NCI supports clinical trials that test new and more effective ways to treat cancer. Find clinical trials studying adenovirus encoding tyrosinase/mart-1/magea6-transduced autologous dendritic cell vaccine.
Wijesundara, Danushka K; Yu, Wenbo; Quah, Ben J C; Eldi, Preethi; Hayball, John D; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Gowans, Eric J; Grubor-Bauk, Branka
The use of cost-effective vaccines capable of inducing robust CD8+ T cell immunity will contribute significantly towards the elimination of persistent viral infections and cancers worldwide. We have previously reported that a cytolytic DNA vaccine encoding an immunogen and a truncated mouse perforin (PRF) protein significantly augments anti-viral T cell (including CD8+ T cell) immunity. Thus, the current study investigated whether this vaccine enhances activation of dendritic cells (DCs) resulting in greater priming of CD8+ T cell immunity. In vitro data showed that transfection of HEK293T cells with the cytolytic DNA resulted in the release of lactate dehydrogenase, indicative of necrotic/lytic cell death. In vitro exposure of this lytic cell debris to purified DCs from naïve C57BL/6 mice resulted in maturation of DCs as determined by up-regulation of CD80/CD86. Using activation/proliferation of adoptively transferred OT-I CD8+ T cells to measure antigen presentation by DCs in vivo, it was determined that cytolytic DNA immunisation resulted in a time-dependent increase in the proliferation of OT-I CD8+ T cells compared to canonical DNA immunisation. Overall, the data suggest that the cytolytic DNA vaccine increases the activity of DCs which has important implications for the design of DNA vaccines to improve their translational prospects.
Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars
to be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC...... are considered to play a central role for the provocation of primary immune responses by vaccination. A rational way of improving the potency and safety of new and already existing vaccines could therefore be to direct vaccines specifically to DC. There is a need for developing multifunctional vaccine drug...... delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC....
Full Text Available The recognition that the development of cancer is associated with acquired immunodeficiency, mostly against cancer cells themselves, and understanding pathways inducing this immunosuppression, has led to a tremendous development of new immunological approaches, both vaccines and drugs, which overcome this inhibition. Both “passive” (e.g. strategies relying on the administration of specific T cells and “active” vaccines (e.g. peptide-directed or whole-cell vaccines have become attractive immunological approaches, inducing cell death by targeting tumor-associated antigens. Whereas peptide-targeted vaccines are usually directed against a single antigen, whole-cell vaccines (e.g. dendritic cell vaccines are aimed to induce robust responsiveness by targeting several tumor-related antigens simultaneously. The combination of vaccines with new immuno-stimulating agents which target “immunosuppressive checkpoints” (anti-CTLA-4, PD-1, etc. is likely to improve and maintain immune response induced by vaccination.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma that presented involution following therapy with dendritic cells. CASE REPORT: Male, 51-year old patient underwent left radical nephrectomy in September 1999 due to renal cell carcinoma, evolved with recurrence of the neoplasia in January 2002, confirmed by resection of the lesion. A vaccine therapy based on dendritic cells was then performed during 5 months (4 applications. After this period, there was occurrence of new lesions, whose resection revealed areas of necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate. DISCUSSION: The outcome of renal cell carcinoma is influenced by prognostic factors that confer more aggressive tumor characteristics. However, in cases of recurrence, the systemic therapy with dendritic cells-based vaccine can be associated with a better outcome with regression of disease.
Adema, Gosse J.; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Figdor, Carl G.
Ex vivo generated cancer vaccines based on dendritic cells (DCs) are currently applied in the clinic. The migration of DCs from the tissues to the lymph nodes is tightly controlled and involves many different mediators and their receptors. A recent study demonstrated that the rate of migration of
Pedersen, Anders E; Ronchese, Franca
and the lysis of relevant in vivo targets. However, the CTLA-4 blockage dependent expansion of CTLs also affect DC survival during booster DC injections and our data suggest that during a booster DC vaccine, the largest increase in CTL levels is already obtained during the first vaccination.......Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells and critical for the priming of CD8+ T cells. Therefore the use of these cells as adjuvant cells has been tested in a large number of experimental and clinical vaccination studies, in particular cancer vaccine studies. A number of protocols...... are emerging that combine vaccination with CTL expanding strategies, such as e.g. blockade of CTLA-4 signalling. On the other hand, the lifespan and in vivo survival of therapeutic DCs have only been addressed in a few studies, although this is of importance for the kinetics of CTL induction during vaccination...
Kataoka, Kosuke; Fujihashi, Kohtaro
In order to establish effective mucosal immunity against various mucosal pathogens, vaccines must be delivered via the mucosal route and contain effective adjuvant(s). Since mucosal adjuvants can simply mix with the antigen, it is relatively easy to adapt them for different types of vaccine development. Even in simple admixture vaccines, the adjuvant itself must be prepared without any complications. Thus, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or plasmids encoding certain cDNA(s) would be potent mucosal adjuvant candidates when compared with other substances that can be used as mucosal adjuvants. The strategy of a DNA-based mucosal adjuvant facilitates the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells, and thus is an effective and safe approach. It would also provide great flexibility for the development of effective vaccines for various mucosal pathogens. PMID:19722892
Svane, Inge Marie; Soot, Mette Line; Buus, Søren
for large-scale generation of dendritic cells for clinical applications has made possible phase I/II studies designed to analyze the toxicity, feasibility and efficacy of this approach. In clinical trials, DC-based vaccination of patients with advanced cancer has in many cases led to immunity...... endpoints, including toxicity and response evaluation. This paper aims to review the technical aspects and clinical impact of vaccination trials, focusing on the generation of DC-based vaccines, evaluation of immunologic parameters and design of clinical trials necessary to meet the need for good laboratory...
Baleeiro, Renato B; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Reiter, Yoran; Baude, Barbara; Dähne, Lars; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Barbuto, José A; Walden, Peter
Needle-free vaccination, for reasons of safety, economy, and convenience, is a central goal in vaccine development, but it also needs to meet the immunological requirements for efficient induction of prophylactic and therapeutic immune responses. Combining the principles of noninvasive delivery to dendritic cells (DCs) through skin and the immunological principles of cell-mediated immunity, we developed microparticle-based topical vaccines. We show here that the microparticles are efficient carriers for coordinated delivery of the essential vaccine constituents to DCs for cross-presentation of the antigens and stimulation of T-cell responses. When applied to the skin, the microparticles penetrate into hair follicles and target the resident DCs, the immunologically most potent cells and site for induction of efficient immune responses. The microparticle vaccine principle can be applied to different antigen formats such as peptides and proteins, or nucleic acids coding for the antigens.
Owen, Jennifer L; Sahay, Bikash; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour
As most infectious organisms gain entry at mucosal surfaces, there is a great deal of interest in developing vaccines that elicit effective mucosal immune responses against pathogen challenge. Targeted vaccination is one of the most effective methods available to prevent and control infectious diseases. Mucosal vaccines can offer lower costs, better accessibility, needle free delivery, and a higher capacity for mass immunizations during pandemics. Both local mucosal immunity and robust systemic responses can be achieved through mucosal vaccination. Recent progress in understanding the molecular and cellular components of the mucosal immune system have allowed for the development of a novel mucosal vaccine platform utilizing specific dendritic cell-targeting peptides and orally administered lactobacilli to elicit efficient antigen specific immune responses against infections, including Bacillus anthracis in experimental models of disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kunda, Nitesh K; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Gordon, Stephen B; Hutcheon, Gillian A; Saleem, Imran Y
Pulmonary vaccine delivery has gained significant attention as an alternate route for vaccination without the use of needles. Immunization through the pulmonary route induces both mucosal and systemic immunity, and the delivery of antigens in a dry powder state can overcome some challenges such as cold-chain and availability of medical personnel compared to traditional liquid-based vaccines. Antigens formulated as nanoparticles (NPs) reach the respiratory airways of the lungs providing greater chance of uptake by relevant immune cells. In addition, effective targeting of antigens to the most 'professional' antigen presenting cells (APCs), the dendritic cells (DCs) yields an enhanced immune response and the use of an adjuvant further augments the generated immune response thus requiring less antigen/dosage to achieve vaccination. This review discusses the pulmonary delivery of vaccines, methods of preparing NPs for antigen delivery and targeting, the importance of targeting DCs and different techniques involved in formulating dry powders suitable for inhalation.
Bol, Kalijn F.; Mensink, Hanneke W.; Aarntzen, Erik H. J. G.; Schreibelt, Gerty; Keunen, Jan E. E.; Coulie, Pierre G.; de Klein, Annelies; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Paridaens, Dion; Figdor, Carl G.; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.
To assess the safety and efficacy of dendritic cell vaccination in metastatic uveal melanoma. Interventional case series. We analyzed 14 patients with metastatic uveal melanoma treated with dendritic cell vaccination. Patients with metastatic uveal melanoma received at least 3 vaccinations with
Gabriela Andrea Pizzurro
Full Text Available Many approaches for cancer immunotherapy have targeted dendritic cells (DC, directly or indirectly, for the induction of antitumor immune responses. DC-based vaccines have been developed using a wide variety of ex vivo DC culture conditions, antigen source and loading strategies, maturation agents and routes of vaccination. Adjuvants are used to activate innate immune cells at the vaccine injection site, to promote antigen transport to the draining lymph nodes (LNs and to model adaptive immune responses. Despite years of effort, the effective induction of strong and durable antitumor T cell responses in vaccinated patients remains a challenge. The study of vaccine interactions with other immune cells in the LNs and, more recently, in the injection site has opened new doors for understanding antitumor effector T cell licensing and function. In this review, we will briefly discuss the relevant sites and up-to-date facts regarding possible targets for antitumor vaccine refinement. We will focus on the processes taking place at the injection site, adjuvant combinations and their role in DC-based vaccines LN homing and modeling vaccine-induced immune responses capable of controlling tumor growth and generating immune memory.
Vandebriel, Rob; Hoefnagel, Marcel M N
Dendritic cells (DC) are pivotal in the induction of adaptive immune responses because they can activate naive T-cells. Moreover, they steer these adaptive immune responses by integrating various stimuli, such as from different pathogen associated molecular patterns and the cytokine milieu. Immature DC are very well capable of ingesting protein antigens, whereas mature DC are efficient presenters of peptides to naive T cells. Human DC can be readily cultured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, which are isolated from human blood. There is a strong need to monitor in a high-throughput fashion the immunogenicity of candidate vaccines during the process of vaccine development. Furthermore, regulators require efficacy and safety testing for batch release. For some vaccines, these tests require animal testing, causing pain and discomfort, which cannot be contested because it would interfere with the test results. With the aims of promoting vaccine development and reducing the number of animals for batch release testing, we propose to use more broadly human DC for vaccine immunogenicity testing. In this commentary, this proposition is illustrated by several examples in which the maturation of human DC was successfully used to test for vaccine and adjuvant immunogenicity.
Bagirova, M; Allahverdiyev, A M; Abamor, E S; Ullah, I; Cosar, G; Aydogdu, M; Senturk, H; Ergenoglu, B
Leishmaniasis is one of the most serious vector-borne diseases in the world and is distributed over 98 countries. It is estimated that 350 million people are at risk for leishmaniasis. There are three different generation of vaccines that have been developed to provide immunity and protection against leishmaniasis. However, their use has been limited due to undesired side effects. These vaccines have also failed to provide effective and reliable protection and, as such, currently, there is no safe and effective vaccine for leishmaniasis. Dendritic cells (DCs) are a unique population of cells that come from bone marrow and become specialized to take up, process and present antigens to helper T cells in a mechanism similar to macrophages. By considering these significant features, DCs stimulated with different kinds of Leishmania antigens have been used in recent vaccine studies for leishmaniasis with promising results so far. In this review, we aim to review and combine the latest studies about this issue after defining potential problems in vaccine development for leishmaniasis and considering the importance of DCs in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
García, Felipe; Plana, Montserrat; Climent, Nuria; León, Agathe; Gatell, Jose M.; Gallart, Teresa
Dendritic cells have a central role in HIV infection. On one hand, they are essential to induce strong HIV-specific CD4+ helper T-cell responses that are crucial to achieve a sustained and effective HIV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte able to control HIV replication. On the other hand, DCs contribute to virus dissemination and HIV itself could avoid a correct antigen presentation. As the efficacy of immune therapy and therapeutic vaccines against HIV infection has been modest in the best...
Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B
We present a multi-input multi-output neural circuit architecture for nonlinear processing and encoding of stimuli in the spike domain. In this architecture a bank of dendritic stimulus processors implements nonlinear transformations of multiple temporal or spatio-temporal signals such as spike trains or auditory and visual stimuli in the analog domain. Dendritic stimulus processors may act on both individual stimuli and on groups of stimuli, thereby executing complex computations that arise as a result of interactions between concurrently received signals. The results of the analog-domain computations are then encoded into a multi-dimensional spike train by a population of spiking neurons modeled as nonlinear dynamical systems. We investigate general conditions under which such circuits faithfully represent stimuli and demonstrate algorithms for (i) stimulus recovery, or decoding, and (ii) identification of dendritic stimulus processors from the observed spikes. Taken together, our results demonstrate a fundamental duality between the identification of the dendritic stimulus processor of a single neuron and the decoding of stimuli encoded by a population of neurons with a bank of dendritic stimulus processors. This duality result enabled us to derive lower bounds on the number of experiments to be performed and the total number of spikes that need to be recorded for identifying a neural circuit.
Bloch Lisa M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted transport of messenger RNA and local protein synthesis near the synapse are important for synaptic plasticity. In order to gain an overview of the composition of the dendritic mRNA pool, we dissected out stratum radiatum (dendritic lamina from rat hippocampal CA1 region and compared its mRNA content with that of stratum pyramidale (cell body layer using a set of cDNA microarrays. RNAs that have over-representation in the dendritic fraction were annotated and sorted into function groups. Results We have identified 154 dendritic mRNA candidates, which can be arranged into the categories of receptors and channels, signaling molecules, cytoskeleton and adhesion molecules, and factors that are involved in membrane trafficking, in protein synthesis, in posttranslational protein modification, and in protein degradation. Previously known dendritic mRNAs such as MAP2, calmodulin, and G protein gamma subunit were identified from our screening, as were mRNAs that encode proteins known to be important for synaptic plasticity and memory, such as spinophilin, Pumilio, eEF1A, and MHC class I molecules. Furthermore, mRNAs coding for ribosomal proteins were also found in dendrites. Conclusion Our results suggest that neurons transport a variety of mRNAs to dendrites, not only those directly involved in modulating synaptic plasticity, but also others that play more common roles in cellular metabolism.
Wilgenhof, Sofie; Van Nuffel, An M T; Corthals, Jurgen; Heirman, Carlo; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Benteyn, Daphné; De Coninck, Arlette; Van Riet, Ivan; Verfaillie, Guy; Vandeloo, Judith; Bonehill, Aude; Thielemans, Kris; Neyns, Bart
The immunostimulatory capacity of dendritic cells is improved by co-electroporation with mRNA encoding CD40 ligand, constitutively active toll-like receptor 4, and CD70 (TriMix-DC). This pilot clinical trial evaluated the feasibility, safety, and immunogenicity of a therapeutic vaccination containing autologous TriMix-DC co-electroporated with mRNA encoding a human leukocyte antigen class II-targeting signal linked to 1 of 4 melanoma-associated antigens (MAGE-A3, MAGE-C2, tyrosinase, and gp100) in patients with advanced melanoma. Thirty-five American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III/IV melanoma patients received autologous TriMix-DC (4 administrations 2 weeks apart). Immune monitoring was performed by evaluating skin biopsies of delayed type IV hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions for presence of vaccinal antigen-specific DTH-infiltrating lymphocytes (DIL). Thereafter, patients could receive interferon-alpha-2b (IFN-α-2b) 5 MU subcutaneously 3 times weekly and additional TriMix-DC every 8 weeks. TriMix-DC-related adverse events comprised grade 2 local injection site reactions (all patients), and grade 2 fever and lethargy (2 patients). Vaccinal antigen-specific DIL were found in 0/6 patients tested at vaccine initiation and in 12/21 (57.1%) assessed after the fourth vaccine. A positive postvaccination DTH test correlated with IL-12p70 secretion capacity of TriMix-DC. No objective responses to TriMix-DC alone were seen according to RECIST. Twenty-nine patients received IFN-α-2b after the fourth vaccine without unexpected adverse events. During TriMix-DC/IFN-α-2b combination therapy, 1 partial response and 5 stable disease (disease control of >6 months with regression of metastases) were observed in 17 patients with evaluable disease at baseline. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that therapeutic vaccination with autologous TriMix-DC is feasible, safe, and immunogenic and can be combined with sequential IFN-α-2b.
Bol, K.F.; Aarntzen, E.H.; Hout, F.E. In 't; Schreibelt, G.; Creemers, J.H.; Lesterhuis, W.J.; Gerritsen, W.R.; Grunhagen, D.J.; Verhoef, C.; Punt, C.J.; Bonenkamp, J.J.; Wilt, J.H. de; Figdor, C.G.; Vries, I.J.M. de
Melanoma patients with regional metastatic disease are at high risk for recurrence and metastatic disease, despite radical lymph node dissection (RLND). We investigated the immunologic response and clinical outcome to adjuvant dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in melanoma patients with regional
Full Text Available For therapeutic cancer vaccination, the adoptive transfer of mRNA-electroporated dendritic cells (DCs is frequently performed, usually with monocyte-derived, cytokine-matured DCs (moDCs. However, DCs are rich in danger-sensing receptors which could recognize the exogenously delivered mRNA and induce DC activation, hence influencing the DCs’ immunogenicity. Therefore, we examined whether electroporation of mRNA with a proper cap and a poly-A tail of at least 64 adenosines had any influence on cocktail-matured moDCs. We used 16 different RNAs, encoding tumor antigens (MelanA, NRAS, BRAF, GNAQ, GNA11, and WT1, and variants thereof. None of those RNAs induced changes in the expression of CD25, CD40, CD83, CD86, and CD70 or the secretion of the cytokines IL-8, IL-6, and TNFα of more than 1.5-fold compared to the control condition, while an mRNA encoding an NF-κB-activation protein as positive control induced massive secretion of the cytokines. To determine whether mRNA electroporation had any effect on the whole transcriptome of the DCs, we performed microarray analyses of DCs of 6 different donors. None of 60,000 probes was significantly different between mock-electroporated DCs and MelanA-transfected DCs. Hence, we conclude that no transcriptional programs were induced within cocktail-matured DCs by electroporation of single tumor-antigen-encoding mRNAs.
Valle, Ricardo Diez; de Cerio, Ascension Lopez-Diaz; Inoges, Susana; Tejada, Sonia; Pastor, Fernando; Villanueva, Helena; Gallego, Jaime; Espinos, Jaime; Aristu, Javier; Idoate, Miguel Angel; Andreu, Enrique; Bendandi, Maurizio
AIM: To assess whether the addition of a customized, active immunotherapy to standard of care including fluorescence-guided surgery, may provide hints of an improved survival for patients with poor-prognosis, incurable glioblastoma multiform. METHODS: Preliminary to our ongoing, phase-II clinical trial, we conducted a small pilot study enrolling five consecutive patients with resectable glioblastoma. In terms of Recursive Partitioning Analysis, four patients were class V and one was class IV. In all five cases, fluorescence-guided surgery was employed, followed by rapid steroid discontinuation. Patients were then treated with a combination of standard radio-chemotherapy with temozolomide and tumor lysate-pulsed, mature dendritic cell-based vaccinations. RESULTS: Though all five patients ultimately progressed, with any further treatment left to the sole decision of the treating oncologist, active immunotherapy was very well tolerated and induced specific immune responses in all three patients for whom enough material was available for such an assessment. Median progression-free survival was 16.1 mo. Even more important, median and mean overall survival were 27 mo and 26 mo, respectively. Three patients have died with an overall survival of 9 mo, 27 mo and 27.4 mo, while the other two are still alive at 32 mo and 36 mo, the former receiving treatment with bevacizumab, while the latter has now been off therapy for 12 mo. Four of five patients were alive at two years. CONCLUSION: Active immunotherapy with tumor lysate-pulsed, autologous dendritic cells is feasible, safe, well tolerated and biologically efficacious. A phase-II study is ongoing to possibly improve further on our very encouraging clinical results. PMID:23293753
Burgdorf, Stefan K; Fischer, Anders; Myschetzky, Peter S
Patients with disseminated colorectal cancer have a poor prognosis. Preliminary studies have shown encouraging results from vaccines based on dendritic cells. The aim of this phase II study was to evaluate the effect of treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer with a cancer vaccine based...... on dendritic cells pulsed with an allogenic tumor cell lysate. Twenty patients with advanced colorectal cancer were consecutively enrolled. Dendritic cells (DC) were generated from autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells and pulsed with allogenic tumor cell lysate containing high levels of cancer...
Aarntzen, Erik H. J. G.; Srinivas, Mangala; Bonetto, Fernando; Cruz, Luis J.; Verdijk, Pauline; Schreibelt, Gerty; van de Rakt, Mandy; Lesterhuis, W. Joost; van Riel, Maichel; Punt, Cornelius J. A.; Adema, Gosse J.; Heerschap, Arend; Figdor, Carl G.; Oyen, Wim J.; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.
PURPOSE: Anticancer dendritic cell (DC) vaccines require the DCs to relocate to lymph nodes (LN) to trigger immune responses. However, these migration rates are typically very poor. Improving the targeting of ex vivo generated DCs to LNs might increase vaccine efficacy and reduce costs. We
Boudewijns, Steve; Koornstra, Rutger H. T.; Westdorp, Harm; Schreibelt, Gerty; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M; Geukes Foppen, Marnix H.; Haanen, John B.; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Figdor, Carl G.; Bol, Kalijn F.; Winald R. Gerritsen
ABSTRACT Background: Ipilimumab has proven to be effective in metastatic melanoma patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of ipilimumab in advanced melanoma patients who showed progressive disease upon experimental dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 48 stage IV melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab after progression upon DC vaccination earlier in their treatment. DC vaccination was given either as adjuvant treatment for stage III ...
Peter M Ferguson
Full Text Available Cancer immunotherapy with antigen-loaded dendritic cell-based vaccines can induce clinical responses in some patients, but further optimization is required to unlock the full potential of this strategy in the clinic. Optimization is dependent on being able to monitor the cellular events that take place once the dendritic cells have been injected in vivo, and to establish whether antigen-specific immune responses to the tumour have been induced. Here we describe the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a simple, non-invasive approach to evaluate vaccine success. By loading the dendritic cells with highly magnetic iron nanoparticles it is possible to assess whether the injected cells drain to the lymph nodes. It is also possible to establish whether an antigen-specific response is initiated by assessing migration of successive rounds of antigen-loaded dendritic cells; in the face of a successfully primed cytotoxic response, the bulk of antigen-loaded cells are eradicated on-route to the node, whereas cells without antigen can reach the node unchecked. It is also possible to verify the induction of a vaccine-induced response by simply monitoring increases in draining lymph node size as a consequence of vaccine-induced lymphocyte trapping, which is an antigen-specific response that becomes more pronounced with repeated vaccination. Overall, these MRI techniques can provide useful early feedback on vaccination strategies, and could also be used in decision making to select responders from non-responders early in therapy.
The major objective of this project is to establish a new modality for the treatment of breast cancer that employs the combination of chemokine gene-modified fibroblasts with breast tumor-pulsed dendritic cells (DC...
The major objective of this project is to establish a new modality for the treatment of breast cancer that employs the combination of chemokine gene modified fibroblasts with breast tumor pulsed dendritic cells (DC...
Boudewijns, S; Koornstra, R.H.; Westdorp, H.; Schreibelt, G.; Eertwegh, A.J. van den; Foppen, M.H. Geukes; Haanen, J.B.; Vries, I.J. de; Figdor, C.G.; Bol, K.F.; Gerritsen, W.R.
BACKGROUND: Ipilimumab has proven to be effective in metastatic melanoma patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of ipilimumab in advanced melanoma patients who showed progressive disease upon experimental dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of
Barbuto, Jose Alexandre M.; Neves, Andreia R.; Ensina, Luis Felipe C.; Anselmo, Luciene B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Dept. de Imunologia; Leite, Katia R.M.; Buzaid, Antonio C.; Camara Lopes, Luiz H. [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
Dendritic cells are the most potent antigen-presenting cells, and the possibility of their use for cancer vaccination has renewed the interest in this therapeutic modality. Nevertheless, the ideal immunization protocol with these cells has not been described yet. In this paper we describe the preliminary results of a protocol using autologous tumor and allogeneic dendritic hybrid cell vaccination every 6 weeks, for metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. Thirty-five patients were enrolled between March 2001 and March 2003. Though all patients included presented with large tumor burdens and progressive diseases, 71% of them experienced stability after vaccination, with durations up to 19 months. Among RCC patients 3/22 (14%) presented objective responses. The median time to progression was 4 months for melanoma and 5.7 months for RCC patients; no significant untoward effects were noted. Furthermore, immune function, as evaluated by cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to recall antigens and by peripheral blood proliferative responses to tumor-specific and nonspecific stimuli, presented a clear tendency to recover in vaccinated patients. These data indicate that dendritic cell-tumor cell hybrid vaccination affects the natural history of advanced cancer and provide support for its study in less advanced patients, who should, more likely, benefit even more from this approach. (author)
Tapia-Calle, Gabriela; Stoel, Maaike; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Huckriede, Anke
Vaccine development relies on testing vaccine candidates in animal models. However, results from animals cannot always be translated to humans. Alternative ways to screen vaccine candidates before clinical trials are therefore desirable. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the main orchestrators of the immune
Owen, Jennifer L.; Sahay, Bikash; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour
As most infectious organisms gain entry at mucosal surfaces, there is a great deal of interest in developing vaccines that elicit effective mucosal immune responses against pathogen challenge. Targeted vaccination is one of the most effective methods available to prevent and control infectious diseases. Mucosal vaccines can offer lower costs, better accessibility, needle free delivery, and a higher capacity for mass immunizations during pandemics. Both local mucosal immunity and robust system...
.... One of these factors is Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta). TGF-beta is produced in large quantities by different types of cancer including breast cancer and inhibits the actions of several immune cells including dendritic cells (DC...
Kalariya, Mayurkumar; Amiji, Mansoor M
The purpose of this study was to develop a water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsions-based vaccine delivery system for plasmid DNA encoding the gp100 peptide antigen for melanoma immunotherapy. The gp100 encoding plasmid DNA was encapsulated in the inner-most aqueous phase of squalane oil containing W/O/W multiple emulsions using a two-step emulsification method. In vitro transfection ability of the encapsulated plasmid DNA was investigated in murine dendritic cells by transgene expression analysis using fluorescence microscopy and ELISA methods. Prophylactic immunization using the W/O/W multiple emulsions encapsulated the gp100 encoding plasmid DNA vaccine significantly reduced tumor volume in C57BL/6 mice during subsequent B16-F10 tumor challenge. In addition, serum Th1 cytokine levels and immuno-histochemistry of excised tumor tissues indicated activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes mediated anti-tumor immunity causing tumor growth suppression. The W/O/W multiple emulsions-based vaccine delivery system efficiently delivers the gp100 plasmid DNA to induce cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kataoka, Kosuke; Fujihashi, Kohtaro
In order to establish effective mucosal immunity against various mucosal pathogens, vaccines must be delivered via the mucosal route and contain effective adjuvant(s). Since mucosal adjuvants can simply mix with the antigen, it is relatively easy to adapt them for different types of vaccine development. Even in simple admixture vaccines, the adjuvant itself must be prepared without any complications. Thus, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or plasmids encoding certain cDNA(s) would be potent mucosal ...
Luo, Kun; Zavala, Fidel; Gordy, James; Zhang, Hong; Markham, Richard B
Mouse studies evaluating candidate malaria vaccines have typically examined protective efficacy over the relatively short time frames of several weeks after the final of multiple immunizations. The current study examines the protective ability in a mouse model system of a novel protein vaccine construct in which the adjuvant polyinosinic polycytidilic acid (poly(I:C)) is used in combination with a vaccine in which the immature dendritic cell targeting chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP3α), is fused to the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Two vaccinations, three weeks apart, elicited extraordinarily high, MIP3α-dependent antibody responses. MIP3α was able to target the vaccine to the CCR6 receptor found predominantly on immature dendritic cells and significantly enhanced the cellular influx at the vaccination site. At three and 23 weeks after the final of two immunizations, mice were challenged by intravenous injection of 5×10 3 transgenic Plasmodium berghei sporozoites expressing P. falciparum CSP, a challenge dose approximately one order of magnitude greater than that which is encountered after mosquito bite in the clinical setting. A ninety-seven percent reduction in liver sporozoite load was observed at both time points, 23 weeks being the last time point tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Many clinical trials have been carried out or are in progress to assess the therapeutic potential of dendritic-cell- (DC- based vaccines on cancer patients, and recently the first DC-based vaccine for human cancer was approved by the FDA. Herewith, we describe the general characteristics of DCs and different strategies to generate effective antitumor DC vaccines. In recent years, the relevance of the tumor microenvironment in the progression of cancer has been highlighted. It has been shown that the tumor microenvironment is capable of inactivating various components of the immune system responsible for tumor clearance. In particular, the effect of the tumor microenvironment on antigen-presenting cells, such as DCs, does not only render these immune cells unable to induce specific immune responses, but also turns them into promoters of tumor growth. We also describe strategies likely to increase the efficacy of DC vaccines by reprogramming the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment.
Gruijl, de Tanja; Eertwegh, van den Alfons; Pinedo, Herbert; Scheper, Rik
The Weld of tumor vaccination is currently undergoing a shift in focus, from individualized tailor-made vaccines to more generally applicable vaccine formulations. Although primarily predicated by Wnancial and logistic considerations, stemming from a growing awareness that clinical development
Liu, Dai-Wei; Chang, Junn-Liang; Tsao, Yeou-Ping; Huang, Chien-Wei; Kuo, Shu-Wen; Chen, Show-Li
Non-infectious human papillomavirus-like particles (VLPs), encoded by the major capsid gene L1, have been shown to be effective as vaccines to prevent cervical cancer. We have developed the genetic immunization of the L1 gene to induce a neutralizing antibody. We constructed and generated a recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 L1 protein that could form virus-like particles in transduced cells. Previous reports have demonstrated that the formation of VLP is necessary to induce high titers of neutralizing antibodies to protect an animal from viral challenge. Therefore, we carried out a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection with recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding HPV-16 L1 protein (rAAV-16L1) in BALB/c mice, which ultimately produced stronger and more prolonged neutralizing L1 antibodies, when compared to the DNA vaccine. Immunohistochemistry showed that the accumulation of antigen presenting cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, in rAAV-16L1 and L1 DNA-injected muscle fibers may be due to the L1 protein expression, but not to AAV infection. When compared to the L1 VLP vaccine, however, the titers of neutralizing L1 antibodies induced by VLP were higher than those induced by rAAV-16L1. Co-vaccinating with rAAV-16L1 and adenovirus encoding murine GM-CSF (rAAV-16L1/rAd-mGM-CSF) induced comparable higher levels of neutralizing L1 antibodies with those of VLP. This implies that a single i.m. co-injection with rAAV-16L1/rAd-mGM-CSF can achieve the same vaccine effect as a VLP vaccine requiring 3 booster injections.
Oleg V Markov
Full Text Available Recent data on the application of dendritic cells (DCs as anti-tumor vaccines has shown their great potential in therapy and prophylaxis of cancer. Here we report on a comparison of two treatment schemes with DCs that display the models of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination using three different experimental tumor models: namely, Krebs-2 adenocarcinoma (primary tumor, melanoma (B16, metastatic tumor without a primary node and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC, metastatic tumor with a primary node. Dendritic cells generated from bone marrow-derived DC precursors and loaded with lysate of tumor cells or transfected with the complexes of total tumor RNA with cationic liposomes were used for vaccination. Lipofectamine 2000 and liposomes consisting of helper lipid DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine and cationic lipid 2D3 (1,26-Bis(1,2-de-O-tetradecyl-rac-glycerol-7,11,16,20-tetraazahexacosan tetrahydrocloride were used for RNA transfection. It was shown that DCs loaded with tumor lysate were ineffective in contrast to tumor-derived RNA. Therapeutic vaccination with DCs loaded by lipoplexes RNA/Lipofectamine 2000 was the most efficient for treatment of non-metastatic Krebs-2, where a 1.9-fold tumor growth retardation was observed. Single prophylactic vaccination with DCs loaded by lipoplexes RNA/2D3 was the most efficient to treat highly aggressive metastatic tumors LLC and B16, where 4.7- and 10-fold suppression of the number of lung metastases was observed, respectively. Antimetastatic effect of single prophylactic DC vaccination in metastatic melanoma model was accompanied by the reductions in the levels of Th2-specific cytokines however the change of the levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 master regulators was not found. Failure of double prophylactic vaccination is explained by Th17-response polarization associated with autoimmune and pro-inflammatory reactions. In the case of therapeutic DC vaccine the polarization of Th1-response was found
Full Text Available Abstract Background Coccidioidomycosis or Valley fever is caused by a highly virulent fungal pathogen: Coccidioides posadasii or immitis. Vaccine development against Coccidioides is of contemporary interest because a large number of relapses and clinical failures are reported with antifungal agents. An efficient Th1 response engenders protection. Thus, we have focused on developing a dendritic cell (DC-based vaccine for coccidioidomycosis. In this study, we investigated the immunostimulatory characteristics of an intranasal primary DC-vaccine in BALB/c mouse strain that is most susceptible to coccidioidomycosis. The DCs were transfected nonvirally with Coccidioides-Ag2/PRA-cDNA. Expression of DC-markers, Ag2/PRA and cytokines were studied by flow cytometry, dot-immunoblotting and cytometric bead array methods, respectively. The T cell activation was studied by assessing the upregulation of activation markers in a DC-T cell co-culture assay. For trafficking, the DCs were co-transfected with a plasmid DNA encoding HSV1 thymidine kinase (TK and administered intranasally into syngeneic mice. The trafficking and homing of TK-expressing DCs were monitored with positron emission tomography (PET using 18F-FIAU probe. Based on the PET-probe accumulation in vaccinated mice, selected tissues were studied for antigen-specific response and T cell phenotypes using ELISPOT and flow cytometry, respectively. Results We found that the primary DCs transfected with Coccidioides-Ag2/PRA-cDNA were of immature immunophenotype, expressed Ag2/PRA and activated naïve T cells. In PET images and subsequent biodistribution, intranasally-administered DCs were found to migrate in blood, lung and thymus; lymphocytes showed generation of T effector memory cell population (TEM and IFN-γ release. Conclusions In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the intranasally-administered primary DC vaccine is capable of inducing Ag2/PRA-specific T cell response. Unique approaches
Soledad eMac Keon
Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a pivotal role in the orchestration of immune responses, and are thus key targets in cancer vaccine design. Since the 2010 FDA approval of the first cancer DC-based vaccine (Sipuleucel T there has been a surge of interest in exploiting these cells as a therapeutic option for the treatment of tumors of diverse origin. In spite of the encouraging results obtained in the clinic, many elements of DC-based vaccination strategies need to be optimized. In this context, the use of experimental cancer models can help direct efforts towards an effective vaccine design. This paper reviews recent findings in murine models regarding the antitumoral mechanisms of DC-based vaccination, covering issues related to antigen sources, the use of adjuvants and maturing agents, and the role of DC subsets and their interaction in the initiation of antitumoral immune responses. The summary of such diverse aspects will highlight advantages and drawbacks in the use of murine models, and contribute to the design of successful DC-based translational approaches for cancer treatment.
Piasecka, E.P.; Indrová, Marie
Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 257-268 ISSN 1750-743X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520807; GA ČR GA301/09/1024; GA MZd NS10660 Grant - others:Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education(PL) NN401235334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : dendritic cells * preparation of vaccine s * experimental tumors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.542, year: 2010
Gruijl, de, T.D.; Eertwegh, van den, A.J.M.; Pinedo, Herbert; Scheper, Rik
The field of tumor vaccination is currently undergoing a shift in focus, from individualized tailor-made vaccines to more generally applicable vaccine formulations. Although primarily predicated by financial and logistic considerations, stemming from a growing awareness that clinical development for wide-scale application can only be achieved through backing from major pharmaceutical companies, these new approaches are also supported by a growing knowledge of the intricacies and minutiae of a...
Burgdorf, S K; Fischer, A; Claesson, M H
Immune therapy have shown new and exciting perspectives for cancer treatment. Aim of our study was to evaluate toxicity and possible adverse effects from vaccination of patients with advanced colorectal cancer with autologous dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with lysate from a newly developed melanoma...... and selected melanoma cell line enriched in expression of MAGE-A antigens and deficient in expression of melanoma differentiation antigens: tyrosinase, MART-1 and gp100. Vaccinations were administered intradermally on the proximal thigh with a total of five given vaccines at 2 weeks intervals. Each vaccine...... contained 3-5 x 10(6) DCs. Five of the six patients received all five vaccines. The treatment was well tolerated in all patients without any observed vaccine-correlated adverse effects. Treatment with this DC-based cancer vaccine proved safe and non-toxic....
Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs in human immune system. DC-based tumor vaccine has met with some success in specific malignancies, inclusive of breast cancer. In this study, we electrofused MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line with day-3 DCs derived from peripheral blood monocytes, and explored the biological characteristics of fusion vaccine and its anti-tumor effects in vitro. Day-3 mature DCs were generated from day-2 immature DCs by adding cocktails composed of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and PEG2. Day-3 mature DCs were identified and electofused with breast cancer cells to generate fusion vaccine. Phenotype of fusion cells were identified by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometer. The fusion vaccine was evaluated for T cell proliferation, secretion of IL-12 and IFN-γ, and induction of tumor-specific CTL response. Despite differences in morphology, day-3 and day-7 DC expressed similar surface markers. The secretion of IL-12 and IFN-γ in fusion vaccine group was much higher than that in the control group. Compared with control group, DC-tumor fusion vaccine could better stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic T lymphocytes and kill more breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 in vitro. Day-3 DCs had the same function as the day-7 DCs, but with a shorter culture period. Our findings suggested that day-3 DCs fused with whole apoptotic breast cancer cells could elicit effective specific antitumor T cell responses in vitro and may be developed into a prospective candidate for adoptivet immunotherapy.
Guiton, R; Zagani, R; Dimier-Poisson, I
Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, a worldwide zoonosis for which an effective vaccine is needed. Vaccination with pulsed dendritic cells is very efficient but their use in a vaccination protocol is unconceivable. Nevertheless, unravelling the induced effector mechanisms is crucial to design new vaccine strategies. We vaccinated CBA/J mice with parasite extract-pulsed dendritic cells, challenged them with T. gondii cysts and carried out in vivo depletion of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T lymphocytes to study the subsequent cellular immune response and protective mechanisms. CD4(+) lymphocytes were poorly implicated either in spleen and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cytokine secretion or in mice protection. By contrast, the increasing number of intracerebral cysts and depletion of CD8(+) cells were strongly correlated, revealing a prominent role for CD8(+) lymphocytes in the protection of mice. Splenic CD8(+) lymphocytes induce a strong Th1 response controlled by a Th2 response whereas CD8(+) cells from MLNs inhibit both Th1 and Th2 responses. CD8(+) cells are the main effectors following dendritic cell vaccination and Toxoplasma infection while CD4(+) T cells only play a minor role. This contrasts with T. gondii infection which elicits the generation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that provide protective immunity.
Ngu, Loveline N; Nji, Nadesh N; Ambada, Georgia; Ngoh, Apeh A; Njambe Priso, Ghislain D; Tchadji, Jules C; Lissom, Abel; Magagoum, Suzanne H; Sake, Carol N; Tchouangueu, Thibau F; Chukwuma, George O; Okoli, Arinze S; Sagnia, Bertrand; Chukwuanukwu, Rebecca; Tebit, Denis M; Esimone, Charles O; Waffo, Alain B; Park, Chae G; Überla, Klaus; Nchinda, Godwin W
Recombinant Newcastle Disease virus (rNDV) vectored vaccines are safe mucosal applicable vaccines with intrinsic immune-modulatory properties for the induction of efficient immunity. Like all viral vectored vaccines repeated inoculation via mucosal routes invariably results to immunity against viral vaccine vectors. To obviate immunity against viral vaccine vectors and improve the ability of rNDV vectored vaccines in inducing T cell immunity in murine air way we have directed dendritic cell targeted HIV-1 gag protein (DEC-Gag) vaccine; for the induction of helper CD4 + T cells to a Recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing codon optimized HIV-1 Gag P55 (rNDV-L-Gag) vaccine. We do so through successive administration of anti-DEC205-gagP24 protein plus polyICLC (DEC-Gag) vaccine and rNDV-L-Gag. First strong gag specific helper CD4 + T cells are induced in mice by selected targeting of anti-DEC205-gagP24 protein vaccine to dendritic cells (DC) in situ together with polyICLC as adjuvant. This targeting helped T cell immunity develop to a subsequent rNDV-L-Gag vaccine and improved both systemic and mucosal gag specific immunity. This sequential DEC-Gag vaccine prime followed by an rNDV-L-gag boost results to improved viral vectored immunization in murine airway, including mobilization of protective CD8 + T cells to a pathogenic virus infection site. Thus, complementary prime boost vaccination, in which prime and boost favor distinct types of T cell immunity, improves viral vectored immunization, including mobilization of protective CD8 + T cells to a pathogenic virus infection site such as the murine airway. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and DiseasePublished by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Liu, J; Li, J; Fan, Y; Chang, K; Yang, X; Zhu, W; Wu, X; Pang, Yan
In addition to its direct cytotoxic effects, radiation therapy renders tumor cells more susceptible to T cell-mediated cytotoxicity by modulating cell surface molecules involved in antigen presentation. The purpose of the present study was to determine the benefit of combined 89Sr radiation and dendritic cell (DC) vaccine therapy in bone metastasis patients. Patients were treated with intravenous 89Sr at a dose of 40 μCi/kg of body weight on the first day after the peripheral blood mononuclear cell collection. Seven days later, patients received DCs once a week for 6 weeks. The first three vaccines were administered by intravenous infusion, and the last three vaccines were administered by 24-point intradermal injection. Clinical response was evaluated by the number of bone metastatic foci demonstrated on bone scintigraphy; cell-mediated cytotoxicity response was evaluated by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction. All treatment-related toxicities including vaccine-induced fever and 89Sr-associated hematological toxicity were carefully monitored. Twenty-six patients with histologically diagnosed with primary cancers and multiple bone metastases demonstrated on bone scintigraphy were studied. The overall survival rate was 58.3%. The total positive DTH rate was 50%. The efficiency rate for pain relief was 60% (6/10), for quantity of life was 80%, and for clinic responses was 90%. Out of 10 cases, the Grade 1 or 2 of hematological depression in 4, erythema in 1, and fever in 7 were observed. The study has important implications for that combined 89Sr radiation, and DC vaccine therapy can benefit cancer patients with bone metastasis.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DC pulsed with tumor-derived antigenic material have widely been used in antitumor vaccination protocols. However, the optimal strategy of DC loading has not yet been established. Our aim was to define requirements of optimal DC vaccines in terms of in vivo protection in a murine B-cell lymphoma model. Methods We compare various loading reagents including whole parental and modified tumor cells and a single tumor-specific antigen, namely the lymphoma idiotype (Id. Bone marrow-derived DC were pulsed in vitro and used for therapy of established A20 lymphomas. Results We show that a vaccine with superior antitumor efficacy can be generated when DC are loaded with whole modified tumor cells which provide both (i antigenic polyvalency and (ii receptor-mediated antigen internalization. Uptake of cellular material was greatly enhanced when the tumor cells used for DC pulsing were engineered to express an anti-Fc receptor immunoglobulin specificity. Upon transfer of these DC, established tumor burdens were eradicated in 50% of mice. By contrast, pulsing DC with unmodified lymphoma cells or with the lymphoma Id, even when it was endowed with the anti-Fc receptor binding arm, was far less effective. A specific humoral anti-Id response could be detected, particularly following delivery of Id protein-pulsed DC, but it was not predictive of tumor protection. Instead a T-cell response was pivotal for successful tumor protection. Interaction of the transferred DC with CD8+ T lymphocytes seemed to play a role for induction of the immune response but was dispensable when DC had received an additional maturation stimulus. Conclusion Our analyses show that the advantages of specific antigen redirection and antigenic polyvalency can be combined to generate DC-based vaccines with superior antitumor efficacy. This mouse model may provide information for the standardization of DC-based vaccination protocols.
Nestle, F O; Alijagic, S; Gilliet, M; Sun, Y; Grabbe, S; Dummer, R; Burg, G; Schadendorf, D
Melanoma is the main cause of death in patients with skin cancer. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) attack melanoma cells in an HLA-restricted and tumor antigen-specific manner. Several melanoma-associated tumor antigens have been identified. These antigens are suitable candidates for a vaccination therapy of melanoma. Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) specialized for the induction of a primary T-cell response. Mouse studies have demonstrated the potent capacity of DCs to induce antitumor immunity. In the present clinical pilot study, DCs were generated in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) and were pulsed with tumor lysate or a cocktail of peptides known to be recognized by CTLs, depending on the patient's HLA haplotype. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was added as a CD4 helper antigen and immunological tracer molecule. Sixteen patients with advanced melanoma were immunized on an outpatient basis. Vaccination was well tolerated. No physical sign of autoimmunity was detected in any of the patients. DC vaccination induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactivity toward KLH in all patients, as well as a positive DTH reaction to peptide-pulsed DCs in 11 patients. Recruitment of peptide-specific CTLs to the DTH challenge site was also demonstrated. Therefore, antigen-specific immunity was induced during DC vaccination. Objective responses were evident in 5 out of 16 evaluated patients (two complete responses, three partial responses) with regression of metastases in various organs (skin, soft tissue, lung, pancreas) and one additional minor response. These data indicate that vaccination with autologous DCs generated from peripheral blood is a safe and promising approach in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Further studies are necessary to demonstrate clinical effectiveness and impact on the survival of melanoma patients.
Agallou, Maria; Smirlis, Despina; Soteriadou, Ketty P; Karagouni, Evdokia
Visceral leishmaniasis is the most severe form of leishmaniases affecting millions of people worldwide often resulting in death despite optimal therapy. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of effective anti-infective vaccine(s). In the present study, we evaluated the prophylactic value of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) pulsed with the Leishmania (L.) infantum histone H1. We developed fully mature BM-DCs characterized by enhanced capacity of IL-12 production after ex vivo pulsing with GST-LeishH1. Intravenous administration of these BM-DCs in naive BALB/c mice resulted in antigen-specific spleenocyte proliferation and IgG1 isotype antibody production and conferred protection against experimental challenge with L. infantum independently of CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) co-administration. Protection was associated with a pronounced enhancement of parasite-specific IFNγ-producing cells and reduction of cells producing IL-10, whereas IL-4 production was comparable in protected and non-protected mice. The polarization of immune responses to Th1 type was further confirmed by the elevation of parasite-specific IgG2a/IgG1 ratio in protected mice. The above data indicate the immunostimulatory capacity of Leishmania histone H1 and further support its exploitation as a candidate protein for vaccine development against leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Joost Dejaegher,1 Stefaan Van Gool,2 Steven De Vleeschouwer1 1Department of Neurosciences, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Abstract: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain cancer. Since median overall survival with multimodal standard therapy is only 15 months, there is a clear need for additional effective and long-lasting treatments. Dendritic cell (DC vaccination is an experimental immunotherapy being tested in several Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. In these trials, safety and feasibility have been proven, and promising clinical results have been reported. On the other hand, it is becoming clear that not every GBM patient will benefit from this highly personalized treatment. Defining the subgroup of patients likely to respond to DC vaccination will position this option correctly amongst other new GBM treatment modalities, and pave the way to incorporation in standard therapy. This review provides an overview of GBM treatment options and focuses on the currently known prognostic and predictive factors for response to DC vaccination. In this way, it will provide the clinician with the theoretical background to refer patients who might benefit from this treatment. Keywords: immunotherapy, personalized medicine, brain tumor, stratification
Full Text Available Cancer immunotherapy is currently the hottest topic in the oncology field, owing predominantly to the discovery of immune checkpoint blockers. These promising antibodies and their attractive combinatorial features have initiated the revival of other effective immunotherapies like dendritic cell (DC vaccinations. Although DC-based immunotherapy can induce objective clinical and immunological responses in several tumor types, the immunogenic potential of this monotherapy is still considered suboptimal. Hence, focus should be directed on potentiating its immunogenicity by making step-by-step protocol innovations to obtain next-generation Th1-driving DC vaccines. We review some of the latest developments in the DC vaccination field, with a special emphasis on strategies that are applied to obtain a highly immunogenic tumor cell cargo to load and to activate the DCs. To this end, we discuss the effects of three immunogenic treatment modalities (ultraviolet light, oxidizing treatments and heat shock and five potent inducers of immunogenic cell death (radiotherapy, shikonin, high-hydrostatic pressure, oncolytic viruses and (hypericin-based photodynamic therapy on DC biology and their application in DC-based immunotherapy in preclinical as well as clinical settings.
Vandenberk, Lien; Belmans, Jochen; Van Woensel, Matthias; Riva, Matteo; Van Gool, Stefaan W
Cancer immunotherapy is currently the hottest topic in the oncology field, owing predominantly to the discovery of immune checkpoint blockers. These promising antibodies and their attractive combinatorial features have initiated the revival of other effective immunotherapies, such as dendritic cell (DC) vaccinations. Although DC-based immunotherapy can induce objective clinical and immunological responses in several tumor types, the immunogenic potential of this monotherapy is still considered suboptimal. Hence, focus should be directed on potentiating its immunogenicity by making step-by-step protocol innovations to obtain next-generation Th1-driving DC vaccines. We review some of the latest developments in the DC vaccination field, with a special emphasis on strategies that are applied to obtain a highly immunogenic tumor cell cargo to load and to activate the DCs. To this end, we discuss the effects of three immunogenic treatment modalities (ultraviolet light, oxidizing treatments, and heat shock) and five potent inducers of immunogenic cell death [radiotherapy, shikonin, high-hydrostatic pressure, oncolytic viruses, and (hypericin-based) photodynamic therapy] on DC biology and their application in DC-based immunotherapy in preclinical as well as clinical settings.
Dejaegher, Joost; Van Gool, Stefaan; De Vleeschouwer, Steven
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain cancer. Since median overall survival with multimodal standard therapy is only 15 months, there is a clear need for additional effective and long-lasting treatments. Dendritic cell (DC) vaccination is an experimental immunotherapy being tested in several Phase I and Phase II clinical trials. In these trials, safety and feasibility have been proven, and promising clinical results have been reported. On the other hand, it is becoming clear that not every GBM patient will benefit from this highly personalized treatment. Defining the subgroup of patients likely to respond to DC vaccination will position this option correctly amongst other new GBM treatment modalities, and pave the way to incorporation in standard therapy. This review provides an overview of GBM treatment options and focuses on the currently known prognostic and predictive factors for response to DC vaccination. In this way, it will provide the clinician with the theoretical background to refer patients who might benefit from this treatment. PMID:27471700
Berntsen, Annika; Trepiakas, Redas; Wenandy, Lynn
Therapeutic dendritic cell (DC) vaccination against cancer is a strategy aimed at activating the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells. In this nonrandomized phase 1/2 trial, we investigated the safety, feasibility, induction of T-cell response, and clinical response after treatment...... with a DC-based vaccine in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Twenty-seven patients with progressive cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma were vaccinated with DCs loaded with either a cocktail of survivin and telomerase peptides or tumor lysate depending on their HLA-A2 haplotype...
Berntsen, A.; Trepiakas, R.; Wenandy, L.
Therapeutic dendritic cell (DC) vaccination against cancer is a strategy aimed at activating the immune system to recognize and destroy tumor cells. In this nonrandomized phase 1/2 trial, we investigated the safety, feasibility, induction of T-cell response, and clinical response after treatment...... with a DC- based vaccine in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Twenty-seven patients with progressive cytokine-refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma were vaccinated with DCs loaded with either a cocktail of survivin and telomerase peptides or tumor lysate depending on their HLA-A2 haplotype...
Freer, Giulia; Matteucci, Donatella; Mazzetti, Paola; Tarabella, Francesca; Catalucci, Valentina; Ricci, Enrica; Merico, Antonio; Bozzacco, Leonia; Pistello, Mauro; Bendinelli, Mauro
Dendritic cells are the only antigen-presenting cells that can present exogenous antigens to both helper and cytolytic T cells and prime Th1-type or Th2-type cellular immune responses. Given their unique immune functions, dendritic cells are considered attractive "live adjuvants" for vaccination and immunotherapy against cancer and infectious diseases. The present study was carried out to assess whether the reinjection of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with an aldithriol-2-inactivated primary isolate of feline immune deficiency virus (FIV) was able to elicit protective immune responses against the homologous virus in naive cats. Vaccine efficacy was assessed by monitoring immune responses and, finally, by challenge with the homologous virus of vaccinated, mock-vaccinated, and healthy cats. The outcome of challenge was followed by measuring cellular and antibody responses and viral and proviral loads and quantitating FIV by isolation and a count of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells in blood. Vaccinated animals exhibited clearly evident FIV-specific peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and antibody titers in response to immunization; however, they became infected with the challenge virus at rates comparable to those of control animals.
Stoel, Maaike; Pool - Kramer, Judith; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Zaaraoui-Boutahar, Fatiha; Bijl, Maarten; Andeweg, Arno C.; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke
Vaccine development involves time-consuming and expensive evaluation of candidate vaccines in animal models. As mediators of both innate and adaptive immune responses dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be highly important for vaccine performance. Here we evaluated how far the response of DCs to
Kongsted, Per; Borch, Troels Holz; Ellebaek, Eva
Background aims We investigated whether the addition of an autologous dendritic cell–based cancer vaccine (DCvac) induces an immune response in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with docetaxel. Methods Forty-three patients were randomized 1:1 to receive up...... twice through treatment cycles 1–4 and once through treatment cycles 5–10. Immune cell composition and antigen-specific responses were analyzed using flow cytometry, ELISpot and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) tests. Toxicity was graded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events...... to local reactions. Decline in myeloid-derived suppressor cells at the third treatment cycle was found to be an independent predictor of DSS. Conclusions The addition of DCvac was safe. Immune responses were detected in approximately half of the patients investigated....
Schendel Dolores J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DC are capable of priming naïve T cells and therefore represent an attractive adjuvant for vaccine development in anti-tumor immunotherapy. Numerous protocols have been described to date using different maturation cocktails and time periods for the induction of mature DC (mDC in vitro. For clinical application, the use of mDC that can be generated in only three days saves on the costs of cytokines needed for large scale vaccine cell production and provides a method to produce cells within a standard work-week schedule in a GMP facility. Methods In this study, we addressed the properties of antigen uptake, processing and presentation by monocyte-derived DC prepared in three days (3d mDC compared with conventional DC prepared in seven days (7d mDC, which represent the most common form of DC used for vaccines to date. Results Although they showed a reduced capacity for spontaneous antigen uptake, 3d mDC displayed higher capacity for stimulation of T cells after loading with an extended synthetic peptide that requires processing for MHC binding, indicating they were more efficient at antigen processing than 7d DC. We found, however, that 3d DC were less efficient at expressing protein after introduction of in vitro transcribed (ivtRNA by electroporation, based on published procedures. This deficit was overcome by altering electroporation parameters, which led to improved protein expression and capacity for T cell stimulation using low amounts of ivtRNA. Conclusions This new procedure allows 3d mDC to replace 7d mDC for use in DC-based vaccines that utilize long peptides, proteins or ivtRNA as sources of specific antigen.
Wobser, Marion; Voigt, Heike; Houben, Roland; Eggert, Andreas O; Freiwald, Matthias; Kaemmerer, Ulrike; Kaempgen, Eckhart; Schrama, David; Becker, Juergen C
Recent reports have demonstrated that the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is upregulated in human dendritic cells (DCs) upon in vitro maturation. IDO is supposed to convey immunosuppressive effects by degrading the essential amino acid tryptophan, thereby downregulating T-cell functions. Hence, we evaluated IDO expression in DC preparations used for therapeutic DC vaccination and its in vivo effects. IDO expression was detected by real-time-PCR in a series of human clinical grade DCs (n = 28) prior to vaccination of advanced melanoma patients (n = 11). These analyses revealed an intra- and interpersonal variation in IDO mRNA levels. IDO was strongly upregulated in human DCs on RNA and on protein level upon in vitro maturation by Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) over a time course of 24 h. The enzymatic activity of induced IDO was demonstrated by measuring tryptophan degradation. Moreover, in biopsies obtained 24 h after application of the DC vaccine a prominent infiltrate of IDO-positive cells was observed by immunohistochemistry. The inflammatory infiltrate of these sites stained positive for the transcription factor Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3), suggesting an IDO-mediated induction of regulatory T-cells. All analysed melanoma patients (n = 11) receiving DC based immunotherapy exhibited rapid disease progression with a short overall survival due to advanced tumour stage. The presented observations suggest a potential clinical relevance of IDO expression in DC-based therapeutic vaccines via the attraction or induction of FoxP3(+) T-cells.
Borch, Troels Holz; Svane, Inge Marie; Met, Özcan
Dendritic cells are known to be the most potent antigen presenting cell in the immune system and are used as cellular adjuvants in therapeutic anticancer vaccines using various tumor-associated antigens or their derivatives. One way of loading antigen into the dendritic cells is by m......RNA electroporation, ensuring presentation of antigen through major histocompatibility complex I and potentially activating T cells, enabling them to kill the tumor cells. Despite extensive research in the field, only one dendritic cell-based vaccine has been approved. There is therefore a great need to elucidate...... and understand the immunological impact of dendritic cell vaccination in order to improve clinical benefit. In this chapter, we describe a method for performing immune monitoring using peripheral blood mononuclear cells and autologous dendritic cells transfected with tumor-associated antigen-encoding mRNA....
Full Text Available Recombinant adenoviral (rAd vectors elicit potent cellular and humoral immune responses and show promise as vaccines for HIV-1, Ebola virus, tuberculosis, malaria, and other infections. These vectors are now widely used and have been generally well tolerated in vaccine and gene therapy clinical trials, with many thousands of people exposed. At the same time, dose-limiting adverse responses have been observed, including transient low-grade fevers and a prior human gene therapy fatality, after systemic high-dose recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5 vector administration in a human gene therapy trial. The mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood. Here, we define the mechanism by which Ad5 targets immune cells that stimulate adaptive immunity. rAd5 tropism for dendritic cells (DCs was independent of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, its primary receptor or the secondary integrin RGD receptor, and was mediated instead by a heparin-sensitive receptor recognized by a distinct segment of the Ad5 fiber, the shaft. rAd vectors with CAR and RGD mutations did not infect a variety of epithelial and fibroblast cell types but retained their ability to transfect several DC types and stimulated adaptive immune responses in mice. Notably, the pyrogenic response to the administration of rAd5 also localized to the shaft region, suggesting that this interaction elicits both protective immunity and vector-induced fevers. The ability of replication-defective rAd5 viruses to elicit potent immune responses is mediated by a heparin-sensitive receptor that interacts with the Ad5 fiber shaft. Mutant CAR and RGD rAd vectors target several DC and mononuclear subsets and induce both adaptive immunity and toxicity. Understanding of these interactions facilitates the development of vectors that target DCs through alternative receptors that can improve safety while retaining the immunogenicity of rAd vaccines.
