliefs, knowledge was positively associated with susceptibility (i.e., parents' perceived risk of an HPV infection/ related disease), severity, and benefit. However, knowledge was not significantly related to barriers. For acceptance, higher susceptibility and benefit were related to higher acceptance, and greater knowledge was associated with higher acceptance. Thus, we found associations between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. Parents, who reported religion as important, as opposed to those who did not, were more favorable toward the HPV vaccination. Four out of ten mothers had never undergone a cervical cancer screening, but most had accepted previous childhood vaccinations for their daughters. The overall acceptance of the vaccine was high, and we believe our results are promising for future

  8. Parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination in relation to their socio-demographics and religious beliefs: A cross-sectional study in Thailand.

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    Maria Grandahl

    Full Text Available Thailand has one of the world's highest prevalence of cervical cancer, mainly caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV. HPV infections can successfully be prevented by vaccination, which is available at a cost but not yet implemented in the national vaccination program. Parents play a critical role in deciding whether to vaccinate their child against HPV. Thus, the aim was to examine the association between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. A cross-sectional design was used among three schools in Thailand: Nakorn Phatom province (suburban and Bangkok (urban. Parents of 9-12-year-old daughters completed the questionnaires, guided by the Health Belief Model. In total, 359 parents completed the questionnaires; of those, 301 were included in the final analyses. The ordinary least squares (OLS regression analysis showed that background knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine was positively related to knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer. For beliefs, knowledge was positively associated with susceptibility (i.e., parents' perceived risk of an HPV infection/ related disease, severity, and benefit. However, knowledge was not significantly related to barriers. For acceptance, higher susceptibility and benefit were related to higher acceptance, and greater knowledge was associated with higher acceptance. Thus, we found associations between parents' knowledge, beliefs, and acceptance of the HPV vaccination for their daughters, considering their socio-demographics and religious beliefs. Parents, who reported religion as important, as opposed to those who did not, were more favorable toward the HPV vaccination. Four out of ten mothers had never undergone a cervical cancer screening, but most had accepted previous childhood vaccinations for their daughters. The overall acceptance of the vaccine was high, and we believe our results are promising for

  9. Review of current typhoid fever vaccines, cross-protection against paratyphoid fever, and the European guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Hatz, Christoph; Kantele, Anu

    2017-10-01

    Typhoid and paratyphoid fever remain a global health problem, which - in non-endemic countries - are mainly seen in travelers, particularly in VFRs (visiting friends and relatives), with occasional local outbreaks occurring. A rise in anti-microbial resistance emphasizes the role of preventive measures, especially vaccinations against typhoid and paratyphoid fever for travelers visiting endemic countries. Areas covered: This state-of-the-art review recapitulates the epidemiology and mechanisms of disease of typhoid and paratyphoid fever, depicts the perspective of non-endemic countries and travelers (VFRs), and collectively presents current European recommendations for typhoid fever vaccination. We provide a brief overview of available (and developmental) vaccines in Europe, present current data on cross-protection to S. Paratyphi, and aim to provide a background for typhoid vaccine decision-making in travelers. Expert commentary: European recommendations are not harmonized. Experts must assess vaccination of travelers based on current country-specific recommendations. Travel health practitioners should be aware of the issues surrounding vaccination of travelers and be motivated to increase awareness of typhoid and paratyphoid fever risks.

  10. Retrospective multicenter matched case-control study on the risk factors for narcolepsy with special focus on vaccinations (including pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Pavel, Jutta; Mayer, Geert; Geisler, Peter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2017-06-01

    Studies associate pandemic influenza vaccination with narcolepsy. In Germany, a retrospective, multicenter, matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for narcolepsy, particularly regarding vaccinations (seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination) and infections (seasonal and pandemic influenza) and to quantify the detected risks. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness who had been referred to a sleep center between April 2009 and December 2012 for multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) were eligible. Case report forms were validated according to the criteria for narcolepsy defined by the Brighton Collaboration (BC). Confirmed cases of narcolepsy (BC level of diagnostic certainty 1-4a) were matched with population-based controls by year of birth, gender, and place of residence. A second control group was established including patients in whom narcolepsy was definitely excluded (test-negative controls). A total of 103 validated cases of narcolepsy were matched with 264 population-based controls. The second control group included 29 test-negative controls. A significantly increased odd ratio (OR) to develop narcolepsy (crude OR [cOR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-8.5; adjusted OR [aOR] = 4.5, 95% CI = 2.0-9.9) was detected in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset as compared to nonvaccinated individuals. Using test-negative controls, in individuals immunized with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine prior to symptoms onset, a nonsignificantly increased OR of narcolepsy was detected when compared to nonvaccinated individuals (whole study population, BC levels 1-4a: cOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 0.5-6.9; aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 0.3-10.1). The findings of this study support an increased risk for narcolepsy after immunization with pandemic influenza A/H1N1/v vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatitis B virus vaccination booster does not provide additional protection in adolescents: a cross-sectional school-based study.

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    Chang, Yung-Chieh; Wang, Jen-Hung; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Jun-Song; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Chia-Hsiang

    2014-09-23

    Current consensus does not support the use of a universal booster of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine because there is an anamnestic response in almost all children 15 years after universal infant HBV vaccination. We aimed to provide a booster strategy among adolescents as a result of their changes in lifestyle and sexual activity. This study comprised a series of cross-sectional serological surveys of HBV markers in four age groups between 2004 and 2012. The seropositivity rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and its reciprocal antibody (anti-HBs) for each age group were collected. There were two parts to this study; age-specific HBV seroepidemiology and subgroup analysis, including effects of different vaccine types, booster response for immunogenicity at 15 years of age, and longitudinal follow-up to identify possible additional protection by HBV booster. Within the study period, data on serum anti-HBs and HBsAg in a total of 6950 students from four age groups were collected. The overall anti-HBs and HBsAg seropositivity rates were 44.3% and 1.2%, respectively. The anti-HBs seropositivity rate in the plasma-derived subgroup was significantly higher in both 15- and 18-year age groups. Overall response rate in the double-seronegative recipients at 15 years of age was 92.5% at 6 weeks following one recombinant HBV booster dose. Among the 24 recipients showing anti-HBs seroconversion at 6 weeks after booster, seven subjects (29.2%) had lost their anti-HBs seropositivity again within 3 years. Increased seropositivity rates and titers of anti-HBs did not provide additional protective effects among subjects comprehensively vaccinated against HBV in infancy. HBV booster strategy at 15 years of age was the main contributor to the unique age-related phenomenon of anti-HBs seropositivity rate and titer. No increase in HBsAg seropositivity rates within different age groups was observed. Vaccination with plasma-derived HBV vaccines in infancy provided higher

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Vaccine Candidate Genes Including CSP and MSP1 in Plasmodium yoelii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Hee; Bae, Young-An; Seoh, Ju-Young; Yang, Hyun-Jong

    2017-06-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease affecting humans, which is transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes harboring sporozoites of parasitic protozoans belonging to the genus Plasmodium . Despite past achievements to control the protozoan disease, malaria still remains a significant health threat up to now. In this study, we cloned and characterized the full-unit Plasmodium yoelii genes encoding merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), circumsporozoite protein (CSP), and Duffy-binding protein (DBP), each of which can be applied for investigations to obtain potent protective vaccines in the rodent malaria model, due to their specific expression patterns during the parasite life cycle. Recombinant fragments corresponding to the middle and C-terminal regions of PyMSP1 and PyCSP, respectively, displayed strong reactivity against P. yoelii -infected mice sera. Specific native antigens invoking strong humoral immune response during the primary and secondary infections of P. yoelii were also abundantly detected in experimental ICR mice. The low or negligible parasitemia observed in the secondary infected mice was likely to result from the neutralizing action of the protective antibodies. Identification of these antigenic proteins might provide the necessary information and means to characterize additional vaccine candidate antigens, selected solely on their ability to produce the protective antibodies.

  13. Synthetic B-Cell Epitopes Eliciting Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies: Strategies for Future Dengue Vaccine.

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    Babu Ramanathan

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency. Immunization of mice revealed two novel synthetic vaccine constructs that elicited good humoral immune responses and produced cross-reactive neutralising antibodies against DENV-1, 2 and 3. The findings indicate new directions for epitope mapping and contribute towards the future development of multi-epitope based synthetic peptide vaccine.

  14. No evidence for cross-protection of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against HPV-6/11 positivity in female STI clinic visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenberg, Petra J.; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.; Adema, D.; Buist-Arkema, R.; Beerens, A.; Luijt, D.; Meijer, S.; Schirm, J.; Buiting, A.; Peeters, M.; Rossen, J.; Verbakel, H.; van Esch, P.; Verweij, J.; van der Eijk, A.; Huisman, R.; Kerkhof, C.; Korff, H.; Schutten, M.; Velzing, J.; Verduyn-Lunel, F.; Lakbiach, S.; van Rosmalen, P.; Schuurman, R.; Abma, D.; Adams, K.; Bruisten, S.; Linde, I.; Oostvogel, P.; Touwen, C.; Vermeulen, W.; Brink, A.; Nelissen, J.; Wolffs, P.; Duijvendijk, N.; Schneeberger, P.; Dinnissen-van Poppel, M.; Melchers, W.; Poort, Y.; Hooghiemstra, M.; Huisman, H.; Weel, J.; Stam, J.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a vaccine trial and from post-vaccine surveillance in the United Kingdom have suggested that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine offers cross-protection against HPV-6/11 and protection against anogenital warts (AGW). We studied the effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11 positivity

  15. No evidence for cross-protection of the HPV-16/18 vaccine against HPV-6/11 positivity in female STI clinic visitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woestenberg, Petra J.; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Donken, Robine; Leussink, Suzan; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van Benthem, Birgit H B

    OBJECTIVES: Data from a vaccine trial and from post-vaccine surveillance in the United Kingdom have suggested that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine offers cross-protection against HPV-6/11 and protection against anogenital warts (AGW). We studied the effect of the bivalent vaccine on genital HPV-6/11

  16. Prevention of HPV-related cancers in Norway: cost-effectiveness of expanding the HPV vaccination program to include pre-adolescent boys.

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    Emily A Burger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV, causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. METHODS: A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. RESULTS: Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered 'good value for money.' For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY, it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. CONCLUSIONS: At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is

  17. Prevention of HPV-Related Cancers in Norway: Cost-Effectiveness of Expanding the HPV Vaccination Program to Include Pre-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A.; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S.; Kim, Jane J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. Methods A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. Results Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered ‘good value for money.’ For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY), it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. Conclusions At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is uniformly more

  18. Seasonal Influenza Vaccination amongst Medical Students: A Social Network Analysis Based on a Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Rhiannon Edge

    Full Text Available The Chief Medical Officer for England recommends that healthcare workers have a seasonal influenza vaccination in an attempt to protect both patients and NHS staff. Despite this, many healthcare workers do not have a seasonal influenza vaccination. Social network analysis is a well-established research approach that looks at individuals in the context of their social connections. We examine the effects of social networks on influenza vaccination decision and disease dynamics.We used a social network analysis approach to look at vaccination distribution within the network of the Lancaster Medical School students and combined these data with the students' beliefs about vaccination behaviours. We then developed a model which simulated influenza outbreaks to study the effects of preferentially vaccinating individuals within this network.Of the 253 eligible students, 217 (86% provided relational data, and 65% of responders had received a seasonal influenza vaccination. Students who were vaccinated were more likely to think other medical students were vaccinated. However, there was no clustering of vaccinated individuals within the medical student social network. The influenza simulation model demonstrated that vaccination of well-connected individuals may have a disproportional effect on disease dynamics.This medical student population exhibited vaccination coverage levels similar to those seen in other healthcare groups but below recommendations. However, in this population, a lack of vaccination clustering might provide natural protection from influenza outbreaks. An individual student's perception of the vaccination coverage amongst their peers appears to correlate with their own decision to vaccinate, but the directionality of this relationship is not clear. When looking at the spread of disease within a population it is important to include social structures alongside vaccination data. Social networks influence disease epidemiology and

  19. Knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccine in Bangladeshi women: a population based, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Jessica Yasmine; Khatun, Fatema; Alam, Anadil; Sultana, Farhana; Bhuiyan, Afsana; Alam, Nazmul; Reichenbach, Laura; Marions, Lena; Rahman, Mustafizur; Nahar, Quamrun

    2018-01-11

    The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge of cervical cancer among Bangladeshi women and to assess their willingness to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. A population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted from July to December 2011 in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 2037 ever-married women, aged 14 to 64 years, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge of cervical cancer were collected. Willingness to receive the HPV vaccine was assessed. Univariate analyses were completed using quantitative data collected. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to identify factors associated with having heard of cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine. The majority of study participants reported to have heard of cervical cancer (urban: 89.7%, rural 93.4%; P = 0.003). The odds of having heard of cervical cancer were significantly higher in urban women aged 35-44 years (aOR: 2.92 (1.34-6.33) and rural women aged 25-34 years (aOR: 2.90 (1.24-6.73) compared to those aged less than 24 years. Very few women reported to have detailed knowledge on risk factors (urban:9.1%, rural: 8.8%) and prevention (urban: 6.4%, rural: 4.4%) of cervical cancer. In our sample, one in five urban women and one in twenty rural women heard about a vaccine that can prevent cervical cancer. Among urban women, secondary education or higher (aOR: 3.48, 95% CI: 1.67-7.25), age of 20 years and above at marriage (aOR: 2.83, 95% CI: 1.61-5.00), and high socioeconomic status (aOR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.28-3.95) were factors associated with having heard of the HPV vaccine. Willingness to receive the HPV vaccine among study participants either for themselves (urban: 93.9%, rural: 99.4%) or for their daughters (urban: 91.8%, rural: 99.2%) was high. Detailed knowledge of cervical cancer among Bangladeshi women was found to be poor. Education on cervical cancer must include

  20. Inclusion of the benefits of enhanced cross-protection against cervical cancer and prevention of genital warts in the cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in the Netherlands

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    Westra Tjalke A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with HPV 16 and 18, the major causative agents of cervical cancer, can be prevented through vaccination with a bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine. Both vaccines provide cross-protection against HPV-types not included in the vaccines. In particular, the bivalent vaccine provides additional protection against HPV 31, 33, and 45 and the quadrivalent vaccine against HPV31. The quadrivalent vaccine additionally protects against low-risk HPV type 6 and 11, responsible for most cases of genital warts. In this study, we made an analytical comparison of the two vaccines in terms of cost-effectiveness including the additional benefits of cross-protection and protection against genital warts in comparison with a screening-only strategy. Methods We used a Markov model, simulating the progression from HPV infection to cervical cancer or genital warts. The model was used to estimate the difference in future costs and health effects of both HPV-vaccines separately. Results In a cohort of 100,000 women, use of the bivalent or quadrivalent vaccine (both at 50% vaccination coverage reduces the cervical cancer incidence by 221 and 207 cases, corresponding to ICERs of €17,600/QALY and €18,900/QALY, respectively. It was estimated that the quadrivalent vaccine additionally prevents 4390 cases of genital warts, reducing the ICER to €16,300/QALY. Assuming a comparable willingness to pay for cancer and genital warts prevention, the difference in ICERs could justify a slightly higher price (~7% per dose in favor of the quadrivalent vaccine. Conclusions Clearly, HPV vaccination has been implemented for the prevention of cervical cancer. From this perspective, use of the bivalent HPV vaccine appears to be most effective and cost-effective. Including the benefits of prevention against genital warts, the ICER of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was found to be slightly more favourable. However, current decision-making on the introduction of HPV

  1. Durability of Vaccine-Induced Immunity Against Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxins: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Erika; Thomas, Archana; Poore, Elizabeth A.; Amanna, Ian J.; Rynko, Abby E.; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Slifka, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many adult immunization schedules recommend that tetanus and diphtheria vaccination be performed every 10 years. In light of current epidemiological trends of disease incidence and rates of vaccine-associated adverse events, the 10-year revaccination schedule has come into question. Methods. We performed cross-sectional analysis of serum antibody titers in 546 adult subjects stratified by age or sex. All serological results were converted to international units after calibration with international serum standards. Results. Approximately 97% of the population was seropositive to tetanus and diphtheria as defined by a protective serum antibody titer of ≥0.01 IU/mL. Mean antibody titers were 3.6 and 0.35 IU/mL against tetanus and diphtheria, respectively. Antibody responses to tetanus declined with an estimated half-life of 14 years (95% confidence interval, 11–17 years), whereas antibody responses to diphtheria were more long-lived and declined with an estimated half-life of 27 years (18–51 years). Mathematical models combining antibody magnitude and duration predict that 95% of the population will remain protected against tetanus and diphtheria for ≥30 years without requiring further booster vaccination. Conclusions. These studies demonstrate that durable levels of protective antitoxin immunity exist in the majority of vaccinated individuals. Together, this suggests that it may no longer be necessary to administer booster vaccinations every 10 years and that the current adult vaccination schedule for tetanus and diphtheria should be revisited. PMID:27060790

  2. Comparing human papillomavirus vaccine concerns on Twitter: a cross-sectional study of users in Australia, Canada and the UK.

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    Shapiro, Gilla K; Surian, Didi; Dunn, Adam G; Perry, Ryan; Kelaher, Margaret

    2017-10-05

    Opposition to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is common on social media and has the potential to impact vaccine coverage. This study aims to conduct an international comparison of the proportions of tweets about HPV vaccines that express concerns, the types of concerns expressed and the social connections among users posting about HPV vaccines in Australia, Canada and the UK. Using a cross-sectional design, an international comparison of English language tweets about HPV vaccines and social connections among Twitter users posting about HPV vaccines between January 2014 and April 2016 was conducted. The Health Belief Model, one of the most widely used theories in health psychology, was used as the basis for coding the types of HPV vaccine concerns expressed on Twitter. The content of tweets and the social connections between users who posted tweets about HPV vaccines from Australia, Canada and the UK. 16 789 Twitter users who posted 43 852 tweets about HPV vaccines. The proportions of tweets expressing concern, the type of concern expressed and the proportions of local and international social connections between users. Tweets expressing concerns about HPV vaccines made up 14.9% of tweets in Canada, 19.4% in Australia and 22.6% in the UK. The types of concerns expressed were similar across the three countries, with concerns related to 'perceived barriers' being the most common. Users expressing concerns about HPV vaccines in each of the three countries had a relatively high proportion of international followers also expressing concerns. The proportions and types of HPV vaccine concerns expressed on Twitter were similar across the three countries. Twitter users who mostly expressed concerns about HPV vaccines were better connected to international users who shared their concerns compared with users who did not express concerns about HPV vaccines. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  3. Facebook Recruitment of Vaccine-Hesitant Canadian Parents: Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Tustin, Jordan Lee; Crowcroft, Natasha Sarah; Gesink, Dionne; Johnson, Ian; Keelan, Jennifer; Lachapelle, Barbara

    2017-07-24

    There is concern over the increase in the number of "vaccine-hesitant" parents, which contributes to under-vaccinated populations and reduced herd immunity. Traditional studies investigating parental immunization beliefs and practices have relied on random digit dialing (RDD); however, this method presents increasing limitations. Facebook is the most used social media platform in Canada and presents an opportunity to recruit vaccine-hesitant parents in a novel manner. The study aimed to explore the use of Facebook as a tool to reach vaccine-hesitant parents, as compared with RDD methods. We recruited Canadian parents over 4 weeks in 2013-14 via targeted Facebook advertisements linked to a Web-based survey. We compared methodological parameters, key parental demographics, and three vaccine hesitancy indicators to an RDD sample of Canadian parents. Two raters categorized respondent reasons for difficulties in deciding to vaccinate, according to the model of determinants of vaccine hesitancy developed by the World Health Organization's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization. The Facebook campaign received a total of 4792 clicks from unique users, of whom 1696 started the Web-based survey. The total response rate of fully completed unique Web-based surveys was 22.89% (1097/4792) and the survey completion rate was 64.68% (1097/1696). The total cost including incentives was reasonable (Can $4861.19). The Web-based sample yielded younger parents, with 85.69% (940/1097) under the age of 40 years as compared with 23.38% (408/1745) in the RDD sample; 91.43% (1003/1097) of the Facebook respondents were female as compared with 59.26% (1034/1745) in the RDD sample. Facebook respondents had a lower median age of their youngest child (1 year vs 8 years for RDD). When compared with the RDD sample, the Web-based sample yielded a significantly higher proportion of respondents reporting vaccines as moderately safe to not safe (26.62% [292/1097] vs 18.57% [324

  4. Facebook Recruitment of Vaccine-Hesitant Canadian Parents: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background There is concern over the increase in the number of “vaccine-hesitant” parents, which contributes to under-vaccinated populations and reduced herd immunity. Traditional studies investigating parental immunization beliefs and practices have relied on random digit dialing (RDD); however, this method presents increasing limitations. Facebook is the most used social media platform in Canada and presents an opportunity to recruit vaccine-hesitant parents in a novel manner. Objective The study aimed to explore the use of Facebook as a tool to reach vaccine-hesitant parents, as compared with RDD methods. Methods We recruited Canadian parents over 4 weeks in 2013-14 via targeted Facebook advertisements linked to a Web-based survey. We compared methodological parameters, key parental demographics, and three vaccine hesitancy indicators to an RDD sample of Canadian parents. Two raters categorized respondent reasons for difficulties in deciding to vaccinate, according to the model of determinants of vaccine hesitancy developed by the World Health Organization’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization. Results The Facebook campaign received a total of 4792 clicks from unique users, of whom 1696 started the Web-based survey. The total response rate of fully completed unique Web-based surveys was 22.89% (1097/4792) and the survey completion rate was 64.68% (1097/1696). The total cost including incentives was reasonable (Can $4861.19). The Web-based sample yielded younger parents, with 85.69% (940/1097) under the age of 40 years as compared with 23.38% (408/1745) in the RDD sample; 91.43% (1003/1097) of the Facebook respondents were female as compared with 59.26% (1034/1745) in the RDD sample. Facebook respondents had a lower median age of their youngest child (1 year vs 8 years for RDD). When compared with the RDD sample, the Web-based sample yielded a significantly higher proportion of respondents reporting vaccines as moderately safe to not safe

  5. [VACCINES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs.

  6. Vaccine coverage and determinants of incomplete vaccination in children aged 12-23 months in Dschang, West Region, Cameroon: a cross-sectional survey during a polio outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gianluca; Miglietta, Alessandro; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Biguioh, Rodrigue Mabvouna; Bouting Mayaka, Georges; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Stefanelli, Paola; Vullo, Vincenzo; Rezza, Giovanni

    2015-07-10

    Inadequate immunization coverage with increased risk of vaccine preventable diseases outbreaks remains a problem in Africa. Moreover, different factors contribute to incomplete vaccination status. This study was performed in Dschang (West Region, Cameroon), during the polio outbreak occurred in October 2013, in order to estimate the immunization coverage among children aged 12-23 months, to identify determinants for incomplete vaccination status and to assess the risk of poliovirus spread in the study population. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in November-December 2013, using the WHO two-stage sampling design. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information from consenting parents of children aged 12-23 months. Vaccination coverage was assessed by vaccination card and parents' recall. Chi-square test and multilevel logistic regression model were used to identify the determinants of incomplete immunization status. Statistical significance was set at p children were enrolled. Complete immunization coverage was 85.9% and 84.5%, according to card plus parents' recall and card only, respectively. All children had received at least one routine vaccination, the OPV-3 (Oral Polio Vaccine) coverage was >90%, and 73.4% children completed the recommended vaccinations before 1-year of age. In the final multilevel logistic regression model, factors significantly associated with incomplete immunization status were: retention of immunization card (AOR: 7.89; 95% CI: 1.08-57.37), lower mothers' utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services (AOR:1.25; 95% CI: 1.07-63.75), being the ≥ 3(rd) born child in the family (AOR: 425.4; 95% CI: 9.6-18,808), younger mothers' age (AOR: 49.55; 95% CI: 1.59-1544), parents' negative attitude towards immunization (AOR: 20.2; 95% CI: 1.46-278.9), and poorer parents' exposure to information on vaccination (AOR: 28.07; 95 % CI: 2.26-348.1). Longer distance from the vaccination centers was marginally

  7. Measuring the performance of vaccination programs using cross-sectional surveys: a likelihood framework and retrospective analysis.

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    Justin Lessler

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of routine and supplemental immunization activities is usually measured by the administrative method: dividing the number of doses distributed by the size of the target population. This method leads to coverage estimates that are sometimes impossible (e.g., vaccination of 102% of the target population, and are generally inconsistent with the proportion found to be vaccinated in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS. We describe a method that estimates the fraction of the population accessible to vaccination activities, as well as within-campaign inefficiencies, thus providing a consistent estimate of vaccination coverage.We developed a likelihood framework for estimating the effective coverage of vaccination programs using cross-sectional surveys of vaccine coverage combined with administrative data. We applied our method to measles vaccination in three African countries: Ghana, Madagascar, and Sierra Leone, using data from each country's most recent DHS survey and administrative coverage data reported to the World Health Organization. We estimate that 93% (95% CI: 91, 94 of the population in Ghana was ever covered by any measles vaccination activity, 77% (95% CI: 78, 81 in Madagascar, and 69% (95% CI: 67, 70 in Sierra Leone. "Within-activity" inefficiencies were estimated to be low in Ghana, and higher in Sierra Leone and Madagascar. Our model successfully fits age-specific vaccination coverage levels seen in DHS data, which differ markedly from those predicted by naïve extrapolation from country-reported and World Health Organization-adjusted vaccination coverage.Combining administrative data with survey data substantially improves estimates of vaccination coverage. Estimates of the inefficiency of past vaccination activities and the proportion not covered by any activity allow us to more accurately predict the results of future activities and provide insight into the ways in which vaccination programs are failing to meet their

  8. Evaluating the importance of policy amenable factors in explaining influenza vaccination: a cross-sectional multinational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Thomson, Angus; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Despite continuous efforts to improve influenza vaccination coverage, uptake among high-risk groups remains suboptimal. We aimed to identify policy amenable factors associated with vaccination and to measure their importance in order to assist in the monitoring of vaccination sentiment and the design of communication strategies and interventions to improve vaccination rates. Setting The USA, the UK and France. Participants A total of 2412 participants were surveyed across the three countries. Outcome measures Self-reported influenza vaccination. Methods Between March and April 2014, a stratified random sampling strategy was employed with the aim of obtaining nationally representative samples in the USA, the UK and France through online databases and random-digit dialling. Participants were asked about vaccination practices, perceptions and feelings. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with past influenza vaccination. Results The models were able to explain 64%–80% of the variance in vaccination behaviour. Overall, sociopsychological variables, which are inherently amenable to policy, were better at explaining past vaccination behaviour than demographic, socioeconomic and health variables. Explanatory variables included social influence (physician), influenza and vaccine risk perceptions and traumatic childhood experiences. Conclusions Our results indicate that evidence-based sociopsychological items should be considered for inclusion into national immunisation surveys to gauge the public’s views, identify emerging concerns and thus proactively and opportunely address potential barriers and harness vaccination drivers. PMID:28706088

  9. An influenza viral vector Brucella abortus vaccine induces good cross-protection against Brucella melitensis infection in pregnant heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabynov, Kaissar; Ryskeldinova, Sholpan; Sansyzbay, Abylai

    2015-07-17

    Brucella melitensis can be transmitted and cause disease in cattle herds as a result of inadequate management of mixed livestock farms. Ideally, vaccines against Brucella abortus for cattle should also provide cross-protection against B. melitensis. Previously we created a novel influenza viral vector B. abortus (Flu-BA) vaccine expressing the Brucella ribosomal proteins L7/L12 or Omp16. This study demonstrated Flu-BA vaccine with adjuvant Montanide Gel01 provided 100% protection against abortion in vaccinated pregnant heifers and good cross-protection of the heifers and their calves or fetuses (90-100%) after challenge with B. melitensis 16M; the level of protection provided by Flu-BA was comparable to the commercial vaccine B. abortus S19. In terms of the index of infection and colonization of Brucella in tissues, both vaccines demonstrated significant (P=0.02 to P<0.0001) protection against B. melitensis 16M infection compared to the negative control group (PBS+Montanide Gel01). Thus, we conclude the Flu-BA vaccine provides cross-protection against B. melitensis infection in pregnant heifers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Willingness to pay for a dengue vaccine and its associated determinants in Indonesia: A community-based, cross-sectional survey in Aceh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harapan, Harapan; Anwar, Samsul; Bustamam, Aslam; Radiansyah, Arsil; Angraini, Pradiba; Fasli, Riny; Salwiyadi, Salwiyadi; Bastian, Reza Akbar; Oktiviyari, Ade; Akmal, Imaduddin; Iqbalamin, Muhammad; Adil, Jamalul; Henrizal, Fenni; Darmayanti, Darmayanti; Mahmuda, Mahmuda; Mudatsir, Mudatsir; Imrie, Allison; Sasmono, R Tedjo; Kuch, Ulrich; Shkedy, Ziv; Pramana, Setia

    2017-02-01

    Vaccination strategies are being considered as a part of dengue prevention programs in endemic countries. To accelerate the introduction of dengue vaccine into the public sector program and private markets, understanding the private economic benefits of a dengue vaccine is therefore essential. The aim of this study was to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) for a dengue vaccine among community members in Indonesia and its associated explanatory variables. A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine regencies of Aceh province, Indonesia, from November 2014 to March 2015. A pre-tested validated questionnaire was used to facilitate the interviews. To assess the explanatory variables influencing participants' WTP for a dengue vaccine, a linear regression analysis was employed. We interviewed 677 healthy community members; 476 participants (87.5% of the total) were included in the final analysis. An average individual was willing to pay around US-$ 4 (mean: US-$ 4.04; median: US-$ 3.97) for a dengue vaccine. Our final multivariate model revealed that working as a civil servant, living in the city, and having good knowledge on dengue viruses, a good attitude towards dengue, and good preventive practice against dengue virus infection were associated with a higher WTP (P<0.05). Our model suggests that marketing efforts should be directed to community members who are working in the suburbs especially as farmers. In addition, the results of our study underscore the need for low-cost quality vaccines, public sector subsidies for vaccinations, and intensifying efforts to further educate and encourage households regarding other dengue preventive measures, using trusted individuals as facilitators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Did the call for boycott by the Catholic bishops affect the polio vaccination coverage in Kenya in 2015? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeru, Ian; Ajack, Yusuf; Muitherero, Charles; Onyango, Dickens; Musyoka, Johnny; Onuekusi, Iheoma; Kioko, Jackson; Muraguri, Nicholas; Davis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Polio eradication is now feasible after removal of Nigeria from the list of endemic countries and global reduction of cases of wild polio virus in 2015 by more than 80%. However, all countries must remain focused to achieve eradication. In August 2015, the Catholic bishops in Kenya called for boycott of a polio vaccination campaign citing safety concerns with the polio vaccine. We conducted a survey to establish if the coverage was affected by the boycott. A cross sectional survey was conducted in all the 32 counties that participated in the campaign. A total of 90,157 children and 37,732 parents/guardians were sampled to determine the vaccination coverage and reasons for missed vaccination. The national vaccination coverage was 93% compared to 94% in the November 2014 campaign. The proportion of parents/guardians that belonged to Catholic Church was 31% compared to 7% of the children who were missed. Reasons for missed vaccination included house not being visited (44%), children not being at home at time of visit (38%), refusal by parents (12%), children being as leep (1%), and various other reasons (5%). Compared to the November 2014 campaign, the proportion of children who were not vaccinated due to parent's refusal significantly increased from 6% to 12% in August 2015. The call for boycott did not affect the campaign significantly. However, if the call for boycott is repeated in future it could have some significant negative implication to polio eradication. It is therefore important to ensure that any vaccine safety issues are addressed accordingly.

  12. The cross-cultural variation of predictors of human papillomavirus vaccination intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey R; Weinhardt, Lance S

    2011-02-01

    The influence of health beliefs on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability have been extensively documented in past research. However, studies documenting the generalizability of prior findings to culturally diverse participants are lacking. The importance of generalizability studies is underscored by the immense disparities in cervical cancer rates across ethnicities. Moreover, theory in cultural psychology suggests that beliefs derived from personal expectations may not be the strongest predictors of intentions in individuals socialized in collectivist cultures. The purpose of this research was to investigate the strongest predictors of mothers' intentions to vaccinate their daughters across three cultural groups: Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and African American. One hundred fifty mothers were recruited from Public Health Department clinics in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Mothers were asked to answer measures that assessed personal and normative predictors of intentions. Results indicated that predictors of vaccination intentions varied cross-culturally. Specifically, culture moderated the influence of norms on intentions. Interventions designed for Hispanics may be more effective if norms, rather than attitudes, are targeted.

  13. The impact of administration of conjugate vaccines containing cross reacting material on Haemophilus influenzae type b antibody responses in infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voysey, Merryn; Sadarangani, Manish; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth; Bolgiano, Barbara; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-07-25

    Protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines such as Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), meningococcal, and pneumococcal vaccine, induce immunological memory and longer lasting protection than plain polysaccharide vaccines. The most common proteins used as carriers are tetanus toxoid (TT) and cross reacting material-197 (CRM), a mutant form of diphtheria toxoid. CRM conjugate vaccines have been reported to suppress antibody responses to co-administered Hib-TT vaccine. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials in which infants were randomised to receive meningococcal or pneumococcal conjugate vaccines along with Hib-TT. Trials of licensed vaccines with different carrier proteins were included for group C meningococcal (MenC), quadrivalent ACWY meningococcal (MenACWY), and pneumococcal vaccines. Twenty-three trials were included in the meta-analyses. Overall, administration of MenC-CRM in a 2 or 3 dose schedule resulted in a 45% reduction in Hib antibody concentrations (GMR 0.55, 95% CI 0.49-0.62). MenACWY-CRM boosted Hib antibody responses by 22% (GMR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.41) whilst pneumococcal CRM conjugate vaccines had no impact on Hib antibody responses (GMR 0.91, 95% CI 0.68-1.22). The effect of CRM protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines on Hib antibody responses varies greatly between vaccines. Co-administration of a CRM conjugate vaccine can produce either positive or negative effects on Hib antibody responses. These inconsistencies suggest that CRM itself may not be the main driver of variability in Hib responses, and challenge current perspectives on this issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross neutralizing antibodies in hamsters vaccinated with leptospiral bacterins produced with three serovars of serogroup Sejroe

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    Rosana Tabata

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Three leptospiral bacterins, produced with different serovars of Serogroup Sejroe, namely the hardjo (bacterin A, wolffi (bacterin B and guaricura (bacterin C, were evaluated in male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus by comparing the agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies titers using microscopic agglutination (MAT and in vitro growth inhibition (GIT tests. The immunization schedule was based on two 1.0 mL doses of non-diluted formalininactivated whole culture bacterin given through subcutaneous route with 10-day interval. The challenge was performed ten days after the second vaccine dose, when the animals were inoculated with 0.2 mL of non-inactivated cultures of each serovar through intraperitoneal route. On the 21st post-challenge day (PCD, all animals were bled and their sera were joined in pools (n=8 and tested by MAT and GIT. All vaccinated and control animals presented no clinical signs of leptospirosis after the challenge, but the serovar guaricura was isolated from the kidneys of control animals on the 21st PCD. The MAT results showed cross agglutinins between serovars hardjo and wolffi, and between wolffi and guaricura. The GIT results revealed the presence of cross neutralizing antibodies between serovars wolffi or guaricura against hardjo, wolffi and guaricura. It was found that the tested strain of serovar hardjo did not produce detectable levels of neutralizing antibodies, indicating its poor immunogenicity.

  15. Influenza Vaccination: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among the Lebanese Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada El Khoury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza is a common preventable infectious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Vaccination is the most cost-effective measure to prevent influenza, yet the vaccine uptake is known to be low. No previous studies have assessed the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination use among the Lebanese population, nor examined the knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed in 30 pharmacies randomly selected across Lebanon. A 19-item questionnaire was used to record influenza vaccination status, knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine among the Lebanese general population. Results: The survey response rate was 93%. Among the 640 study participants, the overall 2014-2015 seasonal influenza vaccination rate was 27.6%. The majority of participants (72.4% reported irregular uptake of the vaccine. Results of the multivariate analysis revealed that elderly people (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.08–4.71, with higher education (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.09–1.84, higher physical activity (OR significantly higher than 1 for all categories, and chronic respiratory disease (OR = 3.24, CI = 1.58–6.62 were more regularly vaccinated, while those who visit the doctor “only when needed” (OR = 0.55, CI = 0.34–0.88 and those who consume more than seven drinks/week (OR = 0.24, CI = 0.09–0.65 were less regularly vaccinated. When introducing knowledge and attitude variables to the model, “thinking that the vaccine was not needed” was the only correlate that demonstrated a significant inverse association with regular influenza vaccination (OR = 0.15; p = 0.017. Conclusions: Suboptimal vaccination rates exist among the Lebanese ambulatory adult population. Clear misinformation on the importance of regular influenza immunization is also highlighted. This evidence underscores a compelling need to raise public awareness regarding the efficacy of the influenza vaccine.

  16. Human Papillomavirus (HPV Vaccination and Adolescent Girls' Knowledge and Sexuality in Western Uganda: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Andrew Kampikaho Turiho

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination on adolescent girls' knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p < .05. Results showed that HPV vaccination was associated with being knowledgeable (Crude OR: 5.26, CI: 2.32-11.93; p = 0.000. Vaccination against HPV did not predict perception of sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable, but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37-3.63; p = 0.008. HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions.

  17. Cross-protective peptide vaccine against influenza A viruses developed in HLA-A*2402 human immunity model.

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    Toru Ichihashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL induction is an important target for the development of a broadly protective human influenza vaccine, since most CTL epitopes are found on internal viral proteins and relatively conserved. In this study, the possibility of developing a strain/subtype-independent human influenza vaccine was explored by taking a bioinformatics approach to establish an immunogenic HLA-A24 restricted CTL epitope screening system in HLA-transgenic mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HLA-A24 restricted CTL epitope peptides derived from internal proteins of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus were predicted by CTL epitope peptide prediction programs. Of 35 predicted peptides, six peptides exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activity in vivo. More than half of the mice which were subcutaneously vaccinated with the three most immunogenic and highly conserved epitopes among three different influenza A virus subtypes (H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1 survived lethal influenza virus challenge during both effector and memory CTL phases. Furthermore, mice that were intranasally vaccinated with these peptides remained free of clinical signs after lethal virus challenge during the effector phase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This CTL epitope peptide selection system can be used as an effective tool for the development of a cross-protective human influenza vaccine. Furthermore this vaccine strategy can be applicable to the development of all intracellular pathogens vaccines to induce epitope-specific CTL that effectively eliminate infected cells.

  18. Multigenic DNA vaccine induces protective cross-reactive T cell responses against heterologous influenza virus in nonhuman primates.

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    Merika T Koday

    Full Text Available Recent avian and swine-origin influenza virus outbreaks illustrate the ongoing threat of influenza pandemics. We investigated immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a multi-antigen (MA universal influenza DNA vaccine consisting of HA, M2, and NP antigens in cynomolgus macaques. Following challenge with a heterologous pandemic H1N1 strain, vaccinated animals exhibited significantly lower viral loads and more rapid viral clearance when compared to unvaccinated controls. The MA DNA vaccine induced robust serum and mucosal antibody responses but these high antibody titers were not broadly neutralizing. In contrast, the vaccine induced broadly-reactive NP specific T cell responses that cross-reacted with the challenge virus and inversely correlated with lower viral loads and inflammation. These results demonstrate that a MA DNA vaccine that induces strong cross-reactive T cell responses can, independent of neutralizing antibody, mediate significant cross-protection in a nonhuman primate model and further supports development as an effective approach to induce broad protection against circulating and emerging influenza strains.

  19. Expanding Free School-based Human Papilloma Virus (HPV Vaccination Programs to Include School-aged Males in Nova Scotia, Canada

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    Hannah Krater-Melamed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bill 70 (HPV Vaccine Act was presented to the Nova Scotia House of Assembly with the aim of expanding the current Nova Scotia school-based HPV vaccination program to include males. In recent years, increased awareness of HPV and HPV-caused cancers has led to the implementation of school-based female HPV vaccination programs across Canada. Changing guidelines, based on recent evidence, suggest that males should also be included in these programs. Program expansion to include males aims to reduce the prevalence of HPV-causing cancers and their ensuing costs, to promote equal access to healthcare services, and to make Nova Scotia a leader in HPV prevention. Support from the Canadian public and high profile political actors along with pressure from other provinces and interest groups, including the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, influenced the passing of the HPV Vaccine Act. In order to implement this reform, the provincial financial commitment to the previous HPV program was expanded to cover the cost of male vaccination.

  20. Knowledge, attitude, and practice on and willingness to pay for human papillomavirus vaccine: a cross-sectional study in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Than, Phung Tat Quoc; Doan, Tien Thuy Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi; Thi Mai, Hue; Nguyen, Trang Huyen Thi; Le, Huong Thi; Latkin, Carl A; Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Ho, Roger Cm

    2018-01-01

    Despite its effectiveness in preventing human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the rate of uptake of the HPV vaccine is low in Vietnam. This study aimed to investigate barriers related to knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) about the HPV vaccine and willingness to pay (WTP) for the vaccine among those using services in an urban vaccination clinic in Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a vaccination clinic of the Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health in Hanoi, Vietnam, from March to April 2016. KAP on the HPV vaccine was collected using a structured questionnaire. Double-bounded dichotomous-choice questions with open-ended questions were used to examine the WTP of respondents. Interval regression and stepwise logistic models were used to identify factors associated with WTP and the average amount that people would be willing to pay for the vaccine. Of 492 vaccination service users, 67.9%, 94.6%, and 12.3% of respondents were aware of the best age for HPV vaccination, its benefits, and the target group for vaccination, respectively. While the majority believed that the HPV vaccine was safe (92.8%) and effective (90.8%), and desired to be vaccinated (71.1%), only 31.8% of users were vaccinated. Most of the respondents were willing to pay for the HPV vaccine (86.6%), and willing to pay an average amount of US$49.3. Those aged 20-29 years and earning more than 22 million VND/month (very rich) were more likely to pay for the HPV vaccine than people aged pay for the vaccine at a lower price than individuals with below secondary-level education and who had not heard about the vaccine from these health professionals. Sexual health education and financial assistance should be imparted alongside the HPV vaccination program.

  1. Stakeholders' perception on including broader economic impact of vaccines in economic evaluations in low and middle income countries: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Putten, Ingeborg M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Deogaonkar, Rohan; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond C W

    2015-04-10

    Current health economic evaluation guidelines mainly concentrate on immediate health gains and cost savings for the individual involved in the intervention. However, it has been argued that these guidelines are too narrow to capture the full impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries. The inclusion of broader economic impact of vaccines (BEIV) has therefore been proposed. Some examples of these are productivity-related gains, macro-economic impact, and different externalities. Despite their potency, the extent to which such benefits can and should be incorporated into economic evaluations of vaccination is still unclear. This mixed methods study aims to assess the relevance of BEIV to different stakeholders involved in the vaccine introduction decision making process. In this mixed method study an internet based survey was sent to attendees of the New and Underutilized Vaccines Initiative meeting in Montreux, Switzerland in 2011. Additionally, semi-structured interviews of 15 minutes each were conducted during the meeting. Study participants included decision makers, experts and funders of vaccines and immunization programs in low and middle income countries. Descriptive analysis of the survey, along with identification of common themes and factors extracted from the interviews and open survey questions was undertaken. Evidence on macro-economic impact, burden of disease and ecological effects were perceived as being most valuable towards aiding decision making for vaccine introduction by the 26 survey respondents. The 14 interviewees highlighted the importance of burden of disease and different types of indirect effects. Furthermore, some new interpretations of BEIVs were discussed, such as the potential negative impact of wastage during immunization programs and the idea of using vaccines as a platform for delivering other types of health interventions. Interviewees also highlighted the importance of using a broader perspective in connection to

  2. A novel inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine can elicit cross-protective immunity against coxsackievirus A16 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lisheng; Liu, Yajing; Li, Shuxuan; Zhao, Huan; Lin, Qiaona; Yu, Hai; Huang, Xiumin; Zheng, Qingbing; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-11-21

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious disease that mainly affects infants and children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the major pathogens of HFMD. Two EV71 vaccines were recently licensed in China and the administration of the EV71 vaccines is believed to significantly reduce the number of HFMD-related severe or fatal cases. However, a monovalent EV71 vaccine cannot cross-protect against CA16 infection, this may result in that it cannot effectively control the overall HFMD epidemic. In this study, a chimeric EV71, whose VP1/210-225 epitope was replaced by that of CA16, was constructed using a reverse genetics technique to produce a candidate EV71/CA16 bivalent vaccine strain. The chimeric EV71 was infectious and showed similar growth characteristics as its parental strain. The replacement of the VP1/210-225 epitope did not significantly affect the antigenicity and immunogenicity of EV71. More importantly, the chimeric EV71 could induce protective immunity against both EV71 and CA16, and protect neonatal mice against either EV71 or CA16 lethal infections, the chimeric EV71 constructed in this study was shown to be a feasible and promising candidate bivalent vaccine against both EV71 and CA16. The construction of a chimeric enterovirus also provides an alternative platform for broad-spectrum HFMD vaccines development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibodies induced by vaccination with purified chick embryo cell culture vaccine (PCECV) cross-neutralize non-classical bat lyssavirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerczyk, Claudius; Selhorst, Thomas; Tordo, Noël; Moore, Susan; Müller, Thomas

    2009-08-27

    Tissue-culture vaccines like purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) have been shown to provide protection against classical rabies virus (RABV) via pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis. A cross-neutralization study was conducted using a panel of 100 human sera, to determine, to what extent after vaccination with PCECV protection exists against non-classical bat lyssavirus strains like European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) type 1 and 2 and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) concentrations against the rabies virus variants CVS-11, ABLV, EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 were determined by using a modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. For ABLV and EBLV-2, the comparison to CVS-11 revealed almost identical results (100% adequate VNA concentrations >or=0.5 IU/mL; correlation coefficient r(2)=0.69 and 0.77, respectively), while for EBLV-1 more scattering was observed (97% adequate VNA concentrations; r(2)=0.50). In conclusion, vaccination with PCECV produces adequate VNA concentrations against classical RABV as well as non-classical lyssavirus strains ABLV, EBLV-1, and EBLV-2.

  4. A Novel Multi-Epitope Vaccine For Cross Protection Against Hepatitis C Virus (HCV: An Immunoinformatics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Nosrati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV causes acute and chronic human hepatitis infections. Due to the high genetic diversity and high rates of mutations in the genetic material so far there is no approved vaccine against HCV. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to determination B and T cell conserved epitopes of E1 and E2 proteins from HCV and construction of a chimeric peptide as a novel epitope based vaccine for cross-protection against the virus. For this, one B and T-cell epitope from both E1 and E2 which was predicted by EPMLR and Propred-1 server and had the highest score and antigenicity in VaxiJen 2.0 and PAP servers were selected for construction of chimeric protein as a multi-epitope vaccine. Results: The results of this study showed that the chimeric peptide had high antigenicity score and stability.Results also showed that most epitopes of E1 were located in two spectra consist of (45-65,88-107 and 148-182 while the results about B-cell epitopes of E2 showed that this protein had much less epitope than E1. The most epitope predicted for E2 were located in (12-24 and 35-54 spectra Conclusion:  In conclusion, epitope based vaccine which was designed by immunoinformatics methods could be considered as a novel and effective vaccine for cross-protection against HCV infection.

  5. Equity in human papilloma virus vaccination uptake? : sexual behaviour, knowledge and demographics in a cross-sectional study in (un)vaccinated girls in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollers, Madelief; Lubbers, Karin; Spoelstra, Symen K; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrordus; Daemen, Toos; Westra, Tjalke A; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Nijman, Hans W; de Melker, Hester E; Tami, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is part of a national program equally accessible for all girls invited for vaccination. To assess possible inequalities in vaccine uptake, we investigated differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated girls with regard to

  6. Knowledge, attitude & practice on human papillomavirus vaccination: A cross-sectional study among healthcare providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Cheena Chawla

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The findings reinforce continued medical education of healthcare providers, particularly those from the government sector on HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention. Public education is also pertinent for a successful HPV vaccination programme in the country.

