... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...
Ford, Andrew Q; Touchette, Nancy; Hall, B Fenton; Hwang, Angela; Hombach, Joachim
The World Health Organization, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation convened the first Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum (GVIRF) in March 2014. This first GVIRF aimed to track recent progress of the Global Vaccine Action Plan research and development agenda, identify opportunities and challenges, promote partnerships in vaccine research, and facilitate the inclusion of all stakeholders in vaccine research and development. Leading scientists, vaccine developers, and public health officials from around the world discussed scientific and technical challenges in vaccine development, research to improve the impact of immunization, and regulatory issues. This report summarizes the discussions and conclusions from the forum participants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Gillespie, Portia M; Beaumier, Coreen M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena
A number of leishmaniasis vaccine candidates are at various stages of pre-clinical and clinical development. Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by a protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania and transmitted to humans by the bite of a sand fly. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL, kala-azar) is a high mortality NTD found mostly in South Asia and East Africa, while cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a disfiguring NTD highly endemic in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and the Americas. Estimates attribute 50,000 annual deaths and 3.3 million disability-adjusted life years to leishmaniasis. There are only a few approved drug treatments, no prophylactic drug and no vaccine. Ideally, an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis will elicit long-lasting immunity and protect broadly against VL and CL. Vaccines such as Leish-F1, F2 and F3, developed at IDRI and designed based on selected Leishmania antigen epitopes, have been in clinical trials. Other groups, including the Sabin Vaccine Institute in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health are investigating recombinant Leishmania antigens in combination with selected sand fly salivary gland antigens in order to augment host immunity. To date, both VL and CL vaccines have been shown to be cost-effective in economic modeling studies. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Abdulla, S.; Agre, P.; Alonso, P.L.; Arevalo-Herrera, M.; Bassat, Q.; Binka, F.; Chitnis, C.; Corradin, G.; Cowman, A. F.; Culpepper, J.; Portillo, H. del; Dinglasan, R.R.; Duffy, P.; Gargallo, D.; Greenwood, B.; Guinovart, C.; Hall, B.F.; Herrera, S.; Hoffman, S.; Lanzavecchia, A.; Leroy, O.; Levine, M.M.; Loucq, C.; Mendis, K.; Milman, J.; Moorthy, V.S.; Pleuschke, G.; Plowe, C.V.; Reed, S.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Saul, A.; Schofield, L.; Sinden, R.R.; Stubbs, J.; Villafana, T.; Wirth, D.; Yadav, P.; Ballou, R.; Brown, G.; Birkett, A.; Brandt, W.; Brooks, A.; Carter, T.; Golden, A.; Lee, C.; Nunes, J.; Puijalon, O.; Raphael, T.; Richards, H.; Warren, C.; Woods, C.
Vaccines could be a crucial component of efforts to eradicate malaria. Current attempts to develop malaria vaccines are primarily focused on Plasmodium falciparum and are directed towards reducing morbidity and mortality. Continued support for these efforts is essential, but if
Kristensen, Debra; Chen, Dexiang; Cummings, Ray
All vaccines are susceptible to damage by elevated temperatures and many are also damaged by freezing. The distribution, storage, and use of vaccines therefore present challenges that could be reduced by enhanced thermostability, with resulting improvements in vaccine effectiveness. Formulation and processing technologies exist that can improve the stability of vaccines at temperature extremes, however, customization is required for individual vaccines and results are variable. Considerations affecting decisions about stabilization approaches include development cost, manufacturing cost, and the ease of use of the final product. Public sector agencies can incentivize vaccine developers to prioritize stabilization efforts through advocacy and by implementing policies that increase demand for thermostable vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bartolini, Rosario M; Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Díaz-Otoya, Margarita M; Mosqueira-Lovón, Nelly Rocío; Penny, Mary E; Winkler, Jennifer L; LaMontagne, D Scott; Bingham, Allison
To understand the sociocultural environment, health systems' capacities, and policy processes related to cervical cancer and HPV vaccines in order to inform HPV vaccine introduction. Mixed-method formative research using qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques. Participants included girls, parents, community leaders, health and education officials, and policymakers. Respondents, including policymakers, generally supported HPV vaccine introduction, due partly to appreciation for the benefits of vaccination and the desire to prevent cancer. Community-level concerns regarding safety and quality of services will need to be addressed. The immunization system in Peru is strong and has capacity for including the HPV vaccine. Formative research provides key insights to help shape an effective program for HPV vaccine introduction.
Dengue virus is a member of flavivirus group. Diseases caused by flaviviruses have been a scourge of mankind for long history of human kind; with yellow fever at the top, followed by dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and Russian spring-summer encephalitis (RSSE). Due to the dvevelopment of a safe and efficacious live-attenuated vaccine against yellow fever as a first laboratory-designed virus vaccine, this disease is no longer a threat in countries where adequate vaccination is practic...
Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Fasano, Alessio; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.
Renewed awareness of the significant morbidity and mortality that Shigella causes among young children in developing countries combined with technological innovations in vaccinology has led to the development of novel vaccine strategies in the past five years. Along with advancement of classical vaccines in clinical trials and new sophisticated measurements of immunological responses, much new data has been produced lending promise to the potential for production of safe and effective Shigella vaccines. Herein we review the recent progress in Shigella vaccine development within the framework of persistent obstacles. PMID:23419287
Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most widespread parasitic infection in Asian countries affecting the poor of the poor. In an effort to develop an effective vaccine for the treatment of malaria, various attempts are being made worldwide. If successful, such a vaccine can be effective for treatment of both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. This would also be able to avoid complications such as drug resistance, resistance to insecticides, nonadherence to the treatment schedule, and eventually high cost of treatment in the resource-limited settings. In the current compilation, the details from the literature were collected by using PubMed and Medline as search engines and searched for terms such as malaria, vaccine, and malaria treatment. This review collates and provides glimpses of the information on the recent malaria vaccine development. The reader will be taken through the historical perspective followed by the approaches to the malaria vaccine development from pre-erythrocytic stage vaccines, asexual stage vaccines, transmission blocking vaccines, etc. Looking at the current scenario of the malaria and treatment strategies, it is an absolute need of an hour that an effective malaria vaccine should be developed. This would bring a revolutionary breakthrough in the treatment modalities especially when there is increasing emergence of resistance to existing drug therapy. It would be of great purpose to serve those living in malaria endemic region and also for travelers which are nonimmune and coming to malaria endemic region. As infection by P. vivax is more prevalent in India and other Asian subcontinent and is often prominent in areas where elimination is being attempted, special consideration is required of the role of vaccines in blocking transmission, regardless of the stages being targeted. Development of vaccines is feasible but with the support of private sector and government organization in terms of regulatory and most importantly
Ford, Andrew Q; Touchette, Nancy; Fenton Hall, B; Hwang, Angela; Hombach, Joachim
Building on the success of the first Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum (GVIRF), the World Health Organization, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health in the United States of America, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation convened the second GVIRF in March 2016. Leading scientists, vaccine developers, and public health officials from around the world discussed scientific advances and innovative technologies to design and deliver vaccines as well as novel tools and approaches to increase the uptake of vaccines throughout the world. This report summarizes the discussions and conclusions from the forum participants. Copyright © 2018.
Full Text Available When HIV was discovered and established as the cause of AIDS in 1983–1984, many people believed that a vaccine would be rapidly developed. However, 30 years have passed and we are still struggling to develop an elusive vaccine. In trying to achieve that goal, different scientific paradigms have been explored. Although major progress has been made in understanding the scientific basis for HIV vaccine development, efficacy trials have been critical in moving the field forward. Major lessons learned are: the development of an HIV vaccine is an extremely difficult challenge; the temptation of just following the fashion should be avoided; clinical trials are critical, especially large-scale efficacy trials; HIV vaccine research will require long-term commitment; and sustainable collaborations are needed to accelerate the development of an HIV vaccine. Concrete actions must be implemented with the sense of urgency imposed by the severity of the AIDS epidemic.
Larson, Heidi; Leask, Julie; Aggett, Sian; Sevdalis, Nick; Thomson, Angus
There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the “Motors of Trust in Vaccination” (MOTIV) think tank) explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies. PMID:26344114
Full Text Available There is increasingly broad global recognition of the need to better understand determinants of vaccine acceptance. Fifteen social science, communication, health, and medical professionals (the “Motors of Trust in Vaccination” (MOTIV think tank explored factors relating to vaccination decision-making as a step to building a multidisciplinary research agenda. One hundred and forty seven factors impacting decisions made by consumers, professionals, and policy makers on vaccine acceptance, delay, or refusal were identified and grouped into three major categories: cognition and decision-making; groups and social norms; and communication and engagement. These factors should help frame a multidisciplinary research agenda to build an evidence base on the determinants of vaccine acceptance to inform the development of interventions and vaccination policies.
Full Text Available The field of vaccinology was born from the observations by the fathers of vaccination, Edward Jenner and Louis Pasteur, that a permanent, positive change in the way our bodies respond to life-threatening infectious diseases can be obtained by specific challenge with the inactivated infectious agent performed in a controlled manner, avoiding the development of clinical disease upon exposure to the virulent pathogen. Many of the vaccines still in use today were developed on an empirical basis, essentially following the paradigm established by Pasteur, “isolate, inactivate, and inject” the disease-causing microorganism, and are capable of eliciting uniform, long-term immune memory responses that constitute the key to their proven efficacy. However, vaccines for pathogens considered as priority targets of public health concern are still lacking. The literature tends to focus more often on vaccine research problems associated with specific pathogens, but it is increasingly clear that there are common bottlenecks in vaccine research, which need to be solved in order to advance the development of the field as a whole. As part of a group of articles, the objective of the present report is to pinpoint these bottlenecks, exploring the literature for common problems and solutions in vaccine research applied to different situations. Our goal is to stimulate brainstorming among specialists of different fields related to vaccine research and development. Here, we briefly summarize the topics we intend to deal with in this discussion.
In 1974, Jay A. Berzofsky, M.D., Ph.D., now Chief of CCR’s Vaccine Branch, came to NIH to study protein folding. His curious mind and collaborative spirit quickly led him into the intertwined fields of immunology and vaccine development. With close to 500 publications to his name, Berzofsky has pioneered the characterization of B- and T-cell epitopes and their modification to make vaccines directed against cancer and chronic infectious diseases. He has also characterized and taken advantage of the cellular and molecular regulators of immune responses in order to enhance tumor immunity and vaccine efficacy. In the last several years, he has translated many of these strategies into promising clinical trials. From the microcosm of his laboratory, he brings the same spirit of cross-fertilizing, bench-to-bedside research to leading the Vaccine Branch as a whole.
Li, Jianqiang; Bao, Mengru; Ge, Jun; Ren, Sulin; Zhou, Tong; Qi, Fengchun; Pu, Xiuying; Dou, Jia
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of Hepadnavirus family, which leads to chronic infection in around 5% of patients with a high risk of developing liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. 1 Despite the availability of prophylactic vaccines against hepatitis B for over 3 decades, there are still more than 2 billion people have been infected and 240 million of them were chronic. Antiviral therapies currently used in the treatment of CHB (chronic hepatitis B) infection include peg-interferon, standard α-interferon and nucleos/tide analogs (NAs), but none of them can provide sustained control of viral replication. As an alternative strategy, therapeutic vaccines for CHB patients have been widely studied and showed some promising efficacies in dozens of preclinical and clinical trials. In this article, we review current research progress in several types of therapeutic vaccines for CHB treatment, including protein-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, live vector-based vaccines, peptide-based vaccines and cell-based therapies. These researches may provide some clues for developing new treatments in CHB infection.
Sep 6, 2017 ... The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF) is an initiative developed by ... to support the development, production, and commercialization of innovative ... of countries within a regional and/or sub-regional structure (e.g. the ...
This project creates the authorization for capacity building support to develop and manage the Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF). The fund aims to support the ... Des chercheurs appuyés par le CRDI parlent de leurs expériences au Comité sur les ONG lors du forum de la Commission de la condition de la femme.
Johnston, Christine; Gottlieb, Sami L; Wald, Anna
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and -2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent global pathogens which commonly cause recurrent oral and genital ulcerations. Less common but more serious complications include meningitis, encephalitis, neonatal infection, and keratitis. HSV-2 infection is a significant driver of the HIV epidemic, increasing the risk of HIV acquisition 3 fold. As current control strategies for genital HSV-2 infection, including antiviral therapy and condom use, are only partially effective, vaccines will be required to reduce infection. Both preventive and therapeutic vaccines for HSV-2 are being pursued and are in various stages of development. We will provide an overview of efforts to develop HSV-2 vaccines, including a discussion of the clinical need for an HSV vaccine, and status of research and development with an emphasis on recent insights from trials of vaccine candidates in clinical testing. In addition, we will touch upon aspects of HSV vaccine development relevant to low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Voronin, Yegor; Manrique, Amapola; Bernstein, Alan
This review covers the role of the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise (the Enterprise), an alliance of independent organizations committed to development of a safe and effective HIV vaccine. It discusses the history, impact on the field, and future directions and initiatives of the alliance in the context of recent progress in HIV vaccine research and development. Significant progress has been made in the field since the release of the 2005 Scientific Strategic Plan (the Plan) of the Enterprise. Over the last year, the Enterprise embarked on an impact assessment of the 2005 Plan and the development of the 2010 Plan. Enterprise Working Groups identified key priorities in the field, several of which are discussed in this review, including changing the nature, purpose and process of clinical trials, increasing and facilitating data sharing, and optimizing existing and mobilizing new resources. This time is an important moment in HIV vaccine research. New clinical trial and laboratory results have created new opportunities to advance the search for an HIV vaccine and reinvigorated the field. The Enterprise will publish its 2010 Plan this year, providing a framework for setting new priorities and directions and encouraging new and existing partners to embark on a shared scientific agenda.