Ohs, Inga; Windmann, Sonja; Wildner, Oliver; Dittmer, Ulf; Bayer, Wibke
Interleukins (IL) are cytokines with stimulatory and modulatory functions in the immune system. In this study, we have chosen interleukins which are involved in the enhancement of TH2 responses and B cell functions to analyze their potential to improve a prophylactic adenovirus-based anti-retroviral vaccine with regard to antibody and virus-specific CD4+ T cell responses. Mice were vaccinated with an adenoviral vector which encodes and displays the Friend Virus (FV) surface envelope protein gp70 (Ad.pIXgp70) in combination with adenoviral vectors encoding the interleukins IL4, IL5, IL6, IL7 or IL23. Co-application of Ad.pIXgp70 with Ad.IL5, Ad.IL6 or Ad.IL23 resulted in improved protection with high control over FV-induced splenomegaly and reduced viral loads. Mice co-immunized with adenoviral vectors encoding IL5 or IL23 showed increased neutralizing antibody responses while mice co-immunized with Ad.IL6 or Ad.IL23 showed improved FV-specific CD4+ T cell responses compared to mice immunized with Ad.pIXgp70 alone. We show that the co-application of adenoviral vectors encoding specific interleukins is suitable to improve the vaccination efficacy of an anti-retroviral vaccine. Improved protection correlated with improved CD4+ T cell responses and especially with higher neutralizing antibody titers. The co-application of selected interleukin-encoding adenoviral vectors is a valuable tool for vaccination with regard to enhancement of antibody mediated immunity. PMID:24349306
Full Text Available Interleukins (IL are cytokines with stimulatory and modulatory functions in the immune system. In this study, we have chosen interleukins which are involved in the enhancement of TH2 responses and B cell functions to analyze their potential to improve a prophylactic adenovirus-based anti-retroviral vaccine with regard to antibody and virus-specific CD4(+ T cell responses. Mice were vaccinated with an adenoviral vector which encodes and displays the Friend Virus (FV surface envelope protein gp70 (Ad.pIXgp70 in combination with adenoviral vectors encoding the interleukins IL4, IL5, IL6, IL7 or IL23. Co-application of Ad.pIXgp70 with Ad.IL5, Ad.IL6 or Ad.IL23 resulted in improved protection with high control over FV-induced splenomegaly and reduced viral loads. Mice co-immunized with adenoviral vectors encoding IL5 or IL23 showed increased neutralizing antibody responses while mice co-immunized with Ad.IL6 or Ad.IL23 showed improved FV-specific CD4(+ T cell responses compared to mice immunized with Ad.pIXgp70 alone. We show that the co-application of adenoviral vectors encoding specific interleukins is suitable to improve the vaccination efficacy of an anti-retroviral vaccine. Improved protection correlated with improved CD4(+ T cell responses and especially with higher neutralizing antibody titers. The co-application of selected interleukin-encoding adenoviral vectors is a valuable tool for vaccination with regard to enhancement of antibody mediated immunity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To date very few systems have been described for preclinical investigations of human cellular therapeutics in vivo. However, the ability to carry out comparisons of new cellular vaccines in vivo would be of substantial interest for design of clinical studies. Here we describe a humanized mouse model to assess the efficacy of various human dendritic cell (DC preparations. Two reconstitution regimes of NOD/scid IL2Rgnull (NSG mice with adult human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were evaluated for engraftment using 4-week and 9-week schedules. This led to selection of a simple and rapid protocol for engraftment and vaccine evaluation that encompassed 4 weeks. Methods NSG recipients of human PBMC were engrafted over 14 days and then vaccinated twice with autologous DC via intravenous injection. Three DC vaccine formulations were compared that varied generation time in vitro (3 days versus 7 days and signals for maturation (with or without Toll-like receptor (TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists using MART-1 as a surrogate antigen, by electroporating mature DC with in vitro transcribed RNA encoding full length protein. After two weekly vaccinations, the splenocyte populations containing human lymphocytes were recovered 7 days later and assessed for MART-1-specific immune responses using MHC-multimer-binding assays and functional assessment of specific killing of melanoma tumor cell lines. Results Human monocyte-derived DC generated in vitro in 3 days induced better MART-1-specific immune responses in the autologous donor T cells present in the humanized NSG mice. Moreover, consistent with our in vitro observations, vaccination using mature DC activated with TLR3 and TLR7/8 agonists resulted in enhanced immune responses in vivo. These findings led to a ranking of the DC vaccine effects in vivo that reflected the hierarchy previously found for these mature DC variations in vitro. Conclusions This humanized mouse model system enables
Full Text Available A coordinated cellular interplay is of crucial importance in both host defense against pathogens and malignantly transformed cells. The various interactions of Dendritic Cells (DC, Natural Killer (NK cells, and T helper (Th cells can be influenced by a variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and will lead to enhanced CD8+ effector T cell responses. Specific Pattern Recognition Receptor (PRR triggering during maturation enables DC to enhance Th1 as well as NK helper cell responses. This effect is correlated with the amount of IL-12p70 released by DC. Activated NK cells are able to amplify the proinflammatory cytokine profile of DC via the release of IFN-γ. The knowledge on how PAMP recognition can modulate the DC is of importance for the design and definition of appropriate therapeutic cancer vaccines. In this review we will discuss the potential role of specific PAMP-matured DC in optimizing therapeutic DC-based vaccines, as some of these DC are efficiently activating Th1, NK cells, and cytotoxic T cells. Moreover, to optimize these vaccines, also the inhibitory effects of tumor-derived suppressive factors, for example, on the NK-DC crosstalk, should be taken into account. Finally, the suppressive role of the tumor microenvironment in vaccination efficacy and some proposals to overcome this by using combination therapies will be described.
Engell-Noerregaard, Lotte; Hansen, Troels Holz; Andersen, Mads Hald
which in the disseminated stage have a very poor prognosis and only limited treatment options with moderate effectiveness. Herein we describe the results of a focused search of recently published clinical studies on dendritic cell vaccination in melanoma and review different vaccine parameters which...... are frequently claimed to have a possible influence on clinical response. These parameters include performance status, type of antigen, DC maturation status, route of vaccine administration, use of adjuvant, and vaccine induced immune response. In total, 38 articles found through Medline search, have been...... = 0.09), and use of autologous antigen preparation (p = 0.12). The categorisation of SD in the response group is debatable. Nevertheless, when the SD group were analysed separately we found that SD was significantly associated with use of peptide antigens (p = 0.0004), use of adjuvant (p = 0...
Bonehill, Aude; Van Nuffel, An M T; Corthals, Jurgen; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Heirman, Carlo; François, Violaine; Colau, Didier; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Neyns, Bart; Thielemans, Kris
A critical factor determining the effectiveness of currently used dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines is the DC activation or maturation status. We have recently shown that the T-cell stimulatory capacity of DCs pulsed with tumor-antigen-derived peptides can be considerably increased by activating the DCs through electroporation with mRNA encoding CD40 ligand, CD70, and a constitutively active Toll-like receptor 4 (TriMix DCs). Here, we investigate whether TriMix DCs can be coelectroporated with whole tumor-antigen-encoding mRNA. The T-cell stimulatory capacity of TriMix DCs pulsed with the immunodominant MelanA-A2 peptide and that of TriMix DCs coelectroporated with MelanA mRNA were compared in vitro. TriMix DCs were also coelectroporated with mRNA encoding Mage-A3, Mage-C2, tyrosinase, or gp100. The capacity of these DCs to stimulate tumor-antigen-specific T cells in melanoma patients was investigated both in vitro before vaccination and after DC vaccination. Like peptide-pulsed TriMix DCs, TriMix DCs coelectroporated with MelanA mRNA are very potent in inducing MelanA-specific CD8(+) T cells in vitro. These T cells have an activated phenotype, show cytolytic capacity, and produce inflammatory cytokines in response to specific stimulation. TriMix DCs coelectroporated with tyrosinase are able to stimulate tyrosinase-specific CD8(+) T cells in vitro from the blood of nonvaccinated melanoma patients. Furthermore, TriMix DCs coelectroporated with Mage-A3, Mage-C2, or tyrosinase are able to induce antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells through therapeutic DC vaccination. TriMix DCs coelectroporated with whole tumor-antigen mRNA stimulate antigen-specific T cells in vitro and induce antigen-specific T-cell responses in melanoma patients through vaccination. Therefore, they represent a promising new approach for antitumor immunotherapy.
Holst, Peter J; Bartholdy, Christina; Buus, Anette Stryhn
Many novel vaccine strategies rely on recombinant viral vectors for antigen delivery, and adenovirus vectors have emerged among the most potent of these. In this report, we have compared the immune response induced through priming with adenovirus vector-encoded full-length viral protein to that e......Many novel vaccine strategies rely on recombinant viral vectors for antigen delivery, and adenovirus vectors have emerged among the most potent of these. In this report, we have compared the immune response induced through priming with adenovirus vector-encoded full-length viral protein...... to that elicited with an adenovirus-encoded minimal epitope covalently linked to beta(2)-microglobulin. We demonstrate that the beta(2)-microglobulin-linked epitope induced an accelerated and augmented CD8(+) T-cell response. Furthermore, the immunity conferred by vaccination with beta(2)-microglobulin...... in the absence of CD4(+) T-cell help were sustained in the long term and able to expand and control a secondary challenge with LCMV. Our results demonstrate that modifications to the antigen used in adenovirus vaccines may be used to improve the induced T-cell response. Such a strategy for CD4(+) T...
Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENVs are among the most rapidly and efficiently spreading arboviruses. WHO recently estimated that about half of the world's population is now at risk for DENV infection. There is no specific treatment or vaccine available to treat or prevent DENV infections. Here, we report the development of a novel dengue nanovaccine (DNV composed of UV-inactivated DENV-2 (UVI-DENV and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin cell wall components (BCG-CWCs loaded into chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs. CS-NPs were prepared by an emulsion polymerization method prior to loading of the BCG-CWCs and UVI-DENV components. Using a scanning electron microscope and a zetasizer, DNV was determined to be of spherical shape with a diameter of 372.0 ± 11.2 nm in average and cationic surface properties. The loading efficacies of BCG-CWCs and UVI-DENV into the CS-NPs and BCG-CS-NPs were up to 97.2 and 98.4%, respectively. THP-1 cellular uptake of UVI-DENV present in the DNV was higher than soluble UVI-DENV alone. DNV stimulation of immature dendritic cells (iDCs resulted in a significantly higher expression of DCs maturation markers (CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR and induction of various cytokine and chemokine productions than in UVI-DENV-treated iDCs, suggesting a potential use of BCG- CS-NPs as adjuvant and delivery system for dengue vaccines.
Hunsawong, Taweewun; Sunintaboon, Panya; Warit, Saradee; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Jarman, Richard G.; Yoon, In-Kyu; Ubol, Sukathida; Fernandez, Stefan
Dengue viruses (DENVs) are among the most rapidly and efficiently spreading arboviruses. WHO recently estimated that about half of the world’s population is now at risk for DENV infection. There is no specific treatment or vaccine available to treat or prevent DENV infections. Here, we report the development of a novel dengue nanovaccine (DNV) composed of UV-inactivated DENV-2 (UVI-DENV) and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin cell wall components (BCG-CWCs) loaded into chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs). CS-NPs were prepared by an emulsion polymerization method prior to loading of the BCG-CWCs and UVI-DENV components. Using a scanning electron microscope and a zetasizer, DNV was determined to be of spherical shape with a diameter of 372.0 ± 11.2 nm in average and cationic surface properties. The loading efficacies of BCG-CWCs and UVI-DENV into the CS-NPs and BCG-CS-NPs were up to 97.2 and 98.4%, respectively. THP-1 cellular uptake of UVI-DENV present in the DNV was higher than soluble UVI-DENV alone. DNV stimulation of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) resulted in a significantly higher expression of DCs maturation markers (CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR) and induction of various cytokine and chemokine productions than in UVI-DENV-treated iDCs, suggesting a potential use of BCG- CS-NPs as adjuvant and delivery system for dengue vaccines. PMID:26394138
Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease in humans and animals, caused by the bacterium Leptospira interrogans. Gene expressing LipL21 is one of the genes identified in the bacterium, existing only in the pathogenic strains. The aim of this study was to cloning and analyzing the sequence of the gene encoding surface lipoprotein, LipL21, in five vaccinal leptospira serovars in Iran. Material and Methods: Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans serovars were cultured in EMJH medium with 10% rabbit serum. After genomic DNA extraction, PCR with specific primers was employed and the resulting product inserted in a vector then transferred into E. Coli DH5&alpha. The recombinant plasmids were finally sent for sequencing. Results: The analysis of gene lipL21 in domestic vaccinal serovars and comparison of them with other serovars in the GenBank database revealed that three vaccinal serovars serjo hardjo, canicola and pomona had 100% similarity with each other and grippotyphosa serovar had the highest difference with the vaccinal serovars. In general, the results showed that this gene is a highly conserved gene in the domestic vaccinal serovars and serovars in the GenBank database with more than 95.7 percent similarity. Conclusion: These results showed that the gene, lipL21, is highly conserved in the vaccinal serovars (similarities > 96.4 %. Therefore, the gene encoding surface protein LipL21 can serve as a useful serologic test with high specificity and sensitivity for diagnosis of leptospirosis in clinical samples and in future as an effective subunit vaccine candidate to be used.
Yin, Zhilin; Lu, Guohui; Xiao, Zhenyong; Liu, Tianzhu; He, Xiaozheng; Wang, Qifu; Lin, Chunnan; Zhang, Shizhong
Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that play a critical role in priming tumor immune responses. We investigated the mechanisms of antitumor efficacy of DCs pulsed with argon-helium-cryotreated glioma cells. There was significant upregulation of maturation markers (CD80, CD86, MHC-I, and MHC-II) in argon-helium freeze-thawed lysate-pulsed DCs. The concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-12 secreted by lysate-pulsed DCs was increased. The concentration of interferon-γ secreted by T cells stimulated by lysate-pulsed DCs was increased. The cytotoxicity assay showed that T cells stimulated by lysate-pulsed DCs could kill glioma cells significantly more effectively. Our results suggest that argon-helium freeze-thawed lysate-pulsed DCs in vitro can promote DC maturation and enhance DC antigen-presenting function, and induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill tumor cells. Therefore, the combination of argon-helium cryoablation and DC vaccine may represent a novel treatment method for glioma.
Tillman, B W; Hayes, T L; DeGruijl, T D; Douglas, J T; Curiel, D T
Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a unique junction from which to initiate antigen-specific immunity. One of the most challenging obstacles for DC-based immunotherapy has been the means by which to convey tumor antigen-encoding genes to DCs. In this study, we show that adenoviral (or adenovirus, Ad) vectors targeted to CD40 by means of bispecific antibodies can enhance gene transfer to murine DCs. Moreover, we illustrate that this vector initiates phenotypic changes characteristic of DC maturation. To explore the in vivo potential of this strategy, we coupled this targeting approach with an Ad vector carrying the gene for a tumor antigen. In particular, the human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 antigen represents an attractive target for antigen-specific immunity of cervical cancer. Relative to DCs infected by untargeted Ad, DCs infected by AdE7 targeted to the receptor CD40 enhanced protection against HPV-16-induced tumor cells in a murine model. We have further established that this protection was both antigen specific and CD8+ T-cell dependent. Illustrating that Ad-modified DCs may be used in repeated vaccination, we report that preimmunization of animals with Ad infected DCs prior to E7 vaccination only moderately reduced vaccine efficacy. Finally, we have observed that CD40-targeted AdE7 can initiate partial therapeutic immunity in mice bearing established tumors. These findings suggest that gene-based vaccination of DCs with tumor antigens can elicit productive antitumoral immunity and that enhancements in gene transfer efficacy and/or DC maturation may facilitate this process.
Full Text Available Influenza vaccines that target the highly variable surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase cause inconvenience of having vaccination every year. For this reason, development of universal vaccines targeting conserved viral components is needed. In this study, we generated recombinant adenovirus (rAd vaccine encoding nucleoprotein (NP of A/PR/8/34 influenza virus, designated rAd/NP. BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally or sublingually with rAd/NP vaccine and subsequently challenged with lethal doses of heterologous as well as homologous influenza viruses. We found that intranasal immunization of rAd/NP elicited strong mucosal IgA responses as well as stronger CD8 T-cell responses toward immunodominant K(d-restricted NP147-155 epitope than sublingual immunization. Importantly, only single intranasal but not sublingual immunization of rAd/NP provides potent protection against both homologous and heterologous influenza virus challenges. These results suggest that recombinant rAd/NP could be a universal vaccine candidate for mucosal administration against influenza virus.
Hamada F Rady
Full Text Available Flagellin has been tested as a protein-based vaccine adjuvant, with the majority of studies focused on antibody responses. Here, we evaluated the adjuvant activity of flagellin for both cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice in the setting of gene-based immunization, and have made several novel observations. DNA vaccines and adenovirus (Ad vectors were engineered to encode mycobacterial protein Ag85B, with or without flagellin of Salmonella typhimurium (FliC. DNA-encoded flagellin given IM enhanced splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to co-expressed vaccine antigen, including memory responses. Boosting either IM or intranasally with Ad vectors expressing Ag85B without flagellin led to durable enhancement of Ag85B-specific antibody and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in both spleen and pulmonary tissues, correlating with significantly improved protection against challenge with pathogenic aerosolized M. tuberculosis. However, inclusion of flagellin in both DNA prime and Ad booster vaccines induced localized pulmonary inflammation and transient weight loss, with route-dependent effects on vaccine-induced T cell immunity. The latter included marked reductions in levels of mucosal CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses following IM DNA/IN Ad mucosal prime-boosting, although antibody responses were not diminished. These findings indicate that flagellin has differential and route-dependent adjuvant activity when included as a component of systemic or mucosally-delivered gene-based prime-boost immunization. Clear adjuvant activity for both T and B cell responses was observed when flagellin was included in the DNA priming vaccine, but side effects occurred when given in an Ad boosting vector, particularly via the pulmonary route.
Guan, Huaqin; Lan, Songsong; Wu, Jinming; Tang, Binbin; Xu, Yin
The classical hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccination plasmid only encodes for a single viral antigen, either the S or the PreS2/S antigen. Many strategies have been employed to improve the effect of these DNA vaccines. Our previous study identified that the fusion gene, HBV S‑ecd cluster of differentiation 40 ligand (CD40L), may promote the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and enhance their function in vitro. In the current study, the effect of HBV S‑ecdCD40L vaccine therapy on liver DCs was investigated, and its therapeutic potential in HBV transgenic (HBV‑Tg) mice was evaluated. The eukaryotic expression plasmid, pcDNA3.1‑S‑ecdCD40L, was constructed by inserting the HBV S gene and mouse CD40L gene into the vector, pcDNA3.1 (+). HBV‑Tg mice were immunized with pcDNA3.1‑S‑ecdCD40L, pcDNA3.1‑S, pcDNA3.1 or PBS. Following this, immunophenotyping, cytokine production and T‑cell activation were analyzed in the CD11c‑enriched DC population obtained from the liver. Vaccine efficacy was further assessed by the detection of serological and biochemical parameters. When comparing with other control groups, DCs from HBV‑Tg mice immunized with pcDNA3.1‑S‑ecdCD40L exhibited increased expression of immunologically important cell molecules (CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II), pro‑inflammatory cytokines (interleukin‑12), and enhanced capacity to promote allogeneic T‑cell proliferation. Furthermore, the HBV S‑ecdCD40L vaccine resulted in a significant inhibition of HBV DNA replication and downregulation of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) in HBV‑Tg mice, without obvious liver injury. In conclusion, the HBV S‑ecdCD40L vaccine may be a feasible strategy for chronic HBV immunotherapy via promoting DC activation and function.
Toh, Han Chong; Wang, Who-Whong; Chia, Whay Kuang
PURPOSE: We evaluated the clinical benefit of an allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MCL)-pulsed autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine in advanced colorectal cancer patients expressing at least one of six MAGE-A antigens overexpressed by the cell line source of the lysate. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: DCs...... late tumor regression, yielding a clinical benefit response rate of 40% (95% CI, 22-61%). Although overall median progression-free survival was 2.4 months (95% CI, 1.9-4.1 months), five patients (25%) experienced prolonged progression-free survival (>6 months), two of whom (10%) remain progression...
Ternette, Nicola; Tippler, Bettina; Uberla, Klaus; Grunwald, Thomas
Respiratory syncytial virus F-protein (RSV-F) is poorly expressed from DNA expression plasmids containing the wild type RSV-F open reading frame. By codon optimization, premature polyadenylation signals were deleted and a striking enhancement of RSV-F expression levels was achieved. Therefore, the immunogenicity and efficacy of wild type DNA vaccines were compared to codon optimized expression plasmids encoding full-length RSV-F or its ectodomain. Mice were immunized twice with the different DNA vaccines followed by an RSV challenge. Only codon optimized DNA vaccines and in particular the one encoding the ectodomain of RSV-F induced substantial antibody levels and reduced viral load 13-170-fold. Thus, codon optimization enhances the immunogenicity and efficacy of RSV encoding DNA vaccines.
Engell-Noerregaard, Lotte; Kvistborg, Pia; Zocca, Mai-Britt
vaccinations. Seven patients remained in stable disease (SD) three months after the first vac- cination. After ten vaccinations (six months), four patients still showed SD and continued vaccinations on a monthly basis. These four patients received a total of 12, 16, 26 and 35 vaccinations, respectively. Five......Background: We evaluated the clinical and immunological effects of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination of patients with NSCLC. Autologous DCs were pulsed with a MAGE containing allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MelCancerVac®, Dandrit Biotech, Copenhagen, Denmark). Imiquimod cream, proleukin...... and celecoxib were used as adjuvants to the vaccines. The objective of the study was to evaluate specific T cell response in vitro by IFN EliSpot. Secondary objec- tives were overall survival, response and quality of life (QoL). Results: Twenty-two patients initiated the vaccination program consisting of ten...
Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lee, Jong Seok [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu-Jin [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gyeonggi-do, Gimcheon, Gyeongsangbukdo (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Minkyoung [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kang, Sang-Moo, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Center for Inflammation, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States)
A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. - Highlights: • Combined RSV FFG VLP vaccine is effective in inducing F specific responses. • FFG VLP vaccine confers RSV neutralizing activity and viral control in cotton rats. • Cotton rats with RSV FFG VLP vaccination do not show vaccine-enhanced disease. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP vaccine induce F specific antibody secreting cell responses. • Cotton rats with FFG VLP do not induce lung cellular infiltrates and Th2 cytokine.
Teunissen, M B M; Haniffa, M; Collin, M P
Dendritic cells (DC) are the key initiators and regulators of any immune response which determine the outcome of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses. Multiple distinct DC subsets can be distinguished by location, phenotype, and function in the homeostatic and inflamed human skin. The function of steady-state cutaneous DCs or recruited inflammatory DCs is influenced by the surrounding cellular and extracellular skin microenvironment. The skin is an attractive site for vaccination given the extended local network of DCs and the easy access to the skin-draining lymph nodes to generate effector T cells and immunoglobulin-producing B cells for long-term protective immunity. In the context of intradermal vaccination we describe in this review the skin-associated immune system, the characteristics of the different skin DC subsets, the mechanism of antigen uptake and presentation, and how the properties of DCs can be manipulated. This knowledge is critical for the development of intradermal vaccine strategies and supports the concept of intradermal vaccination as a superior route to the conventional intramuscular or subcutaneous methods.
Stephanie L. Sanos
Full Text Available Bacterial flagellin enhances innate and adaptive immune responses and is considered a promising adjuvant for the development of vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Antigen-presenting cells recognize flagellin with the extracellular TLR5 and the intracellular NLRC4 inflammasome-mediated pathway. The detailed cooperation of these innate pathways in the induction of the adaptive immune response following intranasal (i.n. administration of a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA vaccine encoding flagellin (rMVA-flagellin is not known. rMVA-flagellin induced enhanced secretion of mucosal IL-1β and TNF-α resulting in elevated CTL and IgG2c antibody responses. Importantly, mucosal IgA responses were also significantly enhanced in both bronchoalveolar (BAL and intestinal lavages accompanied by the increased migration of CD8+ T cells to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN. Nlrc4−/− rMVA-flagellin-immunized mice failed to enhance pulmonary CTL responses, IgG2c was lower, and IgA levels in the BAL or intestinal lavages were similar as those of control mice. Our results show the favorable adjuvant effect of rMVA-flagellin in the lung as well as the intestinal mucosa following i.n. administration with NLRC4 as the essential driver of this promising mucosal vaccine concept.
Engell-Noerregaard, Lotte; Kvistborg, Pia; Zocca, Mai-Britt
Background: We evaluated the clinical and immunological effects of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination of patients with NSCLC. Autologous DCs were pulsed with a MAGE containing allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (MelCancerVac®, Dandrit Biotech, Copenhagen, Denmark). Imiquimod cream, proleukin and celeco...
Trepiakas, Redas; Berntsen, Annika; Hadrup, Sine Reker
vaccination with autologous monocyte-derived mature dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with p53, survivin and telomerase-derived peptides (HLA-A2+ patients) or with autologous/allogeneic tumor lysate (HLA-A2(-) patients) in combination with low-dose interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-alpha2b....
Gerer, Kerstin F.; Erdmann, Michael; Hadrup, Sine Reker
Background: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but very aggressive skin tumor that develops after integration of a truncated form of the large T-antigen (truncLT) of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) into the host's genome. Therapeutic vaccination with dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with tumor ...
Bjoern, J; Brimnes, M K; Andersen, M H
In this study, changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cell (Treg) levels were evaluated in 46 progressive patients with melanoma treated with a dendritic cell-based vaccine and concomitant low-dose IFN-α and IL-2. The regulatory subset of CD4 T cells, characterized by CD25(high...
Bjoern, J; Brimnes, M K; Andersen, M H
In this study, changes in peripheral blood regulatory T cell (Treg) levels were evaluated in 46 progressive patients with melanoma treated with a dendritic cell-based vaccine and concomitant low-dose IFN-a and IL-2. The regulatory subset of CD4 T cells, characterized by CD25(high...
Keller, Anna M.; Xiao, Yanling; Peperzak, Victor; Naik, Shalin H.; Borst, Jannie
The use of dendritic cells (DCs) as anticancer vaccines holds promise for therapy but requires optimization. We have explored the potential of costimulatory ligand CD70 to boost the capacity of DCs to evoke effective CD8(+) T-cell immunity. We show that immature conventional DCs, when endowed with
Xu, Le; Zheng, Junying; Nguyen, David H; Luong, Quang T; Zeng, Gang
NY-ESO-1 is a cancer/germline antigen (Ag) with distinctively strong immunogenicity. We have previously demonstrated that NY-ESO-1 serves as an endogenous adjuvant by engaging dendritic cell (DC)-surface receptors of calreticulin (CRT) and toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. In the present study, NY-ESO-1 was investigated for its immunomodulatory roles as a molecular adjuvant in whole-tumor cell vaccines using the Renca kidney cancer model. Renca cells were genetically engineered to express NY-ESO-1 on the cell surface to enhance direct interactions with DC. The effect of ectopic cell-surface expression of NY-ESO-1 was investigated on tumor immunogenicity, DC activation, cytotoxic T lymphocytes against model tumor-associated Ags, and the effectiveness of the modified tumor cells as a therapeutic whole-cell vaccine. Cell-surface expression of NY-ESO-1 was able to reduce the tumor growth of Renca cells in BALB/c mice, although the modification did not alter cell proliferation rate in vitro. Directly engaging the innate immune system through NY-ESO-1 facilitated the interaction of tumor cells with DC, leading to enhanced DC activation and subsequent tumor-specific T-cell priming. When used as a therapeutic whole-cell vaccine, Renca cells with NY-ESO-1 on the surface mediated stronger inhibitory effects on tumor growth and metastasis compared with parental Renca or Renca cells expressing a control protein GFP on the surface. Augmented antitumor efficacy correlated with increased CD8 T-cell infiltration into tumors and decreased myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells in the spleen. As a cancer/germline Ag and as an immunomodulatory adjuvant through engaging innate immune receptors, NY-ESO-1 offers a unique opportunity for improved whole-tumor cell vaccinations upon the classic GM-CSF-engineered cell vaccines.
Full Text Available Abstract Because of the lack of full characterization of tumor associated antigens for solid tumors, whole antigen use is a convenient approach to tumor vaccination. Tumor RNA and apoptotic tumor cells have been used as a source of whole tumor antigen to prepare dendritic cell (DC based tumor vaccines, but their efficacy has not been directly compared. Here we compare directly RNA electroporation and pulsing of DCs with whole tumor cells killed by ultraviolet (UV B radiation using a convenient tumor model expressing human papilloma virus (HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes. Although both approaches led to DCs presenting tumor antigen, electroporation with tumor cell total RNA induced a significantly higher frequency of tumor-reactive IFN-gamma secreting T cells, and E7-specific CD8+ lymphocytes compared to pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells. DCs electroporated with tumor cell RNA induced a larger tumor infiltration by T cells and produced a significantly stronger delay in tumor growth compared to DCs pulsed with UV-irradiated tumor cells. We conclude that electroporation with whole tumor cell RNA and pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells are both effective in eliciting antitumor immune response, but RNA electroporation results in more potent tumor vaccination under the examined experimental conditions.
Strioga, M.M.; Felzmann, T.; Powell, D.J.; Ostapenko, V.; Dobrovolskiene, N.T.; Matuskova, M.; Michalek, J.; Schijns, V.E.J.C.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells, capable of initiating proper adaptive immune responses. Although tumor-infiltrating DCs are able to recognize cancer cells and uptake tumor antigens, they often have impaired functions because of the immunosuppressive
Fu, Shulin; Zhang, Minmin; Ou, Jiwen; Liu, Huazhen; Tan, Chen; Liu, Jinlin; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng
Haemophilus parasuis, the causative agent of swine polyserositis, polyarthritis, and meningitis, is one of the most important bacterial diseases of pigs worldwide. The development of a vaccine against H. parasuis has been impeded due to the lack of induction of reliable cross-serotype protection. In this study the gapA gene that encodes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was shown to be present and highly conserved in various serotypes of H. parasuis and we constructed a novel DNA vaccine encoding GAPDH (pCgap) to evaluate the immune response and protective efficacy against infection with H. parasuis MD0322 serovar 4 or SH0165 serovar 5 in mice. A significant antibody response against GAPDH was generated following pCgap intramuscular immunization; moreover, antibodies to the pCgap DNA vaccine were bactericidal, suggesting that it was expressed in vivo. The gapA transcript was detected in muscle, liver, spleen, and kidney of the mice seven days post-vaccination. The IgG subclass (IgG1 and IgG2a) analysis indicated that the DNA vaccine induced both Th1 and Th2 immune responses, but the IgG1 response was greater than the IgG2a response. Moreover, the groups vaccinated with the pCgap vaccine exhibited 83.3% and 50% protective efficacy against the H. parasuis MD0322 serovar 4 or SH0165 serovar 5 challenges, respectively. The pCgap DNA vaccine provided significantly greater protective efficacy compared to the negative control groups or blank control groups (P<0.05 for both). Taken together, these findings indicate that the pCgap DNA vaccine provides a novel strategy against infection of H. parasuis and offer insight concerning the underlying immune mechanisms of a bacterial DNA vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chodon, Thinle; Comin-Anduix, Begonya; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Koya, Richard C; Wu, Zhongqi; Auerbach, Martin; Ng, Charles; Avramis, Earl; Seja, Elizabeth; Villanueva, Arturo; McCannel, Tara A.; Ishiyama, Akira; Czernin, Johannes; Radu, Caius G.; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gjertson, David W.; Cochran, Alistair J.; Cornetta, Kenneth; Wong, Deborah J.L.; Kaplan-lefko, Paula; Hamid, Omid; Samlowski, Wolfram; Cohen, Peter A.; Daniels, Gregory A.; Mukherji, Bijay; Yang, Lili; Zack, Jerome A.; Kohn, Donald B.; Heath, James R.; Glaspy, John A.; Witte, Owen N.; Baltimore, David; Economou, James S.; Ribas, Antoni
Purpose It has been demonstrated that large numbers of tumor-specific T cells for adoptive cell transfer (ACT) can be manufactured by retroviral genetic engineering of autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes and expanding them over several weeks. In mouse models, this therapy is optimized when administered with dendritic cell (DC) vaccination. We developed a short one-week manufacture protocol to determine the feasibility, safety and antitumor efficacy of this double cell therapy. Experimnetal Design A clinical trial (NCT00910650) adoptively transferring MART-1 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic lymphocytes together with MART-1 peptide pulsed DC vaccination in HLA-A2.1 patients with metastatic melanoma. Autologous TCR transgenic cells were manufactured in 6 to 7 days using retroviral vector gene transfer, and re-infused with (n = 10) or without (n = 3) prior cryopreservation. Results 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were enrolled and nine out of 13 treated patients (69%) showed evidence of tumor regression. Peripheral blood reconstitution with MART-1-specific T cells peaked within two weeks of ACT indicating rapid in vivo expansion. Administration of freshly manufactured TCR transgenic T cells resulted in a higher persistence of MART-1-specific T cells in the blood as compared to cryopreserved. Evidence that DC vaccination could cause further in vivo expansion was only observed with ACT using non-cryopreserved T cells. Conclusion Double cell therapy with ACT of TCR engineered T cells with a very short ex vivo manipulation and DC vaccines is feasible and results in antitumor activity, but improvements are needed to maintain tumor responses. PMID:24634374
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall therapeutic outcomes of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC are poor. The dendritic cell (DC immunotherapy has been developed as a new strategy for the treatment of lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and immunologic responses in use in mature, antigen-pulsed autologous DC vaccine in NSCLC patients. Methods Five HLA-A2 patients with inoperable stage III or IV NSCLC were selected to receive two doses of 5 × 107 DC cells administered subcutaneous and intravenously two times at two week intervals. The immunologic response, safety and tolerability to the vaccine were evaluated by the lymphoproliferation assay and clinical and laboratorial evolution, respectively. Results The dose of the vaccine has shown to be safe and well tolerated. The lymphoproliferation assay showed an improvement in the specific immune response after the immunization, with a significant response after the second dose (p = 0.005. This response was not long lasting and a tendency to reduction two weeks after the second dose of the vaccine was observed. Two patients had a survival almost twice greater than the expected average and were the only ones that expressed HER-2 and CEA together. Conclusion Despite the small sample size, the results on the immune response, safety and tolerability, combined with the results of other studies, are encouraging to the conduction of a large clinical trial with multiples doses in patients with early lung cancer who underwent surgical treatment. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN45563569
Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure (HHP induces immunogenic death of tumor cells which confer protective anti-tumor immunity in vivo. Moreover, DC pulsed with HHP-treated tumor cells induced therapeutic effect in mouse cancer model. In this study, we tested the immunogenicity, stability and T cell stimulatory activity of human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC-based HHP lung cancer vaccine generated in GMP compliant serum free medium using HHP 250 MPa. DC pulsed with HHP-killed lung cancer cells and poly(I:C enhanced DC maturation, chemotactic migration and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines after 24h. Moreover, DC-based HHP lung cancer vaccine showed functional plasticity after transfer into serum-containing media and stimulation with LPS or CD40L after additional 24h. LPS and CD40L stimulation further differentially enhanced the expression of costimulatory molecules and production of IL-12p70. DC-based HHP lung cancer vaccine decreased the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells and stimulated IFN-γ-producing tumor antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Tumor antigen specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses were detected in NSCLC patient's against a selected tumor antigens expressed by lung cancer cell lines used for the vaccine generation. We also showed for the first time that protein antigen from HHP-killed lung cancer cells is processed and presented by DC to CD8+ T cells. Our results represent important preclinical data for ongoing NSCLC Phase I/II clinical trial using DC-based active cellular immunotherapy (DCVAC/LuCa in combination with chemotherapy and immune enhancers.
Pinto, Eduardo Fonseca; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Rayol, Alice; Larraga, Vicente; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira
We have previously demonstrated that oral delivery of a disease-promoting particulated antigen of Leishmania amazonensis (LaAg) partially protects mice against cutaneous leishmaniasis. In the present work, we sought to optimize a mucosal vaccine by using the intranasal route for delivery of different antigen preparations, including (i) LaAg, (ii) soluble recombinant p36/LACK leishmanial antigen (LACK), and (iii) plasmid DNA encoding LACK (LACK DNA). BALB/c mice that received two intranasal doses of 10 μg of LaAg and were challenged 1 week postvaccination with L. amazonensis developed delayed but effective control of lesion growth. A diminished parasite burden was accompanied by enhancement of both gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 levels in the lesion-draining lymph nodes. The vaccine efficacy improved with time. At 4 months postvaccination, when a strong parasite-specific TH1-type response was present in vivo, the infection was controlled for at least 5 months after challenge. In contrast to the particulated LaAg, soluble LACK (10 μg/dose) had no effect. Interestingly, LACK DNA (30 μg/dose), but not empty DNA, promoted rapid and durable protective immunity. Parasite growth was effectively controlled, and at 5 months after challenge LACK-reactive cells in both the mucosal and lesion-draining lymph nodes produced high levels of IFN-γ. These results demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of using the intranasal route for long-lived memory vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis with adjuvant-free crude antigens or DNA. PMID:15271911
Buschow, Sonja I; Ramazzotti, Matteo; Reinieren-Beeren, Inge M J
-scale microarray analysis of 74 samples from two treatment centers, taken directly after the first round of DC vaccination, was performed. We found that phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1 (PEBP1)/Raf Kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) expression can be used to identify a significant proportion of patients......-based biomarkers are of particular interest because of their straightforward implementation in routine clinical care. We sought to identify markers for dendritic cell (DC) vaccine-based immunotherapy against metastatic melanoma through gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A large...... who performed poorly after DC vaccination. This result was validated by q-PCR analysis on blood samples from a second cohort of 95 patients treated with DC vaccination in four different centers. We conclude that low PEBP1 expression correlates with poor overall survival after DC vaccination...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs enhance the quality of anti-tumor immune response in patients with cancer. Thus, we posit that DC-based immunotherapy, in conjunction with toll-like receptor (TLR-3 agonist poly-ICLC, is a promising approach for harnessing immunity against metastatic or locally advanced unresectable pancreatic cancer (PC. Methods We generated autologous DCs from the peripheral blood of HLA-A2+ patients with PC. DCs were pulsed with three distinct A2-restricted peptides: 1 human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT, TERT572Y, 2 carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA; Cap1-6D, and 3 survivin (SRV.A2. Patients received four intradermal injections of 1 × 107 peptide-pulsed DC vaccines every 2 weeks (Day 0, 14, 28, and 42. Concurrently, patients received intramuscular administration of Poly-ICLC at 30 μg/Kg on vaccination days (i.e., day 0, 14, 28, and 42, as well as on days 3, 17, 21, 31, 37, and 45. Our key objective was to assess safety and feasibility. The effect of DC vaccination on immune response was measured at each DC injection time point by enumerating the phenotype and function of patient T cells. Results Twelve patients underwent apheresis: nine patients with metastatic disease, and three patients with locally advanced unresectable disease. Vaccines were successfully manufactured from all individuals. We found that this treatment was well-tolerated, with the most common symptoms being fatigue and/or self-limiting flu-like symptoms. Among the eight patients who underwent imaging on day 56, four patients experienced stable disease while four patients had disease progression. The median overall survival was 7.7 months. One patient survived for 28 months post leukapheresis. MHC class I –tetramer analysis before and after vaccination revealed effective generation of antigen-specific T cells in three patients with stable disease. Conclusion Vaccination with peptide-pulsed DCs in combination with poly-ICLC is safe and
Full Text Available Vaccine development involves time-consuming and expensive evaluation of candidate vaccines in animal models. As mediators of both innate and adaptive immune responses dendritic cells (DCs are considered to be highly important for vaccine performance. Here we evaluated how far the response of DCs to a vaccine in vitro is in line with the immune response the vaccine evokes in vivo. To this end, we investigated the response of murine bone marrow-derived DCs to whole inactivated virus (WIV and subunit (SU influenza vaccine preparations. These vaccine preparations were chosen because they differ in the immune response they evoke in mice with WIV being superior to SU vaccine through induction of higher virus-neutralizing antibody titers and a more favorable Th1-skewed response phenotype. Stimulation of DCs with WIV, but not SU vaccine, resulted in a cytokine response that was comparable to that of DCs stimulated with live virus. Similarly, the gene expression profiles of DCs treated with WIV or live virus were similar and differed from that of SU vaccine-treated DCs. More specifically, exposure of DCs to WIV resulted in differential expression of genes in known antiviral pathways, whereas SU vaccine did not. The stronger antiviral and more Th1-related response of DCs to WIV as compared to SU vaccine correlates well with the superior immune response found in mice. These results indicate that in vitro stimulation of DCs with novel vaccine candidates combined with the assessment of multiple parameters, including gene signatures, may be a valuable tool for the selection of vaccine candidates.
Barth, Jr, Richard J; Fisher, Dawn A; Wallace, Paul K; Channon, Jacqueline Y; Noelle, Randolph J; Gui, Jiang; Ernstoff, Marc S
To determine whether an autologous dendritic cell (DC) vaccine could induce antitumor immune responses in patients after resection of colorectal cancer metastases and whether these responses could be enhanced by activating DCs with CD40L...
Song, Xiaokai; Zhao, Xiaofang; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Li, Xiangrui
In our previous study, an effective DNA vaccine encoding Eimeria tenella TA4 and chicken IL-2 was constructed. In the present study, the immunization dose of the DNA vaccine pVAX1.0-TA4-IL-2 was further optimized. With the optimized dose, the dynamics of antibodies induced by the DNA vaccine was determined using indirect ELISA. To evaluate the immune protection duration of the DNA vaccine, two-week-old chickens were intramuscularly immunized twice and the induced efficacy was evaluated by challenging with E. tenella at 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21weeks post the last immunization (PLI) separately. To evaluate the efficacy stability of the DNA vaccine, two-week-old chickens were immunized with 3 batches of the DNA vaccine, and the induced efficacy was evaluated by challenging with E. tenella. The results showed that the optimal dose was 25μg. The induced antibody level persisted until 10weeks PPI. For the challenge time of 5 and 9weeks PLI, the immunization resulted in ACIs of 182.28 and 162.23 beyond 160, showing effective protection. However, for the challenge time of 13, 17 and 21weeks PLI, the immunization resulted in ACIs below 160 which means poor protection. Therefore, the immune protection duration of the DNA vaccination was at least 9weeks PLI. DNA immunization with three batches DNA vaccine resulted in ACIs of 187.52, 191.57 and 185.22, which demonstrated that efficacies of the three batches DNA vaccine were effective and stable. Overall, our results indicate that DNA vaccine pVAX1.0-TA4-IL-2 has the potential to be developed as effective vaccine against coccidiosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Kai; Tan, Jian-Ming; Wu, Wei-Zhen; Qiu, Yu-Miao; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Ting-Zhao; Sun, Xing-Hui; Zhuo, Wen-Li; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Jian-Ping
To observe the efficacy and side effects of adjuvant dendritic cells' (DCs) vaccine combined with cytokine-induced killer cell (CIK) therapy after renal cell carcinoma (RCC) surgery (RCCS). DCs vaccine and CIK that loaded the autologous tumor cell lysate were prepared in vitro. Four hundred and ten RCC patients were recruited, and the study group was given DCs-CIK immunotherapy, while the control group was given IFN-α therapy. Disease progression (recurrence, metastasis or death) showed significant differences between the two groups in clinical stage I and II patients, as well as in highly and moderately differentiated disease (pdisease (p>0.05). The 3- and 5-year overall survival rates of the DCs-CIK group (96% and 96%, respectively) exhibited significant difference compared to the IFN-α group (83% and 74%, respectively (p<0.01). Progression-free survival (PFS) between the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01). Tumor stage and DCs-CIK treatment were independent factors concerning prognosis of RCC (p<0.05). There was no severe toxicity observed in the DCs-CIK treatment group. Adjuvant post-RCCS DCs-CIK treatment prolonged PFS and reduced mortality, showing better overall activity compared to interferon treatment.
Ma, Yifan; Zhuang, Yan; Xie, Xiaofang; Wang, Ce; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Dongmei; Zeng, Jianqiang; Cai, Lintao
Cationic liposomes have emerged as a novel adjuvant and antigen delivery system to enhance vaccine efficacy. However, the role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-regulated immune responses has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we prepared a series of DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposomes with different surface densities by incorporating varying amounts of DOPC (a neutral lipid) into DOTAP (a cationic lipid). The results showed that DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposome-regulated immune responses relied on the surface charge density, and might occur through ROS signaling. The liposomes with a relatively high charge density, such as DOTAP/DOPC 5 : 0 and 4 : 1 liposomes, potently enhanced dendritic cell maturation, ROS generaion, antigen uptake, as well as the production of OVA-specific IgG2a and IFN-γ. In contrast, low-charge liposomes, such as DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome, failed to promote immune responses even at high concentrations, confirming that the immunoregulatory effect of cationic liposomes is mostly attributable to their surface charge density. Moreover, the DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome suppressed anti-OVA antibody responses in vivo. Overall, maintaining an appropriate surface charge is crucial for optimizing the adjuvant effect of cationic liposomes and enhancing the efficacy of liposome-based vaccines.
Schliehe, Christopher; Schliehe, Constanze; Thiry, Marc; Tromsdorf, Ulrich I; Hentschel, Joachim; Weller, Horst; Groettrup, Marcus
Biodegradable poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres (PLGA-MS) are approved as a drug delivery system in humans and represent a promising antigen delivery device for immunotherapy against cancer. Immune responses following PLGA-MS vaccination require cross-presentation of encapsulated antigen by professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). While the potential of PLGA-MS as vaccine formulations is well established, the intracellular pathway of cross-presentation following phagocytosis of PLGA-MS is still under debate. A part of the controversy stems from the difficulty in unambiguously identifying PLGA-MS within cells. Here we show a novel strategy for the efficient encapsulation of inorganic nanocrystals (NCs) into PLGA-MS as a tool to study their intracellular localization. We microencapsulated NCs as an electron dense marker to study the intracellular localization of PLGA-MS by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and as fluorescent labels for confocal laser scanning microscopy. Using this method, we found PLGA-MS to be rapidly taken up by dendritic cells and macrophages. Co-localization with the lysosomal marker LAMP1 showed a lysosomal storage of PLGA-MS for over two days after uptake, long after the initiation of cross-presentation had occurred. Our data argue against an escape of PLGA-MS from the endosome as has previously been suggested as a mechanism to facilitate cross-presentation of PLGA-MS encapsulated antigen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In the present study, the prevention of cancer development by vaccination with fusion cells was evaluated In a genetically engineered murine model which develops spontaneous mammary carcinomas. The mice (MMT...
initiated study treatment. One participant died on 11/5/10 after suffering a cardiac arrest in his home; the event was reported to the Dana Farber...2013 1 Unrelated Possible None Resolved PM29 Vaccine Site Reaction 3/11/2013 1 Unrelated Definitely None Resolved PM29 Ecchymosis, vaccine site...3/13/2013 1 Unrelated Definitely None Resolved PM29 Facial Flushing 3/10/2013 1 Unrelated Possible None Resolved PM29 ANC 3/14/2013 1 Unrelated
Zhai, Yongzhen; Zhou, Yan; Li, Ximei; Feng, Guohe
Plasmid-encoded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM‑CSF) is an adjuvant for genetic vaccines; however, how GM-CSF enhances immunogenicity remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was demonstrated that injection of a plasmid encoding the premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) protein of Japanese encephalitis virus and mouse GM-CSF (pJME/GM-CSF) into mouse muscle recruited large and multifocal conglomerates of macrophages and granulocytes, predominantly neutrophils. During the peak of the infiltration, an appreciable number of immature dendritic cells (DCs) appeared, although no T and B-cells was detected. pJME/GM-CSF increased the number of splenic DCs and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) on splenic DC, and enhanced the antigenic capture, processing and presentation functions of splenic DCs, and the cell-mediated immunity induced by the vaccine. These findings suggested that the immune-enhancing effect by pJME/GM-CSF was associated with infiltrate size and the appearance of integrin αx (CD11c)+cells. Chitosan-pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles, prepared by coacervation via intramuscular injection, outperformed standard pJME/GM-CSF administrations in DC recruitment, antigen processing and presentation, and vaccine enhancement. This revealed that muscular injection of chitosan‑pJME/GM-CSF nanoparticles may enhance the immunoadjuvant properties of GM-CSF.
Luo, Kun; Zhang, Hong; Zavala, Fidel; Biragyn, Arya; Espinosa, Diego A; Markham, Richard B
Although sterilizing immunity to malaria can be elicited by irradiated sporozoite vaccination, no clinically practical subunit vaccine has been shown to be capable of preventing the approximately 600,000 annual deaths attributed to this infection. DNA vaccines offer several potential advantages for a disease that primarily affects the developing world, but new approaches are needed to improve the immunogenicity of these vaccines. By using a novel, lipid-based adjuvant, Vaxfectin, to attract immune cells to the immunization site, in combination with an antigen-chemokine DNA construct designed to target antigen to immature dendritic cells, we elicited a humoral immune response that provided sterilizing immunity to malaria challenge in a mouse model system. The chemokine, MIP3αCCL20, did not significantly enhance the cellular infiltrate or levels of cytokine or chemokine expression at the immunization site but acted with Vaxfectin to reduce liver stage malaria infection by orders of magnitude compared to vaccine constructs lacking the chemokine component. The levels of protection achieved were equivalent to those observed with irradiated sporozoites, a candidate vaccine undergoing development for further large scale clinical trial. Only vaccination with the combined regimen of adjuvant and chemokine provided 80-100% protection against the development of bloodstream infection. Treating the immunization process as requiring the independent steps of 1) attracting antigen-presenting cells to the site of immunization and 2) specifically directing vaccine antigen to the immature dendritic cells that initiate the adaptive immune response may provide a rational strategy for the development of a clinically applicable malaria DNA vaccine.
Rottembourg, Diane; Filippi, Christophe M.; Bresson, Damien; Ehrhardt, Katrin; Estes, Elizabeth A.; Oldham, Janine E.; von Herrath, Matthias G.
One of the requirements for efficient vaccination against infection is to achieve the best combination of an adequate adjuvant with the antigenic information to deliver. Although plasmid DNA is a promising tool bearing the unique potential to activate humoral and cellular immunity, an actual challenge is to increase plasmid immunogenicity in human vaccination protocols in which efficacy has proven rather limited. Previous work showed that the bacterial DNA backbone of the plasmid has potent adjuvant properties because it contains CpG motifs that are particular activating nucleotidic sequences. Among TLRs, which are key sensors of microbial products, TLR9 can detect CpG motifs and confer activation of APCs, such as dendritic cells. However, whether the immunogenic properties of plasmid DNA involve TLR9 signaling has not been clearly established. In the current study, we demonstrate that TLR9 determines the effectiveness of vaccination against lethal lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection using plasmid DNA in a prime, but not prime-boost, vaccination regimen. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the presence of TLR9 in dendritic cells is necessary for effective and functional priming of virus-specific CD8+ T cells upon plasmid exposure in vitro or single-dose vaccination in vivo. Therefore, at single or low vaccine doses that are often used in human-vaccination protocols, CpG/TLR9 interactions participate in the immunogenicity of plasmid DNA. These results suggest that the TLR9 signaling pathway is involved in the efficacy of plasmid vaccination; therefore, it should remain a focus in the development or amelioration of vaccines to treat infections in humans. PMID:20483769
Sahay, Bikash; Owen, Jennifer L.; Yang, Tao; Zadeh, Mojgan; Lightfoot, Yaíma L.; Ge, Jun-Wei; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour
Production of long-lived, high affinity humoral immunity is an essential characteristic of successful vaccination and requires cognate interactions between T and B cells in germinal centers. Within germinal centers, specialized T follicular helper cells assist B cells and regulate the antibody response by mediating the differentiation of B cells into memory or plasma cells after exposure to T cell-dependent antigens. It is now appreciated that local immune responses are also essential for protection against infectious diseases that gain entry to the host by the mucosal route; therefore, targeting the mucosal compartments is the optimum strategy to induce protective immunity. However, because the gastrointestinal mucosae are exposed to large amounts of environmental and dietary antigens on a daily basis, immune regulatory mechanisms exist to favor tolerance and discourage autoimmunity at these sites. Thus, mucosal vaccination strategies must ensure that the immunogen is efficiently taken up by the antigen presenting cells, and that the vaccine is capable of activating humoral and cellular immunity, while avoiding the induction of tolerance. Despite significant progress in mucosal vaccination, this potent platform for immunotherapy and disease prevention must be further explored and refined. Here we discuss recent progress in the understanding of the role of different phenotypes of B cells in the development of an efficacious mucosal vaccine against infectious disease. PMID:24372255
Pedersen, Anders Elm; Buus, S; Claesson, M H
We investigated the anti CT26 tumour effect of dendritic cell based vaccination with the MuLV gp70 envelope protein-derived peptides AH1 and p320-333. Vaccination lead to generation of AH1 specific cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) and some decrease in tumour growth of simultaneously inoculated CT26...... cells. After combination with an antibody against VEGF receptor 2 (DC101), a significant increase in survival of the tumour cell recipients was observed. Also, monotherapy with an antibody against CTLA-4 (9H10), led to approximately 100% survival of tumour cell recipients. However, effective treatment...
De Vleeschouwer, Steven; Ardon, Hilko; Van Calenbergh, Frank; Sciot, Raf; Wilms, Guido; van Loon, Johannes; Goffin, Jan; Van Gool, Stefaan
Adult patients with relapsed high-grade glioma are a very heterogenous group with, however, an invariably dismal prognosis. We stratified patients with relapsed high-grade glioma treated with re-operation and postoperative dendritic cell (DC) vaccination according to a simple recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) model to predict outcome. Based on age, pathology, Karnofsky performance score, and mental status, 117 adult patients with relapsed malignant glioma, undergoing re-operation, and postoperative adjuvant dendritic cell (DC) vaccination were stratified into 4 classes. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were generated for each class of this HGG-IMMUNO RPA model. Extent of resection was documented but not included in the prognostic model. Kaplan-Meier overall survival estimates revealed significant (p < 0.0001) differences among the 4 HGG-IMMUNO RPA classes. Long-term survivors, surviving more than 24 months after the re-operation and vaccination, are seen in 54.5, 26.7, 11.5, and 0 % for the classes I, II, III, and IV respectively. This HGG-IMMUNO RPA classification is able to predict overall survival in a large group of adult patients with a relapsed malignant glioma, treated with re-operation and postoperative adjuvant DC vaccination in the HGG-IMMUNO-2003 cohort comparison trial. The model appears useful for prognostic patient counseling for patients participating in DC vaccination trials. A substantial number of long-term survivors after relapse are seen in class I to III, but not in class IV patients.
Full Text Available Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, an enteric coronavirus, is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED that damages intestinal epithelial cells and results in severe diarrhea and dehydration in neonatal suckling pigs with up to 100% mortality. The oral vaccine route is reported as a promising approach for inducing protective immunity against PEDV invasion. Furthermore, dendritic cells (DCs, professional antigen-presenting cells, link humoral and cellular immune responses for homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment. In this study, in order to explore an efficient oral vaccine against PEDV infection, a mucosal DC-targeting oral vaccine was developed using Lactobacillus casei to deliver the DC-targeting peptide (DCpep fused with the PEDV core neutralizing epitope (COE antigen. This probiotic vaccine could efficiently elicit secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA-based mucosal and immunoglobulin G (IgG-based humoral immune responses via oral vaccination in vivo. Significant differences (p < 0.05 in the immune response levels were observed between probiotics expressing the COE-DCpep fusion protein and COE antigen alone, suggesting better immune efficiency of the probiotics vaccine expressing the DC-targeting peptide fused with PEDV COE antigen. This mucosal DC-targeting oral vaccine delivery effectively enhances vaccine antigen delivery efficiency, providing a useful strategy to induce efficient immune responses against PEDV infection.
Lopes, Patricia P; Todorov, George; Pham, Thanh T; Nesburn, Anthony B; Bahraoui, Elmostafa; BenMohamed, Lbachir
There is an urgent need for chemical-free and biological-free safe adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines against the widespread viral pathogens, such as herpes simplex viruses type 2 (HSV-2), that infect a large proportion of the world human population. In the present study, we investigated the safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a laser adjuvant peptide vaccine (LAP vaccine) in the B6 mouse model of genital herpes. This LAP vaccine, and its laser-free peptide vaccine analog (LFP vaccine), contain the immunodominant HSV-2 glycoprotein B CD8 + T cell epitope (HSV-gB 498-505 ) covalently linked with the promiscuous glycoprotein D CD4 + T helper cell epitope (HSV-gD 49-89 ). Prior to intradermal delivery of the LAP vaccine, the lower flank shaved skin of B6 or CD11c/eYFP transgenic mice received a topical skin treatment with 5% Imiquimod Cream and then exposed for 60-seconds to a laser, using the FDA approved non-ablative diode. Compared to the LFP vaccine, the LAP vaccine: ( i ) triggered mobilization of dendritic cells (DC) in the skin that formed small spots along the laser-treated areas; ( ii ) induced phenotypic and functional maturation of DC; ( iii ) stimulated a long-lasting HSV-specific effector memory CD8 + T EM and tissue-resident CD8 + T RM cells locally in the vaginal muco-cutaneous tissues (VM); and ( iv ) induced protective immunity against genital herpes infection and disease. As an alternative to currently used conventional adjuvants, the chemical- and biological-free laser-adjuvant offers a well-tolerated, simple to produce method to enhance mass vaccination for widespread viral infections. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) infect a large proportion of the world population. There is an urgent need for chemical-free and biological-free safe adjuvants that would advance mass vaccination against the widespread herpes infections. The present study demonstrates that immunization with laser
Ellebaek, Eva; Engell-Noerregaard, Lotte; Iversen, Trine Zeeberg
have been added to a DC vaccine with the intend to dampen immunosuppressive mechanisms. Twenty-eight patients with progressive metastatic melanoma were treated with autologous DCs pulsed with survivin, hTERT, and p53-derived peptides (HLA-A2(+)) or tumor lysate (HLA-A2(-)). Concomitantly the patients...
Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Park, Soojin; Kwon, Young-Man; Lee, Youri; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Yu-Jin; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Cho, Minkyoung; Kang, Sang-Moo
A safe and effective vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) should confer protection without causing vaccine-enhanced disease. Here, using a cotton rat model, we investigated the protective efficacy and safety of an RSV combination vaccine composed of F-encoding plasmid DNA and virus-like particles containing RSV fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins (FFG-VLP). Cotton rats with FFG-VLP vaccination controlled lung viral replication below the detection limit, and effectively induced neutralizing activity and antibody-secreting cell responses. In comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) causing severe RSV disease after challenge, FFG-VLP vaccination did not cause weight loss, airway hyper-responsiveness, IL-4 cytokines, histopathology, and infiltrates of proinflammatory cells such as eosinophils. FFG-VLP was even more effective in preventing RSV-induced pulmonary inflammation than live RSV infections. This study provides evidence that FFG-VLP can be developed into a safe and effective RSV vaccine candidate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Live Brucella abortus rough vaccine strain RB51 stimulates enhanced innate immune response in vitro compared to rough vaccine strain RB51SOD and virulent smooth strain 2308 in murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.