  7. Periictal and interictal headache including migraine in Dutch patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstra, W A; Hageman, G; de Weerd, A W

    2015-03-01

    As early as in 1898, it was noted that there was a need to find "a plausible explanation of the long recognized affinities of migraine and epilepsy". However, results of recent studies are clearly conflicting on this matter. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to define the prevalence and characteristics of both seizure-related and interictal headaches in patients with epilepsy (5-75years) seeking help in the tertiary epilepsy clinic SEIN in Zwolle. Using a questionnaire, subjects were surveyed on the existence of headaches including characteristics, duration, severity, and accompanying symptoms. Furthermore, details on epilepsy were retrieved from medical records (e.g., syndrome, seizure frequency, and use of drugs). Diagnoses of migraine, tension-type headache, or unclassifiable headache were made based on criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Between March and December 2013, 29 children and 226 adults were evaluated, 73% of whom indicated having current headaches, which is significantly more often when compared with the general population (pheadache, while 29% had solely seizure-related headaches and 22% had both. Migraine occurs significantly more often in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population (pheadaches conforms to results in the general population. These results show that current headaches are a significantly more frequent problem amongst people with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. When comparing migraine prevalence, this is significantly higher in the population of patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Combination of supramolecular cross-linking with covalent cross-linking through epoxide ring-opening including gel studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeier, H.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    Terpolymers based on poly(methyl methacrylate), containing terpyridine-moieties as well as epoxide groups, were synthesized via free-radical polymeri-zation. The products were cross-linked non-covalently with iron(II) ions and cova-lently by treatment with AlCl3. Both steps could be combined in

  9. Combination of supramolecular cross-linking with covalent cross-linking through epoxide ring-opening including gel studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeier, H.; El-Ghayoury, A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    Terpolymers based on poly(methyl methacrylate), containing terpyridinemoieties as well as epoxide groups, were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. The products were cross-linked non-covalently with iron(II) ions and covalently by treatment with AlCl3. Both steps could be combined in

  10. Psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college males: A cross-sectional exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Tatar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most college males are not immunized against the human papillomavirus (HPV and are at high risk of HPV infection. Most research of correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college males has assessed vaccine acceptability as a binary outcome, e.g., vaccinated or not vaccinated, without considering that some students may not even be aware that the HPV vaccine can be given to males. Our objective was to evaluate the psychosocial correlates of HPV acceptability in college males, based on multiple stages of HPV decision-making. Methods: We used an online questionnaire to collect data from college men aged 18–26 enrolled at three Canadian universities between September 2013 and April 2014. Vaccine acceptability assessment was informed by the six-stage decision-making Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM. We sought information on socio-demographics, health behaviors, HPV vaccine benefits and barriers, worry, susceptibility, severity related to HPV infection and social norms. HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge was measured with validated scales. Psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability were assessed with bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Actual and perceived HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge scores were calculated. Results: The final sample size was 428. Most male college students were unaware that the HPV vaccine could be given to males, unengaged or undecided about getting the HPV vaccine. Significant correlates of higher HPV vaccine acceptability were: increased HPV knowledge, having discussed the HPV vaccine with a healthcare provider, and social norms. Being in an exclusive sexual relationship was significantly associated with lower HPV vaccine acceptability. Students' actual HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge was low and positively correlated to their perception about their HPV knowledge. Conclusions: We provided a fine-tuned analysis of psychosocial correlates of HPV vaccine acceptability in college

  11. The cross-neutralizing activity of enterovirus 71 subgenotype c4 vaccines in healthy chinese infants and children.

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    Qunying Mao

    Full Text Available EV71 is one of major etiologic causes of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD and leads to severe neurological complications in young children and infants. Recently inactivated EV71 vaccines have been developed by five manufactures and clinically show good safety and immunogenicity. However, the cross-neutralizing activity of these vaccines remains unclear, and is of particular interest because RNA recombination is seen more frequently in EV71 epidemics.In this post-hoc study, sera from a subset of 119 infants and children in two clinical trials of EV71 subgenotype C4 vaccines (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01313715 and NCT01273246, were detected for neutralizing antibody (NTAb titres with sera from infected patients as controls. Cytopathogenic effect method was employed to test NTAb against EV71 subgenotype B4, B5, C2, C4 and C5, which were prominent epidemic strains worldwide over the past decade. To validate the accuracy of the results, ELISpot assay was employed in parallel to detect NTAb in all the post-vaccine sera. After two-dose vaccination, 49 out of 53 participants in initially seronegative group and 52 out of 53 participants in initially seropositive group showed less than 4-fold differences in NTAb titers against five EV71 strains, whereas corresponding values among sera from pediatric patients recovering from EV71-induced HFMD and subclinically infected participants were 8/8 and 41/43, respectively. The geometric mean titers of participants against five subgenotypes EV71 all grew significantly after vaccinations, irrespective of the baseline NTAb titer. The relative fold increase in antibody titers (NTAb-FI against B4, B5, C2, and C5 displayed a positive correlation to the NTAb-FI against C4.The results demonstrated broad cross-neutralizing activity induced by two C4 EV71 vaccines in healthy Chinese infants and children. However, the degree of induced cross-protective immunity, and the potential escape evolution for EV71 still need to

  12. Biodegradable nanoparticle-entrapped vaccine induces cross-protective immune response against a virulent heterologous respiratory viral infection in pigs.

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    Varun Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Biodegradable nanoparticle-based vaccine development research is unexplored in large animals and humans. In this study, we illustrated the efficacy of nanoparticle-entrapped UV-killed virus vaccine against an economically important respiratory viral disease of pigs called porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. We entrapped PLGA [poly (lactide-co-glycolides] nanoparticles with killed PRRSV antigens (Nano-KAg and detected its phagocytosis by pig alveolar macrophages. Single doses of Nano-KAg vaccine administered intranasally to pigs upregulated innate and PRRSV specific adaptive responses. In a virulent heterologous PRRSV challenge study, Nano-KAg vaccine significantly reduced the lung pathology and viremia, and the viral load in the lungs. Immunologically, enhanced innate and adaptive immune cell population and associated cytokines with decreased secretion of immunosuppressive mediators were observed at both mucosal sites and blood. In summary, we demonstrated the benefits of intranasal delivery of nanoparticle-based viral vaccine in eliciting cross-protective immune response in pigs, a potential large animal model.

  13. A polyvalent influenza DNA vaccine applied by needle-free intradermal delivery induces cross-reactive humoral and cellular immune responses in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggren, Marie; Nielsen, Jens; Karlsson, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    of the optimized DNA vaccine were evaluated in groups of five to six pigs. The DNA vaccine consisted of six selected influenza genes of pandemic origin, including internally expressed matrix and nucleoprotein and externally expressed hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. RESULTS: Needle-free vaccination of growing pigs...

  14. Prevalence and sequence variations of the genes encoding the five antigens included in the novel 5CVMB vaccine covering group B meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Susanne; Hedberg, Sara Thulin; Mölling, Paula; Unemo, Magnus; Comanducci, Maurizio; Rappuoli, Rino; Olcén, Per

    2009-03-04

    During the recent years, projects are in progress for designing broad-range non-capsular-based meningococcal vaccines, covering also serogroup B isolates. We have examined three genes encoding antigens (NadA, GNA1030 and GNA2091) included in a novel vaccine, i.e. the 5 Component Vaccine against Meningococcus B (5CVMB), in terms of gene prevalence and sequence variations. These data were combined with the results from a similar study, examining the two additional antigens included in the 5CVMB (fHbp and GNA2132). nadA and fHbp v. 1 were present in 38% (n=36), respectively 71% (n=67) of the isolates, whereas gna2132, gna1030 and gna2091 were present in all the Neisseria meningitidis isolates tested (n=95). The level of amino acid conservation was relatively high in GNA1030 (93%), GNA2091 (92%), and within the main variants of NadA and fHbp. GNA2132 (54% of the amino acids conserved) appeared to be the most diversified antigen. Consequently, the theoretical coverage of the 5CVMB antigens and the feasibility to use these in a broad-range meningococcal vaccine is appealing.

  15. Differences in HIV vaccine acceptability between genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua

    2010-01-01

    The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (p Motivators for women included the ability to conceive a child without worrying about contracting HIV (p Motivators for men included feeling safer with sex partners (p motivator for both men and women (p <0.10). Gender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears and misconceptions about adverse effects of HIV vaccination on health and the importance of vaccination as one component of integrated HIV prevention may increase vaccine acceptability. PMID:18484322

  16. Noninvasive vaccination against infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhichao; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Guan, Hongbing; Zeng, Mingtao

    2018-04-06

    The development of a successful vaccine, which should elicit a combination of humoral and cellular responses to control or prevent infections, is the first step in protecting against infectious diseases. A vaccine may protect against bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral infections in animal models, but to be effective in humans there are some issues that should be considered, such as the adjuvant, the route of vaccination, and the antigen-carrier system. While almost all licensed vaccines are injected such that inoculation is by far the most commonly used method, injection has several potential disadvantages, including pain, cross contamination, needlestick injury, under- or overdosing, and increased cost. It is also problematic for patients from rural areas of developing countries, who must travel to a hospital for vaccine administration. Noninvasive immunizations, including oral, intranasal, and transcutaneous administration of vaccines, can reduce or eliminate pain, reduce the cost of vaccinations, and increase their safety. Several preclinical and clinical studies as well as experience with licensed vaccines have demonstrated that noninvasive vaccine immunization activates cellular and humoral immunity, which protect against pathogen infections. Here we review the development of noninvasive immunization with vaccines based on live attenuated virus, recombinant adenovirus, inactivated virus, viral subunits, virus-like particles, DNA, RNA, and antigen expression in rice in preclinical and clinical studies. We predict that noninvasive vaccine administration will be more widely applied in the clinic in the near future.

  17. A chimeric 18L1-45RG1 virus-like particle vaccine cross-protects against oncogenic alpha-7 human papillomavirus types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Huber

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV types causes all cervical and a subset of other anogenital and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Four high-risk (hr mucosal types HPV16, 18, 45, or 59 cause almost all cervical adenocarcinomas (AC, a subset of cervical cancer (CxC. Although the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC has dramatically decreased following introduction of Papanicolaou (PAP screening, the proportion of AC has relatively increased. Cervical SCC arise mainly from the ectocervix, whereas AC originate primarily from the endocervical canal, which is less accessible to obtain viable PAP smears. Licensed (bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines comprise virus-like particles (VLP of the most important hr HPV16 and 18, self-assembled from the major capsid protein L1. Due to mainly type-restricted efficacy, both vaccines do not target 13 additional hr mucosal types causing 30% of CxC. The papillomavirus genus alpha species 7 (α7 includes a group of hr types of which HPV18, 45, 59 are proportionally overrepresented in cervical AC and only partially (HPV18 targeted by current vaccines. To target these types, we generated a chimeric vaccine antigen that consists of a cross-neutralizing epitope (homologue of HPV16 RG1 of the L2 minor capsid protein of HPV45 genetically inserted into a surface loop of HPV18 L1 VLP (18L1-45RG1. Vaccination of NZW rabbits with 18L1-45RG1 VLP plus alum-MPL adjuvant induced high-titer neutralizing antibodies against homologous HPV18, that cross-neutralized non-cognate hr α7 types HPV39, 45, 68, but not HPV59, and low risk HPV70 in vitro, and induced a robust L1-specific cellular immune response. Passive immunization protected mice against experimental vaginal challenge with pseudovirions of HPV18, 39, 45 and 68, but not HPV59 or the distantly related α9 type HPV16. 18L1-45RG1 VLP might be combined with our previously described 16L1-16RG1 VLP to develop a second generation bivalent

  18. Cold-Adapted Influenza and Recombinant Adenovirus Vaccines Induce Cross-Protective Immunity against pH1N1 Challenge in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleski, Mark R.; Gabbard, Jon D.; Price, Graeme E.; Misplon, Julia A.; Lo, Chia-Yun; Perez, Daniel R.; Ye, Jianqiang; Tompkins, S. Mark; Epstein, Suzanne L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The rapid spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pH1N1) highlighted problems associated with relying on strain-matched vaccines. A lengthy process of strain identification, manufacture, and testing is required for current strain-matched vaccines and delays vaccine availability. Vaccines inducing immunity to conserved viral proteins could be manufactured and tested in advance and provide cross-protection against novel influenza viruses until strain-matched vaccines became available. Here we test two prototype vaccines for cross-protection against the recent pandemic virus. Methodology/Principal Findings BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were intranasally immunized with a single dose of cold-adapted (ca) influenza viruses from 1977 or recombinant adenoviruses (rAd) expressing 1934 nucleoprotein (NP) and consensus matrix 2 (M2) (NP+M2-rAd). Antibodies against the M2 ectodomain (M2e) were seen in NP+M2-rAd immunized BALB/c but not C57BL/6 mice, and cross-reacted with pH1N1 M2e. The ca-immunized mice did not develop antibodies against M2e. Despite sequence differences between vaccine and challenge virus NP and M2e epitopes, extensive cross-reactivity of lung T cells with pH1N1 peptides was detected following immunization. Both ca and NP+M2-rAd immunization protected BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice against challenge with a mouse-adapted pH1N1 virus. Conclusion/Significance Cross-protective vaccines such as NP+M2-rAd and ca virus are effective against pH1N1 challenge within 3 weeks of immunization. Protection was not dependent on recognition of the highly variable external viral proteins and could be achieved with a single vaccine dose. The rAd vaccine was superior to the ca vaccine by certain measures, justifying continued investigation of this experimental vaccine even though ca vaccine is already available. This study highlights the potential for cross-protective vaccines as a public health option early in an influenza pandemic. PMID:21789196

  19. Cold-adapted influenza and recombinant adenovirus vaccines induce cross-protective immunity against pH1N1 challenge in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Soboleski

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pH1N1 highlighted problems associated with relying on strain-matched vaccines. A lengthy process of strain identification, manufacture, and testing is required for current strain-matched vaccines and delays vaccine availability. Vaccines inducing immunity to conserved viral proteins could be manufactured and tested in advance and provide cross-protection against novel influenza viruses until strain-matched vaccines became available. Here we test two prototype vaccines for cross-protection against the recent pandemic virus.BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were intranasally immunized with a single dose of cold-adapted (ca influenza viruses from 1977 or recombinant adenoviruses (rAd expressing 1934 nucleoprotein (NP and consensus matrix 2 (M2 (NP+M2-rAd. Antibodies against the M2 ectodomain (M2e were seen in NP+M2-rAd immunized BALB/c but not C57BL/6 mice, and cross-reacted with pH1N1 M2e. The ca-immunized mice did not develop antibodies against M2e. Despite sequence differences between vaccine and challenge virus NP and M2e epitopes, extensive cross-reactivity of lung T cells with pH1N1 peptides was detected following immunization. Both ca and NP+M2-rAd immunization protected BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice against challenge with a mouse-adapted pH1N1 virus.Cross-protective vaccines such as NP+M2-rAd and ca virus are effective against pH1N1 challenge within 3 weeks of immunization. Protection was not dependent on recognition of the highly variable external viral proteins and could be achieved with a single vaccine dose. The rAd vaccine was superior to the ca vaccine by certain measures, justifying continued investigation of this experimental vaccine even though ca vaccine is already available. This study highlights the potential for cross-protective vaccines as a public health option early in an influenza pandemic.

  20. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Healthcare Workers on the Knowledge and Attitudes towards Polio Vaccination in Pakistan.

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    Muhammad Umair Khan

    Full Text Available Pakistan accounts for 85.2% of the total polio cases reported worldwide. Healthcare workers (HCWs are an integral part of immunization campaigns and source of education for the general public. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards polio vaccination among HCWs providing immunisation and education to general public in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan.A cross-sectional survey of 490 HCWs was conducted in two major referral public teaching hospitals of Quetta and Peshawar divisions. During February to April, 2015, a random sample of 490 HCWs was invited to participate in this study. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to express the results.A total of 468 participants responded to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 95.5%. Overall, participants demonstrated good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. The mean knowledge score of HCWs about polio was 13.42 ± 2.39 (based on 18 knowledge questions while the mean attitude score was 28.75 ± 5.5 (based on 9 attitudes statements. Knowledge gaps were identified about the incubation period of poliovirus (19.5%, management issues (31.9%, use of polio vaccine in mild illnesses (34.7% and the consequences of the polio virus (36.9%. The majority of participants agreed that all children should be vaccinated for polio (95.1%, while reservations were noted about the need of a booster (38.9%, and sterility issues associated with polio vaccines (43.6%. Internet (n = 167, 37% and Posters (n = 158, 35% were the main sources used by HCWs to educate themselves about polio.Participants in this study had good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. Although the data are indicative of gaps in the knowledge of HCWs, the findings may not be generalized to other hospitals in Pakistan.

  1. Three-dimensional cross point readout detector design for including depth information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Baek, Cheol-Ha

    2018-04-01

    We designed a depth-encoding positron emission tomography (PET) detector using a cross point readout method with wavelength-shifting (WLS) fibers. To evaluate the characteristics of the novel detector module and the PET system, we used the DETECT2000 to perform optical photon transport in the crystal array. The GATE was also used. The detector module is made up of four layers of scintillator arrays, the five layers of WLS fiber arrays, and two sensor arrays. The WLS fiber arrays in each layer cross each other to transport light to each sensor array. The two sensor arrays are coupled to the forward and left sides of the WLS fiber array, respectively. The identification of three-dimensional pixels was determined using a digital positioning algorithm. All pixels were well decoded, with the system resolution ranging from 2.11 mm to 2.29 mm at full width at half maximum (FWHM).

  2. Implicit memory for novel figure-ground displays includes a history of cross-border competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mary A; Lampignano, Daniel W

    2003-08-01

    When configural cues specify that a figure lies on opposite sides of a repeated border in prime andprobe shapes, probe latencies are longer than when prime and probe borders are unrelated. Do such results reflect negative priming for the shape of the prime ground or cross-border competition from figure memory? The present study tested these alternatives by adding partial closure as a competing cue and reducing the similarity between the prime ground and the shape of the probe. Results supported the cross-border competition interpretation. Additional findings were that partial closure is a configural cue and that response effects can emerge from the potential shape on the ground side of a border. One prior experience was sufficient for these effects.

  3. Slender body theory programmed for bodies with arbitrary cross section. [including fuselages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, J.; Krenkel, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program developed for determining the subsonic pressure, force, and moment coefficients for a fuselage-type body using slender body theory is described. The program is suitable for determining the angle of attack and sideslipping characteristics of such bodies in the linear range where viscous effects are not predominant. Procedures developed which are capable of treating cross sections with corners or regions of large curvature are outlined.

  4. Near resonant bubble acoustic cross-section corrections, including examples from oceanography, volcanology, and biomedical ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.; Leighton, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    The scattering cross-section σs of a gas bubble of equilibrium radius R0 in liquid can be written in the form σs =4π R02 / [(ω12 / ω2 -1)2 + δ2], where ω is the excitation frequency, ω1 is the resonance frequency, and δ is a frequency-dependent dimensionless damping coefficient. A persistent

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Risk Factors, Vaccination Patterns, and Vaccine Perceptions among a Sample of Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Holly B.; Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Charyk, Anna; Sutherland, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates, including initiation and completion of the vaccine series, and barriers to vaccination in a sample of male college students. Participants: Male students between the ages of 18 and 25 who reported being currently or previously sexually active (N = 735). Methods: A cross-sectional…

  6. Rotavirus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452

  7. Predicting transmission of structure-borne sound power from machines by including terminal cross-coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    of translational terminals in a global plane. This paired or bi-coupled power transmission represents the simplest case of cross-coupling. The procedure and quality of the predicted transmission using this improved technique is demonstrated experimentally for an electrical motor unit with an integrated radial fan......Structure-borne sound generated by audible vibration of machines in vehicles, equipment and house-hold appliances is often a major cause of noise. Such vibration of complex machines is mostly determined and quantified by measurements. It has been found that characterization of the vibratory source...

  8. Effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on serotype-specific carriage and invasive disease in England: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Flasche

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 programme in England on serotype-specific carriage and invasive disease to help understand its role in serotype replacement and predict the impact of higher valency vaccines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken from children <5 y old and family members (n=400 2 y after introduction of PCV7 into routine immunization programs. Proportions carrying Streptococcus pneumoniae and serotype distribution among carried isolates were compared with a similar population prior to PCV7 introduction. Serotype-specific case carrier ratios (CCRs were estimated using national data on invasive disease. In vaccinated children and their contacts vaccine-type (VT carriage decreased, but was offset by an increase in non-VT carriage, with no significant overall change in carriage prevalence, odds ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.76-1.49. The lower CCRs of the replacing serotypes resulted in a net reduction in invasive disease in children. The additional serotypes covered by higher valency vaccines had low carriage but high disease prevalence. Serotype 11C emerged as predominant in carriage but caused no invasive disease whereas 8, 12F, and 22F emerged in disease but had very low carriage prevalence. CONCLUSION: Because the additional serotypes included in PCV10/13 have high CCRs but low carriage prevalence, vaccinating against them is likely to significantly reduce invasive disease with less risk of serotype replacement. However, a few serotypes with high CCRs could mitigate the benefits of higher valency vaccines. Assessment of the effect of PCV on carriage as well as invasive disease should be part of enhanced surveillance activities for PCVs. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  9. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical 'cross-bridging' to promote nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Eva, Placheta; Borschel, Gregory H

    2015-10-01

    Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery. A novel strategy of enticing donor axons from an otherwise intact nerve to grow through small nerve grafts (cross-bridges) into a denervated nerve stump, promotes improved axon regeneration after delayed nerve repair. The efficacy of this technique has been demonstrated in a rat model and is now in clinical use in patients undergoing cross-face nerve grafting for facial paralysis. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation, combined with the surgical technique of promoting the regeneration of some donor axons to 'protect' chronically denervated Schwann cells, improves nerve regeneration and, in turn, functional outcomes in the management of peripheral nerve injuries.

  11. Delayed peripheral nerve repair: methods, including surgical ′cross-bridging′ to promote nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the capacity of Schwann cells to support peripheral nerve regeneration, functional recovery after nerve injuries is frequently poor, especially for proximal injuries that require regenerating axons to grow over long distances to reinnervate distal targets. Nerve transfers, where small fascicles from an adjacent intact nerve are coapted to the nerve stump of a nearby denervated muscle, allow for functional return but at the expense of reduced numbers of innervating nerves. A 1-hour period of 20 Hz electrical nerve stimulation via electrodes proximal to an injury site accelerates axon outgrowth to hasten target reinnervation in rats and humans, even after delayed surgery. A novel strategy of enticing donor axons from an otherwise intact nerve to grow through small nerve grafts (cross-bridges into a denervated nerve stump, promotes improved axon regeneration after delayed nerve repair. The efficacy of this technique has been demonstrated in a rat model and is now in clinical use in patients undergoing cross-face nerve grafting for facial paralysis. In conclusion, brief electrical stimulation, combined with the surgical technique of promoting the regeneration of some donor axons to ′protect′ chronically denervated Schwann cells, improves nerve regeneration and, in turn, functional outcomes in the management of peripheral nerve injuries.

  12. Vaccines Cold Chain Monitoring: A Cross Sectional Study at Three District In Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, L. D.; Ginandjar, P.; Budiyono; Martini; Udiyono, A.; Kairul

    2018-02-01

    Vaccine cold chain is a procedure that is used to keep vaccines at a certain temperature. The aim was to describe the vaccine cold chain management of basic immunization program in health centers district. The study design descriptive observational. The samples was Health Centers (HCs); 12 HCs in Sarolangun Jambi Province, 16 HCs in Brebes Central Java Province, and 24 HCs in Temanggung Central Java Provice. Basic immunization vaccines were BCG, DPT-HB-HIB, Polio, and Measles. The results showed proportion of officers graduated from college in Sorolangun, Brebes, and Temanggung were 66.7%, 81.3%, and 52.0% respectively. Proportion of HC that did not have thermometer and fridge freeze was mostly found in Temanggung (52%) and in Sorolangun (91.7%). The heat-sensitive vaccines arranged near the evaporator mostly found in Temanggung (88%), while freeze-sensitive vaccines prepared away of the evaporator mostly in Brebes (100%). Freezer temperature recording chart is not available mostly found in Sorolangun and Brebes (50%), In Sorolangun 41.7% of the officers monitoring 2 times a day and mostly (91.7%) the refrigerator thermostat tape was not isolated. The officers did not perform daily maintenance (50%), weekly (66.7%), and montly (33.3%) mostly found in Sorolangun. From this study we can conclude there is no vaccine immunization program management in Sarolangun, Brebes, and Temanggung that managed according to Ministry of Health Regulations number 42/2013 on the Implementation of immunization. Improvement oversight, control over management of vaccine and management personal, also managing the temperature of the vaccine were recommended.

  13. Determinants of HPV vaccination intentions among Dutch girls and their mothers: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dutch government recently added universal Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination for 12-year-old girls to the existing national immunization program. The participation rate for the initial catch-up campaign for girls aged 13 to 16 years in 2009 was lower (47%) than expected (70%). To inform future HPV information campaigns, this paper examines the social and psychological determinants of the HPV vaccination intentions of girls aged 13 to 16 years and their mothers who were targeted by the Dutch catch-up campaign of 2009. Methods A random sample of girls and their mothers was chosen from the Dutch vaccination register and received a letter inviting them to participate (n = 5,998 mothers and daughters). In addition, a random sample was recruited via an online panel by a marketing research company (n = 650 mothers; n = 350 daughters). Both groups were asked to complete a web-based questionnaire with questions on social demographic characteristics, social-psychological factors and HPV vaccination intention. Backward linear regression analyses were conducted to examine which social-psychological factors were most dominantly associated with vaccination intention. Results Data from 952 mothers (14%) and 642 daughters (10%) were available for the intended analyses. The contribution of social demographic variables to the explained variance of HPV vaccination intention was small but significant for mothers (ΔR2 = .01; p = .007), but not significant for daughters (ΔR2 = .02; p = .17) after controlling for HPV vaccination uptake and the sample. In addition, social-psychological determinants largely contributed to the explained variance of HPV vaccination intention of mothers (ΔR2 = .35; p vaccination intentions. Conclusions Because of the large contribution of social-psychological variables to the explained variance of HPV vaccination intentions among the mothers and daughters, future communication strategies targeting HPV vaccination uptake should address

  14. Reasons for non-vaccination: Parental vaccine hesitancy and the childhood influenza vaccination school pilot programme in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Pauline; Chantler, Tracey; Larson, Heidi J

    2017-08-14

    In 2013, the annual influenza immunisation programme in England was extended to children to reduce the burden of influenza, but uptake was sub-optimal at 53.2%. To explore the reasons some parents decided not to vaccinate their child against influenza as part of the pilot programme offered in schools. Cross-sectional qualitative study conducted between February and July 2015. 913 parents whose children were not vaccinated against influenza in the school pilots in West Yorkshire and Greater Manchester, England, were asked to comment on their reasons for non-vaccination and invited to take part in a semi-structured interview. 138 parents returned response forms, of which 38 were eligible and interested in participating and 25 were interviewed. Interview transcripts were coded by theme in NVivo. A third of parents who returned response forms had either vaccinated their child elsewhere, intended to have them vaccinated, or had not vaccinated them due to medical reasons (valid or perceived). Most interviewees were not convinced of the need to vaccinate their child against influenza. Parents expressed concerns about influenza vaccine effectiveness and vaccine side effects. Several parents interviewed declined the vaccine for faith reasons due to the presence of porcine gelatine in the vaccine. To significantly decrease the burden of influenza in England, influenza vaccination coverage in children needs to be >60%. Hence, it is important to understand the reasons why parents are not vaccinating their children, and to tailor the communication and immunisation programme accordingly. Our finding that a third of parents, who did not consent to their child being vaccinated as part of the school programme, had actually vaccinated their child elsewhere, intended to have their child vaccinated, or had not vaccinated them due to medical reasons, illustrates the importance of including additional questions or data sources when investigating under-vaccination. Copyright © 2017 The

  15. Two phase formation of massive elliptical galaxies: study through cross-correlation including spatial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Soumita; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Area of study is the formation mechanism of the present-day population of elliptical galaxies, in the context of hierarchical cosmological models accompanied by accretion and minor mergers. The present work investigates the formation and evolution of several components of the nearby massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) through cross-correlation function (CCF), using the spatial parameters right ascension (RA) and declination (DEC), and the intrinsic parameters mass (M_{*}) and size. According to the astrophysical terminology, here these variables, namely mass, size, RA and DEC are termed as parameters, whereas the unknown constants involved in the kernel function are called hyperparameters. Throughout this paper, the parameter size is used to represent the effective radius (Re). Following Huang et al. (2013a), each nearby ETG is divided into three parts on the basis of its Re value. We study the CCF between each of these three components of nearby massive ETGs and the ETGs in the high redshift range, 0.5conflict raised in a previous work (De et al. 2014) suggesting other possibilities for the formation of the outermost part. A probable cause of this improvement is the inclusion of the spatial effects in addition to the other parameters in the study.

  16. Cross-Protection against Marburg Virus Strains by Using a Live, Attenuated Recombinant Vaccine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daddario-DiCaprio, Kathleen M; Geisbert, Thomas W; Geisbert, Joan B; Stroeher, Ute; Hensley, Lisa E; Grolla, Allen; Fritz, Elizabeth A; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz; Jones, Steven M

    2006-01-01

    .... MARV is also considered to have potential as a biological weapon. Recently, we reported the development of a promising attenuated, replication-competent vaccine against MARV based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV...

  17. Determinants of HPV vaccination intentions among Dutch girls and their mothers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Keulen Hilde M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dutch government recently added universal Human Papilloma Virus (HPV vaccination for 12-year-old girls to the existing national immunization program. The participation rate for the initial catch-up campaign for girls aged 13 to 16 years in 2009 was lower (47% than expected (70%. To inform future HPV information campaigns, this paper examines the social and psychological determinants of the HPV vaccination intentions of girls aged 13 to 16 years and their mothers who were targeted by the Dutch catch-up campaign of 2009. Methods A random sample of girls and their mothers was chosen from the Dutch vaccination register and received a letter inviting them to participate (n = 5,998 mothers and daughters. In addition, a random sample was recruited via an online panel by a marketing research company (n = 650 mothers; n = 350 daughters. Both groups were asked to complete a web-based questionnaire with questions on social demographic characteristics, social-psychological factors and HPV vaccination intention. Backward linear regression analyses were conducted to examine which social-psychological factors were most dominantly associated with vaccination intention. Results Data from 952 mothers (14% and 642 daughters (10% were available for the intended analyses. The contribution of social demographic variables to the explained variance of HPV vaccination intention was small but significant for mothers (ΔR2 = .01; p = .007, but not significant for daughters (ΔR2 = .02; p = .17 after controlling for HPV vaccination uptake and the sample. In addition, social-psychological determinants largely contributed to the explained variance of HPV vaccination intention of mothers (ΔR2 = .35; p 2 = .34; p Conclusions Because of the large contribution of social-psychological variables to the explained variance of HPV vaccination intentions among the mothers and daughters, future communication strategies targeting HPV vaccination uptake should

  18. Knowledge of, attitudes toward, and preventive practices relating to cholera and oral cholera vaccine among urban high-risk groups: findings of a cross-sectional study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In endemic countries such as Bangladesh, consequences of cholera place an enormous financial and social burden on patients and their families. Cholera vaccines not only provide health benefits to susceptible populations but also have effects on the earning capabilities and financial stability of the family. Community-based research and evaluations are necessary to understand perceptions about and practices of the community relating to cholera and oral cholera vaccines. This may help identify the ways in which such vaccines may be successfully introduced, and other preventive measures can be implemented. The present study assessed the knowledge of, attitudes toward, and preventive practices relating to cholera and oral cholera vaccine among an urban population residing in a high cholera-prone setting in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in an area of high cholera prevalence in 15 randomly-selected clusters in Mirpur, Dhaka city. A study team collected data through a survey and in-depth interviews during December 2010–February 2011. Results Of 2,830 families included in the final analysis, 23% could recognize cholera as acute watery diarrhea and 16% had ever heard of oral cholera vaccine. About 54% of the respondents had poor knowledge about cholera-related issues while 97% had a positive attitude toward cholera and oral cholera vaccine. One-third showed poor practice relating to the prevention of cholera. The findings showed a significant (p cholera were the significant predictors to having poor knowledge. Conclusions The findings suggest the strengthening of health education activities to improve knowledge on cholera, its prevention and treatment and information on cholera vaccination among high-risk populations. The data also underscore the potential of mass cholera vaccination to prevent and control cholera. PMID:23509860

  19. Pandemic influenza 1918 H1N1 and 1968 H3N2 DNA vaccines induce cross-reactive immunity in ferrets against infection with viruses drifted for decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bragstad, Karoline; Martel, Cyril; Thomsen, Joakim S.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Bragstad et al. (2010) Pandemic influenza 1918 H1N1 and 1968 H3N2 DNA vaccines induce cross-reactive immunity in ferrets against infection with viruses drifted for decades. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(1), 13-23. Background Alternative influenza vaccines...... and vaccine production forms are needed as the conventional protein vaccines do not induce broad cross-reactivity against drifted strains. Furthermore, fast vaccine production is especially important in a pandemic situation, and broader vaccine reactivity would diminish the need for frequent change...... in the vaccine formulations. Objective In this study, we compared the ability of pandemic influenza DNA vaccines to induce immunity against distantly related strains within a subtype with the immunity induced by conventional trivalent protein vaccines against homologous virus challenge. Methods Ferrets were...

  20. Impact of framing on intentions to vaccinate daughters against HPV: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey R; Weinhardt, Lance S

    2011-10-01

    Effective promotion of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine across ethnic/racial groups may help curtail disparities in cervical cancer rates. This study aims to investigate mothers' intentions to vaccinate daughters against HPV as a function of message framing (gain versus loss) across three cultural groups: Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic African-American. One hundred fifty mothers were recruited from city department of health clinics and asked to respond to information about the HPV vaccine for their daughters. In a repeated-measures experiment, two different frames (gain and loss) were used to present the information. The results indicated that both frames are equally effective in promoting vaccination intentions in non-Hispanic white mothers. Conversely, a loss frame message was more effective in non-Hispanic African-American and Hispanic mothers. Information sharing campaigns, aimed at promoting the HPV vaccine among ethnic minority groups should be modified to not focus exclusively on the benefits of vaccination.

  1. Broad cross-reactive IgG responses elicited by adjuvanted vaccination with recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (rHA) in ferrets and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Hilchey, Shannon P.; DeDiego, Marta; Perry, Sheldon; Hyrien, Ollivier; Nogales, Aitor; Garigen, Jessica; Amanat, Fatima; Huertas, Nelson; Krammer, Florian; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Topham, David J.; Treanor, John J.; Sangster, Mark Y.

    2018-01-01

    Annual immunization against influenza virus is a large international public health effort. Accumulating evidence suggests that antibody mediated cross-reactive immunity against influenza hemagglutinin (HA) strongly correlates with long-lasting cross-protection against influenza virus strains that differ from the primary infection or vaccination strain. However, the optimal strategies for achieving highly cross-reactive antibodies to the influenza virus HA have not yet to be defined. In the current study, using Luminex-based mPlex-Flu assay, developed by our laboratory, to quantitatively measure influenza specific IgG antibody mediated cross-reactivity, we found that prime-boost-boost vaccination of ferrets with rHA proteins admixed with adjuvant elicited higher magnitude and broader cross-reactive antibody responses than that induced by actual influenza viral infection, and this cross-reactive response likely correlated with increased anti-stalk reactive antibodies. We observed a similar phenomenon in mice receiving three sequential vaccinations with rHA proteins from either A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) or A/Hong Kong/1/1968 (H3N2) viruses admixed with Addavax, an MF59-like adjuvant. Using this same mouse vaccination model, we determined that Addavax plays a more significant role in the initial priming event than in subsequent boosts. We also characterized the generation of cross-reactive antibody secreting cells (ASCs) and memory B cells (MBCs) when comparing vaccination to viral infection. We have also found that adjuvant plays a critical role in the generation of long-lived ASCs and MBCs cross-reactive to influenza viruses as a result of vaccination with rHA of influenza virus, and the observed increase in stalk-reactive antibodies likely contributes to this IgG mediated broad cross-reactivity. PMID:29641537

  2. Influenza vaccination coverage of healthcare workers and residents and their determinants in nursing homes for elderly people in France: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guthmann Jean-Paul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home residents bear a substantial burden of influenza morbidity and mortality. Vaccination of residents and healthcare workers (HCWs is the main strategy for prevention. Despite recommendations, influenza vaccination coverage among HCWs remains generally low. Methods During the 2007-2008 influenza season, we conducted a nationwide survey to estimate influenza vaccination coverage of HCWs and residents in nursing homes for elderly people in France and to identify determinants of vaccination rates. Multivariate analysis were performed with a negative binomial regression. Results Influenza vaccination coverage rates were 33.6% (95% CI: 31.9-35.4 for HCWs and 91% (95% CI: 90-92 for residents. Influenza vaccination uptake of HCWs varied by occupational category. Higher vaccination coverage was found in private elderly care residences, when free vaccination was offered (RR: 1.89, 1.35-2.64, in small nursing homes (RR: 1.54, 1.31-1.81 and when training sessions and staff meetings on influenza were organized (RR: 1.20, 1.11-1.29. The analysis by occupational category showed that some determinants were shared by all categories of professionals (type of nursing homes, organization of training and staff meetings on influenza. Higher influenza vaccination coverage was found when free vaccination was offered to recreational, cleaning, administrative staff, nurses and nurse assistants, but not for physicians. Conclusions This nationwide study assessed for the first time the rate of influenza vaccination among residents and HCWs in nursing homes for elderly in France. Better communication on the current recommendations regarding influenza vaccination is needed to increase compliance of HCWs. Vaccination programmes should include free vaccination and education campaigns targeting in priority nurses and nurse assistants.

  3. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus in a cross-sectional study in Mexico: Implications for hepatitis A vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Conde-Gonzalez, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis; Cervantes, Yolanda; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) remains a public health concern worldwide contributing to significant morbidity in developed and developing countries. This cross-sectional database study estimated the overall HAV seroprevalence and the seroprevalence by gender, age, region and socioeconomic status in Mexico. Between January and October 2010, serum samples collected during the National Health and Nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2006) were obtained from subjects aged 1-95 y. Subjects' gender, age, geographical region and socioeconomic status were extracted from the survey and compiled into a subset database by the Mexican National Institute of Public Health. Anti-HAV antibodies were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. A total of 3658 subjects were included in the according-to-protocol cohort. Overall, the HAV seroprevalence was 84.2%. The HAV seroprevalence rates were similar between females (86.1%) and males (82.2%). The percentage of subjects seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies was highest in adults aged ≥ 20 y (96.9%), followed by adolescents aged 10-19 y (80.1%) and lowest in children aged 1-9 y (45.0%) (p < 0.0001). Regionally, the highest HAV seroprevalence rate was observed in the South (88.8%) followed by Central and Northern Mexico and Mexico City (p = 0.02). The HAV seroprevalence was similar between subjects of high socioeconomic (90.1%) status and of low socioeconomic status (86.6%). This study confirms the intermediate HAV endemicity in Mexico. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to evaluate the inclusion of an effective hepatitis A vaccine from a population-based perspective in addition to continuous efforts to improve hygiene and sanitation that have a substantial impact on the disease burden.

  4. A cross-sectional sero-survey on preoperative HBV vaccination policy in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganczak, Maria; Korzen, Marcin; Jurewicz, Alina; Szych, Zbigniew

    2017-07-25

    A two-dose preoperative vaccination schedule against HBV has been the widely accepted policy in Poland. However, its effectiveness has not yet been assessed. To evaluate a two-dose preoperative HBV vaccination policy by an assessment of the proportion of patients who don't present a protective level of anti-HBs (HBV with a two-dose regimen, were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire. Serum samples were assayed for anti-HBs with the use of third-generation testing methods. To compare sensitivity versus specificity across a range of values for the ability to predict a dichotomous outcome (a protection against HBV infection) a Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was determined. There were 193 patients, 58.5% women, median age 52 years. Almost a half (46.0%) of the patients were operated on within 0-60 days of taking the second vaccine dose, 16.2% - 61-180 days after, 37.8% >180 days after. Anti-HBs titer was below a protective level in 49.2% of participants (0.0 mIU/ml in 17.8%, 0.1-9.9 mIU/ml in 31.4%); none of them were aware of this fact. Age ≤ 52 years (OR = 1.89) and having surgery more than 37.5 days after HBV vaccination (OR = 2.70) were associated with greater odds of being protected against HBV infection through vaccination. For the time frame between the second dose implementation and surgery 23 days, a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 22% for obtaining protection against HBV infection was found, for the time frame >37.5 days - sensitivity remained high (80%), while specificity increased (41%); there was an apparent peek on the ROC curve between 38 and 60 day. In the group vaccinated 0-37.5 days before surgery, less patients had the protective level of anti-HBs titer than in vaccinated 38-60 days before surgery (32.3% vs 60.0%; p = 0.03). The success rate in achieving adequate immune protection with two dose HBV vaccination schedule in preoperatively vaccinated patients is relatively low, especially among those

  5. Characterisation of vaccine-induced, broadly cross-reactive IFN-γ secreting T cell responses that correlate with rapid protection against classical swine fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Simon P; Haines, Felicity J; Johns, Helen L; Sosan, Olubukola; La Rocca, S Anna; Lamp, Benjamin; Rümenapf, Till; Everett, Helen E; Crooke, Helen R

    2012-04-05

    Live attenuated C-strain classical swine fever viruses (CSFV) provide a rapid onset of protection, but the lack of a serological test that can differentiate vaccinated from infected animals limits their application in CSF outbreaks. Since immunity may precede antibody responses, we examined the kinetics and specificity of peripheral blood T cell responses from pigs vaccinated with a C-strain vaccine and challenged after five days with a genotypically divergent CSFV isolate. Vaccinated animals displayed virus-specific IFN-γ responses from day 3 post-challenge, whereas, unvaccinated challenge control animals failed to mount a detectable response. Both CD4(+) and cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells were identified as the cellular source of IFN-γ. IFN-γ responses showed extensive cross-reactivity when T cells were stimulated with CSFV isolates spanning the major genotypes. To determine the specificity of these responses, T cells were stimulated with recombinant CSFV proteins and a proteome-wide peptide library from a related virus, BVDV. Major cross-reactive peptides were mapped on the E2 and NS3 proteins. Finally, IFN-γ was shown to exert potent antiviral effects on CSFV in vitro. These data support the involvement of broadly cross-reactive T cell IFN-γ responses in the rapid protection conferred by the C-strain vaccine and this information should aid the development of the next generation of CSFV vaccines. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaccination with a Plasmodium chabaudi adami multivalent DNA vaccine cross-protects A/J mice against challenge with P. c. adami DK and virulent Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, T; Grubb, K; Cambos, M; Santamaria, C; Tshikudi Malu, D; Spithill, T W

    2008-06-01

    A current goal of malaria vaccine research is the development of vaccines that will cross-protect against multiple strains of malaria. In the present study, the breadth of cross-reactivity induced by a 30K multivalent DNA vaccine has been evaluated in susceptible A/J mice (H-2a) against infection with the Plasmodium chabaudi adami DK strain and a virulent parasite subspecies, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi AS. Immunized A/J mice were significantly protected against infection with both P. c. adami DK (31-40% reduction in cumulative parasitemia) and P. c. chabaudi AS parasites, where a 30-39% reduction in cumulative parasitemia as well as enhanced survival was observed. The 30K vaccine-induced specific IFN-gamma production by splenocytes in response to native antigens from both P. c. chabaudi AS and P. c. adami DK. Specific antibodies reacting with surface antigens expressed on P. c. adami DS and P. c. chabaudi AS infected red blood cells, and with opsonizing properties, were detected. These results suggest that multivalent vaccines encoding conserved antigens can feasibly induce immune cross-reactivity that span Plasmodium strains and subspecies and can protect hosts of distinct major histocompatibility complex haplotypes.

  7. The association between travel time to health facilities and childhood vaccine coverage in rural Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwaraji, Yemisrach B; Mulholland, Kim; Schellenberg, Joanna R M Armstrong; Andarge, Gashaw; Admassu, Mengesha; Edmond, Karen M

    2012-06-22

    Few studies have examined associations between access to health care and childhood vaccine coverage in remote communities that lack motorised transport. This study assessed whether travel time to health facilities was associated with childhood vaccine coverage in a remote area of Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional study using data from 775 children aged 12-59 months who participated in a household survey between January -July 2010 in Dabat district, north-western Ethiopia. 208 households were randomly selected from each kebele. All children in a household were eligible for inclusion if they were aged between 12-59 months at the time of data collection. Travel time to vaccine providers was collected using a geographical information system (GIS). The primary outcome was the percentage of children in the study population who were vaccinated with the third infant Pentavalent vaccine ([Diphtheria, Tetanus,-Pertussis Hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b] Penta3) in the five years before the survey. We also assessed effects on BCG, Penta1, Penta2 and Measles vaccines. Analysis was conducted using Poisson regression models with robust standard error estimation and the Wald test. Missing vaccination data ranged from 4.6% (36/775) for BCG to 16.4% (127/775) for Penta3 vaccine. In children with complete vaccination records, BCG vaccine had the highest coverage (97.3% [719/739]), Penta3 coverage was (92.9% [602/648]) and Measles vaccine had the lowest coverage (81.7% [564/690]). Children living ≥60mins from a health post were significantly less likely (adjRR = 0.85 [0.79-0.92] p value Travel time also had a highly significant association with BCG (adjRR = 0.95 [0.93-0.98] p value =0.002) and Measles (adjRR = 0.88 [0.79-0.97] p value =0.027) vaccine coverage. Travel time to vaccine providers in health posts appeared to be a barrier to the delivery of infant vaccines in this remote Ethiopian community. New vaccine delivery strategies are needed for the

  8. Decreased management of genital warts in young women in Australian general practice post introduction of national HPV vaccination program: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional general practice study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Since the introduction of Australia's human papillomavirus vaccination program, the management rate of genital warts in sexual health clinics and private hospitals has decreased in women of vaccine-eligible age. However, most genital warts in Australia are managed in general practice. This study examines whether a similar decrease occurred in Australian general practice after the introduction of the program. METHODS: Analysis of a nationally representative cross-sectional database of Australian general practice activity (1,175,879 patient encounters with 11,780 general practitioners. Genital warts management rates were estimated for the periods before and after introduction of the program (Pre-program, July 2002-June 2006; Post-program, July 2008-June 2012. Control conditions included genital herpes and gardnerella/bacterial vaginosis in female patients and genital herpes and urethritis in male patients. Trends in management rates by year, pre-vaccine (July 2000-June 2007 and post-vaccine (July 2007-June 2012 were also calculated. RESULTS: Management rate of genital warts among women potentially covered by program (aged 15-27 years decreased by 61% from 4.33 per 1,000 encounters in the Pre-program period to 1.67 in the Post-program period. Trend analysis of the post-vaccine period showed, among women of vaccine eligible age, a significant year-on-year reduction in the rate of genital warts management (p<0.0001 and a significant increase in the management rate of control conditions per year (p<0.0001. For all other age-sex groups there was no significant change in the management rate of genital warts between the Pre- and Post-program periods. CONCLUSION: The large decrease in general practice management of genital warts in women of vaccine-eligible age highlights the success of the program in the wider community.

  9. Cross-protective efficacy of engineering serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine against the two pandemic strains in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haixue; Lian, Kaiqi; Yang, Fan; Jin, Ye; Zhu, Zixiang; Guo, Jianhong; Cao, Weijun; Liu, Huanan; He, Jijun; Zhang, Keshan; Li, Dan; Liu, Xiangtao

    2015-10-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious vesicular disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. Recently, a series of outbreaks of type A FMDV occurred in Southeast Asian countries, China, the Russia Federation, Mongolia, Kazakhstan and South Korea. The FMD virus (A/GDMM/CHA/2013) from China's Guangdong province (2013) is representative of those responsible for the latest epidemic, and has low amino acid identity (93.9%) in VP1 protein with the epidemic strain A/WH/CHA/09 from Wuhan, China in 2009. Both of isolates belong to the Sea-97 genotype of ASIA topotype. Therefore, the application of a new vaccine strain with cross-protective efficacy is of fundamental importance to control the spread of the two described pandemic strains. A chimeric strain rA/P1-FMDV constructed by our lab previously through replacing the P1 gene in the vaccine strain O/CHA/99 with that from the epidemic stain A/WH/CHA/09, has been demonstrated to exhibit good growth characteristics in culture, and the rA/P1-FMDV inactivated vaccine can provide protection against epidemic strain A/WH/CHA/09 in cattle. However, it is still unclear whether the vaccine produces efficient protection against the new pandemic strain (A/GDMM/CHA/2013). Here, vaccine matching and pig 50% protective dose (PD50) tests were performed to assess the vaccine potency. The vaccine matching test showed cross-reactivity of sera from full dose vaccine vaccinated pigs with A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 isolates, with average r1 values of 0.94±0.12 and 0.68±0.06 (r1≥0.3), which indicates that the rA/P1-FMDV vaccine is likely to confer good cross-protection against the two isolates. When challenged with two pandemic isolates A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 strain, the vaccine achieved 12.51 PD50 and 10.05 PD50 per dose (2.8μg), respectively. The results indicated that the rA/P1-FMDV inactivated vaccine could protect pigs against both A/WH/CHA/09 and A/GDMM/CHA/2013 pandemic isolates

  10. Human Papillomavirus neutralizing and cross-reactive antibodies induced in HIV-positive subjects after vaccination with quadrivalent and bivalent HPV vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Helena; Nielsen, Lars Toft; Sehr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-one HIV-infected individuals (61 men and 30 women) were randomized to vaccination either with quadrivalent (Gardasil™) or bivalent (Cervarix™) HPV vaccine. Neutralizing and specific HPV-binding serum antibodies were measured at baseline and 12 months after the first vaccine dose. Presence...... of neutralizing and binding antibodies had good agreement (average Kappa for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 was 0.65). At baseline, 88% of subjects had antibodies against at least one genital HPV. Following vaccination with Cervarix™, all subjects became seropositive for HPV16 and 18. After Gardasil......™ vaccination, 96% of subjects seroconverted for HPV16 and 73% for HPV18. Levels of HPV16-specific antibodies were 10IU in 85% of study subjects after vaccination. Antibodies against non-vaccine HPV types appeared after Gardasil...

  11. Monitoring vaccine and non-vaccine HPV type prevalence in the post-vaccination era in women living in the Basilicata region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca; Puliti, Donella; Ocello, Cristina; Anastasio, Pasquale Silvio; Moliterni, Espedito Antonio; Perinetti, Emilia; Serradell, Laurence; Burroni, Elena; Confortini, Massimo; Mantellini, Paola; Zappa, Marco; Dominiak-Felden, Géraldine

    2018-01-15

    A large free-of-charge quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination program, covering four cohorts annually (women 11, 14, 17 and 24 years), has been implemented in Basilicata since 2007. This study evaluated vaccine and non-vaccine HPV prevalence 5-7 years post-vaccination program implementation in vaccinated and unvaccinated women. This population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the public screening centers of the Local Health Unit in Matera between 2012 and 2014. Cervical samples were obtained for Pap and HPV testing (HC2, LiPA Extra® assay) and participants completed a sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaire. Detailed HPV vaccination status was retrieved from the official HPV vaccine registry. HPV prevalence was described overall, by type and vaccination status. The association between HPV type-detection and risk/protective factors was studied. Direct vaccine protection (qHPV vaccine effectiveness [VE]), cross-protection, and type-replacement were evaluated in cohorts eligible for vaccination, by analyzing HPV prevalence of vaccine and non-vaccine types according to vaccination status. Overall, 2793 women (18-50 years) were included, 1314 of them having been in birth cohorts eligible for the HPV vaccination program (18- to 30-year-old women at enrolment). Among the latter, qHPV vaccine uptake was 59% (at least one dose), with 94% completing the schedule; standardized qHPV type prevalence was 0.6% in vaccinated versus 5.5% in unvaccinated women (P HPV, high-risk non-vaccine HPV, or any single non-vaccine type prevalence was observed between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. These results, conducted in a post-vaccine era, suggest a high qHPV VE and that a well-implemented catch-up vaccination program may be efficient in reducing vaccine-type infections in a real-world setting. No cross-protective effect or evidence of type-replacement was observed a few years after HPV vaccine introduction.

  12. Cross-sectional study on attitudes among general practitioners towards pneumococcal vaccination for middle-aged and elderly population in Hong Kong.