Geels, Mark J; Thøgersen, Regitze L; Guzman, Carlos A; Ho, Mei Mei; Verreck, Frank; Collin, Nicolas; Robertson, James S; McConkey, Samuel J; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Leroy, Odile
TRANSVAC was a collaborative infrastructure project aimed at enhancing European translational vaccine research and training. The objective of this four year project (2009-2013), funded under the European Commission's (EC) seventh framework programme (FP7), was to support European collaboration in the vaccine field, principally through the provision of transnational access (TNA) to critical vaccine research and development (R&D) infrastructures, as well as by improving and harmonising the services provided by these infrastructures through joint research activities (JRA). The project successfully provided all available services to advance 29 projects and, through engaging all vaccine stakeholders, successfully laid down the blueprint for the implementation of a permanent research infrastructure for early vaccine R&D in Europe. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Olesen, Ole F; Chan, Sharon; Chappell, Janice; Guo, Yan; Leite, Luciana C C
The 4th Global Forum on TB Vaccines, convened in Shanghai, China, from 21 - 24 April 2015, brought together a wide and diverse community involved in tuberculosis vaccine research and development to discuss the current status of, and future directions for this critical effort. This paper summarizes the sessions on Advancing the Pipeline: A Vision for the Next Decade, Engaging the BRICS: Basic Research to Manufacturing, and Regulatory and Access Issues for New TB Vaccines. Summaries of all sessions from the 4th Global Forum are compiled in a special supplement of Tuberculosis. [August 2016, Vol 99, Supp S1, S1-S30]. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
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Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W
This study assessed research knowledge gaps in the field of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) vaccines. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD vaccine research. Vaccines play a vital role in FMD control, used both to limit the spread of the virus during epidemics in FMD-free countries and as the mainstay of disease management in endemic regions, particularly where sanitary controls are difficult to apply. Improvements in the performance or cost-effectiveness of FMD vaccines will allow more widespread and efficient disease control. FMD vaccines have changed little in recent decades, typically produced by inactivation of whole virus, the quantity and stability of the intact viral capsids in the final preparation being key for immunogenicity. However, these are exciting times and several promising novel FMD vaccine candidates have recently been developed. This includes the first FMD vaccine licensed for manufacture and use in the USA; this adenovirus-vectored FMD vaccine causes in vivo expression of viral capsids in vaccinated animals. Another promising vaccine candidate comprises stabilized empty FMDV capsids produced in vitro in a baculovirus expression system. Recombinant technologies are also being developed to improve otherwise conventionally produced inactivated vaccines, for example, by creating a chimeric vaccine virus to increase capsid stability and by inserting sequences into the vaccine virus for desired antigen expression. Other important areas of ongoing research include enhanced adjuvants, vaccine quality control procedures and predicting vaccine protection from immune correlates, thus reducing dependency on animal challenge studies. Globally, the degree of independent vaccine evaluation is highly variable, and this is essential for vaccine quality. Previously neglected, the
Carlsen, Benedicte; Glenton, Claire
During pandemics, health authorities may be uncertain about the spread and severity of the disease and the effectiveness and safety of available interventions. This was the case during the swine flu (H1N1) pandemic of 2009-2010, and governments were forced to make decisions despite these uncertainties. While many countries chose to implement wide scale vaccination programmes, few accomplished their vaccination goals. Many research studies aiming to explore barriers and facilitators to vaccine uptake have been conducted in the aftermath of the pandemic, including several qualitative studies. 1. To explore public attitudes to the swine flu vaccine in different countries through a review of qualitative primary studies. 2. To describe and discuss the implications drawn by the primary study authors. Systematic review of qualitative research studies, using a broadly comparative cross case-study approach. Study quality was appraised using an adaptation of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) quality assessment tool. The review indicates that the public had varying opinions about disease risk and prevalence and had concerns about vaccine safety. Most primary study authors concluded that participants were uninformed, and that more information about the disease and the vaccine would have led to an increase in vaccine uptake. We find these conclusions problematic. We suggest instead that people's questions and concerns were legitimate given the uncertainties of the situation at the time and the fact that the authorities did not have the necessary information to convince the public. Our quality assessment of the included studies points to a lack of reflexivity and a lack of information about study context. We suggest that these study weaknesses are tied to primary study authors' lack of acknowledgement of the uncertainties surrounding the disease and the vaccine. While primary study authors suggest that authorities could increase vaccine uptake through increased
In September 2007, it was announced that the most promising HIV vaccine trial had to be stopped because it had failed to show the protection that was hoped for. Here, the history of HIV vaccine development from the discovery of HIV-1 in 1983 until 2008, the underlying ideas on protective immunity to HIV and potential avenues for vaccine research are discussed.
Poncin, Marc; Zulu, Gideon; Voute, Caroline; Ferreras, Eva; Muleya, Clara Mbwili; Malama, Kennedy; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Mufunda, Jacob; Robert, Hugues; Uzzeni, Florent; Luquero, Francisco J; Chizema, Elizabeth; Ciglenecki, Iza
To describe the implementation and feasibility of an innovative mass vaccination strategy - based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine - to curb a cholera epidemic in a large urban setting. In April 2016, in the early stages of a cholera outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia, the health ministry collaborated with Médecins Sans Frontières and the World Health Organization in organizing a mass vaccination campaign, based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine. Over a period of 17 days, partners mobilized 1700 health ministry staff and community volunteers for community sensitization, social mobilization and vaccination activities in 10 townships. On each day, doses of vaccine were delivered to vaccination sites and administrative coverage was estimated. Overall, vaccination teams administered 424 100 doses of vaccine to an estimated target population of 578 043, resulting in an estimated administrative coverage of 73.4%. After the campaign, few cholera cases were reported and there was no evidence of the disease spreading within the vaccinated areas. The total cost of the campaign - 2.31 United States dollars (US$) per dose - included the relatively low cost of local delivery - US$ 0.41 per dose. We found that an early and large-scale targeted reactive campaign using a single-dose oral vaccine, organized in response to a cholera epidemic within a large city, to be feasible and appeared effective. While cholera vaccines remain in short supply, the maximization of the number of vaccines in response to a cholera epidemic, by the use of just one dose per member of an at-risk community, should be considered.
Bellver Capella, Vincente
Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs.
Fitchett, Joseph R; Head, Michael G; Atun, Rifat
Financing for global health is a critical element of research and development. Innovations in new vaccines are critically dependent on research funding given the large sums required, however estimates of global research investments are lacking. We evaluate infectious disease research investments, focusing on immunology and vaccine research by UK research funding organisations. In 1997-2010, £2.6 billion were spent by public and philanthropic organisations, with £590 million allocated to immunology and vaccine research. Preclinical studies received the largest funding amount £505 million accounting for 85.6% of total investment. In terms of specific infection, "the big three" infections dominated funding: HIV received £127 million (21.5% of total), malaria received £59 million (10.0% of total) and tuberculosis received £36 million (6.0% of total). We excluded industry funding from our analysis, as open-access data were unavailable. A global investment surveillance system is needed to map and monitor funding and guide allocation of scarce resources. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Vaccinations are considered to be one of the most effective public health interventions. The rate of vaccination in developed countries is generally high. However, an increasing number of parents consider vaccines unsafe and unnecessary. The campaigns against vaccines have resulted in the decline in rates of vaccinated children and in the increase in outbreaks of preventable diseases. The time the first vaccines were discovered and implemented, it was when campaigns against them first emerged. Hesitation towards vaccination is a longstanding phenomenon which is closely linked to the socio-cultural background of populations in certain regions around the world. Philosophical or religious beliefs are one of the strongest arguments for refusing, even mandatory, vaccinations. Additionally, suspicion and concern about immunization is quite common. Internationally, in parts of Asia and Africa, the distrust of vaccines is associated sometimes with conspiracy theories. Health professionals play a central role in maintaining public confidence in immunization, a role which is becoming more and more difficult nowadays, since immunization programs have become more complex. Health professionals’ attitude of understanding and acceptance of different beliefs will help to strengthen the relationship of trust between the staff and patients / parents. The efforts of health professionals should focus on providing all the necessary information to enable parents to make informed decisions.
Mani, Sachin; Wierzba, Thomas; Walker, Richard I
Shigella are gram-negative bacteria that cause severe diarrhea and dysentery. In 2013, Shigella infections caused an estimated 34,400 deaths in children less than five years old and, in 2010, an estimated 40,000 deaths in persons older than five years globally. New disease burden estimates from newly deployed molecular diagnostic assays with increased sensitivity suggest that Shigella-associated morbidity may be much greater than previous disease estimates from culture-based methods. Primary prevention of this disease should be based on universal provision of potable water and sanitation methods and improved personal and food hygiene. However, an efficacious and low-cost vaccine would complement and accelerate disease reduction while waiting for universal access to water, sanitation, and hygiene improvements. This review article provides a landscape of Shigella vaccine development efforts. No vaccine is yet available, but human and animal challenge-rechallenge trials with virulent Shigella as well as observational studies in Shigella-endemic areas have shown that the incidence of disease decreases following Shigella infection, pointing to biological feasibility of a vaccine. Immunity to Shigella appears to be strain-specific, so a vaccine that covers the most commonly detected strains (i.e., S. flexneri 2a, 3a, 6, and S. sonnei) or a vaccine using cross-species conserved antigens would likely be most effective. Vaccine development and testing may be accelerated by use of animal models, such as the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis or murine pneumonia models. Because there is no correlate of protection, however, human studies will be necessary to evaluate vaccine efficacy prior to deployment. A diversity of Shigella vaccine constructs are under development, including live attenuated, formalin-killed whole-cell, glycoconjugate, subunit, and novel antigen vaccines (e.g., Type III secretion system and outer membrane proteins). Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization
The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research is producing another round of Zika vaccine for ongoing studies to determine the best delivery method and dosage. This will lay the groundwork for additional tests to see if the vaccine prevents i
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In the absence of a cure for AIDS, attention has turned to the possibility of developing a preventive vaccine for HIV infection. Yet many scientific, ethical, legal, and economic obstacles remain. At the current rate, the development and production of an effective vaccine could take 15 to 20 years or longer. If tens of millions more HIV infections and deaths are to be avoided in the coming decades, vaccine research needs to be greatly expedited. Furthermore, it must be undertaken ethically, and the products of this research must benefit people in developing countries. This article, an edited and updated version of a paper presented at "Putting Third First," addresses challenges arising in HIV preventive vaccine research in developing countries. It does not address clinical research in developing countries relating to treatments or therapeutic vaccines. Nor does it address legal and ethical issues relating to HIV vaccine research in industrialized countries, although similar issues arise in both contexts. The article concludes that while ethical codes are silent on the obligation to undertake research and development, international law provides strong legal obligations--particularly with regard to industrialized states--that should be invoked to accelerate HIV vaccine development, and distribution.
While vaccine efficacy and safety research has dramatically progressed with the methods of in silico prediction and data mining, many challenges still exist. A formal ontology is a human- and computer-interpretable set of terms and relations that represent entities in a specific domain and how these terms relate to each other. Several community-based ontologies (including Vaccine Ontology, Ontology of Adverse Events and Ontology of Vaccine Adverse Events) have been developed to support vaccine and adverse event representation, classification, data integration, literature mining of host-vaccine interaction networks, and analysis of vaccine adverse events. The author further proposes minimal vaccine information standards and their ontology representations, ontology-based linked open vaccine data and meta-analysis, an integrative One Network ('OneNet') Theory of Life, and ontology-based approaches to study and apply the OneNet theory. In the Big Data era, these proposed strategies provide a novel framework for advanced data integration and analysis of fundamental biological networks including vaccine immune mechanisms.
Schetters, T.P.; Bishop, R.; Crampton, M.; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, A.; Maritz-Olivier, C.; Miller, R.; Mosqueda, J.; Patarroyo, J.; Rodriguez-Valle, M.; Scoles, G.A.; de la Fuente, J.