Surendran, Naveen; Hiltbold, Elizabeth M; Heid, Bettina; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M; Zimmerman, Kurt L; Makris, Melissa R; Witonsky, Sharon G
Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultative intracellular pathogens. B. abortus strain 2308 is a pathogenic strain affecting cattle and humans. Rough B. abortus strain RB51, which lacks the O-side chain of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is the live attenuated USDA approved vaccine for cattle in the United States. Strain RB51SOD, which overexpresses Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), has been shown to confer better protection than strain RB51 in a murine model. Protection against brucellosis is mediated by a strong CD4+ Th(1) and CD8+ Tc(1) adaptive immune response. In order to stimulate a robust adaptive response, a solid innate immune response, including that mediated by dendritic cells, is essential. As dendritic cells (DCs) are highly susceptible to Brucella infection, it is possible that pathogenic strains could limit the innate and thereby adaptive immune response. By contrast, vaccine strains could limit or bolster the innate and subsequent adaptive immune response. Identifying how Brucella vaccines stimulate innate and adaptive immunity is critical for enhancing vaccine efficacy. The ability of rough vaccine strains RB51 and RB51SOD to stimulate DC function has not been characterized. We report that live rough vaccine strain RB51 induced significantly better (p ≤ 0.05) DC maturation and function compared to either strain RB51SOD or smooth virulent strain 2308, based on costimulatory marker expression and cytokine production. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Yan, Yan-hong; Qi, Sheng-cai; Su, Ling-kai; Xu, Qing-an; Fan, Ming-wen
To investigate how co-delivery of the gene encoding C-C chemokine ligand-19 (CCL-19) affected the systemic immune responses to an anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P in mice. Plasmid encoding CCL19-GFP fusion protein (pCCL19/GFP) was constructed by inserting murine ccl19 gene into GFP-expressing vector pAcGFP1-N1. Chemotactic effect of the fusion protein on murine dendritic cells (DCs) was assessed in vitro and in vivo using transwell and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. BALB/c mice were administered anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P plus pCCL19/GFP (each 100 μg, im) or pCIA-P alone. Serum level of anti-PAc IgG was assessed with ELISA. Splenocytes from the mice were stimulated with PAc protein for 48 h, and IFN-γ and IL-4 production was measured with ELISA. The presence of pCCL19/GFP in spleen and draining lymph nodes was assessed using PCR. The expression of pCCL19/GFP protein in these tissues was analyzed under microscope and with flow cytometry. The expression level of CCL19-GFP fusion protein was considerably increased 48 h after transfection of COS-7 cells with pCCL19/GFP plasmids. The fusion protein showed potent chemotactic activity on DCs in vitro. The level of serum PAc-specific IgG was significantly increased from 4 to 14 weeks in the mice vaccinated with pCIA-P plus pCCL19/GFP. Compared to mice vaccinated with pCIA-P alone, the splenocytes from mice vaccinated with pCIA-P plus pCCL19/GFP produced significantly higher level of IFN-γ, but IL-4 production had no significant change. Following intromuscular co-delivery, pCCL19/GFP plasmid and fusion protein were detected in the spleen and draining lymph nodes. Administration of CCL19 gene in mice markedly increased the number of mature DCs in secondary lymphoid tissues. CCL19 serves as an effective adjuvant for anti-caries DNA vaccine by inducing chemotactic migration of DCs to secondary lymphoid tissues.
Full Text Available Phuc Van Pham, Nhung Thi Nguyen, Hoang Minh Nguyen, Lam Tan Khuat, Phong Minh Le, Viet Quoc Pham, Sinh Truong Nguyen, Ngoc Kim Phan Laboratory of Stem Cell Research and Application, University of Science, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Background: Dendritic cell (DC therapy is a promising therapy for cancer-targeting treatments. Recently, DCs have been used for treatment of some cancers. We aimed to develop an in vitro assay to evaluate DC therapy in cancer treatment using a breast cancer model. Methods: DCs were induced from murine bone marrow mononuclear cells in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with GM-CSF (20 ng/mL and IL-4 (20 ng/mL. Immature DCs were primed with breast cancer stem cell (BCSC-derived antigens. BCSCs were sorted from 4T1 cell lines based on aldehyde dehydrogenase expression. A mixture of DCs and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs were used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of antigen-primed DCs on BCSCs. BCSC proliferation and doubling time were recorded based on impedance-based cell analysis using the xCELLigence system. The specification of inhibitory effects of DCs and CTLs was also evaluated using the same system. Results: The results showed that impedance-based analysis of BCSCs reflected cytotoxicity and inhibitory effects of DCs and CTLs at 72 hours. Differences in ratios of DC:CTL changed the cytotoxicity of DCs and CTLs. Conclusion: This study successfully used impedance-based cell analysis as a new in vitro assay to evaluate DC efficacy in cancer immunotherapy. We hope this technique will contribute to the development and improvement of immunotherapies in the near future. Keywords: CTLs, cytotoxicity assay, dendritic cells, immunotherapy, targeting therapy
Corinna Stefanie Weber
Full Text Available The skin accommodates multiple dendritic cell (DC subsets with remarkable functional diversity. Immune reactions are initiated and modulated by the triggering of DC by pathogen-associated or endogenous danger signals. In contrast to these processes, the influence of intrinsic features of protein antigens on the strength and type of immune responses is much less understood. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of distinct DC subsets in immune reactions against two structurally different model antigens, E. coli beta-galactosidase (betaGal and chicken ovalbumin (OVA under otherwise identical conditions. After epicutaneous administration of the respective DNA vaccines with a gene gun, wild type mice induced robust immune responses against both antigens. However, ablation of langerin+ DC almost abolished IgG1 and cytotoxic T lymphocytes against betaGal but enhanced T cell and antibody responses against OVA. We identified epidermal Langerhans cells (LC as the subset responsible for the suppression of anti-OVA reactions and found regulatory T cells critically involved in this process. In contrast, reactions against betaGal were not affected by the selective elimination of LC, indicating that this antigen required a different langerin+ DC subset. The opposing findings obtained with OVA and betaGal vaccines were not due to immune-modulating activities of either the plasmid DNA or the antigen gene products, nor did the differential cellular localization, size or dose of the two proteins account for the opposite effects. Thus, skin-borne protein antigens may be differentially handled by distinct DC subsets, and, in this way, intrinsic features of the antigen can participate in immune modulation.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 200 clinical trials have been performed using dendritic cells (DC as cellular adjuvants in cancer. Yet the key question whether there is a link between immune and clinical response remains unanswered. Prostate and renal cell cancer (RCC have been extensively studied for DC-based immunotherapeutic interventions and were therefore chosen to address the above question by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data was obtained after a systematic literature search from clinical trials that enrolled at least 6 patients. Individual patient data meta-analysis was performed by means of conditional logistic regression grouped by study. Twenty nine trials involving a total of 906 patients were identified in prostate cancer (17 and RCC (12. Objective response rates were 7.7% in prostate cancer and 12.7% in RCC. The combined percentages of objective responses and stable diseases (SD amounted to a clinical benefit rate (CBR of 54% in prostate cancer and 48% in RCC. Meta-analysis of individual patient data (n = 403 revealed the cellular immune response to have a significant influence on CBR, both in prostate cancer (OR 10.6, 95% CI 2.5-44.1 and in RCC (OR 8.4, 95% CI 1.3-53.0. Furthermore, DC dose was found to have a significant influence on CBR in both entities. Finally, for the larger cohort of prostate cancer patients, an influence of DC maturity and DC subtype (density enriched versus monocyte derived DC as well as access to draining lymph nodes on clinical outcome could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As a 'proof of principle' a statistically significant effect of DC-mediated cellular immune response and of DC dose on CBR could be demonstrated. Further findings concerning vaccine composition, quality control, and the effect of DC maturation status are relevant for the immunological development of DC-based vaccines.
Draube, Andreas; Klein-González, Nela; Mattheus, Stefanie; Brillant, Corinne; Hellmich, Martin; Engert, Andreas; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael
More than 200 clinical trials have been performed using dendritic cells (DC) as cellular adjuvants in cancer. Yet the key question whether there is a link between immune and clinical response remains unanswered. Prostate and renal cell cancer (RCC) have been extensively studied for DC-based immunotherapeutic interventions and were therefore chosen to address the above question by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Data was obtained after a systematic literature search from clinical trials that enrolled at least 6 patients. Individual patient data meta-analysis was performed by means of conditional logistic regression grouped by study. Twenty nine trials involving a total of 906 patients were identified in prostate cancer (17) and RCC (12). Objective response rates were 7.7% in prostate cancer and 12.7% in RCC. The combined percentages of objective responses and stable diseases (SD) amounted to a clinical benefit rate (CBR) of 54% in prostate cancer and 48% in RCC. Meta-analysis of individual patient data (n = 403) revealed the cellular immune response to have a significant influence on CBR, both in prostate cancer (OR 10.6, 95% CI 2.5-44.1) and in RCC (OR 8.4, 95% CI 1.3-53.0). Furthermore, DC dose was found to have a significant influence on CBR in both entities. Finally, for the larger cohort of prostate cancer patients, an influence of DC maturity and DC subtype (density enriched versus monocyte derived DC) as well as access to draining lymph nodes on clinical outcome could be demonstrated. As a 'proof of principle' a statistically significant effect of DC-mediated cellular immune response and of DC dose on CBR could be demonstrated. Further findings concerning vaccine composition, quality control, and the effect of DC maturation status are relevant for the immunological development of DC-based vaccines.
Sahay, Bikash; Owen, Jennifer L.; Yang, Tao; Zadeh, Mojgan; Lightfoot, Yaíma L.; Ge, Jun-wei; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour
Production of long-lived, high affinity humoral immunity is an essential characteristic of successful vaccination and requires cognate interactions between T and B cells in germinal centers. Within germinal centers, specialized T follicular helper cells assist B cells and regulate the antibody response by mediating the differentiation of B cells into memory or plasma cells after exposure to T cell-dependent antigens. It is now appreciated that local immune responses are also essential for pro...
Kohlmann, Rebekka; Schwannecke, Sarah; Tippler, Bettina; Ternette, Nicola; Temchura, Vladimir V.; Tenbusch, Matthias; Überla, Klaus; Grunwald, Thomas
Adenoviral vectors (AdV) have received considerable attention for vaccine development because of their high immunogenicity and efficacy. In previous studies, it was shown that DNA immunization of mice with codon-optimized expression plasmids encoding the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV F) resulted in enhanced protection against RSV challenge compared to immunization with plasmids carrying the wild-type cDNA sequence of RSV F. In this study, we constructed AdV carrying the c...
Fan, M W; Bian, Z; Peng, Z X; Zhong, Y; Chen, Z; Peng, B; Jia, R
A cell-surface protein antigen (PAc) of Streptococcus mutans is considered a virulence factor because it may mediate initial attachment of Streptococcus mutans to tooth surfaces. Thus, inhibiting PAc is predicted to provide protection against caries. To develop vaccines against dental caries, we constructed a DNA vaccine, pCIA-P, which encodes two high-conservative regions of PAc. Expression of the recombinant protein was obtained in eukaryotic cells in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we provide evidence that fewer caries lesions, and high levels of PAc-specific salivary IgA antibody and serum IgG antibody, were observed in gnotobiotic rats following targeted salivary gland (TSG) administration of pCIA-P. This study shows that the recombinant DNA vaccine pCIA-P could induce protective anti-caries immune responses and that TSG immunization is a promising strategy for the inhibition of dental caries.
Top, S; Foulon, E; Pignolet, B; Deplanche, M; Caubet, C; Tasca, C; Bertagnoli, S; Meyer, G; Foucras, G
Recombinant myxoma virus (MYXV) can be produced without a loss of infectivity, and its highly specific host range makes it an ideal vaccine vector candidate, although careful examination of its interaction with the immune system is necessary. Similar to rabbit bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), ovine dendritic cells can be infected by SG33, a MYXV vaccine strain, and support recombinant antigen expression. The frequency of infected cells in the nonhost was lower and the virus cycle was abortive in these cell types. Among BM-DC subpopulations, Langerhans cell-like DCs were preferentially infected at low multiplicities of infection. Interestingly, ovine BM-DCs remained susceptible to MYXV after maturation, although apoptosis occurred shortly after infection as a function of the virus titer. When gene expression was assessed in infected BM-DC cultures, type I interferon (IFN)-related and inflammatory genes were strongly upregulated. DC gene expression profiles were compared with the profiles produced by other poxviruses in interaction with DCs, but very few commonalities were found, although genes that were previously shown to predict vaccine efficacy were present. Collectively, these data support the idea that MYXV permits efficient priming of adaptive immune responses and should be considered a promising vaccine vector along with other poxviruses.
Top, S.; Foulon, E.; Pignolet, B.; Deplanche, M.; Caubet, C.; Tasca, C.; Bertagnoli, S.; Meyer, G.; Foucras, G.
Recombinant myxoma virus (MYXV) can be produced without a loss of infectivity, and its highly specific host range makes it an ideal vaccine vector candidate, although careful examination of its interaction with the immune system is necessary. Similar to rabbit bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), ovine dendritic cells can be infected by SG33, a MYXV vaccine strain, and support recombinant antigen expression. The frequency of infected cells in the nonhost was lower and the virus cycle was abortive in these cell types. Among BM-DC subpopulations, Langerhans cell-like DCs were preferentially infected at low multiplicities of infection. Interestingly, ovine BM-DCs remained susceptible to MYXV after maturation, although apoptosis occurred shortly after infection as a function of the virus titer. When gene expression was assessed in infected BM-DC cultures, type I interferon (IFN)-related and inflammatory genes were strongly upregulated. DC gene expression profiles were compared with the profiles produced by other poxviruses in interaction with DCs, but very few commonalities were found, although genes that were previously shown to predict vaccine efficacy were present. Collectively, these data support the idea that MYXV permits efficient priming of adaptive immune responses and should be considered a promising vaccine vector along with other poxviruses. PMID:21835800
Cornelissen, Robin; Hegmans, Joost P J J; Maat, Alexander P W M; Kaijen-Lambers, Margaretha E H; Bezemer, Koen; Hendriks, Rudi W; Hoogsteden, Henk C; Aerts, Joachim G J V
We demonstrated previously that autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell-based immunotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma is feasible, well-tolerated, and capable of inducing immunologic responses against tumor cells. In our murine model, we found that reduction of regulatory T cells with metronomic cyclophosphamide increased the efficacy of immunotherapy. To assess the decrease in number of peripheral blood regulatory T cells during combination therapy of low-dose cyclophosphamide and dendritic cell immunotherapy and determine the induction of immunologic responses with this treatment in patients with mesothelioma. Ten patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma received metronomic cyclophosphamide and dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. During the treatment, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed for regulatory T cells and immunologic responses. Administration of dendritic cells pulsed with autologous tumor lysate combined with cyclophosphamide in patients with mesothelioma was safe, the only side effect being moderate fever. Dendritic cell vaccination combined with cyclophosphamide resulted in radiographic disease control in 8 of the 10 patients. Overall survival was promising, with 7 out of 10 patients having a survival of greater than or equal to 24 months and two patients still alive after 50 and 66 months. Low-dose cyclophosphamide reduced the percentage of regulatory T cells of total CD4 cells in peripheral blood from 9.43 (range, 4.34-26.10) to 4.51 (range, 0.27-10.30) after 7 days of cyclophosphamide treatment (P = 0.02). Consolidation therapy with autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell-based therapy and simultaneously reducing the tumor-induced immune suppression is well-tolerated and shows signs of clinical activity in patients with mesothelioma. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01241682).
Tan, Peng H; Beutelspacher, Sven C; Wang, Yao-He; McClure, Myra O; Ritter, Mary A; Lombardi, Giovanna; George, Andrew J T
Genetic manipulation of dendritic cells (DCs) is important in the context of using either mature DCs to immunize patients or immature DCs to induce tolerance. Here, we describe a novel method of transfecting monocyte-derived human DCs using immunolipoplexes containing anti-CD71 or anti-CD205 monoclonal Abs. This results in up to 20% transfection, which can be increased to 20-30% if the immunolipoplexes are used to transfect CD14+ monocytes prior to differentiation into DCs. Transfected DCs can be substantially enriched using a drug-selection protocol during differentiation. Unlike adenoviral transduction, this nonviral transfection does not alter the expression of costimulatory molecules or the production of proinflammatory cytokines by DCs. In addition, DC function is unaltered, as assessed by mixed lymphocyte reactions. To test the feasibility of the immunolipoplexes and selection protocol for therapeutic intervention, we transfected DCs with the immunomodulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Allogeneic T cells exposed to IDO-expressing DCs did not proliferate, secreted more IL-10 and less Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and had a higher amount of apoptosis than T cells incubated with control DCs. Furthermore the remaining T cells were rendered anergic to further stimulation by allogeneic DC. These immunolipoplexes, which can be easily and rapidly assembled, have potential for clinical immunization, in particular for tolerance induction protocols.
Holmstrøm, Kim; Pedersen, Ayako Wakatsuki; Claesson, Mogens Helweg
for prediction of clinical outcome for DC-based therapy. We therefore looked for additional biomarkers by investigating the differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in mature DCs relative to immature DCs. A microarray-based screening revealed that 12 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the two DC...... phenotypes. Of these, four miRNAs, hsa-miR-155, hsa-miR-146a, hsa-miR-125a-5p, and hsa-miR-29a, were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and northern blotting. The matured DCs from 12 individual donors were divided into two groups of highly and less differentiated DCs, respectively. A pronounced...... difference at the level of miRNA induction between these two groups was observed, suggesting that quantitative evaluation of selected miRNAs potentially can predict the immunogenicity of DC vaccines....
Andersen, M.H.; Keikavoussi, P.; Brocker, E.B.
Two HLA-A2-positive patients with advanced stage IV melanoma were treated with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with either tumor peptide antigens from gp100, MART-1 and MAGE- 3 alone or in combination with autologous oncolysates. Clinically, the rapid progression of disease was subst......Two HLA-A2-positive patients with advanced stage IV melanoma were treated with monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with either tumor peptide antigens from gp100, MART-1 and MAGE- 3 alone or in combination with autologous oncolysates. Clinically, the rapid progression of disease...... by Western blotting was decreased in PBL at this time. In summary, our data confirm that DC-based vaccinations induce peptide-specific T cells in the peripheral blood of advanced-stage melanoma patients. Although successful induction of systemic tumor antigen-specific CTL may not lead to objective clinical...... tumor regression, their presence are indicative of a prolonged survival....
Full Text Available MF59 is an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant approved for human influenza vaccination in European Union. The mode of action of MF59 is not fully elucidated yet, but results from several years of investigation indicate that MF59 establishes an immunocompetent environment at injection site which promotes recruitment of immune cells, including antigen presenting cells (APCs, that are facilitated to engulf antigen and transport it to draining lymph node (dLN where the antigen is accumulated. In vitro studies showed that MF59 promotes the differentiation of monocytes to dendritic cells (Mo-DCs. Since after immunization with MF59, monocytes are rapidly recruited both at the injection site and in dLN and appear to have a morphological change toward a DC-like phenotype, we asked whether MF59 could play a role in inducing differentiation of Mo-DC in vivo. To address this question we immunized mice with the auto-fluorescent protein Phycoerythrin (PE as model antigen, in presence or absence of MF59. We measured the APC phenotype and their antigen uptake within dLNs, the antigen distribution within the dLN compartments and the humoral response to PE. In addition, using Ovalbumin as model antigen, we measured the capacity of dLN APCs to induce antigen-specific CD4 T cell proliferation. Here, we show, for the first time, that MF59 promotes differentiation of Mo-DCs within dLNs from intranodal recruited monocytes and we suggest that this differentiation could take place in the medullary compartment of the LN. In addition we show that the Mo-DC subset represents the major source of antigen-loaded and activated APCs within the dLN when immunizing with MF59. Interestingly, this finding correlates with the enhanced triggering of antigen-specific CD4 T cell response induced by LN APCs. This study therefore demonstrates that MF59 is able to promote an immunocompetent environment also directly within the dLN, offering a novel insight on the mechanism of action of
Schwarz, Tobias; Remer, Katharina A.; Nahrendorf, Wiebke; Masic, Anita; Siewe, Lisa; Müller, Werner; Roers, Axel; Moll, Heidrun
In the murine model of Leishmania major infection, resistance or susceptibility to the parasite has been associated with the development of a Th1 or Th2 type of immune response. Recently, however, the immunosuppressive effects of IL-10 have been ascribed a crucial role in the development of the different clinical correlates of Leishmania infection in humans. Since T cells and professional APC are important cellular sources of IL-10, we compared leishmaniasis disease progression in T cell-specific, macrophage/neutrophil-specific and complete IL-10-deficient C57BL/6 as well as T cell-specific and complete IL-10-deficient BALB/c mice. As early as two weeks after infection of these mice with L. major, T cell-specific and complete IL-10-deficient animals showed significantly increased lesion development accompanied by a markedly elevated secretion of IFN-γ or IFN-γ and IL-4 in the lymph nodes draining the lesions of the C57BL/6 or BALB/c mutants, respectively. In contrast, macrophage/neutrophil-specific IL-10-deficient C57BL/6 mice did not show any altered phenotype. During the further course of disease, the T cell-specific as well as the complete IL-10-deficient BALB/c mice were able to control the infection. Furthermore, a dendritic cell-based vaccination against leishmaniasis efficiently suppresses the early secretion of IL-10, thus contributing to the control of parasite spread. Taken together, IL-10 secretion by T cells has an influence on immune activation early after infection and is sufficient to render BALB/c mice susceptible to an uncontrolled Leishmania major infection. PMID:23825956
Full Text Available Background Dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells with the ability to induce primary T-cell responses and are commonly produced by culturing monocytes in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF for 5–7 days (Standard DC. Recently, Dauer and co-workers presented a modified protocol for differentiation of human monocytes into mature DCs within 48 hours (Fast DC. Here we report a functional comparison of the two strategies for generation of DCs from human monocytes with adaptions for large-scale clinical use. Methods The Elutra Cell Selection System was used to isolate monocytes after collection of leukapheresis product. The enriched monocytes were cultured in gas permeable Teflon bags with IL-4 and GM-CSF for 24 hours (Fast DC or 5 days (Standard DC to obtain immature DCs. The cells were then transfected with mRNA from the leukemia cell line Jurkat E6 by electroporation and incubated for additional 24 h or 2 days in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and PGE2 to obtain mature DCs. Results Mature Fast DC and Standard DC displayed comparable levels of many markers expressed on DC, including HLA-DR, CD83, CD86, CD208 and CCR7. However, compared to Standard DC, mature Fast DC was CD14high CD209low. Fast DC and Standard DC transfected with Jurkat E6-cell mRNA were equally able to elicit T cell specifically recognizing transfected DCs in vitro. IFNγ-secreting T cells were observed in both the CD4+ and CD8+ subsets. Conclusion Our results indicate that mature Fast DC are functional antigen presenting cells (APCs capable of inducing primary T-cell responses, and suggest that these cells may be valuable for generation of anti-tumor vaccines.
Schwarz, Tobias; Remer, Katharina A; Nahrendorf, Wiebke; Masic, Anita; Siewe, Lisa; Müller, Werner; Roers, Axel; Moll, Heidrun
In the murine model of Leishmania major infection, resistance or susceptibility to the parasite has been associated with the development of a Th1 or Th2 type of immune response. Recently, however, the immunosuppressive effects of IL-10 have been ascribed a crucial role in the development of the different clinical correlates of Leishmania infection in humans. Since T cells and professional APC are important cellular sources of IL-10, we compared leishmaniasis disease progression in T cell-specific, macrophage/neutrophil-specific and complete IL-10-deficient C57BL/6 as well as T cell-specific and complete IL-10-deficient BALB/c mice. As early as two weeks after infection of these mice with L. major, T cell-specific and complete IL-10-deficient animals showed significantly increased lesion development accompanied by a markedly elevated secretion of IFN-γ or IFN-γ and IL-4 in the lymph nodes draining the lesions of the C57BL/6 or BALB/c mutants, respectively. In contrast, macrophage/neutrophil-specific IL-10-deficient C57BL/6 mice did not show any altered phenotype. During the further course of disease, the T cell-specific as well as the complete IL-10-deficient BALB/c mice were able to control the infection. Furthermore, a dendritic cell-based vaccination against leishmaniasis efficiently suppresses the early secretion of IL-10, thus contributing to the control of parasite spread. Taken together, IL-10 secretion by T cells has an influence on immune activation early after infection and is sufficient to render BALB/c mice susceptible to an uncontrolled Leishmania major infection.
Platteel, Anouk C M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/375805613; Marit de Groot, A; Andersen, Peter; Ovaa, Huib; Kloetzel, Peter M; Mishto, Michele; Sijts, Alice J A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/115553843
Most vaccines are based on protective humoral responses while for intracellular pathogens CD8(+) T cells are regularly needed to provide protection. However, poor processing efficiency of antigens is often a limiting factor in CD8(+) T cell priming, hampering vaccine efficacy. The multistage cDNA
Maruggi, Giulietta; Chiarot, Emiliano; Giovani, Cinzia; Buccato, Scilla; Bonacci, Stefano; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Margarit, Immaculada; Geall, Andrew; Bensi, Giuliano; Maione, Domenico
Nucleic acid vaccines represent an attractive approach to vaccination, combining the positive attributes of both viral vectors and live-attenuated vaccines, without the inherent limitations of each technology. We have developed a novel technology, the Self-Amplifying mRNA (SAM) platform, which is based on the synthesis of self-amplifying mRNA formulated and delivered as a vaccine. SAM vaccines have been shown to stimulate robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and non-human primates against a variety of viral antigens, thus representing a safe and versatile tool against viral infections. To assess whether the SAM technology could be used for a broader range of targets, we investigated the immunogenicity and efficacy of SAM vaccines expressing antigens from Group A (GAS) and Group B (GBS) Streptococci, as models of bacterial pathogens. Two prototype bacterial antigens (the double-mutated GAS Streptolysin-O (SLOdm) and the GBS pilus 2a backbone protein (BP-2a)) were successfully expressed by SAM vectors. Mice immunized with both vaccines produced significant amounts of fully functional serum antibodies. The antibody responses generated by SAM vaccines were capable of conferring consistent protection in murine models of GAS and GBS infections. Inclusion of a eukaryotic secretion signal or boosting with the recombinant protein resulted in higher specific-antibody levels and protection. Our results support the concept of using SAM vaccines as potential solution for a wide range of both viral and bacterial pathogens, due to the versatility of the manufacturing processes and the broad spectrum of elicited protective immune response. Copyright © 2016 GSK Vaccines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Type I interferons (IFNs exhibit direct antiviral effects, but also distinct immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we analyzed type I IFN subtypes for their effect on prophylactic adenovirus-based anti-retroviral vaccination of mice against Friend retrovirus (FV or HIV. Results Mice were vaccinated with adenoviral vectors encoding FV Env and Gag proteins alone or in combination with vectors encoding IFNα1, IFNα2, IFNα4, IFNα5, IFNα6, IFNα9 or IFNβ. Only the co-administration of adenoviral vectors encoding IFNα2, IFNα4, IFNα6 and IFNα9 resulted in strongly improved immune protection of vaccinated mice from subsequent FV challenge infection with high control over FV-induced splenomegaly and reduced viral loads. The level of protection correlated with augmented virus-specific CD4+ T cell responses and enhanced antibody titers. Similar results were obtained when mice were vaccinated against HIV with adenoviral vectors encoding HIV Env and Gag-Pol in combination with various type I IFN encoding vectors. Here mainly CD4+ T cell responses were enhanced by IFNα subtypes. Conclusions Our results indicate that certain IFNα subtypes have the potential to improve the protective effect of adenovirus-based vaccines against retroviruses. This correlated with augmented virus-specific CD4+ T cell and antibody responses. Thus, co-expression of select type I IFNs may be a valuable tool for the development of anti-retroviral vaccines.
Oñate, Angel A.; Céspedes, Sandra; Cabrera, Alex; Rivers, Rodolfo; González, Andrés; Muñoz, Carola; Folch, Hugo; Andrews, Edilia
This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding Brucella abortus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). Intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA carrying the SOD gene (pcDNA-SOD) into BALB/c mice elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses. Animals injected with pcDNA-SOD developed SOD-specific antibodies which exhibited a dominance of immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) over IgG1. In addition, the DNA vaccine elicited a T-cell-proliferative response and also induced the production of gamma interferon, but not interleukin-10 (IL-10) or IL-4, upon restimulation with either recombinant SOD or crude Brucella protein, suggesting the induction of a typical T-helper-1-dominated immune response in mice. The pcDNA-SOD (but not the control vector) induced a strong, significant level of protection in BALB/c mice against challenge with B. abortus virulent strain 2308; the level of protection was similar to the one induced by B. abortus vaccine strain RB51. Altogether, these data suggest that pcDNA-SOD is a good candidate for use in future studies of vaccination against brucellosis. PMID:12933826
Neeland, Melanie R; Elhay, Martin J; Meeusen, Els N T; de Veer, Michael J
Vaccine formulations administered in the periphery must activate naive immune cells within the lymph node. In this study, we have directly cannulated the ovine lymphatic vessels to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that transfer information from the periphery into the local draining lymph node via the afferent lymph. Inclusion of poly(I:C) into a liposomal vaccine formulation enhances the neutrophil-associated inflammatory immune response in afferent lymph and increases antigen uptake by migratory dendritic cells (DCs). Interestingly, antigen positive migratory DCs undergo discordant maturation, with peak expression of CD86 at 4 h and CD80 at 48-72 h post vaccination. Afferent lymph monocytes up-regulate expression of genes related to inflammatory and anti-viral immune phenotypes following vaccination however show no differentiation into APCs prior to their migration to the local lymph node as measured by surface MHC II expression. Finally, this study reveals the addition of poly(I:C) increases systemic antigen-specific humoral immunity. These findings provide a detailed understanding of the real time in vivo immune response induced by liposomes incorporating the innate immune agonist poly(I:C) utilising a vaccination setting comparable to that administered in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, Jing-hua; Niu, Yu-mei; Fan, Ming-wen; Xu, Qing-an; Yang, Xue-chao
To construct a new fusion anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJGAC/VAX encoding antigens of both S. mutans and S. sobrinus so as to enhance the protective effect of DNA vaccine against S. sobrinus infection. The CAT fragment of S. sobrinus OMZ176 gtf-I was amplified by semi-nest PCR and then inserted into the plasmid pGJA-P/VAX to construct the recombinant plasmid pGJGAC/VAX. The CHO cell was transfected and the expression of fusion protein detected using cellular immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Mice were immunized with pGJGAC/VAX and control plasmids via the intramuscular (i.m) or intranasal (i.n) routes. During the experiment, blood and saliva samples were collected at a 2-week interval for antibody assay by ELISA. Rats were orally challenged with S. mutans Ingbritt or S. sobrinus 6715 and then immunized i.n with pGJGAC/VAX, pGJA-P/VAX or pVAX1. The Keyes method was used to determine the caries activity. (1) CAT sequence was identical to the related sequence of gtf-I (OMZ176) in GenBank. The recombinant plasmid pGJGAC/VAX encoded the genes of antigens of both S. mutans and S. sobrinus. The expressed protein could respond to specific anti-PAc, anti-GLU and anti-CAT antibodies respectively. (2) As for antibody reactions, mice in the experiment group had significantly higher levels of anti-PAc, anti-GLU and anti-CAT IgG antibodies than those in the pVAX1 group (P 0.05). A new fusion anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJGAC/VAX encoding antigens of both S. mutans and S. sobrinus is constructed successfully and expressed correctly in eukaryotic cells. It induces effective mucosal and systematic humoral responses so as to provide a better protection against S. sobrinus.
Bassi, Maria R; Larsen, Mads Andreas Bay; Kongsgaard, Michael
The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should...... these vectors. In this study, we present two adenobased vectors targeting non-structural and structural YF antigens and characterize their immunological properties. We report that a single immunization with an Ad-vector encoding the non-structural protein 3 from YF-17D could elicit a strong CD8+ T-cell response......, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both...
1 An immunoinformatics-derived DNA vaccine encoding human Class II T cell epitopes of 1 Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Venezuelan equine...email@example.com 13 14 Keywords: genome-derived vaccine, epitope-based vaccine, DNA vaccine, peptide vaccine, T 15 cell epitope, Ebola virus, EBOV...for biodefense. We previously developed and 53 tested DNA vaccines expressing the envelope glycoproteins of these viruses in mice and 54 nonhuman
Yu, Qinlei; Huang, Xiangsheng; Gong, Pengtao; Zhang, Qian; Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Guocai; Yang, Ju; Li, He; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Xichen
The investigation of Toxoplasma gondii virulence factors can elucidate the immunopathology of T. gondii infection and identify potential candidates for effective human vaccines. The adjuvant is an important component of an effective vaccine. In this study, attenuated Mycobacterium bovis was used as a live vaccine vector with both antigen and adjuvant characteristics. Following amplification of the T. gondii cyclophilin gene, the shuttle expression plasmid pMV261-TgCyP and integrative expression plasmid pMV361-TgCyP were constructed, and their expression was stimulated after transfection into BCG. Both recombinant plasmids were highly immunogenic. Greater proliferation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells was observed in the rBCG-vaccinated groups compared to the control groups. The levels of Th1-type IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12 were significantly increased following immunisation with the rBCG vaccines via the i.v. or oral route, which indicated that catalytic activity against T. gondii infection was generated in the mice. rBCGpMV361-TgCyP i.v. inoculation resulted in a higher protection efficiency, as demonstrated by the increased survival time and survival rate (17%) of BALB/c mice. The present study demonstrates that a BCG vector expressing a target antigen, TgCyP, represent an alternative system for the production of effective vaccines to prevent toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iborra, Salvador; Soto, Manuel; Carrión, Javier; Alonso, Carlos; Requena, Jose M
Leishmania histones are relevant immunogens for the host immune system during both Leishmania infection and disease. In the present paper we have evaluated the prophylactic value of the four Leishmania infantum histones forming the nucleosomal core in the murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In a first stage, the immune response elicited by the intramuscular injection of a mixture of four plasmid DNAs, encoding the L. infantum histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4, was determined in BALB/c mice. It was found that the immunized animals developed a specific Th1 immune response, which was associated with an antigen-specific production of interferon (IFN-gamma) and a limited humoral response against histones (dominated by antibodies of the IgG2a isotype). According to the pure Th1-type immune response elicited by the DNA vaccination with Leishmania histones, vaccinated mice showed a solid immunity that efficiently controlled the Leishmania major infection. The protection in mice vaccinated with histone-DNAs was associated with a low humoral response against leishmanial antigens, an enhanced IFN-gamma production and little, if any, IL-4 production. The relative contribution of both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells to the IFN-gamma production, and the IL-12 dependence were also evaluated. All these data indicated that DNA vaccination with Leishmania histones genes results in a specific Th1-like response during L. major infection, and that both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells contribute to the resistance of vaccinated mice to cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Huang, C-H; Peng, S; He, L; Tsai, Y-C; Boyd, D A K; Hansen, T H; Wu, T-C; Hung, C-F
The potency of DNA vaccines may be affected by the efficiency of intracellular processing and MHC class I presentation of encoded antigens. Since a single-chain trimer (SCT) composed of peptide, beta2-microglobulin (beta2m), and MHC class I heavy chain has been shown to bypass antigen processing and lead to stable presentation of peptides, we investigated the efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding a SCT composed of an immunodominant CTL epitope of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 antigen, beta2m, and H-2Kb MHC class I heavy chain (pIRES-E6-beta2m-Kb). Transfection of 293 cells with pIRES-E6-beta2m-Kb can bypass antigen processing and lead to stable presentation of E6 peptide. Furthermore, C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with pIRES-E6-beta2m-Kb exhibited significantly increased E6 peptide-specific CD8+ T-cell immune responses compared to mice vaccinated with DNA encoding wild-type E6. Most importantly, 100% of mice vaccinated with pIRES-E6-beta2m-Kb DNA were protected against a lethal challenge of E6-expressing TC-1 tumor cells. In contrast, all mice vaccinated with wild-type E6 DNA or control plasmid DNA grew tumors. Our data indicate that a DNA vaccine encoding a SCT can lead to stable enhanced MHC class I presentation of encoded antigenic peptide and may be useful for improving DNA vaccine potency to control tumors or infectious diseases.
Prieur, Eric; Gilbert, Sarah C; Schneider, Joerg; Moore, Anne C; Sheu, Eric G; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Robson, Kathryn J H; Hill, Adrian V S
To generate broadly protective T cell responses more similar to those acquired after vaccination with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, we have constructed candidate subunit malaria vaccines expressing six preerythrocytic antigens linked together to produce a 3240-aa-long polyprotein (L3SEPTL). This polyprotein was expressed by a plasmid DNA vaccine vector (DNA) and by two attenuated poxvirus vectors, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and fowlpox virus of the FP9 strain. MVAL3SEPTL boosted anti-thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (anti-TRAP) and anti-liver stage antigen 1 (anti-LSA1) CD8(+) T cell responses when primed by single antigen TRAP- or LSA1-expressing DNAs, respectively, but not by DNA-L3SEPTL. However, prime boost regimes involving two heterologous viral vectors expressing L3SEPTL induced a strong cellular response directed against an LSA1 peptide located in the C-terminal region of the polyprotein. Peptide-specific T cells secreted IFN-gamma and were cytotoxic. IFN-gamma-secreting T cells specific for each of the six antigens were induced after vaccination with L3SEPTL, supporting the use of polyprotein inserts to induce multispecific T cells against P. falciparum. The use of polyprotein constructs in nonreplicating poxviruses should broaden the target antigen range of vaccine-induced immunity and increase the number of potential epitopes available for immunogenetically diverse human populations.
Hu, Zixi; Chen, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Sufang; Yang, Nuo; Duan, Siliang; Zhang, Zhenghua; Su, Jing; He, Jian; Zhang, Zhiyong; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang
Dendritic cells (DC) and tumor cell fusion vaccine (DC/tumor cell fusion vaccine) is considered an effective approach in cancer biotherapy. However, its therapeutic effects in early clinical trials have been suboptimal partially due to the immunosuppressive tumor environment. In this study, we used nanoparticles of folate (FA)-modified chitosan, a non-viral vector capable of targeting tumor cells with high expression of FA receptors. FA-chitosan nanoparticles were used as biological carriers for the expression plasmid of the mouse interferon-induced protein-10 (mIP-10) gene, a potent chemoattractant for cytotoxic T cells. The combination of FA-chitosan/mIP-10 and DC/tumor cell fusion vaccine against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) effectively inhibited the growth of implanted HCC tumors and prolonged the survival of mice. The combination therapy significantly reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in mouse spleen, local tumor, and bone marrow while increasing tumor-specific IFN-γ responses. Furthermore, the combination therapy significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation while promoting their apoptosis. Taken together, our data illustrate that the mIP-10 enhances the anti-tumor effect of DC/tumor cell fusion vaccine by alleviating the immunosuppressive tumor environment.
Kim, Sol; Lee, Jee-Boong; Lee, Geon Kook; Chang, Jun
Prostate cancer is currently the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men in the US. Immunological approaches may provide an alternative option for prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. To develop vaccine against prostate cancer using mouse model, we constructed three recombinant adenoviruses expressing prostate-specific membrane antigen (rAd/PSMA), prostate stem cell antigen (rAd/PSCA) and six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate (rAd/STEAP), that were specifically up-regulated in the transgenic murine prostate cancer. Male C57BL/6 mice were immunized by intravenous injection of these recombinant adenoviruses and subsequently by subcutaneous injection of dendritic cells pulsed with TRAMP-C1 tumor lysate. After subcutaneous challenge with TRAMP-C1 cells, tumor growth was significantly delayed in the immunized mice compared to the control group. Surprisingly, significant numbers of STEAP-specific CD8 T cells were detected in the peripheral blood and the spleen of immune mice using MHC I tetramers, and injection of rAd/STEAP alone followed by pulsed DC was sufficient to inhibit tumor growth. Therapeutic vaccination also significantly delayed the growth of pre-established tumors. Our results suggest that STEAP is a good immunologic target antigen against prostate cancer and our vaccination regimen successfully elicits anti-tumor CTL responses and suppresses tumor growth. More studies will expedite the development of this vaccine toward clinical application.
van de Wall, Stephanie; Walczak, Mateusz; van Rooij, Nienke; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Nijman, Hans W.; Daemen, Toos
The skin is an attractive organ for immunization because of the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Intradermal delivery via tattooing has demonstrated superior vaccine immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in comparison to conventional delivery methods. In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo injection of a tumor vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon particles (rSFV) targeting human papillomavirus (HPV). Tattoo injection of rSFV particles resulted in antigen expression in both the skin and draining lymph nodes. In comparison with intramuscular injection, the overall antigen expression determined at the site of administration and draining lymph nodes was 10-fold lower upon tattoo injection. Delivery of SFV particles encoding the E6 and E7 antigens of human papillomavirus type 16 (SFVeE6,7) via tattooing resulted in HPV-specific cytotoxic T cells and in vivo therapeutic antitumor response. Strikingly, despite the observed lower overall transgene expression, SFVeE6,7 delivered via tattoo injection resulted in higher or equal levels of immune responses as compared to intramuscular injection. The intrinsic immunogenic potential of tattooing provides a benefit for immunotherapy based on an alphavirus. PMID:26343186
Stephanie van de Wall
Full Text Available The skin is an attractive organ for immunization because of the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Intradermal delivery via tattooing has demonstrated superior vaccine immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in comparison to conventional delivery methods. In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo injection of a tumor vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon particles (rSFV targeting human papillomavirus (HPV. Tattoo injection of rSFV particles resulted in antigen expression in both the skin and draining lymph nodes. In comparison with intramuscular injection, the overall antigen expression determined at the site of administration and draining lymph nodes was 10-fold lower upon tattoo injection. Delivery of SFV particles encoding the E6 and E7 antigens of human papillomavirus type 16 (SFVeE6,7 via tattooing resulted in HPV-specific cytotoxic T cells and in vivo therapeutic antitumor response. Strikingly, despite the observed lower overall transgene expression, SFVeE6,7 delivered via tattoo injection resulted in higher or equal levels of immune responses as compared to intramuscular injection. The intrinsic immunogenic potential of tattooing provides a benefit for immunotherapy based on an alphavirus.
Ip, Peng Peng; Boerma, Annemarie; Regts, Joke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Wilschut, Jan; Nijman, Hans W; Daemen, Toos
An absolute prerequisite for a therapeutic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the potency to induce HCV-specific vigorous and broad-spectrum T-cell responses. Here, we generated three HCV vaccines based on a recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV) vector expressing all- or a part of the conserved nonstructural proteins (nsPs) of HCV. We demonstrated that an rSFV vector was able to encode a transgene as large as 6.1 kb without affecting its vaccine immunogenicity. Prime-boost immunizations of mice with rSFV expressing all nsPs induced strong and long-lasting NS3-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. The strength and functional heterogeneity of the T-cell response was similar to that induced with rSFV expressing only NS3/4A. Furthermore this leads to a significant growth delay and negative selection of HCV-expressing EL4 tumors in an in vivo mouse model. In general, as broad-spectrum T-cell responses are only seen in patients with resolved HCV infection, this rSFV-based vector, which expresses all nsPs, inducing robust T-cell activity has a potential for the treatment of HCV infections. PMID:24370701
Kohlmann, Rebekka; Schwannecke, Sarah; Tippler, Bettina; Ternette, Nicola; Temchura, Vladimir V.; Tenbusch, Matthias; Überla, Klaus; Grunwald, Thomas
Adenoviral vectors (AdV) have received considerable attention for vaccine development because of their high immunogenicity and efficacy. In previous studies, it was shown that DNA immunization of mice with codon-optimized expression plasmids encoding the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV F) resulted in enhanced protection against RSV challenge compared to immunization with plasmids carrying the wild-type cDNA sequence of RSV F. In this study, we constructed AdV carrying the codon-optimized full-length RSV F gene (AdV-F) or the soluble form of the RSV F gene (AdV-Fsol). BALB/c mice were immunized twice with AdV-F or AdV-Fsol and challenged with RSV intranasally. Substantial levels of antibody to RSV F were induced by both AdV vaccines, with peak neutralizing-antibody titers of 1:900. Consistently, the viral loads in lung homogenates and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were significantly reduced by a factor of more than 60,000. The protection against viral challenge could be measured even 8 months after the booster immunization. AdV-F and AdV-Fsol induced similar levels of immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Therefore, these results encourage further development of AdV vaccines against RSV infection in humans. PMID:19776123
Kohlmann, Rebekka; Schwannecke, Sarah; Tippler, Bettina; Ternette, Nicola; Temchura, Vladimir V; Tenbusch, Matthias; Uberla, Klaus; Grunwald, Thomas
Adenoviral vectors (AdV) have received considerable attention for vaccine development because of their high immunogenicity and efficacy. In previous studies, it was shown that DNA immunization of mice with codon-optimized expression plasmids encoding the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV F) resulted in enhanced protection against RSV challenge compared to immunization with plasmids carrying the wild-type cDNA sequence of RSV F. In this study, we constructed AdV carrying the codon-optimized full-length RSV F gene (AdV-F) or the soluble form of the RSV F gene (AdV-Fsol). BALB/c mice were immunized twice with AdV-F or AdV-Fsol and challenged with RSV intranasally. Substantial levels of antibody to RSV F were induced by both AdV vaccines, with peak neutralizing-antibody titers of 1:900. Consistently, the viral loads in lung homogenates and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were significantly reduced by a factor of more than 60,000. The protection against viral challenge could be measured even 8 months after the booster immunization. AdV-F and AdV-Fsol induced similar levels of immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Therefore, these results encourage further development of AdV vaccines against RSV infection in humans.
Rashidian, Samira; Teimourpour, Roghayeh; Meshkat, Zahra
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as a major cause of death. Construction of a new vaccine against tuberculosis is an effective way to control it. Several vaccines against this disease have been developed. The aim of the present study was to cloning of tb10.4 gene in pcDNA3.1(+) plasmid and evaluation of its expression in eukaryotic cells. Firstly, tb10.4 fragment was amplified by PCR and the PCR product was digested with restriction enzymes. Next, it was cloned into pcDNA3.1(+) plasmid. Following that, pcDNA3.1(+)/tb10.4 recombinant plasmid was transfected into eukaryotic cells. 5700 bp band for pcDNA3.1(+)/tb10.4 recombinant plasmid and 297 bp fragment for tb10.4 were observed. Cloning and transfection were successful. Successful cloning provides a basis for the development of new DNA vaccines against tuberculosis.
vaccination: an update. Methods Mol Med 2003;87:377–90. 14. Ambrosini G, Adida C, Altieri DC. A novel anti- apoptosis gene, survivin, expressed in cancer...endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999;264:781–8. 26. O’Connor DS, Schechner JS, Adida C, et al. Control of apoptosis during angiogenesis by...minigene DNA vaccine protects mice from tumors of different origins by inducing a T cell-mediated suppression of tumor angiogenesis. From the Department of
Full Text Available Currently marketed vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV based on the small (S hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg fail to induce a protective immune response in about 10% of vaccinees. DNA vaccination and the inclusion of PreS1 and PreS2 domains of HBsAg have been reported to represent feasible strategies to improve the efficacy of HBV vaccines. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity of SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding the S or the large (L protein of HBsAg in mice and pigs. In both animal models, vectors encoding the secretion-competent S protein induced stronger humoral responses than vectors encoding the L protein, which was shown to be retained mainly intracellularly despite the presence of a heterologous secretion signal. In pigs, SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding the S protein elicited an immune response of the same magnitude as the licensed protein vaccine Engerix-B, with S protein-specific antibody levels significantly higher than those considered protective in humans, and lasting for at least six months after the third immunization. Thus, our results provide not only the proof of concept for the SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vector approach but also confirm that with a cationic-lipid formulation, a DNA vaccine at a relatively low dose can elicit an immune response similar to a human dose of an aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted protein vaccine in large animals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination with naked DNA encoding antigen induces cellular and humoral immunity characterized by the activation of specific Th1 cells. Objective To evaluate the effects of vaccination with mixed naked DNA plasmids encoding Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 3, Der f 1, Der f 2, and Der f 3, the major house dust mite allergens on the allergic inflammation to the whole house dust mites (HDM crude extract. Methods Three hundred micrograms of these gene mixtures were injected into muscle of BALB/c mice. Control mice were injected with the pcDNA 3.1 blank vector. After 3 weeks, the mice were actively sensitized and inhaled with the whole house dust mite extract intranasally. Results The vaccinated mice showed a significantly decreased synthesis of total and HDM-specific IgE compared with controls. Analysis of the cytokine profile of lymphocytes after challenge with HDM crude extract revealed that mRNA expression of interferon-γ was higher in the vaccinated mice than in the controls. Reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and the prominent infiltration of CD8+ T cells were observed in histology of lung tissue from the vaccinated mice. Conclusion Vaccination with DNA encoding the major house dust mite allergens provides a promising approach for treating allergic responses to whole house dust mite allergens.
Garg, Abhishek D; Vandenberk, Lien; Koks, Carolien; Verschuere, Tina; Boon, Louis; Van Gool, Stefaan W; Agostinis, Patrizia
The promise of dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy has been established by two decades of translational research. Of the four malignancies most targeted with clinical DC immunotherapy, high-grade glioma (HGG) has shown the highest susceptibility. HGG-induced immunosuppression is a roadblock to immunotherapy, but may be overcome by the application of T helper 1 (T(H)1) immunity-biased, next-generation, DC immunotherapy. To this end, we combined DC immunotherapy with immunogenic cell death (ICD; a modality shown to induce T(H)1 immunity) induced by hypericin-based photodynamic therapy. In an orthotopic HGG mouse model involving prophylactic/curative setups, both biologically and clinically relevant versions of ICD-based DC vaccines provided strong anti-HGG survival benefit. We found that the ability of DC vaccines to elicit HGG rejection was significantly blunted if cancer cell-associated reactive oxygen species and emanating danger signals were blocked either singly or concomitantly, showing hierarchical effect on immunogenicity, or if DCs, DC-associated MyD88 signal, or the adaptive immune system (especially CD8(+) T cells) were depleted. In a curative setting, ICD-based DC vaccines synergized with standard-of-care chemotherapy (temozolomide) to increase survival of HGG-bearing mice by ~300%, resulting in ~50% long-term survivors. Additionally, DC vaccines also induced an immunostimulatory shift in the brain immune contexture from regulatory T cells to T(H)1/cytotoxic T lymphocyte/T(H)17 cells. Analysis of the The Cancer Genome Atlas glioblastoma cohort confirmed that increased intratumor prevalence of T(H)1/cytotoxic T lymphocyte/T(H)17 cells linked genetic signatures was associated with good patient prognosis. Therefore, pending final preclinical checks, ICD-based vaccines can be clinically translated for glioma treatment. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Susan Pereira Ribeiro
Full Text Available Current HIV vaccine approaches are focused on immunogens encoding whole HIV antigenic proteins that mainly elicit cytotoxic CD8+ responses. Mounting evidence points toward a critical role for CD4+ T cells in the control of immunodeficiency virus replication, probably due to cognate help. Vaccine-induced CD4+ T cell responses might, therefore, have a protective effect in HIV replication. In addition, successful vaccines may have to elicit responses to multiple epitopes in a high proportion of vaccinees, to match the highly variable circulating strains of HIV. Using rational vaccine design, we developed a DNA vaccine encoding 18 algorithm-selected conserved, "promiscuous" (multiple HLA-DR-binding B-subtype HIV CD4 epitopes - previously found to be frequently recognized by HIV-infected patients. We assessed the ability of the vaccine to induce broad T cell responses in the context of multiple HLA class II molecules using different strains of HLA class II- transgenic mice (-DR2, -DR4, -DQ6 and -DQ8. Mice displayed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses of significant breadth and magnitude, and 16 out of the 18 encoded epitopes were recognized. By virtue of inducing broad responses against conserved CD4+ T cell epitopes that can be recognized in the context of widely diverse, common HLA class II alleles, this vaccine concept may cope both with HIV genetic variability and increased population coverage. The vaccine may thus be a source of cognate help for HIV-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by conventional immunogens, in a wide proportion of vaccinees.
Yang, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zou, Yang; Chen, Kai; Liu, Qing; Wang, Jin-Lei; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhao, Guang-Hui
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular protozoan, which infects most of the warm-blooded animals, causing serious public health problems and enormous economic losses worldwide. The rhoptry effector protein 54 (ROP54) has been indicated as a virulence factor that promotes Toxoplasma infection by modulating GBP2 loading onto parasite-containing vacuoles, which can modulate some aspects of the host immune response. In order to evaluate the immuno-protective value of ROP54, we constructed a eukaryotic recombinant plasmid expressing T. gondii ROP54 and intramuscularly immunized Kunming mice with this recombinant plasmid against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. All mice immunized with pVAX-ROP54 elicited a high level of specific antibody responses, a significant increase of lymphocyte proliferation, and a significant level of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12p70), in addition to an increased production of Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). These results demonstrated that pVAX-ROP54 induced significant cellular and humoral (Th1/Th2) immune responses, which extended the survival time (13.0±1.15days for pVAX-ROP54 vs 6.7±0.48days for pVAX I, 6.8±0.42days for PBS and 6.5±0.53 for blank control) and significantly reduced cyst burden (35.9% for pVAX-ROP54, 1% for pVAX I and 2% for PBS, compared with blank control) of immunized mice. These results indicate that the recombinant ROP54 plasmid can provide partial protection and might be a potential vaccine candidate against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
R. Cornelissen (Robin); J.P.J.J. Hegmans (Joost); A.W.P.M. Maat (Alex); M.E.H. Lambers (Margaretha); K. Bezemer (Koen); R.W. Hendriks (Rudi); H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk); J.G.J.V. Aerts (Joachim)
markdownabstract__Rationale:__ We demonstrated before that autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell-based immunotherapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma is feasible, well-tolerated, and capable of inducing immunological responses against tumors. In our murine model we found that
Kučera, A.; Pýcha, K.; Pajer, Petr; Špíšek, R.; Škába, R.
Roč. 55, č. 4 (2009), s. 119-125 ISSN 0015-5500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : dendritic cells * immunotherapy * cancer immunotherapy * chemotherapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2009
Fomsgaard, A; Nielsen, H V; Kirkby, N
degree of controllability. We have examined the induction of murine CTL's by this approach using DNA plasmid minigene vaccines encoding known mouse K(k) minimal CTL epitopes (8 amino acids) from the influenza A virus hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein. We here report that such an approach is feasible...
Fan, Mingwen; Bian, Zhuan; Peng, Zhixiang; Guo, Jihua; Jia, Rong; Chen, Zhi
Protein of Streptococcus mutans is considered as one of the virulence factors due to its ability to mediate the initial attachment of Streptococcus mutans to tooth surface. In this study, an anticaries DNA vaccine pCIA-P was used to immunize rats. The expression of PAc in different tissues in vivo, specific immune response and protection effects against dental caries were observed. Plasmid pCIA-P was injected into rats by two different routs: intramuscular injection (i.m.) and targeted salivary gland immunization (TSG). Immunohistochemistry technique was used to detect the expression of PAc. Gnotobiotic rats were vaccinated with pCIA-P by three different approaches: TSG, intramuscular injection and buccal mucosal injection (i.o.). The specific immune responses were evaluated by ELISA and their anticaries effects were evaluated by Keyes caries scores. PAc was expressed in the sarcoplasm and sarcolemma of muscle fibers and submandibular glands, especially strongly positive in duct regions. The levels of serum specific anti-PAc IgG and salivary specific anti-PAc IgA in TSG immunization and buccal mucosal immunization group were significantly higher than those of other groups. The Keyes caries scores of those two groups were significantly lower than those of other groups. The plasmid pCIA-P could provoke specific immune responses as a novel immunogen. Mucosal immunization with pCIA-P appears to be an effective genetic immunization method against dental caries.
Bassi, Maria R; Larsen, Mads A B; Kongsgaard, Michael; Rasmussen, Michael; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Thomsen, Allan R; Christensen, Jan P
The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should be developed. Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) have been widely evaluated as recombinant vectors, particularly in the context of prophylactic vaccination against viral infections in which induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity is crucial, but potent antibody responses may also be elicited using these vectors. In this study, we present two adenobased vectors targeting non-structural and structural YF antigens and characterize their immunological properties. We report that a single immunization with an Ad-vector encoding the non-structural protein 3 from YF-17D could elicit a strong CD8+ T-cell response, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both components were shown to be important for protection thus mimicking the situation recently uncovered in YF-17D vaccinated mice. Considering that Ad-vectors are very safe, easy to produce and highly immunogenic in humans, our data indicate that a replication deficient adenovector-based YF vaccine may represent a safe and efficient alternative to the classical live attenuated YF vaccine and should be further tested.
Arun T Kamath
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the search for more potent and safer tuberculosis vaccines, CAF01 was identified as a remarkable formulation. Based on cationic liposomes and including a synthetic mycobacterial glycolipid as TLR-independent immunomodulator, it induces strong and protective T helper-1 and T helper-17 adult murine responses to Ag85B-ESAT-6, a major mycobacterial fusion protein. Here, we assessed whether these properties extend to early life and how CAF01 mediates its adjuvant properties in vivo. METHODS/FINDINGS: Following adult or neonatal murine immunization, Ag85B-ESAT-6/CAF01 similarly reduced the post-challenge bacterial growth of M. bovis BCG, whereas no protection was observed using Alum as control. This protection was mediated by the induction of similarly strong Th1 and Th17 responses in both age groups. Multifunctional Th1 cells were already elicited after a single vaccine dose and persisted at high levels for at least 6 months even after neonatal priming. Unexpectedly, this potent adjuvanticity was not mediated by a massive targeting/activation of dendritic cells: in contrast, very few DCs in the draining lymph nodes were bearing the labeled antigen/adjuvant. The increased expression of the CD40 and CD86 activation markers was restricted to the minute portion of adjuvant-bearing DCs. However, vaccine-associated activated DCs were recovered several days after immunization. CONCLUSION: The potent adult and neonatal adjuvanticity of CAF01 is associated in vivo with an exquisite but prolonged DC uptake and activation, fulfilling the preclinical requirements for novel tuberculosis vaccines to be used in early life.