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    Lancelot W H Mui

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the attitudes among general practitioners towards pneumococcal vaccination for middle-aged (50-64 and elderly population (over 65 in Hong Kong and the factors affecting their decision to advise pneumococcal vaccination for those age groups. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of general practitioners in private practice in Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: Members of Hong Kong Medical Association delivering general practice services in private sector. MEASURING TOOL: Self-administered questionnaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intention to recommend pneumococcal vaccination, barriers against pneumococcal vaccination. RESULTS: 53.4% of the respondents would actively recommend pneumococcal vaccination to elderly patients but only 18.8% would recommend for middle-aged patients. Consultation not related to pneumococcal vaccine was the main reason for not recommending pneumococcal vaccine (43.6%. Rarity of pneumonia in their daily practice was another reason with 68.4% of respondents attending five or less patients with pneumonia each year. In multivariate analysis, factors such as respondents would get vaccination when reaching age 50 (ORm 10.1, and attending 6 pneumonia cases or more per year (ORm 2.28 were found to be associated with increasing likelihood for recommending vaccination to the middle-aged. While concerns of marketing a product (ORm 0.41, consultation not related to vaccination (ORm 0.45 and limited time (ORm 0.38 were factors that reduced the likelihood. CONCLUSION: Public policy is needed to increase the awareness of impact of pneumococcal pneumonia and the availability of preventive measures.

  13. The association between travel time to health facilities and childhood vaccine coverage in rural Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study

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    Okwaraji Yemisrach B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined associations between access to health care and childhood vaccine coverage in remote communities that lack motorised transport. This study assessed whether travel time to health facilities was associated with childhood vaccine coverage in a remote area of Ethiopia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study using data from 775 children aged 12–59 months who participated in a household survey between January –July 2010 in Dabat district, north-western Ethiopia. 208 households were randomly selected from each kebele. All children in a household were eligible for inclusion if they were aged between 12–59 months at the time of data collection. Travel time to vaccine providers was collected using a geographical information system (GIS. The primary outcome was the percentage of children in the study population who were vaccinated with the third infant Pentavalent vaccine ([Diphtheria, Tetanus,-Pertussis Hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b] Penta3 in the five years before the survey. We also assessed effects on BCG, Penta1, Penta2 and Measles vaccines. Analysis was conducted using Poisson regression models with robust standard error estimation and the Wald test. Results Missing vaccination data ranged from 4.6% (36/775 for BCG to 16.4% (127/775 for Penta3 vaccine. In children with complete vaccination records, BCG vaccine had the highest coverage (97.3% [719/739], Penta3 coverage was (92.9% [602/648] and Measles vaccine had the lowest coverage (81.7% [564/690]. Children living ≥60mins from a health post were significantly less likely (adjRR = 0.85 [0.79-0.92] p value  Conclusions Travel time to vaccine providers in health posts appeared to be a barrier to the delivery of infant vaccines in this remote Ethiopian community. New vaccine delivery strategies are needed for the hardest to reach children in the African region.

  14. Seasonal influenza vaccination is the strongest correlate of cross-reactive antibody responses in migratory bird handlers.

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    Oshansky, Christine M; Wong, Sook-San; Jeevan, Trushar; Smallwood, Heather S; Webby, Richard J; Shafir, Shira C; Thomas, Paul G

    2014-12-09

    Avian species are reservoirs of influenza A viruses and could harbor viruses with significant pandemic potential. We examined the antibody and cellular immune responses to influenza A viruses in field or laboratory workers with a spectrum of occupational exposure to avian species for evidence of zoonotic infections. We measured the seroprevalence and T cell responses among 95 individuals with various types and degrees of prior field or laboratory occupational exposure to wild North American avian species using whole blood samples collected in 2010. Plasma samples were tested using endpoint enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination (HA) inhibition (HAI) assays to subtypes H3, H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, and H12 proteins. Detectable antibodies were found against influenza HA antigens in 77% of individuals, while 65% of individuals tested had measurable T cell responses (gamma interferon [IFN-γ] enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay [ELISPOT]) to multiple HA antigens of avian origin. To begin defining the observed antibody specificities, Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that ELISA responses, which measure both head- and stalk-binding antibodies, do not predict HAI reactivities, which measure primarily head-binding antibodies. This result suggests that ELISA titers can report cross-reactivity based on the levels of non-head-binding responses. However, the strongest positive correlate of HA-specific ELISA antibody titers was receipt of seasonal influenza virus vaccination. Occupational exposure was largely uncorrelated with serological measures, with the exception of individuals exposed to poultry, who had higher levels of H7-specific antibodies than non-poultry-exposed individuals. While the cohort had antibody and T cell reactivity to a broad range of influenza viruses, only occupational exposure to poultry was associated with a significant difference in antibody levels to a specific subtype (H7). There was no evidence that T cell assays

  15. How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility? A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia

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    Cheong Ai Theng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of pregnant women susceptible to rubella is important as vaccination can be given postpartum to prevent future risks of congenital rubella syndrome. However, in Malaysia, rubella antibody screening is not offered routinely to pregnant women in public funded health clinics due to cost constraint. Instead, a history of rubella vaccination is asked to be provided to establish the women’s risk for rubella infection. The usefulness of this history, however, is not established. Thus, this paper aimed to determine the usefulness of a history of rubella vaccination in determining rubella susceptibility in pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 pregnant women attending a public funded health clinic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and demographic data and history of rubella vaccination were obtained. Anti-rubella IgG test was performed. Results A majority of the women (66.6% had a positive vaccination history. Of these, 92.2% women were immune. A third (33.4% of the women had a negative or unknown vaccination history, but 81.4% of them were immune to rubella. The sensitivity and specificity of a history of rubella vaccination in identifying disease susceptibility was 54.4% (95% CI: 40.7, 67.4% and 69.3% (95% CI: 64.7, 73.5% respectively; the positive predictive value was 18.6% (95% CI: 13.1, 25.5% and the negative predictive value was 92.2% (95% CI: 88.6, 94.7%. Conclusions A vaccination history of rubella had a poor diagnostic value in predicting rubella susceptibility. However, obtaining a vaccination history is inexpensive compared with performing a serological test. A cost-utility analysis would be useful in determining which test (history versus serological test is more cost-effective in a country with resource constraint.

  16. How useful is a history of rubella vaccination for determination of disease susceptibility? A cross-sectional study at a public funded health clinic in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ai Theng; Tong, Seng Fah; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2013-01-31

    Identification of pregnant women susceptible to rubella is important as vaccination can be given postpartum to prevent future risks of congenital rubella syndrome. However, in Malaysia, rubella antibody screening is not offered routinely to pregnant women in public funded health clinics due to cost constraint. Instead, a history of rubella vaccination is asked to be provided to establish the women's risk for rubella infection. The usefulness of this history, however, is not established. Thus, this paper aimed to determine the usefulness of a history of rubella vaccination in determining rubella susceptibility in pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 pregnant women attending a public funded health clinic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and demographic data and history of rubella vaccination were obtained. Anti-rubella IgG test was performed. A majority of the women (66.6%) had a positive vaccination history. Of these, 92.2% women were immune. A third (33.4%) of the women had a negative or unknown vaccination history, but 81.4% of them were immune to rubella. The sensitivity and specificity of a history of rubella vaccination in identifying disease susceptibility was 54.4% (95% CI: 40.7, 67.4%) and 69.3% (95% CI: 64.7, 73.5%) respectively; the positive predictive value was 18.6% (95% CI: 13.1, 25.5%) and the negative predictive value was 92.2% (95% CI: 88.6, 94.7%). A vaccination history of rubella had a poor diagnostic value in predicting rubella susceptibility. However, obtaining a vaccination history is inexpensive compared with performing a serological test. A cost-utility analysis would be useful in determining which test (history versus serological test) is more cost-effective in a country with resource constraint.

  17. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate induced cross-neutralizing antibody against subgenotypes B1, B4, B5 and C4A in adult volunteers.

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    Ai-Hsiang Chou

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused several epidemics of hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD in Asia. No effective EV71 vaccine is available. A randomized and open-label phase I clinical study registered with ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01268787, aims to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccine candidate (EV71vac at 5- and 10-µg doses. In this study we report the cross-neutralizing antibody responses from each volunteer against different subgenotypes of EV71 and CVA16.Sixty eligible healthy adults were recruited and vaccinated. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, 21 and 42 and tested against B1, B4, B5, C2, C4A, C4B and CVA16 for cross-neutralizing antibody responses.The immunogenicity of both 5- and 10- µg doses were found to be very similar. Approximately 45% of the participants had 4-fold increase in Nt, but there was no further increase in Nt after the second dose. EV71vac induced very strong cross-neutralizing antibody responses in >85% of volunteers without pre-existing Nt against subgenotype B1, B5 and C4A. EV71vac elicited weak cross-neutralizing antibody responses (∼20% of participants against a C4B and Coxsackie virus A16. Over 90% of vaccinated volunteers did not develop cross-neutralizing antibody responses (Nt<8 against a C2 strain. EV71vac can boost and significantly enhance the neutralizing antibody responses in volunteers who already had pre-vaccination antibodies against EV71 and/or CVA16.EV71vac is efficient in eliciting cross-neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 subgenotypes B1, B4, B5, and C4A, and provides the rationale for its evaluation in phase II clinical trials.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01268787.

  18. Seropositivity to non-vaccine incorporated genotypes induced by the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Sara L; Godi, Anna; Jit, Mark; Beddows, Simon

    2017-07-13

    Human papillomavirus vaccines have demonstrated remarkable efficacy against persistent infection and disease associated with vaccine-incorporated genotypes and a degree of efficacy against some genetically related, non-vaccine-incorporated genotypes. The vaccines differ in the extent of cross-protection against these non-vaccine genotypes. Data supporting the role for neutralizing antibodies as a correlate or surrogate of cross-protection are lacking, as is a robust assessment of the seroconversion rates against these non-vaccine genotypes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available data on vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody seropositivity to non-vaccine incorporated HPV genotypes. Of 304 articles screened, 9 were included in the analysis representing ca. 700 individuals. The pooled estimate for seropositivity against HPV31 for the bivalent vaccine (86%; 95%CI 78-91%) was higher than that for the quadrivalent vaccine (61%; 39-79%; p=0.011). The pooled estimate for seropositivity against HPV45 for the bivalent vaccine (50%; 37-64%) was also higher than that for the quadrivalent vaccine (16%; 6-36%; p=0.007). Seropositivity against HPV33, HPV52 and HPV58 were similar between the vaccines. Mean seropositivity rates across non-vaccine genotypes were positively associated with the corresponding vaccine efficacy data reported from vaccine trials. These data improve our understanding of vaccine-induced functional antibody specificity against non-vaccine incorporated genotypes and may help to parameterize vaccine-impact models and improve patient management in a post-vaccine setting. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting influenza vaccination uptake among health care workers: what are the key motivators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corace, Kimberly; Prematunge, Chatura; McCarthy, Anne; Nair, Rama C; Roth, Virginia; Hayes, Thomas; Suh, Kathryn N; Balfour, Louise; Garber, Gary

    2013-08-01

    Health care worker (HCW) vaccination was critical to protecting HCW during the H1N1 pandemic. However, vaccine uptake rates fell below recommended targets. This study examined motivators and barriers influencing HCW pH1N1 vaccination to identify modifiable factors that can improve influenza vaccine uptake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at a large Canadian tertiary care hospital. HCW (N = 3,275) completed measures of demographics, vaccination history, influenza risk factors, and attitudes toward pH1N1 vaccination. Self-reported vaccination was verified with staff vaccination records. Of the total sample, 2,862 (87.4%) HCW received the pH1N1 vaccine. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict HCW vaccination. HCW attitudes toward vaccination significantly predicted vaccination, even after adjusting for demographics, vaccine history, and influenza risk factors. This model correctly predicted 95% (confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-0.96) of HCW vaccination. Key modifiable factors driving HCW vaccination include (1) desire to protect family members and patients, (2) belief that vaccination is important even if one is healthy, (3) confidence in vaccine safety, and (4) supervisor and physician encouragement. This research identified fundamental reasons why HCW get vaccinated and provides direction for future influenza vaccination programs. To enhance vaccine uptake, it is important to target HCW attitudes in influenza vaccine campaigns and create a culture of vaccine promotion in the workplace, including strong messaging from supervisors and physicians. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Fumito; Imaoka, Yuki; Sumi, Yuusuke; Uemae, Yoji; Yasuda-Kurihara, Hiroko; Ishihara, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Ohno, Tadao

    2018-01-01

    No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR) of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20) after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months) and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988-2002) and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999-2007). Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  1. Rate of Clinical Complete Response for 1 Year or More in Bone-Metastatic Breast Cancer after Comprehensive Treatments including Autologous Formalin-Fixed Tumor Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumito Kuranishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. No effective treatment has been developed for bone-metastatic breast cancer. We found 3 cases with clinical complete response (cCR of the bone metastasis and longer overall survival of the retrospectively examined cohort treated comprehensively including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV. Patients and Methods. AFTV was prepared individually for each patient from their own formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Results. Three patients maintained cCR status of the bone metastasis for 17 months or more. Rate of cCR for 1 year or more appeared to be 15% (3/20 after comprehensive treatments including AFTV. The median overall survival time (60.0 months and the 3- to 8-year survival rates after diagnosis of bone metastasis were greater than those of historical control cohorts in Japan (1988–2002 and in the nationwide population-based cohort study of Denmark (1999–2007. Conclusion. Bone-metastatic breast cancer may be curable after comprehensive treatments including AFTV, although larger scale clinical trial is required.

  2. Comparing bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccines: economic evaluation based on transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Chapman, Ruth; Hughes, Owain; Choi, Yoon Hong

    2011-09-27

    To compare the effect and cost effectiveness of bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, taking into account differences in licensure indications, protection against non-vaccine type disease, protection against disease related to HPV types 6 and 11, and reported long term immunogenicity. A model of HPV transmission and disease previously used to inform UK vaccination policy, updated with recent evidence and expanded to include scenarios where the two vaccines differ in duration of protection, cross protection, and end points prevented. United Kingdom. Population Males and females aged 12-75 years. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios for both vaccines and additional cost per dose for the quadrivalent vaccine to be equally cost effective as the bivalent vaccine. The bivalent vaccine needs to be cheaper than the quadrivalent vaccine to be equally cost effective, mainly because of its lack of protection against anogenital warts. The price difference per dose ranges from a median of £19 (interquartile range £12-£27) to £35 (£27-£44) across scenarios about vaccine duration, cross protection, and end points prevented (assuming one quality adjusted life year (QALY) is valued at £30,000 and both vaccines can prevent all types of HPV related cancers). The quadrivalent vaccine may have an advantage over the bivalent vaccine in reducing healthcare costs and QALYs lost. The bivalent vaccine may have an advantage in preventing death due to cancer. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the differential benefit of the two vaccines.

  3. Cross-reactive neutralizing antibody responses to enterovirus 71 infections in young children: implications for vaccine development.

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    Mei-Liang Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, enterovirus 71 (EV71 has caused life-threatening outbreaks involving neurological and cardiopulmonary complications in Asian children with unknown mechanism. EV71 has one single serotype but can be phylogenetically classified into 3 main genogroups (A, B and C and 11 genotypes (A, B1∼B5 and C1∼C5. In Taiwan, nationwide EV71 epidemics with different predominant genotypes occurred in 1998 (C2, 2000-2001 (B4, 2004-2005 (C4, and 2008 (B5. In this study, sera were collected to measure cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against different genotypes. METHODS: We collected historical sera from children who developed an EV71 infection in 1998, 2000, 2005, 2008, or 2010 and measured cross-reactive neutralizing antibody titers against all 11 EV71 genotypes. In addition, we aligned and compared the amino acid sequences of P1 proteins of the tested viruses. RESULTS: Serology data showed that children infected with genogroups B and C consistently have lower neutralizing antibody titers against genogroup A (>4-fold difference. The sequence comparisons revealed that five amino acid signatures (N143D in VP2; K18R, H116Y, D167E, and S275A in VP1 are specific for genogroup A and may be related to the observed antigenic variations. CONCLUSIONS: This study documented antigenic variations among different EV71 genogroups and identified potential immunodominant amino acid positions. Enterovirus surveillance and vaccine development should monitor these positions.

  4. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Ülkü Aka Aktürk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. Aims: To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Study Design: Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients admitted to the chest diseases clinics of six different centres between 1 February 2013 and 1 January 2014 with a pre-diagnosis of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to the Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria, who were in a stable condition were included in the study. The survey, which included demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, severity of disease and vaccination information, was first tested on a small patient population before the study. The survey was completed by the investigators after obtaining written informed consent. Results: The average age of the 296 included patients was 66.3±9.3 years and 91.9% were male. Of these, 36.5% had the influenza vaccination and 14.1% had the pneumococcal vaccination. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was ‘no recommendation by doctors’: 57.2% in the case of influenza vaccinations, and 46.8% in the case of pneumococcal vaccinations. Both vaccination rates were significantly higher in those patients with comorbidities (influenza vaccination p0.05. Vaccination rates were significantly higher in those with a white-collar occupation and higher education level, and who presented to a university hospital (p<0.001. Conclusion: Medical professionals do not request vaccinations as often as the International Guidelines suggest for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Awareness of the importance of these vaccinations among both doctors and patients

  5. The primary immune response to Vaccinia virus vaccination includes cells with a distinct cytotoxic effector CD4 T-cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, C Mee Ling; van Bockel, David; Bailey, Michelle; Ip, Susanna; Xu, Yin; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Liu, Sue Min; Denyer, Gareth; Kaplan, Warren; Suzuki, Kazuo; Croft, Nathan; Purcell, Anthony; Tscharke, David; Cooper, David A; Kent, Stephen J; Zaunders, John J; Kelleher, Anthony D

    2016-10-17

    Smallpox was eradicated by a global program of inoculation with Vaccinia virus (VV). Robust VV-specific CD4 T-cell responses during primary infection are likely essential to controlling VV replication. Although there is increasing interest in cytolytic CD4 T-cells across many viral infections, the importance of these cells during acute VV infection is unclear. We undertook a detailed functional and genetic characterization of CD4 T-cells during acute VV-infection of humans. VV-specific T-cells were identified by up-regulation of activation markers directly ex vivo and through cytokine and co-stimulatory molecule expression. At day-13-post primary inoculation with VV, CD38highCD45RO+ CD4 T-cells were purified by cell sorting, RNA isolated and analysed by microarray. Differential expression of up-regulated genes in activated CD4 T-cells was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. We compared analyses of VV-specific CD4 T-cells to studies on 12 subjects with primary HIV infection (PHI). VV-specific T-cells lines were established from PBMCs collected post vaccination and checked for cytotoxicity potential. A median 11.9% CD4 T-cells were CD38highCD45RO+ at day-13 post-VV inoculation, compared to 3.0% prior and 10.4% during PHI. Activated CD4 T-cells had an up-regulation of genes related to cytolytic function, including granzymes K and A, perforin, granulysin, TIA-1, and Rab27a. No difference was seen between CD4 T-cell expression of perforin or TIA-1 to VV and PHI, however granzyme k was more dominant in the VV response. At 25:1 effector to target ratio, two VV-specific T-cell lines exhibited 62% and 30% cytotoxicity respectively and CD107a degranulation. We show for the first time that CD4 CTL are prominent in the early response to VV. Understanding the role of CD4 CTL in the generation of an effective anti-viral memory may help develop more effective vaccines for diseases such as HIV. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between receipt of substitutable for-fee vaccines and completion of the expanded programme on immunisation: a cross-sectional study in Fujian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang-Nan; Li, Da-Jin; Zhou, Yong; Du, Mei-Rong; Piao, Hai-Lan

    2017-07-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between receipt of the substitutable-for-fee vaccines (SFV) and completion of the expanded programme on immunisation (EPI). A cross-sectional study was conducted in Fujian province, China. Children who were born from 1 September 2009 to 31 August 2011, and who had been residing in the township for at least 3 months, were randomly recruited from 34 townships. Outcomes were completion rate of the EPI and coverage rate of the SFV. The study included 1428 children, of whom 1350 (94.5%) finished the EPI and 282 (19.7%) received at least one dose of the SFV. Administration of the SFV was associated with an increased likelihood of completing the EPI (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 7.6 in the total sample and OR=4.0, 95% CI 1.7 to 9.6 in the subsample of children in regions with the SFV accessibility). The impact of the SFV administration on completion of the EPI was larger among children whose parents have junior school education or less (97.8% and 97.9% vs 92.5% and 91.9%, both p<0.001) and among those with a timely hepatitis B vaccine first dose (98.5% vs 94.0%, p<0.001). Receipt of SFV is associated with increased likelihood of completion of the EPI in Fujian, China. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. An H5N1-based matrix protein 2 ectodomain tetrameric peptide vaccine provides cross-protection against lethal infection with H7N9 influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ho-Chuen; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Poon, Vincent Kwok-Man; Zhao, Han-Jun; Cheung, Chung-Yan; Ng, Fai; Huang, Jian-Dong; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2015-04-01

    In March 2013, a patient infected with a novel avian influenza A H7N9 virus was reported in China. Since then, there have been 458 confirmed infection cases and 177 deaths. The virus contains several human-adapted markers, indicating that H7N9 has pandemic potential. The outbreak of this new influenza virus highlighted the need for the development of universal influenza vaccines. Previously, we demonstrated that a tetrameric peptide vaccine based on the matrix protein 2 ectodomain (M2e) of the H5N1 virus (H5N1-M2e) could protect mice from lethal infection with different clades of H5N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses. In this study, we investigated the cross-protection of H5N1-M2e against lethal infection with the new H7N9 virus. Although five amino acid differences existed at positions 13, 14, 18, 20, and 21 between M2e of H5N1 and H7N9, H5N1-M2e vaccination with either Freund's adjuvant or the Sigma adjuvant system (SAS) induced a high level of anti-M2e antibody, which cross-reacted with H7N9-M2e peptide. A mouse-adapted H7N9 strain, A/Anhui/01/2013m, was used for lethal challenge in animal experiments. H5N1-M2e vaccination provided potent cross-protection against lethal challenge of the H7N9 virus. Reduced viral replication and histopathological damage of mouse lungs were also observed in the vaccinated mice. Our results suggest that the tetrameric H5N1-M2e peptide vaccine could protect against different subtypes of influenza virus infections. Therefore, this vaccine may be an ideal candidate for developing a universal vaccine to prevent the reemergence of avian influenza A H7N9 virus and the emergence of potential novel reassortants of influenza virus.

  8. Population immunity to measles virus and the effect of HIV-1 infection after a mass measles vaccination campaign in Lusaka, Zambia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Sara A; Curriero, Frank C; Kalish, Brian T; Shields, Timothy M; Monze, Mwaka; Moss, William J

    2009-03-21

    Measles control efforts are hindered by challenges in sustaining high vaccination coverage, waning immunity in HIV-1-infected children, and clustering of susceptible individuals. Our aim was to assess population immunity to measles virus after a mass vaccination campaign in a region with high HIV prevalence. 3 years after a measles supplemental immunisation activity (SIA), we undertook a cross-sectional survey in Lusaka, Zambia. Households were randomly selected from a satellite image. Children aged 9 months to 5 years from selected households were eligible for enrolment. A questionnaire was administered to the children's caregivers to obtain information about measles vaccination history and history of measles. Oral fluid samples were obtained from children and tested for antibodies to measles virus and HIV-1 by EIA. 1015 children from 668 residences provided adequate specimens. 853 (84%) children had a history of measles vaccination according to either caregiver report or immunisation card. 679 children (67%) had antibodies to measles virus, and 64 (6%) children had antibodies to HIV-1. Children with antibodies to HIV-1 were as likely to have no history of measles vaccination as those without antibodies to HIV-1 (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 0.57-2.41). Children without measles antibodies were more likely to have never received measles vaccine than those with antibodies (adjusted OR 2.50, 1.69-3.71). In vaccinated children, 33 (61%) of 54 children with antibodies to HIV-1 also had antibodies to measles virus, compared with 568 (71%) of 796 children without antibodies to HIV-1 (p=0.1). 3 years after an SIA, population immunity to measles was insufficient to interrupt measles virus transmission. The use of oral fluid and satellite images for sampling are potential methods to assess population immunity and the timing of SIAs.

  9. Knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers on vaccination against human papillomavirus infection: a cross-sectional study among primary care physicians in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Lee, Albert; Ngai, Karry L K; Chor, Josette C Y; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers to prescribe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines among private primary care physicians in Hong Kong. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted by sending letters to doctors who had joined a vaccination program for school girls. From 720 surveys sent, 444 (61.7%) completed questionnaires were returned and analyzed. For knowledge, few responded to questions accurately on the prevalence of cervical HPV (27.9%) and genital wart infection (13.1%) among sexually active young women in Hong Kong, and only 44.4% correctly answered the percentage of cervical cancers caused by HPV. For attitude, most agreed that HPV vaccination should be fully paid by the Government (68.3%) as an important public health strategy. Vaccination against HPV was perceived as more important than those for genital herpes (52.2%) and Chlamydia (50.1%) for adolescent health, and the majority selected adolescents aged 12-14 years as the ideal group for vaccination. Gardasil(®) (30.9%) and Cervarix(®) (28.0%) were almost equally preferred. For practice, the factors influencing the choice of vaccine included strength of vaccine protection (61.1%), long-lasting immunity (56.8%) and good antibody response (55.6%). The most significant barriers to prescribe HPV vaccines consisted of parental refusal due to safety concerns (48.2%), and their practice of advising vaccination was mostly affected by local Governmental recommendations (78.7%). A substantial proportion of physicians had recommended HPV vaccines for their female clients/patients aged 18-26 years for protection of cervical cancer (83.8%) or both cervical cancer and genital warts (85.5%). The knowledge on HPV infection was low among physicians in Hong Kong. Prescription of HPV vaccine was hindered by the perceived parental concerns and was mostly relied on Governmental recommendations. Educational initiatives should be targeted towards both physicians and parents, and

  10. Knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers on vaccination against human papillomavirus infection: a cross-sectional study among primary care physicians in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C S Wong

    Full Text Available This study explored the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers to prescribe human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines among private primary care physicians in Hong Kong. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted by sending letters to doctors who had joined a vaccination program for school girls. From 720 surveys sent, 444 (61.7% completed questionnaires were returned and analyzed. For knowledge, few responded to questions accurately on the prevalence of cervical HPV (27.9% and genital wart infection (13.1% among sexually active young women in Hong Kong, and only 44.4% correctly answered the percentage of cervical cancers caused by HPV. For attitude, most agreed that HPV vaccination should be fully paid by the Government (68.3% as an important public health strategy. Vaccination against HPV was perceived as more important than those for genital herpes (52.2% and Chlamydia (50.1% for adolescent health, and the majority selected adolescents aged 12-14 years as the ideal group for vaccination. Gardasil(® (30.9% and Cervarix(® (28.0% were almost equally preferred. For practice, the factors influencing the choice of vaccine included strength of vaccine protection (61.1%, long-lasting immunity (56.8% and good antibody response (55.6%. The most significant barriers to prescribe HPV vaccines consisted of parental refusal due to safety concerns (48.2%, and their practice of advising vaccination was mostly affected by local Governmental recommendations (78.7%. A substantial proportion of physicians had recommended HPV vaccines for their female clients/patients aged 18-26 years for protection of cervical cancer (83.8% or both cervical cancer and genital warts (85.5%. The knowledge on HPV infection was low among physicians in Hong Kong. Prescription of HPV vaccine was hindered by the perceived parental concerns and was mostly relied on Governmental recommendations. Educational initiatives should be targeted towards both physicians and parents

  11. Practices and opinions regarding HPV vaccination among French general practitioners: evaluation through two cross-sectional studies in 2007 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasset, Christine; Kalecinski, Julie; Régnier, Véronique; Barone, Giovanna; Leocmach, Yann; Vanhems, Philippe; Chauvin, Franck; Lutringer-Magnin, Delphine

    2014-06-01

    To use both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the evolution of practices and opinions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among French general practitioners. A cross-sectional study (self-questionnaires) was performed in 2007 and repeated in 2010 among 271 general practitioners. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on 27 voluntary participants by a sociologist and analyzed according to content analysis. Acceptability of HPV vaccination had increased from 2007 to 2010 (79.9 vs. 87.1%, respectively), just as the practice of HPV vaccination among 14-year-old girls (19.0 vs. 49.1%, respectively). Though about 60% reported complications associated with HPV vaccination, irrespective of year, the types of difficulties have varied: difficulties related to "questions asked by patients" had decreased, though concerns about side effects had remained stable. During interviews, difficulties related to "the reason for medical consultation" and "the target age" were often associated with addressing the issue of sexuality, especially when the parents were present. Although the high level of acceptability of HPV vaccination among general practitioners, which increased from 2007 to 2010, there remain difficulties in addressing this practice.

  12. Seasonal influenza vaccination rates and reasons for non-vaccination in children with gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Noam; Zevit, Noam; Shamir, Raanan; Chodick, Gabriel; Levy, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in the treatment and prevention of influenza, it is still considered an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Annual vaccination is the safest and most effective mean of prevention. Our study aims were to explore the uptake of influenza vaccination among children with gastrointestinal disorders, and to characterize non-adherent patients. The present cross-sectional study included parents of pediatric patients attending the Gastroenterology Institute at Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel between September and October 2011. Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning demographic and clinical parameters, influenza vaccination of the child, and reasons for not vaccinating the child, when appropriate. The study population included 273 patients (50% female), with a median age of 10 years (range, 2-18 years). Overall, the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination was 30.8%. Higher rates were found among immunosuppressed patients (46.1%), and in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (50%). There was no significant effect of patient age, gender, ethnic origin or parental level of education on the vaccination rate. Vaccination rates were significantly associated with parents' information and knowledge of, as well as their personal beliefs regarding the vaccine (Pvaccination rates are relatively low in the pediatric population attending gastroenterology clinics, in both high- and low-risk groups. The importance of parental knowledge in compliance with influenza vaccination of children should prompt general pediatricians and gastroenterologists to discuss and address the common misconceptions regarding the vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Linear and branched glyco-lipopeptide vaccines follow distinct cross-presentation pathways and generate different magnitudes of antitumor immunity.

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    Olivier Renaudet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyco-lipopeptides, a form of lipid-tailed glyco-peptide, are currently under intense investigation as B- and T-cell based vaccine immunotherapy for many cancers. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of glyco-lipopeptides (GLPs immunogenicity and the position of the lipid moiety on immunogenicity and protective efficacy of GLPs remain to be determined.We have constructed two structural analogues of HER-2 glyco-lipopeptide (HER-GLP by synthesizing a chimeric peptide made of one universal CD4(+ epitope (PADRE and one HER-2 CD8(+ T-cell epitope (HER(420-429. The C-terminal end of the resulting CD4-CD8 chimeric peptide was coupled to a tumor carbohydrate B-cell epitope, based on a regioselectively addressable functionalized templates (RAFT, made of four alpha-GalNAc molecules. The resulting HER glyco-peptide (HER-GP was then linked to a palmitic acid moiety, attached either at the N-terminal end (linear HER-GLP-1 or in the middle between the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes (branched HER-GLP-2. We have investigated the uptake, processing and cross-presentation pathways of the two HER-GLP vaccine constructs, and assessed whether the position of linkage of the lipid moiety would affect the B- and T-cell immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Immunization of mice revealed that the linear HER-GLP-1 induced a stronger and longer lasting HER(420-429-specific IFN-gamma producing CD8(+ T cell response, while the branched HER-GLP-2 induced a stronger tumor-specific IgG response. The linear HER-GLP-1 was taken up easily by dendritic cells (DCs, induced stronger DCs maturation and produced a potent TLR- 2-dependent T-cell activation. The linear and branched HER-GLP molecules appeared to follow two different cross-presentation pathways. While regression of established tumors was induced by both linear HER-GLP-1 and branched HER-GLP-2, the inhibition of tumor growth was significantly higher in HER-GLP-1 immunized mice (p<0.005.These findings have

  14. Risks of neurological and immune-related diseases, including narcolepsy, after vaccination with Pandemrix: a population- and registry-based cohort study with over 2 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, I; Granath, F; Askling, J; Ludvigsson, J F; Olsson, T; Feltelius, N

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the association between vaccination with Pandemrix and risk of selected neurological and immune-related diseases including narcolepsy. Population-based prospective cohort study using data from regional vaccination registries and national health registries. Seven healthcare regions in Sweden comprising 61% of the Swedish population. Study population of 3,347,467 vaccinated and 2,497,572 nonvaccinated individuals (vaccination coverage ≈ 60%) followed between 2009 and 2011 for 6.9 million person-years after exposure and 6.0 million person-years without exposure. First recorded diagnosis of neurological and immune-related diseases. Relative risks [hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] assessed using Cox regression, adjusted for covariates. For all selected neurological and immune-related outcomes under study, other than allergic vaccine reactions (for which we verified an expected increase in risk) and narcolepsy, HRs were close to 1.0 and always below 1.3. We observed a three-fold increased risk of a diagnosis of narcolepsy (HR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.78-4.79; that is, four additional cases per 100,000 person-years) in individuals ≤ 20 years of age at vaccination and a two-fold increase (HR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.00-4.75) amongst young adults between 21 and 30 years of age. The excess risk declined successively with increasing age at vaccination; no increase in risk was seen after 40 years of age. For a large number of selected neurological and immune-related diseases, we could neither confirm any causal association with Pandemrix nor refute entirely a small excess risk. We confirmed an increased risk for a diagnosis of narcolepsy in individuals ≤ 20 years of age and observed a trend towards an increased risk also amongst young adults between 21 and 30 years. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  15. Development of a Cost-Effective Educational Tool to Promote Acceptance of the HPV Vaccination by Hispanic Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggmann, Doerthe; Opper, Neisha; Felix, Juan; Groneberg, David A; Mishell, Daniel R; Jaque, Jenny M

    2016-06-01

    Although vaccination against the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) reduces the risk of related morbidities, the vaccine uptake remains low in adolescents. This has been attributed to limited parental knowledge and misconceptions. In this cross sectional study, we assessed the (1) clarity of educational material informing Hispanic mothers about HPV, cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine, (2) determined vaccination acceptability and (3) identified predictors of vaccine acceptance in an underserved health setting. 418 Hispanic mothers received the educational material and completed an anonymous survey. 91 % of participants understood most or all of the information provided. 77 % of participants reported vaccine acceptance for their children; this increased to 84 % when only those with children eligible to receive vaccination were included. Significant positive predictors of maternal acceptance of the HPV vaccine for their children were understanding most or all of the provided information, older age and acceptance of the HPV vaccine for themselves. Concerns about safety and general dislike of vaccines were negatively associated with HPV vaccine acceptance. Prior knowledge, level of education, previous relevant gynecologic history, general willingness to vaccinate and other general beliefs about vaccines were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine acceptance. The majority of participants reported understanding of the provided educational material. Vaccine acceptability was fairly high, but was even higher among those who understood the information. This study documents a cost-effective way to provide Hispanic mothers with easy-to-understand HPV-related information that could increase parental vaccine acceptability and future vaccine uptake among their children.

  16. Influenza vaccination uptake among the working age population of Japan: results from a national cross-sectional survey.

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    Koji Wada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination rates among Japanese people of working age (20-69 years is currently suboptimal, and the reasons for this have not been clearly elucidated. This study examined factors associated with vaccination intention among the working age population in Japan during September 2011, one-month prior to influenza vaccination becoming available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A web-based survey of intention to be vaccinated against influenza in the coming season was undertaken among 3,129 Japanese aged 20 to 69 years. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations between vaccination intent and other variables. Influenza vaccination intent was associated with having been vaccinated in the previous year (Odds Ratio (OR: 3.81; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 3.75-3.86, the number of children per household (one compared with zero; OR: 1.37; 95%CI: 1.11-1.65, and household income ($50,000 to <$100,000 compared with $0 to <$50,000; OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.07-1.54. Smoking was inversely associated with influenza vaccine uptake (current smokers compared with non-smokers; OR: 0.79; 95%CI: 0.61-0.98. A history of either the survey respondent or a household member having being medically diagnosed with influenza in the previous year was not statistically associated with future influenza vaccination intent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, this suggests that intention to be vaccinated among working age Japanese is associated with a past history of influenza vaccination, having children, and the household's income. As such, consideration of these factors should now form the cornerstone of strategies to encourage increased uptake of vaccination against influenza in future years.

  17. Willingness to accept H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine: A cross-sectional study of Hong Kong community nurses

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    Wong Carmen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2009 pandemic of influenza A (H1N1 infection has alerted many governments to make preparedness plan to control the spread of influenza A (H1N1 infection. Vaccination for influenza is one of the most important primary preventative measures to reduce the disease burden. Our study aims to assess the willingness of nurses who work for the community nursing service (CNS in Hong Kong on their acceptance of influenza A (H1N1 influenza vaccination. Methods 401 questionnaires were posted from June 24, 2009 to June 30, 2009 to community nurses with 67% response rate. Results of the 267 respondents on their willingness to accept influenza A (H1N1 vaccine were analyzed. Results Twenty-seven percent of respondents were willing to accept influenza vaccination if vaccines were available. Having been vaccinated for seasonable influenza in the previous 12 months were significantly independently associated with their willingness to accept influenza A (H1N1 vaccination (OR = 4.03; 95% CI: 2.03-7.98. Conclusions Similar to previous findings conducted in hospital healthcare workers and nurses, we confirmed that the willingness of community nurses to accept influenza A (H1N1 vaccination is low. Future studies that evaluate interventions to address nurses' specific concerns or interventions that aim to raise the awareness among nurses on the importance of influenza A (H1N1 vaccination to protect vulnerable patient populations is needed.

  18. School nurses' attitudes towards and experiences of the Swedish school-based HPV vaccination programme - A repeated cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Maria; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja; Stenhammar, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate school nurses' attitudes towards, and experiences of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), and compare the results with a similar study three years earlier. School nurses (n = 736) from all counties in Sweden completed a questionnaire in spring 2016, four years after the implementation of the national HPV vaccination programme, and three years after the previous survey. Overall, the school nurses had more favourable attitudes towards the HPV vaccination programme compared to the study in 2013 (p = 0.015). More than half of the nurses (n = 415, 56%) strongly agreed that boys should also be offered the vaccine (pHPV in order to inform and to answer questions about the vaccine from the girls or from the parents. More than half of the nurses (n = 409, 56%) reported that they needed more education about HPV. Almost all nurses (n = 659, 90%) had been contacted by parents with questions about the vaccine, and most questions were related to vaccine safety. School nurses have a more favourable attitude towards the vaccination programme against HPV compared to three years earlier, although almost all nurses had been contacted by parents with diverse questions and concerns. The nurses believed that they needed more education about HPV. Thus, it is essential to provide ongoing education and training for school nurses who are key healthcare professionals for providing information about HPV and HPV vaccination to parents and to pupils.

  19. School nurses' attitudes towards and experiences of the Swedish school-based HPV vaccination programme - A repeated cross sectional study.

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    Maria Grandahl

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate school nurses' attitudes towards, and experiences of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV, and compare the results with a similar study three years earlier. School nurses (n = 736 from all counties in Sweden completed a questionnaire in spring 2016, four years after the implementation of the national HPV vaccination programme, and three years after the previous survey. Overall, the school nurses had more favourable attitudes towards the HPV vaccination programme compared to the study in 2013 (p = 0.015. More than half of the nurses (n = 415, 56% strongly agreed that boys should also be offered the vaccine (p<0.001. There were no differences in school nurses' perceived knowledge about HPV in order to inform and to answer questions about the vaccine from the girls or from the parents. More than half of the nurses (n = 409, 56% reported that they needed more education about HPV. Almost all nurses (n = 659, 90% had been contacted by parents with questions about the vaccine, and most questions were related to vaccine safety. School nurses have a more favourable attitude towards the vaccination programme against HPV compared to three years earlier, although almost all nurses had been contacted by parents with diverse questions and concerns. The nurses believed that they needed more education about HPV. Thus, it is essential to provide ongoing education and training for school nurses who are key healthcare professionals for providing information about HPV and HPV vaccination to parents and to pupils.

  20. Pandemic influenza (A/H1N1 vaccine uptake among French private general practitioners: a cross sectional study in 2010.

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    Pierre Verger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In July, 2009, French health authorities, like those in many other countries, decided to embark on a mass vaccination campaign against the pandemic A(H1N1 influenza. Private general practitioners (GPs were not involved in this campaign. We studied GPs' pandemic vaccine (pvaccine uptake, quantified the relative contribution of its potential explanatory factors and studied whether their own vaccination choice was correlated with their recommendations to patients about pvaccination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional telephone survey, professional investigators interviewed an existing panel of randomly selected private GPs (N = 1431; response rate at inclusion in the panel: 36.8%; participation rate in the survey: 100%. The main outcome variable was GPs' own pvaccine uptake. We used an averaging multi-model approach to quantify the relative contribution of factors associated with their vaccination. The pvaccine uptake rate was 61% (95%CI = 58.3-63.3. Four independent factors contributed the most to this rate (partial Nagelkerke's R(2: history of previous vaccination against seasonal influenza (14.5%, perception of risks and efficacy of the pvaccine (10.8%, opinions regarding the organization of the vaccination campaign (7.1%, and perception of the pandemic's severity (5.2%. Overall, 71.3% (95%CI = 69.0-73.6 of the participants recommended pvaccination to young adults at risk and 40.1% (95%CI = 37.6-42.7 to other young adults. GPs' own pvaccination was strongly predictive of their recommendation to both young adults at risk (OR = 9.6; 95%CI = 7.2-12.6 and those not at risk (OR = 8.5; 95%CI = 6.4-11.4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that around 60% of French private GPs followed French authorities' recommendations about vaccination of health care professionals against the A(H1N1 influenza. They pinpoint priority levers for improving preparedness for future influenza pandemics. Besides encouraging GPs

  1. Total cross-sections for reactions of high energy particles (including elastic, topological, inclusive and exclusive reactions). Subvol. b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, H.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a compilation of cross-sections (i.e. reaction rates) of elementary particles at high energy. The data are presented in the form of tables, plots and some fits, which should be easy for the reader to use and may enable him to estimate cross-sections for presently unmeasured energies. We have analyzed all the data published in the major Journals and Reviews for momenta of the incoming particles larger than ≅ 50 MeV/c, since the early days of elementary particle physics and, for each reaction, we have selected the best cross-section data available. We have restricted our attention to integrated cross-sections, such as total cross-sections, exclusive and inclusive cross-sections etc., at various incident beam energies. We have disregarded data affected by geometrical and/or kinematical cuts which would make them not directly comparable to other data at different energies. Also, in the case of exclusive reactions, we have left out data where not all of the particles in the final state were unambiguously identified. This work contains reactions induced by neutrinos, gammas, charged pions, kaons, nucleons, antinucleons and hyperons. (orig./HSI)

  2. A cross-sectional serosurvey on hepatitis B vaccination uptake among adult patients from GP practices in a region of South-West Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganczak, Maria; Dmytrzyk-Daniłów, Gabriela; Korzeń, Marcin; Szych, Zbigniew

    2015-10-16

    Hepatitis B is a significant health burden in Poland with nosocomial transmission being the main source of infection. Therefore, HBV vaccination is widely recommended for those not covered by the national immunisation program. To assess the coverage and influencing determinants of HBV vaccination among adult patients attending GP clinics as well as to establish serological status in terms of HBV infection. Patients who were seen consecutively in March 2013 at four randomly selected GP practices located in Zgorzelec county, in south-western part of Poland, were invited to participate and complete questionnaires on socio-demographic data and other factors related to vaccination. A pilot study was done in one urban GP practice in the city of Gryfino (Gryfino county), the results have been included in the study. Patients' immunisation status was assessed basing on vaccination cards and anti-HBs titer with the use of third-generation testing methods. In addition, serum samples were assayed for anti-HBc total. Response rate: 99.3 %. Of 410 participants (66.1 % females, median age 56 years), 55.4 % (95%CI:50.5-60.1 %) were previously vaccinated; in those 11.5 % took 2 doses, 66.1 % - 3 doses,18.1 % - 4 doses. Elective surgery was the main reason (57.7 %) for HBV immunization, 4.8 % - were vaccinated due to recommendations by GPs. The multivariable logistic regression model revealed that living in a city (OR 2.11), and having a surgery in the past (OR 2.73) were each associated with greater odds of being vaccinated. Anti-HBc total prevalence among those unvaccinated was 13.6 % (95%CI:9.3 %-19,5 %), and 7.2 % (95%CI:4.4-11.8 %) among those vaccinated. Low HBV immunization coverage among adult patients from GP clinics and the presence of serological markers of HBV infection among both - those unvaccinated and vaccinated call for comprehensive preventative measures against infection, including greater involvement of family doctors. Although interventions should cover the

  3. Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Produced by 200-L Scale Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System Provides Cross-Protective Efficacy in Human SCARB2 Transgenic Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ying; Lin, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Ho; Liu, Wan-Hsin; Tai, Hsiu-Fen; Pan, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Chan, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Ching-Chuan; Liu, Chung-Cheng; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chen, Juine-Ruey

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics and outbreaks caused by infections of several subgenotypes of EV71 and other serotypes of coxsackie A viruses have raised serious public health concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. These concerns highlight the urgent need to develop a scalable manufacturing platform for producing an effective and sufficient quantity of vaccines against deadly enteroviruses. In this report, we present a platform for the large-scale production of a vaccine based on the inactivated EV71(E59-B4) virus. The viruses were produced in Vero cells in a 200 L bioreactor with serum-free medium, and the viral titer reached 10(7) TCID50/mL 10 days after infection when using an MOI of 10(-4). The EV71 virus particles were harvested and purified by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Fractions containing viral particles were pooled based on ELISA and SDS-PAGE. TEM was used to characterize the morphologies of the viral particles. To evaluate the cross-protective efficacy of the EV71 vaccine, the pooled antigens were combined with squalene-based adjuvant (AddaVAX) or aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and tested in human SCARB2 transgenic (Tg) mice. The Tg mice immunized with either the AddaVAX- or AlPO4-adjuvanted EV71 vaccine were fully protected from challenges by the subgenotype C2 and C4 viruses, and surviving animals did not show any degree of neurological paralysis symptoms or muscle damage. Vaccine treatments significantly reduced virus antigen presented in the central nervous system of Tg mice and alleviated the virus-associated inflammatory response. These results strongly suggest that this preparation results in an efficacious vaccine and that the microcarrier/bioreactor platform offers a superior alternative to the previously described roller-bottle system.

  4. Ad35 and ad26 vaccine vectors induce potent and cross-reactive antibody and T-cell responses to multiple filovirus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Zahn

    Full Text Available Filoviruses cause sporadic but highly lethal outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in Africa in the human population. Currently, no drug or vaccine is available for treatment or prevention. A previous study with a vaccine candidate based on the low seroprevalent adenoviruses 26 and 35 (Ad26 and Ad35 was shown to provide protection against homologous Ebola Zaire challenge in non human primates (NHP if applied in a prime-boost regimen. Here we have aimed to expand this principle to construct and evaluate Ad26 and Ad35 vectors for development of a vaccine to provide universal filovirus protection against all highly lethal strains that have caused major outbreaks in the past. We have therefore performed a phylogenetic analysis of filovirus glycoproteins to select the glycoproteins from two Ebola species (Ebola Zaire and Ebola Sudan/Gulu,, two Marburg strains (Marburg Angola and Marburg Ravn and added the more distant non-lethal Ebola Ivory Coast species for broadest coverage. Ad26 and Ad35 vectors expressing these five filovirus glycoproteins were evaluated to induce a potent cellular and humoral immune response in mice. All adenoviral vectors induced a humoral immune response after single vaccination in a dose dependent manner that was cross-reactive within the Ebola and Marburg lineages. In addition, both strain-specific as well as cross-reactive T cell responses could be detected. A heterologous Ad26-Ad35 prime-boost regime enhanced mainly the humoral and to a lower extend the cellular immune response against the transgene. Combination of the five selected filovirus glycoproteins in one multivalent vaccine potentially elicits protective immunity in man against all major filovirus strains that have caused lethal outbreaks in the last 20 years.

  5. Breaking tolerance in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) transgenic mice by vaccination with cross-reactive, natural HBsAg variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schirmbeck, Reinhold; Dikopoulos, Nektarios; Kwissa, Marcin

    2003-01-01

    Processing exogenous hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) generates the K(b)-binding S(208-215) epitope 1; processing endogenous HBsAg generates the K(b)-binding S(190-197) epitope 2. Cross-reactive CD8(+) T cell responses were primed to epitope 1 but not epitope 2...... HBs-tg mice showed reduced antigenemia. Hence, vaccination with natural HBsAg variants from different HBV sero/genotypes can prime cross-reactive, specific CD8(+) T cell immunity that breaks tolerance to HBsAg....

  6. Immunogenicity of heterologous recombinant adenovirus prime-boost vaccine regimens is enhanced by circumventing vector cross-reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorner, Anna R.; Lemckert, Angelique A. C.; Goudsmit, Jaap; Lynch, Diana M.; Ewald, Bonnie A.; Denholtz, Matthew; Havenga, Menzo J. E.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of preexisting immunity to adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) in human populations has led to the development of recombinant adenovirus (rAd) vectors derived from rare Ad serotypes as vaccine candidates for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and other pathogens. Vaccine vectors have

  7. Characterization of the long-term immune response to vaccination against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Danish dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Vibeke Thulstrup; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Thakur, Aneesh

    2012-01-01

    including 895 vaccinated and 2526 non-vaccinated dairy cows in 9 Danish dairy herds aiming at characterizing the long-term antibody-response to vaccination; and (2) a cross-sectional study of responses in the IFN-γ assay carried out in 140 vaccinated animals in two herds to evaluate the effect....... The prevalence of antibody responses of the vaccinated animals was relatively constant from 2 to 6years of age, but decreased in older animals. Among the 140 vaccinated animals 88% tested positive with the IFN-γ test to johnin PPD and 50% responded to PPDb with IFN-γ production above a similar cut-off. Although...

  8. Cross-Protection against Marburg Virus Strains by Using a Live, Attenuated Recombinant Vaccine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daddario-DiCaprio, Kathleen M; Geisbert, Thomas W; Geisbert, Joan B; Stroeher, Ute; Hensley, Lisa E; Grolla, Allen; Fritz, Elizabeth A; Feldmann, Friederike; Feldmann, Heinz; Jones, Steven M

    2006-01-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) has been associated with sporadic episodes of hemorrhagic fever, including a recent highly publicized outbreak in Angola that produced severe disease and significant mortality in infected patients...