Roč. 9, FEB 24 (2016), s. 105 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : CATVAC * vaccine * cattle * tick * Rhipicephalus microplus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016
Paula M Frew
Full Text Available Paula M Frew1,2,3,4, Mark J Mulligan1,2,3, Su-I Hou5, Kayshin Chan3, Carlos del Rio1,2,3,61Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Emory Center for AIDS Research, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 3The Hope Clinic of the Emory Vaccine Center, Decatur, Georgia, USA; 4Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 5Department of Health Promotion and Behavior, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA; 6Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USAObjective: This study examines whether men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM and transgender (TG persons’ attitudes, beliefs, and risk perceptions toward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV vaccine research have been altered as a result of the negative findings from a phase 2B HIV vaccine study.Design: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among MSM and TG persons (N = 176 recruited from community settings in Atlanta from 2007 to 2008. The first group was recruited during an active phase 2B HIV vaccine trial in which a candidate vaccine was being evaluated (the “Step Study”, and the second group was recruited after product futility was widely reported in the media.Methods: Descriptive statistics, t tests, and chi-square tests were conducted to ascertain differences between the groups, and ordinal logistic regressions examined the influences of the above-mentioned factors on a critical outcome, future HIV vaccine study participation. The ordinal regression outcomes evaluated the influences on disinclination, neutrality, and inclination to study participation.Results: Behavioral outcomes such as future recruitment, event attendance, study promotion, and community mobilization did not reveal any differences in participants’ intentions between the groups. However, we observed
Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic is of unprecedented gravity and is spreading rapidly, notably in the most disadvantaged regions of the world. The search for a preventive vaccine is thus an absolute priority. For over 10 years the French National Agency for AIDS research (ANRS has been committed to an original program combining basic science and clinical research. The HIV preventive vaccine research program run by the ANRS covers upstream research for the definition of immunogens, animal models, and clinical research to evaluate candidate vaccines. Most researchers in 2004 believe that it should be possible to obtain partial vaccine protection through the induction of a strong and multiepitopic cellular response. Since 1992, the ANRS has set up 15 phases I and II clinical trials in order to evaluate the safety and the capacity of the candidate vaccines for inducing cellular immune responses. The tested candidate vaccines were increasingly complex recombinant canarypox viruses (Alvac containing sequences coding for certain viral proteins, utilized alone or combined with other immunogens (whole or truncated envelope proteins. ANRS has also been developing an original strategy based on the utilization of lipopeptides. These comprise synthetic fragments of viral proteins associated with lipids that facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response. These approaches promptly allowed the assessment of a prime-boost strategy combining a viral vector and lipopeptides.
Lau, Chuen-Yen; Swann, Edith M; Singh, Sagri; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Meissner, Helen I; Stansbury, James P
HIV vaccine clinical research occurs within a context where biomedical science and social issues are interlinked. Previous HIV vaccine research has considered behavioral and social issues, but often treated them as independent of clinical research processes. Systematic attention to the intersection of behavioral and social issues within a defined clinical research framework is needed to address gaps, such as those related to participation in trials, completion of trials, and the overall research experience. Rigorous attention to these issues at project inception can inform trial design and conduct by matching research approaches to the context in which trials are to be conducted. Conducting behavioral and social sciences research concurrent with vaccine clinical research is important because it can help identify potential barriers to trial implementation, as well as ultimate acceptance and dissemination of trial results. We therefore propose a conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research and use examples from the behavioral and social science literature to demonstrate how the model can facilitate identification of significant areas meriting additional exploration. Standardized use of the conceptual framework could improve HIV vaccine clinical research efficiency and relevance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available of guinea pigs and cattle against ticks. Nature. 1979;280(5722):491–3. 5. de la Fuente J, Contreras M. Tick vaccines: current status and future directions. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2015;14(10):1367–76. 6. de la Fuente J, Almazan C, Canales M, de la Lastra JM P... 2016 Accepted: 14 February 2016 References 1. Grace D, Songe M, Knight-Jones T. Impact of neglected diseases on animal productivity and public health in Africa. In: 21st conference of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) regional commission...
In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. In this paper, we report updated findings in the field of FMD vaccine research. This paper consists of the following four sections: 1) Research priorities identified in the 2010 GFRA gap ana...
Lyons, Antonia C
The four papers presented in this special section together provide a striking example of the importance of eliciting people's understandings and meanings of vaccinations, from parents and children to health and medical professionals. This commentary reflects on the findings of the papers in this special section and considers them within a broader sociocultural view on vaccination research. The four papers in the special section were integrated with previous research and scholarship on public health and vaccinations. The studies demonstrate how both uptake of vaccinations and their meanings vary by cultural context, most notably across Eastern and Western Europe, and the fundamental role that political, economic and healthcare systems play. Nevertheless, there are many similarities across seemingly diverse contexts. Three specific tensions are apparent across the findings (and within other vaccination research). These tensions revolve around (1) responsible citizen versus responsible individual, (2) scientific knowledge versus lay understandings and (3) uncertainty and risk versus certainty and trust. Threaded through these tensions are discourses around citizenship, trust, morality, gender and power that are important to consider in research on vaccinations.
Full Text Available Many attempts have been made or are ongoing for HIV prevention and HIV cure. Many successes are in the list, particularly for HIV drugs, recently proposed also for prevention. However, no eradication of infection has been achieved so far with any drug.Further, a residual immune dysregulation associated to chronic immune activation and incomplete restoration of B and T cell subsets, together with HIV DNA persistence in reservoirs, are still unmet needs of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, causing novel non-AIDS related diseases that account for a higher risk of death even in virologically suppressed patients. These ART unmet needs represent a problem, which is expected to increase by ART roll out. Further, in countries such as South Africa, where 6 millions of individuals are infected, ART appears unable to contain the epidemics. Regretfully, all the attempts at developing a preventative vaccine have been largely disappointing. However, recent therapeutic immunization strategies have opened new avenues for HIV treatment, which might be exploitable also for preventative vaccine approaches. For example, immunization strategies aimed at targeting key viral products responsible of virus transmission, activation and maintenance of virus reservoirs may intensify drug efficacy and lead to a functional cure providing new perspectives also for prevention and future virus eradication strategies. However, this approach imposes new challenges to the scientific community, vaccine developers and regulatory bodies, such as the identification of novel immunological and virological biomarkers to assess efficacy endpoints, taking advantage from the natural history of infection and exploiting lessons from former trials.This review will focus first on recent advancement of therapeutic strategies, then on the progresses made in preventative approaches, discussing concepts and problems for the way ahead for the development of vaccines for HIV treatment
Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Thomas, Tammy; Kumar, Supriya
During the 2001 anthrax attacks, public health agencies faced operational and communication decisions about the use of antibiotic prophylaxis and the anthrax vaccine with affected groups, including postal workers. This communication occurred within an evolving situation with incomplete and uncertain data. Guidelines for prophylactic antibiotics changed several times, contributing to confusion and mistrust. At the end of 60 days of taking antibiotics, people were offered an additional 40 days' supply of antibiotics, with or without the anthrax vaccine, the former constituting an investigational new drug protocol. Using data from interviews and focus groups with 65 postal workers in 3 sites and structured interviews with 16 public health professionals, this article examines the challenges for public health professionals who were responsible for communication with postal workers about the vaccine. Multiple factors affected the response, including a lack of trust, risk perception, disagreement about the recommendation, and the controversy over the military's use of the vaccine. Some postal workers reacted with suspicion to the vaccine offer, believing that they were the subjects of research, and some African American workers specifically drew an analogy to the Tuskegee syphilis study. The consent forms required for the protocol heightened mistrust. Postal workers also had complex and ambivalent responses to additional research on their health. The anthrax attacks present us with an opportunity to understand the challenges of communication in the context of uncertain science and suggest key strategies that may improve communications about vaccines and other drugs authorized for experimental use in future public health emergencies.
Volz, A; Sutter, G
Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. As a biologically well-characterized mutant virus, MVA facilitates fundamental research to elucidate the functions of poxvirus host-interaction factors. As extremely safe viral vectors MVA vaccines have been found immunogenic and protective in various preclinical infection models. Multiple recombinant MVA currently undergo clinical testing for vaccination against human immunodeficiency viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Plasmodium falciparum. The versatility of the MVA vector vaccine platform is readily demonstrated by the swift development of experimental vaccines for immunization against emerging infections such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome. Recent advances include promising results from the clinical testing of recombinant MVA-producing antigens of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 or Ebola virus. This review summarizes our current knowledge about MVA as a unique strain of vaccinia virus, and discusses the prospects of exploiting this virus as research tool in poxvirus biology or as safe viral vector vaccine to challenge existing and future bottlenecks in vaccinology. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We discuss the general findings of the audit and the complex issues arising from HIV-vaccine research, specifically. Lastly, we propose specific ways in which the ethical/legal frameworks guiding research with human participants in these countries can be improved. Keywords: Africa, clinical trials, country profiles, ethics, ...
Szucs, Thomas D
future is to conduct further health economic research on immunisation. Specific areas for such study include: effectiveness under field conditions (i.e., not under the conditions of a randomised controlled trial); the real value of economic production losses; the conditions for implementing novel immunization programmes; cost estimates for more ambitious immunization programmes; the economic benefits of combination vaccines. From this research, it will be important to disseminate the data and to adapt the findings to other countries. Nevertheless, the source of funding for research and its application in clinical trials programmes represent some of the practical problems faced by medical economics today within academia and the industry.
Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Zuske, Meike-Kathrin; Auer, Christian
Equity remains a priority in the international health development agenda. However, major inequities in vaccination coverage jeopardise the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. We aim at comprehensively describing how research has addressed equity issues related to vaccination. We carried out an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) that explicitly explored the effects of interventions to improve vaccination in any context; for any vaccine and, in any language. We followed standard research synthesis methods to systematically search for SR, assess them for inclusion and extracting relevant data, particularly on vaccination related outcomes. To gather evidence on equity issues addressed in the SR, we used the PROGRESS-plus framework. Our search obtained 2,003 hits which resulted in 54 included SRs, published between 1994 and 2014. The quality of SRs was generally poor, with less than half complying with most of the quality criteria. Reported vaccines included, by order of frequency, influenza and Expanded Programme on Immunisation vaccines. The types of interventions more frequently reported were related to vaccination delivery strategies, financial support and information, education and communication. Most of the SRs suggested effects favouring intervention groups as opposed to comparison groups. The most frequently reported equity attribute was 'place of residence' and the least reported equity attributes were sexual orientation and religion. Very few estimates of effects actually measured differences or changes between groups having those attributes and all of them referred to the place of residence. No data was found about reducing equity gaps for vulnerable groups or minorities, or attributes such as sexual orientation, education or specific religious groups. Although research on vulnerable populations as a subgroup is abundant, it fails to report on the interventions that will actually reduce inequities and consider how redistribution of health care
Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective provider-parent communication can improve childhood vaccination uptake and strengthen immunisation services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Building capacity to improve communication strategies has been neglected. Rigorous research exists but is not readily found or applicable to LMICs, making it difficult for policy makers to use it to inform vaccination policies and practice. The aim of this project is to build research knowledge and capacity to use evidence-based strategies for improving communication about childhood vaccinations with parents and communities in LMICs. Methods and design This project is a mixed methods study with six sub-studies. In sub-study one, we will develop a systematic map of provider-parent communication interventions for childhood vaccinations by screening and extracting data from relevant literature. This map will inform sub-study two, in which we will develop a taxonomy of interventions to improve provider-parent communication around childhood vaccination. In sub-study three, the taxonomy will be populated with trial citations to create an evidence map, which will also identify how evidence is linked to communication barriers regarding vaccination. In the project's fourth sub-study, we will present the interventions map, taxonomy, and evidence map to international stakeholders to identify high-priority topics for systematic reviews of interventions to improve parent-provider communication for childhood vaccination. We will produce systematic reviews of the effects of high-priority interventions in the fifth sub-study. In the sixth and final sub-study of the project, evidence from the systematic reviews will be translated into accessible formats and messages for dissemination to LMICs. Discussion This project combines evidence mapping, conceptual and taxonomy development, priority setting, systematic reviews, and knowledge transfer. It will build and share concepts, terms
Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J
Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This will involve capacity building in clinical practice, research ethics, regulation, community mobilization, risk cohort development and clinical research, plus strengthening clinical laboratory facilities to the level of international certification. The idea is to achieve a fully functional clinical trials unit within a well engaged ...