Wang, Wen-Wen; Huang, Ren-Wei; Hu, Yuan; Li, Xu-Dong; Wang, Dong-Ning; He, Yi; Liu, Jia-Jun
Specific immunological effect mediated by T lymphocytes plays an important role in treating chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). Dendritic cells (DCs)-based immunotherapy has become popular in treating tumors. This study was to construct DC vaccines by transducing with replication-defective recombinant adenoviruses expressing bcr/abl fusion gene of CML, observe the lethal effects of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) triggered by genetically modified DC vaccines expressing bcr/abl fusion gene against K562 cells in vitro. DNA fragment of bcr/abl fusion gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to construct a recombinant adenovirus vector and produce recombinant adenoviruses. DCs were induced from peripheral blood monocytes in vitro, and transfected with recombinant adenoviruses or pulsed with peptide to induce specific CTLs. The lethal effect of CTLs against leukemic K562 cells in vitro was observed. We successfully constructed the replication-defective recombinant adenoviral vector expressing bcr/abl fusion gene. The recombinant adenoviruses we produced had a high virus titer of 2.0 x 10(10) pfu/mL. Transfection efficiency of DCs in vitro was 50%-60%. DC vaccines expressing bcr/abl fusion gene were successfully prepared and used to induce specific CTLs. With effector:target cell ratios of 40:1 and 20:1, the killing rates of K562 cells by CTLs were (47.6+/-4.7)% and (47.5+/-1.6)% in genetically modified DCs group, (25.8+/-4.4)% and (24.6+/-6.3)% in peptide-pulsed DCs group, and were (5.7+/-1.3)% and (4.5+/-1.6)% in control DCs group. The differences between every two groups were significant (all P<0.05). Genetically modified DC vaccine expressing bcr/abl fusion gene has a stronger contribution than peptide-pulsed DCs in triggering specific CTLs against K562 cells.
Schnee, Margit; Vogel, Annette B; Voss, Daniel; Petsch, Benjamin; Baumhof, Patrick; Kramps, Thomas; Stitz, Lothar
Rabies is a zoonotic infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In unvaccinated or untreated subjects, rabies virus infection causes severe neurological symptoms and is invariably fatal. Despite the long-standing existence of effective vaccines, vaccine availability remains insufficient, with high numbers of fatal infections mostly in developing countries. Nucleic acid based vaccines have proven convincingly as a new technology for the fast development of vaccines against newly emerging pathogens, diseases where no vaccine exists or for replacing already existing vaccines. We used an optimized non-replicating rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) encoding messenger RNA (mRNA) to induce potent neutralizing antibodies (VN titers) in mice and domestic pigs. Functional antibody titers were followed in mice for up to one year and titers remained stable for the entire observation period in all dose groups. T cell analysis revealed the induction of both, specific CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells by RABV-G mRNA, with the induced CD4+ T cells being higher than those induced by a licensed vaccine. Notably, RABV-G mRNA vaccinated mice were protected against lethal intracerebral challenge infection. Inhibition of viral replication by vaccination was verified by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cells are crucial for the generation of neutralizing antibodies. In domestic pigs we were able to induce VN titers that correlate with protection in adult and newborn pigs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a non-replicating mRNA rabies vaccine in small and large animals and highlights the promises of mRNA vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases.
Full Text Available Rabies is a zoonotic infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS. In unvaccinated or untreated subjects, rabies virus infection causes severe neurological symptoms and is invariably fatal. Despite the long-standing existence of effective vaccines, vaccine availability remains insufficient, with high numbers of fatal infections mostly in developing countries. Nucleic acid based vaccines have proven convincingly as a new technology for the fast development of vaccines against newly emerging pathogens, diseases where no vaccine exists or for replacing already existing vaccines. We used an optimized non-replicating rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G encoding messenger RNA (mRNA to induce potent neutralizing antibodies (VN titers in mice and domestic pigs. Functional antibody titers were followed in mice for up to one year and titers remained stable for the entire observation period in all dose groups. T cell analysis revealed the induction of both, specific CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells by RABV-G mRNA, with the induced CD4+ T cells being higher than those induced by a licensed vaccine. Notably, RABV-G mRNA vaccinated mice were protected against lethal intracerebral challenge infection. Inhibition of viral replication by vaccination was verified by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CD4+ T cells are crucial for the generation of neutralizing antibodies. In domestic pigs we were able to induce VN titers that correlate with protection in adult and newborn pigs. This study demonstrates the feasibility of a non-replicating mRNA rabies vaccine in small and large animals and highlights the promises of mRNA vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases.
Watkins, Craig; Hopkins, John; Harkiss, Gordon
Dendritic cells (DC) play an integral role in plasmid DNA vaccination. However, the interaction between plasmid DNA and DC in vivo is incompletely understood. In this report, we utilise the sheep pseudoafferent cannulation model to examine the interaction between plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (pEGFP) and afferent lymph DC (ALDC) following gene gun administration. The results show that peaks of fluorescent ALDC tended to appear around days 1-4 and 9-13, then erratical...
Full Text Available In order to explore the high performance bivalent DNA-based vaccine against schistosomes, SjFABP and Sj26GST were selected and used to construct a vaccine. Two strategies were used to construct the bivalent DNA vaccine. In the first strategy, a plasmid encoding antigen in the secreted form was used, while in the other, a plasmid encoding a truncated form of SjFABP and Sj26GST targeted to the cell surface was used. Various parameters, including antibody and cytokine response, proliferation, histopathological examination, and characterization of T cell subsets were used to evaluate the type of immune response and the level of protection against challenge infection. Injection with secreted pIRES-sjFABP-sj26GST significantly increased the levels of antibody, splenocyte proliferation, and production of IFN-γ, compared with membrane-anchored groups. Analysis of splenic T cell subsets showed that the secreted vaccine significantly increased the percentage of CD3(+CD4(+ and CD3(+CD8(+ T cells. Liver immunopathology (size of liver granulomas was significantly reduced in the secreted group compared with the membrane-anchored groups. Moreover, challenge experiments showed that the worm and egg burdens were significantly reduced in animals immunized with recombinant vaccines. Most importantly, secreted Sj26GST-SjFABP markedly enhanced protection, by reducing worm and egg burdens by 31.8% and 24.78%, respectively, while the membrane-anchored group decreased worm and egg burdens by 24.80% and 18.80%, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that the secretory vaccine is more promising than the membrane-anchored vaccine, and provides support for the development and application of this vaccine.
Construction of four double gene substitution human x bovine rotavirus reassortant vaccine candidates: each bears two outer capsid human rotavirus genes, one encoding P serotype 1A and the other encoding G serotype 1, 2, 3, or 4 specificity.
Hoshino, Y; Jones, R W; Chanock, R M; Kapikian, A Z
Previously, four human x bovine rotavirus reassortant candidate vaccines, each of which derived ten genes from bovine rotavirus UK strain and only the outer capsid protein VP7-gene from human rotavirus strain D (G serotype 1), DS-1 (G serotype 2), P (G serotype 3), or ST3 (G serotype 4), were developed [Midthun et al., (1985): Journal of Virology 53:949-954; (1986): Journal of Clinical Microbiology 24:822-826]. Such human x bovine reassortant vaccines should theoretically provide antigenic coverage for the four epidemiologically most important VP7(G) serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4. In an attempt to increase the antigenicity of VP7-based human x animal reassortant rotavirus vaccines which derive a single VP7-encoding gene from the human strain and the remaining ten genes from the animal strain, we generated double gene substitution reassortants. This was done by incorporating another protective antigen (VP4) of an epidemiologically important human rotavirus by crossing human rotavirus Wa strain (P serotype 1A), with each of the human x bovine single VP7-gene substitution rotavirus reassortants. In this way four separate double gene substitution rotavirus reassortants were generated. Each of these reassortants bears the VP4-encoding gene from human rotavirus Wa strain, the VP7-encoding gene from human rotavirus strain D, DS-1, P, or ST3, and the remaining nine genes from bovine rotavirus strain UK. The safety, antigenicity, and protective efficacy of individual components as well as combinations of strains are currently under evaluation.
Jawed, Junaid Jibran; Majumder, Saikat; Bandyopadhyay, Syamdas; Biswas, Satabdi; Parveen, Shabina; Majumdar, Subrata
Emergence of drug resistance during visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major obstacle imposed during successful therapy. An effective vaccine strategy against this disease is therefore necessary. Our present study exploited the SLA (soluble leishmanial antigen) and PGN (peptidoglycan) stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) as a suitable vaccine candidate during experimental VL. SLA-PGN-stimulated DCs showed a significant decrease in hepatic and splenic parasite burden, which were associated with increased production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-17. Elevated level of IL-17 was accompanied with the generation of more Th17 cells. Further studies on DC provided the evidence that these SLA-PGN-stimulated DCs played an important role in providing necessary cytokines such as IL-6, IL-23 and TGF-β for the generation of Th17 cells. Interestingly, inhibition of protein kinase C-β (PKCβ) in DCs led to decreased production of Th17 polarizing cytokines, causing reduction of the Th17 population size. Altogether, our finding highlighted the important role of DC-based PKCβ in regulation of the function and generation of Th17 cells. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Uslu, Ugur; Schliep, Stefan; Schliep, Klaus; Erdmann, Michael; Koch, Hans-Uwe; Parsch, Hans; Rosenheinrich, Stina; Anzengruber, Doris; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin; Schuler, Gerold; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice
In patients with melanoma, early dissemination via lymphatic and hematogenous routes is frequently seen. Thus, besides clinical follow-up examination and imaging, reliable melanoma-specific serological tumor markers are needed. We retrospectively compared two serum markers for melanoma, S100 and melanoma-inhibitory activity (MIA), for monitoring of patients with metastatic melanoma under either adjuvant or therapeutic vaccination immunotherapy with dendritic cells (DC). Serum was obtained from a total of 100 patients (28 patients in stage III and 72 patients in stage IV, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 2002) at regular intervals during therapy, accompanied by follow-up imaging. When relapse was detected, both markers often remained within normal range. In contrast, in patients with metastatic measurable disease receiving therapeutic and not adjuvant DC vaccination, an increase of both markers was a strong indicator for disease progression. When comparing both markers in the whole study population, MIA showed a superior sensitivity to detect disease progression. S100 and MIA are highly sensitive tumor markers for monitoring of patients with melanoma with current metastases, but less sensitive for monitoring of tumor-free patients. In the current study, MIA had a slightly superior sensitivity to detect progressive disease compared to S100 and seems to be more useful in monitoring of patients with metastatic melanoma receiving immunotherapy. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose. This retrospective study determined the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH skin test and safety of dendritic cell (DC vaccine and cytokine-induced killer (CIK cell immunotherapy and the survival compared to chemotherapy in 239 colorectal cancer (CRC patients. Methods. DTH and safety of the immunotherapy were recorded. The overall survival (OS and disease free survival curves were compared according to the immunotherapy and/or chemotherapy received with Kaplan-Meier estimates. Results. Of the 70 patients who received immunotherapy, 62.86% had a positive DTH skin test, 38.57% developed fever, 47.14% developed insomnia, 38.57% developed anorexia, 4.29% developed joint soreness, and 11.43% developed skin rash. For 204 resectable CRC patients, median survival time (MST (198.00 days was significantly longer in patients with immunotherapy plus chemotherapy than with chemotherapy alone (106.00 days (P=0.02. For 35 patients with unresectable or postsurgery relapsed CRC and who were confirmed to be dead, no statistical difference was observed in the MST between the patients treated with immunotherapy and with chemotherapy (P=0.41. MST in the patients treated with chemotherapy plus immunotherapy was 154 days longer than that of patients treated with chemotherapy alone (P=0.41. Conclusions. DC vaccination and CIK immunotherapy did not cause severe adverse effects, induce immune response against CRC, and prolong OS.
of STEBVax, 143 g of alhydrogel ( Alh ), and 0.1 g, 0.5 g, or 5 g of IL-15/mouse in a 200-l volume of PBS. The ratio of vaccine to alhydrogel was 1...Coadministration of IL-15 with STEBVax and alhydrogel ( Alh ) increased the protection of mice from lethal SEB toxin chal- lenge. (A) BALB/c mice were vaccinated with
cellular vaccine product. 15. SUBJECT TERMS dendritic cell vaccine, dendritic cells electroporated with RNA, immune checkpoint blockade, local CTLA-4...dendritic cell vaccine, dendritic cells electroporated with RNA, immune checkpoint blockade, local CTLA4 modulation, prostate cancer...7: Monitor tumor burden (time to palpable tumor) and monitor survival. Harvest prostate complex/tumor and analyze tumor weight , tumor grade
Pedersen, Anders Elm; Thorn, M; Gad, M
Dendritic cells (DC) are promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. However, it is not known whether in vitro-generated monocyte-derived DC from cancer patients are altered compared with DC from healthy donors. In a clinical phase I/II study, monocyte-derived DC were generated in vitro...... utilizing granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and rh-interleukin-4 (IL-4) and used for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we tested the effect of various maturation cocktails and performed a comparative evaluation of the DC phenotype and functional characteristics. Polyriboinosinic...
Escalona, Emilia; Sáez, Darwin; Oñate, Angel
Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease affecting several mammalian species that is transmitted to humans by direct or indirect contact with infected animals or their products. In cattle, brucellosis is almost invariably caused by Brucella abortus. Live, attenuated Brucella vaccines are commonly used to prevent illness in cattle, but can cause abortions in pregnant animals. It is, therefore, desirable to design an effective and safer vaccine against Brucella. We have used specific Brucella antigens that induce immunity and protection against B. abortus. A novel recombinant multi-epitope DNA vaccine specific for brucellosis was developed. To design the vaccine construct, we employed bioinformatics tools to predict epitopes present in Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and in the open reading frames of the genomic island-3 (BAB1_0260, BAB1_0270, BAB1_0273, and BAB1_0278) of Brucella. We successfully designed a multi-epitope DNA plasmid vaccine chimera that encodes and expresses 21 epitopes. This DNA vaccine induced a specific humoral and cellular immune response in BALB/c mice. It induced a typical T-helper 1 response, eliciting production of immunoglobulin G2a and IFN-γ particularly associated with the Th1 cell subset of CD4+ T cells. The production of IL-4, an indicator of Th2 activation, was not detected in splenocytes. Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that the vaccine induced a predominantly Th1 response. The vaccine induced a statistically significant level of protection in BALB/c mice when challenged with B. abortus 2308. This is the first use of an in silico strategy to a design a multi-epitope DNA vaccine against B. abortus.
Escalona, Emilia; Sáez, Darwin; Oñate, Angel
Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease affecting several mammalian species that is transmitted to humans by direct or indirect contact with infected animals or their products. In cattle, brucellosis is almost invariably caused by Brucella abortus. Live, attenuated Brucella vaccines are commonly used to prevent illness in cattle, but can cause abortions in pregnant animals. It is, therefore, desirable to design an effective and safer vaccine against Brucella. We have used specific Brucella antigens that induce immunity and protection against B. abortus. A novel recombinant multi-epitope DNA vaccine specific for brucellosis was developed. To design the vaccine construct, we employed bioinformatics tools to predict epitopes present in Cu–Zn superoxide dismutase and in the open reading frames of the genomic island-3 (BAB1_0260, BAB1_0270, BAB1_0273, and BAB1_0278) of Brucella. We successfully designed a multi-epitope DNA plasmid vaccine chimera that encodes and expresses 21 epitopes. This DNA vaccine induced a specific humoral and cellular immune response in BALB/c mice. It induced a typical T-helper 1 response, eliciting production of immunoglobulin G2a and IFN-γ particularly associated with the Th1 cell subset of CD4+ T cells. The production of IL-4, an indicator of Th2 activation, was not detected in splenocytes. Therefore, it is reasonable to suggest that the vaccine induced a predominantly Th1 response. The vaccine induced a statistically significant level of protection in BALB/c mice when challenged with B. abortus 2308. This is the first use of an in silico strategy to a design a multi-epitope DNA vaccine against B. abortus. PMID:28232837
Ching, Xiao Teng; Fong, Mun Yik; Lau, Yee Ling
AbstractToxoplasma gondii infects a broad range of warm-blooded hosts, including humans. Important clinical manifestations include encephalitis in immunocompromised patients as well as miscarriage and fetal damage during early pregnancy. Toxoplasma gondii dense granule antigen 2 and 5 (GRA2 and GRA5) are essential for parasitophorous vacuole development of the parasite. To evaluate the potential of GRA2 and GRA5 as recombinant DNA vaccine candidates, these antigens were cloned into eukaryotic expression vector (pcDNA 3.1C) and evaluated in vaccination experiments. Recombinant DNA vaccines constructed with genes encoding GRAs were validated in Chinese hamster ovary cells before evaluation using lethal challenge of the virulent T. gondii RH strain in BALB/c mice. The DNA vaccines of pcGRA2 and pcGRA5 elicited cellular-mediated immune response with significantly higher levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, and IL-10 (P < 0.05) compared with controls. A mixed T-helper cell 1 (Th1)/Th2 response was associated with slightly prolonged survival. These findings provide evidence that DNA vaccination with GRA2 and GRA5 is associated with Th1-like cell-mediated immune responses. It will be worthwhile to construct recombinant multiantigen combining full-length GRA2 or/and GRA5 with various antigenic proteins such as the surface antigens and rhoptry antigens to improve vaccination efficacy.
Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Martinenaite, Evelina; Hansen, Morten
-derived epitope. We incubated a PD-L1-derived peptide epitope (19 amino acids long) or a control peptide (an irrelevant HIV epitope) with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with malignant melanoma who had received a DC-based vaccine. We observed a significantly higher number of T cells...
Met, Ozcan; Wang, Mingjun; Pedersen, Anders E
tumor cells, and later on these mice even rejected wild-type EL-4 tumor cells indicating that tumor epitope spreading takes place during the process of vaccination-induced E.G7-OVA rejection. In agreement with these observations, mice having rejected E.G7-OVA tumors showed long lasting CTL memory...
Azevedo, de Marcela; Meijerink, Marjolein; Taverne, Nico; Pereira, Vanessa Bastos; LeBlanc, Jean Guy; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson; Langella, Philippe; Wells, J.M.; Chatel, Jean Marc
Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis), a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) bacterium has recently been investigated as a mucosal delivery vehicle for DNA vaccines. Because of its GRAS status, L. lactis represents an attractive alternative to attenuated pathogens. Previous studies showed that eukaryotic
Weinert, Brian T.; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.; Milano, Francesca; Pedersen, Ayako W.; Claesson, Mogens H.; Zocca, Mai-Britt
Tumor antigens are the primary target of therapeutic cancer vaccines. We set out to define and compare the expression pattern of tumor antigen genes in esophagus carcinoma biopsies and in an allogeneic tumor lysate-based cancer vaccine, MelCancerVac. Cells used for vaccine production were treated
Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Containing the F Protein of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Confers Protection without Pulmonary Disease by Modulating Specific Subsets of Dendritic Cells and Effector T Cells.
Kim, Ki-Hye; Lee, Young-Tae; Hwang, Hye Suk; Kwon, Young-Man; Kim, Min-Chul; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Jong Seok; Lee, Youri; Kang, Sang-Moo
There is no licensed vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) since the failure of formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) due to its vaccine-enhanced disease. We investigated immune correlates conferring protection without causing disease after intranasal immunization with virus-like particle vaccine containing the RSV fusion protein (F VLP) in comparison to FI-RSV and live RSV. Upon RSV challenge, FI-RSV immune mice showed severe weight loss, eosinophilia, and histopathology, and RSV reinfection also caused substantial RSV disease despite their viral clearance. In contrast, F VLP immune mice showed least weight loss and no sign of histopathology and eosinophilia. High levels of interleukin-4-positive (IL-4(+)) and tumor necrosis factor alpha-positive (TNF-α(+)) CD4(+) T cells were found in FI-RSV immune mice, whereas gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ(+)) and TNF-α(+) CD4(+) T cells were predominantly detected in live RSV-infected mice. More importantly, in contrast to FI-RSV and live RSV that induced higher levels of CD11b(+) dendritic cells, F VLP immunization induced CD8α(+) and CD103(+) dendritic cells, as well as F-specific IFN-γ(+) and TNF-α(+) CD8(+) T cells. These results suggest that F VLP can induce protection without causing pulmonary RSV disease by inducing RSV neutralizing antibodies, as well as modulating specific subsets of dendritic cells and CD8 T cell immunity. It has been a difficult challenge to develop an effective and safe vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a leading cause of respiratory disease. Immune correlates conferring protection but preventing vaccine-enhanced disease remain poorly understood. RSV F virus-like particle (VLP) would be an efficient vaccine platform conferring protection. Here, we investigated the protective immune correlates without causing disease after intranasal immunization with RSV F VLP in comparison to FI-RSV and live RSV. In addition to inducing RSV neutralizing antibodies responsible for
Saberi, Shahram; Stauffer, Jennifer E; Jiang, Jie; Garcia, Sandra Diaz; Taylor, Amy E; Schulte, Derek; Ohkubo, Takuya; Schloffman, Cheyenne L; Maldonado, Marcus; Baughn, Michael; Rodriguez, Maria J; Pizzo, Don; Cleveland, Don; Ravits, John
Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in C9orf72 are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9 ALS). The main hypothesized pathogenic mechanisms are C9orf72 haploinsufficiency and/or toxicity from one or more of bi-directionally transcribed repeat RNAs and their dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) poly-GP, poly-GA, poly-GR, poly-PR and poly-PA. Recently, nuclear import and/or export defects especially caused by arginine-containing poly-GR or poly-PR have been proposed as significant contributors to pathogenesis based on disease models. We quantitatively studied and compared DPRs, nuclear pore proteins and C9orf72 protein in clinically related and clinically unrelated regions of the central nervous system, and compared them to phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43), the hallmark protein of ALS. Of the five DPRs, only poly-GR was significantly abundant in clinically related areas compared to unrelated areas (p sense-encoded poly-GR DPR was unique, and localized to dendrites and pTDP43 in motor regions of C9 ALS CNS. This is consistent with new emerging ideas about TDP-43 functions in dendrites.
Sagar, Divya; Masih, Shet; Schell, Todd; Jacobson, Steven; Comber, Joseph D; Philip, Ramila; Wigdahl, Brian; Jain, Pooja; Khan, Zafar K
Viral oncoprotein Tax plays key roles in transformation of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1)-infected T cells leading to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), and is the key antigen recognized during HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM). In HLA-A2+ asymptomatic carriers as well as ATL and HAM patients, Tax(11-19) epitope exhibits immunodominance. Here, we evaluate CD8 T-cell immune response against this epitope in the presence and absence of dendritic cells (DCs) given the recent encouraging observations made with Phase 1 DC-based vaccine trial for ATL. To facilitate these studies, we first generated an HLA-A2/DTR hybrid mouse strain carrying the HLA-A2.1 and CD11c-DTR genes. We then studied CD8 T-cell immune response against Tax(11-19) epitope delivered in the absence or presence of Freund's adjuvant and/or DCs. Overall results demonstrate that naturally presented Tax epitope could initiate an antigen-specific CD8T cell response in vivo but failed to do so upon DC depletion. Presence of adjuvant potentiated Tax(11-19)-specific response. Elevated serum IL-6 levels coincided with depletion of DCs whereas decreased TGF-β was associated with adjuvant use. Thus, Tax(11-19) epitope is a potential candidate for the DC-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine and the newly hybrid mouse strain could be used for investigating DC involvement in human class-I-restricted immune responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sagar, Divya; Masih, Shet; Schell, Todd; Jacobson, Steven; Comber, Joseph D.; Philip, Ramila; Wigdahl, Brian; Jain, Pooja; Khan, Zafar K.
Viral oncoprotein Tax plays key roles in transformation of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1)-infected T cells leading to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), and is the key antigen recognized during HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM). In HLA-A2+ asymptomatic carriers as well as ATL and HAM patients, Tax(11-19) epitope exhibits immunodominance. Here, we evaluate CD8 T-cell immune response against this epitope in the presence and absence of dendritic cells (DCs) given the recent encouraging observations made with Phase 1 DC-based vaccine trial for ATL. To facilitate these studies, we first generated an HLA-A2/DTR hybrid mouse strain carrying the HLA-A2.1 and CD11c-DTR genes. We then studied CD8 T-cell immune response against Tax(11-19) epitope delivered in the absence or presence of Freund’s adjuvant and/or DCs. Overall results demonstrate that naturally presented Tax epitope could initiate an antigen-specific CD8 T cell response in vivo but failed to do so upon DC depletion. Presence of adjuvant potentiated Tax(11-19)-specific response. Elevated serum IL-6 levels coincided with depletion of DCs whereas decreased TGF-β was associated with adjuvant use. Thus, Tax(11-19) epitope is a potential candidate for the DC-based anti-HTLV-1 vaccine and the newly hybrid mouse strain could be used for investigating DC involvement in human class-I-restricted immune responses. PMID:24739247
Full Text Available A dendritic cell (DC-based vaccine strategy could reduce the risk of recurrence and improve the survival of breast cancer patients. However, while therapy-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma cells can enhance maturation and antigen presentation of DCs, whether this effect occurs in breast cancer is currently unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of doxorubicin (ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 breast cancer cells on the activation of DCs. ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells could effectively induce immature DC (iDC maturation. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of DC maturity marker CD83 was 23.3 in the ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cell group compared with 8.5 in the MCF-7 cell group. The MFI of DC co-stimulatory marker CD86 and HLA-DR were also increased after iDCs were treated with ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the proliferating autologous T-lymphocytes increased from 14.2 to 40.3% after incubated with DCs induced by apoptotic MCF-7 cells. The secretion of interferon-γ by these T-lymphocytes was also increased. In addition, cell-cell interaction between apoptotic MCF-7 cells and iDCs, but not soluble factors released by apoptotic MCF-7 cells, was crucial for the maturation of iDCs. These findings constitute a novel in vitro DC-based vaccine strategy for the treatment of breast cancer by ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells.
Zheng, Jin [Department of Oncology, State Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Department of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine of Oncology, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Liu, Qiang [Department of Hematology, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Yang, Jiandong [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Ren, Qinyou [Department of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine of Oncology, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Cao, Wei [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Yang, Jingyue; Yu, Zhaocai [Department of Oncology, State Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Yu, Fang [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Wu, Yanlan [Department of Infectious Diseases, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Shi, Hengjun [Department of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine of Oncology, Tangdu Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Liu, Wenchao [Department of Oncology, State Key Discipline of Cell Biology, Xijing Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)
A dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine strategy could reduce the risk of recurrence and improve the survival of breast cancer patients. However, while therapy-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular and colorectal carcinoma cells can enhance maturation and antigen presentation of DCs, whether this effect occurs in breast cancer is currently unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of doxorubicin (ADM)-induced apoptotic MCF-7 breast cancer cells on the activation of DCs. ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells could effectively induce immature DC (iDC) maturation. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of DC maturity marker CD83 was 23.3 in the ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cell group compared with 8.5 in the MCF-7 cell group. The MFI of DC co-stimulatory marker CD86 and HLA-DR were also increased after iDCs were treated with ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the proliferating autologous T-lymphocytes increased from 14.2 to 40.3% after incubated with DCs induced by apoptotic MCF-7 cells. The secretion of interferon-γ by these T-lymphocytes was also increased. In addition, cell-cell interaction between apoptotic MCF-7 cells and iDCs, but not soluble factors released by apoptotic MCF-7 cells, was crucial for the maturation of iDCs. These findings constitute a novel in vitro DC-based vaccine strategy for the treatment of breast cancer by ADM-induced apoptotic MCF-7 cells.
Full Text Available The chemokine (C motif receptor 1 (XCR1 and its ligandXCL1 have been intensively studied in the mouse and human immune systems. Here, we determined the molecular characteristics of cattle XCR1 and XCL1 and their distribution among peripheral blood cells. Cattle XCR1 mRNA expression was mainly restricted to CD26+CADM1+CD205+MHCII+CD11b- cells in blood that were otherwise lineage marker negative (lin-; these represented a subset of classic dendritic cells (DCs, not plasmacytoid DCs. Some of these DCs expressed CD11a, CD44, CD80 and CD86, but they did not express CD4, CD8, CD163 or CD172a. Cattle XCL1 was expressed in quiescent NK cells and in activated CD8+ T cells. Cattle XCR1+ DCs migrated chemotactically in response to mouse, but not to human, XCL1. The distribution characters of cattle XCR1 and XCL1 suggested a vital role in regulation of acquired immune responses and indicated a potential for a DC targeted veterinary vaccine in cattle using XCL1 fused antigens.
Tang, Song; Li, Yong-Ping; Ying, Fang-Wei; Li, Yong-Qiang; Feng, Guan-Guang; Yi, Yu-Zhen
To investigate induced antitumor immune responses by vaccination of tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells (DC) to kill retinoblastoma cells SO-RB(50). We hope to offer new approach for the treatment of patients with retinoblastoma. DC was pulsed with RB tumor lysates in vitro and incubated with autologous lymphocytes to induce antigen specific CTL (cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL). SO-RB(50) cells were used as target cells and Raji cells were used as control target cells. Cytotoxicity of CTL was evaluated by MTT method (methyl thiazolyl letrazolium). The specific cytotoxicity of CTL to SO-RB(50) and Raji cells was compared. The cytotoxicity of CTL from RB and normal subjects was compared between these two groups. Antigen specific CTL showed greater cytotoxicity to SO-RB(50) than Raji cells, the difference was statistically significant, P 0.05. The specific cytotoxicity of CTL from RB patients to SO-RB(50) was weaker than that from the healthy subjects, P kill the SO-RB(50) target cells specifically. This method may have potential value of therapy for the RB patients.
Ahmed, Sami Ben Hadj; Touihri, Leila; Chtourou, Yessine; Dellagi, Koussay; Bahloul, Chokri
Despite the lack of effective vaccines against parasitic diseases, the prospects of developing a vaccine against leishmaniasis are still high. With this objective, we have tested four DNA based candidate vaccines encoding to immunodominant leishmania antigens (LACKp24, TSA, LmSTI1 and CPa). These candidates have been previously reported as capable of eliciting at least partial protections in the BALB/c mice model of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. When tested under similar experimental conditions, all of them were able to induce similar partial protective effects, but none could induce a full protection. In order to improve the level of protection we have explored the approach of DNA based vaccination with different cocktails of plasmids encoding to the different immunodominant Leishmania antigens. A substantial increase of protection was achieved when the cocktail is composed of all of the four antigens; however, no full protection was achieved when mice were challenged with a high dose of parasite in their hind footpad. The full protection was only achieved after a challenge with a low parasitic dose in the dermis of the ear. It was difficult to determine clear protection correlates, other than the mixture of immunogens induced specific Th1 immune responses against each component. Therefore, such an association of antigens increased the number of targeted epitopes by the immune system with the prospects that the responses are at least additive if not synergistic. Even though, any extrapolation of this approach when applied to other animal or human models is rather hazardous, it undoubtedly increases the hopes of developing an effective leishmania vaccine.
Pogliani, Simona; Pellegatta, Serena; Antozzi, Carlo; Baggi, Fulvio; Gellera, Cinzia; Pollo, Bianca; Parati, Eugenio A.; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Frigerio, Simona
Immune-based treatments represent a promising new class of therapy designed to boost the immune system to specifically eradicate malignant cells. Immunotherapy may generate specific anti-tumor immune responses, and dendritic cells (DC), professional antigen-presenting cells, are widely used in experimental cancer immunotherapy. Several reports describe methods for the generation of mature, antigen-pulsed DC for clinical use. Improved quality and standardization are desirable to obtain GMP-compliant protocols. In this study we describe the generation of DC from 31 Glioblastoma (GB) patients starting from their monocytes isolated by immunomagnetic CD14 selection using the CliniMACS® device. Upon differentiation of CD14+ with IL-4 and GM-CSF, DC were induced to maturation with TNF-α, PGE2, IL-1β, and IL-6. Whole tumor lysate was obtained, for the first time, in a closed system using the semi-automated dissociator GentleMACS®. The yield of proteins improved by 130% compared to the manual dissociation method. Interestingly the Mean Fluorescence Intensity for CD83 increased significantly in DC pulsed with “new method” lysate compared to DC pulsed with “classical method” lysate. Our results indicate that immunomagnetic isolation of CD14+ monocytes using the CliniMACS® device and their pulsing with whole tumor lysate proteins is a suitable method for clinical-scale generation of high quality, functional DC under GMP-grade conditions. PMID:23284979
Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs generated in vitro to present tumour antigens have been injected in cancer patients to boost in vivo anti-tumour immune responses. This approach to cancer immunotherapy has had limited success. For anti-tumour therapy, delivery and subsequent migration of DCs to lymph nodes leading to effective stimulation of effector T cells is thought to be essential. The ability to non-invasively monitor the fate of adoptively transferred DCs in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is an important clinical tool to correlate their in vivo behavior with response to treatment. Previous reports of superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs labelling of different cell types, including DCs, have indicated varying detrimental effects on cell viability, migration, differentiation and immune function. Here we describe an optimised labelling procedure using a short incubation time and low concentration of clinically used SPIO Endorem to successfully track murine DC migration in vivo using MRI in a mouse tumour model. First, intracellular labelling of bone marrow derived DCs was monitored in vitro using electron microscopy and MRI relaxometry. Second, the in vitro characterisation of SPIO labelled DCs demonstrated that viability, phenotype and functions were comparable to unlabelled DCs. Third, ex vivo SPIO labelled DCs, when injected subcutaneously, allowed for the longitudinal monitoring by MR imaging of their migration in vivo. Fourth, the SPIO DCs induced the proliferation of adoptively transferred CD4(+ T cells but, most importantly, they primed cytotoxic CD8(+ T cell responses to protect against a B16-Ova tumour challenge. Finally, using anatomical information from the MR images, the immigration of DCs was confirmed by the increase in lymph node size post-DC injection. These results demonstrate that the SPIO labelling protocol developed in this study is not detrimental for DC function in vitro and in vivo has potential clinical application in
Parsania, Masoud; Bamdad, Taravat; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Kheirandish, Maryam; Pouriayevali, Mohammad Hassan; Sari, Rohollah Dorostkar; Jamali, Abbas
Many approaches have so far been tried to enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine. These include the use of various factors that induce apoptosis or anti-apoptosis effects when co-delivered with DNA vaccine. In the present study, the effects of pro-apoptotic Bax encoding plasmid (pBax) and anti-apoptotic Bcl-X(L) encoding plasmid (pBcl-xl), intradermally co-injected with glycoprotein B (gB) of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-1 encoding plasmid (pgB) into the C57BL/6 mice were evaluated. Immune responses of the mice to the antigen were assessed by antibody assay, lymphoproliferative responses as well as cytokine and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assay. Analysis of the humoral and cellular responses showed that the mice immunized with pBax and pgB induced higher levels of antibody and Interleukin-4 as well as stronger lymphocyte proliferative responses and cytotoxic activity compared to those mice received pgB alone. pBcl-xl when intradermally co-injected with pgB showed no significant enhancement in immune responses comparing to pgB. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van de Wall, Stephanie; Walczak, Mateusz; van Rooij, Nienke; Hoogeboom, Baukje-Nynke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Nijman, Hans W; Daemen, Toos
The skin is an attractive organ for immunization because of the presence of antigen-presenting cells. Intradermal delivery via tattooing has demonstrated superior vaccine immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in comparison to conventional delivery methods. In this study, we explored the efficacy of tattoo
Ip, Peng; Boerma, Annemarie; Regts, Joke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Wilschut, Jan; Nijman, Hans W.; Daemen, Toos
An absolute prerequisite for a therapeutic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the potency to induce HCV-specific vigorous and broad-spectrum T-cell responses. Here, we generated three HCV vaccines based on a recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV) vector expressing all-or a part of
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Brucella is a facultative intracellular pathogen and one of the etiologic agents of brucellosis that can infect humans and domestic animals. Attenuated strains such as B. melitensis Rve1 and B. abortus S19 and Rb51 are being used to control brucellosis in domestic animals. However, no safe and effective vaccine is available for human use. This study was designed to evaluate the immunogenicity and the protective efficacy of a divalent fusion DNA vaccine encoding both the B. melitensis Omp31 protein and P39 protein, designated pCDNA3 recombinant vector. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was performed in Biotechnology Research Center of Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord branch in summer, 1386. Construction of pCDNA3 recombinant vector containing Omp31 and P39 genes of B. melitensis was completed. Then, 12 Balb/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with 100 mg per 50 micro liters of this DNA vaccine. Control mice, 12 Balb/c mice, were simultaneously injected with PBS. During the 1st, 7th, 15th and 30th days the mice received the injections. Afterwards, the ELISA cytokine assay was performed and data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Intramuscular injection of the divalent DNA vaccine elicited cellular immune responses in Balb/c mice. The ELISA cytokine assay with serum of vaccinated mice showed high level of IFN-γ and low changes of IL-4 in compare with control mice. Conclusion: Use of divalent genetic vaccine based on the Omp31 and P39 genes can elicit a strong cellular immune response against Brucellosis.
Tina Chang Albershardt
Full Text Available We have engineered an integration-deficient lentiviral vector, LV305, to deliver the tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 to human dendritic cells in vivo through pseudotyping with a modified Sindbis virus envelop protein. Mice immunized once with LV305 developed strong, dose-dependent, multifunctional, and cytotoxic NY-ESO-1-specific cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8 T cells within 14 days post-immunization and could be boosted with LV305 at least twice to recall peak-level CD8 T-cell responses. Immunization with LV305 protected mice against tumor growth in an NY-ESO-1-expressing CT26 lung metastasis model, with the protective effect abrogated upon depletion of CD8 T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells, alone or together with CD4 T cells or natural killer cells, from LV305-immunized donor mice to tumor-bearing recipient mice conferred significant protection against metastatic tumor growth. Biodistribution of injected LV305 in mice was limited to the site of injection and the draining lymph node, and injected LV305 exhibited minimal excretion. Mice injected with LV305 developed little to no adverse effects, as evaluated by toxicology studies adherent to good laboratory practices. Taken together, these data support the development of LV305 as a clinical candidate for treatment against tumors expressing NY-ESO-1.
Albershardt, Tina Chang; Campbell, David James; Parsons, Andrea Jean; Slough, Megan Merrill; Ter Meulen, Jan; Berglund, Peter
We have engineered an integration-deficient lentiviral vector, LV305, to deliver the tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 to human dendritic cells in vivo through pseudotyping with a modified Sindbis virus envelop protein. Mice immunized once with LV305 developed strong, dose-dependent, multifunctional, and cytotoxic NY-ESO-1-specific cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) T cells within 14 days post-immunization and could be boosted with LV305 at least twice to recall peak-level CD8 T-cell responses. Immunization with LV305 protected mice against tumor growth in an NY-ESO-1-expressing CT26 lung metastasis model, with the protective effect abrogated upon depletion of CD8 T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells, alone or together with CD4 T cells or natural killer cells, from LV305-immunized donor mice to tumor-bearing recipient mice conferred significant protection against metastatic tumor growth. Biodistribution of injected LV305 in mice was limited to the site of injection and the draining lymph node, and injected LV305 exhibited minimal excretion. Mice injected with LV305 developed little to no adverse effects, as evaluated by toxicology studies adherent to good laboratory practices. Taken together, these data support the development of LV305 as a clinical candidate for treatment against tumors expressing NY-ESO-1.
Albershardt, Tina Chang; Campbell, David James; Parsons, Andrea Jean; Slough, Megan Merrill; ter Meulen, Jan; Berglund, Peter
We have engineered an integration-deficient lentiviral vector, LV305, to deliver the tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 to human dendritic cells in vivo through pseudotyping with a modified Sindbis virus envelop protein. Mice immunized once with LV305 developed strong, dose-dependent, multifunctional, and cytotoxic NY-ESO-1-specific cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8) T cells within 14 days post-immunization and could be boosted with LV305 at least twice to recall peak-level CD8 T-cell responses. Immunization with LV305 protected mice against tumor growth in an NY-ESO-1-expressing CT26 lung metastasis model, with the protective effect abrogated upon depletion of CD8 T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8 T cells, alone or together with CD4 T cells or natural killer cells, from LV305-immunized donor mice to tumor-bearing recipient mice conferred significant protection against metastatic tumor growth. Biodistribution of injected LV305 in mice was limited to the site of injection and the draining lymph node, and injected LV305 exhibited minimal excretion. Mice injected with LV305 developed little to no adverse effects, as evaluated by toxicology studies adherent to good laboratory practices. Taken together, these data support the development of LV305 as a clinical candidate for treatment against tumors expressing NY-ESO-1. PMID:27626061
Megan A. McNamara
Full Text Available RNA vaccines traditionally consist of messenger RNA synthesized by in vitro transcription using a bacteriophage RNA polymerase and template DNA that encodes the antigen(s of interest. Once administered and internalized by host cells, the mRNA transcripts are translated directly in the cytoplasm and then the resulting antigens are presented to antigen presenting cells to stimulate an immune response. Alternatively, dendritic cells can be loaded with either tumor associated antigen mRNA or total tumor RNA and delivered to the host to elicit a specific immune response. In this review, we will explain why RNA vaccines represent an attractive platform for cancer immunotherapy, discuss modifications to RNA structure that have been developed to optimize mRNA vaccine stability and translational efficiency, and describe strategies for nonviral delivery of mRNA vaccines, highlighting key preclinical and clinical data related to cancer immunotherapy.
Nadine eVan Montfoort
Full Text Available Effective viral clearance requires the induction of virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL. Since dendritic cells (DC have a central role in initiating and shaping virus-specific CTL responses, it is important to understand how DC initiate virus-specific CTL responses. Some viruses can directly infect DC, which theoretically allows direct presentation of viral antigens to CTL, but many viruses target other cells than DC and thus the host depends on the cross-presentation of viral antigens by DC to activate virus-specific CTL.Research in mouse models has highly enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cross-presentation and the DC subsets involved, however, these results cannot be readily translated towards the role of human DC in MHC class I antigen presentation of human viruses. Here, we summarize the insights gained in the past 20 years on MHC class I presentation of viral antigen by human DC and add to the current debate on the capacities of different human DC subsets herein. Furthermore, possible sources of viral antigens and essential DC characteristics for effective induction of virus-specific CTL are evaluated.We conclude that cross-presentation is not only an efficient mechanism exploited by DC to initiate immunity to viruses that do not infect DC but also to viruses that do infect DC, because cross-presentation has many conceptual advantages and bypasses direct immune modulatory effects of the virus on its infected target cells. Since knowledge on the mechanism of viral antigen presentation and the preferred DC subsets is crucial for rational vaccine design, the obtained insights are very instrumental for the development of effective anti-viral immunotherapy.
Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Rastegari, Ali; Kheshtchin, Nasim; Arab, Samaneh; Hassannia, Hadi; Ajami, Maryam; Mirsanei, Zahra; Habibi, Sima; Masoumi, Farimah; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Shokri, Fazel; Hadjati, Jamshid
The efficacy of conventional anti-tumor immunotherapeutic approaches is markedly affected by the immunosuppressive microenvironment of tumor. Since adenosine is one of the main orchestra leaders in immunosuppression symphony of tumor, targeting its producing molecules such as CD73 can help to achieve a better clinical outcome following conventional cancer immunotherapeutic approaches. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of CD73-specific siRNA-loaded chitosan-lactate nanoparticles (ChLa NPs) in combination with tumor lysate pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) vaccine in treatment of 4T1 (murine derived) breast cancer bearing mice. Our results showed that intravenous administration of CD73-specific siRNA-loaded NPs led to reduced expression of CD73 in tumor cells which was associated with decreased tumor growth and metastasis, and improved mice survival. Furthermore, we found that the mechanism by which combination therapy inhibits tumor growth is in part related to downregulation of regulatory T (Treg), myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and tumor associated macrophages, an augmented CTL effector function, improved proliferation status of T cells, increased production of inflammatory cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17 and reduced levels of IL-10. Moreover, this treatment protocol attenuated the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 which could be associated to the prevention of lung metastasis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the use of CD73-specific siRNA-loaded NPs provides an immune potentiating function, thereby improves the efficacy of DC based cancer immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tsuda, Yoshimi; Caposio, Patrizia; Parkins, Christopher J; Botto, Sara; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Cicin-Sain, Luka; Feldmann, Heinz; Jarvis, Michael A
Human outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV) are a serious human health concern in Central Africa. Great apes (gorillas/chimpanzees) are an important source of EBOV transmission to humans due to increased hunting of wildlife including the 'bush-meat' trade. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an highly immunogenic virus that has shown recent utility as a vaccine platform. CMV-based vaccines also have the unique potential to re-infect and disseminate through target populations regardless of prior CMV immunity, which may be ideal for achieving high vaccine coverage in inaccessible populations such as great apes. We hypothesize that a vaccine strategy using CMV-based vectors expressing EBOV antigens may be ideally suited for use in inaccessible wildlife populations. To establish a 'proof-of-concept' for CMV-based vaccines against EBOV, we constructed a mouse CMV (MCMV) vector expressing a CD8+ T cell epitope from the nucleoprotein (NP) of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) (MCMV/ZEBOV-NP(CTL)). MCMV/ZEBOV-NP(CTL) induced high levels of long-lasting (>8 months) CD8+ T cells against ZEBOV NP in mice. Importantly, all vaccinated animals were protected against lethal ZEBOV challenge. Low levels of anti-ZEBOV antibodies were only sporadically detected in vaccinated animals prior to ZEBOV challenge suggesting a role, at least in part, for T cells in protection. This study demonstrates the ability of a CMV-based vaccine approach to protect against an highly virulent human pathogen, and supports the potential for 'disseminating' CMV-based EBOV vaccines to prevent EBOV transmission in wildlife populations.
Full Text Available Human outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV are a serious human health concern in Central Africa. Great apes (gorillas/chimpanzees are an important source of EBOV transmission to humans due to increased hunting of wildlife including the 'bush-meat' trade. Cytomegalovirus (CMV is an highly immunogenic virus that has shown recent utility as a vaccine platform. CMV-based vaccines also have the unique potential to re-infect and disseminate through target populations regardless of prior CMV immunity, which may be ideal for achieving high vaccine coverage in inaccessible populations such as great apes.We hypothesize that a vaccine strategy using CMV-based vectors expressing EBOV antigens may be ideally suited for use in inaccessible wildlife populations. To establish a 'proof-of-concept' for CMV-based vaccines against EBOV, we constructed a mouse CMV (MCMV vector expressing a CD8+ T cell epitope from the nucleoprotein (NP of Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV (MCMV/ZEBOV-NP(CTL. MCMV/ZEBOV-NP(CTL induced high levels of long-lasting (>8 months CD8+ T cells against ZEBOV NP in mice. Importantly, all vaccinated animals were protected against lethal ZEBOV challenge. Low levels of anti-ZEBOV antibodies were only sporadically detected in vaccinated animals prior to ZEBOV challenge suggesting a role, at least in part, for T cells in protection.This study demonstrates the ability of a CMV-based vaccine approach to protect against an highly virulent human pathogen, and supports the potential for 'disseminating' CMV-based EBOV vaccines to prevent EBOV transmission in wildlife populations.
Vaccination with p53 peptide-pulsed dendritic cells is associated with disease stabilization in patients with p53 expressing advanced breast cancer; monitoring of serum YKL-40 and IL-6 as response biomarkers
Svane, Inge Marie; Pedersen, Anders E; Johansen, Julia S
II trial including 26 patients with verified progressive breast cancer are presented. Seven patients discontinued treatment after only 2-3 vaccination weeks due to rapid disease progression or death. Nineteen patients were available for first evaluation after 6 vaccinations; 8/19 evaluable patients......p53 Mutations are found in up to 30% of breast cancers and peptides derived from over-expressed p53 protein are presented by class I HLA molecules and may act as tumor-associated epitopes in cancer vaccines. A dendritic cell (DC) based p53 targeting vaccine was analyzed in HLA-A2+ patients...... with progressive advanced breast cancer. DCs were loaded with 3 wild-type and 3 P2 anchor modified HLA-A2 binding p53 peptides. Patients received up to 10 sc vaccinations with 5 x 10(6) p53-peptide loaded DC with 1-2 weeks interval. Concomitantly, 6 MIU/m(2) interleukine-2 was administered sc. Results from a phase...
Jung, Myung-Hwa; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Jung, Sung-Ju
Rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) causes severe mass mortalities in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) in Korea. In this study, we investigated the potential of viral membrane protein to induce antiviral status protecting rock bream against RBIV infection. We found that fish administered with ORF008L (myristoylated membrane protein, MMP) vaccine exhibited significantly higher levels of survival compared to ORF007L (major capsid protein, MCP). Moreover, ORF008L-based DNA vaccinated fish showed significant protection at 4 and 8 weeks post vaccination (wpv) than non-vaccinated fish after infected with RBIV (6.7 × 10 5 ) at 23 °C, with relative percent survival (RPS) of 73.36% and 46.72%, respectively. All of the survivors from the first RBIV infection were strongly protected (100% RPS) from re-infected with RBIV (1.1 × 10 7 ) at 100 dpi. In addition, the MMP (ORF008L)-based DNA vaccine significantly induced the gene expression of TLR3 (14.2-fold), MyD88 (11.6-fold), Mx (84.7-fold), ISG15 (8.7-fold), PKR (25.6-fold), MHC class I (13.3-fold), Fas (6.7-fold), Fas ligand (6.7-fold), caspase9 (17.0-fold) and caspase3 (15.3-fold) at 7 days post vaccination in the muscle (vaccine injection site). Our results showed the induction of immune responses and suggest the possibility of developing preventive measures against RBIV using myristoylated membrane protein-based DNA vaccine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Berntsen, Annika; Brimnes, Marie Klinge; thor Straten, Per
Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the maintenance of immune tolerance and may be one of the obstacles of successful tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we analyzed the impact of administration of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in combination with low-dose interleukin (IL)-2...... in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma on the frequency of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ Treg cells in peripheral blood. We found that the treatment increased the frequency of Treg cells more than 7-fold compared with pretreatment levels (P...
Gong, P; Huang, X; Yu, Q; Li, Y; Huang, J; Li, J; Yang, J; Li, H; Zhang, G; Ren, W; Zhang, X
Toxoplasmosis is a world-wide zoonosis that causes significant public health and veterinary problems. The study of vaccines remains the most promising method for the future prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii cyclophilin has been shown to have potent PPIase and IL-12-inducing activities, thus promoting the stabilization of T. gondii's life cycle and maintaining the survival of its host during evolution. In this study, the T. gondii cyclophilin gene was used to construct a DNA vaccine (pVAX1-TgCyP). The immune response and protective efficacy of the vaccine against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice were evaluated. All BALB/c mice that were vaccinated with pVAX1-TgCyP developed a high response with TgCyP-specific antibodies, and significant splenocyte proliferation (P < 0·05) compared with pVAX1 vector and PBS groups. pVAX1-TgCyP also induced a significant Th1 type immune response, indicated by the higher production of IL-2 and IFN-γ (P < 0·05). The survival rate of BALB/c mice increased significantly after vaccination with pVAX1-TgCyP (37·5%) (P < 0·05). These results indicate that TgCyP is a highly efficacious vaccine candidate that can generate protective immunity against T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Clement A Meseda
Full Text Available Antibodies to both infectious forms of vaccinia virus, the mature virion (MV and the enveloped virion (EV, as well as cell-mediated immune response appear to be important for protection against smallpox. EV virus particles, although more labile and less numerous than MV, are important for dissemination and spread of virus in infected hosts and thus important in virus pathogenesis. The importance of the EV A33 and B5 proteins for vaccine induced immunity and protection in a murine intranasal challenge model was evaluated by deletion of both the A33R and B5R genes in a vaccine-derived strain of vaccinia virus. Deletion of either A33R or B5R resulted in viruses with a small plaque phenotype and reduced virus yields, as reported previously, whereas deletion of both EV protein-encoding genes resulted in a virus that formed small infection foci that were detectable and quantifiable only by immunostaining and an even more dramatic decrease in total virus yield in cell culture. Deletion of B5R, either as a single gene knockout or in the double EV gene knockout virus, resulted in a loss of EV neutralizing activity, but all EV gene knockout viruses still induced a robust neutralizing activity against the vaccinia MV form of the virus. The effect of elimination of A33 and/or B5 on the protection afforded by vaccination was evaluated by intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of either vaccinia virus WR or IHD-J, a strain of vaccinia virus that produces relatively higher amounts of EV virus. The results from multiple experiments, using a range of vaccination doses and virus challenge doses, and using mortality, morbidity, and virus dissemination as endpoints, indicate that the absence of A33 and B5 have little effect on the ability of a vaccinia vaccine virus to provide protection against a lethal intranasal challenge in a mouse model.
Kvistborg, P; Bøgh, Marie; Pedersen, A W
Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen presenting cells capable of inducing immune responses. DC are widely used as vaccine adjuvant in experimental clinical settings. DC-based vaccines are normally generated using a standard 8day DC protocol (SDDC). In attempts to shorten the vaccine production...... SDDC to the IL-10 inducing stimulus of TLR ligands (R848 and LPS). Thus to determine the clinical relevance of fast DC protocols in cancer settings, small phase I trials should be conducted monitoring regulatory T cells carefully....
Pen, Joeri J; De Keersmaecker, Brenda; Maenhout, Sarah K; Van Nuffel, An M T; Heirman, Carlo; Corthals, Jurgen; Escors, David; Bonehill, Aude; Thielemans, Kris; Breckpot, Karine; Aerts, Joeri L
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) counteract anticancer immune responses through a number of mechanisms, limiting dendritic cell (DC)-based anticancer immunotherapy. In this study, we investigated the influence of various DC activation stimuli on the Treg functionality. We compared DCs activated by electroporation with mRNA encoding constitutively active TLR4 (caTLR4) and CD40 ligand (DiMix-DCs), or these factors together with mRNA encoding the costimulatory molecule CD70 (TriMix-DCs) with DCs maturated in the presence of a mixture of inflammatory cytokines (DCs maturated with a combination of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and PGE2) for their ability to counteract Tregs on different levels. We first demonstrated that there was no difference in the extent of Treg induction starting from CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells under the influence of the different DC maturation stimuli. Second, we showed that both DiMix- and TriMix-DCs could partly alleviate Treg inhibition of CD8(+) T cells. Third, we observed that CD8(+) T cells that had been precultured with DiMix-DCs or TriMix-DCs were partially protected against subsequent Treg suppression. Finally, we showed that Tregs cocultured in the presence of TriMix-DCs, but not DiMix-DCs, partially lost their suppressive capacity. This was accompanied by a decrease in CD27 and CD25 expression on Tregs, as well as an increase in the expression of T-bet and secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10, suggesting a shift of the Treg phenotype toward a Th1 phenotype. In conclusion, these data suggest that TriMix-DCs are not only able to suppress Treg functions, but moreover could be able to reprogram Tregs to Th1 cells under certain circumstances.
Weinert, Brian T; Krishnadath, Kausilia K; Milano, Francesca
Tumor antigens are the primary target of therapeutic cancer vaccines. We set out to define and compare the expression pattern of tumor antigen genes in esophagus carcinoma biopsies and in an allogeneic tumor lysate-based cancer vaccine, MelCancerVac. Cells used for vaccine production were treated...... in the production of the vaccine. Quantitative PCR was used to assay 74 tumor antigen genes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. 81% (13/16) of tumors expressed more than five cancer/testis (CT) antigens. A total of 96 genes were assayed in the tumor cell clone (DDM1.7) used to make tumor cell...... lysate for vaccine preparation. Gene expression in DDM1.7 cells was compared with three normal tissues; 16 tumor antigen genes were induced more than ten-fold relative to normal tissues. Treatment with 5-aza-CdR induced expression of an additional 15 tumor antigens to a total of 31. MAGE-A protein...
Nezam, Fatemeh Sadat; Hosseini, Seyed Masoud; Kheiri, Masoumeh Tavassoti; Abdoli, Asghar; Memarnejadian, Arash; Shenagari, Mohammad; Gholami, Shima; Sohani, Hesam; Rahmatollahi, Hamidreza; Jamali, Abbas
Influenza is a highly infectious and acute respiratory disease caused by an infection of the host respiratory tract mucosa by the influenza virus. The use of DNA vaccines that express conserved genes such as nucleoprotein (NP) represents a new method of vaccination against influenza. In this study, the effect of chronic stress on the efficiency of this type of vaccine has been evaluated in a mouse model. The NP DNA vaccine was administered intradermally 3 times on days 0, 3 and 6 to stressed and nonstressed male BALB/c mice. Two weeks after the last immunization, half of these mice were challenged with A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) influenza virus and were weighed for 12 days, and their mortality rate was assessed during this period. The cellular immune response of the other half of the mice was evaluated by cytotoxicity assay. The results indicate a significant reduction in the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response of stressed mice in comparison with unstressed mice. Also, the percentage of weight loss and mortality after the challenge in stressed mice was significantly increased compared to the other group. These results indicate that the NP DNA vaccine is not able to induce any effective cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against influenza virus in stressed mice and cannot induce protective immunity against influenza infection in this group of mice. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Wang, Qiuyue; Chen, Lifeng; Li, Jianhua; Zheng, Jun; Cai, Ning; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Shuhong; Li, He; Zhang, Xichen
A novel recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccine co-expressed Eimeria tenella rhomboid and cytokine chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) was constructed, and its efficacy against E. tenella challenge was observed. The rhomboid gene of E. tenella and chIL-2 gene were subcloned into integrative expression vector pMV361, producing vaccines rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2. Animal experiment via intranasal and subcutaneous route in chickens was carried out to evaluate the immune efficacy of the vaccines. The results indicated that these rBCG vaccines could obviously alleviate cacal lesions and oocyst output. Intranasal immunization with pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 elicited better protective immunity against E. tenella than subcutaneous immunization. Splenocytes from chickens immunized with either rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 had increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell production. Our data indicate recombinant BCG is able to impart partial protection against E. tenella challenge and co-expression of cytokine with antigen was an effective strategy to improve vaccine immunity.
Liu, Hao; Jiang, Guang-shui; Bian, Ji-feng; Liu, Xian-xi; Sun, Ji-jun; Wang, Xiao-hua
To construct a dual-promoter expression plasmid that harbors the target gene encoding SBR of Streptococcus mutans and can be applied as DNA vaccine especially suitable for using attenuated Salmonella as delivery vector to elicit effective mucosal immune responses because of its advantage of possessing dual-promoter. Genes encoding SBR and green fluorescence protein gene (EGFP) were amplified by PCR and inserted to the proper sites of vector pCMVnir. Then IRES sequence was inserted between the genes coding for SBR and EGFP. Furthermore, a DNA fragment encoding tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) signal peptide was fused to the 5' end of target gene. Thereby, construction of the dual-promoter expression plasmid pCN-SSIE was completed and then the plasmid was analyzed with DNA sequencing and endonuclearase digestion mapping. The expressions of SBR protein by attenuated Salmonella SL3261 and CHO cell transformed or transfected by the plasmid were tested respectively. Finally, BALB/c mice were immunized through injecting intramuscularly with plasmid pCN-SSIE and anti-SBR specific IgG in serum was tested. Both DNA sequencing and endonuclearase digestion mapping showed that the construction of pCN-SSIE was successful with its open reading frame being correct. The expressions of SBR protein in transformed attenuated Salmonella SL3261 and transfected CHO were detected, and anti-SBR specific IgG levels in serum of immunized mice were markedly higher than the control. The construction of the dual-promoter expression plasmid pCN-SSIE was successful and the plasmid can express in prokaryocyte and eukaryocyte and elicit dramatic immune response when applied as DNA vaccine in experimental animal.