  9. Live, Attenuated Influenza A H5N1 Candidate Vaccines Provide Broad Cross-Protection in Mice and Ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kimberly L; Jin, Hong; Duke, Greg; Lu, Bin; Luke, Catherine J; Murphy, Brian; Swayne, David E; Kemble, George; Subbarao, Kanta

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 viruses in humans and avian species that began in Asia and have spread to other continents underscore an urgent need to develop vaccines that would protect the human population in the event of a pandemic. Methods and Findings Live, attenuated candidate vaccines possessing genes encoding a modified H5 hemagglutinin (HA) and a wild-type (wt) N1 neuraminidase from influenza A H5N1 viruses isolated in Hong Kong and Vietnam in 1997, 2003, and 2004, and remaining gene segments derived from the cold-adapted (ca) influenza A vaccine donor strain, influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (H2N2), were generated by reverse genetics. The H5N1 ca vaccine viruses required trypsin for efficient growth in vitro, as predicted by the modification engineered in the gene encoding the HA, and possessed the temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotypes specified by the internal protein genes of the ca vaccine donor strain. More importantly, the candidate vaccines were immunogenic in mice. Four weeks after receiving a single dose of 106 50% tissue culture infectious doses of intranasally administered vaccines, mice were fully protected from lethality following challenge with homologous and antigenically distinct heterologous wt H5N1 viruses from different genetic sublineages (clades 1, 2, and 3) that were isolated in Asia between 1997 and 2005. Four weeks after receiving two doses of the vaccines, mice and ferrets were fully protected against pulmonary replication of homologous and heterologous wt H5N1 viruses. Conclusions The promising findings in these preclinical studies of safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the H5N1 ca vaccines against antigenically diverse H5N1 vaccines provide support for their careful evaluation in Phase 1 clinical trials in humans. PMID:16968127

  10. Live, attenuated influenza A H5N1 candidate vaccines provide broad cross-protection in mice and ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorsolo L Suguitan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 viruses in humans and avian species that began in Asia and have spread to other continents underscore an urgent need to develop vaccines that would protect the human population in the event of a pandemic.Live, attenuated candidate vaccines possessing genes encoding a modified H5 hemagglutinin (HA and a wild-type (wt N1 neuraminidase from influenza A H5N1 viruses isolated in Hong Kong and Vietnam in 1997, 2003, and 2004, and remaining gene segments derived from the cold-adapted (ca influenza A vaccine donor strain, influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 ca (H2N2, were generated by reverse genetics. The H5N1 ca vaccine viruses required trypsin for efficient growth in vitro, as predicted by the modification engineered in the gene encoding the HA, and possessed the temperature-sensitive and attenuation phenotypes specified by the internal protein genes of the ca vaccine donor strain. More importantly, the candidate vaccines were immunogenic in mice. Four weeks after receiving a single dose of 10(6 50% tissue culture infectious doses of intranasally administered vaccines, mice were fully protected from lethality following challenge with homologous and antigenically distinct heterologous wt H5N1 viruses from different genetic sublineages (clades 1, 2, and 3 that were isolated in Asia between 1997 and 2005. Four weeks after receiving two doses of the vaccines, mice and ferrets were fully protected against pulmonary replication of homologous and heterologous wt H5N1 viruses.The promising findings in these preclinical studies of safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the H5N1 ca vaccines against antigenically diverse H5N1 vaccines provide support for their careful evaluation in Phase 1 clinical trials in humans.

  11. Assessment of temperatures in the vaccine cold chain in two provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tomomi; Bouakhasith, Viraneth; Phounphenghack, Kongxay; Pathammavong, Chansay; Xeuatvongsa, Anonh; Norizuki, Masataro; Okabayashi, Hironori; Mori, Yoshio; Machida, Munehito; Hachiya, Masahiko

    2018-04-27

    All childhood vaccines, except the oral polio vaccine, should be kept at 2-8 °C, since the vaccine potency can be damaged by heat or freezing temperature. A temperature monitoring study conducted in 2008-2009 reported challenges in cold chain management from the provincial level downwards. The present cross-sectional pilot study aimed to assess the current status of the cold chain in two provinces (Saravan and Xayabouly) of Lao People's Democratic Republic between March-April 2016. Two types of temperature data loggers recorded the temperatures and the proportions of time exposed to  8 °C were calculated. The temperature remained within the appropriate range in the central and provincial storages. However, the vaccines were frequently exposed to > 8 °C in Saravan and  8 °C during the transportation in Saravan and to both > 8 and cold chain in the district storage and during transportation remain, despite improvements at the provincial storage. A detailed up-to-date nationwide analysis of the current situation of the cold chain is warranted to identify the most appropriate intervention to tackle the remaining challenges.

  12. Mexico introduces pentavalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.

  13. Has Their Son Been Vaccinated? Beliefs About Other Parents Matter for Human Papillomavirus Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Christine L; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if parents' beliefs about social norms of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for sons were associated with knowledge of HPV, intention to vaccinate sons, or beliefs about side effects. A cross-sectional, survey-based study of parents with sons was performed in 2010. Fisher's exact tests were used to examine associations between demographics and responses about social norms. Multivariate logistic regression models examined beliefs about social norms of male HPV vaccination and primary outcomes. Few parents agreed that others were vaccinating sons (n = 31/267, 12%), including 1% responding strongly agree and 11% responding agree. Most parents, 52%, disagreed that others were vaccinating (40% disagree, 11% strongly disagree), and 37% chose prefer not to answer regarding others' vaccination practices. Hispanic parents and those with a high school education or less were significantly more likely to choose prefer not to answer than their respective counterparts regarding vaccination norms. In multivariate models, parents agreeing others were vaccinating sons had greater odds of having high knowledge of HPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] high vs low knowledge 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 8.77) and increased intention to vaccinate sons (n = 243, aOR = 4.41, 95% CI = 1.51, 12.89). Beliefs about side effects were not significantly associated with beliefs about social norms. Parents' beliefs about others' vaccination practices are important with regard to knowledge of HPV and intention to vaccinate sons. Studying how various public messages about HPV vaccine may influence normative beliefs could be relevant to improving vaccination coverage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Influenza vaccine acceptance among pregnant women in urban slum areas, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Afshin Alaf; Varan, Aiden Kennedy; Esteves-Jaramillo, Alejandra; Siddiqui, Mariam; Sultana, Shazia; Ali, Asad S; Zaidi, Anita K M; Omer, Saad B

    2015-09-22

    Facilitators and barriers to influenza vaccination among pregnant women in the developing world are poorly understood, particularly in South Asia. We assessed intention to accept influenza vaccine among ethnically diverse low-income pregnant women in Pakistan. From May to August 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of pregnant women who visited health centers in urban slums in Karachi city. We assessed intention to accept influenza vaccine against socio-demographic factors, vaccination history, vaccine recommendation sources, and other factors. In an unvaccinated study population of 283 respondents, 87% were willing to accept the vaccine, if offered. All except two participants were aware of symptoms typically associated with influenza. Perceived vaccine safety, efficacy, and disease susceptibility were significantly associated with intention to accept influenza vaccine (p<0.05). Regardless of intention to accept influenza vaccine, 96% rated healthcare providers as highly reliable source of vaccine information. While a recommendation from a physician was critical for influenza vaccine acceptance, parents-in-law and husbands were often considered the primary decision-makers for pregnant women seeking healthcare including vaccination. Maternal influenza vaccination initiatives in South Asia should strongly consider counseling of key familial decision-makers and inclusion of healthcare providers to help implement new vaccination programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Seasonal influenza split vaccines confer partial cross-protection against heterologous influenza virus in ferrets when combined with the CAF01 adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dennis; Christensen, Jan P.; Korsholm, Karen S.

    2018-01-01

    Influenza epidemics occur annually, and estimated 5-10% of the adult population and 20-30% of children will become ill from influenza infection. Seasonal vaccines primarily work through the induction of neutralizing antibodies against the principal surface antigen hemagglutinin (HA). This important...... role of HA-specific antibodies explains why previous pandemics have emerged when new HAs have appeared in circulating human viruses. It has long been recognized that influenza virus-specific CD4(+) T cells are important in protection from infection through direct effector mechanisms or by providing...... help to B cells and CD8(+) T cells. However, the seasonal influenza vaccine is poor at inducing CD4(+) T-cell responses and needs to be combined with an adjuvant facilitating this response. In this study, we applied the ferret model to investigate the cross-protective efficacy of a heterologous...

  16. DNA vaccines expressing soluble CD4-envelope proteins fused to C3d elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, Joseph F.; Green, Thomas D.; Ross, Ted M.

    2004-01-01

    DNA vaccines expressing the envelope (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been relatively ineffective at generating high-titer, long-lasting, neutralizing antibodies in a variety of animal models. In this study, DNA vaccines were constructed to express a fusion protein of the soluble human CD4 (sCD4) and the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope. To enhance the immunogenicity of the expressed fusion protein, three copies of the murine C3d (mC3d 3 ) were added to the carboxyl terminus of the complex. Monoclonal antibodies that recognize CD4-induced epitopes on gp120 efficiently bound to sCD4-gp120 or sCD4-gp120-mC3d 3 . In addition, both sCD4-gp120 and sCD4-gp120-mC3d 3 bound to cells expressing appropriate coreceptors in the absence of cell surface hCD4. Mice (BALB/c) vaccinated with DNA vaccines expressing either gp120-mC3d 3 or sCD4-gp120-mC3d 3 elicited antibodies that neutralized homologous virus infection. However, the use of sCD4-gp120-mC3d 3 -DNA elicited the highest titers of neutralizing antibodies that persisted after depletion of anti-hCD4 antibodies. Interestingly, only mice vaccinated with DNA expressing sCD4-gp120-mC3d 3 had antibodies that elicited cross-protective neutralizing antibodies. The fusion of sCD4 to the HIV-1 envelope exposes neutralizing epitopes that elicit broad protective immunity when the fusion complex is coupled with the molecular adjuvant, C3d

  17. Relationship Between Storage and Recording with Quality of DPT Vaccine Cold Chain in Puskesmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faradiba Hikmarida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increasing number of diphteria cases in Sidoarjo Regency, with occurrence of cases in those who had received DPT immunization shows the existence of problem concerning to immunization. The efficacy itself, depends on the quality of vaccines given. Insufficiency in cold chain may lower the quality of DPT vaccines. The purpose of this study was to analyze relationship between DPT vaccine storage and recording for DPT vaccines cold chain with quality of DPT vaccine cold chain in puskesmas Sidoarjo Regency. This research is a descriptive research with cross sectional design. Sample used were total population, which includes all 26 puskesmas within Sidoarjo. The variables were DPT vaccine storage, recording for DPT vaccines cold chain and quality of DPT vaccine cold chain. The result of this study showed that DPT vaccine storage was good (58%, recording for DPT vaccines cold chain were insufficient (77%, and quality of DPT vaccine cold chain in puskesmas was also good (62%. Spearman correlation test showed relationship between DPT vaccine storage and quality of DPT vaccine cold chain in Puskesmas was strong and positive (r = 0,561. Relationship between recording for DPT vaccines cold chain and quality of DPT vaccine cold chain in puskesmas was moderate and positive (r = 0,421. the better the storage for DPT vaccines and recording for DPT vaccines cold chain in puskesmas, the better its cold chain quality in puskesmas. Improvement in officers’ obedience in storing DPT vaccine and its recording concerning to the cold chain which appropriate according to procedures, were really needed. Keywords: storage, recording, quality, cold chain, DPT vaccine

  18. Immunology of Gut Mucosal Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669

  19. Aggregation and competitive exclusion: explaining the coexistence of human Papillomavirus types and the effectiveness of limited vaccine conferred cross-immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, E K

    2012-12-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types are sexually transmitted infections that cause a number of human cancers. According to the competitive exclusion principle in ecology, HPV types that have lower transmission probabilities and shorter durations of infection should be outcompeted by more virulent types. This, however, is not the case, as numerous HPV types co-exist, some which are less transmissible and more easily cleared than others. This paper examines whether this exception to the competitive exclusion principle can be explained by the aggregation of infection with HPV types, which results in patchy spatial distributions of infection, and what implications this has for the effect of vaccination on multiple HPV types. A deterministic transmission model is presented that models the patchy distribution of infected individuals using Lloyd's mean crowding. It is first shown that higher aggregation can result in a reduced capacity for onward transmission and reduce the required efficacy of vaccination. It is shown that greater patchiness in the distribution of lower prevalence HPV types permits co-existence. This affirms the hypothesis that the aggregation of HPV types provides an explanation for the violation of the competitive exclusion principle. Greater aggregation of lower prevalence types has important implications where type-specific HPV vaccines also offer cross-protection against non-target types. It is demonstrated that the degree of cross-protection can be less than the degree of vaccine protection conferred against directly targeted types and still result in the elimination of non-target types when these non-target types are patchily distributed.

  20. Knowledge, awareness and practices towards seasonal influenza and its vaccine: implications for future vaccination campaigns in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rish, Eman Y; Elayeh, Eman R; Mousa, Lubabah A; Butanji, Yasser K; Albsoul-Younes, Abla M

    2016-12-01

    Influenza is an underestimated contributor to morbidity and mortality. Population knowledge regarding influenza and its vaccination has a key role in enhancing vaccination coverage. This study aimed to identify the gaps of knowledge among Jordanian population towards influenza and its vaccine, and to identify the major determinants of accepting seasonal influenza vaccine in adults and children in Jordan. This was a cross-sectional study that enrolled 941 randomly selected adults in Amman, Jordan. A four-section questionnaire was used which included questions about the sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge about influenza and the factors that affect seasonal influenza vaccine acceptance and refusal. Only 47.3% of the participants were considered knowledgeable. About half of the participants (51.9%) correctly identified the main influenza preventative measures. Lack of knowledge about the important role of seasonal influenza vaccine in disease prevention was observed. Low vaccination rate (20% of adults) was reported. The most critical barrier against vaccination in adults and children was the concern about the safety and the efficacy of the vaccine, while the most important predictors for future vaccination in adults and children were physician recommendation and government role. In children, the inclusion of the vaccine within the national immunization program was an important determinant of vaccine acceptance. Formulating new strategies to improve the population's level of knowledge, assuring the population about the safety and the efficacy of the vaccine and the inclusion of the vaccine within the national immunization program are the essential factors to enhance vaccination coverage in Jordan. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Associated factors for recommending HBV vaccination to children among Georgian health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butsashvili Maia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and subsequent liver diseases can be prevented with universal newborn HBV vaccination. The attitudes of health care workers about HBV vaccination and their willingness to recommend vaccine have been shown to impact HBV vaccination coverage and the prevention of vertical transmission of HBV. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the factors associated with health care worker recommendations regarding newborn HBV vaccination. Methods A cross-sectional study of prevalence and awareness of hepatitis B and hepatitis B vaccine was conducted among randomly selected physicians and nurses employed in seven hospitals in Georgia in 2006 and 2007. Self-administered questionnaires included a module on recommendations for HBV, HCV and HIV. Results Of the 1328 participants included in this analysis, 36% reported recommending against hepatitis B vaccination for children, including 33% of paediatricians. Among the 70.6% who provided a reason for not recommending HBV vaccine, the most common concern was an adverse vaccine event. Unvaccinated physicians and nurses were more likely to recommend against HBV vaccine (40.4% vs 11.4%, PR 3.54; 95% CI: 2.38, 5.29. Additionally, health care worker age was inversely correlated with recommendations for HBV vaccine with older workers less likely to recommend it. Conclusion Vaccinating health care workers against HBV may provide a dual benefit by boosting occupational safety as well as strengthening universal coverage programs for newborns.

  2. Variation in provider vaccine purchase prices and payer reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Gary L; Cowan, Anne E; Gregory, Sashi; Clark, Sarah J

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to collect data regarding vaccine prices and reimbursements in private practices. Amid reports of physicians losing money on vaccines, there are limited supporting data to show how much private practices are paying for vaccines and how much they are being reimbursed by third-party payers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of private practices in 5 states (California, Georgia, Michigan, New York, and Texas) that purchase vaccines for administration to privately insured children/adolescents. Main outcome measures included prices paid to purchase vaccines recommended for children and adolescents and reimbursement from the 3 most common, non-Medicaid payers for vaccine purchase and administration. Detailed price and reimbursement data were provided by 76 practices. There was a considerable difference between the maximum and minimum prices paid by practices, ranging from $4 to more than $30 for specific vaccines. There was also significant variation in insurance reimbursement for vaccine purchase, with maximum and minimum reimbursements for a single vaccine differing from $8 to more than $80. Mean net yield per dose (reimbursement for vaccine purchase minus price paid per dose) varied across vaccines from a low of approximately $3 to more than $24. Reimbursement for the first dose of vaccine administered ranged from $0 to more than $26, with a mean of $16.62. There is a wide range of prices paid by practices for the same vaccine product and in the reimbursement for vaccines and administration fees by payers. This variation highlights the need for individual practices to understand their own costs and reimbursements and to seek opportunities to reduce costs and increase reimbursements.

  3. Examining word association networks: A cross-country comparison of women's perceptions of HPV testing and vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd C Schmid

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the perceptual associations women hold with regard to cervical cancer testing and vaccination across two countries, the U.S. and Australia. In a large-scale online survey, we presented participants with 'trigger' words, and asked them to state sequentially other words that came to mind. We used this data to construct detailed term co-occurrence network graphs, which we analyzed using basic topological ranking techniques. The results showed that women hold divergent perceptual associations regarding trigger words relating to cervical cancer screening tools, i.e. human papillomavirus (HPV testing and vaccination, which indicate health knowledge deficiencies with non-HPV related associations emerging from the data. This result was found to be consistent across the country groups studied. Our findings are critical in optimizing consumer education and public service announcements to minimize misperceptions relating to HPV testing and vaccination in order to maximize adoption of cervical cancer prevention tools.

  4. MVA-based H5N1 vaccine affords cross-clade protection in mice against influenza A/H5N1 viruses at low doses and after single immunization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost H C M Kreijtz

    Full Text Available Human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype, frequently reported since 2003, result in high morbidity and mortality. It is feared that these viruses become pandemic, therefore the development of safe and effective vaccines is desirable. MVA-based H5N1 vaccines already proved to be effective when two immunizations with high doses were used. Dose-sparing strategies would increase the number of people that can be vaccinated when the amount of vaccine preparations that can be produced is limited. Furthermore, protective immunity is induced ideally after a single immunization. Therefore the minimal requirements for induction of protective immunity with a MVA-based H5N1 vaccine were assessed in mice. To this end, mice were vaccinated once or twice with descending doses of a recombinant MVA expressing the HA gene of influenza virus A/Vietnam/1194/04. The protective efficacy was determined after challenge infection with the homologous clade 1 virus and a heterologous virus derived from clade 2.1, A/Indonesia/5/05 by assessing weight loss, virus replication and histopathological changes. It was concluded that MVA-based vaccines allowed significant dose-sparing and afford cross-clade protection, also after a single immunization, which are favorable properties for an H5N1 vaccine candidate.

  5. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borràs Eva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.

  6. Self-reported vaccination in the elderly: SABE Bogotá study, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Gutiérrez, Carlos; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Borda, Miguel Germán; Arciniegas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of vaccination in older adults within the city of Bogotá and to estimate the association with sociodemographic and health factors. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from the SABE-Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional population-based study that included a total of 2,000 persons aged 60 years. Weighted percentages for self-reported vaccination [influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus] were determined. The association between vaccination and covariates was eva...

  7. Evidence for globally shared, cross-reacting polymorphic epitopes in the pregnancy-associated malaria vaccine candidate VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avril, Marion; Kulasekara, Bridget R; Gose, Severin O

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is characterized by the placental sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs) with the ability to bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). VAR2CSA is a leading candidate for a pregnancy malaria vaccine, but its large size ( approximately 350 k...

  8. Cross-protection against lethal H5N1 challenge ferrets with an adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Baras (Benoît); K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); J.H. Simon (James); R.J.M.M. Thoolen (Robert); S.P. Mossman (Sally); F.H. Pistoor (Frank); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.A. Wettendorff (Martine); E. Hanon (Emmanuel); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Unprecedented spread between birds and mammals of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype has resulted in hundreds of human infections with a high fatality rate. This has highlighted the urgent need for the development of H5N1 vaccines that can be

  9. Respiratory nanoparticle-based vaccines and challenges associated with animal models and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Narasimhan, Balaji; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2015-12-10

    Vaccine development has had a huge impact on human health. However, there is a significant need to develop efficacious vaccines for several existing as well as emerging respiratory infectious diseases. Several challenges need to be overcome to develop efficacious vaccines with translational potential. This review focuses on two aspects to overcome some barriers - 1) the development of nanoparticle-based vaccines, and 2) the choice of suitable animal models for respiratory infectious diseases that will allow for translation. Nanoparticle-based vaccines, including subunit vaccines involving synthetic and/or natural polymeric adjuvants and carriers, as well as those based on virus-like particles offer several key advantages to help overcome the barriers to effective vaccine development. These include the ability to deliver combinations of antigens, target the vaccine formulation to specific immune cells, enable cross-protection against divergent strains, act as adjuvants or immunomodulators, allow for sustained release of antigen, enable single dose delivery, and potentially obviate the cold chain. While mouse models have provided several important insights into the mechanisms of infectious diseases, they are often a limiting step in translation of new vaccines to the clinic. An overview of different animal models involved in vaccine research for respiratory infections, with advantages and disadvantages of each model, is discussed. Taken together, advances in nanotechnology, combined with the right animal models for evaluating vaccine efficacy, has the potential to revolutionize vaccine development for respiratory infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Asymmetric free vibrations of laminated annular cross-ply circular plates including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Spline method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, K.K.; Kim, Kyung Su; Lee, Jang Hyun [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

    2009-12-15

    Asymmetric free vibrations of annular cross-ply circular plates are studied using spline function approximation. The governing equations are formulated including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Assumptions are made to study the cross-ply layered plates. A system of coupled differential equations are obtained in terms of displacement functions and rotational functions. These functions are approximated using Bickley- type spline functions of suitable order. Then the system is converted into the eigenvalue problem by applying the point collocation technique and suitable boundary conditions. Parametric studies have been made to investigate the effect of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia on frequency parameter with respect to the circumferential node number, radii ratio and thickness to radius ratio for both symmetric and anti-symmetric cross-ply plates using various types of material properties. (orig.)

  11. Obstetricians and the 2009-2010 H1N1 vaccination effort: implications for future pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Wortley, Pascale M

    2013-09-01

    Our objective was to describe the experiences of obstetricians during the 2009-2010 H1N1 vaccination campaign in order to identify possible improvements for future pandemic situations. We conducted a cross-sectional mail survey of a national random sample of 4,000 obstetricians, fielded in Summer 2010. Survey items included availability, recommendation, and patient acceptance of H1N1 vaccine; prioritization of H1N1 vaccine when supply was limited; problems with H1N1 vaccination; and likelihood of providing vaccine during a future influenza pandemic. Response rate was 66 %. Obstetricians strongly recommended H1N1 vaccine during the second (85 %) and third (86 %) trimesters, and less often during the first trimester (71 %) or the immediate postpartum period (76 %); patient preferences followed a similar pattern. H1N1 vaccine was typically available in outpatient obstetrics clinics (80 %). Overall vaccine supply was a major problem for 30 % of obstetricians, but few rated lack of thimerosal-free vaccine as a major problem (12 %). Over half of obstetricians had no major problems with the H1N1 vaccine campaign. Based on this experience, 74 % would be "very likely" and 12 % "likely" to provide vaccine in the event of a future influenza pandemic. Most obstetricians strongly recommended H1N1 vaccine, had few logistical problems beyond limited vaccine supply, and are willing to vaccinate in a future pandemic. Addressing concerns about first-trimester vaccination, developing guidance for prioritization of vaccine in the event of severe supply constraints, and continued facilitation of the logistical aspects of vaccination should be emphasized in future influenza pandemics.

  12. Effects of anti-cocaine vaccine and viral gene transfer of cocaine hydrolase in mice on cocaine toxicity including motor strength and liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Orson, Frank; Kinsey, Berma; Kosten, Thomas R; Shen, Xiaoyun; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2013-03-25

    In developing an vivo drug-interception therapy to treat cocaine abuse and hinder relapse into drug seeking provoked by re-encounter with cocaine, two promising agents are: (1) a cocaine hydrolase enzyme (CocH) derived from human butyrylcholinesterase and delivered by gene transfer; (2) an anti-cocaine antibody elicited by vaccination. Recent behavioral experiments showed that antibody and enzyme work in a complementary fashion to reduce cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity in rats and mice. Our present goal was to test protection against liver damage and muscle weakness in mice challenged with massive doses of cocaine at or near the LD50 level (100-120 mg/kg, i.p.). We found that, when the interceptor proteins were combined at doses that were only modestly protective in isolation (enzyme, 1mg/kg; antibody, 8 mg/kg), they provided complete protection of liver tissue and motor function. When the enzyme levels were ~400-fold higher, after in vivo transduction by adeno-associated viral vector, similar protection was observed from CocH alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  14. Field evaluation of piglet vaccination with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin as compared to a ready-to-use product including porcine circovirus 2 and M. hyopneumoniae in a conventional French farrow-to-finish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duivon, Didier; Corrégé, Isabelle; Hémonic, Anne; Rigaut, Martial; Roudaut, David; Jolie, Rika

    2018-01-01

    A controlled randomized trial was performed on a well-managed conventional French 180-sow farm. The trial compared the growth performances of piglets vaccinated at weaning (single shot) either with a commercial monovalent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae bacterin vaccine or with a commercial bivalent vaccine (Porcilis® PCV M Hyo) against M. hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). The farm's porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome status was stable, and most diseases (enzootic pneumonia, atrophic rhinitis, post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome) were controlled by routine vaccination. During the post-weaning phase, the growth performances of the piglets vaccinated with the bivalent vaccine were not significantly different from those vaccinated with the monovalent vaccine. However, during the fattening phase the group vaccinated with the bivalent vaccine had a significantly improved ADG (+34 g/d, p  = 0. 047), resulting in a 5-day earlier shipment to slaughter. The group also had a shorter and lower PCV2 load in serum during the fattening period, and an improved lung lesions score. In both groups, three pigs died during the peak PCV2 viraemia (16-23 weeks of age). Immunohistochemistry of the lymph nodes showed that in the group vaccinated with the bivalent vaccine, none of these pigs had PCV2-like lesions, while 2 out of the 3 from the other group did. Results suggest that the added PCV2 valence in the vaccination protocol helps countering the negative impact of subclinical PCV2 infection on growth. The calculated return on investment of the added PCV2 vaccine valence was €1.7 extra revenue per slaughtered pig (€ 39 additional revenue per sow and per year), despite the fact that the cost of the bivalent vaccine was higher than the monovalent M. hyopneumoniae vaccine. In this healthy conventional sow farm, the combined M. hyopneumoniae and PCV2 vaccination was efficacious, convenient to administer and profitable.

  15. Vaccination against Salmonella Infection: the Mucosal Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, Rémi; Bioley, Gilles; Rochereau, Nicolas; Paul, Stéphane; Corthésy, Blaise

    2017-09-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica includes several serovars infecting both humans and other animals and leading to typhoid fever or gastroenteritis. The high prevalence of associated morbidity and mortality, together with an increased emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, is a current global health issue that has prompted the development of vaccination strategies that confer protection against most serovars. Currently available systemic vaccine approaches have major limitations, including a reduced effectiveness in young children and a lack of cross-protection among different strains. Having studied host-pathogen interactions, microbiologists and immunologists argue in favor of topical gastrointestinal administration for improvement in vaccine efficacy. Here, recent advances in this field are summarized, including mechanisms of bacterial uptake at the intestinal epithelium, the assessment of protective host immunity, and improved animal models that closely mimic infection in humans. The pros and cons of existing vaccines are presented, along with recent progress made with novel formulations. Finally, new candidate antigens and their relevance in the refined design of anti- Salmonella vaccines are discussed, along with antigen vectorization strategies such as nanoparticles or secretory immunoglobulins, with a focus on potentiating mucosal vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. A vaccine of L2 epitope repeats fused with a modified IgG1 Fc induced cross-neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against divergent human papillomavirus types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Liu, Hongyang; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yanchun; Xie, Xixiu; Wang, Zhirong; Xu, Xuemei

    2014-01-01

    Current human papillomavirus (HPV) major capsid protein L1 virus-like particles (VLPs)-based vaccines in clinic induce strong HPV type-specific neutralizing antibody responses. To develop pan-HPV vaccines, here, we show that the fusion protein E3R4 consisting of three repeats of HPV16 L2 aa 17-36 epitope (E3) and a modified human IgG1 Fc scaffold (R4) induces cross-neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against divergent HPV types. E3R4 was expressed as a secreted protein in baculovirus expression system and could be simply purified by one step Protein A affinity chromatography with the purity above 90%. Vaccination of E3R4 formulated with Freunds adjuvant not only induced cross-neutralizing antibodies against HPV pseudovirus types 16, 18, 45, 52, 58, 6, 11 and 5 in mice, but also protected mice against vaginal challenges with HPV pseudovirus types 16, 45, 52, 58, 11 and 5 for at least eleven months after the first immunization. Moreover, vaccination of E3R4 formulated with FDA approved adjuvant alum plus monophosphoryl lipid A also induced cross-neutralizing antibodies against HPV types 16, 18 and 6 in rabbits. Thus, our results demonstrate that delivery of L2 antigen as a modified Fc-fusion protein may facilitate pan-HPV vaccine development.

  17. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  18. H3N2 influenza infection elicits more cross-reactive and less clonally expanded anti-hemagglutinin antibodies than influenza vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anthony Moody

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the recent H1N1 influenza pandemic, excess morbidity and mortality was seen in young but not older adults suggesting that prior infection with influenza strains may have protected older subjects. In contrast, a history of recent seasonal trivalent vaccine in younger adults was not associated with protection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To study hemagglutinin (HA antibody responses in influenza immunization and infection, we have studied the day 7 plasma cell repertoires of subjects immunized with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV and compared them to the plasma cell repertoires of subjects experimentally infected (EI with influenza H3N2 A/Wisconsin/67/2005. The majority of circulating plasma cells after TIV produced influenza-specific antibodies, while most plasma cells after EI produced antibodies that did not react with influenza HA. While anti-HA antibodies from TIV subjects were primarily reactive with single or few HA strains, anti-HA antibodies from EI subjects were isolated that reacted with multiple HA strains. Plasma cell-derived anti-HA antibodies from TIV subjects showed more evidence of clonal expansion compared with antibodies from EI subjects. From an H3N2-infected subject, we isolated a 4-member clonal lineage of broadly cross-reactive antibodies that bound to multiple HA subtypes and neutralized both H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. This broad reactivity was not detected in post-infection plasma suggesting this broadly reactive clonal lineage was not immunodominant in this subject. CONCLUSION: The presence of broadly reactive subdominant antibody responses in some EI subjects suggests that improved vaccine designs that make broadly reactive antibody responses immunodominant could protect against novel influenza strains.

  19. Rabies Vaccination: Higher Failure Rates in Imported Dogs than in those Vaccinated in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota Nodari, E; Alonso, S; Mancin, M; De Nardi, M; Hudson-Cooke, S; Veggiato, C; Cattoli, G; De Benedictis, P

    2017-03-01

    The current European Union (EU) legislation decrees that pets entering the EU from a rabies-infected third country have to obtain a satisfactory virus-neutralizing antibody level, while those moving within the EU require only rabies vaccination as the risk of moving a rabid pet within the EU is considered negligible. A number of factors driving individual variations in dog vaccine response have been previously reported, including a high rate of vaccine failure in puppies, especially those subject to commercial transport. A total of 21 001 observations collected from dogs (2006-2012) vaccinated in compliance with the current EU regulations were statistically analysed to assess the effect of different risk factors related to rabies vaccine efficacy. Within this framework, we were able to compare the vaccination failure rate in a group of dogs entering the Italian border from EU and non-EU countries to those vaccinated in Italy prior to international travel. Our analysis identified that cross-breeds and two breed categories showed high vaccine success rates, while Beagles and Boxers were the least likely to show a successful response to vaccination (88.82% and 90.32%, respectively). Our analysis revealed diverse performances among the commercially available vaccines, in terms of serological peak windows, and marked differences according to geographical area. Of note, we found a higher vaccine failure rate in imported dogs (13.15%) than in those vaccinated in Italy (5.89%). Our findings suggest that the choice of vaccine may influence the likelihood of an animal achieving a protective serological level and that time from vaccination to sampling should be considered when interpreting serological results. A higher vaccine failure in imported compared to Italian dogs highlights the key role that border controls still have in assessing the full compliance of pet movements with EU legislation to minimize the risk of rabies being reintroduced into a disease-free area.

  20. Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: a cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Spreco, Armin; Gursky, Elin; Eriksson, Olle; Dahlström, Örjan; Strömgren, Magnus; Ekberg, Joakim; Pilemalm, Sofie; Karlsson, David; Hinkula, Jorma; Holm, Einar

    2014-01-01

    Failure to incorporate the beliefs and attitudes of the public into theoretical models of preparedness has been identified as a weakness in strategies to mitigate infectious disease outbreaks. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a representative sample (n = 443) of the Swedish adult population to examine whether self-reported intentions to improve personal hygiene and increase social distancing during influenza outbreaks could be explained by trust in official information, self-reported health (SF-8), sociodemographic factors, and determinants postulated in protection motivation theory, namely threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The interviewees were asked to make their appraisals for two scenarios: a) an influenza with low case fatality and mild lifestyle impact; b) severe influenza with high case fatality and serious disturbances of societal functions. Every second respondent (50.0%) reported high trust in official information about influenza. The proportion that reported intentions to take deliberate actions to improve personal hygiene during outbreaks ranged between 45-85%, while less than 25% said that they intended to increase social distancing. Multiple logistic regression models with coping appraisal as the explanatory factor most frequently contributing to the explanation of the variance in intentions showed strong discriminatory performance for staying home while not ill (mild outbreaks: Area under the curve [AUC] 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.82;0.89), severe outbreaks AUC 0.82 (95% CI 0.77;0.85)) and acceptable performance with regard to avoiding public transportation (AUC 0.78 (0.74;0.82), AUC 0.77 (0.72;0.82)), using handwash products (AUC 0.70 (0.65;0.75), AUC 0.76 (0.71;0.80)), and frequently washing hands (AUC 0.71 (0.66;0.76), AUC 0.75 (0.71;0.80)). We conclude that coping appraisal was the explanatory factor most frequently included in statistical models explaining self-reported intentions to carry out non

  1. Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: a cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomas Timpka

    Full Text Available Failure to incorporate the beliefs and attitudes of the public into theoretical models of preparedness has been identified as a weakness in strategies to mitigate infectious disease outbreaks. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a representative sample (n = 443 of the Swedish adult population to examine whether self-reported intentions to improve personal hygiene and increase social distancing during influenza outbreaks could be explained by trust in official information, self-reported health (SF-8, sociodemographic factors, and determinants postulated in protection motivation theory, namely threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The interviewees were asked to make their appraisals for two scenarios: a an influenza with low case fatality and mild lifestyle impact; b severe influenza with high case fatality and serious disturbances of societal functions. Every second respondent (50.0% reported high trust in official information about influenza. The proportion that reported intentions to take deliberate actions to improve personal hygiene during outbreaks ranged between 45-85%, while less than 25% said that they intended to increase social distancing. Multiple logistic regression models with coping appraisal as the explanatory factor most frequently contributing to the explanation of the variance in intentions showed strong discriminatory performance for staying home while not ill (mild outbreaks: Area under the curve [AUC] 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.82;0.89, severe outbreaks AUC 0.82 (95% CI 0.77;0.85 and acceptable performance with regard to avoiding public transportation (AUC 0.78 (0.74;0.82, AUC 0.77 (0.72;0.82, using handwash products (AUC 0.70 (0.65;0.75, AUC 0.76 (0.71;0.80, and frequently washing hands (AUC 0.71 (0.66;0.76, AUC 0.75 (0.71;0.80. We conclude that coping appraisal was the explanatory factor most frequently included in statistical models explaining self-reported intentions to carry out non

  2. Intentions to Perform Non-Pharmaceutical Protective Behaviors during Influenza Outbreaks in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study following a Mass Vaccination Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Spreco, Armin; Gursky, Elin; Eriksson, Olle; Dahlström, Örjan; Strömgren, Magnus; Ekberg, Joakim; Pilemalm, Sofie; Karlsson, David; Hinkula, Jorma; Holm, Einar

    2014-01-01

    Failure to incorporate the beliefs and attitudes of the public into theoretical models of preparedness has been identified as a weakness in strategies to mitigate infectious disease outbreaks. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a representative sample (n = 443) of the Swedish adult population to examine whether self-reported intentions to improve personal hygiene and increase social distancing during influenza outbreaks could be explained by trust in official information, self-reported health (SF-8), sociodemographic factors, and determinants postulated in protection motivation theory, namely threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The interviewees were asked to make their appraisals for two scenarios: a) an influenza with low case fatality and mild lifestyle impact; b) severe influenza with high case fatality and serious disturbances of societal functions. Every second respondent (50.0%) reported high trust in official information about influenza. The proportion that reported intentions to take deliberate actions to improve personal hygiene during outbreaks ranged between 45–85%, while less than 25% said that they intended to increase social distancing. Multiple logistic regression models with coping appraisal as the explanatory factor most frequently contributing to the explanation of the variance in intentions showed strong discriminatory performance for staying home while not ill (mild outbreaks: Area under the curve [AUC] 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.82;0.89), severe outbreaks AUC 0.82 (95% CI 0.77;0.85)) and acceptable performance with regard to avoiding public transportation (AUC 0.78 (0.74;0.82), AUC 0.77 (0.72;0.82)), using handwash products (AUC 0.70 (0.65;0.75), AUC 0.76 (0.71;0.80)), and frequently washing hands (AUC 0.71 (0.66;0.76), AUC 0.75 (0.71;0.80)). We conclude that coping appraisal was the explanatory factor most frequently included in statistical models explaining self-reported intentions to carry out non

  3. Private-sector vaccine purchase costs and insurer payments: a disincentive for using combination vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah J; Cowan, Anne E; Freed, Gary L

    2011-04-01

    Combination vaccines have been endorsed as a means to decrease the number of injections needed to complete the childhood immunization schedule, yet anecdotal reports suggest that private providers lose money on combination vaccines. The objective of this study was to determine whether practices purchasing combination vaccines had significantly different vaccine costs and reimbursement compared to practices that were not purchasing combination vaccines. Using cross-sectional purchase and insurer payment data collected from a targeted sample of private practices in five US states, we calculated the average total vaccine cost and reimbursement across the childhood immunization schedule. The average vaccine purchase cost across the childhood schedule was significantly higher for practices using a combined vaccine with diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine, and Hepatitis B vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HepB) than for practices using either separate vaccine products or a combined vaccine with Haemophilus influenzae, type b vaccine and Hepatitis B vaccine (Hib-HepB). The average insurer payment for vaccine administration across the childhood schedule was significantly lower for practices using DTaP-IPV-HepB combination vaccine than for practices using separate vaccine products. This study appears to validate anecdotal reports that vaccine purchase costs and insurer payment for combination vaccines can have a negative financial impact for practices that purchase childhood vaccines.

  4. The free vaccination policy of influenza in Beijing, China: The vaccine coverage and its associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Min; Fang, Renfei; Wu, Jiang; Pang, Xinghuo; Deng, Ying; Lei, Trudy; Xie, Zheng

    2016-04-19

    In order to improve influenza vaccination coverage, the coverage rate and reasons for non-vaccination need to be determined. In 2007, the Beijing Government published a policy providing free influenza vaccinations to elderly people living in Beijing who are older than 60. This study examines the vaccination coverage after the policy was carried out and factors influencing vaccination among the elderly in Beijing. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through the use of questionnaires in 2013. A total of 1673 eligible participants were selected by multistage stratified random sampling in Beijing using anonymous questionnaires in-person. They were surveyed to determine vaccination status and social demographic information. The influenza vaccination coverage was 38.7% among elderly people in Beijing in 2012. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was people thinking they did not need to have a flu shot. After controlling for age, gender, income, self-reported health status, and the acceptance of health promotion, the rate in rural areas was 2.566 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.801-3.655, Pvaccination uptake. Those whom received information through television, community boards, or doctors were more likely to get vaccinated compared to those who did not (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.403, Pvaccine coverage in Beijing is much lower than that of developed countries with similar policies. The rural-urban disparity in coverage rate (64.1% versus 33.5%), may be explained by differing health provision systems and personal attitudes toward free services due to socioeconomic factors. Methods for increasing vaccination levels include increasing the focus on primary care and health education programs, particularly recommendations from doctors, to the distinct target populations, especially with a focus on expanding these efforts in urban areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Vaccination Kuznets Curve: Do vaccination rates rise and fall with income?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yutaro

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a new stylized fact about the relationship between income and childhood vaccination. It shows vaccination rates first rise but then fall as income increases. This pattern is observed in WHO country-level panel data, and in US county-level panel and individual-level repeated cross-section data. This data pattern suggests that both low and high-income parents are less likely to follow the standard vaccination schedule, and that such behavior is reflected in the vaccination rate at the population level. I provide several alternative explanations as to why we observe this data pattern, including avoidance measures, medical care, and social segregation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Progress towards a Leishmania vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khaled S

    2006-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-born protozoan disease. Approximately 12 million individuals are affected worldwide with an estimated annual incidence of 1.5-2 million. Two clinical manifestations are recognized, cutaneous, and visceral, both of which are common in the Middle East. In both forms, infection is chronic, with potential deformities, persistence following cure, and lifelong risk of reactivation. Attempts to develop an effective human Leishmania vaccine have not yet succeeded. Leishmanization, a crude form of live vaccination historically originated in this part of the world. Experimental vaccination has been extensively studied in model animals in the past 2 decades. In this review, major human killed vaccine trials are surveyed, and modern trends in Leishmania vaccine development, including subunit vaccines, naked DNA vaccines, and transmission blocking vaccines are explored. Recent findings of a link between persistence of live parasites, and maintenance of long-term immunity suggest live vaccination with attenuated strains, as a future vaccination strategy.

  7. Perceptions of measles, pneumonia, and meningitis vaccines among caregivers in Shanghai, China, and the health belief model: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Abram L; Boulton, Matthew L; Sun, Xiaodong; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Huang, Zhuoying; Harmsen, Irene A; Ren, Jia; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2017-06-12

    In China, the measles vaccine is offered for free whereas the pneumococcal vaccine is a for-fee vaccine. This difference has the potential to influence how caregivers evaluate whether a vaccine is important or necessary for their child, but it is unclear if models of health behavior, such as the Health Belief Model, reveal the same associations for different diseases. This study compares caregiver perceptions of different diseases (measles, pneumonia and meningitis); and characterizes associations between Health Belief Model constructs and both pneumococcal vaccine uptake and perceived vaccine necessity for pneumonia, measles, and meningitis. Caregivers of infants and young children between 8 months and 7 years of age from Shanghai (n = 619) completed a written survey on their perceptions of measles, pneumonia, and meningitis. We used logistic regression models to assess predictors of pneumococcal vaccine uptake and vaccine necessity. Only 25.2% of children had received a pneumococcal vaccine, although most caregivers believed that pneumonia (80.8%) and meningitis (92.4%), as well as measles (93.2%), vaccines were serious enough to warrant a vaccine. Perceived safety was strongly associated with both pneumococcal vaccine uptake and perceived vaccine necessity, and non-locals had 1.70 times higher odds of pneumonia vaccine necessity than non-locals (95% CI: 1.01, 2.88). Most factors had a similar relationship with vaccine necessity, regardless of disease, indicating a common mechanism for how Chinese caregivers decided which vaccines are necessary. Because more caregivers believed meningitis needed a vaccine than pneumonia, health care workers should emphasize pneumococcal vaccination's ability to protect against meningitis.

  8. [Adverse effects of seasonal flu vaccine and new influenza A (H1N1) vaccine in health care workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torruella, Joan Inglés; Soto, Rosa Gil; Valls, Rosa Carreras; Lozano, Judit Valverde; Carreras, Dolors Benito; Cunillera, Arnau Besora

    2013-01-01

    To assess and compare adverse effects of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine (SIV) and new Influenza A(H1N1) Vaccine (AIV) in health care workers. Multicenter cross-sectional study in health care workers from acute care hospitals, primary health care centers, social centers, mental health centers and a geriatric hospital participating in the 2009 vaccination campaign. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to all workers vaccinated with SIV and/or AIV. 527 valid questionnaires were collected out of 1123 sent to SIV vaccinated workers (46.9%), and 241 out of 461 sent to AIV vaccinated workers (52.%%). Participant workers include 527 vaccinated only with SIV, 117 first vaccinated with SIV and later with AIV (SIV+AIV), and 125 vaccinated only with AIV. Overall, 18.4% (95%CI 15.1-21.7) of workers vaccinated only with SIV reported adverse effects, as compared to 45.3% (95I 36.3-54.3) reporting adverse effects to AIV in the SIV+AIV group and 46.4% (95%CI 37.7-55.1) of workers vaccinated only with AIV. In all participants the most common adverseeffect was a local reaction. Women wre more reactive to both SIV and AIV than men. In all age groups SIV vaccination alone caused fewer reactions that either AIV only or the combination of SIV+AIV, with the exception of workers below 29 years of age. AIV was associated with more reactions than SIV, with no differences observed in relation to administration sequence. There were differences by sex and age, but reactions always occurred more commonly with AIV. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  9. Qualitative motivators and barriers to pandemic vs. seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prematunge, Chatura; Corace, Kimberly; McCarthy, Anne; Nair, Rama C; Roth, Virginia; Suh, Kathryn N; Garber, Gary

    2014-12-12

    Influenza is a major concern across healthcare environments. Annual vaccination of healthcare workers (HCW) remains a key mode of influenza prevention in healthcare settings. Yet influenza vaccine coverage among HCWs continues to be below recommended targets, in pandemic and non-pandemic settings. Thus, the primary objective of this analysis is to identify motivators and barriers to pandemic (panINFLU) and seasonal influenza vaccination (sINFLU) through the qualitative analysis of HCW provided reasons driving HCW's personal vaccination decisions. Data were collected from a multi-professional sample of HCWs via a cross-sectional survey study, conducted at a tertiary-care hospital in Ontario, Canada. HCW provided and ranked qualitative reasons for personal (1) panINFLU (pH1N1) and (2) sINFLU (2008/2009 season) vaccine uptake and avoidance were used to identify key vaccination motivators and barriers through content analysis methodology. Most HCW vaccination motivators and barriers were found to be similar for panINFLU and sINFLU vaccines. Personal motivators had the greatest impact on vaccination (panINFLU 29.9% and sINFLU 33.9%). Other motivators included preventing influenza in loved ones, patients, and community, and awareness of HCW role in influenza transmission. In contrast, concerns of vaccine safety and limited HCW knowledge of influenza vaccines (panINFLU 46.2% and sINFLU 37.3%). HCW vaccination during the pandemic was motivated by panINFLU related fear, epidemiology, and workplace pro-vaccination policies. HCW perceptions of accelerated panINFLU vaccine development and vaccine safety compromises, negative views of external sources (i.e. media, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory agencies) and pandemic management strategies were barriers specific to panINFLU vaccine. HCW panINFLU and sINFLU vaccine coverage can increase if future vaccination programs (1) highlight personal vaccination benefits (2) emphasize the impact HCW non-vaccination on family

  10. Vaccination coverage in systemic lupus erythematosus-a cross-sectional analysis of the German long-term study (LuLa cohort).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehab, Gamal; Richter, Jutta G; Brinks, Ralph; Fischer-Betz, Rebecca; Winkler-Rohlfing, Borgi; Schneider, Matthias

    2018-05-10

    Vaccinations are an important measure to prevent infections in immunocompromised patients. The knowledge of vaccination coverage and reasons for non-vaccination in patients with SLE is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess coverage rates of selected vaccinations in a representative sample of SLE patients and to identify predictors for non-vaccination. In 2013, information on selected vaccinations (coverage, application and reservations) and on demographics, clinical parameters and health beliefs was assessed by means of a self-reported questionnaire among a representative sample of SLE patients in Germany (LuLa cohort). Five hundred and seventy-nine patients participated. Vaccination status was primarily checked by their general practitioner (57.3%). Of all the patients, 24.9% did not get their vaccination status checked at all, 16.1% had generally been advised against the use of vaccinations by a physician, and 37.5% stated that they had rejected vaccinations themselves. Their main reasons were fears of developing a lupus flare (21.8%) or adverse events (13.5%). A greater belief by patients in the doctor controlling one's health and the general benefit of medication prevented the rejection of vaccines. Vaccination coverage was low for all recorded vaccinations (tetanus 65.8%, influenza 45.2%, pneumococcus 32.2% and meningococcus 6.1%). Older age was predictive of receiving influenza and pneumococcal vaccination. The same applies for CSs >7.5 mg for receiving influenza vaccination. Vaccination coverage in SLE patients is poor and reflects insufficient implementation of national and international recommendations. Rheumatologists need to recognize patients' reservations against vaccinations, to communicate their importance and safety and to give individual recommendations to patients and their health-care providers. German Clinical Trials Register, www.germanctr.de, DRKS00011052.

  11. Cross-species prophylactic efficacy of Sm-p80-based vaccine and intracellular localization of Sm-p80/Sm-p80 ortholog proteins during development in Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, and Schistosoma haematobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molehin, Adebayo J; Sennoune, Souad R; Zhang, Weidong; Rojo, Juan U; Siddiqui, Arif J; Herrera, Karlie A; Johnson, Laura; Sudduth, Justin; May, Jordan; Siddiqui, Afzal A

    2017-11-01

    Schistosomiasis remains a major global health problem. Despite large-scale schistosomiasis control efforts, clear limitations such as possible emergence of drug resistance and reinfection rates highlight the need for an effective schistosomiasis vaccine. Schistosoma mansoni large subunit of calpain (Sm-p80)-based vaccine formulations have shown remarkable efficacy in protecting against S. mansoni challenge infections in mice and baboons. In this study, we evaluated the cross-species protective efficacy of Sm-p80 vaccine against S. japonicum and S. haematobium challenge infections in rodent models. We also elucidated the expression of Sm-p80 and Sm-p80 ortholog proteins in different developmental stages of S. mansoni, S. haematobium, and S. japonicum. Immunization with Sm-p80 vaccine reduced worm burden by 46.75% against S. japonicum challenge infection in mice. DNA prime/protein boost (1 + 1 dose administered on a single day) resulted in 26.95% reduction in worm burden in S. haematobium-hamster infection/challenge model. A balanced Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, and IL-12) and Th2 (IL-4, IgG1) type of responses were observed following vaccination in both S. japonicum and S. haematobium challenge trials and these are associated with the prophylactic efficacy of Sm-p80 vaccine. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Sm-p80/Sm-p80 ortholog proteins are expressed in different life cycle stages of the three major human species of schistosomes studied. The data presented in this study reinforce the potential of Sm-p80-based vaccine for both hepatic/intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis occurring in different geographical areas of the world. Differential expression of Sm-p80/Sm-p80 protein orthologs in different life cycle makes this vaccine potentially useful in targeting different levels of infection, disease, and transmission.