Kreimer, Aimée R; Herrero, Rolando; Sampson, Joshua N; Porras, Carolina; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Chanock, Stephen; Jimenez, Silvia; Schussler, John; Gail, Mitchell H; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Kemp, Troy J; Cortes, Bernal; Pinto, Ligia A; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula
The Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT), a phase III randomized clinical trial, provided the initial data that one dose of the HPV vaccine could provide durable protection against HPV infection. Although the study design was to administer all participants three doses of HPV or control vaccine, 20% of women did not receive the three-dose regimens, mostly due to involuntary reasons unrelated to vaccination. In 2011, we reported that a single dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine could be as efficacious as three doses of the vaccine using the endpoint of persistent HPV infection accumulated over the first four years of the trial; findings independently confirmed in the GSK-sponsored PATRICIA trial. Antibody levels after one dose, although lower than levels elicited by three doses, were 9-times higher than levels elicited by natural infection. Importantly, levels remained essentially constant over at least seven years, suggesting that the observed protection provided by a single dose might be durable. Much work has been done to assure these non-randomized findings are valid. Yet, the group of recipients who received one dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine in the CVT and PATRICIA trials was small and not randomly selected nor blinded to the number of doses received. The next phase of research is to conduct a formal randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the protection afforded by a single dose of HPV vaccine. Complementary studies are in progress to bridge our findings to other populations, and to further document the long-term durability of antibody response following a single dose. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bailey, Theodore C.; Sugarman, Jeremy
The advent of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) as means of HIV prevention raises issues of justice concerning how most fairly and equitably to apportion resources in support of the burgeoning variety of established HIV treatment and prevention measures and further HIV research, including HIV vaccine research. We apply contemporary approaches to social justice to assess the ethical justification for allocating resources in support of HIV vaccine research given competing priorities to support broad implementation of HIV treatment and prevention measures, including TasP and PrEP. We argue that there is prima facie reason to believe that a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine would offer a distinct set of ethically significant benefits not provided by current HIV treatment or prevention methods. It is thereby possible to justify continued support for HIV vaccine research despite tension with priorities for treatment, prevention, and other research. We then consider a counter-argument to such a justification based on the uncertainty of successfully developing a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine. Finally, we discuss how HIV vaccine research might now be ethically designed and conducted given the new preventive options of TasP and PrEP, focusing on the ethically appropriate standard of prevention for HIV vaccine trials. PMID:24033297
Adhikari, Bishwa B; Goodson, James L; Chu, Susan Y; Rota, Paul A; Meltzer, Martin I
Currently available measles vaccines are administered by subcutaneous injections and require reconstitution with a diluent and a cold chain, which is resource intensive and challenging to maintain. To overcome these challenges and potentially increase vaccination coverage, microneedle patches are being developed to deliver the measles vaccine. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of using microneedle patches with traditional vaccine delivery by syringe-and-needle (subcutaneous vaccination) in children's measles vaccination programs. We built a simple spreadsheet model to compute the vaccination costs for using microneedle patch and syringe-and-needle technologies. We assumed that microneedle vaccines will be, compared with current vaccines, more heat stable and require less expensive cool chains when used in the field. We used historical data on the incidence of measles among communities with low measles vaccination rates. The cost of microneedle vaccination was estimated at US$0.95 (range US$0.71-US$1.18) for the first dose, compared with US$1.65 (range US$1.24-US$2.06) for the first dose delivered by subcutaneous vaccination. At 95 % vaccination coverage, microneedle patch vaccination was estimated to cost US$1.66 per measles case averted (range US$1.24-US$2.07) compared with an estimated cost of US$2.64 per case averted (range US$1.98-US$3.30) using subcutaneous vaccination. Use of microneedle patches may reduce costs; however, the cost-effectiveness of patches would depend on the vaccine recipients' acceptability and vaccine effectiveness of the patches relative to the existing conventional vaccine-delivery method. This study emphasizes the need to continue research and development of this vaccine-delivery method that could boost measles elimination efforts through improved access to vaccines and increased vaccination coverage.
Westra, Anna E.; van Gils, Elske J. M.; Aarts, Fenne; Rodenburg, Gerwin D.; Veenhoven, Reinier H.; Hak, Eelko; Scharloo, Margreet; Sukhai, Ram N.; Wit, Jan M.; de Beaufort, Inez; Sanders, Elisabeth (Lieke) A. M.
WHEN ASSESSING THE RISKS OF A research protocol, review boards need to consider not only the possible harms but also the expected discomfort levels caused by the various study procedures. However, data on how children experience various study procedures are scarce. This study assessed perceived
Alio, Amina P; Lewis, Cindi A; Bunce, Catherine A; Wakefield, Steven; Thomas, Weldon G; Sanders, Edwin; Keefer, Michael C
In light of the increasing rates of HIV infection in African Americans, it is essential that black faith leaders become more proactive in the fight against the epidemic. The study aim was to engage faith leaders in a sustainable partnership to increase community participation in preventive HIV vaccine clinical research while improving their access to and utilization of HIV/AIDS prevention services. Leadership Development Seminars were adapted for faith leaders in Rochester, NY, with topics ranging from the importance of preventive HIV vaccine research to social issues surrounding HIV/AIDs within a theological framework. Seminars were taught by field-specific experts from the black community and included the development of action plans to institute HIV preventive ministries. To assess the outcome of the Seminars, baseline and post-training surveys were administered and analyzed through paired sample t Tests and informal interviews. 19 faith leaders completed the intervention. In general, the majority of clergy felt that their understanding of HIV vaccine research and its goals had increased postintervention. A critical outcome was the subsequent formation of the Rochester Faith Collaborative by participating clergy seeking to sustain the collaborative and address the implementation of community action plans. Providing scientific HIV/AIDS knowledge within the context of clergy members' belief structure was an effective method for engaging black Church leaders in Rochester, NY. Collaborative efforts with various local institutions and community-based organizations were essential in building trust with the faith leaders, thereby building bridges for better understanding of HIV/AIDS prevention efforts, including HIV vaccine research.
Scientists have discovered an efficient and straightforward model to manipulate RNA nanoparticles, a new concept that could help trigger desirable activation of the immune system with vaccines and therapies. A multi-institutional team of researchers
... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...
Budhwani, H; De, P
Vaccine disparities research often focuses on differences between the five main racial and ethnic classifications, ignoring heterogeneity of subpopulations. Considering this knowledge gap, we examined human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation in Asian Indians and Asian subpopulations. National Health Interview Survey data (2008-2013), collected by the National Center for Health Statistics, were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted on adults aged 18-26 years (n = 20,040). Asian Indians had high income, education, and health insurance coverage, all positive predictors of preventative health engagement and vaccine uptake. However, we find that Asian Indians had comparatively lower rates of HPV vaccine initiation (odds ratio = 0.41; 95% confidence interval = 0.207-0.832), and foreign-born Asian Indians had the lowest rate HPV vaccination of all subpopulations (2.3%). Findings substantiate the need for research on disaggregated data rather than evaluating vaccination behaviors solely across standard racial and ethnic categories. We identified two populations that were initiating HPV vaccine at abysmal levels: foreign-born persons and Asian Indians. Development of culturally appropriate messaging has the potential to improve these initiation rates and improve population health. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
4500 Table 3 Acknowledgment of contributions. Participant Role Albert Sabin Led effort to make JEV Vaccine during WWII Richard Mason Member of...R A v R R K D S a b c d e f g h i j a A R R A A K V S J H D I C T P p ( C t 0 h Vaccine 31 (2013) 4487– 4500 Contents lists available at...ScienceDirect Vaccine jou rn al hom ep age: www.elsev ier .com/ locat e/vacc ine eview model international partnership for community-based research on
Essack, Zaynab; Wassenaar, Douglas R
HIV prevention trials provide a prevention package to participants to help prevent HIV acquisition. As new prevention methods are proven effective, this raises ethical and scientific design complexities regarding the prevention package or standard of prevention. Given its high HIV incidence and prevalence, South Africa has become a hub for HIV prevention research. For this reason, it is critical to study the implementation of relevant ethical-legal frameworks for such research in South Africa. This qualitative study used in-depth interviews to explore the practices and perspectives of eight members of South African research ethics committees (RECs) who have reviewed protocols for HIV vaccine trials. Their practices and perspectives are compared with ethics guideline requirements for standards of prevention.
Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Ouakki, Manale; Bettinger, Julie A; Witteman, Holly O; MacDonald, Shannon; Fisher, William; Saini, Vineet; Greyson, Devon
Parental decision making about childhood vaccinations is complex and multidimensional. There is a perception that the number of parents having concerns regarding childhood vaccinations has been increasing in Canada. The aim of this study was to explore vaccine hesitancy among Canadian parents and to examine factors associated with a parent's intention to vaccinate his/her child. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) this study assesses potential associations between parents' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs toward vaccination and their intention to vaccinate their child in the future. A national sample of Canadian parents of children aged 24-59 months (N = 2013) was surveyed using an online survey methodology. Half of the surveyed parents strongly intended to have their child vaccinated in the future. Parents' information needs and searches as well as parents' trust in different institutions were associated with intention to vaccinate. Parents who reported having frequently looked for vaccine information, who considered that it was their role as parents to question vaccines, or who had previously experienced difficulty accessing vaccination services were less likely to strongly intend to vaccinate their child in the future. Parents who had a high level of trust in doctors and public health were most likely to strongly intend to vaccinate their child. Results of the multivariate analysis showed that positive attitudes (aOR = 8.0; 95% CI: 6.0, 10.4), higher perceived social support (aOR = 3.0; 95% CI: 2.3, 3.93), and higher perceived behavioural control (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.4, 2.43) were associated with parents' intention to vaccinate their child. Findings of this study suggest that trust-building interventions that promote pro-vaccine social norms and that address negative attitudes toward vaccination could enhance vaccine acceptance among Canadian parents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hull, Pamela C; Williams, Elizabeth A; Khabele, Dineo; Dean, Candace; Bond, Brea; Sanderson, Maureen
To generate recommendations for framing messages to promote HPV vaccination, specifically for African American adolescents and their parents who have not yet made a decision about the vaccine (the "Undecided" market segment). Focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American girls ages 11-18 (N=34) and their mothers (N=31), broken into market segments based on daughter's vaccination status and mother's intent to vaccinate. Findings suggested that the HPV vaccine should be presented to "Undecided" mothers and adolescents as a routine vaccine (just like other vaccines) that helps prevent cancer. Within the "Undecided" segment, we identified two sub-segments based on barriers to HPV vaccination and degree of reluctance. The "Undecided/Ready If Offered" segment would easily accept HPV vaccine if given the opportunity, with basic information and a healthcare provider recommendation. The "Undecided/Skeptical" segment would need more in-depth information to allay concerns about vaccine safety, mistrust of drug companies, and recommended age. Some mothers and girls had the erroneous perception that girls do not need the vaccine until they become sexually active. African American adolescents and their mothers overwhelmingly thought campaigns should target both girls and boys for HPV vaccination. In addition, campaigns and messages may need to be tailored for pre-teens (ages 9-12) versus teens (ages 13-18) and their parents. Findings pointed to the need to "normalize" the perception of HPV vaccine as just another routine vaccine (e.g., part of pre-teen vaccine package). Findings can inform social marketing campaigns targeting Undecided or ethnically diverse families. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Garner, Samual A; Anude, Chuka J; Adams, Elizabeth; Dawson, Liza
HIV prevention research has been facing increasing ethical and operational challenges. Factors influencing the design and conduct of HIV prevention trials include a rapidly changing evidence base, new biomedical prevention methods and modalities being tested, a large diversity of countries, sites and populations affected by HIV and participating in trials, and challenges of developing and making available products that will be feasible and affordable for at-risk populations. To discuss these challenges, a meeting, Ethical considerations around novel combination prevention modalities in HIV prevention and vaccine trials in resource-limited settings, was convened by NIH/NIAID/Division of AIDS on April 22-23, 2013. Several themes emerged from the meeting: (1) because of both trial design and ethical complexities, choosing prevention packages and designing combination prevention research trials will need to be evaluated on a case by case basis in different clinical trials, countries, and health systems; (2) multilevel stakeholder engagement from the beginning is vital to a fair and transparent process and also to designing ethical and relevant trials; (3) research should generally be responsive to a host country's needs, and sponsors and stakeholders should work together to address potential barriers to future access; and finally, (4) another meeting including a broader group of stakeholders is needed to address many of the outstanding ethical issues raised by this meeting. We offer an overview of the meeting and the key discussion points and recommendations to help guide the design and conduct of future HIV prevention and vaccine research in resource-limited settings.
Gustafson, Diana L; Woodworth, Claire F
Online content is a primary source of healthcare information for internet-using adults and a rich resource for health researchers. This paper explores the methodological and ethical issues of engaging in health research using social media. A metamethod was performed on systematically selected studies that used social media as a data source for exploring public awareness and beliefs about Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) and HPV vaccination. Seven electronic databases were searched using a variety of search terms identified for each of three concepts: social media, HPV vaccine, and research method. Abstracts were assessed for eligibility of inclusion; six studies met the eligibility criteria and were subjected to content analysis. A 10-item coding scheme was developed to assess the clarity, congruence and transparency of research design, epistemological and methodological underpinnings and ethical considerations. The designs of the six selected studies were sound, although most studies could have been more transparent about how they built in rigor to ensure the trustworthiness and credibility of findings. Statistical analysis that intended to measure trends and patterns did so without the benefit of randomized sampling and other design elements for ensuring generalizability or reproducibility of findings beyond the specified virtual community. Most researchers did not sufficiently engage virtual users in the research process or consider the risk of privacy incursion. Most studies did not seek ethical approval from an institutional research board or permission from host websites or web service providers. The metamethod exposed missed opportunities for using the dialogical character of social media as well as a lack of attention to the unique ethical issues inherent in operating in a virtual community where social boundaries and issues of public and private are ambiguous. This suggests the need for more self-conscious and ethical research practices when using social media
Full Text Available There are over 165 studies that have focused on Thimerosal, an organic-mercury (Hg based compound, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, and found it to be harmful. Of these, 16 were conducted to specifically examine the effects of Thimerosal on human infants or children with reported outcomes of death; acrodynia; poisoning; allergic reaction; malformations; auto-immune reaction; Well’s syndrome; developmental delay; and neurodevelopmental disorders, including tics, speech delay, language delay, attention deficit disorder, and autism. In contrast, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that Thimerosal is safe and there is “no relationship between [T]himerosal[-]containing vaccines and autism rates in children.” This is puzzling because, in a study conducted directly by CDC epidemiologists, a 7.6-fold increased risk of autism from exposure to Thimerosal during infancy was found. The CDC’s current stance that Thimerosal is safe and that there is no relationship between Thimerosal and autism is based on six specific published epidemiological studies coauthored and sponsored by the CDC. The purpose of this review is to examine these six publications and analyze possible reasons why their published outcomes are so different from the results of investigations by multiple independent research groups over the past 75+ years.