Song, Xiaokai; Huang, Xinmei; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui
Chimeric DNA vaccines encoding Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) surface antigen 5401 were constructed and their efficacies against E. tenella challenge were studied. The open reading frame (ORF) of 5401 was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T2 to express the recombinant protein and the expressed recombinant protein was identified by Western blot. The ORF of 5401 and chicken cytokine gene IFN-γ or IL-2 were cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 consecutively to construct DNA vaccines pVAX-5401-IFN-γ, pVAX-5401-IL-2 and pVAX-5401. The expression of aim genes in vivo was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Fourteen-day-old chickens were inoculated twice at an interval of 7 days with 100 µg of plasmids pVAX-5401, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ and pVAX-5401-IL-2 or 200 µg of recombinant 5401 protein by leg intramuscular injection, respectively. Seven days after the second inoculation, all chickens except the unchallenged control group were challenged orally with 5 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. Seven days after challenge, all chickens were weighted and slaughtered to determine the effects of immunization. The results showed the recombinant protein was about 90 kDa and reacted with antiserum against soluble sporozoites. The animal experiment showed that all the DNA vaccines pVAX-5401, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ or pVAX-5401-IL-2 and the recombinant 5401 protein could obviously alleviate body weight loss and cecal lesions as compared with non-vaccinated challenged control and empty vector pVAX1control. Furthermore, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ or pVAX-5401-IL-2 induced anti-coccidial index (ACI) of 180.01 or 177.24 which were significantly higher than that of pVAX-5401. The results suggested that 5401 was an effective candidate antigen for vaccine. This finding also suggested that chicken IFN-γ or IL-2 could effectively improve the efficacies of DNA vaccines against avian coccidiosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier
J. M. J. Van den Bergh
Full Text Available Personalized dendritic cell- (DC- based vaccination has proven to be safe and effective as second-line therapy against various cancer types. In terms of overall survival, there is still room for improvement of DC-based therapies, including the development of more immunostimulatory DC vaccines. In this context, we redesigned our currently clinically used DC vaccine generation protocol to enable transpresentation of interleukin- (IL- 15 to IL-15Rβγ-expressing cells aiming at boosting the antitumor immune response. In this study, we demonstrate that upon electroporation with both IL-15 and IL-15Rα-encoding messenger RNA, mature DC become highly positive for surface IL-15, without influencing the expression of prototypic mature DC markers and with preservation of their cytokine-producing capacity and their migratory profile. Functionally, we show that IL-15-transpresenting DC are equal if not better inducers of T-cell proliferation and are superior in tumor antigen-specific T-cell activation compared with DC without IL-15 conditioning. In view of the clinical use of DC vaccines, we evidence with a time- and cost-effective manner that clinical grade DC can be safely engineered to transpresent IL-15, hereby gaining the ability to transfer the immune-stimulating IL-15 signal towards antitumor immune effector cells.
Fleming, Stephen B
The interferon (IFN) induced anti-viral response is amongst the earliest and most potent of the innate responses to fight viral infection. The induction of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activation of transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathway by IFNs leads to the upregulation of hundreds of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) for which, many have the ability to rapidly kill viruses within infected cells. During the long course of evolution, viruses have evolved an extraordinary range of strategies to counteract the host immune responses in particular by targeting the JAK/STAT signalling pathway. Understanding how the IFN system is inhibited has provided critical insights into viral virulence and pathogenesis. Moreover, identification of factors encoded by viruses that modulate the JAK/STAT pathway has opened up opportunities to create new anti-viral drugs and rationally attenuated new generation vaccines, particularly for RNA viruses, by reverse genetics.
... disease — reinforcing the importance of vaccines in your pet's preventive health care program. Are there risks? Any treatment carries some risk, but these risks should be weighed against the benefits of protecting your pet from potentially fatal diseases. ...
Wang, Gang; Pan, Li; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Zhongwang; Lü, Jianliang; Zhou, Peng; Fang, Yuzhen; Jiang, Shoutian
Mucosal vaccination has been demonstrated to be an effective means of eliciting protective immunity against aerosol infections of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and various approaches have been used to improve mucosal response to this pathogen. In this study, cationic PLGA (poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) nano/microparticles were used as an intranasal delivery vehicle as a means administering FMDV DNA vaccine encoding the FMDV capsid protein and the bovine IL-6 gene as a means of enhancing mucosal and systemic immune responses in animals. Three eukaryotic expression plasmids with or without bovine IL-6 gene (pc-P12A3C, pc-IL2AP12A3C and pc-P12AIL3C) were generated. The two latter plasmids were designed with the IL-6 gene located either before or between the P12A and 3C genes, respectively, as a means of determining if the location of the IL-6 gene affected capsid assembly and the subsequent immune response. Guinea pigs and rats were intranasally vaccinated with the respective chitosan-coated PLGA nano/microparticles-loaded FMDV DNA vaccine formulations. Animals immunized with pc-P12AIL3C (followed by animals vaccinated with pc-P12A3C and pc-IL2AP12A3C) developed the highest levels of antigen-specific serum IgG and IgA antibody responses and the highest levels of sIgA (secretory IgA) present in mucosal tissues. However, the highest levels of neutralizing antibodies were generated in pc-IL2AP12A3C-immunized animals (followed by pc-P12AIL3C- and then in pc-P12A3C-immunized animals). pc-IL2AP12A3C-immunized animals also developed stronger cell mediated immune responses (followed by pc-P12AIL3C- and pc-P12A3C-immunized animals) as evidenced by antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and expression levels of IFN-γ by both CD4+ and CD8+ splenic T cells. The percentage of animals protected against FMDV challenge following immunizations with pc-IL2AP12A3C, pc-P12AIL3C or pc-P12A3C were 3/5, 1/5 and 0/5, respectively. These data suggested that intranasal delivery of cationic
Gregory, William F.; Atmadja, Agnes K.; Allen, Judith E.; Maizels, Rick M.
Lymphatic filariasis is a major tropical disease caused by the mosquito-borne nematodes Brugia and Wuchereria. About 120 million people are infected and at risk of lymphatic pathology such as acute lymphangitis and elephantiasis. Vaccines against filariasis must generate immunity to the infective mosquito-derived third-stage larva (L3) without accentuating immunopathogenic responses to lymphatic-dwelling adult parasites. We have identified two highly expressed genes, designated abundant larval transcript-1 and -2 (alt-1 and alt-2), from each of which mRNAs account for >1% of L3 cDNAs. ALT-1 and ALT-2 share 79% amino acid identity across 125 residues, including a putative signal sequence and a prominent acidic tract. Expression of alt-1 and alt-2 is initiated midway through development in the mosquito, peaking in the infective larva and declining sharply following entry into the host. Humans exposed to Brugia malayi show a high frequency of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG3 antibodies to ALT-1 and -2, distinguishing them from adult-stage antigens, which are targeted by the IgG4 isotype. Immunization of susceptible rodents (jirds) with ALT-1 elicited a 76% reduction in parasite survival, the highest reported for a single antigen from any filarial parasite. ALT-1 and the closely related ALT-2 are therefore strong candidates for a future vaccine against human filariasis. PMID:10858234
Vinicius Canato Santana
Full Text Available T-cell based vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV generate specific responses that may limit both transmission and disease progression by controlling viral load. Broad, polyfunctional, and cytotoxic CD4+ T-cell responses have been associated with control of simian immunodeficiency virus/HIV-1 replication, supporting the inclusion of CD4+ T-cell epitopes in vaccine formulations. Plasmid-encoded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (pGM-CSF co-administration has been shown to induce potent CD4+ T-cell responses and to promote accelerated priming and increased migration of antigen-specific CD4+ T-cells. However, no study has shown whether co-immunisation with pGM-CSF enhances the number of vaccine-induced polyfunctional CD4+ T-cells. Our group has previously developed a DNA vaccine encoding conserved, multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR binding HIV-1 subtype B peptides, which elicited broad, polyfunctional and long-lived CD4+ T-cell responses. Here, we show that pGM-CSF co-immunisation improved both magnitude and quality of vaccine-induced T-cell responses, particularly by increasing proliferating CD4+ T-cells that produce simultaneously interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2. Thus, we believe that the use of pGM-CSF may be helpful for vaccine strategies focused on the activation of anti-HIV CD4+ T-cell immunity.
Santana, Vinicius Canato; Almeida, Rafael Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Susan Pereira; Ferreira, Luís Carlos de Souza; Kalil, Jorge; Rosa, Daniela Santoro; Cunha-Neto, Edecio
T-cell based vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) generate specific responses that may limit both transmission and disease progression by controlling viral load. Broad, polyfunctional, and cytotoxic CD4+T-cell responses have been associated with control of simian immunodeficiency virus/HIV-1 replication, supporting the inclusion of CD4+ T-cell epitopes in vaccine formulations. Plasmid-encoded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (pGM-CSF) co-administration has been shown to induce potent CD4+ T-cell responses and to promote accelerated priming and increased migration of antigen-specific CD4+ T-cells. However, no study has shown whether co-immunisation with pGM-CSF enhances the number of vaccine-induced polyfunctional CD4+ T-cells. Our group has previously developed a DNA vaccine encoding conserved, multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR binding HIV-1 subtype B peptides, which elicited broad, polyfunctional and long-lived CD4+ T-cell responses. Here, we show that pGM-CSF co-immunisation improved both magnitude and quality of vaccine-induced T-cell responses, particularly by increasing proliferating CD4+ T-cells that produce simultaneously interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2. Thus, we believe that the use of pGM-CSF may be helpful for vaccine strategies focused on the activation of anti-HIV CD4+ T-cell immunity.
Full Text Available Gene-based vaccination using prime/boost regimens protects animals and humans against malaria, inducing cell-mediated responses that in animal models target liver stage malaria parasites. We tested a DNA prime/adenovirus boost malaria vaccine in a Phase 1 clinical trial with controlled human malaria infection.The vaccine regimen was three monthly doses of two DNA plasmids (DNA followed four months later by a single boost with two non-replicating human serotype 5 adenovirus vectors (Ad. The constructs encoded genes expressing P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP and apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1. The regimen was safe and well-tolerated, with mostly mild adverse events that occurred at the site of injection. Only one AE (diarrhea, possibly related to immunization, was severe (Grade 3, preventing daily activities. Four weeks after the Ad boost, 15 study subjects were challenged with P. falciparum sporozoites by mosquito bite, and four (27% were sterilely protected. Antibody responses by ELISA rose after Ad boost but were low (CSP geometric mean titer 210, range 44-817; AMA1 geometric mean micrograms/milliliter 11.9, range 1.5-102 and were not associated with protection. Ex vivo IFN-γ ELISpot responses after Ad boost were modest (CSP geometric mean spot forming cells/million peripheral blood mononuclear cells 86, range 13-408; AMA1 348, range 88-1270 and were highest in three protected subjects. ELISpot responses to AMA1 were significantly associated with protection (p = 0.019. Flow cytometry identified predominant IFN-γ mono-secreting CD8+ T cell responses in three protected subjects. No subjects with high pre-existing anti-Ad5 neutralizing antibodies were protected but the association was not statistically significant.The DNA/Ad regimen provided the highest sterile immunity achieved against malaria following immunization with a gene-based subunit vaccine (27%. Protection was associated with cell-mediated immunity to AMA1, with CSP
N. van Montfoort (Nadine); E. van der Aa (Evelyn); A.M. Woltman (Andrea)
textabstractEffective viral clearance requires the induction of virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Since dendritic cells (DC) have a central role in initiating and shaping virus-specific CTL responses, it is important to understand how DC initiate virus-specific CTL responses. Some
Berntsen, Annika; Brimnes, M.K.; Straten, P.T.
Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the maintenance of immune tolerance and may be one of the obstacles of successful tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we analyzed the impact of administration of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in combination with low-dose interleukin (IL)-2...... in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma on the frequency of CD4(+) CD25(high)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in peripheral blood. We found that the treatment increased the frequency of Treg cells more than 7-fold compared with pretreatment levels (P cells decreased when patients...... had been off IL-2 treatment for only 8 days, but remained higher than pretreatment levels. A functional assay showed that isolated Treg cells were capable of inhibiting proliferation of responder cells. Also, in vitro studies showed that coculture of mature DCs, autologous T cells and IL-2 leads...
Gasser, Olivier; Sharples, Katrina J; Barrow, Catherine; Williams, Geoffrey M; Bauer, Evelyn; Wood, Catherine E; Mester, Brigitta; Dzhelali, Marina; Caygill, Graham; Jones, Jeremy; Hayman, Colin M; Hinder, Victoria A; Macapagal, Jerome; McCusker, Monica; Weinkove, Robert; Painter, Gavin F; Brimble, Margaret A; Findlay, Michael P; Dunbar, P Rod; Hermans, Ian F
Vaccines that elicit targeted tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses have the potential to be used as adjuvant therapy in patients with high risk of relapse. However, the responses induced by vaccines in cancer patients have generally been disappointing. To improve vaccine function, we investigated the possibility of exploiting the immunostimulatory capacity of type 1 Natural killer T (NKT) cells, a cell type enriched in lymphoid tissues that can trigger improved antigen-presenting function in dendritic cells (DCs). In this phase I dose escalation study, we treated eight patients with high-risk surgically resected stage II-IV melanoma with intravenous autologous monocyte-derived DCs loaded with the NKT cell agonist α-GalCer and peptides derived from the cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1. Two synthetic long peptides spanning defined immunogenic regions of the NY-ESO-1 sequence were used. This therapy proved to be safe and immunologically effective, inducing increases in circulating NY-ESO-1-specific T cells that could be detected directly ex vivo in seven out of eight patients. These responses were achieved using as few as 5 × 10 5 peptide-loaded cells per dose. Analysis after in vitro restimulation showed increases in polyfunctional CD4 + and CD8 + T cells that were capable of manufacturing two or more cytokines simultaneously. Evidence of NKT cell proliferation and/or NKT cell-associated cytokine secretion was seen in most patients. In light of these strong responses, the concept of including NKT cell agonists in vaccine design requires further investigation.
Edible vaccines are sub-unit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. Edible vaccines are mucosal-targeted vaccines where stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune network takes place. Foods under study ...
Coosemans, An; Vergote, Ignace; Van Gool, Stefaan W
Worldwide, 80% of patients with ovarian cancer die of the disease. New treatments for this aggressive disease are therefore being intensively searched. Although dendritic cell-based vaccines against gynecological malignancies are in their infancy, this immunotherapeutic approach holds much promise. Here, we present our view on an optimal dendritic cell-based immunotherapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.
Svane, Inge Marie; Pedersen, Anders E; Johnsen, Hans E
. Our preclinical studies have shown that wild-type p53-derived HLA-A2-binding peptides are able to activate human T cells and that the generated effector T cells are cytotoxic to human HLA-A2+, p53+ tumour cells. In this phase I pilot study, the toxicity and efficacy of autologous dendritic cells (DCs...... not of course be excluded; further studies are necessary to answer these questions....
Full Text Available Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus is an important agricultural fish that has been plagued by Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae infections in recent years, some of them severe. C5a peptidase is an important virulent factor of S. iniae. In this study, the subunit vaccine containing the truncated part of C5a peptidase (pSCPI was mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel (AH, propolis adjuvant (PA, and Freund’s Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA. The immunogenicity of the pSCPI was detected by Western-blot in vitro. The relative percent survival (RPS, lysozyme activity, antibody titers, and the expression of the related immune genes were monitored in vivo to evaluate the immune effects of the three different adjuvants. The results showed that pSCPI exerted moderate immune protection (RPS = 46.43%, whereas each of the three adjuvants improved the immune protection of pSCPI. The immunoprotection of pSCPI + AH, pSCPI + PA, and pSCPI + FIA was characterized by RPS values of 67.86%, 75.00% and, 85.71%, respectively. Further, each of the three different adjuvanted pSCPIs stimulated higher levels of lysozyme activity and antibody titers than the unadjuvanted pSCPI and/or PBS buffer. In addition, pSCPI + FIA and pSCPI + PA induced expression of the related immune genes under investigation, which was substantially higher than the levels stimulated by PBS. pSCPI + AH significantly stimulated the induction of MHC II β, CD4-L2, and IFN-γ, while it induced slightly higher production of TNF-α and even led to a decrease in the levels of IL-1β, MHC I α, and CD8 α. Therefore, we conclude that compared with the other two adjuvants, FIA combined with pSCPI is a more promising candidate adjuvant against S. iniae in channel catfish.
Zhang, Feng; Li, Yu-hong; Fan, Ming-wen; Jia, Rong; Xu, Qing-an; Guo, Ji-hua; Yu, Fei; Tian, Qi-wei
To evaluate the comparative immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) fusion anti-caries DNA vaccines pGJA-P/VAX1, pGJA-P, and non-fusion anti-caries DNA construct pGLUA-P in hamsters. In addition, the ability of CTLA-4 to target pGJA-P/VAX1-encoding antigen to dendritic cells was tested in vitro. All DNA constructs contain genes encoding the A-P regions of a cell surface protein (PAc) and the glucan binding (GLU) domain of glucosyltransferases (GTFs) of cariogenic organism Streptococcus mutans. Human dendritic cells were mixed with the CTLA-4-Ig-GLU-A-P protein expressed by pGJA-P/VAX1-transfected cells and analyzed by flow cytometry. Gnotobiotic hamsters were immunized with anti-caries DNA vaccines by intramuscular injection or intranasal administration. Antibody responses to a representative antigen PAc were assayed by ELISA, and caries protection was evaluated by Keyes caries scores. A flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that CTLA-4-Ig-GLU-A-P protein was capable of binding to human dendritic cells. pGJA-P/VAX1 and pGJA-P induced significantly higher specific salivary and serum anti-PAc antibody responses than pGLUA-P. Significantly fewer caries lesions were also observed in hamsters immunized with pGJA-P/VAX1 and pGJA-P. There was no significant difference in the anti-PAc antibody level or caries scores between pGJA-P/VAX1 and pGJA-P-immunized groups. Antigen encoded by CTLA-4 fusion anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJA-P/VAX1 could specifically bind to human dendritic cells through the interaction of CTLA-4 and B7 molecules. Fusing antigen to CTLA-4 has been proven to greatly enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of anti-caries DNA vaccines.
Rottembourg, Diane; Filippi, Christophe M.; Bresson, Damien; Ehrhardt, Katrin; Estes, Elizabeth A.; Oldham, Janine E.; von Herrath, Matthias G.
One of the requirements for efficient vaccination against infection is to achieve the best combination of an adequate adjuvant with the antigenic information to deliver. Although plasmid DNA is a promising tool bearing the unique potential to activate humoral and cellular immunity, an actual challenge is to increase plasmid immunogenicity in human vaccination protocols in which efficacy has proven rather limited. Previous work showed that the bacterial DNA backbone of the plasmid has potent a...
Full Text Available Anti-cancer DNA vaccines have attracted growing interest as a simple and non-invasive method for both the treatment and prevention of tumors induced by human papillomaviruses. Nonetheless, the low immunogenicity of parenterally administered vaccines, particularly regarding the activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses, suggests that further improvements in both vaccine composition and administration routes are still required. In the present study, we report the immune responses and anti-tumor effects of a DNA vaccine (pgD-E7E6E5 expressing three proteins (E7, E6, and E5 of the human papillomavirus type 16 genetically fused to the glycoprotein D of the human herpes simplex virus type 1, which was administered to mice by the intradermal (id route using a gene gun. A single id dose of pgD-E7E6E5 (2 µg/dose induced a strong activation of E7-specific interferon-γ (INF-γ-producing CD8+ T cells and full prophylactic anti-tumor effects in the vaccinated mice. Three vaccine doses inhibited tumor growth in 70% of the mice with established tumors. In addition, a single vaccine dose consisting of the co-administration of pgD-E7E6E5 and the vector encoding interleukin-12 or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor further enhanced the therapeutic anti-tumor effects and conferred protection to 60 and 50% of the vaccinated mice, respectively. In conclusion, id administration of pgD-E7E6E5 significantly enhanced the immunogenicity and anti-tumor effects of the DNA vaccine, representing a promising administration route for future clinical trials.
Romain Daniel Cazé
Full Text Available A signature of visual, auditory, and motor cortices is the presence of neurons tuned to distinct features of the environment. While neuronal tuning can be observed in most brain areas, its origin remains enigmatic, and new calcium imaging data complicate this problem. Dendritic calcium signals, in a L2/3 neuron from the mouse visual cortex, display a wide range of tunings that could be different from the neuronal tuning (Jia et al 2010. To elucidate this observation we use multi-compartmental models of increasing complexity, from a binary to a realistic biophysical model of L2/3 neuron. These models possess non-linear dendritic subunits inside which the result of multiple excitatory inputs is smaller than their arithmetic sum. While dendritic non-linear subunits are ad-hoc in the binary model, non-linearities in the realistic model come from the passive saturation of synaptic currents. Because of these non-linearities our neuron models are scatter sensitive: the somatic membrane voltage is higher when presynaptic inputs target different dendrites than when they target a single dendrite. This spatial bias in synaptic integration is, in our models, the origin of neuronal tuning. Indeed, assemblies of presynaptic inputs encode the stimulus property through an increase in correlation or activity, and only the assembly that encodes the preferred stimulus targets different dendrites. Assemblies coding for the non-preferred stimuli target single dendrites, explaining the wide range of observed tunings and the possible difference between dendritic and somatic tuning. We thus propose, in accordance with the latest experimental observations, that non-linear integration in dendrites can generate neuronal tuning independently of the coding regime.
Margit Schnee; Vogel, Annette B.; Daniel De Voss; Benjamin Petsch; Patrick Baumhof; Thomas Kramps; Lothar Stitz
Rabies is a zoonotic infectious disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In unvaccinated or untreated subjects, rabies virus infection causes severe neurological symptoms and is invariably fatal. Despite the long-standing existence of effective vaccines, vaccine availability remains insufficient, with high numbers of fatal infections mostly in developing countries. Nucleic acid based vaccines have proven convincingly as a new technology for the fast development of vaccines against newly e...
Bejon, Philip; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Kai, Oscar K; Todryk, Stephen; Keating, Sheila; Lang, Trudie; Gilbert, Sarah C; Peshu, Norbert; Marsh, Kevin; Hill, Adrian V S
In a phase 1 trial, 22 children in a malaria endemic area were immunised with candidate malaria vaccination regimes. The regimes used two recombinant viral vectors, attenuated fowlpox strain FP9 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). Both encoded the pre-erythrocytic malaria antigen construct ME-TRAP. Strong T cell responses were detected by both ex vivo and cultured ELISpot assays. Data from phase 1 trials in adults on anti-vector responses raised by FP9 is presented. These responses partially cross-reacted with MVA, and detectably reduced the immunogenicity of vaccination with MVA. This prompted the comparison of half dose and full dose FP9 priming vaccinations in children. Regimes using half dose FP9 priming tended to be more immunogenic than full dose. The potential for enhanced immunogenicity with half doses of priming vectors warrants further investigation, and larger studies to determine protection against malaria in children are required.
Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Rivera, Alejandra; Sáez, Darwin; Fernández, Pablo; Osorio, Gonzalo; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan C; Vidal, Roberto M; Oñate, Angel
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is the predominant causative agent of hemorrhagic colitis in humans and is the cause of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and other illnesses. Cattle have been implicated as the main reservoir of this organism. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding conserved sequences of truncated EHEC factor for adherence-1 (efa-1') in a mouse model. Intranasal administration of plasmid DNA carrying the efa-1' gene (pVAXefa-1') into C57BL/6 mice elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses. In animals immunized with pVAXefa-1', EHEC-secreted protein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in sera at day 45. Anti-EHEC-secreted protein sIgA was also detected in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavages. In addition, antigen-specific T-cell-proliferation, IL-10, and IFN-γ were observed upon re-stimulation with either heat-killed bacteria or EHEC-secreted proteins. Vaccinated animals were also protected against challenge with E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. These results suggest that DNA vaccine encoding efa-1' have therapeutic potential in interventions against EHEC infections. This approach could lead to a new strategy in the production of vaccines that prevent infections in cattle.
A phase I clinical study of vaccination of melanoma patients with dendritic cells loaded with allogeneic apoptotic/necrotic melanoma cells. Analysis of toxicity and immune response to the vaccine and of IL-10 -1082 promoter genotype as predictor of disease progression
von Euw Erika M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sixteen melanoma patients (1 stage IIC, 8 stage III, and 7 stage IV were treated in a Phase I study with a vaccine (DC/Apo-Nec composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs loaded with a mixture of apoptotic/necrotic allogeneic melanoma cell lines (Apo-Nec, to evaluate toxicity and immune responses. Also, IL-10 1082 genotype was analyzed in an effort to predict disease progression. Methods PBMC were obtained after leukapheresis and DCs were generated from monocytes cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 in serum-free medium. Immature DCs were loaded with gamma-irradiated Apo-Nec cells and injected id without adjuvant. Cohorts of four patients were given four vaccines each with 5, 10, 15, or 20 × 106 DC/Apo-Nec cell per vaccine, two weeks apart. Immune responses were measured by ELISpot and tetramer analysis. Il-10 genotype was measured by PCR and corroborated by IL-10 production by stimulated PBMC. Results Immature DCs efficiently phagocytosed melanoma Apo-Nec cells and matured after phagocytosis as evidenced by increased expression of CD83, CD80, CD86, HLA class I and II, and 75.2 ± 16% reduction in Dextran-FITC endocytosis. CCR7 was also up-regulated upon Apo-Nec uptake in DCs from all patients, and accordingly DC/Apo-Nec cells were able to migrate in vitro toward MIP-3 beta. The vaccine was well tolerated in all patients. The DTH score increased significantly in all patients after the first vaccination (Mann-Whitney Test, p +T lymphocytes specific to gp100 and Melan A/MART-1 Ags was determined by ELISpot and tetramer analysis in five HLA-A*0201 patients before and after vaccination; one patient had stable elevated levels before and after vaccination; two increased their CD8 + levels, one had stable moderate and one had negligible levels. The analysis of IL-10 promoter -1082 polymorphism in the sixteen patients showed a positive correlation between AA genotype, accompanied by lower in vitro IL-10 production by
Full Text Available Dendrite morphology, a neuron's anatomical fingerprint, is a neuroscientist's asset in unveiling organizational principles in the brain. However, the genetic program encoding the morphological identity of a single dendrite remains a mystery. In order to obtain a formal understanding of dendritic branching, we studied distributions of morphological parameters in a group of four individually identifiable neurons of the fly visual system. We found that parameters relating to the branching topology were similar throughout all cells. Only parameters relating to the area covered by the dendrite were cell type specific. With these areas, artificial dendrites were grown based on optimization principles minimizing the amount of wiring and maximizing synaptic democracy. Although the same branching rule was used for all cells, this yielded dendritic structures virtually indistinguishable from their real counterparts. From these principles we derived a fully-automated model-based neuron reconstruction procedure validating the artificial branching rule. In conclusion, we suggest that the genetic program implementing neuronal branching could be constant in all cells whereas the one responsible for the dendrite spanning field should be cell specific.
Knutson Keith L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adjuvant trastuzumab (Herceptin treatment of breast cancer patients significantly improves their clinical outcome. Vaccination is an attractive alternative approach to provide HER-2/neu (Her2-specific antibodies and may in addition concomitantly stimulate Her2-reactive T-cells. Here we report the first administration of a Her2-plasmid DNA (pDNA vaccine in humans. Patients and Methods The vaccine, encoding a full-length signaling-deficient version of the oncogene Her2, was administered together with low doses of GM-CSF and IL-2 to patients with metastatic Her2-expressing breast carcinoma who were also treated with trastuzumab. Six of eight enrolled patients completed all three vaccine cycles. In the remaining two patients treatment was discontinued after one vaccine cycle due to rapid tumor progression or disease-related complications. The primary objective was the evaluation of safety and tolerability of the vaccine regimen. As a secondary objective, treatment-induced Her2-specific immunity was monitored by measuring antibody production as well as T-cell proliferation and cytokine production in response to Her2-derived antigens. Results No clinical manifestations of acute toxicity, autoimmunity or cardiotoxicity were observed after administration of Her2-pDNA in combination with GM-CSF, IL-2 and trastuzumab. No specific T-cell proliferation following in vitro stimulation of freshly isolated PBMC with recombinant human Her2 protein was induced by the vaccination. Immediately after all three cycles of vaccination no or even decreased CD4+ T-cell responses towards Her2-derived peptide epitopes were observed, but a significant increase of MHC class II restricted T-cell responses to Her2 was detected at long term follow-up. Since concurrent trastuzumab therapy was permitted, λ-subclass specific ELISAs were performed to specifically measure endogenous antibody production without interference by trastuzumab. Her2-pDNA vaccination
Pudney, Victoria A; Metheringham, Rachael L; Gunn, Barbara; Spendlove, Ian; Ramage, Judith M; Durrant, Lindy G
Stimulation of high-avidity CTL responses is essential for effective anti-tumor and anti-viral vaccines. In this study we have demonstrated that a DNA vaccine incorporating CTL epitopes within an Ab molecule results in high-avidity T-cell responses to both foreign and self epitopes. The avidity and frequency was superior to peptide, peptide-pulsed DC vaccines or a DNA vaccine incorporating the epitope within the native Ag. The DNA Ab vaccine was superior to an identical protein vaccine that can only cross-present, indicating a role for direct presentation by the DNA vaccine. However, the avidity of CTL responses was significantly reduced in Fc receptor gamma knockout mice or if the Fc region was removed suggesting that cross presentation of Ag via Fc receptor was also important in the induction of high-avidity CTL. These results suggest that generation of high-avidity CTL responses by the DNA vaccine is related to its ability to both directly present and cross-present the epitope. High-avidity responses were capable of efficient anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. This study demonstrates a vaccine strategy to generate high-avidity CTL responses that can be used in anti-tumor and anti-viral vaccine settings.
Niranjan Y. Sardesai
Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV causes a severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic fever endemic to West Africa. Presently, there are no FDA-licensed medical countermeasures for this disease. In a pilot study, we constructed a DNA vaccine (pLASV-GPC that expressed the LASV glycoprotein precursor gene (GPC. This plasmid was used to vaccinate guinea pigs (GPs using intramuscular electroporation as the delivery platform. Vaccinated GPs were protected from lethal infection (5/6 with LASV compared to the controls. However, vaccinated GPs experienced transient viremia after challenge, although lower than the mock-vaccinated controls. In a follow-on study, we developed a new device that allowed for both the vaccine and electroporation pulse to be delivered to the dermis. We also codon-optimized the GPC sequence of the vaccine to enhance expression in GPs. Together, these innovations resulted in enhanced efficacy of the vaccine. Unlike the pilot study where neutralizing titers were not detected until after virus challenge, modest neutralizing titers were detected in guinea pigs before challenge, with escalating titers detected after challenge. The vaccinated GPs were never ill and were not viremic at any timepoint. The combination of the codon-optimized vaccine and dermal electroporation delivery is a worthy candidate for further development.
Bahrami, Armina Alagheband; Ghaemi, Amir; Tabarraei, Alijan; Sajadian, Azadeh; Gorji, Ali; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and remains a clinical problem despite improvements in early detection and therapy. The human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) E7 oncoprotein expressed in cervical carcinoma cells are considered as attractive tumor-specific antigen targets for immunotherapy. Since the transformation potential of the oncogenes, vaccination based of these oncogenes is not safe. In present study, DNA vaccine expressing the modified variant with mutation in pRb-binding motif of the HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein was generated. A novel modified E7 gene with mutation in LYCYE motif was designed and constructed and the immunogenicity and antitumor effect of therapeutic DNA vaccines encoding the mutant and wild type of E7 gene were investigated. The L-Y-C-Y-E pRb-binding motif of E7 proteins has been involved in the immortalization and transformation of the host cell. The results showed that the mutant and wild type HPV-16 E7 vectors expressed the desired protein. Furthermore, the immunological mechanism behind mutant E7 DNA vaccine can be attributed at least partially to increased cytotoxic T lymphocyte, accompanied by the up-regulation of Th1-cytokine IFN-γ and TNF-β and down-regulation of Th3-cytokine TGF-β. Immunized mice with mutant plasmid demonstrated signiﬁcantly stronger cell immune responses and higher levels of tumor protection than wild-type E7 DNA vaccine. The results exhibit that modified E7 DNA vaccine may be a promising candidate for development of therapeutic vaccine against HPV-16 cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Selmi, Abderraouf; Vascotto, Fulvia; Kautz-Neu, Kordula; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur; von Stebut, Esther; Diken, Mustafa; Kreiter, Sebastian
Intradermal administration of antigen-encoding RNA has entered clinical testing for cancer vaccination. However, insight into the underlying mechanism of RNA uptake, translation and antigen presentation is still limited. Utilizing pharmacologically optimized naked RNA, the dose-response kinetics revealed a rise in reporter signal with increasing RNA amounts and a prolonged RNA translation of reporter protein up to 30 days after intradermal injection. Dendritic cells (DCs) in the dermis were shown to engulf RNA, and the signal arising from the reporter RNA was significantly diminished after DC depletion. Macropinocytosis was relevant for intradermal RNA uptake and translation in vitro and in vivo. By combining intradermal RNA vaccination and inhibition of macropinocytosis, we show that effective priming of antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cells also relies on this uptake mechanism. This report demonstrates that direct antigen translation by dermal DCs after intradermal naked RNA vaccination is relevant for efficient priming of antigen-specific T-cells.
Jamali, Abbas; Roostaee, Mohammad H; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Ghaderi Pakdel, Firouz; Bamdad, Taravat
The use of morphine has been demonstrated to increase susceptibility to infections. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a highly successful pathogen among immunocompromised individuals. In the present study, due to the importance of HSV vaccination in morphine abusers, the effects of chronic morphine exposure on the host response to a HSV-1 gB DNA-based vaccine have been investigated. The study is addressing an important aspect of vaccine development among the susceptible (immunocompromised) hosts. BALB/c mice were exposed to morphine over 11 days. They were then vaccinated with DNA vaccine or KOS strain as a live vaccine. The findings showed that the morphine-treated animals failed to respond to DNA vaccination evaluated by the anti-HSV gB antibody titer, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) and lethal HSV-1 challenge. Under the same conditions, the KOS vaccine showed a reduced Ab titer and DTH response in morphine-treated mice, but could protect mice against the lethal challenge and was safe for vaccination of morphine-treated animals.
Dai, Yang; Wang, Xiaoting; Tang, Jianxia; Zhao, Song; Xing, Yuntian; Dai, Jianrong; Jin, Xiaolin; Zhu, Yinchang
Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease; developing transmission blocking veterinary vaccines are urgently needed for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in China. Heterologous prime-boost strategy, a novel vaccination approach, is more effective in enhancing vaccine efficacy against multiple pathogens. In the present study, we established a novel heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy, the rAdV-SjTPI.opt intramuscular priming and rSjTPI subcutaneous boosting strategy, and evaluated its protective efficacy against Schistosoma japonicum in mice. Adenoviral vectored vaccine (rAdV-SjTPI.opt) and recombinant protein vaccine (rSjTPI) were prepared and used in different combinations as vaccines in a mouse model. The specific immune responses and protective efficacies were evaluated. Furthermore, the longevity of protective efficacy was also determined. Results showed that the rAdV-SjTPI.opt priming-rSjTPI boosting strategy elicited higher levels of specific IgG responses and broad-spectrum specific cellular immune responses. The protective efficacy could reach up to nearly 70% and 50% of protection could be observed at 10 weeks after the last immunization in mice. The rAdV-SjTPI.opt intramuscular priming-rSjTPI subcutaneous boosting vaccination strategy is a novel, highly efficient, and stable approach to developing vaccines against Schistosoma japonicum infections in China.
Full Text Available Schistosomiasis japonica is a zoonotic parasitic disease; developing transmission blocking veterinary vaccines are urgently needed for the prevention and control of schistosomiasis in China. Heterologous prime-boost strategy, a novel vaccination approach, is more effective in enhancing vaccine efficacy against multiple pathogens. In the present study, we established a novel heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategy, the rAdV-SjTPI.opt intramuscular priming and rSjTPI subcutaneous boosting strategy, and evaluated its protective efficacy against Schistosoma japonicum in mice.Adenoviral vectored vaccine (rAdV-SjTPI.opt and recombinant protein vaccine (rSjTPI were prepared and used in different combinations as vaccines in a mouse model. The specific immune responses and protective efficacies were evaluated. Furthermore, the longevity of protective efficacy was also determined. Results showed that the rAdV-SjTPI.opt priming-rSjTPI boosting strategy elicited higher levels of specific IgG responses and broad-spectrum specific cellular immune responses. The protective efficacy could reach up to nearly 70% and 50% of protection could be observed at 10 weeks after the last immunization in mice.The rAdV-SjTPI.opt intramuscular priming-rSjTPI subcutaneous boosting vaccination strategy is a novel, highly efficient, and stable approach to developing vaccines against Schistosoma japonicum infections in China.
Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Pompa-Mera, Ericka N; Chávez-Rueda, Karina; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro
Rabies DNA vaccines based on full-length glycoprotein (G) induce virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) responses and protect against the virus challenge. Although conformational epitopes of G are the main target of VNAs, some studies have shown that a polypeptide linear epitope G5 is also able to induce VNAs. However, a G5 DNA vaccine has not been explored. While multiple doses of DNA vaccines are required in order to confer a protective immune response, this could be overcome by the inclusion of C3d-P28, a molecular adjuvant is know to improve the antibody response in several anti-viral vaccine models. To induce and enhance the immune response against rabies in mice, we evaluated two DNA vaccines based on the linear epitope G5 of Rabies Virus (RABV) glycoprotein (pVaxG5 vaccine) and another vaccine consisting of G5 fused to the molecular adjuvant C3d-P28 (pVaxF1 vaccine). VNA responses were measured in mice immunized with both vaccines. The VNA levels from the group immunized with pVaxG5 decreased gradually, while those from the group vaccinated with pVaxF1 remained high throughout the experimental study. After challenge with 22 LD50 of the Challenge Virus Strain (CVS), the survival rate of mice immunized with pVaxG5 and pVaxF1 was increased by 27% and 50% respectively, in comparison to the PBS group. Furthermore, the in vitro proliferation of anti-rabies specific spleen CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from mice immunized with pVaxF1 was observed. Collectively, these results suggest that the linear G5 epitope is a potential candidate vaccine. Furthermore, the addition of a C3d-P28 adjuvant contributed to enhanced protection, the sustained production of VNAs, and a specific T-cell proliferative response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, J.‐S; Kim, I. S; Sohn, W.‐M; Lee, J; Yong, T.‐S
..., there is need for alternative, cost‐effective and sustainable strategies, such as a vaccine, for the control of clonorchiasis. Protein‐based vaccines are usually coadministered with immunologic adjuvants which deposit the antigen and stimulate a nonspecific inflammatory response. The most effective adjuvants are often unsuitable for human use because of their to...
Bruffaerts, Nicolas; Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle
two regions with strong predicted SLA-1*0401/SLA-1*0801 binding affinity, was promiscuously recognized by 6/6 animals vaccinated with the BCG-pAg85A combination. Our study provides a proof of concept in a large mammalian species, for a new Th1 and CD8+ targeting tuberculosis vaccine, based on BCG...
Song, Xiaokai; Zhang, Zeyang; Liu, Chang; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Li, Xiangrui
In a previous study, the construction of the Eimeria tenella DNA vaccine pVAX1.0-TA4-IL-2 which provides effective protection against coccidiosis was described and the immunization procedure was optimized. However, the persistence, integration, histopathology and environmental release of the DNA vaccine remain unknown. In this study, the persistence, integration and histopathology of the DNA vaccine pVAX1.0-TA4-IL-2 was evaluated in chickens in the following immunization studies: (1) single-dose immunization in one-day-old chickens; (2) repeat-dose immunization in chickens; and (3) single-high-dose immunization of three batches of plasmid in chickens. The persistence, integration, histopathology of the DNA vaccine was also evaluated in mice. At 1, 1.5, 2-4 months post immunization, blood, duodenum, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and the immunized muscle tissue were collected from ten animals of each group. Persistence and integration were evaluated using PCR with a confirmed sensitivity of 30 plasmid copies. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections were examined for the presence of inflammation or abnormalities that may result from vaccination. Water and fecal samples were also collected from the chicken enclosures to evaluate the potential for environmental release of the DNA vaccine. Testing various tissues by PCR confirmed that plasmid DNA persisted 1.5 months in blood, heart, liver and spleen, 2 months in kidneys and muscle of injected site. Furthermore, the vaccine did not integrate with the host genome. The histopathological examinations did not show obvious inflammation or pathological damage in any tissue of the immunized chickens. Similar results were observed in mice. Moreover, the DNA vaccine was not released into the surrounding environment. These results indicate that the DNA vaccine pVAX1.0-TA4-IL-2 has potential as safe vaccine against coccidiosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Improved humoral and cellular immune responses against the gp120 V3 loop of HIV-1 following genetic immunization with a chimeric DNA vaccine encoding the V3 inserted into the hepatitis B surface antigen
Fomsgaard, A; Nielsen, H V; Bryder, K
-2d-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope. In an attempt to improve the immunogenicity of V3 in DNA vaccines, a plasmid expressing MN V3 as a fusion protein with the highly immunogenic middle (pre-S2 + S) surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) was constructed. Epidermal inoculation......The gp120-derived V3 loop of HIV-1 is involved in co-receptor interaction, it guides cell tropism, and contains an epitope for antibody neutralization. Thus, HIV-1 V3 is an attractive vaccine candidate. The V3 of the MN strain (MN V3) contains both B- and T-cell epitopes, including a known mouse H...... by gene gun was used for genetic immunization in a mouse model. Antibody and CTL responses to MN V3 and HBsAg were measured and compared with the immune responses obtained after vaccination with plasmids encoding the complete HIV-1 MN gp160 and HBsAg (pre-S2 + S), respectively. DNA vaccination...
Improved humoral and cellular immune response against the gp120 V3 loop of HIV-1 following genetic immunization with a chimeric DNA vaccine encoding the V3 inserted into the hepatites B surface antigen
Fomsgaard, A.; Nielsen, H.V.; Bryder, K.
-2d-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope. In an attempt to improve the immunogenicity of V3 in DNA vaccines, a plasmid expressing MN V3 as a fusion protein with the highly immunogenic middle (pre-S2+S) surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) was constructed. Epidermal inoculation......The gp120-derived V3 loop of HIV-1 is involved in co-receptor interaction, it guides cell tropism, and contains an epitope for antibody neutralization. Thus, HIV-1 V3 is an attractive vaccine candidate. The V3 of the MN strain (MN V3) contains both B- and T-cell epitopes, including a known mouse H...... by gene gun was used for genetic immunization in a mouse model. Antibody and CTL responses to MN V3 and HBsAg were measured and compared with the immune responses obtained after vaccination with plasmids encoding the complete HIV-1 MN gp160 and HBsAg (pre-S2+S), respectively. DNA vaccination with the HIV...
Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Young-Man; Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Yu-Na; Ko, Eun-Ju; Yoo, Si-Eun; Kim, Min-Chul; Kim, Ki-Hye; Cho, Min Kyoung; Lee, Young-Tae; Lee, You Ri; Quan, Fu-Shi; Kang, Sang-Moo
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major viral agent causing significant morbidity and mortality in young infants and the elderly. There is no licensed vaccine against RSV and it is a high priority to develop a safe RSV vaccine. We determined the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of combined virus-like particle and DNA vaccines presenting RSV glycoproteins (Fd.VLP) in comparison with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV). Immunization of mice with Fd.VLP induced higher ratios of IgG2a/IgG1 antibody responses compared to those with FI-RSV. Upon live RSV challenge, Fd.VLP and FI-RSV vaccines were similarly effective in clearing lung viral loads. However, FI-RSV immunized mice showed a substantial weight loss and high levels of T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines as well as extensive lung histopathology and eosinophil infiltration. In contrast, Fd.VLP immunized mice did not exhibit Th2 type cytokines locally and systemically, which might contribute to preventing vaccine-associated RSV lung disease. These results indicate that virus-like particles in combination with DNA vaccines represent a potential approach for developing a safe and effective RSV vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tierney, Rob; Nakai, Toru; Parkins, Christopher J; Caposio, Patrizia; Fairweather, Neil F; Sesardic, Dorothea; Jarvis, Michael A
The current commercially available vaccine used to prevent tetanus disease following infection with the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani is safe and effective. However, tetanus remains a major source of mortality in developing countries. In 2008, neonatal tetanus was estimated to have caused >59,000 deaths, accounting for 1% of worldwide infant mortality, primarily in poorer nations. The cost of multiple vaccine doses administered by injection necessary to achieve protective levels of anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies is the primary reason for low vaccine coverage. Herein, we show that a novel vaccine strategy using a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccine platform induces protective levels of anti-tetanus antibodies that are durable (lasting >13 months) in mice following only a single dose. This study demonstrates the ability of a 'single-dose' CMV-based vaccine strategy to induce durable protection, and supports the potential for a tetanus vaccine based on CMV to impact the incidence of tetanus in developing countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parra, Marcela; Liu, Xia; Derrick, Steven C; Yang, Amy; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Zheng, Hong; Thao Pham, Phuong; Sedegah, Martha; Belmonte, Arnel; Litilit, Dianne D; Waldmann, Thomas A; Kumar, Sanjai; Morris, Sheldon L; Perera, Liyanage P
Malaria remains a major global public health problem with an estimated 200 million cases detected in 2012. Although the most advanced candidate malaria vaccine (RTS,S) has shown promise in clinical trials, its modest efficacy and durability have created uncertainty about the impact of RTS,S immunization (when used alone) on global malaria transmission. Here we describe the development and characterization of a novel modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based malaria vaccine which co-expresses the Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and IL-15. Vaccination/challenge studies showed that C57BL/6 mice immunized with the MVA-CSP/IL15 vaccine were protected significantly better against a P. yoelii 17XNL sporozoite challenge than either mice immunized with an MVA vaccine expressing only CSP or naïve controls. Importantly, the levels of total anti-CSP IgG were elevated about 100-fold for the MVA-CSP/IL15 immunized group compared to mice immunized with the MVA-CSP construct that does not express IL-15. Among the IgG subtypes, the IL-15 expressing MVA-CSP vaccine induced levels of IgG1 (8 fold) and IgG2b (80 fold) higher than the MVA-CSP construct. The significantly enhanced humoral responses and protection detected after immunization with the MVA-CSP/IL15 vaccine suggest that this IL-15 expressing MVA construct could be considered in the development of future malaria immunization strategies.
Li, Yuhong; Jin, Jie; Yang, Yaping; Bian, Zhuan; Chen, Zhi; Fan, Mingwen
The present study aimed to enhance the specific anti-caries immunity induced by DNA prime-protein boost strategy for an A-P fragment of a cell-surface protein antigen of Streptococcus mutans (PAc). BALB/c mice were immunized with DNA prime-protein boost, DNA-DNA or protein-protein regimens by the intranasal route, using combinations of plasmid vector (pCIA-P) that express PAc protein and a pure secretec recombinant PAc protein (rPAc). Then, a gnotobiotic mouse model was constructed 2 weeks after the last immunization, and specific immune responses in vivo and their protection against dental caries were observed. The present study revealed stronger antibody responses in the DNA prime-protein boost group compared to those elicited by either DNA-DNA vaccination or protein-protein vaccination. In particular, PAc-specific antibody concentrations were improved significantly after boosting the pCIA-P DNA-primed mice with rPAc. Moreover, protection against S. mutans challenge was obtained in the mice treated with the DNA prime-protein boost vaccination, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in S. mutans colonization compared to control mice and animals immunized with the DNA-DNA vaccination or protein-protein vaccination. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the intranasal DNA prime-protein boost vaccination regimen is a novel strategy for the practical application of DNA vaccine against dental caries.
Galen, James E; Wang, Jin Yuan; Carrasco, Jose A; Lloyd, Scott A; Mellado-Sanchez, Gabriela; Diaz-McNair, Jovita; Franco, Olga; Buskirk, Amanda D; Nataro, James P; Pasetti, Marcela F
Live attenuated bacteria hold great promise as multivalent mucosal vaccines against a variety of pathogens. A major challenge of this approach has been the successful delivery of sufficient amounts of vaccine antigens to adequately prime the immune system without overattenuating the live vaccine. Here we used a live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain to create a bivalent mucosal plague vaccine that produces both the protective F1 capsular antigen of Yersinia pestis and the LcrV protein required for secretion of virulence effector proteins. To reduce the metabolic burden associated with the coexpression of F1 and LcrV within the live vector, we balanced expression of both antigens by combining plasmid-based expression of F1 with chromosomal expression of LcrV from three independent loci. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of this novel vaccine were assessed in mice by using a heterologous prime-boost immunization strategy and compared to those of a conventional strain in which F1 and LcrV were expressed from a single low-copy-number plasmid. The serum antibody responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced by the optimized bivalent vaccine were indistinguishable from those elicited by the parent strain, suggesting an adequate immunogenic capacity maintained through preservation of bacterial fitness; in contrast, LPS titers were 10-fold lower in mice immunized with the conventional vaccine strain. Importantly, mice receiving the optimized bivalent vaccine were fully protected against lethal pulmonary challenge. These results demonstrate the feasibility of distributing foreign antigen expression across both chromosomal and plasmid locations within a single vaccine organism for induction of protective immunity. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Wang, Jin Yuan; Carrasco, Jose A.; Lloyd, Scott A.; Mellado-Sanchez, Gabriela; Diaz-McNair, Jovita; Franco, Olga; Buskirk, Amanda D.; Nataro, James P.; Pasetti, Marcela F.
Live attenuated bacteria hold great promise as multivalent mucosal vaccines against a variety of pathogens. A major challenge of this approach has been the successful delivery of sufficient amounts of vaccine antigens to adequately prime the immune system without overattenuating the live vaccine. Here we used a live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain to create a bivalent mucosal plague vaccine that produces both the protective F1 capsular antigen of Yersinia pestis and the LcrV protein required for secretion of virulence effector proteins. To reduce the metabolic burden associated with the coexpression of F1 and LcrV within the live vector, we balanced expression of both antigens by combining plasmid-based expression of F1 with chromosomal expression of LcrV from three independent loci. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of this novel vaccine were assessed in mice by using a heterologous prime-boost immunization strategy and compared to those of a conventional strain in which F1 and LcrV were expressed from a single low-copy-number plasmid. The serum antibody responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced by the optimized bivalent vaccine were indistinguishable from those elicited by the parent strain, suggesting an adequate immunogenic capacity maintained through preservation of bacterial fitness; in contrast, LPS titers were 10-fold lower in mice immunized with the conventional vaccine strain. Importantly, mice receiving the optimized bivalent vaccine were fully protected against lethal pulmonary challenge. These results demonstrate the feasibility of distributing foreign antigen expression across both chromosomal and plasmid locations within a single vaccine organism for induction of protective immunity. PMID:25332120
Gargett, Tessa; Grubor-Bauk, Branka; Garrod, Tamsin J; Yu, Wenbo; Miller, Darren; Major, Lee; Wesselingh, Steve; Suhrbier, Andreas; Gowans, Eric J
The failure of traditional protein-based vaccines to prevent infection by viruses such as HIV or hepatitis C highlights the need for novel vaccine strategies. DNA vaccines have shown promise in small animal models, and are effective at generating anti-viral T cell-mediated immune responses; however, they have proved to be poorly immunogenic in clinical trials. We propose that the induction of necrosis will enhance the immune response to vaccine antigens encoded by DNA vaccines, as necrotic cells are known to release a range of intracellular factors that lead to dendritic cell (DC) activation and enhanced cross-presentation of antigen. Here we provide evidence that induction of cell death in DNA vaccine-targeted cells provides an adjuvant effect following intradermal vaccination of mice; however, this enhancement of the immune response is dependent on both the mechanism and timing of cell death after antigen expression. We report that a DNA vaccine encoding the cytolytic protein, perforin, resulted in DC activation, enhanced broad and multifunctional CD8 T-cell responses to the HIV-1 antigen GAG and reduced viral load following challenge with a chimeric virus, EcoHIV, compared with the canonical GAG DNA vaccine. This effect was not observed for a DNA vaccine encoding an apoptosis-inducing toxin, DTa, or when the level of perforin expression was increased to induce cell death sooner after vaccination. Thus, inducing lytic cell death following a threshold level of expression of a viral antigen can improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines, whereas apoptotic cell death has an inhibitory effect on the immune response.
Ragonnaud, Emeline; Andersson, Anne-Marie C; Pedersen, Anders Elm
) in a replicative deficient adenovirus vaccine expressing the invariant chain (Ii) adjuvant fused to a tumor associated antigen (TAA). The Ii adjuvant increases and prolongs TAA specific CD8+ T cells as previously shown and local expression of 4-1BBL was chosen to avoid the toxicity associated with systemic...... presenting cells, but it did not enhance T cell responses in mice towards the Ii linked antigen. In tumor-bearing mice, our vaccine was found to decrease the frequency of TAA specific CD8+ T cells, but this difference did not alter the therapeutic efficacy. In order to reconcile our findings...... with the previous reports of increased anti-cancer efficacy using systemically delivered 4-1BB agonists, we incorporated a secreted version of 4-1BBL (Fc-4-1BBL) in our vaccine and co-expressed it with the Ii linked to TAA. In tumor bearing mice, this vaccine initially delayed tumor growth and slightly increased...
Endmann, Anne; Klunder, Katharina; Kapp, Kerstin; Riede, Oliver; Oswald, Detlef; Talman, Eduard G.; Schroff, Matthias; Kleuss, Christiane; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Juhls, Christiane
Currently marketed vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV) based on the small (S) hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) fail to induce a protective immune response in about 10% of vaccinees. DNA vaccination and the inclusion of PreS1 and PreS2 domains of HBsAg have been reported to represent feasible
Beauvillain, Céline; Ruiz, Sophie; Guiton, Rachel; Bout, Daniel; Dimier-Poisson, Isabelle
Our results show that exosomes secreted by SRDC pulsed in vitro with Toxoplasma gondii-derived antigens (Exo-TAg) induced protective responses against infection with the parasite in both syngeneic and allogeneic mice. After oral infection, syngeneic CBA/J mice exhibited significantly fewer cysts in their brains and allogeneic C57BL/6 mice survived. This protection was associated with strong humoral responses in vivo in serum from both CBA/J and C57BL/6 mice, and with high levels of anti-TAg IgA antibodies in intestinal secretions from CBA/J mice alone. Furthermore, strong cellular responses in vivo were observed in both mouse models. Cellular proliferation was associated with cytokines production by spleen and mesenteric lymph node cells. The results presented here show that exosomes are nucleic acid free vesicles that are able to induce immune responses correlated with protection against parasitic infections in both syngeneic and allogeneic mice. They could constitute an efficient tool for use in vaccination and antitumor strategies based on exosomes.
Use of S-[2,3-bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-amido-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol as an adjuvant improved protective immunity associated with a DNA vaccine encoding Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase of Brucella abortus in mice.
Retamal-Díaz, Angello; Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Sáez, Darwin; Rivera, Alejandra; Fernández, Pablo; Cabrera, Alex; Guzmán, Carlos A; Oñate, Angel
This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding Brucella abortus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) using the Toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist S-[2,3-bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-amido-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (BPPcysMPEG) as an adjuvant. Intranasal coadministration of BPPcysMPEG with a plasmid carrying the SOD-encoding gene (pcDNA-SOD) into BALB/c mice elicited antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Humoral responses were characterized by the stimulation of IgG2a and IgG1 and by the presence of SOD-specific secretory IgA in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Furthermore, T-cell proliferative responses and increased production of gamma interferon were also observed upon splenocyte restimulation with recombinant SOD. Cytotoxic responses were also stimulated, as demonstrated by the lysis of RB51-SOD-infected J774.A1 macrophages by cells recovered from immunized mice. The pcDNA-SOD/BPPcysMPEG formulation induced improved protection against challenge with the virulent strain B. abortus 2308 in BALB/c mice over that provided by pcDNA-SOD, suggesting the potential of this vaccination strategy against Brucella infection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Xue, Wei; Metheringham, Rachael L; Brentville, Victoria A; Gunn, Barbara; Symonds, Peter; Yagita, Hideo; Ramage, Judith M; Durrant, Lindy G
Checkpoint blockade has demonstrated promising antitumor responses in approximately 10-40% of patients. However, the majority of patients do not make a productive immune response to their tumors and do not respond to checkpoint blockade. These patients may benefit from an effective vaccine that stimulates high-avidity T cell responses in combination with checkpoint blockade. We have previously shown that incorporating TRP-2 and gp100 epitopes into the CDR regions of a human IgG1 DNA (ImmunoBody®: IB) results in significant tumor regression both in animal models and patients. This vaccination strategy is superior to others as it targets antigen to antigen-presenting cells and stimulates high-avidity T cell responses. To broaden the application of this vaccination strategy, 16 NY-ESO-1 epitopes, covering over 80% of HLA phenotypes, were incorporated into the IB (SCIB2). They produced higher frequency and avidity T cell responses than peptide vaccination. These T cells were of sufficient avidity to kill NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor cells, and in vivo controlled the growth of established B16-NY-ESO-1 tumors, resulting in long-term survival (35%). When SCIB2 was given in combination with Treg depletion, CTLA-4 blockade or PD-1 blockade, long-term survival from established tumors was significantly enhanced to 56, 67 and 100%, respectively. Translating these responses into the clinic by using a combination of SCIB2 vaccination and checkpoint blockade can only further improve clinical responses.
Guardo, Alberto C; Joe, Patrick Tjok; Miralles, Laia; Bargalló, Manel E; Mothe, Beatriz; Krasniqi, Ahmet; Heirman, Carlo; García, Felipe; Thielemans, Kris; Brander, Christian; Aerts, Joeri L; Plana, Montserrat
The development of a prophylactic vaccine against HIV-1 has so far not been successful. Therefore, attention has shifted more and more toward the development of novel therapeutic vaccines. Here, we evaluated a new mRNA-based therapeutic vaccine against HIV-1-encoding activation signals (TriMix: CD40L + CD70 + caTLR4) combined with rationally selected antigenic sequences [HIVACAT T-cell immunogen (HTI)] sequence: comprises 16 joined fragments from Gag, Pol, Vif, and Nef). For this purpose, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-1-infected individuals on cART, lymph node explants from noninfected humans, and splenocytes from immunized mice were collected and several immune functions were measured. Electroporation of immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells from HIV-infected patients with mRNA encoding HTI + TriMix potently activated dendritic cells which resulted in upregulation of maturation markers and cytokine production and T-cell stimulation, as evidenced by enhanced proliferation and cytokine secretion (IFN-γ). Responses were HIV specific and were predominantly targeted against the sequences included in HTI. These findings were confirmed in human lymph node explants exposed to HTI + TriMix mRNA. Intranodal immunizations with HTI mRNA in a mouse model increased antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. The addition of TriMix further enhanced cytotoxic responses. Our results suggest that uptake of mRNA, encoding strong activation signals and a potent HIV antigen, confers a T-cell stimulatory capacity to dendritic cells and enhances their ability to stimulate antigen-specific immunity. These findings may pave the way for therapeutic HIV vaccine strategies based on antigen-encoding RNA to specifically target antigen-presenting cells.