  12. Knowledge and attitudes toward vaccination: A survey of Serbian students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetkovic, Smiljana J; Jeremic, Vida Lj; Tiosavljevic, Danijela V

    Since vaccination coverage in Serbia has been decreasing and health professionals have been identified as the most important factor in making decisions about immunization, vaccination knowledge and attitudes of students, especially medical students, are of particular interest. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on three groups of 509 Belgrade University students (medical, law and engineering students). The data were collected using an on-line questionnaire posted to student groups and included the Vaccine Knowledge Questionnaire and Attitudes Toward Vaccination Scale. This survey also included questions about demographic characteristics and perceived negative experiences. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed. There was a significant difference in the Vaccine Knowledge score (F=40.48, pstudents. Medical students (N=251, Mean=4.47, SD=1.71) had significantly higher mean knowledge scores than did law (N=128, Mean=2.80, SD=1.56) or engineering students (N=130, Mean=3.98, SD=1.81). Compared with the law (Mean=49.77, SD=10.23) and engineering students (Mean=57.62, SD=12.21), medical students (Mean=59.52, SD=9.62) also had significantly higher attitude scores (F=37.56, pstudents toward immunization. However, some knowledge gaps were identified. Multivariate analysis showed that those who had better vaccine knowledge, those who studies medicine, those who attended at university for more years, and those who do not know someone who had a negative experience with vaccines were more likely to have positive attitudes toward vaccination. Considering the growing vaccination hesitance in the general population, this is an important result that indicates that medical students are possible important participants in future public health campaigns. A strong association between vaccine knowledge and attitudes implies recommendations to introduce a specialized vaccination curriculum at both the undergraduate and graduate levels of medical study. Copyright © 2017 The

  13. Valuing vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-08-26

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery.

  14. White, affluent, educated parents are least likely to choose HPV vaccination for their children: a cross-sectional study of the National Immunization Study - teen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Echo L; Ding, Qian; Pappas, Lisa M; Henry, Kevin; Kepka, Deanna

    2017-12-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage is below national goals in the United States. Research is needed to inform strategically designed interventions that target sociodemographic groups with underutilization of HPV vaccination. Secondary data analysis of the National Immunization Survey-Teen 2013 measured association of sociodemographic factors (e.g., ethnicity/race, insurance) with HPV vaccination among females and males ages 13-17 (N = 18,959). Chi-square and multivariable Poisson regressions were conducted using survey-weighted statistics. Having a mother ≥35 years, a mother with some college, being of "Other" ethnicity/race, and having no providers who order vaccines from health departments was negatively associated with females initiating HPV vaccination. Having a mother with some college, being of Non-Hispanic White or "Other" ethnicity/race, and having some or no providers who order vaccines from health departments was negatively associated with males initiating HPV vaccination. These same factors were negatively associated with males completing HPV vaccination with the exception of "Other" ethnicity/race. In contrast, having an unmarried mother, being ages 15-17, having a hospital based provider, and receiving other adolescent vaccinations were positively associated with females initiating and completing HPV vaccination. Having an unmarried mother, health insurance that is not employer or union sponsored, and influenza and meningitis vaccinations was positively associated with male's initiating HPV vaccination. For males, being 15 or 17 years old and having other adolescent vaccinations was positively associated with vaccine completion. All findings p ≤ 0.05. Future HPV vaccination interventions may benefit from targeting certain sociodemographic groups that were negatively associated with HPV vaccination in this study.

  15. Generalized herd effects and vaccine evaluation: impact of live influenza vaccine on off-target bacterial colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Interactions between pathogens and commensal microbes are major contributors to health and disease. Infectious diseases however are most often considered independent, viewed within a one-host one-pathogen paradigm and, by extension, the interventions used to treat and prevent them are measured and evaluated within this same paradigm. Vaccines, especially live vaccines, by stimulating immune responses or directly interacting with other microbes can alter the environment in which they act, with effects that span across pathogen species. Live attenuated infl uenza vaccines for example, while safe, increase upper respiratory tract bacterial carriage density of important human commensal pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Further, by altering the ecological niche and dynamics of phylogenetically distinct microbes within the host, vaccines may unintentionally affect transmission of non-vaccine targeted pathogens. Thus, vaccine effects may span across species and across scales, from the individual to the population level. In keeping with traditional vaccine herd-effects that indirectly protect even unvaccinated individuals by reducing population prevalence of vaccine-targeted pathogens, we call these cross-species cross-scale effects "generalized herd-effects". As opposed to traditional herd-effects, "generalized" relaxes the assumption that the effect occurs at the level of the vaccine-target pathogen and "herd effect" implies, as usual, that the effects indirectly impact the population at large, including unvaccinated bystanders. Unlike traditional herd-effects that decrease population prevalence of the vaccine-target, generalized herd-effects may decrease or increase prevalence and disease by the off-target pathogen. LAIV, for example, by increasing pneumococcal density in the upper respiratory tract of vaccine recipients, especially children, may increase pneumococcal transmission and prevalence, leading to excess pneumococcal invasive

  16. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of development. Food vaccines may also help to suppress autoimmunity disorders such as Type-1. Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. INTRODUCTION. Vaccination involves the stimulation of the immune system to prepare it for the event of an invasion from a particular ...

  17. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  18. HPV vaccination acceptability in young boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Tisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comprehension and acceptance of HPV vaccination in parents of adolescent boys aged 11 to 15 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of questionnaires sent directly to the homes of all families with young males aged between 11 and 15, residents of three municipalities of the Province of Brescia, Italy. The documentation also contained an informative leaflet summarizing the HPV-related disease characteristics, the burden of disease and the available strategies for prevention and treatment, illustrating the rationale of vaccination and describing the project and its phases. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, acceptance and motivations for HPV vaccination. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. At the end of the study, parents who received the questionnaires were also offered the possibility of vaccinating their male sons for free. RESULTS: From a total of 1072 questionnaires sent, 161 where returned from the three selected municipalities (average response rate 15%; 97% of adolescent males involved in the study were Italian and 91% Catholic; 97% of parents declared themselves to be willing to vaccinate their sons: the principal motivation given (92% was prevention of the disease, cancerous or not, related to viral infection. Among the respondents not willing to vaccinate their sons, the motivation was lack of information about the vaccine and the disease. At the end of the study, around 71 boys were vaccinated. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first survey in Italy exclusively conducted on parents of adolescent males about the acceptability and feasibility of vaccination against HPV: a very high percentage of respondents was favorable to accept the vaccination for their sons, the main motivation being the fact that parents considered protecting their sons from HPV-related diseases highly important. Of the 161 boys

  19. Recognition of Core- and Polymerase-derived immunogenic peptides included in novel therapeutic vaccine by T cells from Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D; Sansas, B; Jiang, J H; Gong, Q M; Jin, G D; Calais, V; Yu, D M; Zhu, M Y; Wei, D; Zhang, D H; Inchauspé, G; Zhang, X X; Zhu, R

    2017-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is one of the major public health challenges in the world. Due to a strong interplay between specific T-cell immunity and elimination of hepatitis B virus (HBV), efforts to develop novel immunotherapeutics are gaining attention. TG1050, a novel immunotherapy, has shown efficacy in an animal study. To support the clinical development of TG1050 in China, specific immunity to the fusion antigens of TG1050 was assessed in Chinese patients. One hundred and thirty subjects were divided into three groups as CHB patients, HBV spontaneous resolvers, and CHB patients with HBsAg loss after antiviral treatment. HBV-specific T-cell responses to pools of HBV Core or Polymerase genotype D peptides included in TG1050 were evaluated. HBV Core- or Polymerase-specific cells were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the different cohorts. The frequencies and intensities of HBV Core-specific immune responses were significantly lower in CHB patients than in HBsAg loss subjects. In CHB patients, a dominant pool derived from Polymerase (Pol1) was the most immunogenic. CHB patients with low viral loads (Core peptide pool. Overall, genotype D-derived peptides included in TG1050 could raise broad and functional T-cell responses in PBMCs from Chinese CHB patients infected with genotype B/C isolates. Core-specific immunogenic domains appeared as "hot spots" with the capacity to differentiate between CHB vs HBsAg loss subjects. These observations support the extended application and associated immune monitoring of TG1050 in China. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Viral Hepatitis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Vaccine strategies: Optimising outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Karin; Bonanni, Paolo; King, Susan; Santos, Jose Ignacio; El-Hodhod, Mostafa; Zimet, Gregory D; Preiss, Scott

    2016-12-20

    Successful immunisation programmes generally result from high vaccine effectiveness and adequate uptake of vaccines. In the development of new vaccination strategies, the structure and strength of the local healthcare system is a key consideration. In high income countries, existing infrastructures are usually used, while in less developed countries, the capacity for introducing new vaccines may need to be strengthened, particularly for vaccines administered beyond early childhood, such as the measles or human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Reliable immunisation service funding is another important factor and low income countries often need external supplementary sources of finance. Many regions also obtain support in generating an evidence base for vaccination via initiatives created by organisations including World Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Agence de Médecine Préventive and the Sabin Vaccine Institute. Strong monitoring and surveillance mechanisms are also required. An example is the efficient and low-cost approaches for measuring the impact of the hepatitis B control initiative and evaluating achievement of goals that have been established in the WHO Western Pacific region. A review of implementation strategies reveals differing degrees of success. For example, in the Americas, PAHO advanced a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine strategy, targeting different population groups in mass, catch-up and follow-up vaccination campaigns. This has had much success but coverage data from some parts of the region suggest that children are still not receiving all appropriate vaccines, highlighting problems with local service infrastructures. Stark differences in coverage levels are also observed among high income countries, as is the case with HPV vaccine implementation in the USA versus the UK and Australia, reflecting differences in delivery settings. Experience and research have shown which vaccine strategies work well and the

  1. A hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine comprising envelope glycoproteins gpE1/gpE2 derived from a single isolate elicits broad cross-genotype neutralizing antibodies in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, John Lok Man; Chen, Chao; Wong, Jason

    2013-01-01

    of genotype 1a). Cross neutralization was tested in Huh-7.5 human hepatoma cell cultures using infectious recombinant HCV (HCVcc) expressing structural proteins of heterologous HCV strains from all known major genotypes, 1-7. Vaccination induced significant neutralizing antibodies against heterologous HCV...... genotype 1a virus which represents the most common genotype in North America. Of the 16 vaccinees tested, 3 were selected on the basis of strong 1a virus neutralization for testing of broad cross-neutralizing responses. At least 1 vaccinee was shown to elicit broad cross-neutralization against all HCV...

  2. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  3. Living conditions, including life style, in primary-care patients with nonacute, nonspecific spinal pain compared with a population-based sample: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd Lindell

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Odd Lindell, Sven-Erik Johansson, Lars-Erik Strender1Center for Family and Community Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, SwedenBackground: Nonspecific spinal pain (NSP, comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders behind long-term sick-listing, including disability pensions. Early interventions to prevent long-term sick-listing require the identification of patients at risk. The aim of this study was to compare living conditions associated with long-term sick-listing for NSP in patients with nonacute NSP, with a nonpatient population-based sample. Nonacute NSP is pain that leads to full-time sick-listing>3 weeks.Methods: One hundred and twenty-five patients with nonacute NSP, 2000–2004, were included in a randomized controlled trial in Stockholm County with the objective of comparing cognitive–behavioral rehabilitation with traditional primary care. For these patients, a cross-sectional study was carried out with baseline data. Living conditions were compared between the patients and 338 nonpatients by logistic regression. The conditions from univariate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. The nonsignificant variables were excluded sequentially to yield a model comprising only the significant factors (P <0.05. The results are shown as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals.Results: In the univariate analyses, 13 of the 18 living conditions had higher odds for the patients with a dominance of physical work strains and Indication of alcohol over-consumption, odds ratio (OR 14.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–67.6. Five conditions qualified for the multivariate model: High physical workload, OR 13.7 (CI 5.9–32.2; Hectic work tempo, OR 8.4 (CI 2.5–28.3; Blue-collar job, OR 4.5 (CI 1.8–11.4; Obesity, OR 3.5 (CI 1.2–10.2; and Low education, OR 2.7 (CI 1.1–6.8.Conclusions: As most of the living conditions have previously been

  4. Vaccine Platforms to Control Arenaviral Hemorrhagic Fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Ricardo; Bredenbeek, Peter; Jiang, Xiaohong; Tretyakova, Irina; Pushko, Peter; Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-11-20

    Arenaviruses are rodent-borne emerging human pathogens. Diseases caused by these viruses, e.g., Lassa fever (LF) in West Africa and South American hemorrhagic fevers (HFs), are serious public health problems in endemic areas. We have employed replication-competent and replication-deficient strategies to design vaccine candidates potentially targeting different groups "at risk". Our leader LF vaccine candidate, the live reassortant vaccine ML29, is safe and efficacious in all tested animal models including non-human primates. In this study we showed that treatment of fatally infected animals with ML29 two days after Lassa virus (LASV) challenge protected 80% of the treated animals. In endemic areas, where most of the target population is poor and many live far from health care facilities, a single-dose vaccination with ML29 would be ideal solution. Once there is an outbreak, a fast-acting vaccine or post-exposure prophylaxis would be best. The 2(nd) vaccine technology is based on Yellow Fever (YF) 17D vaccine. We designed YF17D-based recombinant viruses expressing LASV glycoproteins (GP) and showed protective efficacy of these recombinants. In the current study we developed a novel technology to clone LASV nucleocapsid within YF17D C gene. Low immunogenicity and stability of foreign inserts must be addressed to design successful LASV/YFV bivalent vaccines to control LF and YF in overlapping endemic areas of West Africa. The 3(rd) platform is based on the new generation of alphavirus replicon virus-like-particle vectors (VLPV). Using this technology we designed VLPV expressing LASV GP with enhanced immunogenicity and bivalent VLPV expressing cross-reactive GP of Junin virus (JUNV) and Machupo virus (MACV), causative agents of Argentinian and Bolivian HF, respectively. A prime-boost regimen required for VLPV immunization might be practical for medical providers, military, lab personnel, and visitors in endemic areas.

  5. Vaccines in a hurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søborg, Christian; Mølbak, Kåre; Doherty, T Mark; Ulleryd, Peter; Brooks, Tim; Coenen, Claudine; van der Zeijst, Ben

    2009-05-26

    Preparing populations for health threats, including threats from new or re-emerging infectious diseases is recognised as an important public health priority. The development, production and application of emergency vaccinations are the important measures against such threats. Vaccines are cost-effective tools to prevent disease, and emergency vaccines may be the only means to prevent a true disaster for global society in the event of a new pandemic with potential to cause morbidity and mortality comparable to the Spanish flu, the polio epidemics in the 1950s, or the SARS outbreak in 2003 if its spread had not been contained in time. Given the early recognition of a new threat, and given the advances of biotechnology, vaccinology and information systems, it is not an unrealistic goal to have promising prototype vaccine candidates available in a short time span following the identification of a new infectious agent; this is based on the assumption that the emerging infection is followed by natural immunity. However, major bottlenecks for the deployment of emergency vaccine are lack of established systems for fast-track regulatory approval of such candidates and limited international vaccine production capacity. In the present discussion paper, we propose mechanisms to facilitate development of emergency vaccines in Europe by focusing on public-private scientific partnerships, fast-track approval of emergency vaccine by regulatory agencies and proposing incentives for emergency vaccine production in private vaccine companies.

  6. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Association between Infant Hepatitis B Vaccine Exposure in Boys and the Risk of Adverse Effects as Measured by Receipt of Special Education Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Geier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Center for Education Statistics reported that between 1990–2005 the number of children receiving special education services (SES rose significantly, and then, from 2004–2012, the number declined significantly. This coincided with the introduction of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine in 1991, and the subsequent introduction of Thimerosal-reduced hepatitis B vaccine in the early 2000s. This study examined the potential relationship between infant exposure to mercury from three doses of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of boys being adversely affected (as measured by receipt of SES. This cross-sectional study examined 1192 boys (weighted n = 24,537,123 7–8 years of age (born: 1994–2007 from the combined 2001–2014 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES. Survey logistic regression modeling revealed that an exposed population receiving three doses of infant Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (weighted n = 11,186,579, in comparison to an unexposed population (weighted n = 704,254, were at an increased risk of receipt of SES. This association was robust (crude odds ratio = 10.143, p = 0.0232, even when considering covariates, such as race and socioeconomic status (adjusted odds ratio = 9.234, p = 0.0259. Survey frequency modeling revealed that receipt of SES for the population that was exposed to three doses of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine in infancy (12.91% was significantly higher than the unexposed population (1.44% (prevalence ratio = 8.96, p = 0.006, prevalence attributable rate = 0.1147. Despite the limitation of this cross-sectional study not being able to ascribe a direct cause-and-effect relationship between exposure and outcome, it is estimated that an additional 1.2 million boys received SES with excess education costs of about United States (US $180 billion associated with exposure to Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine. By contrast, exposure

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Association between Infant Hepatitis B Vaccine Exposure in Boys and the Risk of Adverse Effects as Measured by Receipt of Special Education Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Homme, Kristin G; Geier, Mark R

    2018-01-12

    The National Center for Education Statistics reported that between 1990-2005 the number of children receiving special education services (SES) rose significantly, and then, from 2004-2012, the number declined significantly. This coincided with the introduction of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine in 1991, and the subsequent introduction of Thimerosal-reduced hepatitis B vaccine in the early 2000s. This study examined the potential relationship between infant exposure to mercury from three doses of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of boys being adversely affected (as measured by receipt of SES). This cross-sectional study examined 1192 boys (weighted n = 24,537,123) 7-8 years of age (born: 1994-2007) from the combined 2001-2014 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES). Survey logistic regression modeling revealed that an exposed population receiving three doses of infant Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine (weighted n = 11,186,579), in comparison to an unexposed population (weighted n = 704,254), were at an increased risk of receipt of SES. This association was robust (crude odds ratio = 10.143, p = 0.0232), even when considering covariates, such as race and socioeconomic status (adjusted odds ratio = 9.234, p = 0.0259). Survey frequency modeling revealed that receipt of SES for the population that was exposed to three doses of Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine in infancy (12.91%) was significantly higher than the unexposed population (1.44%) (prevalence ratio = 8.96, p = 0.006, prevalence attributable rate = 0.1147). Despite the limitation of this cross-sectional study not being able to ascribe a direct cause-and-effect relationship between exposure and outcome, it is estimated that an additional 1.2 million boys received SES with excess education costs of about United States (US) $180 billion associated with exposure to Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine. By contrast, exposure to Thimerosal

  8. Vaccination-challenge studies with a Port Chalmers/73 (H3N2)-based swine influenza virus vaccine: Reflections on vaccine strain updates and on the vaccine potency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschauwer, Annebel; Qiu, Yu; Van Reeth, Kristien

    2015-05-11

    The human A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2) influenza virus strain, the supposed ancestor of European H3N2 swine influenza viruses (SIVs), was used in most commercial SIV vaccines in Europe until recently. If manufacturers want to update vaccine strains, they have to perform laborious intratracheal (IT) challenge experiments and demonstrate reduced virus titres in the lungs of vaccinated pigs. We aimed to examine (a) the ability of a Port Chalmers/73-based commercial vaccine to induce cross-protection against a contemporary European H3N2 SIV and serologic cross-reaction against H3N2 SIVs from Europe and North America and (b) the validity of intranasal (IN) challenge and virus titrations of nasal swabs as alternatives for IT challenge and titrations of lung tissue in vaccine potency tests. Pigs were vaccinated with Suvaxyn Flu(®) and challenged by the IT or IN route with sw/Gent/172/08. Post-vaccination sera were examined in haemagglutination-inhibition assays against vaccine and challenge strains and additional H3N2 SIVs from Europe and North America, including an H3N2 variant virus. Tissues of the respiratory tract and nasal swabs were collected 3 days post challenge (DPCh) and from 0-7 DPCh, respectively, and examined by virus titration. Two vaccinations consistently induced cross-reactive antibodies against European H3N2 SIVs from 1998-2012, but minimal or undetectable antibody titres against North American viruses. Challenge virus titres in the lungs, trachea and nasal mucosa of the vaccinated pigs were significantly reduced after both IT and IN challenge. Yet the reduction of virus titres and nasal shedding was greater after IT challenge. The Port Chalmers/73-based vaccine still offered protection against a European H3N2 SIV isolated 35 years later and with only 86.9% amino acid homology in its HA1, but it is unlikely to protect against H3N2 SIVs that are endemic in North America. We use our data to reflect on vaccine strain updates and on the vaccine potency test

  9. Vaccines.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Vaccines Work Vaccine Types Vaccine Ingredients Vaccines by Disease Chickenpox ... Typhoid Fever Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yellow Fever Who and When Infants, Children, and Teens ...

  10. Glycoconjugate Vaccines: The Regulatory Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Most vaccines, including the currently available glycoconjugate vaccines, are administered to healthy infants, to prevent future disease. The safety of a prospective vaccine is a key prerequisite for approval. Undesired side effects would not only have the potential to damage the individual infant but also lead to a loss of confidence in the respective vaccine-or vaccines in general-on a population level. Thus, regulatory requirements, particularly with regard to safety, are extremely rigorous. This chapter highlights regulatory aspects on carbohydrate-based vaccines with an emphasis on analytical approaches to ensure the consistent quality of successive manufacturing lots.

  11. The Meningitis Vaccine Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForce, F Marc; Konde, Kader; Viviani, Simonetta; Préziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2007-09-03

    Epidemic meningococcal meningitis is an important public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control measures rely on reactive immunizations with polysaccharide (PS) vaccines that do not induce herd immunity and are of limited effectiveness in those under 2 years of age. Conversely, polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are effective in infants and have consistently shown an important effect on decreasing carriage, two characteristics that facilitate disease control. In 2001 the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was created as a partnership between PATH and the World Health Organization (WHO) with the goal of eliminating meningococcal epidemics in Africa through the development, licensure, introduction, and widespread use of conjugate meningococcal vaccines. Since group A Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) is the dominant pathogen causing epidemic meningitis in Africa MVP is developing an affordable (US$ 0.40 per dose) meningococcal A (Men A) conjugate vaccine through an innovative international partnership that saw transfer of a conjugation and fermentation technology to a developing country vaccine manufacturer. A Phase 1 study of the vaccine in India has shown that the product is safe and immunogenic. Phase 2 studies have begun in Africa, and a large demonstration study of the conjugate vaccine is envisioned for 2008-2009. After extensive consultations with African public health officials a vaccine introduction plan has been developed that includes introduction of the Men A conjugate vaccine into standard Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) schedules but also emphasizes mass vaccination of 1-29 years old to induce herd immunity, a strategy that has been shown to be highly effective when the meningococcal C (Men C) conjugate vaccine was introduced in several European countries. The MVP model is a clear example of the usefulness of a "push mechanism" to finance the development of a needed vaccine for the developing world.

  12. Prophylactic Hepatitis E Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E has been increasingly recognized as an underestimated global disease burden in recent years. Subpopulations with more serious infection-associated damage or death include pregnant women, patients with basic liver diseases, and elderly persons. Vaccine would be the most effective means for prevention of HEV infection. The lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV makes the development of classic inactive or attenuated vaccine infeasible. Hence, the recombinant vaccine approaches are explored deeply. The neutralizing sites are located almost exclusively in the capsid protein, pORF2, of the virion. Based on pORF2, many vaccine candidates showed potential of protecting primate animals; two of them were tested in human and evidenced to be well tolerated in adults and highly efficacious in preventing hepatitis E. The world's first hepatitis E vaccine, Hecolin ® (HEV 239 vaccine), was licensed in China and launched in 2012.

  13. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  14. Vaccines and Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.

  15. Long-lasting complete response status of advanced stage IV gall bladder cancer and colon cancer after combined treatment including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Yuki; Kuranishi, Fumito; Miyazaki, Tsubasa; Yasuda, Hiroko; Ohno, Tadao

    2017-09-11

    The prognosis of advanced (stage IV) cancer of the digestive organs is very poor. We have previously reported a case of advanced breast cancer with bone metastasis that was successfully treated with combined treatments including autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine (AFTV). Herein, we report the success of this approach in advanced stage IV (heavily metastasized) cases of gall bladder cancer and colon cancer. Case 1: A 61-year-old woman with stage IV gall bladder cancer (liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis) underwent surgery in May 2011, including partial resection of the liver. She was treated with AFTV as the first-line adjuvant therapy, followed by conventional chemotherapy. This patient is still alive without any recurrence, as confirmed with computed tomography, for more than 5 years. Case 2: A 64-year-old man with stage IV colon cancer (multiple para-aortic lymph node metastases and direct abdominal wall invasion) underwent non-curative surgery in May 2006. Following conventional chemotherapy, two courses of AFTV and radiation therapy were administered sequentially. This patient has had no recurrence for more than 5 years. We report the success of combination therapy including AFTV in cases of liver-metastasized gall bladder cancer and abdominal wall-metastasized colon cancer. Both patients experienced long-lasting, complete remission. Therefore, combination therapies including AFTV should be considered in patients with advanced cancer of the digestive organs.

  16. Factors associated with self-reported HBV vaccination among HIV-negative MSM participating in an online sexual health survey: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Matthews

    Full Text Available A substantial proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM in the United States remain unvaccinated against hepatitis B. We sought to understand which factors are associated with vaccination among HIV-negative MSM.Data were from a 2010 web-based survey of adult MSM. We calculated the prevalence of self-reported hepatitis B vaccination among 1,052 HIV-negative or HIV-untested men who knew their hepatitis B vaccination status, and used multivariate logistic regression to determine associated factors. 679 (64.5% MSM reported being vaccinated. Younger men were more likely to report being vaccinated than older men, and there was a significant interaction between age and history of hepatitis B testing. Men with at least some college education were at least 2.1 times as likely to be vaccinated as men with a high school education or less (95% CI = 1.4-3.1. Provider recommendation for vaccination (aOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.4-7.4 was also significantly associated with receipt of vaccination.Providers should assess sexual histories of male patients and offer those patients with male sex partners testing for hepatitis infection and vaccinate susceptible patients. There may be particular opportunities for screening and vaccination among older and more socioeconomically disadvantaged MSM.

  17. Use of an in vivo FTA assay to assess the magnitude, functional avidity and epitope variant cross-reactivity of T cell responses following HIV-1 recombinant poxvirus vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danushka K Wijesundara

    Full Text Available Qualitative characteristics of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs are important in measuring the effectiveness of CTLs in controlling HIV-1 infections. Indeed, in recent studies patients who are naturally resistant to HIV-1 infections have been shown to possess CTLs that are of high functional avidity and have a high capacity to recognize HIV epitope variants, when compared to HIV-1 infection progressors. When developing efficacious vaccines, assays that can effectively measure CTL quality specifically in vivo are becoming increasingly important. Here we report the use of a recently developed high-throughput multi-parameter technique, known as the fluorescent target array (FTA assay, to simultaneously measure CTL killing magnitude, functional avidity and epitope variant cross-reactivity in real time in vivo. In the current study we have applied the FTA assay as a screening tool to assess a large cohort of over 20 different HIV-1 poxvirus vaccination strategies in mice. This screen revealed that heterologous poxvirus prime-boost vaccination regimes (i.e., recombinant fowlpox (FPV-HIV prime followed by a recombinant vaccinia virus (VV-HIV booster were the most effective in generating high quality CTL responses in vivo. In conclusion, we have demonstrated how the FTA assay can be utilized as a cost effective screening tool (by reducing the required number of animals by >100 fold, to evaluate a large range of HIV-1 vaccination strategies in terms of CTL avidity and variant cross-reactivity in an in vivo setting.

  18. Use of an in vivo FTA assay to assess the magnitude, functional avidity and epitope variant cross-reactivity of T cell responses following HIV-1 recombinant poxvirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesundara, Danushka K; Ranasinghe, Charani; Jackson, Ronald J; Lidbury, Brett A; Parish, Christopher R; Quah, Benjamin J C

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative characteristics of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs) are important in measuring the effectiveness of CTLs in controlling HIV-1 infections. Indeed, in recent studies patients who are naturally resistant to HIV-1 infections have been shown to possess CTLs that are of high functional avidity and have a high capacity to recognize HIV epitope variants, when compared to HIV-1 infection progressors. When developing efficacious vaccines, assays that can effectively measure CTL quality specifically in vivo are becoming increasingly important. Here we report the use of a recently developed high-throughput multi-parameter technique, known as the fluorescent target array (FTA) assay, to simultaneously measure CTL killing magnitude, functional avidity and epitope variant cross-reactivity in real time in vivo. In the current study we have applied the FTA assay as a screening tool to assess a large cohort of over 20 different HIV-1 poxvirus vaccination strategies in mice. This screen revealed that heterologous poxvirus prime-boost vaccination regimes (i.e., recombinant fowlpox (FPV)-HIV prime followed by a recombinant vaccinia virus (VV)-HIV booster) were the most effective in generating high quality CTL responses in vivo. In conclusion, we have demonstrated how the FTA assay can be utilized as a cost effective screening tool (by reducing the required number of animals by >100 fold), to evaluate a large range of HIV-1 vaccination strategies in terms of CTL avidity and variant cross-reactivity in an in vivo setting.

  19. SU-E-T-138: Automated Chart Review Module Including Cross-Vendor Data Transfer Verification Developed for IHE-RO Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, M; Gordon, C [Franciscan St Margaret Health, Hammond, IN (United States); Tien, C [Community Hospital, Munster, IN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To follow the Integrating Healthcare Enterprise - Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO) initiative of proper cross-vendor technology integration, an automated chart checker (ACC) was developed. ACC compares extracted data from an approved patient plan in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) against data existing in the Mosaiq treatment management system (TMS). ACC automatically analyzes these parameters using built-in quality checklists to provide further aid in chart review. Methods: Eclipse TPS data are obtained using Eclipse scripting API (ESAPI) while Mosaiq TMS data are obtained from a radiotherapy-treatment-planning (RTP) file. Using this information, ACC identifies TPS-TMS discrepancies in 18 primary beam parameters including MU, energy, jaw positions, gantry angle, table angle, accessories, and bolus for up to 31 beams. Next, approximately 40 items from traditional quality checklists are evaluated such as prescription consistency, DRR graticule placement, plan approval status, global max dose, and dose tracking coefficients. Parameters were artificially modified to determine if ACC would detect an error in data transfer and to test each component of quality checklists. Results: Using ESAPI scripting and RTP file-processing, ACC was able to properly aggregate data from TPS and TMS for up to 31 beams. Errors were artificially introduced into each plan parameter, and ACC was able to successfully detect all of them within seconds. Next, ACC was able to successfully detect mistakes in the chart by identifying deviations with its quality checklists, within seconds. Conclusion: ACC effectively addresses the potential issue of faulty cross-vendor data transfer, as described by IHE-RO. In addition, ACC was also able to detect deviations from its built-in quality checklists. ACC is already an invaluable tool for efficient and standardized chart review and will continue to improve as its incorporated checklists become more comprehensive.

  20. SU-E-T-138: Automated Chart Review Module Including Cross-Vendor Data Transfer Verification Developed for IHE-RO Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, M; Gordon, C; Tien, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To follow the Integrating Healthcare Enterprise - Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO) initiative of proper cross-vendor technology integration, an automated chart checker (ACC) was developed. ACC compares extracted data from an approved patient plan in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) against data existing in the Mosaiq treatment management system (TMS). ACC automatically analyzes these parameters using built-in quality checklists to provide further aid in chart review. Methods: Eclipse TPS data are obtained using Eclipse scripting API (ESAPI) while Mosaiq TMS data are obtained from a radiotherapy-treatment-planning (RTP) file. Using this information, ACC identifies TPS-TMS discrepancies in 18 primary beam parameters including MU, energy, jaw positions, gantry angle, table angle, accessories, and bolus for up to 31 beams. Next, approximately 40 items from traditional quality checklists are evaluated such as prescription consistency, DRR graticule placement, plan approval status, global max dose, and dose tracking coefficients. Parameters were artificially modified to determine if ACC would detect an error in data transfer and to test each component of quality checklists. Results: Using ESAPI scripting and RTP file-processing, ACC was able to properly aggregate data from TPS and TMS for up to 31 beams. Errors were artificially introduced into each plan parameter, and ACC was able to successfully detect all of them within seconds. Next, ACC was able to successfully detect mistakes in the chart by identifying deviations with its quality checklists, within seconds. Conclusion: ACC effectively addresses the potential issue of faulty cross-vendor data transfer, as described by IHE-RO. In addition, ACC was also able to detect deviations from its built-in quality checklists. ACC is already an invaluable tool for efficient and standardized chart review and will continue to improve as its incorporated checklists become more comprehensive

  1. Awareness and Knowledge About HPV and HPV Vaccine Among Romanian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Mihaela; Teleman, Sergiu Iuliu; Pristavu, Anda; Matei, Mioara

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most prevalent gynecological malignancies worldwide. Romania has the highest incidence of this type of cancer in Europe. A successful prevention strategy has to consider the primary prevention measures (including health education on human papilloma virus (HPV) infection but also vaccination). The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Romanian women about HPV and HPV vaccine. We conducted a cross-sectional study survey of 454 women using an anonymously completed questionnaire covering the awareness and knowledge of HPV infection and attitudes to vaccination. We also analyzed the discussions and conclusion from a focus group of healthcare professionals regarding (1) HPV and HPV awareness and attitude, and (2) suggestions for improving HPV vaccine knowledge and acceptance. 69.2% of women were aware about HPV but their knowledge was minimal and incomplete. While 62.3% had heard about HPV vaccine, only 50.7% had a positive attitude toward it. The main barriers to vaccination were the fear of side effects, the perception that is risky, and the financial concerns. Deficiencies in knowledge were noted for vaccine, genital warts, or risks factors for HPV infection like the early onset of sexual life. The information regarding HPV and vaccine is not always accurate and complete, and only 50.7% of women have a positive attitude toward the vaccine. More educational programs and clearer communication are needed to raise awareness and knowledge regarding HPV and HPV vaccine.

  2. Rotavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intussusception. Early vaccines were based on animal strains. More recently developed and licenced vaccines are either animal-human reassortants or are based on human strains. In India, two candidate vaccines are in the development process, but have not yet reached efficacy trials. Many challenges regarding vaccine efficacy and safety remain. In addition to completing clinical evaluations of vaccines in development in settings with the highest disease burden and virus diversity, there is also a need to consider alternative vaccine development strategies.

  3. Vaccine process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  4. Acceptance of vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, B.; Eilers, R.; Donken, R.; Barug, D.; Swillens, J.; Vriend, C. de; Weerdenburg, S.; Pot, M.; Keulen, H. van; Paulussen, T.; Vermey, K.; Alberts, N.; Marra, E.; Melker, H.E. de; Mollema, L.

    2016-01-01

    Both in 2013 and 2015 the mean intention of parents to vaccinate their child was high. Only 21% of parents reported making an informed decision about childhood vaccinations included in the NIP. Mass media attention on the use of allegedly inferior needles, which was later refuted, appeared to have a

  5. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  6. School nurses’ attitudes towards and experiences of the Swedish school-based HPV vaccination programme – A repeated cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja; Stenhammar, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate school nurses’ attitudes towards, and experiences of vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), and compare the results with a similar study three years earlier. School nurses (n = 736) from all counties in Sweden completed a questionnaire in spring 2016, four years after the implementation of the national HPV vaccination programme, and three years after the previous survey. Overall, the school nurses had more favourable attitudes towards the HPV vaccination programme compared to the study in 2013 (p = 0.015). More than half of the nurses (n = 415, 56%) strongly agreed that boys should also be offered the vaccine (pHPV in order to inform and to answer questions about the vaccine from the girls or from the parents. More than half of the nurses (n = 409, 56%) reported that they needed more education about HPV. Almost all nurses (n = 659, 90%) had been contacted by parents with questions about the vaccine, and most questions were related to vaccine safety. School nurses have a more favourable attitude towards the vaccination programme against HPV compared to three years earlier, although almost all nurses had been contacted by parents with diverse questions and concerns. The nurses believed that they needed more education about HPV. Thus, it is essential to provide ongoing education and training for school nurses who are key healthcare professionals for providing information about HPV and HPV vaccination to parents and to pupils. PMID:28419156

  7. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementation of a national school-based Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine campaign in Fiji: knowledge, vaccine acceptability and information needs of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vincente, S F; Mielnik, D; Jenkins, K; Bingwor, F; Volavola, L; Marshall, H; Druavesi, P; Russell, F M; Lokuge, K; Mulholland, E K

    2015-12-18

    In 2008 Fiji implemented a nationwide Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine campaign targeting all girls aged 9-12 years through the existing school-based immunisation program. Parents of vaccine-eligible girls were asked to provide written consent for vaccination. The purpose of this study was to describe parents' knowledge, experiences and satisfaction with the campaign, the extent to which information needs for vaccine decision-making were met, and what factors were associated with vaccine consent. Following vaccine introduction, a cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with parents of vaccine-eligible girls from randomly selected schools, stratified by educational district. Factors related to vaccine consent were explored using Generalised Estimating Equations. There were 560 vaccine-eligible girls attending the participating 19 schools at the time of the campaign. Among these, 313 parents could be contacted, with 293 agreeing to participate (93.6%). Almost 80% of participants reported having consented to HPV vaccination (230/293, 78.5%). Reported knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV prior to the campaign was very low. Most respondents reported that they were satisfied with their access to information to make an informed decision about HPV vaccination (196/293, 66.9%). and this was very strongly associated with provision of consent. Despite their young age, the vaccine-eligible girls were often involved in the discussion and decision-making. Most consenting parents were satisfied with the campaign and their decision to vaccinate, with almost 90% indicating they would consent to future HPV vaccination. However, negative media reports about the vaccine campaign created confusion and concern. Local health staff were cited as a trusted source of information to guide decision-making. Just over half of the participants who withheld consent cited vaccine safety fears as the primary reason (23/44, 52.3%). This is the first reported experience of HPV introduction

  9. Status of vaccine research and development for Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sachin; Wierzba, Thomas; Walker, Richard I

    2016-06-03

    Shigella are gram-negative bacteria that cause severe diarrhea and dysentery. In 2013, Shigella infections caused an estimated 34,400 deaths in children less than five years old and, in 2010, an estimated 40,000 deaths in persons older than five years globally. New disease burden estimates from newly deployed molecular diagnostic assays with increased sensitivity suggest that Shigella-associated morbidity may be much greater than previous disease estimates from culture-based methods. Primary prevention of this disease should be based on universal provision of potable water and sanitation methods and improved personal and food hygiene. However, an efficacious and low-cost vaccine would complement and accelerate disease reduction while waiting for universal access to water, sanitation, and hygiene improvements. This review article provides a landscape of Shigella vaccine development efforts. No vaccine is yet available, but human and animal challenge-rechallenge trials with virulent Shigella as well as observational studies in Shigella-endemic areas have shown that the incidence of disease decreases following Shigella infection, pointing to biological feasibility of a vaccine. Immunity to Shigella appears to be strain-specific, so a vaccine that covers the most commonly detected strains (i.e., S. flexneri 2a, 3a, 6, and S. sonnei) or a vaccine using cross-species conserved antigens would likely be most effective. Vaccine development and testing may be accelerated by use of animal models, such as the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis or murine pneumonia models. Because there is no correlate of protection, however, human studies will be necessary to evaluate vaccine efficacy prior to deployment. A diversity of Shigella vaccine constructs are under development, including live attenuated, formalin-killed whole-cell, glycoconjugate, subunit, and novel antigen vaccines (e.g., Type III secretion system and outer membrane proteins). Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization

  10. Universal Influenza Vaccines, a Dream to Be Realized Soon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to frequent viral antigenic change, current influenza vaccines need to be re-formulated annually to match the circulating strains for battling seasonal influenza epidemics. These vaccines are also ineffective in preventing occasional outbreaks of new influenza pandemic viruses. All these challenges call for the development of universal influenza vaccines capable of conferring broad cross-protection against multiple subtypes of influenza A viruses. Facilitated by the advancement in modern molecular biology, delicate antigen design becomes one of the most effective factors for fulfilling such goals. Conserved epitopes residing in virus surface proteins including influenza matrix protein 2 and the stalk domain of the hemagglutinin draw general interest for improved antigen design. The present review summarizes the recent progress in such endeavors and also covers the encouraging progress in integrated antigen/adjuvant delivery and controlled release technology that facilitate the development of an affordable universal influenza vaccine.

  11. Attitudes, believes, determinants and organisational barriers behind the low seasonal influenza vaccination uptake in healthcare workers - A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, Lise; Bral, Charlotte; Roelants, Mathieu; De Schryver, Antoon; Godderis, Lode; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Vandermeulen, Corinne

    2018-04-28

    Seasonal influenza threatens hospitalised patients and residents of nursing homes annually. Due to age and chronic disease their protection following immunisation is diminished. Additional immunisation of direct contacts and in particular healthcare workers (HCWs) has proven added value. As vaccination coverage in HCWs remains low, we aimed to gain insight in the factors behind the demotivation for influenza vaccination. Attitudes and believes towards influenza vaccination and socio-demographic and professional determinants were surveyed in 5141 Belgian HCWs from 13 hospitals and 14 nursing homes. Additionally, influenza campaign coordinators of the participating healthcare institutions were interviewed about the factors of success/failure in their campaigns. The mean vaccination coverage registered by the participating healthcare institutions was 40.4% in the hospitals and 45.3% in the nursing homes. Overall, up to 90% of HCWs found it important not to infect their patients. However, only 20% of non-vaccinated HCWs considered influenza vaccination a duty to not harm their patients. Up to 40% of unvaccinated staff believed they could get influenza after vaccination and that vaccination weakens their immune system. Also, only about 20% of unvaccinated staff thought to have a high chance of getting influenza. Reasons for unvaccinated staff to get vaccinated in the future are self-protection and protection of family members. Factors that positively influenced vaccination coverage are encouragement by supervisors (OR, hospitals: 7.1, p < 0.001; nursing homes: 7.5, p < 0.001) and well-organized vaccination campaigns with on-site vaccination. Factors that negatively affected vaccination coverage are misconceptions about influenza and its vaccine (OR, range 0.1-0.7, p < 0.001 for most misconceptions) and underestimation of the risk of contracting influenza by patients or HCWs (OR of perceived susceptibility, range 2.1-5.1, p < 0.001 for most factors

  12. Evaluation of live attenuated H7N3 and H7N7 vaccine viruses for their receptor binding preferences, immunogenicity in ferrets and cross reactivity to the novel H7N9 virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xu

    Full Text Available Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV candidates of the H7 subtype, A/Netherlands/219/03 (H7N7, NL03 ca and A/chicken/British Columbia/CN-6/2004 (H7N3, BC04 ca, were evaluated for their receptor binding specificity and immunogenicity in ferrets. The BC04 ca virus exhibited α2,3-SA and α2,6-SA dual receptor binding preference while the NL03 ca virus preferentially bound to α2,3-SA. Substitution of the Q226 and G228 (Q-G by the L226 and S228 (L-S residues in the HA improved binding to α2,6-SA for NL03 ca. The vaccine viruses with L-S retained the attenuation phenotype. NL03 L-S ca replicated more efficiently than the original NL03 ca virus in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets, and induced higher levels of humoral and cellular immune responses. Prior vaccination with seasonal LAIV reduced H7-specific antibody responses, but did not reduce the H7N7 vaccine mediated protection against a heterologous H7N3 BC04 wt virus infection in ferrets. In addition, the H7N3 and H7N7 vaccine immunized ferret sera cross reacted with the newly emerged H7N9 virus. These data, in combination with the safety data from previously conducted Phase 1 studies, suggest that these vaccines may have a role in responding to the threat posed by the H7N9 virus.

  13. Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Virus Clone 13 Is Able to Cross the Ovine Placental Barrier Associated with Foetal Infections, Malformations, and Stillbirths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Makoschey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV is a mosquito-borne pathogen that affects domesticated ruminants and occasionally humans. Classical RVF vaccines are based on formalin-inactivated virus or the live-attenuated Smithburn strain. The inactivated vaccine is highly safe but requires multiple administrations and yearly re-vaccinations. Although the Smithburn vaccine provides solid protection after a single vaccination, this vaccine is not safe for pregnant animals. An alternative live-attenuated vaccine, named Clone 13, carries a large natural deletion in the NSs gene which encodes the major virulence factor of the virus. The Clone 13 vaccine was previously shown to be safe for young lambs and calves. Moreover, a study in pregnant ewes suggested that the vaccine could also be applied safely during gestation. To anticipate on a possible future incursion of RVFV in Europe, we have evaluated the safety of Clone 13 for young lambs and pregnant ewes. In line with the guidelines from the World Organisation for Animal health (Office International des Epizooties, OIE and regulations of the European Pharmacopeia (EP, these studies were performed with an overdose. Our studies with lambs showed that Clone 13 dissemination within vaccinated animals is very limited. Moreover, the Clone 13 vaccine virus was not shed nor spread to in-contact sentinels and did not revert to virulence upon animal-to-animal passage. Importantly, a large experiment with pregnant ewes demonstrated that the Clone 13 virus is able to spread to the fetus, resulting in malformations and stillbirths. Altogether, our results suggest that Clone 13 can be applied safely in lambs, but that caution should be taken when Clone 13 is used in pregnant animals, particularly during the first trimester of gestation.

  14. Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Virus Clone 13 Is Able to Cross the Ovine Placental Barrier Associated with Foetal Infections, Malformations, and Stillbirths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoschey, Birgit; van Kilsdonk, Emma; Hubers, Willem R.; Vrijenhoek, Mieke P.; Smit, Marianne; Wichgers Schreur, Paul J.; Kortekaas, Jeroen; Moulin, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that affects domesticated ruminants and occasionally humans. Classical RVF vaccines are based on formalin-inactivated virus or the live-attenuated Smithburn strain. The inactivated vaccine is highly safe but requires multiple administrations and yearly re-vaccinations. Although the Smithburn vaccine provides solid protection after a single vaccination, this vaccine is not safe for pregnant animals. An alternative live-attenuated vaccine, named Clone 13, carries a large natural deletion in the NSs gene which encodes the major virulence factor of the virus. The Clone 13 vaccine was previously shown to be safe for young lambs and calves. Moreover, a study in pregnant ewes suggested that the vaccine could also be applied safely during gestation. To anticipate on a possible future incursion of RVFV in Europe, we have evaluated the safety of Clone 13 for young lambs and pregnant ewes. In line with the guidelines from the World Organisation for Animal health (Office International des Epizooties, OIE) and regulations of the European Pharmacopeia (EP), these studies were performed with an overdose. Our studies with lambs showed that Clone 13 dissemination within vaccinated animals is very limited. Moreover, the Clone 13 vaccine virus was not shed nor spread to in-contact sentinels and did not revert to virulence upon animal-to-animal passage. Importantly, a large experiment with pregnant ewes demonstrated that the Clone 13 virus is able to spread to the fetus, resulting in malformations and stillbirths. Altogether, our results suggest that Clone 13 can be applied safely in lambs, but that caution should be taken when Clone 13 is used in pregnant animals, particularly during the first trimester of gestation. PMID:27031621

  15. Determinants of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Including Hookah Smoking and Opium Use– A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 50,000 Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Pharoah, Paul D.; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C.; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Results Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02–1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55–1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76–0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). Conclusion GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere. PMID:24586635

  16. Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease, including hookah smoking and opium use- a cross-sectional analysis of 50,000 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Semnani, Shahryar; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Merat, Shahin; Khoshnia, Masoud; Dawsey, Sanford M; Pharoah, Paul D; Brennan, Paul; Abnet, Christian C; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼ 50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn. Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.75) and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55-1.87) were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined). GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere.

  17. Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease, including hookah smoking and opium use- a cross-sectional analysis of 50,000 individuals.

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    Farhad Islami

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a common cause of discomfort and morbidity worldwide. However, information on determinants of GERD from large-scale studies in low- to medium-income countries is limited. We investigated the factors associated with different measures of GERD symptoms, including frequency, patient-perceived severity, and onset time.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from a population-based cohort study of ∼ 50,000 individuals in in Golestan Province, Iran. GERD symptoms in this study included regurgitation and/or heartburn.Approximately 20% of participants reported at least weekly symptoms. Daily symptoms were less commonly reported by men, those of Turkmen ethnicity, and nass chewers. On the other hand, age, body mass index, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, opium use, lower socioeconomic status, and lower physical activity were associated with daily symptoms. Most of these factors showed similar associations with severe symptoms. Women with higher BMI and waist to hip ratio were more likely to report frequent and severe GERD symptoms. Hookah smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.75 and opium use (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.55-1.87 were associated with severe symptoms, whereas nass chewing had an inverse association (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99. After exclusion of cigarette smokers, hookah smoking was still positively associated and nass chewing was inversely associated with GERD symptoms (all frequencies combined.GERD is common in this population. The associations of hookah and opium use and inverse association of nass use with GERD symptoms are reported for the first time. Further studies are required to investigate the nature of these associations. Other determinants of GERD were mostly comparable to those reported elsewhere.

  18. Macromolecular systems for vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MuŽíková, G; Laga, R

    2016-10-20

    Vaccines have helped considerably in eliminating some life-threatening infectious diseases in past two hundred years. Recently, human medicine has focused on vaccination against some of the world's most common infectious diseases (AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, etc.), and vaccination is also gaining popularity in the treatment of cancer or autoimmune diseases. The major limitation of current vaccines lies in their poor ability to generate a sufficient level of protective antibodies and T cell responses against diseases such as HIV, malaria, tuberculosis and cancers. Among the promising vaccination systems that could improve the potency of weakly immunogenic vaccines belong macromolecular carriers (water soluble polymers, polymer particels, micelles, gels etc.) conjugated with antigens and immunistumulatory molecules. The size, architecture, and the composition of the high molecular-weight carrier can significantly improve the vaccine efficiency. This review includes the most recently developed (bio)polymer-based vaccines reported in the literature.

  19. Attitudinal and demographic predictors of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR uptake during the UK catch-up campaign 2008-09: cross-sectional survey.