Immunization for children against vaccine-preventable diseases is one of the most important health intervention method in the world, both in terms of its health impact and cost-effectiveness. Through EPI and various other programs such as the Decades of Vaccines, immunization has been improving the health of children around the world. However, this progress falls short of global immunization targets of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP). Furthermore, the African region still lags behind in immunization, and suffers from a high proportion of vaccine preventable diseases as a result. Reminders and recall for vaccination have been shown to improve health care-seeking behaviours, and have been recommended for application in routine and supplemental measles immunization activities. With mobile phones becoming more accessible in Africa, SMS vaccine reminder system has been proposed as a convenient and easily scalable way to inform caregivers of the disease and the importance of immunization, to address any concerns related to immunization safety, and to remind them of vaccination schedules and campaigns. There have been 6 published articles and 1 unpublished article on the effect of SMS reminder system for immunization in Africa. The studies done has shown that SMS vaccination reminder has led to improvements in vaccination uptakes in various metrics, whether is through the increase in vaccination coverage, decrease in dropout rates, increase in completion rate, or decrease in delay for vaccination.
Ho, Hanley J; Chan, Yin Ying; Ibrahim, Muhamad Alif Bin; Wagle, Anurupa A; Wong, Christina M; Chow, Angela
Adult influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates in Singapore are low, and factors influencing knowledge and attitudes of seniors towards influenza, pneumonia and their respective vaccines are not well-known. Our study aims to understand the barriers and facilitators towards getting influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations among seniors in Singapore, and subsequently inform the conduct of a relevant community-based educational intervention, as well as evaluate the intervention outcomes. We performed a mixed methods study with two components: Firstly, formative research was conducted among community-dwelling seniors, using focus group discussions (FGDs), to understand their knowledge and attitudes towards influenza, pneumonia and their respective vaccines. Next, a quantitative study was conducted to evaluate knowledge of seniors and the effectiveness of an educational intervention. Four FGDs were organised with 32 participants, who were predominantly female, of lower educational background, and residing in government rental flats. Participants had varying levels of knowledge and many misconceptions about influenza, pneumonia and their respective vaccinations, with concerns about side effects and vaccine effectiveness. The formative research results were used to inform a community-based educational intervention for seniors. Our subsequent evaluation included 604 elderly participants, mainly from lower educational and socio-economic strata, who initially demonstrated poor knowledge scores (median score 5 out of 9, IQR 4-5). Following our intervention, median knowledge score improved to 7 (IQR 6-8) (p seniors which affected their attitudes towards vaccination uptake. Key findings were taken into consideration when implementing the educational intervention. Our community-based intervention was effective in improving knowledge and attitudes, and could be used as a cue to action for short-term behaviour changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Garrison, Louis P; Bauch, Chris T; Bresnahan, Brian W; Hazlet, Tom K; Kadiyala, Srikanth; Veenstra, David L
Several potential measles vaccine innovations are in development to address the shortcomings of the current vaccine. Funders need to prioritize their scarce research and development resources. This article demonstrates the usefulness of cost-effectiveness analysis to support these decisions. This study had 4 major components: (1) identifying potential innovations, (2) developing transmission models to assess mortality and morbidity impacts, (3) estimating the unit cost impacts, and (4) assessing aggregate cost-effectiveness in United Nations Children's Fund countries through 2049. Four promising technologies were evaluated: aerosol delivery, needle-free injection, inhalable dry powder, and early administration DNA vaccine. They are projected to have a small absolute impact in terms of reducing the number of measles cases in most scenarios because of already improving vaccine coverage. Three are projected to reduce unit cost per dose by $0.024 to $0.170 and would improve overall cost-effectiveness. Each will require additional investments to reach the market. Over the next 40 years, the aggregate cost savings could be substantial, ranging from $98.4 million to $689.4 million. Cost-effectiveness analysis can help to inform research and development portfolio prioritization decisions. Three new measles vaccination technologies under development hold promise to be cost-saving from a global perspective over the long-term, even after considering additional investment costs. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.
Jackwood, Daral J
Numerous reviews have been published on infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Many high quality vaccines are commercially available for the control of IBD that, when used correctly, provide solid protection against infection and disease caused by IBDV. Viruses are not static however; they continue to evolve and vaccines need to keep pace with them. The evolution of IBDV has resulted in very virulent strains and new antigenic types of the virus. This review will discuss some of the limitations associated with existing vaccines, potential solutions to these problems and advances in new vaccines for the control of IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J
The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration of community engagement outcomes including future attendance, community mobilization, and study participation. Within the context of HIV vaccine outreach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in early 2007 with 175 African-American adults (>/= 18 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed and the findings support the potential of the model in understanding behavioral intentions toward HIV vaccine research.
Velentgas, Priscilla; Bohn, Rhonda L; Brown, Jeffrey S; Chan, K Arnold; Gladowski, Patricia; Holick, Crystal N; Kramer, Judith M; Nakasato, Cynthia; Spettell, Claire M; Walker, Alexander M; Zhang, Fang; Platt, Richard
We describe a multi-center post-marketing safety study that uses distributed data methods to minimize the need for covered entities to share protected health information (PHI). Implementation has addressed several issues relevant to creation of a large scale post-marketing drug safety surveillance system envisioned by the FDA's Sentinel Initiative. This retrospective cohort study of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following meningococcal conjugate vaccination incorporates the data and analytic expertise of five research organizations closely affiliated with US health insurers. The study uses administrative claims data, plus review of full text medical records to adjudicate the status of individuals with a diagnosis code for GBS (ICD9 357.0). A distributed network approach is used to create the analysis files and to perform most aspects of the analysis, allowing nearly all of the data to remain behind institutional firewalls. Pooled analysis files transferred to a central site will contain one record per person for approximately 0.2% of the study population, and contain PHI limited to the month and year of GBS onset for cases or the index date for matched controls. The first planned data extraction identified over 9 million eligible adolescents in the target age range of 11-21 years. They contributed an average of 14 months of eligible time on study over 27 months of calendar time. MCV4 vaccination coverage levels exceeded 20% among 17-18-year olds and 16% among 11-13 and 14-16-year-old age groups by the second quarter of 2007. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a distributed data network approach to perform large scale post-marketing safety analyses and is scalable to include additional organizations and data sources. We believe these results can inform the development of a large national surveillance system. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Walwyn, David R; Nkolele, Adolph T
Public-private partnerships (PPPs), widely used as a means of leveraging the skills, expertise and resources of the private sector to mutual advantage, were similarly adopted by South Africa to support public sector delivery. This study has evaluated one such partnership, namely the Biovac Institute, which was established in 2003 to cover vaccine research and development, manufacturing, and supply. The initiative was highly unusual given that it attempted to combine all three aspects in a single PPP. The research has followed a concurrent mixed methods approach. In the quantitative study, data for prices and product volumes were extracted from secondary data sources and used to calculate the economic cost and value-for-money of the PPP. Simultaneously, a qualitative study was undertaken in which a number of key stakeholders were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire on their perceptions of the PPP's value. The institute earns a premium on the procurement cost of a broad range of vaccines required by the South African National Department of Health for its immunisation programme, the net value of which was US$85.7 million over the period 2010 to 2014. These funds were used to finance the institute's operations, including vaccine research, distribution and quality control. Capital expenditure to support the establishment of facilities for laboratory testing, packaging and labelling, filling, formulation and, finally, active pharmaceutical ingredient manufacture, approximately US$40 million in total, had to be secured through loans and grants. According to the respondents in the qualitative survey, the principal benefit of the PPP has been the uninterrupted supply of vaccines and the ability to respond quickly to vaccine shortages. The main disadvantages appear to have been a slow and ineffectual establishment of a vaccine manufacturing centre and, initially, a limited ability to negotiate highly competitive vaccine prices. Overall, it is concluded that a
Pach, Alfred; Tabbusam, Ghurnata; Khan, M Imran; Suhag, Zamir; Hussain, Imtiaz; Hussain, Ejaz; Mumtaz, Uzma; Haq, Inam Ul; Tahir, Rehman; Mirani, Amjad; Yousafzai, Aisha; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Ochiai, R Leon; Soofi, Sajid; Clemens, John D; Favorov, Michael O; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
The authors conducted formative research (a) to identify stakeholders' concerns related to typhoid fever and the need for disease information and (b) to develop a communication strategy to inform stakeholders and address their concerns and motivate for support of a school-based vaccination program in Pakistan. Data were collected during interactive and semi-structured focus group discussions and interviews, followed by a qualitative analysis and multidisciplinary consultative process to identify an effective social mobilization strategy comprised of relevant media channels and messages. The authors conducted 14 focus group discussions with the parents of school-aged children and their teachers, and 13 individual interviews with school, religious, and political leaders. Parents thought that typhoid fever was a dangerous disease, but were unsure of their children's risk. They were interested in vaccination and were comfortable with a school-based vaccination if conducted under the supervision of trained and qualified staff. Teachers and leaders needed information on typhoid fever, the vaccine, procedures, and sponsors of the vaccination program. Meetings were considered the best form of information dissemination, followed by printed materials and mass media. This study shows how qualitative research findings can be translated into an effective social mobilization and communication approach. The findings of the research indicated the importance of increasing awareness of typhoid fever and the benefits of vaccination against the disease. Identification and dissemination of relevant, community-based disease and vaccination information will increase demand and use of vaccination.
Alsahli, M; Farrell, R J; Michetti, P
Over the past decade, intensive research has focused on developing a vaccine therapy for Helicobacter pylori. Substantial unresolved questions cloud the current approach, and the development of a vaccine against this unique organism has proved very challenging. Many candidate vaccines have been tested in animal models. The immunogenicity and the safety of some vaccine formulations have been recently evaluated through clinical trials, and the efficacy of these vaccine therapies in humans will be determined in the near future. This article will provide an overview of the current knowledge of natural and vaccine-induced immune responses to H. pylori infection. It will also review past vaccine successes and failures in animal models and the limited experience to date in using vaccine therapy in humans. Several obstacles to H. pylori vaccine development efforts along with the future direction of these efforts will be discussed. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan
With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089
Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts.
Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research
S. M. Kharit
Full Text Available Massive vaccination had proved its effective morbidity reduction. Today it is necessary to extend vaccination schedule, creation of selective, regional schedules based on epidemiological, clinical, economical substantiation. Development of vaccination needs the profound scientific research, modernization of adverse reaction observing system, betterment training system and awareness of population.
Butel, J. S.
From 1955 through early 1963, millions of people were inadvertently exposed to simian virus 40 (SV40) as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines; the virus had been present in the monkey kidney cultures used to prepare the vaccines and had escaped detection. SV40 was discovered in 1960 and subsequently eliminated from poliovirus vaccines. This article reviews current knowledge about SV40 and considers public responses to reports in the media. SV40 is a potent tumour virus with broad tissue tropism that induces tumours in rodents and transforms cultured cells from many species. It is also an important laboratory model for basic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. SV40 neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated poliovirus vaccines. There have been many reports of detection of SV40 DNA in human tumours, especially mesotheliomas, brain tumours and osteosarcomas; and DNA sequence analyses have ruled out the possibility that the viral DNA in tumours was due to laboratory contamination or that the virus had been misidentified. However, additional studies are necessary to prove that SV40 is the cause of certain human cancers. A recently published review article evaluated the status of the field and received much media attention. The public response emphasized that there is great interest in the possibility of health risks today from vaccinations received in the past.
Strode, Ann; Slack, Catherine; Mushariwa, Muriel
An effective ethical-legal framework for the conduct of research is critical. We describe five essential components of such a system, review the extent to which these components have been realised in South Africa, present brief implications for the ethical conduct of clinical trials of HIV vaccines in South Africa and make recommendations. The components of an effective ethical-legal system that we propose are the existence of scientific ethical and policy-making structures that regulate research; research ethics committees (RECs) that ethically review research; national ethical guidelines and standards; laws protecting research participants; and mechanisms to enforce and monitor legal rights and ethical standards. We conclude that the ethical-legal framework has, for the most part, the necessary institutions, and certain necessary guidelines but does not have many of the laws needed to protect and promote the rights of persons participating in research, including HIV vaccine trials. Recommendations made include advocacy measures to finalise and implement legislation, development of regulations, analysis and comparison of ethical guidelines, and the development of measures to monitor ethical-legal rights at trial sites.