Liu, Yuan; Cao, Aiping; Li, Yawen; Li, Xun; Cong, Hua; He, Shenyi; Zhou, Huaiyu
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded animals including humans and causes toxoplasmosis. An effective vaccine could be an ideal choice for preventing and controlling toxoplasmosis. T. gondii Superoxide dismutase (TgSOD) might participate in affecting the intracellular growth of both bradyzoite and tachyzoite forms. In the present study, the TgSOD gene was used to construct a DNA vaccine (pEGFP-SOD). TgSOD gene was amplified and inserted into eukaryotic vector pEGFP-C1 and formed the DNA vaccine pEGFP-SOD. Then the BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with the DNA vaccine and those injected with pEGFP-C1, PBS or nothing were treated as controls. Four weeks after the last immunization, all mouse groups followed by challenging intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii ME49 strain. Results showed higher levels of total IgG, IgG2α in the sera and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the splenocytes from pEGFP-SOD inoculated mice than those unvaccinated, or inoculated with either empty plasmid vector or PBS. The proportions of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in the spleen from pEGFP-SOD inoculated mice were significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared to control groups. In addition, the survival time of mice immunized with pEGFP-SOD was significantly prolonged as compared to the controls (p < 0.05) although all the mice died. The present study revealed that the DNA vaccine triggered strong humoral and cellular immune responses, and aroused partial protective immunity against acute T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. The collective data suggests the SOD may be a potential vaccine candidate for further development.
Full Text Available Localizing messenger RNAs at specific subcellular sites is a conserved mechanism for targeting the synthesis of cytoplasmic proteins to distinct subcellular domains, thereby generating the asymmetric protein distributions necessary for cellular and developmental polarity. However, the full range of transcripts that are asymmetrically distributed in specialized cell types, and the significance of their localization, especially in the nervous system, are not known. We used the EP-MS2 method, which combines EP transposon insertion with the MS2/MCP in vivo fluorescent labeling system, to screen for novel localized transcripts in polarized cells, focusing on the highly branched Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization neurons. Of a total of 541 lines screened, we identified 55 EP-MS2 insertions producing transcripts that were enriched in neuronal processes, particularly in dendrites. The 47 genes identified by these insertions encode molecularly diverse proteins, and are enriched for genes that function in neuronal development and physiology. RNAi-mediated knockdown confirmed roles for many of the candidate genes in dendrite morphogenesis. We propose that the transport of mRNAs encoded by these genes into the dendrites allows their expression to be regulated on a local scale during the dynamic developmental processes of dendrite outgrowth, branching, and/or remodeling.
Zhou, Tian; Wang, Shanshan; Ren, Haigang; Qi, Xin-Rui; Luchetti, Sabina; Kamphuis, Willem; Zhou, Jiang-Ning; Wang, Guanghui; Swaab, Dick F.
The recently discovered dendritic cell nuclear protein-1 is the product of a novel candidate gene for major depression. The A allele encodes full-length dendritic cell nuclear protein-1, while the T allele encodes a premature termination of translation at codon number 117 on chromosome 5. In the
Shakouri, Mehdi; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad; Ghanei, Mostafa; Arashkia, Arash; Etemadzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Azadmanesh, Kayhan
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), leading to high mortality worldwide. It is well-established that cellular immunity plays a critical role to control Mtb infection. Dendritic Cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells, which play an important role to prime cell-mediated immune responses. In vivo targeting of DCs has been shown to induce both strong cellular immunity and protection against tumor challenges. The aim of the present study was not only to assess the immunizing potential of a novel DC-targeted recombinant lentivirus expressing fusion antigen Ag85A-ESAT6 of Mtb, but also to compare it with a recombinant lentivirus with broad cellular tropism expressing the same antigen in mice. The findings demonstrated that our novel recombinant DC-targeted lentivector was able to successfully transduce and express the fusion antigen Ag85A-E6 in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, a single footpad injection of targeted lentivectors could elicit strong T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity against the above mentioned antigen, as indicated by the specific high-level production of IFN-γ and IL-2 using spleen lymphocytes and lymphoproliferative responses. Despite of these promising results, more attempts are required to elucidate the protective and therapeutic efficacy of this approach in future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bentancor, Leticia V.; Bilen, Marcos; Brando, Romina J. Fernández; Ramos, María Victoria; Ferreira, Luis C. S.; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D.; Palermo, Marina S.
Production of verocytotoxin or Shiga-like toxin (Stx), particularly Stx2, is the basis of hemolytic uremic syndrome, a frequently lethal outcome for subjects infected with Stx2-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains. The toxin is formed by a single A subunit, which promotes protein synthesis inhibition in eukaryotic cells, and five B subunits, which bind to globotriaosylceramide at the surface of host cells. Host enzymes cleave the A subunit into the A1 peptide, endowed with N-glycosidase activity to the 28S rRNA, and the A2 peptide, which confers stability to the B pentamer. We report the construction of a DNA vaccine (pStx2ΔAB) that expresses a nontoxic Stx2 mutated form consisting of the last 32 amino acids of the A2 sequence and the complete B subunit as two nonfused polypeptides. Immunization trials carried out with the DNA vaccine in BALB/c mice, alone or in combination with another DNA vaccine encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, resulted in systemic Stx-specific antibody responses targeting both A and B subunits of the native Stx2. Moreover, anti-Stx2 antibodies raised in mice immunized with pStx2ΔAB showed toxin neutralization activity in vitro and, more importantly, conferred partial protection to Stx2 challenge in vivo. The present vector represents the second DNA vaccine so far reported to induce protective immunity to Stx2 and may contribute, either alone or in combination with other procedures, to the development of prophylactic or therapeutic interventions aiming to ameliorate EHEC infection-associated sequelae. PMID:19176691
Full Text Available Abstract Orally delivered DNA vaccines against duck enteritis virus (DEV were developed using live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (SL7207 as a carrier and Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB as a mucosal adjuvant. DNA vaccine plasmids pVAX-UL24 and pVAX-LTB-UL24 were constructed and transformed into attenuated Salmonella typhimurium SL7207 resulting SL7207 (pVAX-UL24 and SL7207 (pVAX-LTB-UL24 respectively. After ducklings were orally inoculated with SL7207 (pVAX-UL24 or SL7207 (pVAX-LTB-UL24, the anti-DEV mucosal and systemic immune responses were recorded. To identify the optimum dose that confers maximum protection, we used different doses of the candidate vaccine SL7207 (pVAX-LTB-UL24 during oral immunization. The strongest mucosal and systemic immune responses developed in the SL7207 (pVAX-LTB-UL24 (1011 CFU immunized group. Accordingly, oral immunization of ducklings with SL7207 (pVAX-LTB-UL24 showed superior efficacy of protection (60-80% against a lethal DEV challenge (1000 LD50, compared with the limited survival rate (40% of ducklings immunized with SL7207 (pVAX-UL24. Our study suggests that the SL7207 (pVAX-LTB-UL24 can be a candidate DEV vaccine.
Steisslinger, Vera; Korten, Simone; Brattig, Norbert W; Erttmann, Klaus D
River blindness, caused by the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus, is a major socio-economic and public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. In January 2015, The Onchocerciasis Vaccine for Africa (TOVA) Initiative has been launched with the aim of providing new tools to complement mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin, thereby promoting elimination of onchocerciasis in Africa. In this context we here present Onchocerca volvulus glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Ov-GAPDH) as a possible DNA vaccine candidate. We report that in a laboratory model for filariasis, immunization with Ov-GAPDH led to a significant reduction of adult worm load and microfilaraemia in BALB/c mice after challenge infection with the filarial parasite Litomosoides sigmodontis. Mice were either vaccinated with Ov-GAPDH.DNA plasmid (Ov-pGAPDH.DNA) alone or in combination with recombinantly expressed Ov-GAPDH protein (Ov-rGAPDH). During the following challenge infection of immunized and control mice with L. sigmodontis, those formulations which included the DNA plasmid, led to a significant reduction of adult worm loads (up to 57% median reduction) and microfilaraemia (up to 94% reduction) in immunized animals. In a further experiment, immunization with a mixture of four overlapping, synthetic Ov-GAPDH peptides (Ov-GAPDHpept), with alum as adjuvant, did not significantly reduce worm loads. Our results indicate that DNA vaccination with Ov-GAPDH has protective potential against filarial challenge infection in the mouse model. This suggests a transfer of the approach into the cattle Onchocerca ochengi model, where it is possible to investigate the effects of this vaccination in the context of a natural host-parasite relationship. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Chopra, M. A.; Glicksman, M. E.; Singh, N. B.
Alloys generally solidify dendritically, and associated with that is the microsegregation of impurities. Pure metals also solidify in dendritic form as 'thermal' dendrites, which actually segregate the system's enthalpy. In this investigation, small additions of solute to succinonitrile have been studied and dendritic growth observed in a supercooled melt. This free dendritic growth-mode is similar to that experienced by equiaxed dendrites found in alloy castings. Observations of these free dendrites include measurement of velocity and tip radius of the dendrites at different supercoolings and solute concentrations.
Cervantes-Villagrana, Alberto R; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Biragyn, Arya; Castañeda-Delgado, Julio; Bodogai, Monica; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita; Sada, Eduardo; Trujillo, Valentin; Enciso-Moreno, Antonio; Rivas-Santiago, Bruno
The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that there are about 8 million new cases annually of active Tuberculosis (TB). Despite its irregular effectiveness (0-89%), the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) BCG is the only vaccine available worldwide for prevention of TB; thus, the design is important of novel and more efficient vaccination strategies. Considering that β-defensin-2 is an antimicrobial peptide that induces dendritic cell maturation through the TLR-4 receptor and that both ESAT-6 and Ag85B are immunodominant mycobacterial antigens and efficient activators of the protective immune response, we constructed two DNA vaccines by the fusion of the gene encoding β-defensin-2 and antigens ESAT6 (pDE) and 85B (pDA). After confirming efficient local antigen expression that induced high and stable Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in intramuscular (i.m.) vaccinated Balb/c mice, groups of mice were vaccinated with DNA vaccines in a prime-boost regimen with BCG and with BCG alone, and 2 months later were challenged with the mild virulence reference strain H37Rv and the highly virulent clinical isolate LAM 5186. The level of protection was evaluated by survival, lung bacilli burdens, and extension of tissue damage (pneumonia). Vaccination with both DNA vaccines showed similar protection to that of BCG. After the challenge with the highly virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain, animals that were prime-boosted with BCG and then boosted with both DNA vaccines showed significant higher survival and less tissue damage than mice vaccinated only with BCG. These results suggest that improvement of BCG vaccination, such as the prime-boost DNA vaccine, represents a more efficient vaccination scheme against TB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kranz, Lena M.; Diken, Mustafa; Haas, Heinrich; Kreiter, Sebastian; Loquai, Carmen; Reuter, Kerstin C.; Meng, Martin; Fritz, Daniel; Vascotto, Fulvia; Hefesha, Hossam; Grunwitz, Christian; Vormehr, Mathias; Hüsemann, Yves; Selmi, Abderraouf; Kuhn, Andreas N.; Buck, Janina; Derhovanessian, Evelyna; Rae, Richard; Attig, Sebastian; Diekmann, Jan; Jabulowsky, Robert A.; Heesch, Sandra; Hassel, Jessica; Langguth, Peter; Grabbe, Stephan; Huber, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur
Lymphoid organs, in which antigen presenting cells (APCs) are in close proximity to T cells, are the ideal microenvironment for efficient priming and amplification of T-cell responses. However, the systemic delivery of vaccine antigens into dendritic cells (DCs) is hampered by various technical challenges. Here we show that DCs can be targeted precisely and effectively in vivo using intravenously administered RNA-lipoplexes (RNA-LPX) based on well-known lipid carriers by optimally adjusting net charge, without the need for functionalization of particles with molecular ligands. The LPX protects RNA from extracellular ribonucleases and mediates its efficient uptake and expression of the encoded antigen by DC populations and macrophages in various lymphoid compartments. RNA-LPX triggers interferon-α (IFNα) release by plasmacytoid DCs and macrophages. Consequently, DC maturation in situ and inflammatory immune mechanisms reminiscent of those in the early systemic phase of viral infection are activated. We show that RNA-LPX encoding viral or mutant neo-antigens or endogenous self-antigens induce strong effector and memory T-cell responses, and mediate potent IFNα-dependent rejection of progressive tumours. A phase I dose-escalation trial testing RNA-LPX that encode shared tumour antigens is ongoing. In the first three melanoma patients treated at a low-dose level, IFNα and strong antigen-specific T-cell responses were induced, supporting the identified mode of action and potency. As any polypeptide-based antigen can be encoded as RNA, RNA-LPX represent a universally applicable vaccine class for systemic DC targeting and synchronized induction of both highly potent adaptive as well as type-I-IFN-mediated innate immune mechanisms for cancer immunotherapy.
Speir, M; Authier-Hall, A; Brooks, C R; Farrand, K J; Compton, B J; Anderson, R J; Heiser, A; Osmond, T L; Tang, C W; Berzofsky, J A; Terabe, M; Painter, G F; Hermans, I F; Weinkove, R
An important goal of vaccination against viruses and virus-driven cancers is to elicit cytotoxic CD8+ T cells specific for virus-derived peptides. CD8+ T cell responses can be enhanced by engaging help from natural killer T (NKT) cells. We have produced synthetic vaccines that induce strong peptide-specific CD8+ T cell responses in vivo by incorporating an NKT cell-activating glycolipid. Here we examine the effect of a glycolipid-peptide conjugate vaccine incorporating an NKT cell-activating glycolipid linked to an MHC class I-restricted peptide from a viral antigen in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The vaccine induces CD1d-dependent activation of human NKT cells following enzymatic cleavage, activates human dendritic cells in an NKT-cell dependent manner, and generates a pool of activated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells with cytotoxic potential. Compared to unconjugated peptide, the vaccine upregulates expression of genes encoding interferon-γ, CD137 and granzyme B. A similar vaccine incorporating a peptide from the clinically-relevant human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 E7 oncoprotein induces cytotoxicity against peptide-expressing targets in vivo, and elicits a better antitumor response in a model of E7-expressing lung cancer than its unconjugated components. Glycolipid-peptide conjugate vaccines may prove useful for the prevention or treatment of viral infections and tumors that express viral antigens.
Luo, Yunping; Zhou, He; Mizutani, Masato; Mizutani, Noriko; Reisfeld, Ralph A.; Xiang, Rong
Protection against breast cancer was achieved with a DNA vaccine against murine transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1, which is overexpressed in aggressively proliferating D2F2 murine breast carcinoma. Growth of primary s.c. tumor and dissemination of pulmonary metastases was markedly suppressed by this oral DNA vaccine, carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium, encoding murine Fos-related antigen 1, fused with mutant polyubiquitin, and cotransformed with secretory murine IL-18. The life span of 60% of vaccinated mice was tripled in the absence of detectable tumor growth after lethal tumor cell challenge. Immunological mechanisms involved activation of T, natural killer, and dendritic cells, as indicated by up-regulation of their activation markers and costimulatory molecules. Markedly increased specific target cell lysis was mediated by both MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells isolated from splenocytes of vaccinated mice, including a significant release of proinflammatory cytokines IFN- and IL-2. Importantly, fluorescence analysis of fibroblast growth factor 2 and tumor cell-induced vessel growth in Matrigel plugs demonstrated marked suppression of angiogenesis only in vaccinated animals. Taken together, this multifunctional DNA vaccine proved effective in protecting against growth and metastases of breast cancer by combining the action of immune effector cells with suppression of tumor angiogenesis. vaccine | tumor | metastases | antiangiogenesis
Full Text Available He Wang,1 Jiyun Yu,2 Li Li1 1Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, 2Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV is a predominant cause of cervical cancer, and HPV58 is the third most common virus detected in the patients with cervical cancer in Asia. E6 and E7 are the viral oncogenes which are constitutively expressed in HPV-associated tumor cells and can be used as target antigens for related immunotherapy. In this study, we modified the HPV58 E6 and E7 oncogenes to eliminate their oncogenic potential and constructed a recombinant DNA vaccine that coexpresses the sig-HPV58 mE6E7-Fc-GPI fusion antigen in addition to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF and B7.1 as molecular adjuvants (PVAX1-HPV58 mE6E7FcGB for the treatment of HPV58 (+ cancer. Methods: PVAX1-HPV58 mE6E7FcGB recombinant DNA vaccine was constructed to express a fusion protein containing a signal peptide, a modified HPV58 mE6E7 gene, and human IgG Fc and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchoring sequences using the modified DNA vaccine vector PVAX1-IRES-GM/B7.1 that coexpresses GM-CSF, and B7.1. C57BL/6 mice were challenged by HPV58 E6E7-expressing B16-HPV58 E6E7 cells, followed by immunization by PVAX1-HPV58 mE6E7FcGB vaccine on days 7, 14, 21 after tumor challenge. The cellular immune responses in immunized mice were assessed by measuring IFN-γ production in splenocytes upon stimulation by HPV58 E6E7-GST protein and the lysis of B16-HPV58 E6E7 target cells by splenocytes after restimulation with HPV58 E6E7-GST protein. The antitumor efficacy was evaluated by monitoring the growth of the tumor. Results: PVAX1-HPV58 mE6E7FcGB elicited varying levels of IFN-lsgdB58onn T-cell immune responses and lysis of target cell in mice in response to the
The HIV global pandemic continues to rage with over 33 million people living with the disease. Although multidrug therapy has improved the prognosis for those infected by the virus, it has not eradicated the infection. Immunological therapies, including therapeutic vaccines, are needed to supplement drug therapy in the search for a 'functional cure' for HIV. DermaVir (Genetic Immunity Kft, Budapest, Hungary and McLean, Virginia, USA), an experimental HIV/AIDS therapeutic vaccine, combines three key elements of rational therapeutic vaccine design: a single plasmid DNA (pDNA) immunogen expressing 15 HIV antigens, a synthetic pDNA nanomedicine formulation and a dendritic cell-targeting topical-vaccine administration. DermaVir's novel mechanism of action, natural transport by epidermal Langerhans cells to the lymph nodes to express the pDNA-encoded HIV antigens and induce precursor/memory T cells with high proliferation capacity, has been consistently demonstrated in mouse, rabbit, primate and human subjects. Safety, immunogenicity and preliminary efficacy of DermaVir have been clinically demonstrated in HIV-infected human subjects. The DermaVir technology platform for dendritic cell-based therapeutic vaccination might offer a new treatment paradigm for cancer and infectious diseases.
Full Text Available More than 170 million individuals worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV, and up to an estimated 30% of chronically infected individuals will go on to develop progressive liver disease. Despite the recent advances in antiviral treatment of HCV infection, it remains a major public health problem. Thus, development of an effective vaccine is urgently required. In this study, we constructed novel adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors expressing the full-length NS3 or NS3/4 protein of HCV genotype 1b. The expression of the NS3 or NS3/4 protein in HepG2 cells was confirmed by western blotting. C57BL/6 mice were intramuscularly immunised with a single injection of AAV vectors, and the resultant immune response was investigated. The AAV2/rh32.33.NS3/4 vaccine induced stronger humoral and cellular responses than did the AAV2/rh32.33.NS3 vaccine. Our results demonstrate that AAV-based vaccines exhibit considerable potential for the development of an effective anti-HCV vaccine.
Withoff, S; Glazenburg, KL; van Veen, ML; Kraak, MMJ; Hospers, GAP; Storkel, S; de Vries, EGE; Wischut, J; Daemen, T
This paper describes the production of recombinant Semliki Forest virus encoding murine or human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the capacity of these vectors to transduce murine and human tumor cells ex vivo. High-titer stocks (up to 3 x 10(9) particles/ml) of
next 5 years, based on gender, blood pressure, body mass index, smoking history and presence or absence of diabetes . This was done to avoid the...lacking effective vaccines, such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Adeno- vectors have proven especially effective at inducing robust CD8+ T cell...infectious diseases particularly tuberculosis  and HIV [51,52,53] where CMI is likely important. Limitations The main finding of this study that CD8+ T
Kreutz, Martin; Tacken, Paul J; Figdor, Carl G
Vaccination is among the most efficient forms of immunotherapy. Although sometimes inducing lifelong protective B-cell responses, T-cell-mediated immunity remains challenging. Targeting antigen to dendritic cells (DCs) is an extensively explored concept aimed at improving cellular immunity. The identification of various DC subsets with distinct functional characteristics now allows for the fine-tuning of targeting strategies. Although some of these DC subsets are regarded as superior for (cross-) priming of naive T cells, controversies still remain about which subset represents the best target for immunotherapy. Because targeting the antigen alone may not be sufficient to obtain effective T-cell responses, delivery systems have been developed to target multiple vaccine components to DCs. In this Perspective, we discuss the pros and cons of targeting DCs: if targeting is beneficial at all and which vaccine vehicles and immunization routes represent promising strategies to reach and activate DCs.
Full Text Available Background: The current study was designed to evaluate immune responses induced by DNA vaccines encoding 8-kDa subunit of antigen B (HydI of Echinococcus granulosus and murine interleukin 12 (IL-12 as genetic adjuvants in BALB/c mice.Methods: Expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 containing HydI (pcHyd1 as vaccine along with the murine interleukin 12 (pcMIL12 as adjuvant were used. Thirty-five mice in the five experimental groups received PBS, empty pcDNA3.1, pcHydІ, pcMIL-12, and pcHydІ+ pcMIL-12 in days zero, 14th and 28th. Two weeks after the last immunization, evaluation of the immune response was performed by evaluating the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes, IFN-γ and IL-4, determination of IgG isotyping titer.Results: Mice that received the pcHydI+pcMIL12 exhibited higher levels of lymphocyte proliferation compared to mice that received the pcHydI alone (P<0.001, and produced significantly more IFN-γ in comparison to other groups (P< 0.001. In addition, they produced significantly less IL-4 than mice receiving the PBS and the empty plasmid (P<0.023. The IgG2a levels were clearly higher in pcHydI+pcMIL12 group in comparison with the groups of pcHydI alone, empty plasmid, and PBS. In contrast, IgG1 was elevated in the group of pcHydI.Conclusion: Co-delivery of IL-12 with DNA encoding 8-kDa subunit of antigen B was effective significantly in inducing the immune response in mice.
Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M
Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....
Hansen, M; Met, Ö; Svane, I M
Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... to transiently affect in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....
Long-term protection against human papillomavirus e7-positive tumor by a single vaccination of adeno-associated virus vectors encoding a fusion protein of inactivated e7 of human papillomavirus 16/18 and heat shock protein 70.
Zhou, Liqiao; Zhu, Tong; Ye, Xiaojing; Yang, Lin; Wang, Bing; Liang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Lina; Tsao, Yeou-Ping; Chen, Show-Li; Li, Juan; Xiao, Xiao
We investigated a gene vaccine strategy against human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cancer and premalignant diseases, using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding the viral E7 oncoproteins as the tumor antigens from HPV serotypes 16 (HPV16) and 18 (HPV18). Genetically inactivated E7 proteins were fused with a heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) to minimize the risk of cell transformation and enhance immune responses. The fusion protein gene was packaged in AAV serotype 1 or 2 (AAV1 or 2) for efficient in vivo gene expression. Our results showed that after a single intramuscular injection, the AAV1 vector elicited stronger HPV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses and interferon-gamma secretion when compared with the AAV2 vector. Prophylactic immunization with AAV1 protected 100% of the mice from tumor growth for more than 1 year, whereas all the control mice immunized with either a LacZ vector or saline grew large tumors and died within 6 weeks after inoculation of E7-positive tumor cell line TC-1. In addition, this single-dose AAV1 vaccination completely protected the mice against second and third challenges with higher numbers of TC-1 cells. Despite lower CTL responses against the E7 antigens, AAV2 vector prophylactic immunization was also sufficient to protect 100% of the mice against the initial and second tumor challenges and 70% of the mice against the third challenge. In addition, therapeutic immunization with AAV1 after palpable tumor formation inhibited tumor growth and caused tumor regression in some mice. Thus, our studies support the potential of AAV vectors as a genetic vaccine for the prevention and treatment of HPV-induced malignancies.
A Plasmodium vivax Plasmid DNA- and Adenovirus-Vectored Malaria Vaccine Encoding Blood-Stage Antigens AMA1 and MSP142in a Prime/Boost Heterologous Immunization Regimen Partially Protects Aotus Monkeys against Blood-Stage Challenge.
Obaldia, Nicanor; Stockelman, Michael G; Otero, William; Cockrill, Jennifer A; Ganeshan, Harini; Abot, Esteban N; Zhang, Jianfeng; Limbach, Keith; Charoenvit, Yupin; Doolan, Denise L; Tang, De-Chu C; Richie, Thomas L
Malaria is caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium , which are transmitted to humans by the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes. After the elimination of Plasmodium falciparum , it is predicted that Plasmodium vivax will remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality outside Africa, stressing the importance of developing a vaccine against P. vivax malaria. In this study, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of two P. vivax antigens, apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and the 42-kDa C-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1 42 ) in a plasmid recombinant DNA prime/adenoviral (Ad) vector boost regimen in Aotus monkeys. Groups of 4 to 5 monkeys were immunized with plasmid DNA alone, Ad alone, prime/boost regimens with each antigen, prime/boost regimens with both antigens, and empty vector controls and then subjected to blood-stage challenge. The heterologous immunization regimen with the antigen pair was more protective than either antigen alone or both antigens delivered with a single vaccine platform, on the basis of their ability to induce the longest prepatent period and the longest time to the peak level of parasitemia, the lowest peak and mean levels of parasitemia, the smallest area under the parasitemia curve, and the highest self-cure rate. Overall, prechallenge MSP1 42 antibody titers strongly correlated with a decreased parasite burden. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of immunized animals developed anemia. In conclusion, the P. vivax plasmid DNA/Ad serotype 5 vaccine encoding blood-stage parasite antigens AMA1 and MSP1 42 in a heterologous prime/boost immunization regimen provided significant protection against blood-stage challenge in Aotus monkeys, indicating the suitability of these antigens and this regimen for further development. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
Hoyt, J. J.; Karma, Alain; Asta, M. A.; Sun, D. Y.
Dendritic microstructures control the properties of a wide range of advanced materials ranging from nickel-based superalloys used in turbine blades to lightweight aluminum-based alloys for the automotive industry. This article reviews recent progress in quantitative modeling dendritic growth through the combination of state-of-the-art atomistic and phase field simulations. Also shown is how the combination of these two distinct length-scale modeling approaches can yield a parameter-free prediction of the dendrite growth velocity as a function of undercooling for deeply undercooled nickel melts.
Miermans, Karsten; Storm, Cornelis; Hoogenraad, Casper
Dendritic spines are small membranous structures that protrude from the neuronal dendrite. Each spine contains a synaptic contact site that may connect its parent dendrite to the axons of neighboring neurons. Dendritic spines are markedly distinct in shape and size, and certain types of stimulation prompt spines to evolve, in fairly predictable fashion, from thin nascent morphologies to the mushroom-like shapes associated with mature spines. This striking progression is coincident with the (re)configuration of the neuronal network during early development, learning and memory formation, and has been conjectured to be part of the machinery that encodes these processes at the scale of individual neuronal connections. It is well established that the structural plasticity of spines is strongly dependent upon the actin cytoskeleton inside the spine. A general framework that details the precise role of actin in directing the transitions between the various spine shapes is lacking. We address this issue, and present...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendrites are the most conspicuous feature of neurons. However, the principles determining their structure are poorly understood. By employing cable theory and, for the first time, graph theory, we describe dendritic anatomy solely on the basis of optimizing synaptic efficacy with minimal resources. Results We show that dendritic branching topology can be well described by minimizing the path length from the neuron's dendritic root to each of its synaptic inputs while constraining the total length of wiring. Tapering of diameter toward the dendrite tip – a feature of many neurons – optimizes charge transfer from all dendritic synapses to the dendritic root while housekeeping the amount of dendrite volume. As an example, we show how dendrites of fly neurons can be closely reconstructed based on these two principles alone.
J. C. Rangel-Reyes
Full Text Available Therapeutic protocols in immunotherapy are usually proposed following the intuition and experience of the therapist. In order to deduce such protocols mathematical modeling, optimal control and simulations are used instead of the therapist’s experience. Clinical efficacy of dendritic cell (DC vaccines to cancer treatment is still unclear, since dendritic cells face several obstacles in the host environment, such as immunosuppression and poor transference to the lymph nodes reducing the vaccine effect. In view of that, we have created a mathematical murine model to measure the effects of dendritic cell injections admitting such obstacles. In addition, the model considers a therapy given by bolus injections of small duration as opposed to a continual dose. Doses timing defines the therapeutic protocols, which in turn are improved to minimize the tumor mass by an optimal control algorithm. We intend to supplement therapist’s experience and intuition in the protocol’s implementation. Experimental results made on mice infected with melanoma with and without therapy agree with the model. It is shown that the dendritic cells’ percentage that manages to reach the lymph nodes has a crucial impact on the therapy outcome. This suggests that efforts in finding better methods to deliver DC vaccines should be pursued.
Colluru, Viswa Teja; McNeel, Douglas G.
In spite of remarkable preclinical efficacy, DNA vaccination has demonstrated low immunogenicity in humans. While efforts have focused on increasing cross-presentation of DNA-encoded antigens, efforts to increase DNA vaccine immunogenicity by targeting direct presentation have remained mostly unexplored. In these studies, we compared the ability of different APCs to present antigen to T cells after simple co-culture with plasmid DNA. We found that human primary peripheral B lymphocytes, and not monocytes or in vitro derived dendritic cells (DCs), were able to efficiently encode antigen mRNA and expand cognate tumor antigen-specific CD8 T cells ex vivo. Similarly, murine B lymphocytes co-cultured with plasmid DNA, and not DCs, were able to prime antigen-specific T cells in vivo. Moreover, B lymphocyte-mediated presentation of plasmid antigen led to greater Th1-biased immunity and was sufficient to elicit an anti-tumor effect in vivo. Surprisingly, increasing plasmid presentation by B cells, and not cross presentation of peptides by DCs, further augmented traditional plasmid vaccination. Together, these data suggest that targeting plasmid DNA to B lymphocytes, for example through transfer of ex vivo plasmidloaded B cells, may be novel means to achieve greater T cell immunity from DNA vaccines. PMID:27661128
Cloward, Jason M; Shafer, William M
The surface-exposed NadA adhesin produced by a subset of capsular serogroup B strains of Neisseria meningitidis is currently being considered as a vaccine candidate to prevent invasive disease caused by a hypervirulent lineage of meningococci. Levels of NadA are known to be controlled by both transcriptional regulatory factors and a component of human saliva, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. Herein, we confirmed the capacity of a DNA-binding protein termed FarR to negatively control nadA expression. We also found that a known transcriptional regulator of farR in N. gonorrhoeae termed MtrR can have a negative regulatory impact on farR and nadA expression, especially when over-expressed. MtrR-mediated repression of nadA was found to be direct, and its binding to a target DNA sequence containing the nadA promoter influenced formation and/or stability of FarR::nadA complexes. The complexity of the multi-layered regulation of nadA uncovered during this investigation suggests that N. meningitidis modulates NadA adhesin protein levels for the purpose of interacting with host cells yet avoiding antibody directed against surface exposed epitopes.
Feb 18, 2011 ... To investigate vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer (CRC) cell pulsed autologous dendritic cells. (DCs) in advanced CRC, 14 patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) were enrolled and treated with DCs vaccine to assess toxicity, tolerability, immune and clinical responses to the vaccine. No.
To investigate vaccination with apoptosis colorectal cancer (CRC) cell pulsed autologous dendritic cells (DCs) in advanced CRC, 14 patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) were enrolled and treated with DCs vaccine to assess toxicity, tolerability, immune and clinical responses to the vaccine. No severe toxicity ...
Full Text Available Viruses have developed strategies to counteract signalling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs that are involved in the detection of viruses and induction of proinflammatory cytokines and IFNs. Vaccinia virus (VACV encodes A46 protein which disrupts TLR signalling by interfering with TLR: adaptor interactions. Since the innate immune response to viruses is critical to induce protective immunity, we studied whether deletion of A46R gene in a NYVAC vector expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol and Nef antigens (NYVAC-C improves immune responses against HIV-1 antigens. This question was examined in human macrophages and in mice infected with a single A46R deletion mutant of the vaccine candidate NYVAC-C (NYVAC-C-ΔA46R. The viral gene A46R is not required for virus replication in primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF cells and its deletion in NYVAC-C markedly increases TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 secretion by human macrophages. Analysis of the immune responses elicited in BALB/c mice after DNA prime/NYVAC boost immunization shows that deletion of A46R improves the magnitude of the HIV-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell immune responses during adaptive and memory phases, maintains the functional profile observed with the parental NYVAC-C and enhances anti-gp120 humoral response during the memory phase. These findings establish the immunological role of VACV A46R on innate immune responses of macrophages in vitro and antigen-specific T and B cell immune responses in vivo and suggest that deletion of viral inhibitors of TLR signalling is a useful approach for the improvement of poxvirus-based vaccine candidates.
Immunogenicity evaluation of a rationally designed polytope construct encoding HLA-A*0201 restricted epitopes derived from Leishmania major related proteins in HLA-A2/DR1 transgenic mice: steps toward polytope vaccine.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are several reports demonstrating the role of CD8 T cells against Leishmania species. Therefore peptide vaccine might represent an effective approach to control the infection. We developed a rational polytope-DNA construct encoding immunogenic HLA-A2 restricted peptides and validated the processing and presentation of encoded epitopes in a preclinical mouse model humanized for the MHC-class-I and II. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HLA-A*0201 restricted epitopes from LPG-3, LmSTI-1, CPB and CPC along with H-2Kd restricted peptides, were lined-up together as a polytope string in a DNA construct. Polytope string was rationally designed by harnessing advantages of ubiquitin, spacers and HLA-DR restricted Th1 epitope. Endotoxin free pcDNA plasmid expressing the polytope was inoculated into humanized HLA-DRB1*0101/HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice intramuscularly 4 days after Cardiotoxin priming followed by 2 boosters at one week interval. Mice were sacrificed 10 days after the last booster, and splenocytes were subjected to ex-vivo and in-vitro evaluation of specific IFN-γ production and in-vitro cytotoxicity against individual peptides by ELISpot and standard chromium-51 (51Cr release assay respectively. 4 H-2Kd and 5 HLA-A*0201 restricted peptides were able to induce specific CD8 T cell responses in BALB/C and HLA-A2/DR1 mice respectively. IFN-γ and cytolytic activity together discriminated LPG-3-P1 as dominant, LmSTI-1-P3 and LmSTI-1-P6 as subdominant with both cytolytic activity and IFN-γ production, LmSTI-1-P4 and LPG-3-P5 as subdominant with only IFN-γ production potential. CONCLUSIONS: Here we described a new DNA-polytope construct for Leishmania vaccination encompassing immunogenic HLA-A2 restricted peptides. Immunogenicity evaluation in HLA-transgenic model confirmed CD8 T cell induction with expected affinities and avidities showing almost efficient processing and presentation of the peptides in relevant preclinical model. Further
Ma, Yuan; Mou, Quanbing; Wang, Dali; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue
Dendritic polymers are highly branched polymers with controllable structures, which possess a large population of terminal functional groups, low solution or melt viscosity, and good solubility. Their size, degree of branching and functionality can be adjusted and controlled through the synthetic procedures. These tunable structures correspond to application-related properties, such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, stimuli-responsiveness and self-assembly ability, which are the key points for theranostic applications, including chemotherapeutic theranostics, biotherapeutic theranostics, phototherapeutic theranostics, radiotherapeutic theranostics and combined therapeutic theranostics. Up to now, significant progress has been made for the dendritic polymers in solving some of the fundamental and technical questions toward their theranostic applications. In this review, we briefly summarize how to control the structures of dendritic polymers, the theranostics-related properties derived from their structures and their theranostics-related applications.
Báez-Astúa, Andrés; Herráez-Hernández, Elsa; Garbi, Natalio; Pasolli, Hilda A; Juárez, Victoria; Zur Hausen, Harald; Cid-Arregui, Angel
Induction of effective immune responses may help prevent cancer progression. Tumor-specific antigens, such as those of human papillomaviruses involved in cervical cancer, are targets with limited intrinsic immunogenicity. Here we show that immunization with low doses (10(6) infectious units/dose) of a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 encoding a fusion of the E7 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus type 16 to the carboxyl terminus of the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) induces remarkable E7-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. The HBsAg/E7 fusion protein assembled efficiently into virus-like particles, which stimulated antibody responses against both carrier and foreign antigens, and evoked antigen-specific kill of an indicator cell population in vivo. Antibody and T-cell responses were significantly higher than those induced by a control adenovirus vector expressing wild-type E7. Such responses were not affected by preexisting immunity against either HBsAg or adenovirus. These data demonstrate that the presence of E7 on HBsAg particles does not interfere with particle secretion, as it occurs with bigger proteins fused to the C terminus of HBsAg, and results in enhancement of CD8(+)-mediated T-cell responses to E7. Thus, fusion to HBsAg is a convenient strategy for developing cervical cancer therapeutic vaccines, since it enhances the immunogenicity of E7 while turning it into an innocuous secreted fusion protein.
Dong, Rong; Long, Jinhua; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chunlin; Wen, Zongyao; Li, Long; Yao, Weijuan; Zeng, Zhu
Dendritic cells are potent and specialized antigen presenting cells, which play a crucial role in initiating and amplifying both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The dendritic cell-based vaccination against cancer has been clinically achieved promising successes. But there are still many challenges in its clinical application, especially for how to identify the functional states. The CD14+ monocytes were isolated from human peripheral blood after plastic adherence and purified to approximately 98% with cocktail immunomagnetic beads. The immature dendritic cells and mature dendritic cells were induced by traditional protocols. The resulting dendritic cells were cocultured with normal cells and cancer cells. The functional state of dendritic cells including immature dendritic cells (imDCs) and mature dendritic cells (mDCs) under different conditioned microenvironments were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and molecular biological methods. The results of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy showed that the gene transcription activity and energy states of dendritic cells were specifically suppressed by tumor cells (P Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy at given wave numbers were closely correlated with the expression levels of NF-κB (R2:0.69 and R2:0.81, respectively). Our results confirmed that the ratios of absorption intensities of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy at given wave numbers were positively correlated with the expression levels of NF-κB, suggesting that Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy technology could be clinically applied to identify the functional states of dendritic cell when performing dendritic cell-based vaccination. It's significant for the simplification and standardization of dendritic cell-based vaccination clinical preparation protocols.
This study evaluates the effectiveness of cryotherapy in the treatment of dendritic Keratitis where antiviral agents are not available. The results show some improvement in visual acuity while one patient has a drop in vision. The extent of corneal scarring appears to depend on the duration of the disease and extent of stroma.
Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; Abnormal ...
Nielsen, John; Janda, Kim D.
The recent application of "combinatorial libraries" to supplement existing drug screening processes might simplify and accelerate the search for new lead compounds or drugs. Recently, a scheme for encoded combinatorial chemistry was put forward to surmount a number of the limitations possessed...... by existing methodologies. Here we detail the synthesis of several matrices and the necessary chemistry to implement the conceptual scheme. In addition, we disclose how this novel technology permits a controlled ′dendritic" display of the chemical libraries....
Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; del Angel, Alma Rosa; Gonzalez-Burgos, Ignacio
Since 1890 Ramón y Cajal strongly defended the theory that dendrites and their processes and spines had a function of not just nutrient transport to the cell body, but they had an important conductive role in neural impulse transmission. He extensively discussed and supported this theory in the Volume 1 of his extraordinary book Textura del Sistema Nervioso del Hombre y de los Vertebrados. Also, Don Santiago significantly contributed to a detailed description of the various neural components of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex during development. Extensive investigation has been done in the last Century related to the functional role of these complex brain regions, and their association with learning, memory and some limbic functions. Likewise, the organization and expression of neuropsychological qualities such as memory, exploratory behavior and spatial orientation, among others, depend on the integrity and adequate functional activity of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. It is known that brain serotonin synthesis and release depend directly and proportionally on the availability of its precursor, tryptophan (TRY). By using a chronic TRY restriction model in rats, we studied their place learning ability in correlation with the dendritic spine density of pyramidal neurons in field CA1 of the hippocampus during postnatal development. We have also reported alterations in the maturation pattern of the ability for spontaneous alternation and task performance evaluating short-term memory, as well as adverse effects on the density of dendritic spines of hippocampal CA1 field pyramidal neurons and on the dendritic arborization and the number of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons from the third layer of the prefrontal cortex using the same model of TRY restriction. The findings obtained in these studies employing a modified Golgi method, can be interpreted as a trans-synaptic plastic response due to understimulation of serotoninergic receptors located in the
Harenberg, Anke; Guillaume, Florine; Ryan, Elizabeth J; Burdin, Nicolas; Spada, Franca
The recombinant canarypox virus ALVAC is being extensively studied as vaccine vector for the development of new vaccine strategies against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. However, the mechanisms by which ALVAC initiates the immune response have not been completely elucidated. In order to determine the type of innate immunity triggered by ALVAC, we characterized the gene expression profile of human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) upon ALVAC infection. These cells are permissive to poxvirus infection and play a key role in the initiation of immune responses. The majority of the genes that were up-regulated by ALVAC belong to the type I interferon signaling pathway including IRF7, STAT1, RIG-1, and MDA-5. Genes involved in the NF-kappaB pathway were not up-regulated. The gene encoding for the chemokine CXCL10, a direct target of the transcription factor IRF3 was among those up-regulated and DC secretion of CXCL10 following exposure to ALVAC was confirmed by ELISA. Many downstream type I interferon activated genes with anti-viral activity (PKR, Mx, ISG15 and OAS among others) were also up-regulated in response to ALVAC. Among these, ISG15 expression in its unconjugated form by Western blot analysis was demonstrated. In view of these results we propose that ALVAC induces type I interferon anti-viral innate immunity via a cytosolic pattern-recognition-receptor (PRR) sensing double-stranded DNA, through activation of IRF3 and IRF7. These findings may aid in the design of more effective ALVAC-vectored vaccines.
Generation and characterization of six single VP4 gene substitution reassortant rotavirus vaccine candidates: each bears a single human rotavirus VP4 gene encoding P serotype 1A or 1B and the remaining 10 genes of rhesus monkey rotavirus MMU18006 or bovine rotavirus UK.
Hoshino, Yasutaka; Jones, Ronald W; Chanock, Robert M; Kapikian, Albert Z
The global disease burden of rotavirus diarrhea in infants and young children has stimulated interest in the biological and clinical characteristics of these agents, leading to intensive efforts to develop a vaccine. A rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-based quadrivalent vaccine ("RotaShield") was licensed and administered to about 1 million infants and found to be highly effective. However, it was withdrawn because of a link with intussusception. This vaccine was developed according to a modified "Jennerian" approach in which one of the two major outer capsid proteins (VP7) shares neutralization specificity with one of the four epidemiologically important human rotavirus serotypes. The other outer capsid protein (VP4) is derived solely from RRV and is distinct from the VP4 of the four human rotavirus serotypes of epidemiologic importance. In an effort to further increase the immunogenicity of the existing VP7-based RRV quadrivalent vaccine, we generated three single VP4 gene substitution reassortant rotavirus candidate vaccines, each of which bears a single human rotavirus VP4 gene encoding P serotype 1A or 1B specificity while the remaining 10 genes are derived from the rhesus rotavirus. By incorporating one or two of these strains into the quadrivalent vaccine, a pentavalent or hexavalent RRV-based vaccine could be formulated thus providing antigenic coverage not only for VP7 serotype 1, 2, 3 and 4 but also for VP4 serotype 1A or 1B, thus possibly augmenting its immunogenicity. Similarly, three single VP4 gene (P1A or P1B) substitution reassortants have also been generated in a background of 10 bovine (UK) rotavirus genes for addition to a second generation UK-based quadrivalent vaccine.
Lovett-Barron, Matthew; Turi, Gergely F; Kaifosh, Patrick; Lee, Peter H; Bolze, Frédéric; Sun, Xiao-Hua; Nicoud, Jean-François; Zemelman, Boris V; Sternson, Scott M; Losonczy, Attila
Transforming synaptic input into action potential output is a fundamental function of neurons. The pattern of action potential output from principal cells of the mammalian hippocampus encodes spatial and nonspatial information, but the cellular and circuit mechanisms by which neurons transform their synaptic input into a given output are unknown. Using a combination of optical activation and cell type-specific pharmacogenetic silencing in vitro, we found that dendritic inhibition is the primary regulator of input-output transformations in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and acts by gating the dendritic electrogenesis driving burst spiking. Dendrite-targeting interneurons are themselves modulated by interneurons targeting pyramidal cell somata, providing a synaptic substrate for tuning pyramidal cell output through interactions in the local inhibitory network. These results provide evidence for a division of labor in cortical circuits, where distinct computational functions are implemented by subtypes of local inhibitory neurons.
Ma, Yuan; Mou, Quanbing; Wang, Dali; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue
Dendritic polymers are highly branched polymers with controllable structures, which possess a large population of terminal functional groups, low solution or melt viscosity, and good solubility. Their size, degree of branching and functionality can be adjusted and controlled through the synthetic procedures. These tunable structures correspond to application-related properties, such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, stimuli-responsiveness and self-assembly ability, which are the key poin...
Haxhimali, Tomorr; Karma, Alain; Gonzales, Frédéric; Rappaz, Michel
Dendritic crystal growth patterns have fascinated scientists for several centuries. Much of the aesthetic appeal of these patterns stems from the hierarchical structure of primary-, secondary-, and higher-order branches, which typically grow along principal crystallographic axes. Atypical growth directions have also been observed. Here, we demonstrate both computationally and experimentally that the range of possible dendrite growth directions, and hence the morphological diversity of the resulting dendritic structures, is much richer than previously anticipated. In particular, we show that primary dendrite growth directions can vary continuously between different crystallographic directions as a function of the composition-dependent anisotropy parameters. The study combines phase-field simulations of equiaxed dendritic growth and directional freezing of Al-Zn alloys. Both simulations and experiments exhibit continuous changes of direction from to for an underlying cubic symmetry. These results have important implications for controlling the microstructure of a wide range of cast alloys that solidify dendritically.
Lin, Ken; Roosinovich, Elena; Ma, Barbara; Hung, Chien-Fu
It is now well established that most cervical cancers are causally associated with HPV infection. This realization has led to efforts to control HPV-associated malignancy through prevention or treatment of HPV infection. Currently, commercially available HPV vaccines are not designed to control established HPV infection and associated premalignant and malignant lesions. To treat and eradicate pre-existing HPV infections and associated lesions which remain prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, effective therapeutic HPV vaccines are needed. DNA vaccination has emerged as a particularly promising form of therapeutic HPV vaccines due to its safety, stability and ability to induce antigen-specific immunity. This review focuses on improving the potency of therapeutic HPV vaccines through modification of dendritic cells (DCs) by  increasing the number of antigen-expressing/antigen-loaded DCs,  improving HPV antigen expression, processing and presentation in DCs, and  enhancing DC and T cell interaction. Continued improvement in therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines may ultimately lead to an effective DNA vaccine for the treatment of HPV-associated malignancies. PMID:20066511
Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C
Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797
Beckermann, C.; Karma, A.; Steinbach, I.; deGroh, H. C., III
A space experiment, and supporting ground-based research, is proposed to study the microstructural evolution in free dendritic growth from a supercooled melt of the transparent model alloy succinonitrile-acetone (SCN-ACE). The research is relevant to equiaxed solidification of metal alloy castings. The microgravity experiment will establish a benchmark for testing of equiaxed dendritic growth theories, scaling laws, and models in the presence of purely diffusive, coupled heat and solute transport, without the complicating influences of melt convection. The specific objectives are to: determine the selection of the dendrite tip operating state, i.e. the growth velocity and tip radius, for free dendritic growth of succinonitrile-acetone alloys; determine the growth morphology and sidebranching behavior for freely grown alloy dendrites; determine the effects of the thermal/solutal interactions in the growth of an assemblage of equiaxed alloy crystals; determine the effects of melt convection on the free growth of alloy dendrites; measure the surface tension anisotropy strength of succinon itrile -acetone alloys establish a theoretical and modeling framework for the experiments. Microgravity experiments on equiaxed dendritic growth of alloy dendrites have not been performed in the past. The proposed experiment builds on the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) of Glicksman and coworkers, which focused on the steady growth of a single crystal from pure supercooled melts (succinonitrile and pivalic acid). It also extends the Equiaxed Dendritic Solidification Experiment (EDSE) of the present investigators, which is concerned with the interactions and transients arising in the growth of an assemblage of equiaxed crystals (succinonitrile). However, these experiments with pure substances are not able to address the issues related to coupled heat and solute transport in growth of alloy dendrites.
Spisek, Radek; Brazova, Jitka; Rozkova, Daniela; Zapletalova, Katerina; Sediva, Anna; Bartunkova, Jirina
Dendritic cells (DC) become fully functional upon maturation by various stimuli. We tested whether an immunostimulatory effect of clinically used immunomodulators (Luivac, Biostim, Ribomunyl, Imudon, Bronchovaxom) is caused by direct DC activation. We found that Luivac, Biostim and Ribomunyl have a very high DC stimulatory potential in vitro. The level of DC activation was comparable or higher than DC maturation induced by standard maturation stimuli, Poly (I:C) or lipopolysaccharide. Treated DC had activated phenotype, reduced phagocytic activity and they induced the proliferation of allogeneic T lymphocytes. These results are important for understanding the physiology of action of these widely prescribed agents. Administration of bacterial immunomodulators should be considered with care to avoid the potential risk of inducing an autoimmune disease. They could also be used as well-defined maturating agents in the protocols used for the ex vivo production of DC-based vaccines for clinical trials.
Jones, Hannah E; Klein, Nigel; Dixon, Garth L J
Dendritic cells (DC) play a key role in the development of natural immunity to microbes. The DC form a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune system by providing key instructions particularly to antigen naïve T-cells. The interaction of DC with T lymphocytes involves three signals: (1) antigen processing and presentation in context of MHC Class I and/or II, (2) expression of T cell co-stimulatory molecules, and (3) cytokine production. Studying the interactions of DCs with specific pathogens allows for better understanding of how protective immunity is generated, and may be particularly useful for assessing vaccine components. In this chapter, we describe methods to generate human monocyte-derived DCs and assess their maturation, activation, and function, using interaction with the gram-negative bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis as a model.
Nussbacher, Monika; Allgäuer, Eva; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Züst, Roland; Ludewig, Burkhard
Efficacy of antitumor vaccination depends to a large extent on antigen targeting to dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we assessed antitumor immunity induced by attenuated coronavirus vectors which exclusively target DCs in vivo and express either lymphocyte- or DC-activating cytokines in combination with a GFP-tagged model antigen. Tracking of in vivo transduced DCs revealed that vectors encoding for Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) exhibited a higher capacity to induce DC maturation compared to vectors delivering IL-2 or IL-15. Moreover, Flt3L vectors more efficiently induced tumor-specific CD8+ T cells, expanded the epitope repertoire, and provided both prophylactic and therapeutic tumor immunity. In contrast, IL-2- or IL-15-encoding vectors showed a substantially lower efficacy in CD8+ T cell priming and failed to protect the host once tumors had been established. Thus, specific in vivo targeting of DCs with coronavirus vectors in conjunction with appropriate conditioning of the microenvironment through Flt3L represents an efficient strategy for the generation of therapeutic antitumor immunity. PMID:24312302
Karma, A.; Langer, J. S.
A quantitative calculation of growth rates and tip radii is presented for dendrites growing in undercooled dilute solutions. Included in the calculations are the capillary corrections to the steady-state Ivantsov needle-crystal solutions. The results show good agreement with available experimental data and support the validity of the marginal-stability theory of dendritic growth.
Svane, Inge Marie; Pedersen, Anders E; Nikolajsen, Kirsten
We have previously established a cancer vaccine using autologous DCs, generated by in vitro stimulation with IL-4 and GM-CSF, and pulsed with six HLA-A*0201 binding wild-type p53 derived peptides. This vaccine was used in combination with low-dose interleukin-2 in a recently published clinical...... Phase II trial where 26 HLA-A2+ patients with progressive late-stage metastatic breast cancer (BC) were included. Almost 1/3rd of the patients obtained stable disease or minor regression during treatment with a positive correlation to tumour over-expression of p53. In the present study, we performed...... a comprehensive analysis of the effector stage of the p53-specific CD8+ T cells by the use of Dextramer Technology and multicolour FACS. Pre- and post-treatment blood samples from eight BC patients were analysed. Independent of clinical outcome p53-specific T cells were phenotypic distinctly antigen experienced...
Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z
Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both developed and developing countries. These studies led to the concept that a multivalent vaccine that represented each of the four epidemiologically important VP7 serotypes might be necessary to induce protection in young infants, the target population for vaccination. Human-animal rotavirus reassortants whose gene encoding VP7 was derived from their human rotavirus parent but whose remaining genes were derived from the animal rotavirus parent were developed as vaccine candidates. The greatest experience with a multivalent vaccine to date has been gained with the quadrivalent preparation containing RRV (VP7 serotype 3) and human-RRV reassortants of VP7 serotype 1, 2, and 4 specificity. Preliminary efficacy trial results in the United States have been promising, whereas a study in Peru has shown only limited protection. Human-bovine reassortant vaccines, including a candidate that contains the VP4 gene of a human rotavirus (VP4 serotype 1A), are also being studied.
Winters, Bradley D; Jin, Shan-Xue; Ledford, Kenneth R; Golding, Nace L
The principal neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) encode cues for horizontal sound localization through comparisons of the relative timing of EPSPs. To understand how the timing and amplitude of EPSPs are maintained during propagation in the dendrites, we made dendritic and somatic whole-cell recordings from MSO principal neurons in brain slices from Mongolian gerbils. In somatic recordings, EPSP amplitudes were largely uniform following minimal stimulation of excitatory synapses at visualized locations along the dendrites. Similar results were obtained when excitatory synaptic transmission was eliminated in a low calcium solution and then restored at specific dendritic sites by pairing input stimulation and focal application of a higher calcium solution. We performed dual dendritic and somatic whole-cell recordings to measure spontaneous EPSPs using a dual-channel template-matching algorithm to separate out those events initiated at or distal to the dendritic recording location. Local dendritic spontaneous EPSP amplitudes increased sharply in the dendrite with distance from the soma (length constant, 53.6 μm), but their attenuation during propagation resulted in a uniform amplitude of ∼0.2 mV at the soma. The amplitude gradient of dendritic EPSPs was also apparent in responses to injections of identical simulated excitatory synaptic currents in the dendrites. Compartmental models support the view that these results extensively reflect the influence of dendritic cable properties. With relatively few excitatory axons innervating MSO neurons, the normalization of dendritic EPSPs at the soma would increase the importance of input timing versus location during the processing of interaural time difference cues in vivoSIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neurons of the medial superior olive analyze cues for sound localization by detecting the coincidence of binaural excitatory synaptic inputs distributed along the dendrites. Previous studies have shown that dendritic
Larsen, Hjalte List; Pedersen, Anders Elm
Vaccination with tumor-antigen pulsed, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) has emerged as a promising strategy in cancer immunotherapy. The standard DC maturation cocktail consists of a combination of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)/interleukin (IL)-1β/IL-6 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2...
... between dendritic cell and particles from in vitro experiments, there is little information on how the particles breach the barrier to reach the immunocompetent cells. An understanding of how these particles pass the epithelial barrier to reach the immunocompetent cells is important in the development of mucosal vaccines.
Schreibelt, Gerty; Bol, Kalijn F.; Aarntzen, Erik H. J. G.; Gerritsen, Winald R.; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Figdor, Carl G.; de Vries, I. Jolanda M.
Dendritic cell-based anticancer immunotherapy is feasible, safe and results in the induction of tumor-specific immune responses, at least in a fraction of vaccinated patients. The concomitant activation of cytotoxic and helper T cells, by loading DCs with peptides or electroporating them with the
Sedegah, M; Charoenvit, Y; Minh, L; Belmonte, M; Majam, V. F; Abot, S; Ganeshan, H; Kumar, S; Bacon, D. J; Stowers, A; Narum, D. L; Carucci, D. J; Rogers, W. O
We measured the ability of nine DNA vaccine plasmids encoding candidate malaria vaccine antigens to induce antibodies and interferon-gamma responses when delivered alone or in a mixture containing all nine plasmids...
Hill Sarah E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Drosophila neurons have dendrites that contain minus-end-out microtubules. This microtubule arrangement is different from that of cultured mammalian neurons, which have mixed polarity microtubules in dendrites. Results To determine whether Drosophila and mammalian dendrites have a common microtubule organization during development, we analyzed microtubule polarity in Drosophila dendritic arborization neuron dendrites at different stages of outgrowth from the cell body in vivo. As dendrites initially extended, they contained mixed polarity microtubules, like mammalian neurons developing in culture. Over a period of several days this mixed microtubule array gradually matured to a minus-end-out array. To determine whether features characteristic of dendrites were localized before uniform polarity was attained, we analyzed dendritic markers as dendrites developed. In all cases the markers took on their characteristic distribution while dendrites had mixed polarity. An axonal marker was also quite well excluded from dendrites throughout development, although this was perhaps more efficient in mature neurons. To confirm that dendrite character could be acquired in Drosophila while microtubules were mixed, we genetically disrupted uniform dendritic microtubule organization. Dendritic markers also localized correctly in this case. Conclusions We conclude that developing Drosophila dendrites initially have mixed microtubule polarity. Over time they mature to uniform microtubule polarity. Dendrite identity is established before the mature microtubule arrangement is attained, during the period of mixed microtubule polarity.
Beckermann, C.; Karma, A.; Steinbach, I.; deGroh, H. C., III
The objective of the research is to quantitatively determine and understand the fundamental mechanisms that control the microstructural evolution during equiaxed dendritic solidification. A microgravity experiment will be conducted to obtain benchmark data on the transient growth and interaction of up to four equiaxed crystals of a pure and transparent metal analog (succinonitrile, SCN) under strictly diffusion-dominated conditions. Of interest in the experiment are the transient evolution of the primary and secondary dendrite tip speeds, the dendrite morphology and solid fraction, the tip selection criterion, and the temperature field in the melt for a range of interaction "strengths" between the crystals. The experiment extends the microgravity measurements of Glicksman and co-workers isothermal dendritic growth experiment (IDGE) for steady growth of a single dendrite to a case where growth transients are introduced due to thermal interactions between neighboring dendrites - a situation closer to actual casting conditions. Corresponding Earth-based experiments will be conducted to ascertain the influence of melt convection. The experiments are supported by a variety of analytical models and numerical simulations. The data will be used to develop and test theories of transient dendritic growth and the solidification of multiple interacting equiaxed crystals in a supercooled melt.
Michelle C. Stone
Full Text Available Axon injury triggers regeneration through activation of a conserved kinase cascade, which includes the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. Although dendrites are damaged during stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure, it is not known whether mature neurons monitor dendrite injury and initiate regeneration. We probed the response to dendrite damage using model Drosophila neurons. Two larval neuron types regrew dendrites in distinct ways after all dendrites were removed. Dendrite regeneration was also triggered by injury in adults. Next, we tested whether dendrite injury was initiated with the same machinery as axon injury. Surprisingly, DLK, JNK, and fos were dispensable for dendrite regeneration. Moreover, this MAP kinase pathway was not activated by injury to dendrites. Thus, neurons respond to dendrite damage and initiate regeneration without using the conserved DLK cascade that triggers axon regeneration.