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    Katrina Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Continued suboptimal measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccine uptake has re-established measles epidemic risk, prompting a UK catch-up campaign in 2008-09 for children who missed MMR doses at scheduled age. Predictors of vaccine uptake during catch-ups are poorly understood, however evidence from routine schedule uptake suggests demographics and attitudes may be central. This work explored this hypothesis using a robust evidence-based measure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire with objective behavioural outcome. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 365 UK parents, whose children were aged 5-18 years and had received <2 MMR doses before the 2008-09 UK catch-up started. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents' attitudes and demographics, parent-reported receipt of invitation to receive catch-up MMR dose(s, and catch-up MMR uptake according to child's medical record (receipt of MMR doses during year 1 of the catch-up. RESULTS: Perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.87 and younger child age (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.68-0.89 were the only independent predictors of catch-up MMR uptake in the sample overall. Uptake predictors differed by whether the child had received 0 MMR doses or 1 MMR dose before the catch-up. Receipt of catch-up invitation predicted uptake only in the 0 dose group (OR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.18-10.05, whilst perceived social desirability/benefit of MMR uptake predicted uptake only in the 1 dose group (OR = 9.61, 95% CI = 2.57-35.97. Attitudes and demographics explained only 28% of MMR uptake in the 0 dose group compared with 61% in the 1 dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Catch-up MMR invitations may effectively move children from 0 to 1 MMR doses (unimmunised to partially immunised, whilst attitudinal interventions highlighting social benefits of MMR may effectively move children from 1 to 2 MMR doses (partially to fully immunised. Older children may be

  20. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

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    Tsedek Irit

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136. Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88 with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training

  1. Dengue Fever: Causes, Complications, and Vaccine Strategies

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    Niyati Khetarpal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a highly endemic infectious disease of the tropical countries and is rapidly becoming a global burden. It is caused by any of the 4 serotypes of dengue virus and is transmitted within humans through female Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue disease varies from mild fever to severe conditions of dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndrome. Globalization, increased air travel, and unplanned urbanization have led to increase in the rate of infection and helped dengue to expand its geographic and demographic distribution. Dengue vaccine development has been a challenging task due to the existence of four antigenically distinct dengue virus serotypes, each capable of eliciting cross-reactive and disease-enhancing antibody response against the remaining three serotypes. Recently, Sanofi Pasteur’s chimeric live-attenuated dengue vaccine candidate has been approved in Mexico, Brazil, and Philippines for usage in adults between 9 and 45 years of age. The impact of its limited application to the public health system needs to be evaluated. Simultaneously, the restricted application of this vaccine candidate warrants continued efforts in developing a dengue vaccine candidate which is additionally efficacious for infants and naïve individuals. In this context, alternative strategies of developing a designed vaccine candidate which does not allow production of enhancing antibodies should be explored, as it may expand the umbrella of efficacy to include infants and naïve individuals.

  2. The potential impact of a single amino-acid substitution on the efficacy of equine influenza vaccines.

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    Yamanaka, T; Cullinane, A; Gildea, S; Bannai, H; Nemoto, M; Tsujimura, K; Kondo, T; Matsumura, T

    2015-07-01

    The protection induced by an equine influenza (EI) vaccine strain depends on its antigenic relatedness to the challenge virus. Although the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) recommend that both Florida sublineage clade 1 (Fc1) and clade 2 (Fc2) viruses should be included in EI vaccines, Japanese EI vaccines have not, thus far, been updated to include a Fc2 virus. To evaluate the efficacy of antibodies raised against Japanese EI vaccine strains in the neutralisation of recent Fc2 viruses. Antigenic analysis. Virus neutralisation tests were performed using antisera from experimentally infected horses and from horses that had received a primary course of the currently available vaccines. Antiserum raised against the Japanese EI vaccine strain, A/equine/La Plata/1993, exhibited poor cross-neutralising activity against the Fc2 viruses isolated recently in Ireland and the UK, which have the substitution of alanine to valine at position 144 in antigenic site A of the haemagglutinin gene. In contrast, the antiserum exhibited good cross-neutralising activity against the Fc2 viruses without the substitution. This finding was supported in experiments with antisera collected from vaccinated horses. This suggests that the efficacy of the Japanese EI vaccine for some of the recent Fc2 viruses is suboptimal and that vaccines should be updated in accordance with the OIE recommendations. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  3. The recent progress in RSV vaccine technology.

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    Fretzayas, Andrew; Papadopoulou, Anna; Kotzia, Doxa; Moustaki, Maria

    2012-12-01

    The most effective way to control RSV infection would be the development of an expedient and safe vaccine. Subunit vaccines, live attenuated RSV vaccines, plasmid DNA vaccines have been tested either in human or in mouse models without reaching the ultimate goal of efficacy and safety, at least in humans. Viruses such as adenovirus, sendai virus, measles virus were also used as vectors for the generation of RSV vaccines with promising results in animal models. Recent patents describe new techniques for the generation of candidate vaccines. These patents include virus like particles as vaccine platforms, recombinant RSVs or modified RSV F protein as component of the vaccine. Despite the number of the candidate vaccines, the new RSV vaccines should overcome many obstacles before being established as effective vaccines for the control of RSV infections especially for the young infants who are more susceptible to the virus.

  4. Life course vaccination and healthy aging.

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    Gusmano, Michael K; Michel, Jean-Pierre

    2009-06-01

    The authors notice the low vaccine coverage rate among European citizens and inventory the multiple reasons leading to the non-use of preventable infectious diseases vaccines in adults whose mortality consequences represent an important and unexpected burden of diseases. These facts are in close relation with the disruption of vaccine recommendations after the childhood vaccine program, the poor literacy knowledge concerning vaccines among the general population, but also unfortunately among physicians and other health care workers. Popular beliefs, fear of side-effects, fear of needles facilitated the constitution of active non-vaccine groups which conduct to the reappearance in non-vaccinated adults and with dramatic consequences of preventable childhood infectious diseases. This careful analysis of the current preventable infectious disease vaccine coverage in old adults leads to propose a life course vaccine programme including adult vaccinations as part of healthy aging as well as old adults' vaccine guidelines integrated in health prevention programs.

  5. Ad35 and ad26 vaccine vectors induce potent and cross-reactive antibody and T-cell responses to multiple filovirus species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahn, Roland; Gillisen, Gert; Roos, Anna; Koning, Marina; van der Helm, Esmeralda; Spek, Dirk; Weijtens, Mo; Grazia Pau, Maria; Radošević, Katarina; Weverling, Gerrit Jan; Custers, Jerome; Vellinga, Jort; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Goudsmit, Jaap; Rodríguez, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    Filoviruses cause sporadic but highly lethal outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in Africa in the human population. Currently, no drug or vaccine is available for treatment or prevention. A previous study with a vaccine candidate based on the low seroprevalent adenoviruses 26 and 35 (Ad26 and Ad35) was

  6. Vaccination with Recombinant Parainfluenza Virus 5 Expressing Neuraminidase Protects against Homologous and Heterologous Influenza Virus Challenge.

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    Mooney, Alaina J; Gabbard, Jon D; Li, Zhuo; Dlugolenski, Daniel A; Johnson, Scott K; Tripp, Ralph A; He, Biao; Tompkins, S Mark

    2017-12-01

    awareness of the contribution of neuraminidase (NA) to influenza virus vaccine efficacy. Although NA is immunologically subdominant to HA, and clinical studies have shown variable NA responses to vaccination, in this study, we show that vaccination with a parainfluenza virus 5 recombinant vaccine candidate expressing NA (PIV5-NA) from a pandemic influenza (pdmH1N1) virus or highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus elicits robust, cross-reactive protection from influenza virus infection in two animal models. New vaccination strategies incorporating NA, including PIV5-NA, could improve seasonal influenza virus vaccine efficacy and provide protection against emerging influenza viruses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Skewed risk perceptions in pregnant women: the case of influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, Birte; Betsch, Cornelia; Wichmann, Ole

    2015-12-29

    Pregnant women and their newborns have an increased risk of developing severe influenza and influenza-related complications. In Germany, seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for pregnant women since 2010. However, little is known about pregnant women's vaccination-related knowledge and attitudes, as well as their risk perceptions. This study therefore assessed pregnant women's vaccination-related knowledge, risk perceptions related to influenza disease and influenza vaccination during pregnancy, and aimed to identify determinants of influenza vaccination uptake during pregnancy in Germany. Between 2012 and 2014, a nationwide web-based prospective cohort study with follow-up interviews was conducted in initially pregnant women who gave birth over the study period. Control groups were set up in a cross-sectional fashion during the follow-up interviews. Women who participated in both, the baseline interview before giving birth and in the 1st interview after giving birth were included in the analysis. Univariate and multiple logistic regression were used to identify associations between influenza vaccination uptake and sociodemographic characteristics as well as items assessing attitude and knowledge. In total, 838 women were included in the analyses. Pregnant women had a positive attitude towards vaccination in general, but only modest vaccination knowledge. Overall, 10.9 % of women were vaccinated against seasonal influenza during pregnancy. While pregnant women perceived classical childhood diseases to be more risky than the respective vaccinations, this relation reversed for influenza: The risk of vaccination was perceived higher than the risk of the disease. These two types of risk perceptions independently determined influenza vaccination uptake-higher perception of disease risk and lower perceptions of vaccination-related risks increased uptake. Additionally, knowledge about the vaccination recommendation for pregnant women and a positive gynaecologist

  8. Q Fever Knowledge, Attitudes and Vaccination Status of Australia's Veterinary Workforce in 2014.

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    Emily Sellens

    Full Text Available Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a serious zoonotic disease in humans with a worldwide distribution. Many species of animals are capable of transmitting C. burnetii, and consequently all veterinary workers are at risk for this disease. An effective Q fever vaccine has been readily available and used in Australia for many years in at-risk groups, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control has recently also called for the use of this vaccine among at-risk groups in Europe. Little is known about attitudes towards this vaccine and vaccine uptake in veterinary workers. This study aimed to determine the Q fever vaccination status of veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia and to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes towards Q fever disease and vaccination of each cohort. An online cross-sectional survey performed in 2014 targeted all veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia. Responses from 890 veterinarians and 852 veterinary nurses were obtained. Binary, ordinal and multinomial logistic regression were used to make comparisons between the two cohorts. The results showed that 74% of veterinarians had sought vaccination compared to only 29% of veterinary nurses. Barriers to vaccination among those not vaccinated did not differ between cohorts, and included a lack of perceived risk, financial expense, time constraints, and difficulty in finding a vaccine provider. Poor knowledge and awareness of Q fever disease and vaccination were additional and notable barriers for the veterinary nursing cohort, suggesting veterinary clinics and veterinarians may not be meeting their legal responsibility to educate staff about risks and risk prevention. Further evaluation is needed to identify the drivers behind seeking and recommending vaccination so that recommendations can be made to improve vaccine uptake.

  9. Q Fever Knowledge, Attitudes and Vaccination Status of Australia’s Veterinary Workforce in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellens, Emily; Norris, Jacqueline M.; Dhand, Navneet K.; Heller, Jane; Hayes, Lynne; Gidding, Heather F.; Willaby, Harold; Wood, Nicholas; Bosward, Katrina L.

    2016-01-01

    Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a serious zoonotic disease in humans with a worldwide distribution. Many species of animals are capable of transmitting C. burnetii, and consequently all veterinary workers are at risk for this disease. An effective Q fever vaccine has been readily available and used in Australia for many years in at-risk groups, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control has recently also called for the use of this vaccine among at-risk groups in Europe. Little is known about attitudes towards this vaccine and vaccine uptake in veterinary workers. This study aimed to determine the Q fever vaccination status of veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia and to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes towards Q fever disease and vaccination of each cohort. An online cross-sectional survey performed in 2014 targeted all veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia. Responses from 890 veterinarians and 852 veterinary nurses were obtained. Binary, ordinal and multinomial logistic regression were used to make comparisons between the two cohorts. The results showed that 74% of veterinarians had sought vaccination compared to only 29% of veterinary nurses. Barriers to vaccination among those not vaccinated did not differ between cohorts, and included a lack of perceived risk, financial expense, time constraints, and difficulty in finding a vaccine provider. Poor knowledge and awareness of Q fever disease and vaccination were additional and notable barriers for the veterinary nursing cohort, suggesting veterinary clinics and veterinarians may not be meeting their legal responsibility to educate staff about risks and risk prevention. Further evaluation is needed to identify the drivers behind seeking and recommending vaccination so that recommendations can be made to improve vaccine uptake. PMID:26756210

  10. Sustainable coccidiosis control in poultry production: the role of live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D; Cherry, T E; Danforth, H D; Richards, G; Shirley, M W; Williams, R B

    2002-05-01

    The development of new methods of administering coccidiosis vaccines has facilitated their use in the hatchery and thereby improved prospects for the economic vaccination of broilers. The acquisition of protective immunity to Eimeria species is boosted by further exposure to infection after vaccination. Factors that affect the reproductive efficiency of non-attenuated and attenuated vaccines are considered and the key role that oocyst production plays in establishing and maintaining uniform immunity in a flock of chickens is discussed. In addition to immunisation, a possible advantage to the application of certain vaccines is that their use could repopulate poultry houses with drug-sensitive organisms. Theoretical rotation programmes in which the use of drugs is alternated with that of vaccines are described. Variability of the cross-protective immune response between strains of the same species should be considered during vaccine development and subsequent use. The significance of less common species of Eimeria, not included in all vaccines, also needs to be assessed. An important consideration is the occurrence of pathogens other than Eimeria (such as the bacterium Clostridium) in flocks given coccidiosis vaccines and the methods by which they might be controlled. More research is required into the relationship between bacterial and viral infections of poultry and coccidiosis vaccination. Vaccines need to be developed that are simple to apply and cost effective for use in areas of the world where small-scale poultry production is commonplace. In the near future it is likely that more live vaccines based upon oocysts derived from attenuated strains of Eimeria will be developed but in the longer term vaccines will be based on the selective presentation to the host of specific molecules that can induce protective immunity. This achievement will require significant investment from the private and public sectors, and, if successful, will facilitate the sustainable

  11. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  12. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers? awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that...

  13. Vaccination against human papillomavirus among 865 female students from the health professions in central Greece: a questionnaire- based cross-sectional study

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    Papagiannis D

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dimitrios Papagiannis,1 George Rachiotis,1 Emmanouil K Symvoulakis,2 Alexandros Daponte,3 Ioanna N Grivea,4 George A Syrogiannopoulos,4 Christos Hadjichristodoulou11Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Thessalia, 2Private Family Practice Unit, Heraklion, Crete, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Thessalia Medical School, Thessalia, 4Department of Paediatrics, University of Thessaly, School of Medicine, General University Hospital of Larissa, Thessalia, GreeceBackground: There are still sparse data on vaccination coverage against human papillomavirus (HPV among students in the health professions. The aim of this study was to investigate HPV vaccination coverage in female students from the health professions in Greece.Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to second-year and third-year female students pursuing degrees in medicine, nursing, and paramedical health disciplines in central Greece.Results: Overall vaccination coverage was 44.3%. The major reason for lack of vaccination was fear about safety of the vaccine. Participants who had received information about safety of the vaccine from the mass media and paramedical students had lower vaccination coverage in comparison with students who had received information about vaccine safety from alternative sources.Conclusion: Further quantitative and qualitative research is needed to design educational activities targeting female students in the health professions in order to create a positive domino effect and improve HPV vaccination coverage levels in Greece.Keywords: human papillomavirus, vaccination, coverage, students, health professions, mass media, Greece

  14. Occurrence and impact of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse, in men attending UK primary care health clinics: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, M; Ferrari, G; Jones, S K; Williamson, E; Bacchus, L J; Peters, T J; Feder, G

    2015-05-19

    To measure the experience and perpetration of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse (DVA), and investigate its associations with health conditions and behaviours in men attending general practice. Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between September 2010 and June 2011. 16 general practices in the south west of England. Male patients aged 18 or older, attending alone, who could read and write English. A total of 1403 of eligible patients (58%) participated in the survey and 1368 (56%) completed the questions relevant to this paper. 97% of respondents reported they were heterosexual. Lifetime occurrence of negative behaviour consistent with DVA, perceived health impact of negative behaviours, associations with anxiety and depression symptoms, and cannabis use in the past 12 months and binge drinking. 22.7% (95% CI 20.2% to 24.9%) of men reported ever experiencing negative behaviour (feeling frightened, physically hurt, forced sex, ask permission) from a partner. All negative behaviours were associated with a twofold to threefold increased odds of anxiety and depression symptoms in men experiencing or perpetrating negative behaviours or both. 34.9% (95% CI 28.7% to 41.7%) of men who reported experiencing negative behaviour from a partner, and 30.8% (95% CI 23.7% to 37.8%) of men who perpetrated negative behaviours said they had been in a domestically violent or abusive relationship. No associations with problematic drinking were found; there was a weak association with cannabis use. DVA is experienced or perpetrated by a large minority of men presenting to general practice, and these men were more likely to have current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Presentation of anxiety or depression to clinicians may be an indicator of male experience or perpetration of DVA victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Occurrence and impact of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse, in men attending UK primary care health clinics: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, M; Ferrari, G; Jones, S K; Williamson, E; Bacchus, L J; Peters, T J; Feder, G

    2015-01-01

    Objective To measure the experience and perpetration of negative behaviour, including domestic violence and abuse (DVA), and investigate its associations with health conditions and behaviours in men attending general practice. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted between September 2010 and June 2011. Setting 16 general practices in the south west of England. Participants Male patients aged 18 or older, attending alone, who could read and write English. A total of 1403 of eligible patients (58%) participated in the survey and 1368 (56%) completed the questions relevant to this paper. 97% of respondents reported they were heterosexual. Main outcome measures Lifetime occurrence of negative behaviour consistent with DVA, perceived health impact of negative behaviours, associations with anxiety and depression symptoms, and cannabis use in the past 12 months and binge drinking. Results 22.7% (95% CI 20.2% to 24.9%) of men reported ever experiencing negative behaviour (feeling frightened, physically hurt, forced sex, ask permission) from a partner. All negative behaviours were associated with a twofold to threefold increased odds of anxiety and depression symptoms in men experiencing or perpetrating negative behaviours or both. 34.9% (95% CI 28.7% to 41.7%) of men who reported experiencing negative behaviour from a partner, and 30.8% (95% CI 23.7% to 37.8%) of men who perpetrated negative behaviours said they had been in a domestically violent or abusive relationship. No associations with problematic drinking were found; there was a weak association with cannabis use. Conclusions DVA is experienced or perpetrated by a large minority of men presenting to general practice, and these men were more likely to have current symptoms of depression and anxiety. Presentation of anxiety or depression to clinicians may be an indicator of male experience or perpetration of DVA victimisation. PMID:25991450

  16. First Outbreak Response Using an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Africa: Vaccine Coverage, Acceptability and Surveillance of Adverse Events, Guinea, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquero, Francisco J.; Grout, Lise; Ciglenecki, Iza; Sakoba, Keita; Traore, Bala; Heile, Melat; Dialo, Alpha Amadou; Itama, Christian; Serafini, Micaela; Legros, Dominique; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification of two safe and effective oral cholera vaccines (OCV), concerns about the acceptability, potential diversion of resources, cost and feasibility of implementing timely campaigns has discouraged their use. In 2012, the Ministry of Health of Guinea, with the support of Médecins Sans Frontières organized the first mass vaccination campaign using a two-dose OCV (Shanchol) as an additional control measure to respond to the on-going nationwide epidemic. Overall, 316,250 vaccines were delivered. Here, we present the results of vaccination coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional cluster survey and implemented adverse event surveillance. The study population included individuals older than 12 months, eligible for vaccination, and residing in the areas targeted for vaccination (Forécariah and Boffa, Guinea). Data sources were household interviews with verification by vaccination card and notifications of adverse events from surveillance at vaccination posts and health centres. In total 5,248 people were included in the survey, 3,993 in Boffa and 1,255 in Forécariah. Overall, 89.4% [95%CI:86.4–91.8%] and 87.7% [95%CI:84.2–90.6%] were vaccinated during the first round and 79.8% [95%CI:75.6–83.4%] and 82.9% [95%CI:76.6–87.7%] during the second round in Boffa and Forécariah respectively. The two dose vaccine coverage (including card and oral reporting) was 75.8% [95%CI: 71.2–75.9%] in Boffa and 75.9% [95%CI: 69.8–80.9%] in Forécariah respectively. Vaccination coverage was higher in children. The main reason for non-vaccination was absence. No severe adverse events were notified. Conclusions/Significance The well-accepted mass vaccination campaign reached high coverage in a remote area with a mobile population. Although OCV should not be foreseen as the long-term solution for global cholera control, they should be

  17. First outbreak response using an oral cholera vaccine in Africa: vaccine coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events, Guinea, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Luquero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite World Health Organization (WHO prequalification of two safe and effective oral cholera vaccines (OCV, concerns about the acceptability, potential diversion of resources, cost and feasibility of implementing timely campaigns has discouraged their use. In 2012, the Ministry of Health of Guinea, with the support of Médecins Sans Frontières organized the first mass vaccination campaign using a two-dose OCV (Shanchol as an additional control measure to respond to the on-going nationwide epidemic. Overall, 316,250 vaccines were delivered. Here, we present the results of vaccination coverage, acceptability and surveillance of adverse events. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a cross-sectional cluster survey and implemented adverse event surveillance. The study population included individuals older than 12 months, eligible for vaccination, and residing in the areas targeted for vaccination (Forécariah and Boffa, Guinea. Data sources were household interviews with verification by vaccination card and notifications of adverse events from surveillance at vaccination posts and health centres. In total 5,248 people were included in the survey, 3,993 in Boffa and 1,255 in Forécariah. Overall, 89.4% [95%CI:86.4-91.8%] and 87.7% [95%CI:84.2-90.6%] were vaccinated during the first round and 79.8% [95%CI:75.6-83.4%] and 82.9% [95%CI:76.6-87.7%] during the second round in Boffa and Forécariah respectively. The two dose vaccine coverage (including card and oral reporting was 75.8% [95%CI: 71.2-75.9%] in Boffa and 75.9% [95%CI: 69.8-80.9%] in Forécariah respectively. Vaccination coverage was higher in children. The main reason for non-vaccination was absence. No severe adverse events were notified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The well-accepted mass vaccination campaign reached high coverage in a remote area with a mobile population. Although OCV should not be foreseen as the long-term solution for global cholera control, they

  18. Public awareness regarding children vaccination in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L

    2014-01-01

    Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay.

  19. Next generation vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2011-07-01

    In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines.

  20. Community awareness and predictors of uptake of pertussis booster vaccine in South Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Michelle; Thomas, Natalie; Giles, Lynne; Marshall, Helen

    2015-12-16

    Pertussis is a highly virulent vaccine preventable disease that remains a global challenge. This study aimed to assess community knowledge of pertussis infection as well as awareness and uptake of adult pertussis booster vaccine. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of randomly selected households in South Australia by Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews in 2011. Survey data were weighted to the age, gender and geographical area profile of the population. From 3124 randomly sampled contactable households, 1967 interviews were conducted (participation rate 63%) with individuals aged 18-93 years, including 608 parents of children aged pertussis (whooping cough) and 18% reported that a household member had previously contracted whooping cough infection. Most respondents considered whooping cough to be highly contagious (73%) and severe for infants (89%). Over half (51%) of those surveyed were aware that family members commonly transmit pertussis to infants. Despite high knowledge, pertussis vaccine uptake was low, with only 10% of respondents reporting pertussis vaccination in the previous five years. Whilst 61% of respondents were aware of the availability of an adult pertussis booster vaccine, only 8% (n=154) reported their Family Physician had discussed it with them. If provided free, 77% agreed that they would be more likely to accept a booster pertussis vaccination. Independent predictors of recent pertussis vaccination included higher education, larger household size, perception of greater disease severity for infants and discussion with a Family Physician about pertussis vaccination. Whilst knowledge regarding transmission and severity of Bordetella pertussis was high, uptake of pertussis vaccination for adults is remarkably low amongst the South Australian community. Improved awareness regarding the availability of a booster pertussis vaccine through Family Physicians and/or provision of funded pertussis vaccination for adults has the potential to improve

  1. The impact of a novel franchise clinic network on access to medicines and vaccinations in Kenya: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Justin; Adhvaryu, Achyuta

    2012-01-01

    To study the impact of a new franchise health clinic model (The HealthStore Foundation's CFWShops) on access to vaccinations and treatment for acute illnesses in a nationally representative sample of children in Kenya. The authors used multivariate linear and count regressions to examine associations between receipt of vaccinations or treatment and proximity to a franchise health clinic, adjusting for individual, household and clinic attributes as well as region fixed effects. Demographic and Health Survey data from Kenya, 2008-2009. 6079 Kenyan children younger than 5 years, of whom 2310 reported recent acute illness. Outcomes for all children were number of polio doses received, number of DPT doses received, receipt of BCG vaccine, receipt of measles vaccine and number of total vaccinations received. Outcomes for acutely ill children were receipt of any medical treatment, treatment for fever, treatment for malaria and treatments specifically stocked by CFWShops. Children living within 30 km of a CFWShop received 0.129 (p=0.017) and 0.113 (p=0.025) more DPT and polio doses, respectively; and 0.285 more total vaccinations (p=0.023). Among acutely ill children, CFWShop proximity was associated with significant increases in the probabilities of receiving any medical treatment (0.142; pfranchise health clinic model could substantially increase access to essential vaccinations and treatments in low-income countries. Moreover, the model's benefits may accrue to lesser- and higher-income households alike.

  2. Pricing of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  3. Pricing of new vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  4. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  5. Is maternal education a social vaccine for childhood malaria infection? A cross-sectional study from war-torn Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cary; Claude, Kasereka Masumbuko; Kibendelwa, Zacharie Tsongo; Brooks, Hannah; Zheng, Xiaonan; Hawkes, Michael

    2017-03-01

    In zones of violent conflict in the tropics, social disruption leads to elevated child mortality, of which malaria is the leading cause. Understanding the social determinants of malaria transmission may be helpful to optimize malaria control efforts. We conducted a cross-sectional study of healthy children aged 2 months to 5 years attending well-child and/or immunization visits in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Six hundred and forty-seven children were tested for malaria antigenemia by rapid diagnostic test and the accompanying parent or legal guardian simultaneously completed a survey questionnaire related to demographics, socioeconomic status, maternal education, as well as bednet use and recent febrile illness. We examined the associations between variables using multivariable logistic regression analysis, chi-squared statistic, Fisher's exact test, and Spearman's rank correlation, as appropriate. One hundred and twenty-three out of the 647 (19%) children in the study tested positive for malaria. Higher levels of maternal education were associated with a lower risk of malaria in their children. The prevalence of malaria in children of mothers with no education, primary school, and beyond primary was 41/138 (30%), 41/241 (17%), and 39/262 (15%), respectively (p = 0.001). In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for the effect of a child's age and study site, the following remained significant predictors of malaria antigenemia: maternal education, number of children under five per household, and HIV serostatus. Higher maternal education, through several putative causal pathways, was associated with lower malaria prevalence among children in the DRC. Our findings suggest that maternal education might be an effective 'social vaccine' against malaria in the DRC and globally.

  6. Multiserotype protection elicited by a combinatorial prime-boost vaccination strategy against bluetongue virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Calvo-Pinilla

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV belongs to the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. The development of vector-based vaccines expressing conserved protective antigens results in increased immune activation and could reduce the number of multiserotype vaccinations required, therefore providing a cost-effective product. Recent recombinant DNA technology has allowed the development of novel strategies to develop marker and safe vaccines against BTV. We have now engineered naked DNAs and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA expressing VP2, VP7 and NS1 proteins from BTV-4. IFNAR((-/- mice inoculated with DNA/rMVA-VP2,-VP7-NS1 in an heterologous prime boost vaccination strategy generated significant levels of antibodies specific of VP2, VP7, and NS1, including those with neutralizing activity against BTV-4. In addition, vaccination stimulated specific CD8(+ T cell responses against these three BTV proteins. Importantly, the vaccine combination expressing NS1, VP2 and VP7 proteins of BTV-4, elicited sterile protection against a lethal dose of homologous BTV-4 infection. Remarkably, the vaccine induced cross-protection against lethal doses of heterologous BTV-8 and BTV-1 suggesting that the DNA/rMVA-VP2,-VP7,-NS1 marker vaccine is a promising multiserotype vaccine against BTV.

  7. Intranasal DNA Vaccine for Protection against Respiratory Infectious Diseases: The Delivery Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intranasal delivery of DNA vaccines has become a popular research area recently. It offers some distinguished advantages over parenteral and other routes of vaccine administration. Nasal mucosa as site of vaccine administration can stimulate respiratory mucosal immunity by interacting with the nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT. Different kinds of DNA vaccines are investigated to provide protection against respiratory infectious diseases including tuberculosis, coronavirus, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV etc. DNA vaccines have several attractive development potential, such as producing cross-protection towards different virus subtypes, enabling the possibility of mass manufacture in a relatively short time and a better safety profile. The biggest obstacle to DNA vaccines is low immunogenicity. One of the approaches to enhance the efficacy of DNA vaccine is to improve DNA delivery efficiency. This review provides insight on the development of intranasal DNA vaccine for respiratory infections, with special attention paid to the strategies to improve the delivery of DNA vaccines using non-viral delivery agents.

  8. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa B Gilkey

    Full Text Available To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents.We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children's vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR, varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents' mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status.A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15% or delay (27%. Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.63 as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76-0.86. Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40-1.68, varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42-1.66, and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23-1.42.Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children.

  9. DHEC: Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data, Maps - SC Public Health Diseases and Conditions Flu Tuberculosis STD/HIV and Viral Hepatitis Zika Illnesses E. coli Listeriosis Salmonella Hepatitis A Shellfish Monitoring and Regulation Certified Shippers Vaccines Teen and Preteen Vaccines Vaccines Needed for School Admission Related Topics Perinatal Hepatitis

  10. A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer vaccination in preadolescent Canadian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merid Maraki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that approximately 70% of Canadian women undergo cervical cancer screening at least once every 3 years, approximately 1,300 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and approximately 380 died from it in 2008. This study estimates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccinating 12-year old Canadian females with an AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. The indirect effect of vaccination, via herd immunity, is also estimated. Methods A 12-health-state 1-year-cycle Markov model was developed to estimate lifetime HPV related events for a cohort of 12-year old females. Annual transition probabilities between health-states were derived from published literature and Canadian population statistics. The model was calibrated using Canadian cancer statistics. From a healthcare perspective, the cost-effectiveness of introducing a vaccine with efficacy against HPV-16/18 and evidence of cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types was evaluated in a population undergoing current screening practices. The base-case analysis included 70% screening coverage, 75% vaccination coverage, $135/dose for vaccine, and 3% discount rate on future costs and health effects. Conservative herd immunity effects were taken into account by estimated HPV incidence using a mathematical model parameterized by reported age-stratified sexual mixing data. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address parameter uncertainties. Results Vaccinating 12-year old females (n = 100,000 was estimated to prevent between 390-633 undiscounted cervical cancer cases (reduction of 47%-77% and 168-275 undiscounted deaths (48%-78% over their lifetime, depending on whether or not herd immunity and cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types were included. Vaccination was estimated to cost $18,672-$31,687 per QALY-gained, the lower range representing inclusion of cross-protective efficacy and herd immunity. The cost per QALY-gained was most

  11. Epidemic model with vaccinated age that exhibits backward bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Junyuan; Zhang Fengqin; Li Xuezhi

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination of susceptibilities is included in a transmission model for a disease that confers immunity. In this paper, interplay of vaccination strategy together with vaccine efficacy and the vaccinated age is studied. In particular, vaccine efficacy can lead to a backward bifurcation. At the same time, we also discuss an abstract formulation of the problem, and establish the well-posedness of the model.

  12. A cross-sectional study to assess the long-term health status of patients with lower respiratory tract infections, including Q-fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A.S.G. van; Loenhout, J.A.F. van; Peters, J.B.; Rietveld, A.; Paget, W.J.; Akkermans, R.P.; Olde Loohuis, A.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Velden, J. van der

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) might be at risk for long-term impaired health status. We assessed whether LRTI patients without Q fever are equally at risk for developing long-term symptoms compared to LRTI patients with Q fever. The study was a cross-sectional cohort

  13. Uptake of influenza vaccination, awareness and its associated barriers among medical students of a University Hospital in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalkhail, Mohammed S; Alzahrany, Mohannad S; Alghamdi, Khaled A; Alsoliman, Muath A; Alzahrani, Mosa A; Almosned, Badr S; Gosadi, Ibrahim M; Tharkar, Shabana

    Outbreaks of influenza epidemics are common but influenza vaccination is sub-optimal among the healthcare staff including the medical students. The study aims to assess the rate of vaccine uptake among medical students, its associated barriers and levels of awareness. A cross sectional study was done at a University Hospital in Saudi Arabia on 421 medical students by self administered questionnaire from February to March 2015. The immunization rate of seasonal influenza vaccine was just 20.7% in 2015, while it was 57% for cumulative of previous three-year period. The intended uptake among those offered vaccination was 68%. The significant determinants of vaccine uptake were clinical years of medical study (pinfluencing vaccine uptake decision were health department guidelines, medical training, social and media influence. Barriers of vaccination constituted, assumption of not being at risk of influenza (37.9%), vaccine side effects (28.9%), questioned effectiveness of the vaccine (14.5%), and inability to allocate time (11%). Knowledge levels were unsatisfactory and males scored lower (5.4±1.7) than females (6.5±1.4) out of total score of 9. Both knowledge and uptake of annual influenza vaccination was inadequate. Policy makers can formulate strategies with a focus on larger coverage of medical students. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  15. Meningococcal B vaccine. An immunogenic vaccine possibly useful during outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Invasive meningococcal infections can be life-threatening and cause severe sequelae. Antibiotic therapy is only partially effective. Bexsero is the first meningococcal B vaccine to be approved in the European Union. It contains four capsular antigens from various strains of group B meningococci. Clinical trials of this meningococcal B vaccine did not assess clinical protection. Two immunogenicity studies in adults, one in adolescents and six in infants, are available. They established the immunogenicity of the meningococcal B vaccine, determined age-appropriate vaccination schedules, and verified that concomitant administration of other vaccines did not undermine its immunogenicity. In the absence of relevant clinical trials, an in vitro study showed that sera from vaccinated individuals were likely to have bactericidal activity against 85% of 200 invasive meningococcal B strains isolated in France in 2007-2008. The meningococcal B vaccine provoked local adverse effects in most vaccinees, including local erythema, induration and pain. Fever occurred in about half of vaccinated children. Six cases of Kawasaki syndrome have been reported in children who received the vaccine, compared to only one case in control groups. In practice, the harm-benefit balance of this meningococcal B vaccine justify using it during outbreaks, provided the outbreak strain is covered by the vaccine antigens. Vaccinees should be enrolled in studies designed to evaluate clinical efficacy and to better determine the risk of Kawasaki syndrome.

  16. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact...... on acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, and reference lists. We also attempted to contact corresponding authors and vaccine companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-RCTs, comparing Japanese encephalitis vaccines with placebo (inert agent or unrelated vaccine...

  17. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  18. Vaccination coverage and out-of-sequence vaccinations in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornshøj, Linda; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fernandes, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The WHO aims for 90% coverage of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), which in Guinea-Bissau included BCG vaccine at birth, three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months when...

  19. The compatibility of inactivated-Enterovirus 71 vaccination with Coxsackievirus A16 and Poliovirus immunizations in humans and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Shao, Jie; Ying, Zhifang; Gao, Fan; Yao, Xin; Li, Changgui; Ye, Qiang; Xu, Miao; Li, Rongcheng; Zhu, Fengcai; Liang, Zhenglun

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the key pathogen for Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and can result in severe neurological complications and death among young children. Three inactivated-EV71 vaccines have gone through phase III clinical trials and have demonstrated good safety and efficacy. These vaccines will benefit young children under the threat of severe HFMD. However, the potential immunization-related compatibility for different enterovirus vaccines remains unclear, making it hard to include the EV71 vaccine in Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Here, we measured the neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) against EV71, Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and Poliovirus from infants enrolled in those EV71 vaccine clinical trials. The results indicated that the levels of NTAb GMTs for EV71 increased significantly in all 3 vaccine groups (high, middle and low dosages, respectively) post-vaccination. Seroconversion ratios and Geometric mean fold increase were significantly higher in the vaccine groups (≥7/9 and 8.9~228.1) than in the placebo group (≤1/10 and 0.8~1.7, P Poliovirus. The decrease of 3 types of Poliovirus NTAb GMTs and an increase of CA16 GMTs post-EV71-vaccination were found in vaccine and placebo groups. Further animal study on CA16 and poliovirus vaccine co-immunization or pre-immunization with EV71 vaccine in mice indicated that there was no NTAb cross-activity between EV71 and CA16/Poliovirus. Our research showed that inactivated-EV71 vaccine has good specific-neutralizing capacity and can be included in EPI. PMID:25715318

  20. The compatibility of inactivated-Enterovirus 71 vaccination with Coxsackievirus A16 and Poliovirus immunizations in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qunying; Wang, Yiping; Shao, Jie; Ying, Zhifang; Gao, Fan; Yao, Xin; Li, Changgui; Ye, Qiang; Xu, Miao; Li, Rongcheng; Zhu, Fengcai; Liang, Zhenglun

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the key pathogen for Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) and can result in severe neurological complications and death among young children. Three inactivated-EV71 vaccines have gone through phase III clinical trials and have demonstrated good safety and efficacy. These vaccines will benefit young children under the threat of severe HFMD. However, the potential immunization-related compatibility for different enterovirus vaccines remains unclear, making it hard to include the EV71 vaccine in Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). Here, we measured the neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) against EV71, Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and Poliovirus from infants enrolled in those EV71 vaccine clinical trials. The results indicated that the levels of NTAb GMTs for EV71 increased significantly in all 3 vaccine groups (high, middle and low dosages, respectively) post-vaccination. Seroconversion ratios and Geometric mean fold increase were significantly higher in the vaccine groups (≥ 7/9 and 8.9 ~ 228.1) than in the placebo group (≤ 1/10 and 0.8 ~ 1.7, P < 0.05). But no similar NTAb response trends were found in CA16 and 3 types of Poliovirus. The decrease of 3 types of Poliovirus NTAb GMTs and an increase of CA16 GMTs post-EV71-vaccination were found in vaccine and placebo groups. Further animal study on CA16 and poliovirus vaccine co-immunization or pre-immunization with EV71 vaccine in mice indicated that there was no NTAb cross-activity between EV71 and CA16/Poliovirus. Our research showed that inactivated-EV71 vaccine has good specific-neutralizing capacity and can be included in EPI.

  1. Microneedle and mucosal delivery of influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Moo; Song, Jae-Min; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2017-01-01

    In recent years with the threat of pandemic influenza and other public health needs, alternative vaccination methods other than intramuscular immunization have received great attention. The skin and mucosal surfaces are attractive sites probably because of both non-invasive access to the vaccine delivery and unique immunological responses. Intradermal vaccines using a microinjection system (BD Soluvia) and intranasal vaccines (FluMist) are licensed. As a new vaccination method, solid microneedles have been developed using a simple device that may be suitable for self-administration. Because coated micorneedle influenza vaccines are administered in the solid state, developing formulations maintaining the stability of influenza vaccines is an important issue to be considered. Marketable microneedle devices and clinical trials remain to be developed. Other alternative mucosal routes such as oral and intranasal delivery systems are also attractive for inducing cross protective mucosal immunity but effective non-live mucosal vaccines remain to be developed. PMID:22697052

  2. Use of adenoviral vectors as veterinary vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, T B; Alves, P M; Aunins, J G; Carrondo, M J T

    2005-10-01

    Vaccines are the most effective and inexpensive prophylactic tool in veterinary medicine. Ideally, vaccines should induce a lifelong protective immunity against the target pathogen while not causing clinical or pathological signs of diseases in the vaccinated animals. However, such ideal vaccines are rare in the veterinary field. Many vaccines are either of limited effectiveness or have harmful side effects. In addition, there are still severe diseases with no effective vaccines. A very important criterion for an ideal vaccine in veterinary medicine is low cost; this is especially important in developing countries and even more so for poultry vaccination, where vaccines must sell for a few cents a dose. Traditional approaches include inactivated vaccines, attenuated live vaccines and subunit vaccines. Recently, genetic engineering has been applied to design new, improved vaccines. Adenovirus vectors are highly efficient for gene transfer in a broad spectrum of cell types and species. Moreover, adenoviruses often induce humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted foreign genes. Thus, adenoviruses have become a vector of choice for delivery and expression of foreign proteins for vaccination. Consequently, the market requirements for adenovirus vaccines are increasing, creating a need for production methodologies of concentrated vectors with warranted purity and efficacy. This review summarizes recent developments and approaches of adenovirus production and purification as the application of these vectors, including successes and failures in clinical applications to date.

  3. Driving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-02

    Feb 2, 2018 ... Following the Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund's first call for ... Collectively, they represent a cross-section of disciplines, diseases, and regional hot spots, ... will focus on driving innovation in livestock vaccine development.

  4. A Phase 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine Trial for Cross-Profiling the Kinetics of Serum and Mucosal Antibody Responses to CN54gp140 Modulated by Two Homologous Prime-Boost Vaccine Regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kratochvil

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A key aspect to finding an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV vaccine is the optimization of vaccine schedules that can mediate the efficient maturation of protective immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of alternate booster regimens on the immune responses to a candidate HIV-1 clade C CN54gp140 envelope protein, which was coadministered with the TLR4-agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A-aqueous formulation. Twelve study participants received a common three-dose intramuscular priming series followed by a final booster at either 6 or 12 months. The two homologous prime-boost regimens were well tolerated and induced CN54gp140-specific responses that were observed in both the systemic and mucosal compartments. Levels of vaccine-induced IgG-subclass antibodies correlated significantly with FcγR engagement, and both vaccine regimens were associated with strikingly similar patterns in antibody titer and FcγR-binding profiles. In both groups, identical changes in the antigen (Ag-specific IgG-subclass fingerprint, leading to a decrease in IgG1 and an increase in IgG4 levels, were modulated by booster injections. Here, the dissection of immune profiles further supports the notion that prime-boost strategies are essential for the induction of diverse Ag-specific HIV-1 responses. The results reported here clearly demonstrate that identical responses were effectively and safely induced by both vaccine regimens, indicating that an accelerated 6-month regimen could be employed for the rapid induction of immune responses against CN54gp140 with no apparent impact on the overall quality of the induced immune response. (This study has been registered at http://ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01966900.

  5. The impact of a novel franchise clinic network on access to medicines and vaccinations in Kenya: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study the impact of a new franchise health clinic model (The HealthStore Foundation's CFWShops) on access to vaccinations and treatment for acute illnesses in a nationally representative sample of children in Kenya. Design The authors used multivariate linear and count regressions to examine associations between receipt of vaccinations or treatment and proximity to a franchise health clinic, adjusting for individual, household and clinic attributes as well as region fixed effects. Setting Demographic and Health Survey data from Kenya, 2008–2009. Participants 6079 Kenyan children younger than 5 years, of whom 2310 reported recent acute illness. Main outcome measures Outcomes for all children were number of polio doses received, number of DPT doses received, receipt of BCG vaccine, receipt of measles vaccine and number of total vaccinations received. Outcomes for acutely ill children were receipt of any medical treatment, treatment for fever, treatment for malaria and treatments specifically stocked by CFWShops. Results Children living within 30 km of a CFWShop received 0.129 (p=0.017) and 0.113 (p=0.025) more DPT and polio doses, respectively; and 0.285 more total vaccinations (p=0.023). Among acutely ill children, CFWShop proximity was associated with significant increases in the probabilities of receiving any medical treatment (0.142; pfranchise health clinic model could substantially increase access to essential vaccinations and treatments in low-income countries. Moreover, the model's benefits may accrue to lesser- and higher-income households alike. PMID:22786948

  6. SAFETY AND IMMUNOLOGIC EFFICACY OF COMBINED IMMUNIZATION IN CHILDREN AGED 6—7 YEARS WITH VACCINES FROM THE NATIONAL CALENDAR OF PROPHYLACTICS VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Konovalov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the safety of the vaccination for prevention of influenza with Grippol® plus vaccine alongside with vaccination with combined preparations for the prevention of diphtheria and tetanus (Td and measles, rubella, mumps in children aged 6—7 years. We determined that combined immunization with the indicated vaccines proves good tolerability and low reactogenicity. Vaccine Grippol® Plus shows low reactogenicity , high immunologenicity and does not cause cross-suppression of antibodies in co-administration with other vaccines on vaccination calendar. Also concomitant vaccination with Grippol® plus and other vaccines does not inhibit the development of a specific immune response against influenza.

  7. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhares Alexandre C.

    2000-01-01

    overcome by giving three doses of the rotavirus vaccine or by using a higher-titer formulation of it. Wild enteroviruses, however, may cause primary rotavirus vaccine failure in developing countries. Studies in Peru with RRV-TV have shown a trend towards higher vaccine efficacy rates against "pure" (rotavirus-only diarrheal episodes. Economic analyses made in the United States indicate that a vaccine that costs less than US$ 9 per dose would lead to a net savings in medical costs. To date, however, cost-benefit studies have not been done in developing countries. In the future, it is possible that some Latin American countries might adapt their polio production facilities to the preparation of rotavirus vaccines for human use. A year after RRV-TV was licensed for vaccination of infants in the United States, the occurrence of intussusception as an adverse event led to the vaccine's withdrawal from the market. The implications of that action, particularly for Latin America, will be addressed in this article, including the need to explore alternative rotavirus candidate vaccines, particularly through the conduct of parallel clinical trials in both developed and developing countries.

  8. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Linhares

    2000-11-01

    overcome by giving three doses of the rotavirus vaccine or by using a higher-titer formulation of it. Wild enteroviruses, however, may cause primary rotavirus vaccine failure in developing countries. Studies in Peru with RRV-TV have shown a trend towards higher vaccine efficacy rates against "pure" (rotavirus-only diarrheal episodes. Economic analyses made in the United States indicate that a vaccine that costs less than US$ 9 per dose would lead to a net savings in medical costs. To date, however, cost-benefit studies have not been done in developing countries. In the future, it is possible that some Latin American countries might adapt their polio production facilities to the preparation of rotavirus vaccines for human use. A year after RRV-TV was licensed for vaccination of infants in the United States, the occurrence of intussusception as an adverse event led to the vaccine's withdrawal from the market. The implications of that action, particularly for Latin America, will be addressed in this article, including the need to explore alternative rotavirus candidate vaccines, particularly through the conduct of parallel clinical trials in both developed and developing countries.

  9. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  10. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  11. Adjuvants for vaccines to drugs of abuse and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R; Torres, Oscar; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan

    2014-09-22

    Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role. As reviewed herein, preclinical studies often use strong adjuvants such as complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and others that cannot be, or in the case of many newer adjuvants, have never been, employed in humans. Balanced against this, the only adjuvant that has been included in candidate vaccines in human clinical trials to nicotine and cocaine has been aluminum hydroxide gel. While aluminum salts have been widely utilized worldwide in numerous licensed vaccines, the experience with human responses to aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines to haptenic drugs of abuse has suggested that the immune responses are too weak to allow development of a successful vaccine. What is needed is an adjuvant or combination of adjuvants that are safe, potent, widely available, easily manufactured, and cost-effective. Based on our review of the field we recommend the following adjuvant combinations either for research or for product development for human use: aluminum salt with adsorbed monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); liposomes containing MPLA [L(MPLA)]; L(MPLA) adsorbed to aluminum salt; oil-in-water emulsion; or oil-in-water emulsion containing MPLA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A mechanism for the dynamo terms to sustain closed-flux current, including helicity balance, by driving current which crosses the magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Sutherland, D. A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    An analysis of imposed dynamo current drive (IDCD) [T.R. Jarboe et al., Nucl. Fusion 52 083017 (2012)] reveals: (a) current drive on closed flux surfaces seems possible without relaxation, reconnection, or other flux-surface-breaking large events; (b) the scale size of the key physics may be smaller than is often computationally resolved; (c) helicity can be sustained across closed flux; and (d) IDCD current drive is parallel to the current which crosses the magnetic field to produce the current driving force. In addition to agreeing with spheromak data, IDCD agrees with selected tokamak data.

  13. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  14. Phase II, randomized, open, controlled study of AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 pre-pandemic influenza vaccine in children aged 3 to 9 years: follow-up of safety and immunogenicity persistence at 24 months post-vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Domingo, Javier; Baldó, José-María; Planelles-Catarino, Maria Victoria; Garcés-Sánchez, María; Ubeda, Isabel; Jubert-Rosich, Angels; Marès, Josep; Garcia-Corbeira, Pilar; Moris, Philippe; Teko, Maurice; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Gillard, Paul

    2015-03-01

    An AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine elicited broad and persistent immune responses with an acceptable safety profile up to 6 months following the first vaccination in children aged 3-9 years. In this follow-up of the Phase II study, we report immunogenicity persistence and safety at 24 months post-vaccination in children aged 3-9 years. The randomized, open-label study assessed two doses of H5N1 A/Vietnam/1194/2004 influenza vaccine (1·9 μg or 3·75 μg hemagglutinin antigen) formulated with AS03A or AS03B (11·89 mg or 5·93 mg tocopherol, respectively). Control groups received seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine. Safety was assessed prospectively and included potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs). Immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition assay 12 and 24 months after vaccination; cross-reactivity and cell-mediated responses were also assessed. (NCT00502593). The safety population included 405 children. Over 24 months, five events fulfilled the criteria for pIMDs, of which four occurred in H5N1 vaccine recipients, including uveitis (n = 1) and autoimmune hepatitis (n = 1), which were considered to be vaccine-related. Overall, safety profiles of the vaccines were clinically acceptable. Humoral immune responses at 12 and 24 months were reduced versus those observed after the second dose of vaccine, although still within the range of those observed after the first dose. Persistence of cell-mediated immunity was strong, and CD4(+) T cells with a TH 1 profile were observed. Two doses of an AS03-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine in children showed low but persistent humoral immune responses and a strong persistence of cell-mediated immunity, with clinically acceptable safety profiles up to 24 months following first vaccination. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [History of vaccination: from empiricism towards recombinant vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, N

    2007-01-01

    Two hundreds years after the discovery of the smallpox vaccine, immunization remains one of the most powerful tools of preventive medicine. Immunization was born with Jenner, then Pasteur and expanded during the 19th and 20th century. It started with the empirical observation of cross-immunity between two diseases, cowpox and smallpox. It became a real science, with pathogen isolation, culture and attenuation or inactivation, to prepare a vaccine. Together with clinical and biological efficacy studies and adverse events assessments, it constructed the concept of "vaccinology". Protein conjugation of polyosidic vaccines has made possible early immunisation of infants. Nowadays, recombinant, reassortant, or virus-like particles technologies open the road for new vaccines. Ongoing research opens the way for the development of new vaccines that will help to control transmittable diseases for which we are lacking antimicrobial agents.