In dogs, leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum is a serious and potentially fatal disease. This parasite can also cause zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in children and immunocompromised adults. A vaccine for dogs would not only be of great value in veterinary medicine
Dr. Tom Shimabukuro, a medical officer at CDC, discusses Pandemic Influenza Vaccination Preparedness and Response. Created: 3/27/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 3/27/2014.
The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751
Full Text Available One of the potential threats to public health microbiology in 21st century is the increased mortality rate caused by Zika virus (ZIKV, a mosquito-borne flavivirus. The severity of ZIKV infection urged World Health Organization (WHO to declare this virus as a global concern. The limited knowledge on the structure, virulent factors, and replication mechanism of the virus posed as hindrance for vaccine development. Several vector and non-vector-borne mode of transmission are observed for spreading the disease. The similarities of the virus with other flaviviruses such as dengue and West Nile virus are worrisome; hence, there is high scope to undertake ZIKV research that probably provide insight for novel therapeutic intervention. Thus, this review focuses on the recent aspect of ZIKV research which includes the outbreak, genome structure, multiplication and propagation of the virus, current animal models, clinical manifestations, available treatment options (probable vaccines and therapeutics, and the recent advancements in computational drug discovery pipelines, challenges and limitation to undertake ZIKV research. The review suggests that the infection due to ZIKV became one of the universal concerns and an interdisciplinary environment of in vitro cellular assays, genomics, proteomics, and computational biology approaches probably contribute insights for screening of novel molecular targets for drug design. The review tried to provide cutting edge knowledge in ZIKV research with future insights required for the development of novel therapeutic remedies to curtail ZIKV infection.
Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll
Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery.
Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.
Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...
Garbutt, Jane M; Dodd, Sherry; Walling, Emily; Lee, Amanda A; Kulka, Katharine; Lobb, Rebecca
In the United States, the effective, safe huma papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is underused and opportunities to prevent cancer continue to be missed. National guidelines recommend completing the 2-3 dose HPV vaccine series by age 13, well before exposure to the sexually transmitted virus. Accurate characterization of the facilitators and barriers to full implementation of HPV vaccine recommendations in the primary care setting could inform effective implementation strategies. We used the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to systematically investigate and characterize factors that influence HPV vaccine use in 10 primary care practices (16 providers) using a concurrent mixed methods design. The CFIR was used to guide collection and analysis of qualitative data collected through in-person semi-structured interviews with the primary care providers. We analyzed HPV vaccine use with data abstracted from medical charts. Constructs that most strongly influenced vaccine use were identified by integrating the qualitative and quantitative data. Of the 72 CFIR constructs assessed, seven strongly distinguished and seven weakly distinguished between providers with higher versus lower HPV vaccine coverage. The majority of strongly distinguishing constructs were facilitators and were related to characteristics of the providers (knowledge and beliefs; self-efficacy; readiness for change), their perception of the intervention (relative advantage of vaccinating younger vs. older adolescents), and their process to deliver the vaccine (executing). Additional weakly distinguishing constructs that were facilitators were from outer setting (peer pressure; financial incentives), inner setting (networks and communications and readiness for implementation) and process (planning; engaging, and reflecting and evaluating). Two strongly distinguishing constructs were barriers to use, one from the intervention (adaptability of the age of initiation) and the other from outer
O'Brien, Declan; Scudamore, Jim; Charlier, Johannes; Delavergne, Morgane
The public and private sector in the EU spend around €800 million per year on animal health and welfare related research. An objective process to identify critical gaps in knowledge and available control tools should aid the prioritisation of research in order to speed up the development of new or improved diagnostics, vaccines and pharmaceuticals and reduce the burden of animal diseases. Here, we describe the construction of a database based on expert consultation for 52 infectious diseases of animals. For each disease, an expert group produced a disease and product analysis document that formed the basis for gap analysis and prioritisation. The prioritisation model was based on a closed scoring system, employing identical weights for six evaluation criteria (disease knowledge; impact on animal health and welfare; impact on public health; impact on wider society; impact on trade; control tools). The diseases were classified into three groups: epizootic diseases, food-producing animal complexes or zoonotic diseases. The highly ranked diseases in the prioritisation model comprised mostly zoonotic and epizootic diseases with important gaps identified in vaccine development and pharmaceuticals, respectively. The most important outcome is the identification of key research needs by disease. The rankings and research needs by disease are provided on a public website ( www.discontools.eu ) which is currently being updated based on new expert consultations. As such, it can become a reference point for funders of research including the European Commission, member states, foundations, trusts along with private industry to prioritise research. This will deliver benefits in terms of animal health and welfare but also public health, societal benefits and a safe and secure food supply.
Pauly, Mark V
This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines) in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs) but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage). It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.
Mark V. Pauly
Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage. It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.
Sheets, Rebecca L; Rangavajhula, Vijaya; Pullen, Jeffrey K; Butler, Chris; Mehra, Vijay; Shapiro, Stuart; Pensiero, Michael
The Division of AIDS Vaccine Research Program funds the discovery and development of HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates. Basic researchers, having discovered a potential vaccine in the laboratory, next want to take that candidate into the clinic to test the concept in humans, to see if it translates. Many of them have heard of "cGMP" and know that they are supposed to make a "GMP product" to take into the clinic, but often they are not very familiar with what "cGMP" means and why these good practices are so important. As members of the Vaccine Translational Research Branch, we frequently get asked "can't we use the material we made in the lab in the clinic?" or "aren't Phase 1 studies exempt from cGMP?" Over the years, we have had many experiences where researchers or their selected contract manufacturing organizations have not applied an appropriate degree of compliance with cGMP suitable for the clinical phase of development. We share some of these experiences and the lessons learned, along with explaining the importance of cGMP, just what cGMP means, and what they can assure, in an effort to de-mystify this subject and facilitate the rapid and safe translational development of HIV vaccines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Sheets, Rebecca L.; Rangavajhula, Vijaya; Pullen, Jeffrey K.; Butler, Chris; Mehra, Vijay; Shapiro, Stuart
The Division of AIDS Vaccine Research Program funds the discovery and development of HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates. Basic researchers, having discovered a potential vaccine in the laboratory, next want to take that candidate into the clinic to test the concept in humans, to see if it translates. Many of them have heard of “cGMP” and know that they are supposed to make a “GMP product” to take into the clinic, but often they are not very familiar with what “cGMP” means and why these good practices are so important. As members of the Vaccine Translational Research Branch, we frequently get asked “can’t we use the material we made in the lab in the clinic?” or “aren’t Phase 1 studies exempt from cGMP?” Over the years, we have had many experiences where researchers or their selected contract manufacturing organizations have not applied an appropriate degree of compliance with cGMP suitable for the clinical phase of development. We share some of these experiences and the lessons learned, along with explaining the importance of cGMP, just what cGMP means, and what they can assure, in an effort to de-mystify this subject and facilitate the rapid and safe translational development of HIV vaccines. PMID:25698494
He, Yongqun; Xiang, Zuoshuang
Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the commonest zoonotic diseases found worldwide in humans and a variety of animal species. While several animal vaccines are available, there is no effective and safe vaccine for prevention of brucellosis in humans. VIOLIN (http://www.violinet.org) is a web-based vaccine database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes published data of commercialized vaccines, and vaccines in clinical trials or in research. VIOLIN contains information for 454 vaccines or vaccine candidates for 73 pathogens. VIOLIN also contains many bioinformatics tools for vaccine data analysis, data integration, and vaccine target prediction. To demonstrate the applicability of VIOLIN for vaccine research, VIOLIN was used for bioinformatics analysis of existing Brucella vaccines and prediction of new Brucella vaccine targets. VIOLIN contains many literature mining programs (e.g., Vaxmesh) that provide in-depth analysis of Brucella vaccine literature. As a result of manual literature curation, VIOLIN contains information for 38 Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates, 14 protective Brucella antigens, and 68 host response studies to Brucella vaccines from 97 peer-reviewed articles. These Brucella vaccines are classified in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) system and used for different ontological applications. The web-based VIOLIN vaccine target prediction program Vaxign was used to predict new Brucella vaccine targets. Vaxign identified 14 outer membrane proteins that are conserved in six virulent strains from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis that are pathogenic in humans. Of the 14 membrane proteins, two proteins (Omp2b and Omp31-1) are not present in B. ovis, a Brucella species that is not pathogenic in humans. Brucella vaccine data stored in VIOLIN were compared and analyzed using the VIOLIN query system. Bioinformatics curation and ontological representation of Brucella vaccines
Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently developed HOUSES, an individual housing-based socioeconomic status (SES measurement for health disparities research. We assessed whether HOUSES was associated with risk of pertussis and pertussis vaccine up-to-date status in children. Methods The study utilized a previous population-based case-control study cohort assembled during the 2004–2005 pertussis outbreak. We collected data on pertussis vaccine status (up-to-date status at the time of the index date. Using a z-score for housing value, actual square footage, and numbers of bedrooms and bathrooms, HOUSES was formulated in continuous variable and categorized into quartiles. Vaccine up-to-date status was compared among subjects with different SES as measured by HOUSES using a chi-square test and logistic regression models. Results Of the 391 eligible pediatric subjects (median age of 13.1 years with male sex of 55 %, 363 (93 % were successfully geocoded to formulate HOUSES index. HOUSES was not associated with the risk of pertussis (p = 0.82. Pertussis vaccine up-to-date statuses were 79, 86, 83, and 94 % for children in the first (the lowest SES, second, third, and fourth quartiles of HOUSES, respectively (p = 0.03. HOUSES as a continuous variable was associated with pertussis vaccine up-to-date status (adjusted OR: 1.15 per increment of one unit of HOUSES, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.27, p = 0.008. Conclusion While HOUSES is not associated with the risk of pertussis, it predicts vaccine up-to-date status among children with different SES. HOUSES may be a useful tool for vaccine delivery research among children.
... Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Do vaccines cause autism? Is it OK to skip certain vaccines? Get ... their potentially serious complications. Vaccines do not cause autism. Despite much controversy on the topic, researchers haven' ...
Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M
New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine targe...
Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between mumps-measles-rubella (MMR vaccination and the onset of symptoms typical of autism has recently been suggested. This has led to considerable concern about the safety of the vaccine. Methods A matched case-control study using data derived form the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Children with a possible diagnosis of autism will be identified from their electronic health records. All diagnoses will be validated by a detailed review of hospital letters and by using information derived from a parental questionnaire. Ten controls per case will be selected from the database. Conditional logistic regression will be used to assess the association between MMR vaccination and autism. In addition case series analyses will be undertaken to estimate the relative incidence of onset of autism in defined time intervals after vaccination. The study is funded by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council. Discussion Electronic health databases offer tremendous opportunities for evaluating the adverse effects of vaccines. However there is much scope for bias and confounding. The rigorous validation of all diagnoses and the collection of additional information by parental questionnaire in this study are essential to minimise the possibility of misleading results.
of development. Food vaccines may also help to suppress autoimmunity disorders such as Type-1. Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. INTRODUCTION. Vaccination involves the stimulation of the immune system to prepare it for the event of an invasion from a particular ...
... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...
Wang, Ching-Min; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong
Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.