Sorensen, Maria R; Holst, Peter J; Pircher, Hanspeter
vaccination with adenovirus expressing GP alone (Ad-GP), or GP and Ii unlinked (Ad-GP+Ii). Ad-Ii-GP- induced tumor control depended on an improved generation of the tumor-associated neoantigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell response and was independent of CD4(+) T cells. IFN-gamma was shown to be a key player during......Antigen-specific immunotherapy is an attractive strategy for cancer control. In the context of antiviral vaccines, adenoviral vectors have emerged as a favorable means for immunization. Therefore, we chose a strategy combining use of these vectors with another successful approach, namely linkage...... of the vaccine antigen to invariant chain (Ii). To evaluate this strategy we used a mouse model, in which an immunodominant epitope (GP33) of the LCMV glycoprotein (GP) represents the tumor-associated neoantigen. Prophylactic vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with a replication-deficient human adenovirus 5 vector...
Ma, Barbara; Maraj, Bharat; Tran, Nam Phuong; Knoff, Jayne; Chen, Alexander; Alvarez, Ronald D; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T.-C.
Introduction Identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiologic factor of cervical, anogenital, and a subset of head and neck cancers has stimulated the development of preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines to control HPV-associated malignancies. Excitement has been generated by the commercialization of two preventive L1-based vaccines, which use HPV virus-like particles (VLPs) to generate capsid-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, factors such as high cost and requirement for cold chain have prevented widespread implementation where they are needed most. Areas covered Next generation preventive HPV vaccine candidates have focused on cost-effective stable alternatives and generating broader protection via targeting multivalent L1 VLPs, L2 capsid protein, and chimeric L1/L2 VLPs. Therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates have focused on enhancing T cell-mediated killing of HPV-transformed tumor cells, which constitutively express HPV-encoded proteins, E6 and E7. Several therapeutic HPV vaccines are in clinical trials. Expert opinion Although progress is being made, cost remains an issue inhibiting the use of preventive HPV vaccines in countries that carry the majority of the cervical cancer burden. In addition, progression of therapeutic HPV vaccines through clinical trials may require combination strategies employing different therapeutic modalities. As research in the development of HPV vaccines continues, we may generate effective strategies to control HPV-associated malignancies. PMID:23163511
Carson, Connor; Antoniou, Maria; Ruiz-Argüello, Maria Begoña; Alcami, Antonio; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Messaritakis, Ippokratis; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Courtenay, Orin
Previous studies demonstrated safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA/modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) prime/boost vaccines expressing tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP) and Leishmania homologue of the mammalian receptor for activated C kinase (LACK) against Leishmania major challenge in mice, which was consistent with results from TRYP protein/adjuvant combinations in non-human primates. This study aimed to conduct safety and immunogenicity trials of these DNA/MVA vaccines in dogs, the natural reservoir host of Leishmania infantum, followed-up for 4 months post-vaccination. In a cohort of 22 uninfected outbred dogs, blinded randomised administration of 1000 microg (high dose) or 100 microg (low dose) DNA prime (day 0) and 1x10(8)pfu MVA boost (day 28) was shown to be safe and showed no clinical side effects. High dose DNA/MVA vaccinated TRYP dogs produced statistically higher mean levels of the type-1 pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma than controls in whole blood assays (WBA) stimulated with the recombinant vaccine antigen TRYP, up to the final sampling at day 126, and in the absence of challenge with Leishmania. TRYP vaccinated dogs also demonstrated significantly higher TRYP-specific total IgG and IgG2 subtype titres than in controls, and positive in vivo intradermal reactions at day 156 in the absence of natural infection, observed in 6/8 TRYP vaccinated dogs. No significant increases in IFN-gamma in LACK-stimulated WBA, or in LACK-specific IgG levels, were detected in LACK vaccinated dogs compared to controls, and only 2/9 LACK vaccinated dogs demonstrated DTH responses at day 156. In all groups, IgG1 subclass responses and antigen-specific stimulation of IL-10 were similar to controls demonstrating an absence of Th2/T(reg) response, as expected in the absence of in vivo restimulation or natural/experimental challenge with Leishmania. These collective results indicate significant antigen-specific type-1 responses and in vivo memory phase cellular immune
Benteyn, Daphné; Van Nuffel, An M T; Wilgenhof, Sofie; Bonehill, Aude
Dendritic cells (DC) are key players in several types of cancer vaccines. Large numbers of DC can easily be generated in closed systems from the monocyte fraction of the peripheral blood. They are the professional antigen-presenting cells, and electroporation of mRNA-encoding tumor antigens is a very efficient and a relatively simple way to load the DC with antigen. The co-electroporation of a tumor antigen of choice and the combination of 3 costimulatory molecules, including CD70, caTLR4, and CD40L (TriMix-DC), leads to fully potent antigen-presenting DC able to generate a broad immune response.Here we describe the in vitro transcription of the mRNA and the subsequent generation and electroporation of autologous DC used for the treatment of melanoma patients.
Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...
Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.
Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253
Nabel, Gary J
Traditional methods of vaccine development have not produced effective vaccines for several prevalent infectious diseases, including AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. These difficult diseases call attention to the importance of new approaches that profit from modern technologies. Successful efforts in the past have typically taken advantage of naturally occurring, protective immune responses, but this avenue is not readily available in certain cases, such as in HIV infection, where the immune system rarely confers protective immunity. However, there are alternative strategies and areas of research that may facilitate the development of highly effective vaccines. These include the identification of immunogens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies, determination of the molecular and cellular basis for immune responses to the components of the infectious agent, the identification of relevant forms of viral proteins for antigen presentation, stimulation of relevant T-cell types, and enhancement of antigen-presenting, dendritic cell function. Answering these basic research questions will aid in rational vaccine design. It is also extremely important to optimize techniques for the testing and production of new vaccines including the quantitation of immune responses in animals and in humans, identification of surrogate markers of immune protection, streamlined vaccine production, and rapid evaluation of candidate vaccines for testing in clinical trials. We have put these ideas into practice in two recent studies in which we generated enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses, while retaining robust humoral responses, to wild-type viral proteins by immunizing mice with genetically modified forms of HIV-1 Env, Gag and Pol delivered in the form of plasmid DNA expression vectors.
Peripheral blood lymphocytes from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions patients recognize vaccine antigens in the presence of activated dendritic cells, and produced high levels of CD8 + IFNγ + T cells and low levels of IL-2 when induced to proliferate
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most infections with human papillomavirus (HPV are resolved without clinical intervention, but a minority evolves into chronic lesions of distinct grades, including cervical-uterine cancer. It is known that in most cases the immune system mediates elimination of HPV infection. However, the mechanism of immune evasion leading to HPV persistence and development of early cervical lesions is not fully understood. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL from low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL patients to be activated ex-vivo by vaccine antigens, the participation of cytotoxic lymphocytes and regulatory T cells, and to determine the secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines mediated by stimulation of T cell receptors. Results We found that PBL from LSIL patients showed a significantly lower proliferation rate to vaccine antigens as compared to that of healthy donors, even though there was not a difference in the presence of antibodies to those antigens in sera from both groups. We did not find differences in either the frequency of CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3+ in PBL, or the levels of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 in plasma or conditioned media from PBL incubated with TcR agonists in vitro, between the two groups. However, we detected a lower production of IL-2 and a higher proportion of CD8 + IFNγ + cells in PBL from LSIL patients as compared with PBL from normal donors. We also observed that PBL from patients infected by HPV-16 and −18 were not able to proliferate in the presence of soluble HPV antigens added to the culture; however, a high level of proliferation was attained when these antigens were presented by activated dendritic cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that the immunodeficiency reported in LSIL patients could be due to the inability of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes that for some unknown reason are present but unable to mount a response when
Fatin M. Nawwab Al-Deen
Full Text Available DNA vaccines offer cost, flexibility, and stability advantages, but administered alone have limited immunogenicity. Previously, we identified optimal configurations of magnetic vectors comprising superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs, polyethylenimine (PEI, and hyaluronic acid (HA to deliver malaria DNA encoding Plasmodium yoelii (Py merozoite surface protein MSP119 (SPIONs/PEI/DNA + HA gene complex to dendritic cells and transfect them with high efficiency in vitro. Herein, we evaluate their immunogenicity in vivo by administering these potential vaccine complexes into BALB/c mice. The complexes induced antibodies against PyMSP119, with higher responses induced intraperitoneally than intramuscularly, and antibody levels further enhanced by applying an external magnetic field. The predominant IgG subclasses induced were IgG2a followed by IgG1 and IgG2b. The complexes further elicited high levels of interferon gamma (IFN-γ, and moderate levels of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-17 antigen-specific splenocytes, indicating induction of T helper 1 (Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell mediated immunity. The ability of such DNA/nanoparticle complexes to induce cytophilic antibodies together with broad spectrum cellular immunity may benefit malaria vaccines.
Full Text Available Several modes of vaccine delivery have been developed in the last 25 years, which induce strong immune responses in pre-clinical models and in human clinical trials. Some modes of delivery include, adjuvants (aluminum hydroxide, Ribi formulation, QS21, liposomes, nanoparticles, virus like particles, immunostimulatory complexes (ISCOMs, dendrimers, viral vectors, DNA delivery via gene gun, electroporation or Biojector 2000, cell penetrating peptides, dendritic cell receptor targeting, toll-like receptors, chemokine receptors and bacterial toxins. There is an enormous amount of information and vaccine delivery methods available for guiding vaccine and immunotherapeutics development against diseases.
Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested...... in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...... viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies...
The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.
Mikkelsen, Marianne; Holst, Peter Johannes; Bukh, Jens
memory. Functionally, the AdIiNS3-vaccinated mice had a significantly increased cytotoxic capacity compared with the AdNS3 group. The AdIiNS3-induced CD8(+) T cells protected mice from infection with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing HCV NS3 of heterologous 1b strains, and studies in knockout mice...
Carlétti, Dyego; Morais da Fonseca, Denise; Gembre, Ana Flávia; Masson, Ana Paula; Weijenborg Campos, Lívia; Leite, Luciana C C; Rodrigues Pires, Andréa; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli; Lopes Silva, Célio; Bonato, Vânia Luiza Deperon; Horn, Cynthia
Mycobacterium bovis BCG prime DNA (Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes)-booster vaccinations have been shown to induce greater protection against tuberculosis (TB) than BCG alone. This heterologous prime-boost strategy is perhaps the most realistic vaccination for the future of TB infection control, especially in countries where TB is endemic. Moreover, a prime-boost regimen using biodegradable microspheres seems to be a promising immunization to stimulate a long-lasting immune response. The alanine proline antigen (Apa) is a highly immunogenic glycoprotein secreted by M. tuberculosis. This study investigated the immune protection of Apa DNA vaccine against intratracheal M. tuberculosis challenge in mice on the basis of a heterologous prime-boost regimen. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously primed with BCG and intramuscularly boosted with a single dose of plasmid carrying apa and 6,6'-trehalose dimycolate (TDM) adjuvant, coencapsulated in microspheres (BCG-APA), and were evaluated 30 and 70 days after challenge. This prime-boost strategy (BCG-APA) resulted in a significant reduction in the bacterial load in the lungs, thus leading to better preservation of the lung parenchyma, 70 days postinfection compared to BCG vaccinated mice. The profound effect of this heterologous prime-boost regimen in the experimental model supports its development as a feasible strategy for prevention of TB.
Zhao, Ke-Jia; Cheng, Hao; Zhu, Ke-Jian; Xu, Yan; Chen, Min-Li; Zhang, Xing; Song, Tao; Ye, Jun; Wang, Qi; Chen, Da-Fang
Calreticulin (CRT) has been reported to have an effect of upregulating MHC class I presentation as well as inhibiting angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Combination of dual mechanisms of enhanced immunogenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) 6bE7 antigen and antiangiogenesis may be introduced in the strategy of vaccines against condyloma acuminatum (CA) resulting from HPV infection. Therefore, we constructed DNA vaccines by employing different lengths of CRT chimerically linked to a model antigen HPV6bE7 and investigated the immunological and antiangiogenic effects of these vaccines in a B16 melanoma model that express HPV6bE7 antigen. Our results showed that vaccination with CRT180/HPV6bE7 or CRT120/HPV6bE7 enhanced the presence of CD8(+) T cells and TCRgammadelta T cells in vivo, increased the specific lysis activity against E7-expressing cells and secretion levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma by activating T cells in vitro significantly. Moreover, recombined CRT180 or CRT120 with HPV6bE7 vaccines could elicit a more efficient E7-specific immune response than HPV6bE7 alone. The similarity of immunological enhancement of CRT180/HPV6bE7 and CRT120/HPV6bE7 implies that the immunologically active region mainly exist in fragment 1-120 aa. Furthermore, CRT180/HPV6bE7 and CRT180 displayed remarkable superiority over CRT120/HPV6bE7 in vivo angiogenesis assay, suggesting that the antiangiogenic activity of CRT resides in a domain between aa 120 and 180. Vaccination with CRT180/HPV6bE7 generated the best protective effect of delaying tumor formation and reduction of tumor size in tumor growth inhibition experiment among all DNA constructs. Therefore, CRT180/HPV6bE7 vaccine may enhance the immunological response to HPV6bE7 and inhibit angiogenesis. This construct may be useful in preventing HPV-associated dermatosis and may be developed as a promising strategy to control CA.
Kunda, Nitesh K; Wafula, Denis; Tram, Meilinn; Wu, Terry H; Muttil, Pavan
Formulating vaccines into a dry form enhances its thermal stability. This is critical to prevent administering damaged and ineffective vaccines, and to reduce its final cost. A number of vaccines in the market as well as those being evaluated in the clinical setting are in a dry solid state; yet none of these vaccines have achieved long-term stability at high temperatures. We used spray-drying to formulate a recombinant live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm; expressing Francisella tularensis immune protective antigen pathogenicity island protein IglC) bacterial vaccine into a thermostable dry powder using various sugars and an amino acid. Lm powder vaccine showed minimal loss in viability when stored for more than a year at ambient room temperature (∼23°C) or for 180days at 40°C. High temperature viability was achieved by maintaining an inert atmosphere in the storage container and removing oxygen free radicals that damage bacterial membranes. Further, in vitro antigenicity was confirmed by infecting a dendritic cell line with cultures derived from spray dried Lm and detection of an intracellularly expressed protective antigen. A combination of stabilizing excipients, a cost effective one-step drying process, and appropriate storage conditions could provide a viable option for producing, storing and transporting heat-sensitive vaccines, especially in regions of the world that require them the most. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Variability in the distribution of genes encoding virulence factors and putative extracellular proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes in India, a region with high streptococcal disease burden, and implication for development of a regional multisubunit vaccine.
Sagar, Vivek; Bergmann, René; Nerlich, Andreas; McMillan, David J; Nitsche Schmitz, D Patric; Chhatwal, Gursharan S
Streptococcus pyogenes causes a wide variety of human diseases and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Attempts to develop a vaccine were hampered by the genetic diversity of S. pyogenes across different regions of the world. This study sought to identify streptococcal antigens suitable for a region-specific vaccine in India. We used a two-step approach, first performing epidemiological analysis to identify the conserved antigens among Indian isolates. The second step consisted of validating the identified antigens by serological analysis. The 201 streptococcal clinical isolates from India used in this study represented 69 different emm types, with emm12 being the most prevalent. Virulence profiling of the North and South Indian S. pyogenes isolates with a custom-designed streptococcal virulence microarray identified seven conserved putative vaccine candidates. Collagen-like surface protein (SCI), putative secreted 5'-nucleotidase (PSNT), and C5a peptidase were found in 100% of the isolates, while R28, a putative surface antigen (PSA), and a hypothetical protein (HYP) were found in 90% of the isolates. A fibronectin binding protein, SfbI, was present in only 78% of the isolates. In order to validate the identified potential vaccine candidates, 185 serum samples obtained from patients with different clinical manifestations were tested for antibodies. Irrespective of clinical manifestations, serum samples showed high antibody titers to all proteins except for SCI and R28. Thus, the data indicate that PSNT, C5a peptidase, PSA, HYP, and SfbI are promising candidates for a region-specific streptococcal vaccine for the different parts of India.
Glicksman, M. E.; Singh, N. B.; Chopra, M.
The theories of diffusion-controlled dendritic crystallization will be reviewed briefly, along with recently published critical experiments on the kinetics and morphology of dendritic growth in pure substances. The influence of the gravitational body force on dendrite growth kinetics will be shown to be highly dependent on the growth orientation with respect to the gravity vector and on the level of the thermal supercooling. In fact, an abrupt transition occurs at a critical supercooling, above which diffusional transport dominates the growth process and below which convective transport dominates. Our most recent work on binary mixtures shows that dilute solute additions influence the crystallization process indirectly, by altering the interfacial stability, rather than by directly affecting the transport mode. Directions for future studies in this field will also be discussed.
Kennedy, Matthew J.; Ehlers, Michael D.
Dendritic exocytosis is required for a broad array of neuronal functions including retrograde signaling, neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and establishment of neuronal morphology. While the details of synaptic vesicle exocytosis from presynaptic terminals have been intensely studied for decades, the mechanisms of dendritic exocytosis are only now emerging. Here we review the molecules and mechanisms of dendritic exocytosis, and discuss how exocytosis from dendrites influences ne...
Foged, Camilla; Brodin, Birger; Frøkjær, Sven
Current vaccine development includes optimization of antigen delivery to antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DC). Particulate systems have attracted increasing attention in the development of vaccine delivery systems. In the present study, we investigated DC uptake of model...... fluorescent polystyrene particles with a broad size range and variable surface properties. Localization of particles was investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy and uptake was quantified by flow cytometry. Immature DC were generated from mononuclear cells isolated from human blood...
Hochheiser, Katharina; Klein, Marika; Gottschalk, Catherine; Hoss, Florian; Scheu, Stefanie; Coch, Christoph; Hartmann, Gunther; Kurts, Christian
Protective immunity against intracellular pathogens involves the induction of robust CTL responses. Vaccination with protein Ags establishes such responses only when combined with immune-stimulatory adjuvants. In this study, we compared different adjuvants and identified triphosphate RNA (3pRNA) as especially effective at inducing CTL responses. 3pRNA sensing required IPS-1/MAVS signaling and induced type I IFN in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and macrophages, with the latter being more important for the adjuvant effect. Type I IFN acted on CD11c(+) cells, especially on CD8α(+) Batf3-dependent dendritic cells. Vaccination with OVA in combination with 3pRNA protected mice from a subsequent OVA-encoding adenovirus infection in a CD8(+) cell-dependent manner and more efficiently than other adjuvants. In summary, 3pRNA is a superior adjuvant for CTL activation and might be useful to facilitate antiviral immunization strategies. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Russo, Erica; Nitschké, Maximilian
Abstract Afferent lymphatic vessels fulfill essential immune functions by transporting leukocytes and lymph-borne antigen to draining lymph nodes (dLNs). An important cell type migrating through lymphatic vessels are dendritic cells (DCs). DCs reside in peripheral tissues like the skin, where they take up antigen and transport it via the lymphatic vascular network to dLNs for subsequent presentation to T cells. As such, DCs play a key role in the induction of adaptive immune responses during infection and vaccination, but also for the maintenance of tolerance. Although the migratory pattern of DCs has been known for long time, interactions between DCs and lymphatic vessels are only now starting to be unraveled at the cellular level. In particular, new tools for visualizing lymphatic vessels in combination with time-lapse microscopy have recently generated valuable insights into the process of DC migration to dLNs. In this review we summarize and discuss current approaches for visualizing DCs and lymphatic vessels in tissues for imaging applications. Furthermore, we review the current state of knowledge about DC migration towards, into and within lymphatic vessels, particularly focusing on the cellular interactions that take place between DCs and the lymphatic endothelium. PMID:24044757
Shortman, Ken; Heath, William R
Mouse lymphoid tissues contain a subset of dendritic cells (DCs) expressing CD8 alpha together with a pattern of other surface molecules that distinguishes them from other DCs. These molecules include particular Toll-like receptor and C-type lectin pattern recognition receptors. A similar DC subset, although lacking CD8 expression, exists in humans. The mouse CD8(+) DCs are non-migrating resident DCs derived from a precursor, distinct from monocytes, that continuously seeds the lymphoid organs from bone marrow. They differ in several key functions from their CD8(-) DC neighbors. They efficiently cross-present exogenous cell-bound and soluble antigens on major histocompatibility complex class I. On activation, they are major producers of interleukin-12 and stimulate inflammatory responses. In steady state, they have immune regulatory properties and help maintain tolerance to self-tissues. During infection with intracellular pathogens, they become major presenters of pathogen antigens, promoting CD8(+) T-cell responses to the invading pathogens. Targeting vaccine antigens to the CD8(+) DCs has proved an effective way to induce cytotoxic T lymphocytes and antibody responses.
Procko, Carl; Shaham, Shai
Neurons display a myriad of dendritic architectures, reflecting their diverse roles in information processing and transduction in the nervous system. Recent findings suggest that neuronal signals may not account for all aspects of dendrite morphogenesis. Observations from C. elegans and other organisms suggest that glial cells can affect dendrite length and guidance, as well as localization and shapes of dendritic receptive structures, such as dendritic spines and sensory cilia. Thus, besides direct roles in controlling neuronal activity, glia contribute to neuron function by ensuring that neurons attain their proper shapes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hopkins, R. H.
A program to develop the technology of the silicon dendritic web ribbon growth process is examined. The effort is being concentrated on the area rate and quality requirements necessary to meet the JPL/DOE goals for terrestrial PV applications. Closed loop web growth system development and stress reduction for high area rate growth is considered.
Schalk, Johanna A C; Mooi, Frits R; Berbers, Guy A M; Aerts, Leon A G J M van; Ovelgönne, Hans; Kimman, Tjeerd G
DNA vaccines are based on the transfer of genetic material, encoding an antigen, to the cells of the vaccine recipient. Despite high expectations of DNA vaccines as a result of promising preclinical data their clinical utility remains unproven. However, much data is gathered in preclinical and
Simone P. Sittig
Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC-based cancer vaccines hold the great promise of tipping the balance from tolerance of the tumor to rejection. In the last two decades, we have gained tremendous knowledge about DC-based cancer vaccines. The maturation of DCs has proven indispensable to induce immunogenic T cell responses. We review the insights gained from the development of maturation cocktails in monocyte derived DC-based trials. More recently, we have also gained insights into the functional specialization of primary human blood DC subsets. In peripheral human blood, we can distinguish at least three primary DC subsets, namely CD1c+ and CD141+ myeloid DCs and plasmacytoid DCs. We reflect the current knowledge on maturation and T helper polarization by these blood DC subsets in the context of DC-based cancer vaccines. The maturation stimulus in combination with the DC subset will determine the type of T cell response that is induced. First trials with these natural DCs underline their excellent in vivo functioning and mark them as promising tools for future vaccination strategies.
... doctorMost kids have no problems with the polio vaccine. However, call your doctor if your child has any reaction after getting the vaccine. Call ... Tell the doctor when (day and time) your child received the vaccine. You also should file a Vaccine Adverse Event ...
Al-Bader, Tamara; Christodoulides, Myron; Heckels, John E.; Holloway, Judith; Semper, Amanda E.; Friedmann, Peter S.
Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is a major cause of life-threatening meningitis and septicemia worldwide, and no effective vaccine is available. Initiation of innate and acquired immune responses to N. meningitidis is likely to be dependent on cellular responses of dendritic cells (DC) to antigens present in the outer membrane (OM) of the meningococcus. In this study, the responses of human monocyte-derived DC (mo-DC) to OM isolated from parent (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-replete) meningococ...
Full Text Available Dendritic coarsening in Al-2mol%Si alloy during isothermal solidification at 880K was investigated by phase field modeling. Three coarsening mechanisms operate in the alloy: (a melting of small dendrite arms; (b coalescence of dendrites near the tips leading to the entrapment of liquid droplets; (c smoothing of dendrites. Dendrite melting is found to be dominant in the stage of dendritic growth, whereas coalescence of dendrites and smoothing of dendrites are dominant during isothermal holding. The simulated results provide a better understanding of dendrite coarsening during isothermal solidification.
Zhu, Weiyan; Ventevogel, Melissa S.; Knilans, Kayla J.; Anderson, James E.; Oldach, Laurel M.; McKinnon, Karen P.; Hobbs, Marcia M.; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Duncan, Joseph A.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the second most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen worldwide. Diseases associated with N. gonorrhoeae cause localized inflammation of the urethra and cervix. Despite this inflammatory response, infected individuals do not develop protective adaptive immune responses to N. gonorrhoeae. N. gonorrhoeae is a highly adapted pathogen that has acquired multiple mechanisms to evade its host's immune system, including the ability to manipulate multiple immune signaling pathways. N. gonorrhoeae has previously been shown to engage immunosuppressive signaling pathways in B and T lymphocytes. We have now found that N. gonorrhoeae also suppresses adaptive immune responses through effects on antigen presenting cells. Using primary, murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and lymphocytes, we show that N. gonorrhoeae-exposed dendritic cells fail to elicit antigen-induced CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation. N. gonorrhoeae exposure leads to upregulation of a number of secreted and dendritic cell surface proteins with immunosuppressive properties, particularly Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1). We also show that N. gonorrhoeae is able to inhibit dendritic cell- induced proliferation of human T-cells and that human dendritic cells upregulate similar immunosuppressive molecules. Our data suggest that, in addition to being able to directly influence host lymphocytes, N. gonorrhoeae also suppresses development of adaptive immune responses through interactions with host antigen presenting cells. These findings suggest that gonococcal factors involved in host immune suppression may be useful targets in developing vaccines that induce protective adaptive immune responses to this pathogen. PMID:22844448
Hu, Xiajun; Deng, Yihuan; Chen, Xiao; Zhou, Yanzhao; Zhang, Hongrong; Wu, Hailang; Yang, Shijun; Chen, Fen; Zhou, Zihua; Wang, Min; Qiu, Zhihua; Liao, Yuhua
We developed a virus-like particle (VLP)-based therapeutic vaccine against angiotensin II receptor type 1, ATR-AP205-001, which could significantly reduce the blood pressure and protect target organs of hypertensive animals. In this study, we focused on the immunological effect and safety of the VLP-based vaccine. By comparing to the depolymerized dimeric vaccine ATR-Dimer-001, we found that ATR-AP205-001 reached subcapsular sinus of lymph node shortly after administration, followed by accumulation on follicle dendritic cells via follicle B cell transportation, while ATR-Dimer-001 vaccine showed no association with FDCs. ATR-AP205-001 vaccine strongly activated dendritic cells, which promoted T cells differentiation to follicular helper T cells. ATR-AP205-001 vaccine induced powerful germinal center reaction, which was translated to a boost of specific antibody production and long-lasting B cell memory, far superior to ATR-Dimer-001 vaccine. Moreover, neither cytotoxic T cells, nor Th1/Th17 cell-mediated inflammation was observed in ATR-AP205-001 vaccine, similar to ATR-Dimer-001 vaccine. We concluded that ATR-AP205-001 vaccine quickly induced potent humoral immunity through collaboration of B cells, follicular dendritic cells and follicular helper T cells, providing an effective and safe intervention for hypertension in the future clinical application.
Jain, Keerti; Jain, N K
Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also known as Kala-Azar, is one of the most severely neglected tropical diseases recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO). The threat of this debilitating disease continues due to unavailability of promising drug therapy or human vaccine. An extensive research is undergoing to develop a promising vaccine to prevent this devastating disease. In this review we compiled the findings of recent research with a view to facilitate knowledge on experimental vaccinology for visceral leishmaniasis. Various killed or attenuated parasite based first generation vaccines, second generation vaccines based on antigenic protein or recombinant protein, and third generation vaccines derived from antigen-encoding DNA plasmids including heterologous prime-boost Leishmania vaccine have been examined for control and prevention of visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccines based on recombinant protein and antigen-encoding DNA plasmids have given promising results and few vaccines including Leishmune®, Leishtec, and CaniLeish® have been licensed for canine visceral leishmaniasis. A systematic investigation of these vaccine candidates can lead to development of promising vaccine for human visceral leishmaniasis, most probably in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Puram, Sidharth V; Bonni, Azad
The proper formation and morphogenesis of dendrites is fundamental to the establishment of neural circuits in the brain. Following cell cycle exit and migration, neurons undergo organized stages of dendrite morphogenesis, which include dendritic arbor growth and elaboration followed by retraction and pruning. Although these developmental stages were characterized over a century ago, molecular regulators of dendrite morphogenesis have only recently been defined. In particular, studies in Drosophila and mammalian neurons have identified numerous cell-intrinsic drivers of dendrite morphogenesis that include transcriptional regulators, cytoskeletal and motor proteins, secretory and endocytic pathways, cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin ligases, and components of other signaling cascades. Here, we review cell-intrinsic drivers of dendrite patterning and discuss how the characterization of such crucial regulators advances our understanding of normal brain development and pathogenesis of diverse cognitive disorders.
Ting, Chun-Yuan; McQueen, Philip G; Pandya, Nishith; McCreedy, Evan S; McAuliffe, Matthew; Lee, Chi-Hon
In many regions of the central nervous systems, such as the fly optic lobes and the vertebrate cortex, synaptic circuits are organized in layers and columns to facilitate brain wiring during development and information processing in developed animals. Postsynaptic neurons elaborate dendrites in type-specific patterns in specific layers to synapse with appropriate presynaptic terminals. The fly medulla neuropil is composed of 10 layers and about 750 columns; each column is innervated by dendrites of over 38 types of medulla neurons, which match with the axonal terminals of some 7 types of afferents in a type-specific fashion. This report details the procedures to image and analyze dendrites of medulla neurons. The workflow includes three sections: (i) the dual-view imaging section combines two confocal image stacks collected at orthogonal orientations into a high-resolution 3D image of dendrites; (ii) the dendrite tracing and registration section traces dendritic arbors in 3D and registers dendritic traces to the reference column array; (iii) the dendritic analysis section analyzes dendritic patterns with respect to columns and layers, including layer-specific termination and planar projection direction of dendritic arbors, and derives estimates of dendritic branching and termination frequencies. The protocols utilize custom plugins built on the open-source MIPAV (Medical Imaging Processing, Analysis, and Visualization) platform and custom toolboxes in the matrix laboratory language. Together, these protocols provide a complete workflow to analyze the dendritic routing of Drosophila medulla neurons in layers and columns, to identify cell types, and to determine defects in mutants.
Aurel A Lazar
Full Text Available We consider a class of neural circuit models with internal noise sources arising in sensory systems. The basic neuron model in these circuits consists of a nonlinear dendritic stimulus processor (DSP cascaded with a biophysical spike generator (BSG. The nonlinear dendritic processor is modeled as a set of nonlinear operators that are assumed to have a Volterra series representation. Biophysical point neuron models, such as the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron, are used to model the spike generator. We address the question of how intrinsic noise sources affect the precision in encoding and decoding of sensory stimuli and the functional identification of its sensory circuits.We investigate two intrinsic noise sources arising (i in the active dendritic trees underlying the DSPs, and (ii in the ion channels of the BSGs. Noise in dendritic stimulus processing arises from a combined effect of variability in synaptic transmission and dendritic interactions. Channel noise arises in the BSGs due to the fluctuation of the number of the active ion channels. Using a stochastic differential equations formalism we show that encoding with a neuron model consisting of a nonlinear DSP cascaded with a BSG with intrinsic noise sources can be treated as generalized sampling with noisy measurements.For single-input multi-output neural circuit models with feedforward, feedback and cross-feedback DSPs cascaded with BSGs we theoretically analyze the effect of noise sources on stimulus decoding. Building on a key duality property, the effect of noise parameters on the precision of the functional identification of the complete neural circuit with DSP/BSG neuron models is given. We demonstrate through extensive simulations the effects of noise on encoding stimuli with circuits that include neuron models that are akin to those commonly seen in sensory systems, e.g., complex cells in V1.
Lazar, Aurel A; Zhou, Yiyin
We consider a class of neural circuit models with internal noise sources arising in sensory systems. The basic neuron model in these circuits consists of a dendritic stimulus processor (DSP) cascaded with a biophysical spike generator (BSG). The dendritic stimulus processor is modeled as a set of nonlinear operators that are assumed to have a Volterra series representation. Biophysical point neuron models, such as the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron, are used to model the spike generator. We address the question of how intrinsic noise sources affect the precision in encoding and decoding of sensory stimuli and the functional identification of its sensory circuits. We investigate two intrinsic noise sources arising (i) in the active dendritic trees underlying the DSPs, and (ii) in the ion channels of the BSGs. Noise in dendritic stimulus processing arises from a combined effect of variability in synaptic transmission and dendritic interactions. Channel noise arises in the BSGs due to the fluctuation of the number of the active ion channels. Using a stochastic differential equations formalism we show that encoding with a neuron model consisting of a nonlinear DSP cascaded with a BSG with intrinsic noise sources can be treated as generalized sampling with noisy measurements. For single-input multi-output neural circuit models with feedforward, feedback and cross-feedback DSPs cascaded with BSGs we theoretically analyze the effect of noise sources on stimulus decoding. Building on a key duality property, the effect of noise parameters on the precision of the functional identification of the complete neural circuit with DSP/BSG neuron models is given. We demonstrate through extensive simulations the effects of noise on encoding stimuli with circuits that include neuron models that are akin to those commonly seen in sensory systems, e.g., complex cells in V1.
Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate how a network of dendrites can be used to build the state decoding block of a wordspotter similar to a Hidden Markov Model (HMM classifier structure. We present simulation and experimental data for a single line dendrite and also experimental results for a dendrite-based classifier structure. This work builds on previously demonstrated building blocks of a neural network: the channel, synapses and dendrites using CMOS circuits. These structures can be used for speech and pattern recognition. The computational efficiency of such a system is >10 MMACs/μW as compared to Digital Systems which perform 10 MMACs/mW.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Shikonin, a phytochemical purified from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been shown to confer diverse pharmacological activities, including accelerating granuloma formation, wound healing, anti-inflammation and others, and is explored for immune-modifier activities for vaccination in this study. Transdermal gene-based vaccine is an attractive approach for delivery of DNA transgenes encoding specific tumor antigens to host skin tissues. Skin dendritic cells (DCs, a potent antigen-presenting cell type, is known to play a critical role in transmitting and orchestrating tumor antigen-specific immunities against cancers. The present study hence employs these various components for experimentation. Method The mRNA and protein expression of RANTES were detected by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The regional expression of RANTES and tissue damage in test skin were evaluated via immunohistochemistry assay. Fluorescein isothiocyanate sensitization assay was performed to trace the trafficking of DCs from the skin vaccination site to draining lymph nodes. Adjuvantic effect of shikonin on gene gun-delivered human gp100 (hgp100 DNA cancer vaccine was studied in a human gp100-transfected B16 (B16/hgp100 tumor model. Results Among various phytochemicals tested, shikonin induced the highest level of expression of RANTES in normal skin tissues. In comparison, mouse RANTES cDNA gene transfection induced a higher level of mRANTES expression for a longer period, but caused more extensive skin damage. Topical application of shikonin onto the immunization site before gene gun-mediated vaccination augmented the population of skin DCs migrating into the draining lymph nodes. A hgp100 cDNA gene vaccination regimen with shikonin pretreatment as an adjuvant in a B16/hgp100 tumor model increased cytotoxic T lymphocyte activities in splenocytes and lymph node cells on target tumor cells. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that shikonin can
Stone, John W.; Thornburg, Natalie J.; Blum, David L.; Kuhn, Sam J.; Wright, David W.; Crowe, James E., Jr.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia and wheezing in infants and the elderly, but to date there is no licensed vaccine. We developed a gold nanorod construct that displayed the major protective antigen of the virus, the fusion protein (F). Nanorods conjugated to RSV F were formulated as a candidate vaccine preparation by covalent attachment of viral protein using a layer-by-layer approach. In vitro studies using ELISA, electron microscopy and circular dichroism revealed that conformation-dependent epitopes were maintained during conjugation, and transmission electron microscopy studies showed that a dispersed population of particles could be achieved. Human dendritic cells treated with the vaccine induced immune responses in primary human T cells. These results suggest that this vaccine approach may be a potent method for immunizing against viruses such as RSV with surface glycoproteins that are targets for the human immune response.
Sreenivas eGannavaram; Parna eBhattacharya; Nevien eIsmail; Amit eKaul; Rakesh eSingh; Hira eNakhasi
No licensed human vaccines are currently available against any parasitic disease including leishmaniasis. Several anti-leishmanial vaccine formulations have been tested in various animal models including genetically modified live attenuated parasite vaccines. Experimental infection studies have shown that Leishmania parasites utilize a broad range of strategies to undermine effector properties of host phagocytic cells i.e., dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (M). Further, Leishmania parasi...
Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Bhattacharya, Parna; Ismail, Nevien; Kaul, Amit; Singh, Rakesh; Nakhasi, Hira L.
No licensed human vaccines are currently available against any parasitic disease including leishmaniasis. Several antileishmanial vaccine formulations have been tested in various animal models, including genetically modified live-attenuated parasite vaccines. Experimental infection studies have shown that Leishmania parasites utilize a broad range of strategies to undermine effector properties of host phagocytic cells, i.e., dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (MΦ). Furthermore, Leishmania ...
Mahesh Kathania; Mojgan Zadeh; Lightfoot, Yaíma L.; Robert M Roman; Bikash Sahay; Abbott, Jeffrey R.; Mansour Mohamadzadeh
Background Currently, sufficient data exist to support the use of lactobacilli as candidates for the development of new oral targeted vaccines. To this end, we have previously shown that Lactobacillus gasseri expressing the protective antigen (PA) component of anthrax toxin genetically fused to a dendritic cell (DC)-binding peptide (DCpep) induced efficacious humoral and T cell-mediated immune responses against Bacillus anthracis Sterne challenge. Methodology/Principal Finding In the present ...
The interplay between host immunity and tumour cells has opened the possibility of targeting tumour cells bymodulation of the human immune system. Cancer immunotherapy involves the treatment of a tumour by utilizing therecombinant human immune system components to target the pro-tumour microenvironment or by ...
Jan 31, 2017 ... The interplay between host immunity and tumour cells has opened the possibility of targeting tumour cells by modulation of the human immune system. Cancer immunotherapy involves the treatment of a tumour by utilizing the recombinant human immune system components to target the pro-tumour ...
Marciani, Dante J
A promising treatment for T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases is the induction of immune tolerance by modulating the immune response against self-antigens, an objective that may be achieved by vaccination. There are two main types of vaccines currently under development. The tolerogenic vaccines, composed of proteins formed by a cytokine fused to a self-antigen, which usually induce tolerance by eliminating the T-cells that are immune reactive against the self-antigen. The immunogenic vaccines, comprised of a self-antigen plus a sole Th2 adjuvant either free or conjugated, that alleviate autoimmunity by switching the immune response against the self-antigen, from a damaging pro-inflammatory Th1/Th17 to an anti-inflammatory Th2 immunity. Another type of vaccines is the DNA vaccines, where cells transiently express the self-antigen encoded by DNA, which induces a Th2 immunity. Actually, DNA vaccines can benefit from the presence of an adjuvant that elicits a systemic sole Th2 immunity to enhance the initially weak immune response characteristic of these vaccines. While in the tolerogenic vaccines, cytokines are the endogenous immunomodulators, in the immunogenic vaccines, the adjuvants are exogenous agents that elicit Th2 immunity with a production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and antibodies against the self-antigen. Because the commonly used Th2 adjuvant alum, fails to induce an effective immunity in the elderly population, it is unlikely that it would be widely used. Another Th2 adjuvant, the oil/water emulsions mixed with the antigen, while effective in vaccines against infectious agents, due to potential aldehydes in their formulation may be not suitable for autoimmune vaccines. A unique compound is glatiramer, which seems to be both a random polypeptide antigen and an immune modulator that biases the response to Th2 immunity. Its mechanism of action seems to implicate binding to MHC-II, which alters the outcome of T-cell signaling, leading to anergy
Coosemans, An; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Morias, Kim; Corthals, Jurgen; Heirman, Carlo; Thielemans, Kris; Van Gool, Stefaan W; Vergote, Ignace; Amant, Frédéric
The immune system is a crucial player in the development of cancer. Once it is in imbalance and immunosuppressive mechanisms supporting tumor growth take over control, dendritic cell immunotherapy might offer a solution to restore the balance. There are several methods to manufacture dendritic cells but none of them has yet proven to be superior to others. In this chapter, we discuss the methodology using electroporation of mRNA encoding Wilms' tumor gene 1, survivin, and TriMix (mixture of caTLR4, CD40L, and CD70) to simultaneously load and mature dendritic cells.
... list . Showing availability for 25,354 locations. Influenza Vaccine Recommended for everyone greater than or equal to ... which one may be right for you! Flu Vaccines Protects again influenza, commonly called flu, a respiratory ...
... are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common and serious health ... to 60 died. Since the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, hospitalizations and emergency visits for rotavirus have dropped ...
Stoeker, Laura; Nordone, Shila; Gunderson, Sara; Zhang, Lin; Kajikawa, Akinobu; LaVoy, Alora; Miller, Michael; Klaenhammer, Todd R; Dean, Gregg A
Lactobacillus species are commensal bacteria that have long been recognized as probiotic microbes and are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) for human consumption. We have investigated the use of L. gasseri as a vaccine vector for oral immunization against mucosal pathogens. Recent research has shown that the immune response to different lactobacilli can vary widely depending on the species or subspecies of Lactobacillus being studied. While some lactobacilli seem to induce oral tolerance, others induce an adaptive immune response. This study characterized the systemic and mucosal immune response to wild-type and genetically modified L. gasseri. L. gasseri primarily activates TLR2/6, with additional activation through the TLR2 homodimer. To expand the Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation profile of L. gasseri and the immunogenicity of the vector, a plasmid containing fliC, the gene encoding bacterial flagellin, was introduced which resulted in the strong activation of TLR5. The treatment of human myeloid dendritic cells with recombinant lactobacilli expressing flagellin triggered phenotypic maturation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, bacterial treatment also resulted in a statistically significant increase in IL-10 production. In vivo studies established that treatment with L. gasseri led to a diversification of B-cell populations in the lamina propria of the murine colon. Furthermore, treatment with genetically modified L. gasseri led to a significant decrease in the percentage of FoxP3(+) colonic lymphocytes. Taken together, these data clarify the interaction of L. gasseri with the host immune system and support further investigation of the in vivo immunogenicity of L. gasseri expressing both flagellin and candidate vaccine antigens.
The present invention relates to an encoding device, such as an optical position encoder, for encoding input from an object, and a method for encoding input from an object, for determining a position of an object that interferes with light of the device. The encoding device comprises a light source...... in the area in the space and may interfere with the light, which interference may be encoded into a position or activation....
Full Text Available Delivery of vaccines into the skin provides many advantages over traditional parenteral vaccination and is a promising approach due to the abundance of antigen presenting cells (APC residing in the skin including Langerhans cells (LC and dermal dendritic cells (DDC. However, the main obstacle for transcutaneous immunization (TCI is the effective delivery of the vaccine through the stratum corneum (SC barrier to the APC in the deeper skin layers. This study therefore utilized microneedles (MN and a lipid-based colloidal delivery system (cubosomes as a synergistic approach for the delivery of vaccines to APC in the skin. The process of vaccine uptake and recruitment by specific types of skin APC was investigated in real-time over 4 hours in B6.Cg-Tg (Itgax-EYFP 1 Mnz/J mice by two-photon microscopy. Incorporation of the vaccine into a particulate delivery system and the use of MN preferentially increased vaccine antigen uptake by a highly motile subpopulation of skin APC known as CD207⁺ DC. No uptake of antigen or any response to immunisation by LC could be detected.
and the circum- bacteria, fungi , or parasites. We now ;-uort that i.m. injec. sporozoite protein is a target of this protective immunity. We lion of...FUNDING NUMBERS Protection against malaria by immounization with plasmid DNA encoding ci rcumisporozoi te protein PE -61102A I PR -001 .01 6. AUTI(OR...plasmodlum.yoelil; malaria vaccines; DNA vaccines; ___________ nucleic acid vaccines; clrculnsporozoite protein % 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY
Hallazgo de antígenos en un tumor murino espontáneo no inmunogénico mediante el uso de una vacuna basada en células dendríticas Unveiling antigens in a non-immunogenic spontaneous murine tumor using a dendritic cell-based vaccine
Verónica L. Reffo
absence of tumor antigens or to the existence of tolerogenic mechanisms preventing such antigens from initiating an antitumor immune response. We have used two murine tumors -a non-immunogenic spontaneous lymphoma (LB and a strongly immunogenic methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (MC-C- together with a vaccination strategy based on the inoculation of dendritic cells (DC loaded with a tumor lysate. When DC were pulsed with LB lysate (DC+LB, no maturation of DC was achieved in vitro and no protection against LB implants after DC+LB inoculation was observed in vivo. On the other hand, when DC were pulsed with MC-C lysate (DC+MC-C, maturation of DC was observed along with a strong protection against MC-C implants after DC+MC-C inoculaton. Finally, when DC were pulsed with both LB and MC-C lysates (DC+LB+MC-C, maturation of DC and protection against LB implants were achieved. Since no immune cross reaction between MC-C and LB was ever observed, the most likely interpretation is that LB bears specific tumor antigens but lacks other signals to achieve DC maturation. These signals would be provided by MC-C which would enable DC to mature and to initiate an effective anti-LB immune response.
Alloatti, Andrés; Kotsias, Fiorella; Magalhaes, Joao Gamelas; Amigorena, Sebastian
As a population, dendritic cells (DCs) appear to be the best cross-presenters of internalized antigens on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules in the mouse. To do this, DCs have developed a number of unique and dedicated means to control their endocytic and phagocytic pathways: among them, the capacity to limit acidification of their phagosomes, to prevent proteolytic degradation, to delay fusion of phagosomes to lysosomes, to recruit ER proteins to phagosomes, and to export phagocytosed antigens to the cytosol. The regulation of phagocytic functions, and thereby of antigen processing and presentation by innate signaling, represents a critical level of integration of adaptive and innate immune responses. Understanding how innate signals control antigen cross-presentation is critical to define effective vaccination strategies for CD8(+) T-cell responses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hetty J. Bontkes
Full Text Available Recombinant adenoviruses (RAd and recombinant vaccinia viruses (RVV expressing tumour-associated antigens (TAA are used as anti-tumour vaccines. It is important that these vaccines deliver the TAA to dendritic cells (DC for the induction of a strong immune response. Infection of myeloid DC (MDC with RAd alone is relatively inefficient but CD40 retargeting significantly increases transduction efficiency and DC maturation. Infection with RVV is efficient without DC maturation. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC play a role in the innate immune response to viral infections through the secretion of IFNα but may also play a role in specific T-cell induction. The aim of our study was to investigate whether PDC are better targets for RAd and RVV based vaccines. RAd alone hardly infected PDC (2% while CD40 retargeting did not improve transduction efficiency, but it did increase PDC maturation (25% CD83 positive cells. Accordingly, specific CTL activation by RAd infected PDC was limited (the number of IFNγ producing CTL was reduced by 75% compared to stimulation with peptide loaded PDC. RVV infected PDC specifically stimulated CTL but PDC were not activated. These Results indicate that PDC are not ideal targets for RAd and RVV based vaccines. However, PDC induced specific CTL activation after pulsing with recombinant protein, indicating that PDC can also cross-present antigens released from surrounding infected cells.
Full Text Available Researches to develop vaccines with contraceptive effect are being carried out since the 1920s. Since 1972, the contraceptive vaccines are one of the priority programs of the World Health Organization (WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Rockefeller Foundation participates in implementing the program. Openly declared objective of creating such vaccines — the regulation of the population in the Third World countries. There are currently three main directions of contraceptive vaccine design: 1 vaccines targeted at blocking the production of gametes; 2 impairing their function; 3 violating the fertilization process. Contraceptive vaccines for more than 10 years are widely used to reduce fertility and castration of wild and domestic animals. In the commercial realization there are veterinary vaccines Equity®, Improvac®, GonaCon®, Repro-BLOC (based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone; SpayVac™ and IVT-PZP® (based on zona pellucida antigens. Clinical studies have shown effective contraceptive action (in women of vaccines, in which human chorionic gonadotropin is used as an antigen. At the same time, there are found the side effects of such vaccines: for vaccines containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone as antigenic components — castration, impotence; for vaccines containing follicle stimulating hormone — oligospermia; zona pellucida antigens — irreversible oophoritis. This paper discusses approaches to detection of sterilizing components in vaccines intended for mass prevention of infectious diseases, not reported by manufacturers, and the consequences of their use. Hidden use of contraceptive vaccines, which already took place, can be detected: 1 by the presence of antibodies to their antigenic components (in unvaccinated by contraceptive vaccines people such antibodies do not exist, except infertility cases; 2 by change in the hormonal levels of the
Burger, John Robert
New to neuroscience with implications for AI, the exclusive OR, or any other Boolean gate may be biologically accomplished within a single region where active dendrites merge. This is demonstrated below using dynamic circuit analysis. Medical knowledge aside, this observation points to the possibility of specially coated conductors to accomplish artificial dendrites.
Cool, T; Voorhees, P W
The processes leading to the fragmentation of secondary dendrite arms are studied using a three-dimensional Sn dendritic structure that was measured experimentally as an initial condition in a phase-field simulation. The phase-field model replicates the kinetics of the coarsening process seen experimentally. Consistent with the experiment, the simulations of the Sn-rich dendrite show that secondary dendrite arm coalescence is prevalent and that fragmentation is not. The lack of fragmentation is due to the non-axisymmetric morphology and comparatively small spacing of the dendrite arms. A model for the coalescence process is proposed, and, consistent with the model, the radius of the contact region following coalescence increases as t1/3 We find that small changes in the width and spacing of the dendrite arms can lead to a very different fragmentation-dominated coarsening process. Thus, the alloy system and growth conditions of the dendrite can have a major impact on the fragmentation process.This article is part of the theme issue 'From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'. © 2018 The Author(s).
Cool, T.; Voorhees, P. W.
The processes leading to the fragmentation of secondary dendrite arms are studied using a three-dimensional Sn dendritic structure that was measured experimentally as an initial condition in a phase-field simulation. The phase-field model replicates the kinetics of the coarsening process seen experimentally. Consistent with the experiment, the simulations of the Sn-rich dendrite show that secondary dendrite arm coalescence is prevalent and that fragmentation is not. The lack of fragmentation is due to the non-axisymmetric morphology and comparatively small spacing of the dendrite arms. A model for the coalescence process is proposed, and, consistent with the model, the radius of the contact region following coalescence increases as t1/3. We find that small changes in the width and spacing of the dendrite arms can lead to a very different fragmentation-dominated coarsening process. Thus, the alloy system and growth conditions of the dendrite can have a major impact on the fragmentation process. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.
Schäkel, Knut; Hänsel, Anja
Dendritic cells are essential for the generation of innate and adaptive immune responses, which makes them stay on center stage when studying the immuno pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This review will discuss recent findings on the role of dendritic cells subsets in atopic dermatitis and will report novel findings on how the microenvironment conditions dendritic cells to fuel atopic dermatitis. Several microenvironmental factors characteristic for atopic dermatitis and with direct relevance for the disease have been defined. We now increasingly understand how thymic stromal lymphopoietin and histamine contribute to the disease by modulating the function of dendritic cells. We have learned much about the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis by the studies on inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells. However, the current analysis on the functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of dendritic cells in eczematous skin lesions may lead to the definition of additional dendritic cell types relevant in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. In this respect, it appears interesting to further discuss the parallels and differences in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Understanding the heterogeneity of dendritic cells and their functional alteration by local factors in the inflamed skin will provide essential clues to the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis.
Cheng, Pei-lin; Poo, Mu-ming
Differentiation of axons and dendrites is a critical step in neuronal development. Here we review the evidence that axon/dendrite formation during neuronal polarization depends on the intrinsic cytoplasmic asymmetry inherited by the postmitotic neuron, the exposure of the neuron to extracellular chemical factors, and the action of anisotropic mechanical forces imposed by the environment. To better delineate the functions of early signals among a myriad of cellular components that were shown to influence axon/dendrite formation, we discuss their functions by distinguishing their roles as determinants, mediators, or modulators and consider selective degradation of these components as a potential mechanism for axon/dendrite polarization. Finally, we examine whether these early events of axon/dendrite formation involve local autocatalytic activation and long-range inhibition, as postulated by Alan Turing for the morphogenesis of patterned biological structure.
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service
Lynch, Maureen; Bresee, Joseph S.; Gentsch, Jon R.; Glass, Roger I.
The past few years have seen important developments in understanding the epidemiological and virological characteristics of rotaviruses, and rapid progress has been made in rotavirus vaccine development, but further challenges remain before a vaccine is introduced into widespread use. The licensure of the first rotavirus vaccine, a tetravalent rhesus-based rotavirus vaccine, in the United States in 1998, marked a significant advance in preventing the morbidity associated with rotavirus diarrhea. The association between the tetravalent rhesus-based rotavirus vaccine and intussusception has created significant hurdles as well as new opportunities to study the pathogenesis of rotavirus and rotavirus vaccine infection. Several other rotavirus vaccine candidates are in late stages of development, and results from trials have been encouraging.
Brok, M.H.M.G.M. den; Nierkens, S.; Wagenaars, J.A.L.; Ruers, T.J.M.; Schrier, C.C.; Rijke, E.O.; Adema, G.J.
Today's most commonly used microbial vaccines are essentially composed of antigenic elements and a non-microbial adjuvant, and induce solid amounts of antibodies. Cancer vaccines mostly aim to induce anti-tumor CTL-responses, which require cross-presentation of tumor-derived antigens by dendritic
Prisco, Antonella; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe
Peptides displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage fd are able to induce humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses, which makes phage particles an attractive antigen delivery system to design new vaccines. The immune response induced by phage-displayed peptides can be enhanced by targeting phage particles to the professional antigen presenting cells, utilizing a single-chain antibody fragment that binds dendritic cell receptor DEC-205. Here, we review recent advances in the use of filamentous phage fd as a platform for peptide vaccines, with a special focus on the use of phage fd as an antigen delivery platform for peptide vaccines in Alzheimer's Disease and cancer.
Chen, Yu-Zhe; Yao, Xing-Lei; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Gao, Jian-Qing
Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells. They play a vital role in the initiation of immune response by presenting antigens to T cells and followed by induction of T-cell response. Reported research in animal studies indicated that vaccine immunity could be a promising alternative therapy for cancer patients. However, broad clinical utility has not been achieved yet, owing to the low transfection efficiency of DCs. Therefore, it is essential to improve the transfection efficiency of DC-based vaccination in immunotherapy. In several studies, DCs were genetically engineered by tumor-associated antigens or by immune molecules such as costimulatory molecules, cytokines, and chemokines. Encouraging results have been achieved in cancer treatment using various animal models. This paper describes the recent progress in gene delivery systems including viral vectors and nonviral carriers for DC-based genetically engineered vaccines. The reverse and three-dimensional transfection systems developed in DCs are also discussed.
Chung, Eun Hee
Currently, the increasing numbers of vaccine administrations are associated with increased reports of adverse vaccine reactions. Whilst the general adverse reactions including allergic reactions caused by the vaccine itself or the vaccine components, are rare, they can in some circumstances be serious and even fatal. In accordance with many IgE-mediated reactions and immediate-type allergic reactions, the primary allergens are proteins. The proteins most often implicated in vaccine allergies are egg and gelatin, with perhaps rare reactions to yeast or latex. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the injectable influenza vaccine can be safely administered, although with appropriate precautions, to patients with severe egg allergy, as the current influenza vaccines contain small trace amounts of egg protein. If an allergy is suspected, an accurate examination followed by algorithms is vital for correct diagnosis, treatment and decision regarding re-vaccination in patients with immediate-type reactions to vaccines. Facilities and health care professionals should be available to treat immediate hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis) in all settings where vaccines are administered.
Kreutz, M.; Giquel, B.; Hu, Q.; Abuknesha, R.; Uematsu, S.; Akira, S.; Nestle, F.O.; Diebold, S.S.
Antibody-antigen conjugates, which promote antigen-presentation by dendritic cells (DC) by means of targeted delivery of antigen to particular DC subsets, represent a powerful vaccination approach. To ensure immunity rather than tolerance induction the co-administration of a suitable adjuvant is
Lazar, Aurel A; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A
We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value.
The present invention is relates to methods for the identification of spatially encoded beaded or granulated matrices comprising a plurality of immobilised particles. The identification is based on a distance matrix determination or based on a set of geometrical figures, such a triangles...
Martine Bruley Rosset
Full Text Available In prion diseases, PrP(c, a widely expressed protein, is transformed into a pathogenic form called PrP(Sc, which is in itself infectious. Antibodies directed against PrP(c have been shown to inhibit PrP(c to PrP(Sc conversion in vitro and protect in vivo from disease. Other effectors with potential to eliminate PrPSc-producing cells are cytotoxic T cells directed against PrP-derived peptides but their ability to protect or to induce deleterious autoimmune reactions is not known. The natural tolerance to PrP(c makes difficult to raise efficient adaptive responses. To break tolerance, adenovirus (Ad encoding human PrP (hPrP or control Ad were administered to wild-type mice by direct injection or by transfer of Ad-transduced dendritic cells (DCs. Control Ad-transduced DCs from Tg650 mice overexpressing hPrP were also used for immunization. DC-mediated but not direct administration of AdhPrP elicited antibodies that bound to murine native PrP(c. Frequencies of PrP-specific IFNgamma-secreting T cells were low and in vivo lytic activity only targeted cells strongly expressing hPrP. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CD3(+ T cell infiltration was similar in the brain of vaccinated and unvaccinated 139A-infected mice suggesting the absence of autoimmune reactions. Early splenic PrP(Sc replication was strongly inhibited ten weeks post infection and mean survival time prolonged from 209 days in untreated 139A-infected mice to 246 days in mice vaccinated with DCs expressing the hPrP. The efficacy appeared to be associated with antibody but not with cytotoxic cell-mediated PrP-specific responses.
Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene
The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate in many years. Recently both M-cells and dendritic cells have been found in fish and it is therefore likely that antigens can be taken up from the intestine and induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish....... The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge with Y. ruckeri. The rainbow trout were given oral vaccinations...... with AquaVacTM ERM Oral vet. (MSD animal health) or an experimental vaccine based on killed Yersinia ruckeri O1, (biotype 1) bacteria. Seven groups were studied: 1) Control group (no vaccination, no infection), 2) infected control, 3) experimental vaccine, 4) experimental vaccine w/ booster (4 months post...
Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Otani, Maki
The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce...... immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth...... disease (ERM). Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health) or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were...
Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene
The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate in many years. Recently both M-cells and dendritic cells have been found in fish and it is therefore likely that antigens can be taken up from the intestine and induce immunity in orally and anally vaccinated...... fish. The objective for this project is to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1 (biotype 1) causing Enteric Red Mouth disease (ERM) can protect rainbow trout against a subsequent experimental bath challenge.The rainbow trout were given oral...... vaccinations with AquaVacTM ERM Oral vet. (MSD animal health) or an experimental vaccine based on formalin killed Yersinia ruckeri O1, (biotype 1) bacteria. Eight groups were studied: 1) Control group (no vaccination, no infection), 2) infected control, 3) experimental vaccine, 4) experimental vaccine w...