  16. Study of the virulence and cross-neutralization capability of recent porcine parvovirus field isolates and vaccine viruses in experimentally infected pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeuw, E J L; Leinecker, N; Herwig, V; Selbitz, H-J; Truyen, U

    2007-02-01

    The pathogenicity of two recent German field isolates of Porcine parvovirus (PPV-27a and PPV-143a) and two vaccine viruses [PPV-NADL-2 and PPV-IDT (MSV)], which are used for the production of inactivated vaccines, was investigated by inoculation of pregnant sows at day 40 of gestation. Post-infection sera of these sows as well as antisera prepared in rabbits by immunization with the four above-mentioned PPV isolates and with the virulent strain PPV-Challenge (Engl.) were tested for their homologous and heterologous neutralization activities. All antisera had high neutralization activity against the vaccine viruses, the PPV-Challenge (Engl.) virus and PPV-143a, but much lower activity against PPV-27a. These results suggest that PPV-27a represents a new antigenic variant or type of PPV and vaccines based on the established vaccine viruses may not be fully protective against this field isolate. PPV-27a has been characterized based on the amino acid sequences of the capsid protein as a member of a new and distinct PPV cluster (Zimmermann et al., 2006). Interestingly, the homologous neutralizing antibody titres of the sera of all three pigs and both rabbits inoculated or immunized with PPV-27a were 100- to 1000-fold lower than the heterologous titres against any of the other viruses. The low homologous neutralizing antibody titres suggest a possible, yet undefined, immune escape mechanism of this PPV isolate.

  17. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K; McGuire, Peter M; Lanyon, Janet M

    2010-03-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These cross-species microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals. Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Doubly differential detachment cross sections for 0.5-MeV H- on He including projectile excitation to H(n=2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Starace, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed theoretical results are presented for the electron-detachment cross section, doubly differential in both the electron momentum and angle, for the process 0.5-MeV H - +He→H(n=2)+e - +He * . As discussed briefly elsewhere [C. R. Liu and A. F. Starace, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 407 (1989)], the laboratory-frame doubly differential cross sections (DDCS's) for electron detachment in the forward direction are shown to depend sensitively on the low-energy states of the H(n=2)-e - three-body system. In particular, the angular dependence of characteristic cusp and shape resonance features is presented. We find that the projectile frame DDCS for detached electron energies in the vicinity of the shape resonance peak is nearly isotropic. This is due in part to the 1 P symmetry of the resonance feature, which limits the angular distribution to constant and cos 2 θ terms, and in part to cancellation in the integral over momentum transfer on which the coefficient of the cos 2 θ term depends

  19. Development and trial of vaccines against Brucella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Lee, John Hwa

    2017-08-31

    The search for ideal brucellosis vaccines remains active today. Currently, no licensed human or canine anti-brucellosis vaccines are available. In bovines, the most successful vaccine (S19) is only used in calves, as adult vaccination results in orchitis in male, prolonged infection, and possible abortion complications in pregnant female cattle. Another widely deployed vaccine (RB51) has a low protective efficacy. An ideal vaccine should exhibit a safe profile as well as enhance protective efficacy. However, currently available vaccines exhibit one or more major drawbacks. Smooth live attenuated vaccines suffer shortcomings such as residual virulence and serodiagnostic interference. Inactivated vaccines, in general, confer relatively low levels of protection. Recent developments to improve brucellosis vaccines include generation of knockout mutants by targeting genes involved in metabolism, virulence, and the lipopolysaccharide synthesis pathway, as well as generation of DNA vaccines, mucosal vaccines, and live vectored vaccines, have all produced varying degrees of success. Herein, we briefly review the bacteriology, pathogenesis, immunological implications, candidate vaccines, vaccinations, and models related to Brucella .

  20. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  1. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  2. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  3. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  4. Vaxjo: A Web-Based Vaccine Adjuvant Database and Its Application for Analysis of Vaccine Adjuvants and Their Uses in Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Sayers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bioinformatics scripts are developed and used to link vaccine adjuvants to different adjuvanted vaccines stored in the general VIOLIN vaccine database. Presently, 103 vaccine adjuvants have been curated in Vaxjo. Among these adjuvants, 98 have been used in 384 vaccines stored in VIOLIN against over 81 pathogens, cancers, or allergies. All these vaccine adjuvants are categorized and analyzed based on adjuvant types, pathogens used, and vaccine types. As a use case study of vaccine adjuvants in infectious disease vaccines, the adjuvants used in Brucella vaccines are specifically analyzed. A user-friendly web query and visualization interface is developed for interactive vaccine adjuvant search. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine adjuvants is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO in the Web Ontology Language (OWL format.

  5. Vaxjo: a web-based vaccine adjuvant database and its application for analysis of vaccine adjuvants and their uses in vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Samantha; Ulysse, Guerlain; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bioinformatics scripts are developed and used to link vaccine adjuvants to different adjuvanted vaccines stored in the general VIOLIN vaccine database. Presently, 103 vaccine adjuvants have been curated in Vaxjo. Among these adjuvants, 98 have been used in 384 vaccines stored in VIOLIN against over 81 pathogens, cancers, or allergies. All these vaccine adjuvants are categorized and analyzed based on adjuvant types, pathogens used, and vaccine types. As a use case study of vaccine adjuvants in infectious disease vaccines, the adjuvants used in Brucella vaccines are specifically analyzed. A user-friendly web query and visualization interface is developed for interactive vaccine adjuvant search. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine adjuvants is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) format.

  6. Novel Adjuvants and Immunomodulators for Veterinary Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Fang, Yongxiang; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants are crucial for efficacy of vaccines, especially subunit and recombinant vaccines. Rational vaccine design, including knowledge-based and molecularly defined adjuvants tailored for directing and potentiating specific types of host immune responses towards the antigens included in the va...

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs related to seasonal influenza vaccine among pregnant women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Greenbaum, Adena; Praphasiri, Prabda; Dawood, Fatimah S; Thompson, Mark G; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Lindblade, Kim A; Olsen, Sonja J; Muangchana, Charung

    2016-04-19

    In 2009, Thailand recommended pregnant women be prioritized for influenza vaccination. Vaccine uptake among Thai pregnant women is lower than other high-risk groups. During December 2012-April 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of Thai pregnant women aged ≥ 15 years attending antenatal clinics at public hospitals in 8 of 77 provinces. A self-administered questionnaire covered knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to influenza vaccination using the Health Belief Model. We examined factors associated with willingness to be vaccinated using log-binomial regression models. The survey was completed by 1031 (96%) of 1072 pregnant women approached. A total of 627 (61%) women had heard about influenza vaccine and were included in the analysis, of whom 262 (42%) were willing to be vaccinated, 155 (25%) had received a healthcare provider recommendation for influenza vaccination and 25 (4%) had received the influenza vaccine during the current pregnancy. In unadjusted models, high levels of perceptions of susceptibility (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0), high levels of belief in the benefits of vaccination (PR 2.3, 95% CI 1.7-3.1), moderate (PR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3) and high (PR 3.4, 95% CI 2.6-4.5) levels of encouragement by others to be vaccinated (i.e., cues to action) were positively associated with willingness to be vaccinated. Moderate (PR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.7) and high levels of (PR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.8) perceived barriers were negatively associated with willingness to be vaccinated. In the final adjusted model, only moderate (PR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0) and high levels of cues to action (PR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.6) were statistically associated with willingness to be vaccinated. Cues to action were associated with willingness to be vaccinated and can be used to inform communication strategies during the vaccine campaign to increase influenza vaccination among Thai pregnant women. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Variables associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance by men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G; Waller, Jennifer L; Miller, Jeremiah; Patel, Pratik; Price, George A; Jackson, Lanier; Wilson, Courtesia

    2009-01-01

    To determine correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance for men. A convenience sample of men aged 18 to 45 years read a one-page information sheet about HPV and the HPV vaccine, then completed a 29-item questionnaire. chi(2) tests were used to determine whether differences in demographic, sexual, and vaccine-related variables existed between levels of wanting the HPV vaccine. Positive correlates of HPV vaccine acceptance included higher education (P acceptance of the HPV vaccine by men.

  9. Vaccine supply, demand, and policy: a primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzumdar, Jagannath M; Cline, Richard R

    2009-01-01

    To provide an overview of supply and demand issues in the vaccine industry and the policy options that have been implemented to resolve these issues. Medline, Policy File, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched to locate academic journal articles. Other sources reviewed included texts on the topics of vaccine history and policy, government agency reports, and reports from independent think tanks. Keywords included vaccines, immunizations, supply, demand, and policy. Search criteria were limited to English language and human studies. Articles pertaining to vaccine demand, supply, and public policy were selected and reviewed for inclusion. By the authors. Vaccines are biologic medications, therefore making their development and production more difficult and costly compared with "small-molecule" drugs. Research and development costs for vaccines can exceed $800 million, and development may require 10 years or more. Strict manufacturing regulations and facility upgrades add to these costs. Policy options to increase and stabilize the supply of vaccines include those aimed at increasing supply, such as government subsidies for basic vaccine research, liability protection for manufacturers, and fast-track approval for new vaccines. Options to increase vaccine demand include advance purchase commitments, government stockpiles, and government financing for select populations. High development costs and multiple barriers to entry have led to a decline in the number of vaccine manufacturers. Although a number of vaccine policies have met with mixed success in increasing the supply of and demand for vaccines, a variety of concerns remain, including developing vaccines for complex pathogens and increasing immunization rates with available vaccines. New policy innovations such as advance market commitments and Medicare Part D vaccine coverage have been implemented and may aid in resolving some of the problems in the vaccine industry.

  10. Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Vrieling, Hilde; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-28

    Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Perceptions and experiences of childhood vaccination communication strategies among caregivers and health workers in Nigeria: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Owoaje, Eme; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Effective vaccination communication with parents is critical in efforts to overcome barriers to childhood vaccination, tackle vaccine hesitancy and improve vaccination coverage. Health workers should be able to provide information to parents and other caregivers and support them in reaching decisions about vaccinating their children. Limited information exists regarding the perceptions of caregivers and health workers on the vaccination communication strategies employed in Nigeria. This study, which forms part of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC) project, aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of caregivers and health workers in Nigeria on vaccination communication strategies implemented in their settings. We conducted the study in two States: Bauchi in Northern Nigeria and Cross River in the south. We carried out observations (n = 40), in-depth interviews (n = 14) and focus group discussions (FGDs) (n = 12) amongst 14 purposively selected health workers, two community leaders and 84 caregivers in the two states. We transcribed data verbatim and analysed the data using a framework analysis approach. Caregivers were informed about vaccination activities through three main sources: health facilities (during health education sessions conducted at antenatal or immunization clinics); media outlets; and announcements (in churches/mosques, communities and markets). Caregivers reported that the information received was very useful. Their preferred sources of information included phone text messages, town announcers, media and church/mosque announcements. Some caregivers perceived the clinic environment, long waiting times and health worker attitudes as barriers to receiving vaccination information.When delivering communication interventions, health workers described issues tied to poor communication skills; poor motivation; and attitudes of community members, including vaccine resistance. Communication about vaccination involves more than the message but is

  12. Perceptions and experiences of childhood vaccination communication strategies among caregivers and health workers in Nigeria: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiong Oku

    Full Text Available Effective vaccination communication with parents is critical in efforts to overcome barriers to childhood vaccination, tackle vaccine hesitancy and improve vaccination coverage. Health workers should be able to provide information to parents and other caregivers and support them in reaching decisions about vaccinating their children. Limited information exists regarding the perceptions of caregivers and health workers on the vaccination communication strategies employed in Nigeria. This study, which forms part of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' (COMMVAC project, aims to explore the perceptions and experiences of caregivers and health workers in Nigeria on vaccination communication strategies implemented in their settings.We conducted the study in two States: Bauchi in Northern Nigeria and Cross River in the south. We carried out observations (n = 40, in-depth interviews (n = 14 and focus group discussions (FGDs (n = 12 amongst 14 purposively selected health workers, two community leaders and 84 caregivers in the two states. We transcribed data verbatim and analysed the data using a framework analysis approach.Caregivers were informed about vaccination activities through three main sources: health facilities (during health education sessions conducted at antenatal or immunization clinics; media outlets; and announcements (in churches/mosques, communities and markets. Caregivers reported that the information received was very useful. Their preferred sources of information included phone text messages, town announcers, media and church/mosque announcements. Some caregivers perceived the clinic environment, long waiting times and health worker attitudes as barriers to receiving vaccination information.When delivering communication interventions, health workers described issues tied to poor communication skills; poor motivation; and attitudes of community members, including vaccine resistance.Communication about vaccination involves more than the

  13. Factors for incomplete adherence to antiretroviral therapy including drug refill and clinic visits among older adults living with human immunodeficiency virus - cross-sectional study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Abbie; Ford, Nathan; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2018-03-01

    To assess adherence outcomes to antiretroviral therapy (ART) of recipients ≥50 years in Soweto, South Africa. This was a secondary data analysis for a cross-sectional study at two HIV clinics in Soweto. Data on ART adherence and covariates were gathered through structured interviews with HIV 878 persons living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations. PLHIV ≥50 years (n = 103) were more likely to miss clinic visits during the last six months than PLHIV aged 25-49 (OR 2.15; 95%CI 1.10-4.18). PLHIV ≥50 years with no or primary-level education were less likely to have missed a clinic visit during the last six months than PLHIV with secondary- or tertiary-level education in the same age category (OR 0.3; 95%CI 0.1-1.1), as were PLHIV who did not disclose their status (OR 0.2; 95%CI 0-1.1). There was no evidence of increased risk for non-adherence to ART pills and drug refill visits among older PLHIV. Missing a clinic visit was more common among older PLHIV who were more financially vulnerable. Further studies are needed to verify these findings and identify new risk factors associated with ART adherence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Characterization of highly informative cross-species microsatellite panels for the Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) including five novel primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret Kellogg; Broderick, Damien; Ovenden, Jennifer R.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; Bonde, Robert K.; McGuire, Peter M.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    The Australian dugong (Dugong dugon) and Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are threatened species of aquatic mammals in the order Sirenia. Sirenian conservation and management actions would benefit from a more complete understanding of genetic diversity and population structure. Generally, species-specific microsatellite markers are employed in conservation genetic studies; however, robust markers can be difficult and costly to isolate. To increase the number of available markers, dugong and manatee microsatellite primers were evaluated for cross-species amplification. Furthermore, one manatee and four dugong novel primers are reported. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, 23 (92%) manatee primers successfully amplified dugong DNA, of which 11 (48%) were polymorphic. Of the 32 dugong primers tested, 27 (84%) yielded product in the manatee, of which 17 (63%) were polymorphic. Dugong and manatee primers were compared and the most informative markers were selected to create robust and informative marker-panels for each species. These crossspecies microsatellite marker-panels can be employed to assess other sirenian populations and can provide beneficial information for the protection and management of these unique mammals.

  15. A cross-reacting material CRM197 conjugate vaccine induces diphtheria toxin neutralizing antibody response in children and adolescents infected or not with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Giselle P; Santos, Rafaela S; Pereira-Manfro, Wânia F; Ferreira, Bianca; Barreto, Daniella M; Frota, Ana Cristina C; Hofer, Cristina B; Milagres, Lucimar G

    2017-07-05

    Anti-diphtheria antibody levels decrease with aging, and frequent booster vaccinations are required to maintain herd immunity. We analyzed the diphtheria toxin neutralizing antibody (DT-Nab) response induced by a conjugate vaccine (meningococcal C polysaccharide-CRM 197 ) in HIV-vertically infected (HI) children and adolescents and healthy controls (HC) with matched age. We report the association of DT-Nab with the bactericidal antibodies to serogroup C meningococcus (MenC). Before vaccination, 21 HI patients (50%) had no protection against diphtheria (≤0.01IU/ml of antibody) and only 8 (19%) showed complete protection (≥0.1IU/ml). About half of the HC (56%) had complete protection before immunization and 6 subjects (12%) had no protection against diphtheria. After one and two vaccine injections, 96% of HC and 64% of HI vaccinees, respectively, showed full protection against diphtheria. These data indicate that CRM 197 was able to induce primary and/or booster response in both groups of individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protection against H5N1 by multiple immunizations with seasonal influenza vaccine in mice is correlated with H5 cross-reactive antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Anna; Roozendaal, Ramon; Theeuwsen, Jessica; Riahi, Sarra; Vaneman, Joost; Tolboom, Jeroen; Dekking, Liesbeth; Koudstaal, Wouter; Goudsmit, Jaap; Radošević, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current seasonal influenza vaccines are believed to confer protection against a narrow range of virus strains. However, their protective ability is commonly estimated based on an in vitro correlate of protection that only considers a subset of anti-influenza antibodies that are typically

  17. Vaccination of Ferrets for Rabies and Distemper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Laura L

    2018-01-01

    Companion ferrets need to be vaccinated against 2 viral diseases that cause neurologic illness: canine distemper and rabies. Although not common in ferrets, both viruses are fatal in ferrets and rabies virus is also fatal in humans. In this article, we provide a basic review of the 2 diseases, highlighting key neurologic concerns. We also review and update current vaccine concerns from a practitioner's perspective, including available vaccines, vaccine schedule recommendations, vaccine reactions, and risk assessment. Last, we mention the ferret and its use in cutting-edge vaccine development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Does vaccination ensure protection? Assessing diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels in a population of healthy children: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Ewelina; Wysocki, Jacek; Kałużna, Ewelina; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Wysocka-Leszczyńska, Joanna; Michalak, Michał; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta

    2016-12-01

    Vaccination effectiveness is proven when the disease does not develop after a patient is exposed to the pathogen. In the case of rare diseases, vaccination effectiveness is assessed by monitoring specific antibody levels in the population. Such recurrent analyses allow the evaluation of vaccination programs. The primary schedule of diphtheria and tetanus vaccinations is similar in various countries, with differences mainly in the number and timing of booster doses. The aim of the study was to assess diphtheria and tetanus antibody concentrations in a population of healthy children.Diphtheria and tetanus antibody levels were analyzed in a group of 324 children aged 18 to 180 months. All children were vaccinated in accordance with the Polish vaccination schedule.Specific antibody concentrations greater than 0.1 IU/mL were considered protective against tetanus or diphtheria. Levels above 1.0 were considered to ensure long-term protection.Protective levels of diphtheria antibodies were found in 229 patients (70.46%), and of tetanus in 306 patients (94.15%). Statistically significant differences were found in tetanus antibody levels in different age groups. Mean concentrations and the percentage of children with high tetanus antibody titers increased with age. No similar correlation was found for diphtheria antibodies. High diphtheria antibody levels co-occurred in 72% of the children with high tetanus antibody levels; 95% of the children with low tetanus antibody levels had low levels of diphtheria antibodies.The percentage of children with protective diphtheria antibody levels is lower than that in the case of tetanus antibodies, both in Poland and abroad, but the high proportion of children without diphtheria protection in Poland is an exception. This is all the more puzzling when taking into account that Polish children are administered a total of 5 doses containing a high concentration of diphtheria toxoid, at intervals shorter than 5 years. The decrease in

  19. Vaccines, inspiring innovation in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Dennehy, Maureen; Kim, Hun

    2018-05-19

    This report covers the topics of pandemics, epidemics and partnerships, including regulatory convergence initiatives, new technologies and novel vaccines, discussed by leading public and private sector stakeholders at the 18th Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN). Contributions of Gavi and the vaccine industry from emerging countries to the growing global vaccine market, by improving the supply base from manufacturers in developing countries and contributing to 58% of doses, were highlighted. The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), the International Vaccine Institute (IVI) and others reported on new strategies to ensure speedy progress in preclinical and clinical development of innovative vaccines for future MERS, Zika or other outbreak response. Priorities for vaccine stockpiling, to assure readiness during emergencies and to prevent outbreaks due to re-emerging diseases such as yellow fever, cholera and poliomyelitis, were outlined. The role of partnerships in improving global vaccine access, procurement and immunization coverage, and shared concerns were reviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other international collaborating partners provided updates on the Product, Price and Procurement database, the prequalification of vaccines, the control of neglected tropical diseases, particularly the new rabies elimination initiative, and regulatory convergence proposals to accelerate vaccine registration in developing countries. Updates on supply chain innovations and novel vaccine platforms were presented. The discussions enabled members and partners to reflect on efficiency of research & development, supply chain tools and trends in packaging technologies improving delivery of existing vaccines, and allowing a deeper understanding of the current public-health objectives, industry financing, and global policies, required to ensure optimal investments, alignment and stability of

  20. Shigella vaccine development: prospective animal models and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Jeong; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Park, Jae-Hak; Ko, Hyun-Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Shigella was first discovered in 1897 and is a major causative agent of dysenteric diarrhea. The number of affected patients has decreased globally because of improved sanitary conditions; however, Shigella still causes serious problems in many subjects, including young children and the elderly, especially in developing countries. Although antibiotics may be effective, a vaccine would be the most powerful solution to combat shigellosis because of the emergence of drug-resistant strains. However, the development of a vaccine is hampered by several problems. First, there is no suitable animal model that can replace human-based studies for the investigation of the in vivo mechanisms of Shigella vaccines. Mouse, guinea pig, rat, rabbit, and nonhuman primates could be used as models for shigellosis, but they do not represent human shigellosis and each has its own weaknesses. However, a recent murine model based on peritoneal infection with virulent S. flexneri 2a is promising. Moreover, although the inflammatory responses and mechanisms such as pathogenassociated molecular patterns and danger-associated molecular patterns have been studied, the pathology and immunology of Shigella are still not clearly defined. Despite these obstacles, many vaccine candidates have been developed, including live attenuated, killed whole cells, conjugated, and subunit vaccines. The development of Shigella vaccines also demands considerations of the cost, routes of administration, ease of storage (stability), cross-reactivity, safety, and immunogenicity. The main aim of this review is to provide a detailed introduction to the many promising vaccine candidates and animal models currently available, including the newly developed mouse model.

  1. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL .... tein vaccines require expensive virus/protein purification tech- niques as ... sphere continue to remain major health hazards in developing nations. ... significance since it can be produced at a very low cost and can be stored ...

  2. Vaccination Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination involves priming the immune system with an antigenic agent that mimics a virus or bacterium, which results in immunity against the “real” microorganism. Collective vaccination policies have played an important role in the control of infectious disease worldwide. They can serve the

  3. TUMOUR VACCINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ernst; Kircheis, Ralf; Crommelin, D.; Van Slooten, Maaike; Storm, Gert

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a tumour vaccine with a tumour antigen base. In addition to a source of tumour antigens, the vaccine contains a release system for the delayed release of the active agent IFN- gamma , the active dose of IFN- gamma being 50 ng to 5 mu g. The IFN- gamma is released over a

  4. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  5. ASSOCIATION OF KNEE PAIN WITH A REDUCTION IN THIGH MUSCLE STRENGTH – A CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS INCLUDING 4553 OSTEOARTHRITIS INITIATIVE PARTICIPANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Objective To cross-sectionally determine the quantitative relationship of age-adjusted, sex-specific isometric knee extensor and flexor strength to patient-reported knee pain. Methods Difference of thigh muscle strength by age, and that of age-adjusted strength per unit increase on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) knee pain scale, was estimated from linear regression analysis of 4553 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants (58% women). Strata encompassing the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in knee pain were compared to evaluate a potentially non-linear relationship between WOMAC pain levels and muscle strength. Results In Osteoarthritis Initiative participants without pain, the age-related difference in isometric knee extensor strength was −9.0%/−8.2% (women/men) per decade, and that of flexor strength was −11%/−6.9%. Differences in age-adjusted strength values for each unit of WOMAC pain (1/20) amounted to −1.9%/−1.6% for extensor and −2.5%/−1.7% for flexor strength. Differences in torque/weight for each unit of WOMAC pain ranged from −3.3 to − 2.1%. There was no indication of a non-linear relationship between pain and strength across the range of observed WOMAC values, and similar results were observed in women and men. Conclusion Each increase by 1/20 units in WOMAC pain was associated with a ~2% lower age-adjusted isometric extensor and flexor strength in either sex. As a reduction in muscle strength is known to prospectively increase symptoms in knee osteoarthritis and as pain appears to reduce thigh muscle strength, adequate therapy of pain and muscle strength is required in knee osteoarthritis patients to avoid a vicious circle of self-sustaining clinical deterioration. PMID:27836675

  6. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production......Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested...... in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...

  7. Validation of the vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Gilla K; Holding, Anne; Perez, Samara; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2016-12-01

    Parents' vaccine attitudes influence their decision regarding child vaccination. To date, no study has evaluated the impact of vaccine conspiracy beliefs on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance. The authors assessed the validity of a Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (VCBS) and determined whether this scale was associated with parents' willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine. Canadian parents completed a 24-min online survey in 2014. Measures included socio-demographic variables, HPV knowledge, health care provider recommendation, Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), the seven-item VCBS, and parents' willingness to vaccinate their son at two price points. A total of 1427 Canadian parents completed the survey in English (61.2%) or French (38.8%). A Factor Analysis revealed the VCBS is one-dimensional and has high internal consistency (α=0.937). The construct validity of the VCBS was supported by a moderate relationship with the CMQ (r=0.44, pparents' willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine at both price points ('free' or '$300') after controlling for gender, age, household income, education level, HPV knowledge, and health care provider recommendation. The VCBS is a brief, valid scale that will be useful in further elucidating the correlates of vaccine hesitancy. Future research could use the VCBS to evaluate the impact of vaccine conspiracies beliefs on vaccine uptake and how concerns about vaccination may be challenged and reversed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in France, Germany, and the UK - a cross-sectional study including 4,270,142 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Louis; Kostev, Karel

    2018-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions in general practices in France, Germany, and the UK. This study included all patients aged ≥18 years followed in 2016 in general practitioner practices in France, Germany and the UK. The primary outcome was the prevalence of patients receiving prescriptions for pain medications in France, Germany, and the UK in 2016. The following drugs were included in the analysis: anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products, non-steroids and analgesics including opioids, antimigraine preparations, and other analgesics and antipyretics. Demographic variables included age and gender. This study included 4,270,142 patients. The prevalences of pain medication prescriptions were 57.3% in France, 29.6% in Germany, and 21.7% in the UK. Although this prevalence generally remained consistent between age groups in France (54.3%-60.3%), it increased with age in Germany (18-30 years: 23.8%; >70 years: 35.8%) and in the UK (18-30 years: 9.3%; >70 years: 43.8%). Finally, the prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in women than in men in all three countries. Paracetamol was prescribed to 82.3% and 60.1% of patients receiving pain medication in France and the UK, respectively, whereas ibuprofen was prescribed to 46.5% of individuals in Germany. The prevalence of pain medication prescriptions was higher in France than in Germany and the UK. Further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the differences in the prescription patterns between these three European countries.

  9. Vaccine Hesitancy Among Caregivers and Association with Childhood Vaccination Timeliness in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Nina B; Tefera, Yemesrach A; Wagner, Abram L; Boulton, Matthew L

    2018-05-24

    Vaccines are vital to reducing childhood mortality, and prevent an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths annually which disproportionately occur in the developing world. Overall vaccine coverage is typically used as a metric to evaluate the adequacy of vaccine program performance, though it does not account for untimely administration, which may unnecessarily prolong children's susceptibility to disease. This study explored a hypothesized positive association between increasing vaccine hesitancy and untimeliness of immunizations administered under the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This cross-sectional survey employed a multistage sampling design, randomly selecting one health center within five sub-cities of Addis Ababa. Caregivers of 3 to 12-month-old infants completed a questionnaire on vaccine hesitancy, and their infants' vaccination cards were examined to assess timeliness of received vaccinations. The sample comprised 350 caregivers. Overall, 82.3% of the surveyed children received all recommended vaccines, although only 55.9% of these vaccinations were timely. Few caregivers (3.4%) reported ever hesitating and 3.7% reported ever refusing a vaccine for their child. Vaccine hesitancy significantly increased the odds of untimely vaccination (AOR 1.94, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.71) in the adjusted analysis. This study found high vaccine coverage among a sample of 350 young children in Addis Ababa, though only half received all recommended vaccines on time. High vaccine hesitancy was strongly associated with infants' untimely vaccination, indicating that increased efforts to educate community members and providers about vaccines may have a beneficial impact on vaccine timeliness in Addis Ababa.

  10. Vaccination against group B streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Paul T; Feldman, Robert G

    2005-04-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus) is an important cause of disease in infants, pregnant women, the elderly and in immunosuppressed adults. An effective vaccine is likely to prevent the majority of infant disease (both early and late onset), as well as Group B streptococcus-related stillbirths and prematurity, to avoid the current real and theoretical limitations of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, and to be cost effective. The optimal time to administer such a vaccine would be in the third trimester of pregnancy. The main limitations on the production of a Group B streptococcus vaccine are not technical or scientific, but regulatory and legal. A number of candidates including capsular conjugate vaccines using traditional carrier proteins such as tetanus toxoid and mutant diphtheria toxin CRM197, as well as Group B streptococcus-specific proteins such as C5a peptidase, protein vaccines using one or more Group B streptococcus surface proteins and mucosal vaccines, have the potential to be successful vaccines. The capsular conjugate vaccines using tetanus and CRM197 carrier proteins are the most advanced candidates, having already completed Phase II human studies including use in the target population of pregnant women (tetanus toxoid conjugate), however, no definitive protein conjugates have yet been trialed. However, unless the regulatory environment is changed specifically to allow the development of a Group B streptococcus vaccine, it is unlikely that one will ever reach the market.

  11. THE PRELIMINARY DATA ON NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE VACCINES COMBINED APPLICATION IN CHILDREN OF 6–7 YEARS OLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Konovalov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, safety for influenza vaccine in combination with diphtheria vaccine, tetanus and measles vaccine, rubella vaccine, and epidemic parotitis in children of 6–7 years old was assessed. All vaccines showed good tolerability and low reactogenicity for combined immunization. Influenza «Grippol plus» vaccine is safe and highly immunogenic, and does not cause cross antibody suppression being applied in combination with mentioned National Immunization Schedule vaccines.

  12. Vaccines for human papillomavirus infection: A critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Amiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a critical look at the pros and cons of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines. There is enough evidence to suggest that the prophylactic vaccines are efficacious in preventing various benign and malignant conditions (including cervical cancers caused by HPV. Even though the vaccine is costly, hypothetical analysis has shown that HPV vaccination will be cost effective in the long run. Therapeutic HPV vaccines used to treat established disease are still undergoing evaluation in clinical studies, and results seem to be encouraging. Although several countries have started mandatory vaccination programs with the prophylactic HPV vaccines, conservatives have voiced concerns regarding the moral impact of such vaccination programs.

  13. A novel H6N1 virus-like particle vaccine induces long-lasting cross-clade antibody immunity against human and avian H6N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji-Rong; Chen, Chih-Yuan; Kuo, Chuan-Yi; Cheng, Chieh-Yu; Lee, Min-Shiuh; Cheng, Ming-Chu; Yang, Yu-Chih; Wu, Chia-Ying; Wu, Ho-Sheng; Liu, Ming-Tsan; Hsiao, Pei-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Avian influenza A(H6N1) virus is one of the most common viruses isolated from migrating birds and domestic poultry in many countries. The first and only known case of human infection by H6N1 virus in the world was reported in Taiwan in 2013. This led to concern that H6N1 virus may cause a threat to public health. In this study, we engineered a recombinant H6N1 virus-like particle (VLP) and investigated its vaccine effectiveness compared to the traditional egg-based whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine. The H6N1-VLPs exhibited similar morphology and functional characteristics to influenza viruses. Prime-boost intramuscular immunization in mice with unadjuvanted H6N1-VLPs were highly immunogenic and induced long-lasting antibody immunity. The functional activity of the VLP-elicited IgG antibodies was proved by in vitro seroprotective hemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization titers against the homologous human H6N1 virus, as well as in vivo viral challenge analyses which showed H6N1-VLP immunization significantly reduced viral load in the lung, and protected against human H6N1 virus infection. Of particular note, the H6N1-VLPs but not the H6N1-WIVs were able to confer cross-reactive humoral immunity; antibodies induced by H6N1-VLP vaccine robustly inhibited the hemagglutination activities and in vitro replication of distantly-related heterologous avian H6N1 viruses. Furthermore, the H6N1-VLPs were found to elicit significantly greater anti-HA2 antibody responses in immunized mice than H6N1-WIVs. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time a novel H6N1-VLP vaccine that effectively provides broadly protective immunity against both human and avian H6N1 viruses. These results, which uncover the underlying mechanisms for induction of wide-range immunity against influenza viruses, may be useful for future influenza vaccine development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood pneumococcal pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian Shayne F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP or pneumococcus is estimated to cause 821,000 child deaths each year. It has over 90 serotypes, of which 7 to 13 serotypes are included in current formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines that are efficacious in young children. To further reduce the burden from SP pneumonia, a vaccine is required that could protect children from a greater diversity of serotypes. Two different types of vaccines against pneumococcal pneumonia are currently at varying stages of development: a multivalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine covering additional SP serotypes; and a conserved common pneumococcal protein antigen (PPA vaccine offering protection for all serotypes. Methods We used a modified CHNRI methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. This was done in two stages. In Stage I, we systematically reviewed the literature related to emerging SP vaccines relevant to several criteria of interest: answerability; efficacy and effectiveness; cost of development, production and implementation; deliverability, affordability and sustainability; maximum potential for disease burden reduction; acceptability to the end users and health workers; and effect on equity. In Stage II, we conducted an expert opinion exercise by inviting 20 experts (leading basic scientists, international public health researchers, international policy makers and representatives of pharmaceutical companies. The policy makers and industry representatives accepted our invitation on the condition of anonymity, due to sensitive nature of their involvement in such exercises. They answered questions from CHNRI framework and their “collective optimism” towards each criterion was documented on a scale from 0 to 100%. Results The experts expressed very high level of optimism (over 80% that low-cost polysaccharide conjugate SP vaccines would satisfy each of the 9

  15. Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Rachael; Paul, Mical; Richardson, Marty; Neuberger, Ami

    2018-05-31

    Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia. Two typhoid vaccines are widely available, Ty21a (oral) and Vi polysaccharide (parenteral). Newer typhoid conjugate vaccines are at varying stages of development and use. The World Health Organization has recently recommended a Vi tetanus toxoid (Vi-TT) conjugate vaccine, Typbar-TCV, as the preferred vaccine for all ages. To assess the effects of vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. In February 2018, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and mRCT. We also searched the reference lists of all included trials. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing typhoid fever vaccines with other typhoid fever vaccines or with an inactive agent (placebo or vaccine for a different disease) in adults and children. Human challenge studies were not eligible. Two review authors independently applied inclusion criteria and extracted data, and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We computed vaccine efficacy per year of follow-up and cumulative three-year efficacy, stratifying for vaccine type and dose. The outcome addressed was typhoid fever, defined as isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in blood. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) and efficacy (1 - RR as a percentage) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In total, 18 RCTs contributed to the quantitative analysis in this review: 13 evaluated efficacy (Ty21a: 5 trials; Vi polysaccharide: 6 trials; Vi-rEPA: 1 trial; Vi-TT: 1 trial), and 9 reported on adverse events. All trials but one took place in typhoid-endemic countries. There was no information on vaccination in adults aged over 55 years of age, pregnant women, or travellers. Only one trial included data on children under two years of age.Ty21a vaccine (oral vaccine, three doses

  16. An innovative influenza vaccination policy: targeting last season's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Dan; Gavious, Arieh; Solnik, Eyal; Davidovitch, Nadav; Balicer, Ran D; Galvani, Alison P; Pliskin, Joseph S

    2014-05-01

    Influenza vaccination is the primary approach to prevent influenza annually. WHO/CDC recommendations prioritize vaccinations mainly on the basis of age and co-morbidities, but have never considered influenza infection history of individuals for vaccination targeting. We evaluated such influenza vaccination policies through small-world contact networks simulations. Further, to verify our findings we analyzed, independently, large-scale empirical data of influenza diagnosis from the two largest Health Maintenance Organizations in Israel, together covering more than 74% of the Israeli population. These longitudinal individual-level data include about nine million cases of influenza diagnosed over a decade. Through contact network epidemiology simulations, we found that individuals previously infected with influenza have a disproportionate probability of being highly connected within networks and transmitting to others. Therefore, we showed that prioritizing those previously infected for vaccination would be more effective than a random vaccination policy in reducing infection. The effectiveness of such a policy is robust over a range of epidemiological assumptions, including cross-reactivity between influenza strains conferring partial protection as high as 55%. Empirically, our analysis of the medical records confirms that in every age group, case definition for influenza, clinical diagnosis, and year tested, patients infected in the year prior had a substantially higher risk of becoming infected in the subsequent year. Accordingly, considering individual infection history in targeting and promoting influenza vaccination is predicted to be a highly effective supplement to the current policy. Our approach can also be generalized for other infectious disease, computer viruses, or ecological networks.

  17. An innovative influenza vaccination policy: targeting last season's patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yamin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza vaccination is the primary approach to prevent influenza annually. WHO/CDC recommendations prioritize vaccinations mainly on the basis of age and co-morbidities, but have never considered influenza infection history of individuals for vaccination targeting. We evaluated such influenza vaccination policies through small-world contact networks simulations. Further, to verify our findings we analyzed, independently, large-scale empirical data of influenza diagnosis from the two largest Health Maintenance Organizations in Israel, together covering more than 74% of the Israeli population. These longitudinal individual-level data include about nine million cases of influenza diagnosed over a decade. Through contact network epidemiology simulations, we found that individuals previously infected with influenza have a disproportionate probability of being highly connected within networks and transmitting to others. Therefore, we showed that prioritizing those previously infected for vaccination would be more effective than a random vaccination policy in reducing infection. The effectiveness of such a policy is robust over a range of epidemiological assumptions, including cross-reactivity between influenza strains conferring partial protection as high as 55%. Empirically, our analysis of the medical records confirms that in every age group, case definition for influenza, clinical diagnosis, and year tested, patients infected in the year prior had a substantially higher risk of becoming infected in the subsequent year. Accordingly, considering individual infection history in targeting and promoting influenza vaccination is predicted to be a highly effective supplement to the current policy. Our approach can also be generalized for other infectious disease, computer viruses, or ecological networks.

  18. Live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Current status and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-08-07

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) was reported in the late 1980s. PRRS still is a huge economic concern to the global pig industry with a current annual loss estimated at one billion US dollars in North America alone. It has been 20 years since the first modified live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine (PRRSV-MLV) became commercially available. PRRSV-MLVs provide homologous protection and help in reducing shedding of heterologous viruses, but they do not completely protect pigs against heterologous field strains. There have been many advances in understanding the biology and ecology of PRRSV; however, the complexities of virus-host interaction and PRRSV vaccinology are not yet completely understood leaving a significant gap for improving breadth of immunity against diverse PRRS isolates. This review provides insights on immunization efforts using infectious PRRSV-based vaccines since the 1990s, beginning with live PRRSV immunization, development and commercialization of PRRSV-MLV, and strategies to overcome the deficiencies of PRRSV-MLV through use of replicating viral vectors expressing multiple PRRSV membrane proteins. Finally, powerful reverse genetics systems (infectious cDNA clones) generated from more than 20 PRRSV isolates of both genotypes 1 and 2 viruses have provided a great resource for exploring many innovative strategies to improve the safety and cross-protective efficacy of live PRRSV vaccines. Examples include vaccines with diminished ability to down-regulate the immune system, positive and negative marker vaccines, multivalent vaccines incorporating antigens from other porcine pathogens, vaccines that carry their own cytokine adjuvants, and chimeric vaccine viruses with the potential for broad cross-protection against heterologous strains. To combat this devastating pig disease in the future, evaluation and commercialization of such improved live PRRSV vaccines is a shared goal among PRRSV researchers, pork

  19. Risk Perceptions, Barriers, and Self-Efficacy of Hepatitis B Screening and Vaccination among Chinese Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Grace X.; Shive, Steven S.; Toubbeh, Jamil; Wu, Dunli; Wang, Ping

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is a serious health problem among Asian Americans, including Chinese Americans. This study was conducted to measure the perceptions of risk, barriers, and self-efficacy of HBV screening and vaccination in Chinese immigrants. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Chinese Americans in New York City. A…

  20. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  1. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  2. Safety of human papillomavirus vaccines: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Stillo, Michela; Carrillo Santisteve, Paloma; Lopalco, Pier Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Between 2006 and 2009, two different human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccines were licensed for use: a quadrivalent (qHPVv) and a bivalent (bHPVv) vaccine. Since 2008, HPV vaccination programmes have been implemented in the majority of the industrialized countries. Since 2013, HPV vaccination has been part of the national programs of 66 countries including almost all countries in North America and Western Europe. Despite all the efforts made by individual countries, coverage ra...

  3. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A Twelve Years After the Implementation of Toddlers' Vaccination: A Population-Based Study in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassal, Ravit; Weil, Merav; Cohen, Daniel; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella; Shohat, Tamy

    2017-10-01

    In 1999, Israel became the first country to introduce an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine into its national childhood vaccination program. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibodies in the Israeli population before and after the introduction of the program. A cross-sectional serosurvey using the National Serum Bank was conducted on 1883 and 2027 serum samples collected before and after introduction of the vaccine, respectively. Serologic tests for the presence of hepatitis A IgG antibodies were performed using an automated enzyme-linked fluorescent assay. The age-adjusted seroprevalence rates of hepatitis A virus antibodies before implementation of hepatitis A vaccination program were 47.1% [95% confidence interval (CI): 44.7%-49.5%] among Jews and 82.8% (95% CI: 79.6%-85.9%) among Arabs, increasing 12 years after to 67.4% (95% CI: 64.7%-70.0%) and 88.2% (95% CI: 86.1%-90.2%), respectively. The seropositivity rate among Jews and Arabs increased significantly among the cohorts included in the program. However, among Jews, a significant increase in seropositivity was also detected among age groups not included in the vaccination program. The decrease in the incidence of hepatitis A in Israel is a consequence of high vaccine uptake, persistent seropositivity rates after vaccination and the considerable number of people vaccinated beyond the program.

  4. Whither vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Charlene M C; Pinto, Marta V; Sadarangani, Manish; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2017-06-01

    Currently used vaccines have had major effects on eliminating common infections, largely by duplicating the immune responses induced by natural infections. Now vaccinology faces more complex problems, such as waning antibody, immunosenescence, evasion of immunity by the pathogen, deviation of immunity by the microbiome, induction of inhibitory responses, and complexity of the antigens required for protection. Fortunately, vaccine development is now incorporating knowledge from immunology, structural biology, systems biology and synthetic chemistry to meet these challenges. In addition, international organisations are developing new funding and licensing pathways for vaccines aimed at pathogens with epidemic potential that emerge from tropical areas. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Common Perceptions of Parents Requesting Personal Exemption from Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Beckstrand, Renea L.; Meyers, Carly J. H.

    2013-01-01

    School nurses, as vaccination advocates, need to be aware of parents' common concerns regarding vaccines, so the nurse can develop strategies to communicate with parents. The purpose of this cross sectional, descriptive study was to identify common reasons parents in Utah seek exempting rather than vaccinating their children. Data were collected…

  6. Vaccination persuasion online: a qualitative study of two provaccine and two vaccine-skeptical websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Lenny; Hausman, Bernice L; Cashion, Margaret; Lucchesi, Nicholas; Patel, Kelsey; Roberts, Jonathan

    2015-05-29

    Current concerns about vaccination resistance often cite the Internet as a source of vaccine controversy. Most academic studies of vaccine resistance online use quantitative methods to describe misinformation on vaccine-skeptical websites. Findings from these studies are useful for categorizing the generic features of these websites, but they do not provide insights into why these websites successfully persuade their viewers. To date, there have been few attempts to understand, qualitatively, the persuasive features of provaccine or vaccine-skeptical websites. The purpose of this research was to examine the persuasive features of provaccine and vaccine-skeptical websites. The qualitative analysis was conducted to generate hypotheses concerning what features of these websites are persuasive to people seeking information about vaccination and vaccine-related practices. This study employed a fully qualitative case study methodology that used the anthropological method of thick description to detail and carefully review the rhetorical features of 1 provaccine government website, 1 provaccine hospital website, 1 vaccine-skeptical information website focused on general vaccine safety, and 1 vaccine-skeptical website focused on a specific vaccine. The data gathered were organized into 5 domains: website ownership, visual and textual content, user experience, hyperlinking, and social interactivity. The study found that the 2 provaccine websites analyzed functioned as encyclopedias of vaccine information. Both of the websites had relatively small digital ecologies because they only linked to government websites or websites that endorsed vaccination and evidence-based medicine. Neither of these websites offered visitors interactive features or made extensive use of the affordances of Web 2.0. The study also found that the 2 vaccine-skeptical websites had larger digital ecologies because they linked to a variety of vaccine-related websites, including government websites. They

  7. Medical students' attitude towards influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Birthe A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wicker, Sabine; Chapman, Gretchen; Kok, Gerjo

    2015-04-15

    Influenza vaccination is recommended for all healthcare personnel (HCP) and most institutions offer vaccination for free and on site. However, medical students do not always have such easy access, and the predictors that might guide the motivation of medical students to get vaccinated are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study among pre-clinical medical students in a German University hospital to assess the social cognitive predictors of influenza vaccination, as well as reasons for refusal and acceptance of the vaccine. Findings show that pre-clinical medical students have comparable knowledge gaps and negative attitudes towards influenza vaccination that have previously been reported among HCP. Lower injunctive norms and higher feelings of autonomy contribute to no intention to get vaccinated against influenza, while a positive instrumental attitude and higher feelings of autonomy contribute to a high intention to get vaccinated. The variables in the regression model explained 20% of the variance in intention to get vaccinated. The identified factors should be addressed early in medical education, and hospitals might benefit from a more inclusive vaccination program and accessibility of free vaccines for their medical students.

  8. Employee influenza vaccination in residential care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apenteng, Bettye A; Opoku, Samuel T

    2014-03-01

    The organizational literature on infection control in residential care facilities is limited. Using a nationally representative dataset, we examined the organizational factors associated with implementing at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, as well as the effect of vaccination policies on health care worker (HCW) influenza vaccine uptake in residential care facilities. The study was a cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to address the study's objectives. Facility size, director's educational attainment, and having a written influenza pandemic preparedness plan were significantly associated with the implementation of at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, after controlling for other facility-level factors. Recommending vaccination to employees, providing vaccination on site, providing vaccinations to employees at no cost, and requiring vaccination as a condition of employment were associated with higher employee influenza vaccination rates. Residential care facilities can improve vaccination rates among employees by adopting effective employee vaccination policies. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the impact of hepatitis B vaccination in adults in Jiangsu province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Zhu

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B immunization programs for newborns, children, and adolescents in China have shown remarkable results. To establish whether there would be any benefit in extending the program to cover older individuals, we examined both the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and the coverage of hepatitis B vaccinations among adults born before routine vaccinations were implemented. We then evaluated the impact of hepatitis B vaccination in adults aged 20-59 years. A large-scale cross-sectional epidemiological survey of HBV infection was performed in the province of Jiangsu, south-east China, between September 2009 and March 2010. A total of 86,732 adults aged 20-59 years were included, of which 8,615 (9.9%, 95% CI = 9.7-10.1% were HBsAg sero-positive. Self-reported vaccination status suggested that the coverage was approximately 23.7% (95% CI = 23.4-24.0%. It was shown that higher HBV vaccination coverage was associated with a lower rate of HBsAg seropositivity among adults. There was a negative correlation between hepatitis B vaccination coverage and HBsAg prevalence (correlation coefficient = -0.805, p = 0.016, which might demonstrate the combined effects of vaccination and pre-vaccination HBsAg screening. In the unvaccinated group, the HBsAg-positive rate had an obvious upward trend with age growing among 20-39 year-olds (Trend χ2 = 22.605, P<0.001, while the vaccinated group showed no such trend (Trend χ2 = 3.462, P = 0.063. Overall, hepatitis B vaccination in adults might reduce the rate of HBsAg positivity. Therefore, routine immunization of adults aged 20-39 years should be seriously considered.

  10. [Role of vaccination in animal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoret, Paul-Pierre

    2012-03-01

    According to the IFAH, veterinary vaccines currently account for 26% of the global market in veterinary medicines, reflecting the importance of vaccines in animal health, as well as the number of wild and domesticated target species, and the monospecific nature of most vaccines. Multispecies vaccines include tetanus and rabies. In 2010, the number of food-producing animals was estimated to be roughly 20 billion and is rising gradually. Fowl currently represent the main food species. Veterinary vaccination has allowed the eradication of rinderpest, as officially declared last year (2011), jointly by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). Rinderpest was a real scourge, and was only the second viral disease to be totally eradicated (after human smallpox). One characteristic of veterinary vaccination is the DIVA approach, "differentiating infected from vaccinated animals". The DIVA strategy is especially interesting for regulated control of diseases like foot-and-mouth disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, pseudorabies, and classical swine fever. DIVA vaccination requires prior serological testing. Vaccination is also used for wild animals such as foxes (rabies) and wild boars (classical swine fever). "In ovo" vaccination of fowl on day 18 of the incubation period is used to prevent Marek's disease for instance, and double vaccination (vector and insert) to prevent both Marek's disease and Gumboro's disease in fowl. Animal vaccination can also help to protect human health, as illustrated by fowl vaccination against salmonellosis.