Hardt, Karin; Bonanni, Paolo; King, Susan; Santos, Jose Ignacio; El-Hodhod, Mostafa; Zimet, Gregory D; Preiss, Scott
Successful immunisation programmes generally result from high vaccine effectiveness and adequate uptake of vaccines. In the development of new vaccination strategies, the structure and strength of the local healthcare system is a key consideration. In high income countries, existing infrastructures are usually used, while in less developed countries, the capacity for introducing new vaccines may need to be strengthened, particularly for vaccines administered beyond early childhood, such as the measles or human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Reliable immunisation service funding is another important factor and low income countries often need external supplementary sources of finance. Many regions also obtain support in generating an evidence base for vaccination via initiatives created by organisations including World Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Agence de Médecine Préventive and the Sabin Vaccine Institute. Strong monitoring and surveillance mechanisms are also required. An example is the efficient and low-cost approaches for measuring the impact of the hepatitis B control initiative and evaluating achievement of goals that have been established in the WHO Western Pacific region. A review of implementation strategies reveals differing degrees of success. For example, in the Americas, PAHO advanced a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine strategy, targeting different population groups in mass, catch-up and follow-up vaccination campaigns. This has had much success but coverage data from some parts of the region suggest that children are still not receiving all appropriate vaccines, highlighting problems with local service infrastructures. Stark differences in coverage levels are also observed among high income countries, as is the case with HPV vaccine implementation in the USA versus the UK and Australia, reflecting differences in delivery settings. Experience and research have shown which vaccine strategies work well and the
Abelin, Atika; Colegate, Tony; Gardner, Stephen; Hehme, Norbert; Palache, Abraham
As A(H1N1) influenza enters the post-pandemic phase, health authorities around the world are reviewing the response to the pandemic. To ensure this process enhances future preparations, it is essential that perspectives are included from all relevant stakeholders, including vaccine manufacturers. This paper outlines the contribution of R&D-based influenza vaccine producers to the pandemic response, and explores lessons that can be learned to improve future preparedness. The emergence of 2009 A(H1N1) influenza led to unprecedented collaboration between global health authorities, scientists and manufacturers, resulting in the most comprehensive pandemic response ever undertaken, with a number of vaccines approved for use three months after the pandemic declaration. This response was only possible because of the extensive preparations undertaken during the last decade. During this period, manufacturers greatly increased influenza vaccine production capacity, and estimates suggest a further doubling of capacity by 2014. Producers also introduced cell-culture technology, while adjuvant and whole virion technologies significantly reduced pandemic vaccine antigen content. This substantially increased pandemic vaccine production capacity, which in July 2009 WHO estimated reached 4.9 billion doses per annum. Manufacturers also worked with health authorities to establish risk management plans for robust vaccine surveillance during the pandemic. Individual producers pledged significant donations of vaccine doses and tiered-pricing approaches for developing country supply. Based on the pandemic experience, a number of improvements would strengthen future preparedness. Technical improvements to rapidly select optimal vaccine viruses, and processes to speed up vaccine standardization, could accelerate and extend vaccine availability. Establishing vaccine supply agreements beforehand would avoid the need for complex discussions during a period of intense time pressure. Enhancing
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Members of the Western Pacific Region Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System
Full Text Available Objective: Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent seasonal influenza and its severe outcomes. The objective of our study was to synthesize information on seasonal influenza vaccination policies, recommendations and practices in place in 2011 for all countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization (WHO. Methods: Data were collected via a questionnaire on seasonal influenza vaccination policies, recommendations and practices in place in 2011. Results: Thirty-six of the 37 countries and areas (97% responded to the survey. Eighteen (50% reported having established seasonal influenza vaccination policies, an additional seven (19% reported having recommendations for risk groups for seasonal influenza vaccination only and 11 (30% reported having no policies or recommendations in place. Of the 25 countries and areas with policies or recommendations, health-care workers and the elderly were most frequently recommended for vaccination; 24 (96% countries and areas recommended vaccinating these groups, followed by pregnant women (19 [76%], people with chronic illness (18 [72%] and children (15 [60%]. Twenty-six (72% countries and areas reported having seasonal influenza vaccines available through public funding, private market purchase or both. Most of these countries and areas purchased only enough vaccine to cover 25% or less of their populations. Discussion: In light of the new WHO position paper on influenza vaccines published in 2012 and the increasing availability of country-specific data, countries and areas should consider reviewing or developing their seasonal influenza vaccination policies to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with annual epidemics and as part of ongoing efforts for pandemic preparedness.
Skall, H. F.; Lorenzen, E.; Kjær, T. E.
Despite vaccination by intraperitoneal injection with oil-adjuvanted vaccines against vibriosis and furunculosis, sea reared rainbow trout in Denmark often develop furunculosis and occasionally vibriosis during warm summer periods. This implies an excessive use of antibiotics and has also decreas...
Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando
The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017.
Marshall K. Cheney
Full Text Available Yearly influenza vaccination continues to be underutilized by those who would most benefit from it. The Health Belief Model was used to explain differences in beliefs about influenza vaccination among at-risk individuals resistant to influenza vaccination. Survey data were collected from 74 members of at-risk groups who were not vaccinated for influenza during the previous flu season. Accepting individuals were more likely to perceive flu as a threat to health and perceive access barriers, and cues to action were the most important influence on whether they plan to get vaccinated. In comparison, resistant individuals did not feel threatened by the flu, access barriers were not a problem, and they did not respond favorably to cues to action. Perceived threat, perceived access barriers, and cues to action were significantly associated with plans to be vaccinated for influenza in the next flu season. Participants who saw influenza as a threat to their health had 5.4 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated than those who did not. Participants reporting barriers to accessing influenza vaccination had 7.5 times the odds of reporting plans to be vaccinated. Those responding positively to cues to action had 12.2 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated in the next flu season than those who did not. Accepting and resistant individuals have significant differences in their beliefs, which require different intervention strategies to increase vaccination rates. These findings provide important information to researchers and practitioners working to increase influenza vaccination rates.
Full Text Available Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intussusception. Early vaccines were based on animal strains. More recently developed and licenced vaccines are either animal-human reassortants or are based on human strains. In India, two candidate vaccines are in the development process, but have not yet reached efficacy trials. Many challenges regarding vaccine efficacy and safety remain. In addition to completing clinical evaluations of vaccines in development in settings with the highest disease burden and virus diversity, there is also a need to consider alternative vaccine development strategies.
Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.
Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...
Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Hou, Su-I; Horton, Takeia; Chan, Kayshin; Mulligan, Mark J; del Rio, Carlos
In the United States, the number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases among black/African Americans continue to highlight the need for new biomedical prevention interventions, including an HIV vaccine, microbicide, or new antiretroviral (ARV) prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to complement existing condom usage, harm reduction methods, and behavioral change strategies to stem the HIV epidemic. Although black/African Americans are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, their participation in HIV clinical research continues to have unique challenges. We theorize that interaction among multilevel factors creates ideal alignment for minority participation in HIV clinical studies. Thus, we initially set out to test an extended model of reasoned action with 362 participants to understand the interplay of sociopsychological and network-level considerations influencing minority participation in HIV prevention research efforts. In this study, we linked the intrapersonal dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, and normative concerns to community-level components, appraisal of involvement with the clinical research organization, an entity which operates within a networked structure of community partner agencies, and identification with coalition advocacy aims. Various participatory outcomes were explored including involvement in future HIV vaccine community functions, participation in community promotion of HIV vaccine research, and community mobilization. Three-stage least squares estimates indicated similar findings across three models. Significant effects demonstrate the importance of positive attitudes toward HIV vaccine research, favorable health research beliefs, perceived social support for participation, HIV/AIDS issue engagement, and perceived relevance of the clinical research site's mission and values. Identification of these nuanced pathway effects provides implications for tailored community program development.
Frew, Paula M.; Archibald, Matthew; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Hou, Su-I; Horton, Takeia; Chan, Kayshin; Mulligan, Mark J.; del Rio, Carlos
In the United States, the number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases among black/African Americans continue to highlight the need for new biomedical prevention interventions, including an HIV vaccine, microbicide, or new antiretroviral (ARV) prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to complement existing condom usage, harm reduction methods, and behavioral change strategies to stem the HIV epidemic. Although black/African Americans are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, their participation in HIV clinical research continues to have unique challenges. We theorize that interaction among multilevel factors creates ideal alignment for minority participation in HIV clinical studies. Thus, we initially set out to test an extended model of reasoned action with 362 participants to understand the interplay of sociopsychological and network-level considerations influencing minority participation in HIV prevention research efforts. In this study, we linked the intrapersonal dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, and normative concerns to community-level components, appraisal of involvement with the clinical research organization, an entity which operates within a networked structure of community partner agencies, and identification with coalition advocacy aims. Various participatory outcomes were explored including involvement in future HIV vaccine community functions, participation in community promotion of HIV vaccine research, and community mobilization. Three-stage least squares estimates indicated similar findings across three models. Significant effects demonstrate the importance of positive attitudes toward HIV vaccine research, favorable health research beliefs, perceived social support for participation, HIV/AIDS issue engagement, and perceived relevance of the clinical research site’s mission and values. Identification of these nuanced pathway effects provides implications for tailored community program development. PMID:20012200
Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M
New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.
McGlone, Sarah M
New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678
In light of the continuing spread of HIV infection and the devastating impact of the disease on lives, communities, and economies, particularly in the developing world, the investment in new treatments, vaccines, and microbicides has clearly been inadequate. Efforts must be intensified to develop effective HIV vaccines and to ensure that they are accessible to people in all parts of the world. This article is a summary of a paper by Sam Avrett presented at "Putting Third First: Vaccines, Access to Treatments and the Law," a satellite meeting held at Barcelona on 5 July 2002 and organized by the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, the AIDS Law Project, South Africa, and the Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, India. In the article, Avrett calls for immediate action to increase commitment and funding for HIV vaccines, enhance public support and involvement, accelerate vaccine development, and plan for the eventual delivery of the vaccines. The article briefly outlines steps that governments need to take to implement each of these objectives. The article also provides a menu of potential actions for vaccine advocates to consider as they lobby governments.
Lavail, Katherine Hart; Kennedy, Allison Michelle
To explain vaccine confidence as it related to parents' decisions to vaccinate their children with recommended vaccines, and to develop a confidence measure to efficiently and effectively predict parents' self-reported vaccine behaviors. A sample of parents with at least one child younger than 6 years (n = 376) was analyzed using data from the HealthStyles 2010 survey. Questions were grouped into block variables to create three confidence constructs: value, safety, and efficacy. Regression equations controlling for demographic characteristics were used to identify the confidence construct(s) that best predicted parents' self-reported vaccination decisions (accept all, some, or none of the recommended childhood vaccines). Among the three constructs evaluated, confidence in the value of vaccines, that is the belief that vaccines are important and vaccinating one's children is the right thing to do, was the best predictor of parents' vaccine decisions, F(2, 351) = 119.199, p parents' self-reported vaccine decisions. Confidence in the safety or efficacy of vaccines failed to account for additional significant variance in parent-reported vaccination behavior. Confidence in the value of vaccines is a helpful predictor of parent-reported vaccination behavior. Attitudinal constructs of confidence in the safety and efficacy of vaccines failed to account for additional significant variance in parents' vaccination behaviors. Future research should assess the role of vaccine knowledge and tangible barriers, such as access and cost, to further explain parents' vaccination behaviors.
In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS i
By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer In a research milestone reported in the June 20 issue of the journal Science, scientists have developed a minimally modified version of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS in infected humans, that is capable of causing progressive infection and AIDS in monkeys. The advance should help create more authentic animal
Full Text Available Efficacy of an inactivated quadrivalent vaccine containing infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR virus, parainfluenza type 3 (PI3 virus, bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV was assessed in naive bovine calves to evaluate short-term (4-18 weeks and long-term (24-38 weeks protection following the basic intramuscular vaccination regime of 2 inoculations a month apart. Vaccination was staggered between the long-term and the short-term groups by about 5 months so that both groups, along with a matched group of 6 unvaccinated (control calves, could be challenged at the same time. Sequential challenges at intervals of 3-8 weeks were done in the order: IBR virus (intranasally, IN, PI3 virus (IN and intratracheally, IT, pestiviruses (IN and BRSV (IN and IT. The IBR virus challenge produced febrile rhinotracheitis (FRT in control calves but both the severity and the duration of FRT was significantly reduced in both vaccinated groups. The amount and the duration of IBR virus shed by the vaccinated groups was significantly reduced compared to the control group. Although PI3 virus, pooled pestivirus and BRSV challenges did not result in a noteworthy disease, challenge virus shedding (amount and duration from the upper (all 3 viruses and the lower (BRSV respiratory tracts was significantly reduced in vaccinated groups. After pestivirus challenge, sera and leukocytes from all control calves were infectious for 6-9 days whereas virus was recovered only from leukocytes in vaccinated calves and only for 1.6-2.7 days. Thus a standard course of the quadrivalent vaccine afforded a significant protection against IBR virus, PI3 virus, BVDV and BRSV for at least 6 months.
Lee, Sara; Riley-Behringer, Maureen; Rose, Jeanmarie C; Meropol, Sharon B; Lazebnik, Rina
This study explores how parents' intentions regarding vaccination prior to their children's visit were associated with actual vaccine acceptance. A convenience sample of parents accompanying 6-week-old to 17-year-old children completed a written survey at 2 pediatric practices. Using hierarchical logistic regression, for hospital-based participants (n = 216), vaccine refusal history ( P < .01) and vaccine decision made before the visit ( P < .05) explained 87% of vaccine refusals. In community-based participants (n = 100), vaccine refusal history ( P < .01) explained 81% of refusals. Over 1 in 5 parents changed their minds about vaccination during the visit. Thirty parents who were previous vaccine refusers accepted current vaccines, and 37 who had intended not to vaccinate choose vaccination. Twenty-nine parents without a refusal history declined vaccines, and 32 who did not intend to refuse before the visit declined vaccination. Future research should identify key factors to nudge parent decision making in favor of vaccination.
Peterson, Valerie; Lee, Christopher
This highly readable book aims to ease the many challenges of starting undergraduate research. It accomplishes this by presenting a diverse series of self-contained, accessible articles which include specific open problems and prepare the reader to tackle them with ample background material and references. Each article also contains a carefully selected bibliography for further reading. The content spans the breadth of mathematics, including many topics that are not normally addressed by the undergraduate curriculum (such as matroid theory, mathematical biology, and operations research), yet have few enough prerequisites that the interested student can start exploring them under the guidance of a faculty member. Whether trying to start an undergraduate thesis, embarking on a summer REU, or preparing for graduate school, this book is appropriate for a variety of students and the faculty who guide them. .