Full Text Available Actin is a versatile and ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein that plays a major role in both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity. For a long time, the most prominent roles that were attributed to actin in neurons were the movement of growth cones, polarized cargo sorting at the axon initial segment, and the dynamic plasticity of dendritic spines, since those compartments contain large accumulations of actin filaments (F-actin that can be readily visualized using electron- and fluorescence microscopy. With the development of super-resolution microscopy in the past few years, previously unknown structures of the actin cytoskeleton have been uncovered: a periodic lattice consisting of actin and spectrin seems to pervade not only the whole axon, but also dendrites and even the necks of dendritic spines. Apart from that striking feature, patches of F-actin and deep actin filament bundles have been described along the lengths of neurites. So far, research has been focused on the specific roles of actin in the axon, while it is becoming more and more apparent that in the dendrite, actin is not only confined to dendritic spines, but serves many additional and important functions. In this review, we focus on recent developments regarding the role of actin in dendrite morphology, the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking.
Galenko, P. K.; Alexandrov, D. V.
Transport processes around phase interfaces, together with thermodynamic properties and kinetic phenomena, control the formation of dendritic patterns. Using the thermodynamic and kinetic data of phase interfaces obtained on the atomic scale, one can analyse the formation of a single dendrite and the growth of a dendritic ensemble. This is the result of recent progress in theoretical methods and computational algorithms calculated using powerful computer clusters. Great benefits can be attained from the development of micro-, meso- and macro-levels of analysis when investigating the dynamics of interfaces, interpreting experimental data and designing the macrostructure of samples. The review and research articles in this theme issue cover the spectrum of scales (from nano- to macro-length scales) in order to exhibit recently developing trends in the theoretical analysis and computational modelling of dendrite pattern formation. Atomistic modelling, the flow effect on interface dynamics, the transition from diffusion-limited to thermally controlled growth existing at a considerable driving force, two-phase (mushy) layer formation, the growth of eutectic dendrites, the formation of a secondary dendritic network due to coalescence, computational methods, including boundary integral and phase-field methods, and experimental tests for theoretical models-all these themes are highlighted in the present issue. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.
Sakai, Keiichi; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Maejima, Shinya; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Sano, Kenji; Higuchi, Yumiko; Koya, Terutsugu; Ochiai, Takanaga; Koide, Masanori; Uehara, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Midori; Sugiyama, Haruo; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Okamoto, Masato; Hongo, Kazuhiro
Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination is considered a potentially effective therapy against advanced cancer. The authors conducted a Phase I study to investigate the safety and immunomonitoring of Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1)-pulsed DC vaccination therapy for patients with relapsed malignant glioma. WT1-pulsed and/or autologous tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccination therapy was performed in patients with relapsed malignant gliomas. Approximately 1 × 10(7) to 2 × 10(7) pulsed DCs loaded with WT1 peptide antigen and/or tumor lysate were intradermally injected into the axillary areas with OK-432, a streptococcal preparation, at 2-week intervals for at least 5-7 sessions (1 course) during an individual chemotherapy regimen. Ten patients (3 men, 7 women; age range 24-64 years [median 39 years]) with the following tumors were enrolled: glioblastoma (6), anaplastic astrocytoma (2), anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (1), and anaplastic oligodendroglioma (1). Modified WT1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccine was administered to 7 patients, tumor lysate-pulsed DC vaccine to 2 patients, and both tumor lysate-pulsed and WT1-pulsed DC vaccine to 1 patient. The clinical response was stable disease in 5 patients with WT1-pulsed DC vaccination. In 2 of 5 patients with stable disease, neurological findings improved, and MR images showed tumor shrinkage. No serious adverse events occurred except Grade 1-2 erythema at the injection sites. WT1 tetramer analysis detected WT1-reactive cytotoxic T cells after vaccination in patients treated with WT1-pulsed therapy. Positivity for skin reaction at the injection sites was 80% (8 of 10 patients) after the first session, and positivity remained for these 8 patients after the final session. This study of WT1-pulsed DC vaccination therapy demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, and feasibility in the management of relapsed malignant gliomas.
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service
CERN Medical Service
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service
... influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT be ... What is live, attenuated influenza vaccine-LAIV (nasal spray)?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children younger ...
Kim, Eun; Erdos, Geza; Huang, Shaohua; Kenniston, Thomas; Falo, Louis D; Gambotto, Andrea
... in the number of infants born with microcephaly and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We developed prototype subunit and adenoviral-based Zika vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the ZIKV envelope gene...
Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C
Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines.
Deanna M Schmitt
Full Text Available Vaccination is a proven strategy to mitigate morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases. The methodology of identifying and testing new vaccine candidates could be improved with rational design and in vitro testing prior to animal experimentation. The tularemia vaccine, Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS, does not elicit complete protection against lethal challenge with a virulent type A Francisella strain. One factor that may contribute to this poor performance is limited stimulation of antigen-presenting cells. In this study, we examined whether the interaction of genetically modified LVS strains with human antigen-presenting cells correlated with effectiveness as tularemia vaccine candidates. Human dendritic cells infected with wild-type LVS secrete low levels of proinflammatory cytokines, fail to upregulate costimulatory molecules, and activate human T cells poorly in vitro. One LVS mutant, strain 13B47, stimulated higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines from dendritic cells and macrophages and increased costimulatory molecule expression on dendritic cells compared to wild type. Additionally, 13B47-infected dendritic cells activated T cells more efficiently than LVS-infected cells. A deletion allele of the same gene in LVS displayed similar in vitro characteristics, but vaccination with this strain did not improve survival after challenge with a virulent Francisella strain. In vivo, this mutant was attenuated for growth and did not stimulate T cell responses in the lung comparable to wild type. Therefore, stimulation of antigen-presenting cells in vitro was improved by genetic modification of LVS, but did not correlate with efficacy against challenge in vivo within this model system.
Tania G Rodríguez-Cruz
Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC-mediated presentation of MHC class I (MHC-I/peptide complexes is a crucial first step in the priming of CTL responses, and the cytoplasmic tail of MHC-I plays an important role in modulating this process. Several species express a splice variant of the MHC-I tail that deletes exon 7-encoding amino acids (Δ7, including a conserved serine phosphorylation site. Previously, it has been shown that Δ7 MHC-I molecules demonstrate extended DC surface half-lives, and that mice expressing Δ7-K(b generate significantly augmented CTL responses to viral challenge. Herein, we show that Δ7-D(b-expressing DCs stimulated significantly more proliferation and much higher cytokine secretion by melanoma antigen-specific (Pmel-1 T cells. Moreover, in combination with adoptive Pmel-1 T-cell transfer, Δ7-D(b DCs were superior to WT-D(b DCs at stimulating anti-tumor responses against established B16 melanoma tumors, significantly extending mouse survival. Human DCs engineered to express Δ7-HLA-A*0201 showed similarly enhanced CTL stimulatory capacity. Further studies demonstrated impaired lateral membrane movement and clustering of human Δ7-MHC-I/peptide complexes, resulting in significantly increased bioavailability of MHC-I/peptide complexes for specific CD8+ T cells. Collectively, these data suggest that targeting exon 7-encoded MHC-I cytoplasmic determinants in DC vaccines has the potential to increase CD8+ T-cell stimulatory capacity and substantially improve their clinical efficacy.
Cho, Hyun-Il; Jung, Soo-Hyun; Sohn, Hyun-Jung; Celis, Esteban; Kim, Tai-Gyu
Therapeutic cancer vaccines are an attractive alternative to conventional therapies for treating malignant tumors, and successful tumor eradication depends primarily on obtaining high numbers of long-lasting tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells. Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines constitute a promising approach for treating cancer, but in most instances low immune responses and suboptimal therapeutic effects are achieved indicating that further optimization is required. We describe here a novel vaccin...
Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Yu, Hong
We present a memory augmented neural network for natural language understanding: Neural Semantic Encoders. NSE is equipped with a novel memory update rule and has a variable sized encoding memory that evolves over time and maintains the understanding of input sequences through read, compose and write operations. NSE can also access multiple and shared memories. In this paper, we demonstrated the effectiveness and the flexibility of NSE on five different natural language tasks: natural language inference, question answering, sentence classification, document sentiment analysis and machine translation where NSE achieved state-of-the-art performance when evaluated on publically available benchmarks. For example, our shared-memory model showed an encouraging result on neural machine translation, improving an attention-based baseline by approximately 1.0 BLEU.
Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel
Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577
A dendritic polymer consisting of inversely oriented lipid head groups on a polyvalent polyglycerol scaffold makes an effective reversible biomembrane adhesive that may find use as a tissue sealant and a drug-delivery vehicle.
Kabel, P J; Voorbij, H A; van der Gaag, R D; Wiersinga, W M; de Haan, M; Drexhage, H A
Dendritic cells form a morphologically distinct class of cells characterized by shape, reniform nucleus, absent to weak acid-phosphatase activity and strong Class II MHC determinant positivity. Functionally they are the most efficient cells in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes which indicates their role in the initiation of an immune response. Using immunehistochemical techniques we studied the presence of dendritic cells in normal Wistar rat and human thyroids, in thyroids of BBW rats developing thyroid autoimmunity and in Graves' goitres. Dendritic cells could be identified in all thyroids studied and were positioned underneath the thyrocytes in between the follicles. Skin dendritic cells travel via lymphatics to draining lymph nodes, thus forming an antigen presenting cell system. It is likely that a similar cell system exists on the level of the thyroid for dendritic cells have also been detected in thyroid draining lymph nodes. In normal thyroid tissue of both human and rat dendritic cells were relatively scarce. During the initial phases of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BBW rat (before the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) numbers of thyroid dendritic cells increased. Intrathyroidal T-helper cells, B-cells or plasma cells could not be found. The thyroid draining lymph node contained large numbers of plasma cells. During the later stages of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BB/W rat (after the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) and in Graves' goitres dendritic cells were not only present in high number, but 20-30% were seen in contact with now-present intrathyroidal T-helper lymphocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Mustafa Abu S
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease of international importance and ranks among the top 10 causes of death in the World. About one-third of the world′s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Every year, approximately eight million people develop active disease and two million die of TB. The currently used BCG vaccines have shown variable protective efficacies against TB in different parts of the world. Moreover, being a live vaccine, BCG can be pathogenic in immunocompromised recipients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new vaccines against TB. The comparative genome analysis has revealed the existence of several M. tuberculosis-specific regions that are deleted in BCG. The work carried out to determine the immunological reactivity of proteins encoded by genes located in these regions revealed several major antigens of M. tuberculosis, including the 6 kDa early secreted antigen target (ESAT6. Immunization with ESAT6 and its peptide (aa51-70 protects mice challenged with M. tuberculosis. The protective efficacy of immunization further improves when ESAT6 is recombinantly fused with M. tuberculosis antigen 85B. In addition, ESAT6 delivered as a DNA vaccine is also protective in mice. Whether these vaccines would be safe or not cannot be speculated. The answer regarding the safety and efficacy of these vaccines has to await human trials in different parts of the world.
... foreign. Most preventive vaccines, including those aimed at cancer-causing viruses ( hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus ), stimulate the ... 9 through 25 for the prevention of cervical cancer caused by HPV. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines. Chronic HBV infection can lead to ...
Tran, Vanessa; Liu, Jun; Behr, Marcel A
BCG is the collective name for a family of live attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis that are currently used as the only vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). There are two major reasons for studying the genome of these organisms: (i) Because they are attenuated, BCG vaccines provide a window into Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence, and (ii) because they have provided protection in several clinical trials and case-control studies, BCG vaccines may shed light on properties required of a TB vaccine. Since the determination of the M. tuberculosis genome in 1998, the study of BCG vaccines has accelerated dramatically, offering data on the genomic differences between virulent M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and the vaccine strains. While these findings have been rewarding for the study of virulence, there is unfortunately less accrued knowledge about protection. In this chapter, we review briefly the history of BCG vaccines and then touch upon studies over the past two decades that help explain how BCG underwent attenuation, concluding with some more speculative comments as to how these vaccines might offer protection against TB.
Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A.
Experiencing certain events triggers the acquisition of new memories. Although necessary, however, actual experience is not sufficient for memory formation. One-trial learning is also gated by knowledge of appropriate background information to make sense of the experienced occurrence. Strong neurobiological evidence suggests that long-term memory storage involves formation of new synapses. On the short time scale, this form of structural plasticity requires that the axon of the pre-synaptic neuron be physically proximal to the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron. We surmise that such “axonal-dendritic overlap” (ADO) constitutes the neural correlate of background information-gated (BIG) learning. The hypothesis is based on a fundamental neuroanatomical constraint: an axon must pass close to the dendrites that are near other neurons it contacts. The topographic organization of the mammalian cortex ensures that nearby neurons encode related information. Using neural network simulations, we demonstrate that ADO is a suitable mechanism for BIG learning. We model knowledge as associations between terms, concepts or indivisible units of thought via directed graphs. The simplest instantiation encodes each concept by single neurons. Results are then generalized to cell assemblies. The proposed mechanism results in learning real associations better than spurious co-occurrences, providing definitive cognitive advantages. PMID:25767887
Full Text Available Localized signaling in neuronal dendrites requires tight spatial control of membrane composition. Upon initial synthesis, nascent secretory cargo in dendrites exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER from local zones of ER complexity that are spatially coupled to post-ER compartments. Although newly synthesized membrane proteins can be processed locally, the mechanisms that control the spatial range of secretory cargo transport in dendritic segments are unknown. Here, we monitored the dynamics of nascent membrane proteins in dendritic post-ER compartments under regimes of low or increased neuronal activity. In response to activity blockade, post-ER carriers are highly mobile and are transported over long distances. Conversely, increasing synaptic activity dramatically restricts the spatial scale of post-ER trafficking along dendrites. This activity-induced confinement of secretory cargo requires site-specific phosphorylation of the kinesin motor KIF17 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK. Thus, the length scales of early secretory trafficking in dendrites are tuned by activity-dependent regulation of microtubule-dependent transport.
Gill, Harvinder S.; Sõderholm, Jonas; Prausnitz, Mark R.; Sällberg, Matti
The improved efficacy of cutaneous vaccination at lower doses can address the poor immunogenicity of intramuscular DNA vaccines. However, a simple and inexpensive cutaneous vaccination method is lacking. This study assessed use of micron-scale needles coated with DNA as a simple, inexpensive device for delivery targeted to skin. Delivery of 8 μg plasmid encoding hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protein using microneedles induced in vitro functional NS3/4A-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) comparable to 4 μg DNA delivered using complex gene gun technology, and the in vivo CTL response from 3.2 μg DNA was comparable to a 100 μg intramuscular dose. PMID:20200562
David AG Skibinski
Full Text Available The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of these combinations encountered numerous challenges, including the reduced response to Haemophilus influenzae vaccine when given in combination; the need to consolidate the differences in the immunization schedule (hepatitis B; and the need to improve the safety profile of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combination. Here, we review these challenges and also discuss future prospects for combination vaccines.
Masuda, Yuki; Nawa, Daiki; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Konishi, Morichika; Nanba, Hiroaki
The maturation of dendritic cells into more-immunostimulatory dendritic cells by stimulation with different combinations of immunologic agents is expected to provide efficient, adoptive immunotherapy against cancer. Soluble β-glucan maitake D-fraction, extracted from the maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa, acts as a potent immunotherapeutic agent, eliciting innate and adoptive immune responses, thereby contributing to its antitumor activity. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of maitake D-fraction, in combination with a Toll-like receptor agonist, to treat tumors in a murine model. Our results showed that maitake D-fraction, in combination with the Toll-like receptor 9 agonist, cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide, synergistically increased the expression of dendritic cell maturation markers and interleukin-12 production in dendritic cells, but it did not increase interleukin-10 production, generating strong effector dendritic cells with an augmented capacity for efficiently priming an antigen-specific, T helper 1-type T cell response. Maitake D-fraction enhances cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide-induced dendritic cell maturation and cytokine responses in a dectin-1-dependent pathway. We further showed that a combination therapy using cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide and maitake D-fraction was highly effective, either as adjuvants for dendritic cell vaccination or by direct administration against murine tumor. Therapeutic responses to direct administration were associated with increased CD11c(+) dendritic cells in the tumor site and the induction of interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Our results indicate that maitake D-fraction and cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide synergistically activated dendritic cells, resulting in tumor regression via an antitumor T helper cell 1-type response. Our findings provide the basis for a potent antitumor therapy using a novel combination of immunologic agents for
Svane, I M; Nikolajsen, K; Walter, M R
Dendritic cells (DC) are promising candidates for cancer immunotherapy. These cells can be generated from peripheral blood monocytes cultured with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). In order to obtain full functional capacity, maturation is required......, maturation with IFN-alpha has only a small effect on induction of autologous T-cell stimulatory capacity of the DC. However, an increase in DC allogeneic T-cell stimulatory capacity was observed. These data suggest that IFN-alpha has a potential as a maturation agent used in DC-based cancer vaccine trials...
Tkach, Alexey V; Yanamala, Naveena; Stanley, Shyla; Shurin, Michael R; Shurin, Galina V; Kisin, Elena R; Murray, Ashley R; Pareso, Samantha; Khaliullin, Timur; Kotchey, Gregg P; Castranova, Vincent; Mathur, Sanjay; Fadeel, Bengt; Star, Alexander; Kagan, Valerian E; Shvedova, Anna A
Graphene oxide (GO) and C60 - or C60 -TRIS fullerenes, internalized by murine dendritic cells (DCs), differently affect their abilities to present antigens to T-cells. While C60 -fullerenes stimulate the ovalbumin-specific MHC class I-restricted T-cell response, GO impairs the stimulatory potential of DCs. In contrast to C60 -fullerenes, GO decreases the intracellular levels of LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits required for processing of protein antigens. This is important for the development of DC-based vaccines. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Foged, Camilla; Arigita, Carmen; Sundblad, Anne
Vaccine efficacy might be improved by exploiting the potent antigen presenting properties of dendrite cells (DCs), since their ability to stimulate specific major histocompatibility complex-restricted immune responses has been well documented during the recent years. In that light, we investigated...... how the interaction of antigen-containing liposomes with DCs was affected by the bilayer composition. Monocyte-derived human DCs and murine bone marrow-derived DCs were analysed and compared upon in vitro incubation with liposomes by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Anionic liposomes...
Kong, Xiangjun; Hu, Yuanjia; Cai, Zhifang; Yang, Fengqing; Zhang, Qianru
As the most potent antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal players in regulating immune responses. DC-based technologies have generated a series of typical and promising therapeutic options, especially after the first DC-based cancer vaccine was approved by US. Food and Drug Administration (US. FDA). In this context, this paper employs patents and citation networks to conduct a fundamental analysis in order to show overall landscape of DC-based technologies. The results in this research can be used as references for decision-making in developing efficacious DC therapeutic products. PMID:25714961
Chaput, N.; Schartz, N.E.; Andre, F.; Taieb, J.; Novault, S.; Bonnaventure, P.; Aubert, N.; Bernard, J.; Lemonnier, F.; Merad, M.; Adema, G.J.; Adams, M.; Ferrantini, M.; Carpentier, A.F.; Escudier, B.; Tursz, T.; Angevin, E.; Zitvogel, L.
Ideal vaccines should be stable, safe, molecularly defined, and out-of-shelf reagents efficient at triggering effector and memory Ag-specific T cell-based immune responses. Dendritic cell-derived exosomes could be considered as novel peptide-based vaccines because exosomes harbor a discrete set of
... Educators Search English Español Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines Print The meningococcal vaccines protect ...
Daniel Dory; Vincent Le Moigne; Roland Cariolet; Véronique Béven; André Keranflec’h; André Jestin
DNA vaccination has been developed in the last two decades in human and animal species as a promising alternative to conventional vaccination. It consists in the injection, in the muscle, for example, of plasmid DNA encoding the vaccinating polypeptide. Electroporation which forces the entrance of the plasmid DNA in cells at the injection point has been described as a powerful and promising strategy to enhance DNA vaccine efficacy. Due to the fact that the vaccine is composed of DNA, close at...
Full Text Available Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 underlie an autosomal-dominant form of Parkinson's disease (PD that is clinically indistinguishable from idiopathic PD. The function of LRRK2 is not well understood, but it has become widely accepted that LRRK2 levels or its kinase activity, which is increased by the most commonly observed mutation (G2019S, regulate neurite growth. However, growth has not been measured; it is not known whether mean differences in length correspond to altered rates of growth or retraction, whether axons or dendrites are impacted differentially or whether effects observed are transient or sustained. To address these questions, we compared several developmental milestones in neurons cultured from mice expressing bacterial artificial chromosome transgenes encoding mouse wildtype-LRRK2 or mutant LRRK2-G2019S, Lrrk2 knockout mice and non-transgenic mice. Over the course of three weeks of development on laminin, the data show a sustained, negative effect of LRRK2-G2019S on dendritic growth and arborization, but counter to expectation, dendrites from Lrrk2 knockout mice do not elaborate more rapidly. In contrast, young neurons cultured on a slower growth substrate, poly-L-lysine, show significantly reduced axonal and dendritic motility in Lrrk2 transgenic neurons and significantly increased motility in Lrrk2 knockout neurons with no significant changes in length. Our findings support that LRRK2 can regulate patterns of axonal and dendritic growth, but they also show that effects vary depending on growth substrate and stage of development. Such predictable changes in motility can be exploited in LRRK2 bioassays and guide exploration of LRRK2 function in vivo.
Full Text Available The ability for cortical neurons to adapt their input/output characteristics and information processing capabilities ultimately relies on the interplay between synaptic plasticity, synapse location, and the nonlinear properties of the dendrite. Collectively, they shape both the strengths and spatial arrangements of convergent afferent inputs to neuronal dendrites. Recent experimental and theoretical studies support a clustered plasticity model, a view that synaptic plasticity promotes the formation of clusters or hotspots of synapses sharing similar properties. We have previously shown that spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP can lead to synaptic efficacies being arranged into spatially segregated clusters. This effectively partitions the dendritic tree into a tessellated imprint which we have called a dendritic mosaic. Here, using a biophysically detailed neuron model of a reconstructed layer 2/3 pyramidal cell and STDP learning, we investigated the impact of altered STDP balance on forming such a spatial organization. We show that cluster formation and extend depend on several factors, including the balance between potentiation and depression, the afferents' mean firing rate and crucially on the dendritic morphology. We find that STDP balance has an important role to play for this emergent mode of spatial organization since any imbalances lead to severe degradation- and in some case even destruction- of the mosaic. Our model suggests that, over a broad range of of STDP parameters, synaptic plasticity shapes the spatial arrangement of synapses, favoring the formation of clustered efficacy engrams.
Iannella, Nicolangelo; Launey, Thomas
The ability for cortical neurons to adapt their input/output characteristics and information processing capabilities ultimately relies on the interplay between synaptic plasticity, synapse location, and the nonlinear properties of the dendrite. Collectively, they shape both the strengths and spatial arrangements of convergent afferent inputs to neuronal dendrites. Recent experimental and theoretical studies support a clustered plasticity model, a view that synaptic plasticity promotes the formation of clusters or hotspots of synapses sharing similar properties. We have previously shown that spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can lead to synaptic efficacies being arranged into spatially segregated clusters. This effectively partitions the dendritic tree into a tessellated imprint which we have called a dendritic mosaic. Here, using a biophysically detailed neuron model of a reconstructed layer 2/3 pyramidal cell and STDP learning, we investigated the impact of altered STDP balance on forming such a spatial organization. We show that cluster formation and extend depend on several factors, including the balance between potentiation and depression, the afferents' mean firing rate and crucially on the dendritic morphology. We find that STDP balance has an important role to play for this emergent mode of spatial organization since any imbalances lead to severe degradation- and in some case even destruction- of the mosaic. Our model suggests that, over a broad range of of STDP parameters, synaptic plasticity shapes the spatial arrangement of synapses, favoring the formation of clustered efficacy engrams. PMID:28649195
Kier, Lemont B
In our previous studies of nerve conduction conducted by proton hopping, we have considered the axon, soma, synapse and the nodes of Ranvier. The role of proton hopping described the passage of information through each of these units of a typical nerve system. The synapse projects information from the axon to the dendrite and their associated spines. We have invoked the passage of protons via a hopping mechanism to illustrate the continuum of the impulse through the system, via the soma following the dendrites. This is proposed to be a continuum invoked by the proton hopping method. With the proposal of the activity through the dendrites, via proton hopping, a complete model of the nerve function is invoked. At each step to the way, a water pathway is present and is invoked in the proposed model as the carrier of the message via proton hopping. The importance of the dendrites is evident by the presence of a vast number of spines, each possessing the possibility to carry unique messages through the nervous system. With this model of the role of dendrites, functioning with the presence of proton hopping, a complete model of the nerve system is presented. The validity of this model will be available for further studies and models to assess it's validity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Keith P. Johnson; Lei Zhao; Daniel Kerschensteiner
The spike trains of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the only source of visual information to the brain. Here, we genetically identify an RGC type in mice that functions as a pixel encoder and increases firing to light increments (PixON-RGC). PixON-RGCs have medium-sized dendritic arbors and non-canonical center-surround receptive fields. From their receptive field center, PixON-RGCs receive only excitatory input, which encodes contrast and spatial information linearly. From their receptive ...
Reuben N. S. Rowe
Full Text Available Jay and Given-Wilson have recently introduced the Factorisation (or SF- calculus as a minimal fundamental model of intensional computation. It is a combinatory calculus containing a special combinator, F, which is able to examine the internal structure of its first argument. The calculus is significant in that as well as being combinatorially complete it also exhibits the property of structural completeness, i.e. it is able to represent any function on terms definable using pattern matching on arbitrary normal forms. In particular, it admits a term that can decide the structural equality of any two arbitrary normal forms. Since SF-calculus is combinatorially complete, it is clearly at least as powerful as the more familiar and paradigmatic Turing-powerful computational models of Lambda Calculus and Combinatory Logic. Its relationship to these models in the converse direction is less obvious, however. Jay and Given-Wilson have suggested that SF-calculus is strictly more powerful than the aforementioned models, but a detailed study of the connections between these models is yet to be undertaken. This paper begins to bridge that gap by presenting a faithful encoding of the Factorisation Calculus into the Lambda Calculus preserving both reduction and strong normalisation. The existence of such an encoding is a new result. It also suggests that there is, in some sense, an equivalence between the former model and the latter. We discuss to what extent our result constitutes an equivalence by considering it in the context of some previously defined frameworks for comparing computational power and expressiveness.
Østerhus, Sven Frederick
The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....
Foroughi-Parvar, Faeze; Hatam, Gholam-Reza; Sarkari, Bahador; Kamali-Sarvestani, Eskandar
To investigate the efficacy of FML loaded dendritic cells (DCs) in protection against visceral leishmaniasis. Mice were immunized with FML- or soluble Leishmania antigen-loaded DCs as well as FML or soluble Leishmania antigen in saponin and challenged with parasite. The levels of cytokines before and after challenge were detected by ELISA. Parasite burden (total Leishman-Donovan unit) was determined after parasite challenge. FML-saponin induced the highest IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio among vaccinated groups, though this ratio was higher in FML-loaded DCs group subsequent to challenge with Leishmania infantum. Moreover, the greatest reduction in parasite number was detected in mice vaccinated with FML-loaded DCs compared with phosphate-buffered saline-treated mice (p = 0.002). FML-loaded DCs are one of the promising tools for protection against murine visceral leishmaniasis.
... Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español ... of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. Hundreds ...
... Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend on ... or fungi from contaminating the vaccine. Do flu vaccines contain thimerosal? Flu vaccines in multi-dose vials ...
... Side Effects of Vaccination Who Should Get a Smallpox Vaccination? Bioterrorism The Threat Preparedness Detection and Response Bioterrorism ... Revaccinees Examples of Major or “Take” Reactions to Smallpox Vaccination Vaccine Adverse Reaction Images Laboratory Personnel Specimen Collection ...
... multi.html . CDC review information for Multi Pediatric Vaccines: Your Child's First Vaccines: What you need to know (VIS): ... of that vaccine. Tell the person giving the vaccines if your child has ever had a severe reaction after any ...
... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...
determining the immune responses in melioidosis, rheumatic fever , poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and Q fever ...Research Group at James Cook University. He graduated with his MD at the Vinnitsa Medical Institute in 1985, and completed his PhD at the University of
Full Text Available In this study, a software is introduced for simulating the electrical properties of passive dendrite based on the cable theory. Dendrites along which the synaptic information is conveyed are the largest component of a neuron in surface area. The Cable theory for dendritic neurons addresses to current-voltage relations in a continuous passive dendritic tree. It is briefly summarized that the cable theory related to passive cables and dendrites, which is a useful approximation and an important reference for excitable cases. The proposed software can be used to construct user-defined dendritic tree model. The user can define the model in detail, display the constructed dendritic tree, and examine the basic electrical properties of the dendritic tree.
Cohen, Michael S; Bas Orth, Carlos; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jeon, Noo Li; Jaffrey, Samie R
Signaling from dendritic synapses to the nucleus regulates important aspects of neuronal function, including synaptic plasticity. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can induce long-lasting strengthening of synapses in vivo and this effect is dependent on transcription. However, the mechanism of signaling to the nucleus is not well understood. Here we describe a microfluidic culture device to investigate dendrite-to-nucleus signaling. Using these microfluidic devices, we demonstrate that BDNF can act directly on dendrites to elicit an anterograde signal that induces transcription of the immediate early genes, Arc and c-Fos. Induction of Arc is dependent on dendrite- and cell body-derived calcium, whereas induction of c-Fos is calcium-independent. In contrast to retrograde neurotrophin-mediated axon-to-nucleus signaling, which is MEK5-dependent, BDNF-mediated anterograde dendrite-to-nucleus signaling is dependent on MEK1/2. Intriguingly, the activity of TrkB, the BDNF receptor, is required in the cell body for the induction of Arc and c-Fos mediated by dendritically applied BDNF. These results are consistent with the involvement of a signaling endosome-like pathway that conveys BDNF signals from the dendrite to the nucleus.
Riedmann, Eva M.
Long-term effectiveness shown for Merck’s chickenpox vaccine Again—no link between vaccines and autism Experimental ovarian cancer vaccine successful in phase 1 Sinovac’s HFMD vaccine meets phase 3 study goal A vaccine for long-suffering cat allergy patients Vaccines are key to breaking infectious disease-malnutrition cycle Cancer vaccine failures due to the adjuvant IFA? Novartis’ typhoid vaccine make good progress
Lu, Yili; Beckermann, C.; Karma, A.
A phase-field model is developed to simulate free dendritic growth coupled with fluid flow for a pure material in three dimensions. The preliminary results presented here illustrate the strong influence of convection on the three-dimensional (3D) dendrite growth morphology. The detailed knowledge of the flow and temperature fields in the melt around the dendrite from the simulations allows for a detailed understanding of the convection effects on dendritic growth.
Full Text Available Microcircuits composed of dendrite-targeting inhibitory interneurons and pyramidal cells are fundamental elements of cortical networks, however, the impact of individual interneurons on pyramidal dendrites is unclear. Here, we combine paired recordings and calcium imaging to determine the spatial domain over which single dendrite-targeting interneurons influence pyramidal cells in olfactory cortex. We show that a major action of individual interneurons is to inhibit dendrites in a branch-specific fashion.
Osman, Mohamed; Mistry, Anoop; Keding, Ada; Gabe, Rhian; Cook, Elizabeth; Forrester, Sarah; Wiggins, Rebecca; Di Marco, Stefania; Colloca, Stefano; Siani, Loredana; Cortese, Riccardo; Smith, Deborah F; Aebischer, Toni; Kaye, Paul M; Lacey, Charles J
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala azar) is the most serious form of human leishmaniasis, responsible for over 20,000 deaths annually, and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a stigmatizing skin condition that often occurs in patients after successful treatment for VL. Lack of effective or appropriately targeted cell mediated immunity, including CD8+ T cell responses, underlies the progression of VL and progression to PKDL, and can limit the therapeutic efficacy of anti-leishmanial drugs. Hence, in addition to the need for prophylactic vaccines against leishmaniasis, the development of therapeutic vaccines for use alone or in combined immuno-chemotherapy has been identified as an unmet clinical need. Here, we report the first clinical trial of a third-generation leishmaniasis vaccine, developed intentionally to induce Leishmania-specific CD8+ T cells. We conducted a first-in-human dose escalation Phase I trial in 20 healthy volunteers to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a prime-only adenoviral vaccine for human VL and PKDL. ChAd63-KH is a replication defective simian adenovirus expressing a novel synthetic gene (KH) encoding two Leishmania proteins KMP-11 and HASPB. Uniquely, the latter was engineered to reflect repeat domain polymorphisms and arrangements identified from clinical isolates. We monitored innate immune responses by whole blood RNA-Seq and antigen specific CD8+ T cell responses by IFNγ ELISPOT and intracellular flow cytometry. ChAd63-KH was safe at intramuscular doses of 1x1010 and 7.5x1010 vp. Whole blood transcriptomic profiling indicated that ChAd63-KH induced innate immune responses characterized by an interferon signature and the presence of activated dendritic cells. Broad and quantitatively robust CD8+ T cell responses were induced by vaccination in 100% (20/20) of vaccinated subjects. The results of this study support the further development of ChAd63-KH as a novel third generation vaccine for VL and PKDL. This
Joris D. Veltman
Full Text Available Clinical immunotherapy trials like dendritic cell-based vaccinations are hampered by the tumor's offensive repertoire that suppresses the incoming effector cells. Regulatory T cells are instrumental in suppressing the function of cytotoxic T cells. We studied the effect of low-dose cyclophosphamide on the suppressive function of regulatory T cells and investigated if the success rate of dendritic cell immunotherapy could be improved. For this, mesothelioma tumor-bearing mice were treated with dendritic cell-based immunotherapy alone or in combination with low-dose of cyclophosphamide. Proportions of regulatory T cells and the cytotoxic T cell functions at different stages of disease were analyzed. We found that low-dose cyclophosphamide induced beneficial immunomodulatory effects by preventing the induction of Tregs, and as a consequence, cytotoxic T cell function was no longer affected. Addition of cyclophosphamide improved immunotherapy leading to an increased median and overall survival. Future studies are needed to address the usefulness of this combination treatment for mesothelioma patients.
Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert
Differentially activated areas of a dendrite permit the existence of zones with distinct rates of synaptic modification, and such areas can be individually accessed using a reference signal which localizes synaptic plasticity and memory trace retrieval to certain subregions of the dendrite...... to participate in multiple sequences, which can be learned without suffering from the 'wash-out' of synaptic efficacy associated with superimposition of training patterns. This is a biologically plausible solution to the stability-plasticity dilemma of learning in neural networks....
Pistello, Mauro; Conti, Francesca; Vannucci, Laura; Freer, Giulia
Inadequate antigen presentation and/or suboptimal immunogenicity are considered major causes in the failure of human immunodeficiency vaccine to adequately protect against wild-type virus. Several approaches have been attempted to circumvent these hurdles. Here we reviewed some recent vaccinal strategies tested against the feline immunodeficiency virus and focused on: (i) improving antigen presentation by taking advantage of the exquisite ability of dendritic cells to process and present immunogens to the immune system; (ii) boosting immune responses with vaccinal antigens presented in a truly native conformation by the natural target cells of infection. Significance of the studies, possible correlates of protection involved, and implications for developing anti-human immunodeficiency virus vaccines are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xu, Huanbin; Andersson, Anne-Marie Carola; Ragonnaud, Emeline
Conventional HIV T cell vaccine strategies have not been successful in containing acute peak viremia, nor in providing long-term control. We immunized rhesus macaques intramuscularly and rectally using a heterologous adenovirus vectored SIV vaccine regimen encoding normally weakly immunogenic tat...... immune hyperactivation as measured by naïve T cell depletion, Ki-67 and PD-1 expression on T cells. These results indicate that vaccination towards SIV accessory antigens vaccine can provide a level of acute control of SIV replication with a suggestion of beneficial immunological consequences in infected...... animals of unknown long-term significance. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that a vaccine encoding subdominant antigens not normally associated with virus control can exert a significant impact on acute peak viremia....
Nuti, M; Zizzari, I; Napoletano, C
e13528 Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells and are employed in cancer vaccination. Several receptors are being studied in order to identif strategies to increase DCs activating capacity. The C-type lectin macrophage galactose type C-type lectin (MGL...
Leitch, J.; Fraser, K.; Lane, C.; Putzu, K.; Adema, G.J.; Zhang, Q.; Jefferies, W.A.; Bramson, J.L.; Wan, Y.
Previously, we compared the efficiency of direct injection with an adenovirus (Ad) expressing human gp100 (hgp100) to immunization with dendritic cells (DC) loaded with the same vector ex vivo. The DC vaccine provided the greatest protection against challenge with B16F10 melanoma, and antitumor
Yu, Yun-Zhou; Wang, Wen-Bin; Li, Na; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Wei-Yuan; Sun, Zhi-Wei
DNA vaccines against botulinum neurotoxin (BoNTs) induce protective humoral immune responses in mouse model, but when compared with conventional vaccines such as toxoid and protein vaccines, DNA vaccines often induce lower antibody level and protective efficacy and are still necessary to increase their potency. In this study we evaluated the potency of aluminum phosphate as an adjuvant of DNA vaccines to enhance antibody responses and protective efficacy against botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B in Balb/c mice. The administration of these individual and bivalent plasmid DNA replicon vaccines against botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B in the presence of aluminum phosphate improved both antibody responses and protective efficacy. Furthermore, formulation of conventional plasmid DNA vaccines encoding the same Hc domains of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B with aluminum phosphate adjuvant increased both antibody responses and protective efficacy. These results indicate aluminum phosphate is an effective adjuvant for these two types of DNA vaccines (i.e., plasmid DNA replicon vaccines and conventional plasmid DNA vaccines), and the vaccine formulation described here may be an excellent candidate for further vaccine development against botulinum neurotoxins. Copyright © 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stoeker, Laura; Nordone, Shila; Gunderson, Sara; Zhang, Lin; Kajikawa, Akinobu; LaVoy, Alora; Miller, Michael; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Dean, Gregg A.
Lactobacillus species are commensal bacteria that have long been recognized as probiotic microbes and are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) for human consumption. We have investigated the use of L. gasseri as a vaccine vector for oral immunization against mucosal pathogens. Recent research has shown that the immune response to different lactobacilli can vary widely depending on the species or subspecies of Lactobacillus being studied. While some lactobacilli seem to induce oral tolerance, others induce an adaptive immune response. This study characterized the systemic and mucosal immune response to wild-type and genetically modified L. gasseri. L. gasseri primarily activates TLR2/6, with additional activation through the TLR2 homodimer. To expand the Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation profile of L. gasseri and the immunogenicity of the vector, a plasmid containing fliC, the gene encoding bacterial flagellin, was introduced which resulted in the strong activation of TLR5. The treatment of human myeloid dendritic cells with recombinant lactobacilli expressing flagellin triggered phenotypic maturation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, bacterial treatment also resulted in a statistically significant increase in IL-10 production. In vivo studies established that treatment with L. gasseri led to a diversification of B-cell populations in the lamina propria of the murine colon. Furthermore, treatment with genetically modified L. gasseri led to a significant decrease in the percentage of FoxP3+ colonic lymphocytes. Taken together, these data clarify the interaction of L. gasseri with the host immune system and support further investigation of the in vivo immunogenicity of L. gasseri expressing both flagellin and candidate vaccine antigens. PMID:21900526
Demeure, Christian E; Derbise, Anne; Carniel, Elisabeth
Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is among the deadliest bacterial pathogens affecting humans, and is a potential biological weapon. Because antibiotic resistant strains of Yersinia pestis have been observed or could be engineered for evil use, vaccination against plague might become the only means to reduce mortality. Although plague is re-emerging in many countries, a vaccine with worldwide license is currently lacking. The vaccine strategy described here is based on an oral vaccination with an attenuated strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Indeed, this species is genetically almost identical to Y. pestis, but has a much lower pathogenicity and a higher genomic stability. Gradual modifications of the wild-type Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain IP32953 were performed to generate a safe and immunogenic vaccine. Genes coding for three essential virulence factors were deleted from this strain. To increase cross-species immunogenicity, an F1-encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain was then generated. For this, the Y. pestis caf operon, which encodes F1, was inserted first on a plasmid, and subsequently into the chromosome. The successive steps achieved to reach maximal vaccine potential are described, and how each step affected bacterial virulence and the development of a protective immune response is discussed. The final version of the vaccine, named VTnF1, provides a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague after a single oral vaccine dose. Since a Y. pestis strain deprived of F1 exist or could be engineered, we also analyzed the protection conferred by the vaccine against such strain and found that it also confers full protection against the two forms of plague. Thus, the properties of VTnF1 makes it one of the most efficient candidate vaccine for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas as well as for populations exposed to bioterrorism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J
This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sietske eRosendahl Huber
Full Text Available An effective immune response against viral infections depends on the activation of cytotoxic T cells that can clear the infection by killing virus-infected cells. Proper activation of these T cells depends on professional antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs. In this review, we will discuss the potential of peptide-based vaccines for prevention and treatment of viral diseases. We will describe features of an effective response against both acute and chronic infections, such as an appropriate magnitude, breadth and quality and discuss requirements for inducing such an effective antiviral immune response. We will address modifications that affect presentation of vaccine components by DCs, including choice of antigen, adjuvants, and formulation. Furthermore, we will describe differences in design between preventive and therapeutic peptide-based vaccines. The ultimate goal in the design of preventive vaccines, is to develop a universal vaccine that cross-protects against multiple strains of the virus. For therapeutic vaccines, cross-protection is of less importance, but enhancing existing T cell responses is essential. Although peptide vaccination is successful in inducing responses in Human Papilloma Virus (HPV infected patients, there are still several challenges such as choosing the right target epitopes, choosing safe adjuvants that improve immunogenicity of these epitopes, and steering the immune response in the desired direction. We will conclude with an overview of the current status of peptide vaccination, hurdles to overcome, and prospects for the future.
Penumarthi, Alekhya; Parashar, Deepti; Abraham, Amanda N.; Dekiwadia, Chaitali; Macreadie, Ian; Shukla, Ravi; Smooker, Peter M.
There is an increasing demand for novel DNA vaccine delivery systems, mainly for the non-viral type as they are considered relatively safe. Therefore, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were investigated for their suitability as a non-viral DNA vaccine delivery system. SLNs were synthesised by a modified solvent-emulsification method in order to study their potential to conjugate with plasmid DNA and deliver them in vitro to dendritic cells using eGFP as the reporter plasmid. The DNA-SLN complexes were characterised by electron microscopy, gel retardation assays and dynamic light scattering. The cytotoxicity assay data supported their biocompatibility and was used to estimate safe threshold concentration resulting in high transfection rate. The transfection efficiency of these complexes in a dendritic cell line was shown to increase significantly compared to plasmid alone, and was comparable to that mediated by lipofectamine. Transmission electron microscopy studies delineated the pathway of cellular uptake. Endosomal escape was observed supporting the mechanism of transfection.
Slike, Bonnie M; Creegan, Matthew; Marovich, Mary; Ngauy, Viseth
Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years) and protective. However, using vaccinia-vectored vaccine delivery for other diseases on a background of anti-vector antibodies (i.e. pre-existing immunity) may limit their use as a vaccine platform, especially in the military. In this pilot study, we examined the durability of vaccinia antibody responses in adult primary vaccinees in a healthy military population using a standard ELISA assay and a novel dendritic cell neutralization assay. We found binding and neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to vaccinia waned after 5-10 years in a group of 475 active duty military, born after 1972, who were vaccinated as adults with Dryvax®. These responses decreased from a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 250 to baseline (vaccination. This contrasted with a comparator group of adults, ages 35-49, who were vaccinated with Dryvax® as children. In the childhood vaccinees, titers persisted for >30 years with a GMT of 210 (range 112-3234). This data suggests limited durability of antibody responses in adult vaccinees compared to those vaccinated in childhood and further that adult vaccinia recipients may benefit similarly from receipt of a vaccinia based vaccine as those who are vaccinia naïve. Our findings may have implications for the smallpox vaccination schedule and support the ongoing development of this promising viral vector in a military vaccination program.
Yasunaga, Kei-ichiro; Tezuka, Akane; Ishikawa, Natsuko; Dairyo, Yusuke; Togashi, Kazuya; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Emoto, Kazuo
Sensory neurons with common functions are often nonrandomly arranged and form dendritic territories in stereotypic spatial patterns throughout the nervous system, yet molecular mechanisms of how neurons specify dendritic territories remain largely unknown. In Drosophila larvae, dendrites of class IV sensory (C4da) neurons completely but nonredundantly cover the whole epidermis, and the boundaries of these tiled dendritic fields are specified through repulsive interactions between homotypic dendrites. Here we report that, unlike the larval C4da neurons, adult C4da neurons rely on both dendritic repulsive interactions and external positional cues to delimit the boundaries of their dendritic fields. We identify Wnt5 derived from sternites, the ventral-most part of the adult abdominal epidermis, as the critical determinant for the ventral boundaries. Further genetic data indicate that Wnt5 promotes dendrite termination on the periphery of sternites through the Ryk receptor family kinase Derailed (Drl) and the Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio in C4da neurons. Our findings thus uncover the dendritic contact-independent mechanism that is required for dendritic boundary specification and suggest that combinatory actions of the dendritic contact-dependent and -independent mechanisms may ensure appropriate dendritic territories of a given neuron. © 2015 Yasunaga et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
... Vaccines: The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals ... Influenza vaccine each year to protect against seasonal flu Tdap vaccine to protect against whooping cough and ...
... Vaccines: The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals ... Influenza vaccine each year to protect against seasonal flu Tdap vaccine to protect against whooping cough and ...
... Vaccines: The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals ... Influenza vaccine each year to protect against seasonal flu Tdap vaccine to protect against whooping cough and ...
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a major public health problem and the development of a human vaccine is of high priority. Efficient vaccination against Toxoplasma gondii requires both a mucosal and systemic Th1 immune response. Moreover, dendritic cells play a critical role in orchestrating the innate immune functions and driving specific adaptive immunity to T. gondii. In this study, we explore an original vaccination strategy that combines administration via mucosal and systemic routes of fusion proteins able to target the major T. gondii surface antigen SAG1 to DCs using an antibody fragment single-chain fragment variable (scFv directed against DEC205 endocytic receptor. Our results show that SAG1 targeting to DCs by scFv via intranasal and subcutaneous administration improved protection against chronic T. gondii infection. A marked reduction in brain parasite burden is observed when compared with the intranasal or the subcutaneous route alone. DC targeting improved both local and systemic humoral and cellular immune responses and potentiated more specifically the Th1 response profile by more efficient production of IFN-γ, interleukin-2, IgG2a, and nasal IgA. This study provides evidence of the potential of DC targeting for the development of new vaccines against a range of Apicomplexa parasites.
Full Text Available Following activation, naïve CD8+ T cells will differentiate into effectors that differ in their ability to survive: some will persist as memory cells while the majority will die by apoptosis. Signals given by antigen-presenting cells (APCs at the time of priming modulate this differential outcome. We have recently shown that, in opposition to dendritic cell (DC, CD40-activated B-(CD40-B cell vaccination fails to efficiently produce CD8+ memory T cells. Understanding why CD40-B-cell vaccination does not lead to the generation of functional long-lived memory cells is essential to define the signals that should be provided to naïve T cells by APCs. Here we show that CD40-B cells produce very low amount of IL-6 when compared to DCs. However, supplementation with IL-6 during CD40-B-cell vaccination did not improve memory generation. Furthermore, IL-6-deficient DCs maintained the capacity to promote the formation of functional CD8+ effectors and memory cells. Our results suggest that in APC vaccination models, IL-6 provided by the APCs is dispensable for proper CD8+ T-cell memory generation.
Lemoine, Sébastien; Jaron, Barbara; Tabka, Sabrine; Ettreiki, Chourouk; Deriaud, Edith; Zhivaki, Dania; Le Ray, Camille; Launay, Odile; Majlessi, Laleh; Tissieres, Pierre; Leclerc, Claude; Lo-Man, Richard
Early life is characterized by a high susceptibility to infection and a TH2-biased CD4 T-cell response to vaccines. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are currently being implemented as new vaccine adjuvants for TH1 activation, but their translation to the field of pediatric vaccines is facing the impairment of neonatal innate TLR responses. We sought to analyze C-type lectin receptor pathways as an alternative or a coactivator to TLRs for neonatal dendritic cell activation for TH1 polarization. Neonatal monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) were exposed to various combinations of TLR agonists with or without Dectin-1 agonist. IL-12 and IL-23 responses were analyzed at the transcriptional and protein levels after stimulation. The intracellular pathways triggered by combined TLR plus Dectin-1 stimulation was determined by using pharmacologic inhibitors. The capacity of neonatal moDCs to differentiate naive CD4 TH cells was evaluated in cocultures with heterologous neonatal naive T cells. Curdlan was finally tested as an adjuvant within a subunit tuberculosis vaccine in neonatal mice. Simultaneous coactivation through Dectin-1 and TLRs induced robust secretion of IL-12p70 by neonatal moDCs by unlocking transcriptional control on the p35 subunit of IL-12. Both the spleen tyrosine kinase and Raf-1 pathways were involved in this process, allowing differentiation of neonatal naive T cells toward IFN-γ-producing TH1 cells. In vivo a Dectin-1 agonist as adjuvant was sufficient to induce TH1 responses after vaccination of neonatal mice. Coactivation of neonatal moDCs through Dectin-1 allows TLR-mediated IL-12p70 secretion and TH1 polarization of neonatal T cells. Dectin-1 agonists represent a promising TH1 adjuvant for pediatric vaccination. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Jieqiong; Chen, Hui; Wu, Na; Fan, Dongying; Liang, Guodong; Gao, Na; An, Jing
Vaccination is the most effective countermeasure for protecting individuals from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. There are two types of JEV vaccines currently used in China: the Vero cell-derived inactivated vaccine and the live attenuated vaccine. In this study, we characterized the immune response and protective efficacy induced in mice by the inactivated vaccine, live attenuated vaccine and the DNA vaccine candidate pCAG-JME, which expresses JEV prM-E proteins. We found that the live attenuated vaccine conferred 100% protection and resulted in the generation of high levels of specific anti-JEV antibodies and cytokines. The pCAG-JME vaccine induced protective immunity as well as the live attenuated vaccine. Unexpectedly, immunization with the inactivated vaccine only induced a limited immune response and partial protection, which may be due to the decreased activity of dendritic cells and the expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells observed in these mice. Altogether, our results suggest that the live attenuated vaccine is more effective in providing protection against JEV infection than the inactivated vaccine and that pCAG-JME will be a potential JEV vaccine candidate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gerlini, G; Hefti, H P; Kleinhans, M; Nickoloff, B J; Burg, G; Nestle, F O
CD1 proteins are a family of cell surface molecules that present lipid antigens to T cells. We investigated skin dendritic cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells for expression of CD1 molecules using a panel of 10 different monoclonal antibodies focusing on the recently described CD1d molecule. By immunohistochemical analysis, CD1d expression in normal human skin was restricted to dendritic appearing cells in the papillary dermis mainly located in a perivascular localization. Langerhans cells did not show detectable CD1d expression in situ. Epidermal/dermal cell suspensions analyzed by flow cytometry demonstrated distinct subpopulations of HLA-DR positive dermal dendritic cells expressing CD1a, CD1b, and CD1c. CD1d was expressed on HLA-DRbright dermal antigen-presenting cells in dermal suspensions (16% +/- 3.6%), as well as on highly enriched dermal dendritic cells migrating out of skin explants (60.5% +/- 8.0%). Migrated mature dermal dendritic cells coexpressed CD83 and CD1d. Western blot analysis on microdissected skin sections revealed the presence of a 50-55 kDa CD1d molecule in dermis, suggesting that CD1d is highly glycosylated in skin. Both immature and mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells cultured in autologous plasma expressed CD1d molecules. In contrast, culture in fetal bovine serum downregulated CD1d expression. In conclusion, antigen-presenting cells in skin express different sets of CD1 molecules including CD1d and might play a role in lipid antigen presentation in various skin diseases. Differential expression of CD1 molecules depending on culture conditions might have an impact on clinical applications of dendritic cells for immunotherapy.
Full Text Available Ginseng extract has been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor and immune-activating effects. However, the immunostimulatory effect of ginseng berry extract (GB has been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of GB on the activation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. GB treatment induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Interestingly, GB induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation than ginseng root extract (GR at the same concentrations. Moreover, in vivo administration of GB promoted up-regulation of CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen DCs. GB also promoted the generation of Th1 and Tc1 cells. Furthermore, Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway were essential for DC activation induced by GB. In addition, GB strongly prompted the proliferation of ovalbumin (OVA-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells. Finally, GB induced DC activation in tumor-bearing mice and the combination of OVA and GB treatment inhibited B16-OVA tumor cell growth in C57BL/6 mice. These results demonstrate that GB is a novel tumor therapeutic vaccine adjuvant by promoting DC and T cell activation.
Christoph A Thaiss
Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are the main inducers and regulators of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses against viruses and tumors. One checkpoint to avoid misguided CTL activation, which might damage healthy cells of the body, is the necessity for multiple activation signals, involving both antigenic as well as additional signals that reflect the presence of pathogens. DCs provide both signals when activated by ligands of pattern recognition receptors and licensed by helper lymphocytes. Recently, it has been established that such T cell licensing can be facilitated by CD4+ T helper cells (classical licensing or by NKT cells (alternative licensing. Licensing regulates the DC/CTL cross-talk at multiple layers. Direct recruitment of CTLs through chemokines released by licensed DCs has recently emerged as a common theme and has a crucial impact on the efficiency of CTL responses. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of DC licensing for cross-priming and implications for the temporal and spatial regulation underlying this process. Future vaccination strategies will benefit from a deeper insight into the mechanisms that govern CTL activation.
Mulholland, M W; Romanchuk, G; Flowe, K
Myenteric plexus neurons derived from neonatal guinea pigs, when exposed to serum, demonstrated a characteristic pattern of growth, including a proliferating outgrowth zone of glial cells, peripheral extension of dendritic processes, and progressive dendritic growth. Serum effects upon dendritic growth, measured morphometrically, was strongly dose- and temporally dependent. Dendritic density was increased 10-fold (120 hr) by the addition of 6% serum, while mean dendritic length was increased 3-fold. Development of cholinergic function was reflected by release of [3H]ACh in response to cholecystokinin octapeptide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, substance P, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (10(-10) and 10(-8) M).
Diemert, David J; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Hotez, Peter J
Hookworm infection caused by the soil-transmitted nematodes Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale is one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide. Although not directly responsible for substantial mortality, it causes significant morbidity in the form of chronic anemia and protein malnutrition. Current global control efforts based on periodic mass anthelmintic administration are unsustainable, and new control strategies must be developed. This review describes progress in the development of vaccines against hookworm infection, including the preclinical and initial clinical testing of the N. americanus Ancylostoma Secreted Protein-2 Hookworm Vaccine. Plans call for eventual development of a vaccine that will combine at least 2 hookworm antigens--one targeting the larval stage of the life cycle and another targeting the adult worm living in the gastrointestinal tract.
Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis CS; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric
The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites. PMID:25424921
Gad, Monika; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Pedersen, Anders Elm
Dendritic cells capable of influencing immunity exist as functionally distinct subsets, T cell-tolerizing and T cell-immunizing subsets. The present paper reviews how these subsets of DCs develop, differentiate and function in vivo and in vitro at the cellular and molecular level. In particular......, the role of DCs in the generation of regulatory T cells is highlighted....
The distribution of nickel in dendrite arms and in interdendritic regions of copper-10% nickel alloy solidified under production conditions designed to provide 4 different cooling rates was investigated. The results indicate that at different rates of solidification undercooling, diffusion and convection mechanisms affect the microsegregation of nickel and copper in the cast materials to various extents.
Bittner, Tobias; Burgold, Steffen; Dorostkar, Mario M; Fuhrmann, Martin; Wegenast-Braun, Bettina M; Schmidt, Boris; Kretzschmar, Hans; Herms, Jochen
Amyloid-beta plaque deposition represents a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. While numerous studies have described dendritic spine loss in proximity to plaques, much less is known about the kinetics of these processes. In particular, the question as to whether synapse loss precedes or follows plaque formation remains unanswered. To address this question, and to learn more about the underlying kinetics, we simultaneously imaged amyloid plaque deposition and dendritic spine loss by applying two-photon in vivo microscopy through a cranial window in double transgenic APPPS1 mice. As a result, we first observed that the rate of dendritic spine loss in proximity to plaques is the same in both young and aged animals. However, plaque size only increased significantly in the young cohort, indicating that spine loss persists even many months after initial plaque appearance. Tracking the fate of individual spines revealed that net spine loss is caused by increased spine elimination, with the rate of spine formation remaining constant. Imaging of dendritic spines before and during plaque formation demonstrated that spine loss around plaques commences at least 4 weeks after initial plaque formation. In conclusion, spine loss occurs, shortly but with a significant time delay, after the birth of new plaques, and persists in the vicinity of amyloid plaques over many months. These findings hence give further hope to the possibility that there is a therapeutic window between initial amyloid plaque deposition and the onset of structural damage at spines.
Cheng, Xin-Bing; Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Chen, Chi; Pentecost, Amanda; Maleski, Kathleen; Mathis, Tyler; Zhang, Xue-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Jianjun; Gogotsi, Yury
Lithium metal has been regarded as the future anode material for high-energy-density rechargeable batteries due to its favorable combination of negative electrochemical potential and high theoretical capacity. However, uncontrolled lithium deposition during lithium plating/stripping results in low Coulombic efficiency and severe safety hazards. Herein, we report that nanodiamonds work as an electrolyte additive to co-deposit with lithium ions and produce dendrite-free lithium deposits. First-principles calculations indicate that lithium prefers to adsorb onto nanodiamond surfaces with a low diffusion energy barrier, leading to uniformly deposited lithium arrays. The uniform lithium deposition morphology renders enhanced electrochemical cycling performance. The nanodiamond-modified electrolyte can lead to a stable cycling of lithium | lithium symmetrical cells up to 150 and 200 h at 2.0 and 1.0 mA cm-2, respectively. The nanodiamond co-deposition can significantly alter the lithium plating behavior, affording a promising route to suppress lithium dendrite growth in lithium metal-based batteries.Lithium metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries but suffer from the growth of lithium dendrites and low Coulombic efficiency. Here the authors show that nanodiamonds serve as an electrolyte additive to co-deposit with lithium metal and suppress the formation of dendrites.
pathogen detection. Conclusions This map represents a navigable aid for presenting a consensus view of the current knowledge on dendritic cell signaling that can be continuously improved through contributions of research community experts. Because the map is available in a machine readable format, it can be edited and may assist researchers in data analysis. Furthermore, the availability of a comprehensive knowledgebase might help further research in this area such as vaccine development. The dendritic cell signaling knowledgebase is accessible at http://tsb.mssm.edu/pathwayPublisher/DC_pathway/DC_pathway_index.html.
Patil, Sonali; Pincas, Hanna; Seto, Jeremy; Nudelman, German; Nudelman, Irina; Sealfon, Stuart C
aid for presenting a consensus view of the current knowledge on dendritic cell signaling that can be continuously improved through contributions of research community experts. Because the map is available in a machine readable format, it can be edited and may assist researchers in data analysis. Furthermore, the availability of a comprehensive knowledgebase might help further research in this area such as vaccine development. The dendritic cell signaling knowledgebase is accessible at http://tsb.mssm.edu/pathwayPublisher/DC_pathway/DC_pathway_index.html.