  11. Effect of vaccination with an inactivated vaccine on transplacental transmission of BTV-8 in mid term pregnant ewes and heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, van der M.T.W.; Schroer-Joosten, D.P.H.; Fid-Fourkour, A.; Vrijenhoek, M.; Debyser, I.; Gregg, D.A.; Dufe, D.M.; Moulin, V.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Smit, de A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of vaccination with a commercial inactivated Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) vaccine on the ability of BTV-8 to cross the ruminant placenta was investigated in two experiments. Ten pregnant ewes (Experiment 1) or heifers (Experiment 2) were vaccinated according to the manufacturer's

  12. Health economic analysis of human papillomavirus vaccines in women of Chile: perspective of the health care payer using a Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jorge Alberto; Lepetic, Alejandro; Demarteau, Nadia

    2014-11-26

    In Chile, significant reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality have been observed due to implementation of a well-organized screening program. However, it has been suggested that the inclusion of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for young adolescent women may be the best prospect to further reduce the burden of cervical cancer. This cost-effectiveness study comparing two available HPV vaccines in Chile was performed to support decision making on the implementation of universal HPV vaccination. The present analysis used an existing static Markov model to assess the effect of screening and vaccination. This analysis includes the epidemiology of low-risk HPV types allowing for the comparison between the two vaccines (HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine), latest cross-protection data on HPV vaccines, treatment costs for cervical cancer, vaccine costs and 6% discounting per the health economic guideline for Chile. Projected incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICERs) for the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was 116 United States (US) dollars per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained or 147 US dollars per life-years (LY) saved, while the projected ICUR/ICER for the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was 541 US dollars per QALY gained or 726 US dollars per LY saved. Introduction of any HPV vaccine to the present cervical cancer prevention program of Chile is estimated to be highly cost-effective (below 1X gross domestic product [GDP] per capita, 14278 US dollars). In Chile, the addition of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine to the existing screening program dominated the addition of HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis results show that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine is expected to be dominant and cost-saving in 69.3% and 77.6% of the replicates respectively. The findings indicate that the addition of any HPV vaccine to the current cervical screening

  13. Mumps vaccine virus strains and aseptic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Marie-Claude; Dutta, Anil; Weinberger, Clement; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2006-11-30

    Mumps immunization can easily be included in national schedules, particularly if combined with measles or measles and rubella vaccines, but debate continues concerning the relative safety of various licensed mumps vaccine strains. The opportunities for control of mumps are also being affected by differences in the cost of the vaccines prepared with different strains of mumps virus. The present report evaluates available data on the association of the Urabe and other strains of mumps vaccine with the occurrence of aseptic meningitis. We also review the comparative immunogenicity and efficacies of the most widely used mumps vaccines in controlled clinical trials and field evaluations, and briefly examine relative cost as it relates to the implementation of national immunization programs. We conclude that extensive experience with the most widely used mumps vaccine strains in many countries has shown that the risk-benefit ratio of live mumps vaccines is highly favourable for vaccination, despite the occasional occurence of aseptic meningitis.

  14. Global challenges of implementing human papillomavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Amrita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus vaccines are widely hailed as a sweeping pharmaceutical innovation for the universal benefit of all women. The implementation of the vaccines, however, is far from universal or equitable. Socio-economically marginalized women in emerging and developing, and many advanced economies alike, suffer a disproportionately large burden of cervical cancer. Despite the marketing of Human Papillomavirus vaccines as the solution to cervical cancer, the market authorization (licensing of the vaccines has not translated into universal equitable access. Vaccine implementation for vulnerable girls and women faces multiple barriers that include high vaccine costs, inadequate delivery infrastructure, and lack of community engagement to generate awareness about cervical cancer and early screening tools. For Human Papillomavirus vaccines to work as a public health solution, the quality-assured delivery of cheaper vaccines must be integrated with strengthened capacity for community-based health education and screening.

  15. Validation of the vaccine conspiracy beliefs scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilla K. Shapiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parents’ vaccine attitudes influence their decision regarding child vaccination. To date, no study has evaluated the impact of vaccine conspiracy beliefs on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance. The authors assessed the validity of a Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (VCBS and determined whether this scale was associated with parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine. Methods: Canadian parents completed a 24-min online survey in 2014. Measures included socio-demographic variables, HPV knowledge, health care provider recommendation, Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ, the seven-item VCBS, and parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son at two price points. Results: A total of 1427 Canadian parents completed the survey in English (61.2% or French (38.8%. A Factor Analysis revealed the VCBS is one-dimensional and has high internal consistency (α=0.937. The construct validity of the VCBS was supported by a moderate relationship with the CMQ (r=0.44, p<0.001. Hierarchical regression analyses found the VCBS is negatively related to parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine at both price points (‘free’ or ‘$300′ after controlling for gender, age, household income, education level, HPV knowledge, and health care provider recommendation. Conclusions: The VCBS is a brief, valid scale that will be useful in further elucidating the correlates of vaccine hesitancy. Future research could use the VCBS to evaluate the impact of vaccine conspiracies beliefs on vaccine uptake and how concerns about vaccination may be challenged and reversed. Keywords: Cancer prevention, Conspiracy beliefs, Human papillomavirus, Vaccine hesitancy, Vaccines, Vaccine Conspiracy Belief Scale

  16. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  17. Flu Vaccine Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) ... safety of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. ...

  18. Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ... and/or fungi from contaminating the vaccine. Do flu vaccines contain thimerosal? Flu vaccines in multi-dose ...

  19. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  20. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  1. Polymorphism in liver-stage malaria vaccine candidate proteins: immune evasion and implications for vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Katie L; Wilson, Kirsty L; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The pre-erythrocytic stage of infection by malaria parasites represents a key target for vaccines that aim to eradicate malaria. Two important broad immune evasion strategies that can interfere with vaccine efficacy include the induction of dendritic cell (DC) dysfunction and regulatory T cells (Tregs) by blood-stage malaria parasites, leading to inefficient priming of T cells targeting liver-stage infections. The parasite also uses 'surgical strike' strategies, whereby polymorphism in pre-erythrocytic antigens can interfere with host immunity. Specifically, we review how even single amino acid changes in T cell epitopes can lead to loss of binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC), lack of cross-reactivity, or antagonism and immune interference, where simultaneous or sequential stimulation with related variants of the same T cell epitope can cause T cell anergy or the conversion of effector to immunosuppressive T cell phenotypes.

  2. Why do we not want to recommend influenza vaccination to young children? A qualitative study of Australian parents and primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biezen, Ruby; Grando, Danilla; Mazza, Danielle; Brijnath, Bianca

    2018-02-01

    Influenza vaccination has been shown to be safe and effective against influenza and in the prevention of complicating secondary respiratory illnesses. However, its uptake in young children remains low. This study explored the views, attitudes and practices of parents and primary care providers (PCPs) on their knowledge and acceptance of influenza vaccination in children under 5. Using a cross-sectional qualitative research design, we conducted 30 in-depth interviews with PCPs (i.e., general practitioners, practice nurses, maternal and child health nurses, and pharmacists) and five focus groups with parents (n = 50) between June 2014 and July 2015 in Melbourne, Australia. Data were thematically analysed. Parents thought the vaccine could cause influenza, and influenza vaccination was not necessary for their children as they needed to build their own 'immunity'. Parents said that they would consider vaccinating their children if recommended by their GP and if the influenza vaccine was part of the immunisation schedule. PCPs also expressed concerns regarding the efficacy of the vaccine as well as out-of-pocket costs incurred by families, and uncertainty regarding the mortality and morbidity of influenza in otherwise healthy children. However, they said they would recommend the vaccine to high-risk groups (e.g. children with chronic disease(s), and asthma). Despite the established safety of influenza vaccines, barriers to uptake include concerns regarding the iatrogenic effects of vaccination, its administration schedule, and knowledge of influenza severity. Updated information on influenza and the efficacy of the vaccine, and incorporating influenza vaccination into the immunisation schedule may overcome some of these barriers to increase influenza vaccination in this vulnerable cohort. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The 2009-2010 influenza pandemic: effects on pandemic and seasonal vaccine uptake and lessons learned for seasonal vaccination campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Gregory A

    2010-09-07

    Individual and national/cultural differences were apparent in response to the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic. Overall pandemic influenza immunization rates were low across all nations, including among healthcare workers. Among the reasons for the low coverage rates may have been a lack of concern about the individual risk of influenza, which may translate into a lack of willingness or urgency to be vaccinated, particularly if there is mistrust of information provided by public health or governmental authorities. Intuitively, a link between willingness to be vaccinated against seasonal influenza and against pandemic influenza exists, given the similarities in decision-making for this infection. As such, the public is likely to share common concerns regarding pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccination, particularly in the areas of vaccine safety and side effects, and personal risk. Given the public's perception of the low level of virulence of the recent pandemic influenza virus, there is concern that the perception of a lack of personal risk of infection and risk of vaccine side effects could adversely affect seasonal vaccine uptake. While governments are more often concerned about public anxiety and panic, as well as absenteeism of healthcare and other essential workers during a pandemic, convincing the public of the threat posed by pandemic or seasonal influenza is often the more difficult, and underappreciated task. Thus, appropriate, timely, and data-driven health information are very important issues in increasing influenza vaccine coverage, perhaps even more so in western societies where trust in government and public health reports may be lower than in other countries. This article explores what has been learned about cross-cultural responses to pandemic influenza, and seeks to apply those lessons to seasonal influenza immunization programs. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL LIPOSOMAL VIRAL VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova OA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With the transport links development there is rather important issue respiratory viral infections spread, especially influenza. The only method controlling influenza is vaccination. Search and development effective and safe vaccines is important. Material and methods. In base SO "Mechnikov Institute Microbiology and Immunology National Ukrainian Academy Medical Sciences" in the scientific theme "Developing new approaches to creating viral vaccines and study specific activity depending of type and degree component`s modification" was created several experimental influenza vaccine with subsequent component`s modification for selecting the most optimal pattern of safety and immunogenicity. In assessing the influenza vaccine safety is using a few criteria, including, reactivity, as measured by the frequency of local and systemic adverse (negative effects, which due to its introduction, and for lipid content drugs, ability to influence oxidation processes. At present study phase was determined: a systemic reaction and local reaction of delayed-type hypersensitivity (foot pad swelling assay;b lipids and proteins peroxidation processes after administration officinal and experimental vaccines (content protein’s carbonyl groups, lipid’s hydroperoxides, activity of glutathione-peroxidase.Study objects were trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine, "Vaxigrip" (Sanofi Pasteur, S.A., France, "Inflexal V" (Biotech Ltd. Berne, Switzerland and experimental vaccine samples. Highest immunogenicity vaccines had undergone improvements and modifications using adjuvant systems and acylation influenza proteins. Liposomes 2 – the experimental influenza vaccine with a liposome negative charge and antigenic composition like split vaccines "Vaksihryp". Liposomes 2.1 - the adjuvantexperimental influenza vaccine with modifications liposomal components (etoniy and chlorophyllipt molecules embedded in liposomal membrane. Liposomes 2.2 - the adjuvant

  5. HIV-1 vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure. PMID:24637946

  6. Vaccination against tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carlos; Aguilo, Nacho; Gonzalo-Asensio, Jesús

    2018-04-04

    BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccination is included in the immunization schedule for tuberculosis endemic countries with a global coverage at birth close to 90% worldwide. BCG was attenuated from Mycobacterium bovis almost a century ago, and provides a strong protection against disseminated forms of the disease, though very limited against pulmonary forms of tuberculosis, responsible for transmission. Novel prophylactic tuberculosis vaccines are in clinical development either to replace BCG or to improve its protection against respiratory forms of the disease. There are limitations understanding the immunological responses involved and the precise type of long-lived immunity that new vaccines need to induce. MTBVAC is the first and only tuberculosis vaccine candidate based on live-attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical evaluation. MTBVAC clinical development plans to target tuberculosis prevention in newborns, as a BCG replacement strategy, and as secondary objective to be tested in adolescents and adults previous vaccinated with BCG. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. The swine flu vaccine, public attitudes, and researcher interpretations: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire

    2016-06-24

    During pandemics, health authorities may be uncertain about the spread and severity of the disease and the effectiveness and safety of available interventions. This was the case during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010, and governments were forced to make decisions despite these uncertainties. While many countries chose to implement wide scale vaccination programmes, few accomplished their vaccination goals. Many research studies aiming to explore barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake have been conducted in the aftermath of the pandemic, including several qualitative studies. 1. To explore public attitudes to the swine flu vaccine in different countries through a review of qualitative primary studies. 2. To describe and discuss the implications drawn by the primary study authors. Systematic review of qualitative research studies, using a broadly comparative cross case-study approach. Study quality was appraised using an adaptation of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality assessment tool. The review indicates that the public had varying opinions about disease risk and prevalence and had concerns about vaccine safety. Most primary study authors concluded that participants were uninformed, and that more information about the disease and the vaccine would have led to an increase in vaccine uptake. We find these conclusions problematic. We suggest instead that people's questions and concerns were legitimate given the uncertainties of the situation at the time and the fact that the authorities did not have the necessary information to convince the public. Our quality assessment of the included studies points to a lack of reflexivity and a lack of information about study context. We suggest that these study weaknesses are tied to primary study authors' lack of acknowledgement of the uncertainties surrounding the disease and the vaccine. While primary study authors suggest that authorities could increase vaccine uptake through increased

  8. Healthcare workers as parents: attitudes toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torun Fuat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both the health care workers (HCWs and children are target groups for pandemic influenza vaccination. The coverage of the target populations is an important determinant for impact of mass vaccination. The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of HCWs as parents, toward vaccinating their children with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with health care workers (HCWs in a public hospital during December 2009 in Istanbul. All persons employed in the hospital with or without a health-care occupation are accepted as HCW. The HCWs who are parents of children 6 months to 18 years of age were included in the study. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was applied for the statistical analyses. Results A total of 389 HCWs who were parents of children aged 6 months-18 years participated study. Among all participants 27.0% (n = 105 reported that themselves had been vaccinated against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Two third (66.1% of the parents answered that they will not vaccinate their children, 21.1% already vaccinated and 12.9% were still undecided. Concern about side effect was most reported reason among who had been not vaccinated their children and among undecided parents. The second reason for refusing the pandemic vaccine was concerns efficacy of the vaccine. Media was the only source of information about pandemic influenza in nearly one third of HCWs. Agreement with vaccine safety, self receipt of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine, and trust in Ministry of Health were found to be associated with the positive attitude toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Conclusions Persuading parents to accept a new vaccine seems not be easy even if they are HCWs. In order to overcome the barriers among HCWs related to pandemic vaccines, determination of their misinformation, attitudes and behaviors regarding the

  9. Healthcare workers as parents: attitudes toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Sebahat D; Torun, Fuat; Catak, Binali

    2010-10-10

    Both the health care workers (HCWs) and children are target groups for pandemic influenza vaccination. The coverage of the target populations is an important determinant for impact of mass vaccination. The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of HCWs as parents, toward vaccinating their children with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with health care workers (HCWs) in a public hospital during December 2009 in Istanbul. All persons employed in the hospital with or without a health-care occupation are accepted as HCW. The HCWs who are parents of children 6 months to 18 years of age were included in the study. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was applied for the statistical analyses. A total of 389 HCWs who were parents of children aged 6 months-18 years participated study. Among all participants 27.0% (n = 105) reported that themselves had been vaccinated against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Two third (66.1%) of the parents answered that they will not vaccinate their children, 21.1% already vaccinated and 12.9% were still undecided. Concern about side effect was most reported reason among who had been not vaccinated their children and among undecided parents. The second reason for refusing the pandemic vaccine was concerns efficacy of the vaccine. Media was the only source of information about pandemic influenza in nearly one third of HCWs. Agreement with vaccine safety, self receipt of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine, and trust in Ministry of Health were found to be associated with the positive attitude toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Persuading parents to accept a new vaccine seems not be easy even if they are HCWs. In order to overcome the barriers among HCWs related to pandemic vaccines, determination of their misinformation, attitudes and behaviors regarding the pandemic influenza vaccination is necessary. Efforts for orienting

  10. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aka Akt?rk, ?lk?; G?rek Dilekta?l?, Asl?; ?eng?l, Aysun; Musaffa Salep?i, Banu; Oktay, Nuray; D?ger, Mustafa; Ar?k Ta?y?kan, Hale; Durmu? Ko?ak, Nagihan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. Aims: To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Study Design: Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Methods: Patients admi...

  11. DNA vaccines elicit durable protective immunity against individual or simultaneous infections with Lassa and Ebola viruses in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kathleen A.; Wilkinson, Eric R.; Wollen, Suzanne E.; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Zelko, Justine M.; Bearss, Jeremy J.; Zeng, Xiankun; Broderick, Kate E.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously developed optimized DNA vaccines against both Lassa fever and Ebola hemorrhagic fever viruses and demonstrated that they were protective individually in guinea pig and nonhuman primate models. In this study, we vaccinated groups of strain 13 guinea pigs two times, four weeks apart with 50 µg of each DNA vaccine or a mock vaccine at discrete sites by intradermal electroporation. Five weeks following the second vaccinations, guinea pigs were exposed to lethal doses of Lassa virus, Ebola virus, or a combination of both viruses simultaneously. None of the vaccinated guinea pigs, regardless of challenge virus and including the coinfected group, displayed weight loss, fever or other disease signs, and all survived to the study endpoint. All of the mock-vaccinated guinea pigs that were infected with Lassa virus, and all but one of the EBOV-infected mock-vaccinated guinea pigs succumbed. In order to determine if the dual-agent vaccination strategy could protect against both viruses if exposures were temporally separated, we held the surviving vaccinates in BSL-4 for approximately 120 days to perform a cross-challenge experiment in which guinea pigs originally infected with Lassa virus received a lethal dose of Ebola virus and those originally infected with Ebola virus were infected with a lethal dose of Lassa virus. All guinea pigs remained healthy and survived to the study endpoint. This study clearly demonstrates that DNA vaccines against Lassa and Ebola viruses can elicit protective immunity against both individual virus exposures as well as in a mixed-infection environment. PMID:29135337

  12. Insights and efforts to control rabies in Zambia: Evaluation of determinants and barriers to dog vaccination in Nyimba district.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Patricia Mulipukwa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current rabies control strategy in Zambia is based on dog vaccination, dog population control and dog movement restrictions. In Nyimba district of Zambia, dog vaccination coverage is low but the incidence of dog bites is high which places the community at risk of rabies infection. The renewed global interest eliminating rabies in developing countries has spurred interest to identify determinants and barriers of dog vaccination in an effort to reduce the overall disease burden.A mixed methods cross sectional design was used in the study. This consisted of three parts: Evaluation of medical records regarding dog bite injuries, implementation and analysis of a household survey and in-depth review of key informant interviews. Data was collected into a Microsoft Excel database and subsequently transferred to STATA for descriptive, inferential and thematic analysis.Dog vaccination coverage overall was 8.7% (57/655, with 3.4% (22/655 in urban areas, 1.8% (12/655 in peri-urban and 3.5 (23/655 in the rural regions. Financially stable households were more likely to have their dogs vaccinated. Only 10.3% (31/300 of the respondents had vaccinated their dogs and these had a reliable source of income as 6% (18/300 were peasant farmers, 2% (6/300 were dependants whose guardians were financially stable and 2.3% (7/300 were in steady employment. Important barriers to dog vaccination included cost, limited awareness of vaccination program and access.Current rabies control strategies in Nyimba district, Zambia, appear quite limited. Improvements in the regional dog vaccination program may provide benefits. Enhancement of educational efforts targeting behavioural factors may also prove useful. Finally, the cost of dog vaccination can be reduced with scaled up production of a local vaccine.

  13. Insights and efforts to control rabies in Zambia: Evaluation of determinants and barriers to dog vaccination in Nyimba district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulipukwa, Carolyn Patricia; Mudenda, Boyd; Mbewe, Allan Rabson

    2017-10-01

    The current rabies control strategy in Zambia is based on dog vaccination, dog population control and dog movement restrictions. In Nyimba district of Zambia, dog vaccination coverage is low but the incidence of dog bites is high which places the community at risk of rabies infection. The renewed global interest eliminating rabies in developing countries has spurred interest to identify determinants and barriers of dog vaccination in an effort to reduce the overall disease burden. A mixed methods cross sectional design was used in the study. This consisted of three parts: Evaluation of medical records regarding dog bite injuries, implementation and analysis of a household survey and in-depth review of key informant interviews. Data was collected into a Microsoft Excel database and subsequently transferred to STATA for descriptive, inferential and thematic analysis. Dog vaccination coverage overall was 8.7% (57/655), with 3.4% (22/655) in urban areas, 1.8% (12/655) in peri-urban and 3.5 (23/655) in the rural regions. Financially stable households were more likely to have their dogs vaccinated. Only 10.3% (31/300) of the respondents had vaccinated their dogs and these had a reliable source of income as 6% (18/300) were peasant farmers, 2% (6/300) were dependants whose guardians were financially stable and 2.3% (7/300) were in steady employment. Important barriers to dog vaccination included cost, limited awareness of vaccination program and access. Current rabies control strategies in Nyimba district, Zambia, appear quite limited. Improvements in the regional dog vaccination program may provide benefits. Enhancement of educational efforts targeting behavioural factors may also prove useful. Finally, the cost of dog vaccination can be reduced with scaled up production of a local vaccine.

  14. Knowledge and perception of human papilloma virus vaccine among the antenatal women in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agida, Teddy E; Akaba, Godwin O; Isah, Aliyu Y; Ekele, Bissalla

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. One of the preventive measures is the vaccination of teenagers against oncogenic human papilloma virus. The aim of this study was to find out the level of knowledge mothers possess about these vaccines and their willingness to administer vaccination to their teenage girls. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 255 consecutive women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja. They were given either a self-administered questionnaire or interviewer-administered questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions. Information recorded includes socio-demographic variables, knowledge of cervical cancer, knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines and acceptance of these vaccines for their adolescent girls. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. The mean age of the respondents was 26.9 years. Over 90% had at least secondary education. A total of 102 (40%) had the knowledge of cancer of the cervix while 153 (60%) had never heard about it. Overall, 236 (92.5%) of them had no idea about the predisposing factors. The study showed that only 23 (9.0%) out of the total respondents had heard about human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. In the same vein, 20 (7.8%) had knowledge about HPV vaccine. Among the respondents, who had the knowledge of HPV and vaccination, 18.2% and 23.4% of them had secondary and tertiary levels of education respectively. Overall, 160 (62.8%) accepted that the vaccines could be administered to their teenage girls. Awareness of cervical cancer, HPV infections, and HPV vaccines is low among antenatal clinic attendees in Gwagwalada, Abuja. However, majority of them would want their girls vaccinated against HPV infections. There is a need for all stakeholders to step up awareness creation for improved HPV vaccination project in Nigeria.

  15. A cross-sectional study of tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations post vaccination among lung transplant patients compared with healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, K A; Cunningham, K C; Henriquez, K M; Nielsen, A R; Worzella, S L; Hayney, M S

    2014-12-01

    Lung transplant (LuTx) patients are routinely immunized against tetanus and diphtheria. However, few studies have been done to measure serologic immunity in the transplant population. The primary objective of this study was to compare tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations in LuTx vs. healthy subjects. Serum was used from an available sample of 111 total individuals (n = 36 healthy; n = 75 LuTx). Tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay method. A statistically significant difference in both tetanus and diphtheria antibody concentrations was found between the groups. The median concentration of tetanus antibody was higher for healthy individuals compared with the LuTx group (3.2 IU/mL [1.2-5.2 interquartile range {IQR}] vs. 1.3 IU/mL [0.4-2.6 IQR], respectively; P = 0.0001). No difference in time was found since the last tetanus-diphtheria vaccine or tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis vaccine dose between the groups (healthy 76.5 months [16-114 IQR] vs. LuTx 74.5 months [45-118 IQR]; P = 0.44). Tetanus and diphtheria immunizations are recommended for LuTx patients to reduce the risk of infection. Because the LuTx group has lower antibody concentrations, further studies should investigate the possible need for more frequent tetanus and diphtheria boosters. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Vaccines and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, J. L.; Topsøe Mailand, M.

    2017-01-01

    An association between certain vaccinations and onset or relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been debated. Based on PubMed, we made a thorough literature review and included all relevant studies, 51 on MS and 15 on optic neuritis (ON). Case studies were excluded. With the exception of a live...

  17. Rotavirus vaccination in Europe: drivers and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parez, N; Giaquinto, C; Du Roure, C; Martinon-Torres, F; Spoulou, V; Van Damme, P; Vesikari, T

    2014-05-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a vaccine-preventable disease that confers a high medical and economic burden in more developed countries and can be fatal in less developed countries. Two vaccines with high efficacy and good safety profiles were approved and made available in Europe in 2006. We present an overview of the status of rotavirus vaccination in Europe. We discuss the drivers (including high effectiveness and effect of universal rotavirus vaccination) and barriers (including low awareness of disease burden, perception of unfavourable cost-effectiveness, and potential safety concerns) to the implementation of universal rotavirus vaccination in Europe. By February, 2014, national universal rotavirus vaccination had been implemented in Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, Finland, Greece, Luxembourg, Norway, and the UK. Four other German states have issued recommendations and reimbursement is provided by sickness funds. Other countries were at various stages of recommending or implementing universal rotavirus vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  19. Heterogeneity of Rabies Vaccination Recommendations across Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Buchy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Asian countries bear the greatest burden of the disease, with a majority (59% of rabies-related deaths occurring in Asia. In order to promote best practices, we summarized national human vaccination guidelines across this region, to highlight differences and similarities and to discuss the aspects that would benefit from updates. National management guidelines for rabies were retrieved from various sources to extract information on rabies pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, and PEP, booster vaccination, and route of administration. Rabies guidelines recommendations for wound management and PrEP across Asia are broadly aligned to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. For PEP, the 5-dose Essen, and the 4-dose Zagreb are the regimens of choice for intramuscular (IM, and the Thai Red Cross regimen for intradermal (ID, administration. Several national guidelines have yet to endorse ID vaccine administration. Most guidelines recommend rabies immunoglobulin in category III exposures. Booster recommendations are not included in all guidelines, with limited clarity on booster requirement across the spectrum of risk of rabies exposure. In conclusion, national recommendations across Asian countries differ and while some guidelines are closely aligned to the WHO recommendations, resource-saving ID administration and use of rational abbreviated schedules have yet to be endorsed.

  20. Rational design of gene-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouch, Dan H

    2006-01-01

    Vaccine development has traditionally been an empirical discipline. Classical vaccine strategies include the development of attenuated organisms, whole killed organisms, and protein subunits, followed by empirical optimization and iterative improvements. While these strategies have been remarkably successful for a wide variety of viruses and bacteria, these approaches have proven more limited for pathogens that require cellular immune responses for their control. In this review, current strategies to develop and optimize gene-based vaccines are described, with an emphasis on novel approaches to improve plasmid DNA vaccines and recombinant adenovirus vector-based vaccines. Copyright 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Dendrimers for Vaccine and Immunostimulatory Uses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Boas, Ulrik; Sørensen, Nanna Skall

    2010-01-01

    for efficient immunostimulating compounds (adjuvants) that can increase the efficiency of vaccines, as dendrimers can provide molecularly defined multivalent scaffolds to produce highly defined conjugates with small molecule immunostimulators and/or antigens. The review gives an overview on the use...... of dendrimers as molecularly defined carriers/presenters of small antigens, including constructs that have built-in immunostimulatory (adjuvant) properties, and as stand-alone adjuvants that can be mixed with antigens to provide efficient vaccine formulations. These approaches allow the preparation...... of molecularly defined vaccines with highly predictable and specific properties and enable knowledge-based vaccine design substituting the traditional empirically based approaches for vaccine development and production....

  2. Potential safety issues and other factors that may affect the introduction and uptake of rotavirus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, N.; Tate, J.E.; Parashar, U.D.

    2018-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated significant impact in reducing the burden of morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoea in countries that have implemented routine vaccination to date. Despite this success, in many countries, rotavirus vaccine coverage remains lower than that of other routine childhood vaccines. Several issues may potentially affect vaccine uptake, namely safety concerns related to intussusception with consequent age restrictions on rotavirus vaccination, contamination with porcine circovirus, vaccine-derived reassortant strains and hospitalization in newborn nurseries at time of administration of live oral rotavirus vaccine. In addition to these safety concerns, other factors may also affect uptake, including lower vaccine efficacy in the developing world, potential emergence of strains escaping from vaccine protection resulting in lower overall impact of a vaccination programme and sustainable vaccine financing. Although further work is needed to address some of these concerns, global policy bodies have reaffirmed that the benefits of rotavirus vaccination outweigh the risks, and vaccine use is recommended globally. PMID:27129416

  3. Potential safety issues and other factors that may affect the introduction and uptake of rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, N; Tate, J E; Parashar, U D

    2016-12-01

    Rotavirus vaccines have demonstrated significant impact in reducing the burden of morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoea in countries that have implemented routine vaccination to date. Despite this success, in many countries, rotavirus vaccine coverage remains lower than that of other routine childhood vaccines. Several issues may potentially affect vaccine uptake, namely safety concerns related to intussusception with consequent age restrictions on rotavirus vaccination, contamination with porcine circovirus, vaccine-derived reassortant strains and hospitalization in newborn nurseries at time of administration of live oral rotavirus vaccine. In addition to these safety concerns, other factors may also affect uptake, including lower vaccine efficacy in the developing world, potential emergence of strains escaping from vaccine protection resulting in lower overall impact of a vaccination programme and sustainable vaccine financing. Although further work is needed to address some of these concerns, global policy bodies have reaffirmed that the benefits of rotavirus vaccination outweigh the risks, and vaccine use is recommended globally. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Acceptability of HPV vaccine implementation among parents in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Proma; Tanner, Amanda E; Gravitt, Patti E; Vijayaraghavan, K; Shah, Keerti V; Zimet, Gregory D; Study Group, Catch

    2014-01-01

    Due to high cervical cancer rates and limited research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in India, the research team examined parental attitudes toward HPV vaccines. Thirty-six interviews with parents were conducted to assess sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge and HPV-specific vaccine awareness and acceptability. Despite limited knowledge, parents had positive views toward HPV vaccines. Common barriers included concerns about side effects, vaccine cost, and missing work to receive the vaccine. Parents were strongly influenced by health care providers' recommendations. Our findings suggest that addressing parental concerns, health worker training and polices, and efforts to minimize cost will be central to successful HPV vaccine implementation.

  5. Yellow fever vaccination status and safety in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facincani, Tila; Guimarães, Maia Nogueira Crown; De Sousa Dos Santos, Sigrid

    2016-07-01

    The adverse effects of yellow fever (YF) vaccine in dialysis patients are not well known. There is concern about the risks and benefits of the vaccine in immunocompromised patients living in endemic areas, particularly given the risk of resurgence of urban YF with the spread of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The purpose of this study was to assess the coverage and safety of YF vaccine in chronic dialysis patients. A cross-sectional study of 130 chronic dialysis patients was performed. Data were collected on clinical characteristics and YF vaccine status. Patients not vaccinated against YF or without a booster vaccination within the last 10 years were referred to receive the vaccine, and adverse effects were monitored. Previous vaccination was verified in 44 patients within the last 10 years and in 26 patients at more than 10 years ago, with no mention of adverse effects. Thirty-six patients had never been vaccinated and 24 had an unknown vaccination status. Of the total 86 patients referred for immunization, 45 actually received the YF vaccine, with 24.4% experiencing mild local adverse effects and 4.4% experiencing fever. No serious adverse effects attributable to YF vaccine were observed (anaphylaxis, neurological or viscerotropic disease). YF vaccine coverage among hemodialysis patients is low, and the vaccine appeared to be safe in this population with a small sample size. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal Vaccination: Challenges and Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Surendran, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    While vaccines have been tremendously successful in reducing the incidence of serious infectious diseases, newborns remain particularly vulnerable in the first few months of their life to life-threatening infections. A number of challenges exist to neonatal vaccination. However, recent advances in the understanding of neonatal immunology offer insights to overcome many of those challenges. This review will present an overview of the features of neonatal immunity which make vaccination difficult, survey the mechanisms of action of available vaccine adjuvants with respect to the unique features of neonatal immunity, and propose a possible mechanism contributing to the inability of neonates to generate protective immune responses to vaccines. We surveyed recent published findings on the challenges to neonatal vaccination and possible intervention strategies including the use of novel vaccine adjuvants to develop efficacious neonatal vaccines. Challenges in the vaccination of neonates include interference from maternal antibody and excessive skewing towards Th2 immunity, which can be counteracted by the use of proper adjuvants. Synergistic stimulation of multiple Toll-like receptors by incorporating well-defined agonist-adjuvant combinations to vaccines is a promising strategy to ensure a protective vaccine response in neonates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Barriers and facilitators to influenza vaccination and vaccine coverage in a cohort of health care personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naleway, Allison L; Henkle, Emily M; Ball, Sarah; Bozeman, Sam; Gaglani, Manjusha J; Kennedy, Erin D; Thompson, Mark G

    2014-04-01

    Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for health care personnel (HCP). We describe influenza vaccination coverage among HCP during the 2010-2011 season and present reported facilitators of and barriers to vaccination. We enrolled HCP 18 to 65 years of age, working full time, with direct patient contact. Participants completed an Internet-based survey at enrollment and the end of influenza season. In addition to self-reported data, we collected information about the 2010-2011 influenza vaccine from electronic employee health and medical records. Vaccination coverage was 77% (1,307/1,701). Factors associated with higher vaccination coverage include older age, being married or partnered, working as a physician or dentist, prior history of influenza vaccination, more years in patient care, and higher job satisfaction. Personal protection was reported as the most important reason for vaccination followed closely by convenience, protection of patients, and protection of family and friends. Concerns about perceived vaccine safety and effectiveness and low perceived susceptibility to influenza were the most commonly reported barriers to vaccination. About half of the unvaccinated HCP said they would have been vaccinated if required by their employer. Influenza vaccination in this cohort was relatively high but still fell short of the recommended target of 90% coverage for HCP. Addressing concerns about vaccine safety and effectiveness are possible areas for future education or intervention to improve coverage among HCP. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Midwives' influenza vaccine uptake and their views on vaccination of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, D A; Permalloo, N; Cordery, R J; Anderson, S R

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women in England are now offered seasonal influenza vaccine. Midwives could be influential in promoting this, but specific information on their views on the policy and their role in its implementation is lacking. London midwives were surveyed for their views on the new policy and their own vaccine uptake, using an anonymously self-completed semi-structured online survey via a convenience sampling approach. In total, 266 midwives responded. Sixty-nine percent agreed with the policy of vaccinating all pregnant women. Seventy-six percent agreed that midwives should routinely advise pregnant women on vaccination, but only 25% felt adequately prepared for this role. Just 28% wished to be vaccinators, due to concerns about increased workload and inadequate training. Forty-three percent received seasonal influenza vaccine themselves. Major reasons for non-uptake were doubts about vaccine necessity (34%), safety (25%) and effectiveness (10%); and poor arrangements for vaccination (11%). Suggested strategies for improving their own uptake included better access to evidence of effectiveness (67%) and improved work-based vaccination (45%). London midwives support influenza vaccination of pregnant women, but are more willing to give advice on, than to administer, the vaccine. Midwives' own influenza vaccine uptake could improve with more information and easier access to vaccination in their workplace.

  9. Targeted vaccination in healthy school children - Can primary school vaccination alone control influenza?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrington, Dominic; Jit, Mark; Eames, Ken

    2015-10-05

    The UK commenced an extension to the seasonal influenza vaccination policy in autumn 2014 that will eventually see all healthy children between the ages of 2-16 years offered annual influenza vaccination. Models suggest that the new policy will be both highly effective at reducing the burden of influenza as well as cost-effective. We explore whether targeting vaccination at either primary or secondary schools would be more effective and/or cost-effective than the current strategy. An age-structured deterministic transmission dynamic SEIR-type mathematical model was used to simulate a national influenza outbreak in England. Costs including GP consultations, hospitalisations due to influenza and vaccinations were compared to potential gains in quality-adjusted life years achieved through vaccinating healthy children. Costs and benefits of the new JCVI vaccination policy were estimated over a single season, and compared to the hypothesised new policies of targeted and heterogeneous vaccination. All potential vaccination policies were highly cost-effective. Influenza transmission can be eliminated for a particular season by vaccinating both primary and secondary school children, but not by vaccinating only one group. The most cost-effective policy overall is heterogeneous vaccination coverage with 48% uptake in primary schools and 34% in secondary schools. The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation can consider a modification to their policy of offering seasonal influenza vaccinations to all healthy children of ages 2-16 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The immunology of smallpox vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Jacobson, Robert M; Poland, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the eradication of smallpox over 30 years ago; orthopox viruses such as smallpox and monkeypox remain serious public health threats both through the possibility of bioterrorism and the intentional release of smallpox and through natural outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases such as monkeypox. The eradication effort was largely made possible by the availability of an effective vaccine based on the immunologically cross-protective vaccinia virus. Although the concept of vaccination dates back to the late 1800s with Edward Jenner, it is only in the past decade that modern immunologic tools have been applied toward deciphering poxvirus immunity. Smallpox vaccines containing vaccinia virus elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses that confer cross-protective immunity against variola virus for decades after immunization. Recent studies have focused on: establishing the longevity of poxvirus-specific immunity, defining key immune epitopes targeted by T and B cells, developing subunit-based vaccines, and developing genotypic and phenotypic immune response profiles that predict either vaccine response or adverse events following immunization. PMID:19524427

  11. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible vaccines are sub-unit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. Edible vaccines are mucosal-targeted vaccines where stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune network takes place. Foods under study ...

  12. The two-dose measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) immunisation schedule: factors affecting maternal intention to vaccinate.

    OpenAIRE

    Pareek, M; Pattison, H M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the light of sub-optimal uptake of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination, we investigated the factors that influence the intentions of mothers to vaccinate. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey of 300 mothers in Birmingham with children approaching a routine MMR vaccination was conducted using a postal questionnaire to measure: intention to vaccinate, psychological variables, knowledge of the vaccine, and socioeconomic status. The vaccination status of the children was ...

  13. International Dengue Vaccine Communication and Advocacy: Challenges and Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana; Van Roy, Rebecca; Andrus, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Dengue vaccine introduction will likely occur soon. However, little has been published on international dengue vaccine communication and advocacy. More effort at the international level is required to review, unify and strategically disseminate dengue vaccine knowledge to endemic countries' decision makers and potential donors. Waiting to plan for the introduction of new vaccines until licensure may delay access in developing countries. Concerted efforts to communicate and advocate for vaccines prior to licensure are likely challenged by unknowns of the use of dengue vaccines and the disease, including uncertainties of vaccine impact, vaccine access and dengue's complex pathogenesis and epidemiology. Nevertheless, the international community has the opportunity to apply previous best practices for vaccine communication and advocacy. The following key strategies will strengthen international dengue vaccine communication and advocacy: consolidating existing coalitions under one strategic umbrella, urgently convening stakeholders to formulate the roadmap for integrated dengue prevention and control, and improving the dissemination of dengue scientific knowledge.

  14. Public fear of vaccination: separating fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanna, Ian; Slifka, Mark K

    2005-01-01

    During the last two centuries, the world has seen a substantial increase in the number and availability of vaccines for the prevention of infectious disease. Smallpox vaccine remains the most celebrated vaccine-related achievement in human history, but worldwide reductions in many other diseases including measles, mumps, rubella, polio, diphtheria, and whooping cough (Bordetella pertussis) also illustrate the power of vaccination in controlling outbreaks of contagious diseases. Ironically, as advances in vaccination successfully limit disease outbreaks, the impact that these infectious agents once had on society becomes marginalized. Public confidence in vaccination may erode because of real or perceived risks associated with immunization, and this in turn may lead to lower vaccination coverage and loss of herd immunity. Here, we will discuss some of the elements associated with public perceptions and fear of vaccination and place these into the context of how deadly several vaccine-preventable childhood diseases can be if vaccination coverage is insufficient.

  15. Estimating population effects of vaccination using large, routinely collected data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, M Elizabeth; Hudgens, Michael G

    2018-01-30

    Vaccination in populations can have several kinds of effects. Establishing that vaccination produces population-level effects beyond the direct effects in the vaccinated individuals can have important consequences for public health policy. Formal methods have been developed for study designs and analysis that can estimate the different effects of vaccination. However, implementing field studies to evaluate the different effects of vaccination can be expensive, of limited generalizability, or unethical. It would be advantageous to use routinely collected data to estimate the different effects of vaccination. We consider how different types of data are needed to estimate different effects of vaccination. The examples include rotavirus vaccination of young children, influenza vaccination of elderly adults, and a targeted influenza vaccination campaign in schools. Directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Factors affecting the implementation of childhood vaccination communication strategies in Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Afiong; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Glenton, Claire; Fretheim, Atle; Eteng, Glory; Ames, Heather; Muloliwa, Artur; Kaufman, Jessica; Hill, Sophie; Cliff, Julie; Cartier, Yuri; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Rada, Gabriel; Lewin, Simon

    2017-02-15

    The role of health communication in vaccination programmes cannot be overemphasized: it has contributed significantly to creating and sustaining demand for vaccination services and improving vaccination coverage. In Nigeria, numerous communication approaches have been deployed but these interventions are not without challenges. We therefore aimed to explore factors affecting the delivery of vaccination communication in Nigeria. We used a qualitative approach and conducted the study in two states: Bauchi and Cross River States in northern and southern Nigeria respectively. We identified factors affecting the implementation of communication interventions through interviews with relevant stakeholders involved in vaccination communication in the health services. We also reviewed relevant documents. Data generated were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. We used the SURE framework to organise the identified factors (barriers and facilitators) affecting vaccination communication delivery. We then grouped these into health systems and community level factors. Some of the commonly reported health system barriers amongst stakeholders interviewed included: funding constraints, human resource factors (health worker shortages, training deficiencies, poor attitude of health workers and vaccination teams), inadequate infrastructure and equipment and weak political will. Community level factors included the attitudes of community stakeholders and of parents and caregivers. We also identified factors that appeared to facilitate communication activities. These included political support, engagement of traditional and religious institutions and the use of organised communication committees. Communication activities are a crucial element of immunization programmes. It is therefore important for policy makers and programme managers to understand the barriers and facilitators affecting the delivery of vaccination communication so as to be able to implement

  17. Prolonging herd immunity to cholera via vaccination: Accounting for human mobility and waning vaccine effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey M Peak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral cholera vaccination is an approach to preventing outbreaks in at-risk settings and controlling cholera in endemic settings. However, vaccine-derived herd immunity may be short-lived due to interactions between human mobility and imperfect or waning vaccine efficacy. As the supply and utilization of oral cholera vaccines grows, critical questions related to herd immunity are emerging, including: who should be targeted; when should revaccination be performed; and why have cholera outbreaks occurred in recently vaccinated populations?We use mathematical models to simulate routine and mass oral cholera vaccination in populations with varying degrees of migration, transmission intensity, and vaccine coverage. We show that migration and waning vaccine efficacy strongly influence the duration of herd immunity while birth and death rates have relatively minimal impacts. As compared to either periodic mass vaccination or routine vaccination alone, a community could be protected longer by a blended "Mass and Maintain" strategy. We show that vaccination may be best targeted at populations with intermediate degrees of mobility as compared to communities with very high or very low population turnover. Using a case study of an internally displaced person camp in South Sudan which underwent high-coverage mass vaccination in 2014 and 2015, we show that waning vaccine direct effects and high population turnover rendered the camp over 80% susceptible at the time of the cholera outbreak beginning in October 2016.Oral cholera vaccines can be powerful tools for quickly protecting a population for a period of time that depends critically on vaccine coverage, vaccine efficacy over time, and the rate of population turnover through human mobility. Due to waning herd immunity, epidemics in vaccinated communities are possible but become less likely through complementary interventions or data-driven revaccination strategies.

  18. Casting off vaccine supply charity -- the pace quickens. CVI goal: quality vaccines for all children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several proposals are offered for production of high-quality vaccines within developing countries. The World Health Organization's Vaccine Supply and Quality (VSQ) team from the Global Program for Vaccines and Immunization (GPV) visited 10 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Pakistan, Philippines, and South Africa) out of 14 priority countries (China, Russia, Thailand, and Vietnam were not visited) producing vaccines and found only two with a quality control system that was acceptable. Vaccine-producing countries are urged to consider the full costs of production that include necessary infrastructure, an independent national control authority and laboratory, manufacturers with managerial autonomy, and manufacturers with good management, a qualified staff, and adequate technology. UNICEF has urged both private and public sectors to combine forces in bringing down the price of new vaccines for distribution to a very large market. Some imaginative proposals were made by some manufacturers for vaccine production and supply for a range of less traditional vaccines. The Director of the Massachusetts Public Health Biologic Laboratories proposed the formation of a consortium of vaccine manufacturers who would support public health priorities for market-affordable, simple vaccines against the major childhood diseases. The aim would be international validation of high-quality local vaccine production in developing countries, ease of research collaboration, improvement in information exchange between countries, and structured assistance. Lack of political commitment has been blamed for poor quality local production. A small cooperative effort among some Latin American countries, the Pan American Association's Regional Vaccine System for Latin America (SIREVA), is backed by the Children's Vaccine Initiative. SIREVA is a consortium of manufacturers in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico that plans joint development of some vaccines. Donor assistance is

  19. Increasing Vaccination: Putting Psychological Science Into Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Noel T; Chapman, Gretchen B; Rothman, Alexander J; Leask, Julie; Kempe, Allison

    2017-12-01

    Vaccination is one of the great achievements of the 20th century, yet persistent public-health problems include inadequate, delayed, and unstable vaccination uptake. Psychology offers three general propositions for understanding and intervening to increase uptake where vaccines are available and affordable. The first proposition is that thoughts and feelings can motivate getting vaccinated. Hundreds of studies have shown that risk beliefs and anticipated regret about infectious disease correlate reliably with getting vaccinated; low confidence in vaccine effectiveness and concern about safety correlate reliably with not getting vaccinated. We were surprised to find that few randomized trials have successfully changed what people think and feel about vaccines, and those few that succeeded were minimally effective in increasing uptake. The second proposition is that social processes can motivate getting vaccinated. Substantial research has shown that social norms are associated with vaccination, but few interventions examined whether normative messages increase vaccination uptake. Many experimental studies have relied on hypothetical scenarios to demonstrate that altruism and free riding (i.e., taking advantage of the protection provided by others) can affect intended behavior, but few randomized trials have tested strategies to change social processes to increase vaccination uptake. The third proposition is that interventions can facilitate vaccination directly by leveraging, but not trying to change, what people think and feel. These interventions are by far the most plentiful and effective in the literature. To increase vaccine uptake, these interventions build on existing favorable intentions by facilitating action (through reminders, prompts, and primes) and reducing barriers (through logistics and healthy defaults); these interventions also shape behavior (through incentives, sanctions, and requirements). Although identification of principles for changing

  20. Vaccine stabilization: research, commercialization, and potential impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Debra; Chen, Dexiang; Cummings, Ray

    2011-09-22

    All vaccines are susceptible to damage by elevated temperatures and many are also damaged by freezing. The distribution, storage, and use of vaccines therefore present challenges that could be reduced by enhanced thermostability, with resulting improvements in vaccine effectiveness. Formulation and processing technologies exist that can improve the stability of vaccines at temperature extremes, however, customization is required for individual vaccines and results are variable. Considerations affecting decisions about stabilization approaches include development cost, manufacturing cost, and the ease of use of the final product. Public sector agencies can incentivize vaccine developers to prioritize stabilization efforts through advocacy and by implementing policies that increase demand for thermostable vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vaccines and pregnancy: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Watson, Amelia K; Kennedy, Erin D; Broder, Karen R; Jamieson, Denise J

    2014-06-01

    Vaccination during pregnancy with certain vaccines can prevent morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their infants. However, previous recommendations often focused on the potential risks of vaccines to the fetus when used during pregnancy. In recent years, additional data have become available on the absence of increased risks for adverse events associated with vaccines when administered during pregnancy and on their benefits to mothers and infants. Currently two vaccines - (i) inactivated influenza, and (ii) tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) - are recommended for use by all pregnant women by the United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Here we review the history of vaccination during pregnancy, the current status of recommendations for vaccination during pregnancy in the USA, and the potential for future advances in this area, including key barriers that must be overcome to accommodate these advances. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Nanotechnology and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Gyeong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are clearly required due to concerns about the weak immunogenicity of these vaccines, intrinsic instability in vivo, toxicity, and the need for multiple administrations. To overcome such problems, nanotechnology platforms have recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanocarrier-based delivery systems offer an opportunity to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by phagocytic cells, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanocarriers with a variety of targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating specific and selective immune responses. In this review, we introduce recent advances in nanocarrier-based vaccine delivery systems, with a focus on the types of carriers, including liposomes, emulsions, polymer-based particles, and carbon-based nanomaterials. We describe the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs, including the development of needle-free nanotechnologies and a fundamental understanding of the in vivo behavior and stability of the nanocarriers in nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  3. Effect of recombinant glutathione S-transferase as vaccine antigen against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadin, Gabriela Alves; Parizi, Luís Fernando; Kiio, Irene; Xavier, Marina Amaral; da Silva Matos, Renata; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Githaka, Naftaly Wang'ombe; Nene, Vish; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara

    2017-12-04

    The ticks Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus are the main vectors of Theileria parva and Babesia spp. in cattle and dogs, respectively. Due to their impact in veterinary care and industry, improved methods against R. appendiculatus and R. sanguineus parasitism are under development, including vaccines. We have previously demonstrated the induction of a cross-protective humoral response against Rhipicephalus microplus following vaccination with recombinant glutathione S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis tick (rGST-Hl), suggesting that this protein could control tick infestations. In the present work, we investigated the effect of rGST-Hl vaccine against R. appendiculatus and R. sanguineus infestation in rabbits. In silico analysis revealed that GST from H. longicornis, R. appendiculatus and R. sanguineus have >80% protein sequence similarity, and multiple conserved antigenic sites. After the second vaccine dose, rGST-Hl-immunized rabbits showed elevated antibody levels which persisted until the end of experiment (75 and 60 days for R. appendiculatus and R. sanguineus, respectively). Western blot assays demonstrated cross-reactivity between anti-rGST-Hl antibodies and native R. appendiculatus and R. sanguineus GST extracts from ticks at different life stages. Vaccination with rGST-Hl decreased the number, weight, and fertility of engorged R. appendiculatus adults, leading to an overall vaccine efficacy of 67%. Interestingly, histological analysis of organ morphology showed damage to salivary glands and ovaries of R. appendiculatus adult females fed on vaccinated animals. In contrast, rGST-Hl vaccination did not affect R. appendiculatus nymphs, and it was ineffective against R. sanguineus across the stages of nymph and adult. Taken together, our results show the potential application of rGST-Hl as an antigen in anti-tick vaccine development, however indicating a broad difference in efficacy among tick species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  4. Development of LLNA:DAE: a new local lymph node assay that includes the elicitation phase, discriminates borderline-positive chemicals, and is useful for cross-sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2014-02-01

    We developed a new local lymph node assay (LLNA) that includes the elicitation phase