Data, Maps - SC Public Health Diseases and Conditions Flu Tuberculosis STD/HIV and Viral Hepatitis Zika Illnesses E. coli Listeriosis Salmonella Hepatitis A Shellfish Monitoring and Regulation Certified Shippers Vaccines Teen and Preteen Vaccines Vaccines Needed for School Admission Related Topics Perinatal Hepatitis
Liu, Guangjin; Zhu, Jielian; Chen, Kangming; Gao, Tingting; Yao, Huochun; Liu, Yongjie; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Chengping
Vaccination is a widely accepted and effective method to prevent most pathogenic diseases in aquaculture. Various species of tilapia, especially Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, are farmed worldwide because of their high consumer demand. Recently, the tilapia-breeding industry has been hampered by outbreaks of Streptococcus agalactiae infection, which cause high mortality and huge economic losses. Many researchers have attempted to develop effective S. agalactiae vaccines for tilapia. This review provides a summary of the different kinds of S. agalactiae vaccines for tilapia that have been developed recently. Among the various vaccine types, inactivated S. agalactiae vaccines showed superior protection efficiency when compared with live attenuated, recombinant and DNA vaccines. With respect to vaccination method, injecting the vaccine into tilapia provided the most effective immunoprotection. Freund's incomplete adjuvant appeared to be suitable for tilapia vaccines. Other factors, such as immunization duration and number, fish size and challenge dose, also influenced the vaccine efficacy.
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service
Urbanowicz, Richard A; McClure, C Patrick; Brown, Richard J P; Tsoleridis, Theocharis; Persson, Mats A A; Krey, Thomas; Irving, William L; Ball, Jonathan K; Tarr, Alexander W
Despite significant advances in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the need to develop preventative vaccines remains. Identification of the best vaccine candidates and evaluation of their performance in preclinical and clinical development will require appropriate neutralization assays utilizing diverse HCV isolates. We aimed to generate and characterize a panel of HCV E1E2 glycoproteins suitable for subsequent use in vaccine and therapeutic antibody testing. Full-length E1E2 clones were PCR amplified from patient-derived serum samples, cloned into an expression vector, and used to generate viral pseudoparticles (HCVpp). In addition, some of these clones were used to generate cell culture infectious (HCVcc) clones. The infectivity and neutralization sensitivity of these viruses were then determined. Bioinformatic and HCVpp infectivity screening of approximately 900 E1E2 clones resulted in the assembly of a panel of 78 functional E1E2 proteins representing distinct HCV genotypes and different stages of infection. These HCV glycoproteins differed markedly in their sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies. We used this panel to predict antibody efficacy against circulating HCV strains, highlighting the likely reason why some monoclonal antibodies failed in previous clinical trials. This study provides the first objective categorization of cross-genotype patient-derived HCV E1E2 clones according to their sensitivity to antibody neutralization. It has shown that HCV isolates have clearly distinguishable neutralization-sensitive, -resistant, or -intermediate phenotypes, which are independent of genotype. The panel provides a systematic means for characterization of the neutralizing response elicited by candidate vaccines and for defining the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibodies. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a global burden of more than 170 million people, many of whom cannot attain the new, expensive, direct-acting antiviral therapies. A safe and
This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.
This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.
This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.
The proposed research focuses on vaccine improvement for one or more of the ... of existing livestock vaccines in sub-Saharan Africa and South and Southeast Asia. ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that.
production, and commercialization of innovative vaccines against livestock ... These vaccines often have limited uptake, efficacy or safety profiles .... It is the policy of IDRC that research work involving human participants or animals be.
Nowak, Glen J.; Sheedy, Kristine; Bursey, Kelli; Smith, Teresa M.; Basket, Michelle
Introduction A primary mission of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) is promoting immunization against seasonal influenza. As with most education efforts, CDCs influenza-related communications are often informed by formative research. Methods A qualitative meta-analysis of 29 unpublished, primarily qualitative CDC-sponsored studies related to flu and flu vaccination knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KABs). The studies, undertaken between 2000 and 2013, involved focus groups, in-depth interviews, message testing and surveys. Some involved health care professionals, while others involved members of the public, including sub-populations at risk for severe illness. Findings The themes that emerged suggested progress in terms of KABs related to influenza and influenza vaccination, but also the persistence of many barriers to vaccine acceptance. With respect to the public, recurring themes included limited understanding of influenza and immunization recommendations, indications of greater sub-group recognition of the value of flu vaccination, continued resistance to vaccination among many, and overestimation of the effectiveness of non-vaccine measures. Seven cognitive facilitators of vaccination were identified in the studies along with six cognitive barriers. For health care providers, the analysis suggests greater knowledge and more favorable beliefs, but many misperceptions persist and are similar to those held by the public. KABs often differed by type or category of health care provider. Conclusions The themes identified in this qualitative analysis illustrate the difficulty in changing KABs related to influenza and influenza vaccine, particularly on the scope and scale needed to greatly improve uptake. Even with an influenza pandemic and more vaccine options available, public and some health care provider perceptions and beliefs are difficult and slow to change. This meta-analysis does, however, provide important insights from previously
This year marks the first time anti-tick vaccination will be used in the United States and Puerto Rico to control, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus. The 110-year-old Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program has eradicated the southern cattle fever tick from the majority of the Unite...
Compared with controlled terminologies ( e.g. , MedDRA, CTCAE, and WHO-ART), the community-based Ontology of AEs (OAE) has many advantages in adverse event (AE) classifications. The OAE-derived Ontology of Vaccine AEs (OVAE) and Ontology of Drug Neuropathy AEs (ODNAE) serve as AE knowledge bases and support data integration and analysis. The Immune Response Gene Network Theory explains molecular mechanisms of vaccine-related AEs. The OneNet Theory of Life treats the whole process of a life of an organism as a single complex and dynamic network ( i.e. , OneNet). A new "OneNet effectiveness" tenet is proposed here to expand the OneNet theory. Derived from the OneNet theory, the author hypothesizes that one human uses one single genotype-rooted mechanism to respond to different vaccinations and drug treatments, and experimentally identified mechanisms are manifestations of the OneNet blueprint mechanism under specific conditions. The theories and ontologies interact together as semantic frameworks to support integrative pharmacovigilance research.
Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.
Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.
Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406
De Groot, Anne S; Rappuoli, Rino
Vaccine research entered a new era when the complete genome of a pathogenic bacterium was published in 1995. Since then, more than 97 bacterial pathogens have been sequenced and at least 110 additional projects are now in progress. Genome sequencing has also dramatically accelerated: high-throughput facilities can draft the sequence of an entire microbe (two to four megabases) in 1 to 2 days. Vaccine developers are using microarrays, immunoinformatics, proteomics and high-throughput immunology assays to reduce the truly unmanageable volume of information available in genome databases to a manageable size. Vaccines composed by novel antigens discovered from genome mining are already in clinical trials. Within 5 years we can expect to see a novel class of vaccines composed by genome-predicted, assembled and engineered T- and Bcell epitopes. This article addresses the convergence of three forces--microbial genome sequencing, computational immunology and new vaccine technologies--that are shifting genome mining for vaccines onto the forefront of immunology research.
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service
CERN Medical Service
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service
Apr 6, 2016 ... regard to Oral Polio virus, Measles, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, and pentavalent vaccines and its ... underutilization of vaccines, World Health Organization (WHO) and ..... Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination. BMC.
Full Text Available We are witnessing a new era of immune-mediated cancer therapies and vaccine development. As the field of cancer vaccines advances into clinical trials, overcoming low immunogenicity is a limiting step in achieving full success of this therapeutic approach. Recent discoveries in the many biological roles of chemokines in tumor immunology allow their exploitation in enhancing recruitment of antigen presenting cells (APCs and effector cells to appropriate anatomical sites. This knowledge, combined with advances in gene therapy and virology, allows researchers to employ chemokines as potential vaccine adjuvants. This review will focus on recent murine and human studies that use chemokines as therapeutic anti-cancer vaccine adjuvants.
Pagliusi, Sonia; Dennehy, Maureen; Kim, Hun
This report covers the topics of pandemics, epidemics and partnerships, including regulatory convergence initiatives, new technologies and novel vaccines, discussed by leading public and private sector stakeholders at the 18th Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN). Contributions of Gavi and the vaccine industry from emerging countries to the growing global vaccine market, by improving the supply base from manufacturers in developing countries and contributing to 58% of doses, were highlighted. The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), the International Vaccine Institute (IVI) and others reported on new strategies to ensure speedy progress in preclinical and clinical development of innovative vaccines for future MERS, Zika or other outbreak response. Priorities for vaccine stockpiling, to assure readiness during emergencies and to prevent outbreaks due to re-emerging diseases such as yellow fever, cholera and poliomyelitis, were outlined. The role of partnerships in improving global vaccine access, procurement and immunization coverage, and shared concerns were reviewed. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other international collaborating partners provided updates on the Product, Price and Procurement database, the prequalification of vaccines, the control of neglected tropical diseases, particularly the new rabies elimination initiative, and regulatory convergence proposals to accelerate vaccine registration in developing countries. Updates on supply chain innovations and novel vaccine platforms were presented. The discussions enabled members and partners to reflect on efficiency of research & development, supply chain tools and trends in packaging technologies improving delivery of existing vaccines, and allowing a deeper understanding of the current public-health objectives, industry financing, and global policies, required to ensure optimal investments, alignment and stability of
Shapiro, Gilla K; Holding, Anne; Perez, Samara; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev
Parents' vaccine attitudes influence their decision regarding child vaccination. To date, no study has evaluated the impact of vaccine conspiracy beliefs on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance. The authors assessed the validity of a Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (VCBS) and determined whether this scale was associated with parents' willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine. Canadian parents completed a 24-min online survey in 2014. Measures included socio-demographic variables, HPV knowledge, health care provider recommendation, Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), the seven-item VCBS, and parents' willingness to vaccinate their son at two price points. A total of 1427 Canadian parents completed the survey in English (61.2%) or French (38.8%). A Factor Analysis revealed the VCBS is one-dimensional and has high internal consistency (α=0.937). The construct validity of the VCBS was supported by a moderate relationship with the CMQ (r=0.44, pparents' willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine at both price points ('free' or '$300') after controlling for gender, age, household income, education level, HPV knowledge, and health care provider recommendation. The VCBS is a brief, valid scale that will be useful in further elucidating the correlates of vaccine hesitancy. Future research could use the VCBS to evaluate the impact of vaccine conspiracies beliefs on vaccine uptake and how concerns about vaccination may be challenged and reversed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL .... tein vaccines require expensive virus/protein purification tech- niques as ... sphere continue to remain major health hazards in developing nations. ... significance since it can be produced at a very low cost and can be stored ...
Vaccination involves priming the immune system with an antigenic agent that mimics a virus or bacterium, which results in immunity against the “real” microorganism. Collective vaccination policies have played an important role in the control of infectious disease worldwide. They can serve the
Wagner, Ernst; Kircheis, Ralf; Crommelin, D.; Van Slooten, Maaike; Storm, Gert
The invention relates to a tumour vaccine with a tumour antigen base. In addition to a source of tumour antigens, the vaccine contains a release system for the delayed release of the active agent IFN- gamma , the active dose of IFN- gamma being 50 ng to 5 mu g. The IFN- gamma is released over a
Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...
Grant, Lenny; Hausman, Bernice L; Cashion, Margaret; Lucchesi, Nicholas; Patel, Kelsey; Roberts, Jonathan
Current concerns about vaccination resistance often cite the Internet as a source of vaccine controversy. Most academic studies of vaccine resistance online use quantitative methods to describe misinformation on vaccine-skeptical websites. Findings from these studies are useful for categorizing the generic features of these websites, but they do not provide insights into why these websites successfully persuade their viewers. To date, there have been few attempts to understand, qualitatively, the persuasive features of provaccine or vaccine-skeptical websites. The purpose of this research was to examine the persuasive features of provaccine and vaccine-skeptical websites. The qualitative analysis was conducted to generate hypotheses concerning what features of these websites are persuasive to people seeking information about vaccination and vaccine-related practices. This study employed a fully qualitative case study methodology that used the anthropological method of thick description to detail and carefully review the rhetorical features of 1 provaccine government website, 1 provaccine hospital website, 1 vaccine-skeptical information website focused on general vaccine safety, and 1 vaccine-skeptical website focused on a specific vaccine. The data gathered were organized into 5 domains: website ownership, visual and textual content, user experience, hyperlinking, and social interactivity. The study found that the 2 provaccine websites analyzed functioned as encyclopedias of vaccine information. Both of the websites had relatively small digital ecologies because they only linked to government websites or websites that endorsed vaccination and evidence-based medicine. Neither of these websites offered visitors interactive features or made extensive use of the affordances of Web 2.0. The study also found that the 2 vaccine-skeptical websites had larger digital ecologies because they linked to a variety of vaccine-related websites, including government websites. They
Muzumdar, Jagannath M; Cline, Richard R
To provide an overview of supply and demand issues in the vaccine industry and the policy options that have been implemented to resolve these issues. Medline, Policy File, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched to locate academic journal articles. Other sources reviewed included texts on the topics of vaccine history and policy, government agency reports, and reports from independent think tanks. Keywords included vaccines, immunizations, supply, demand, and policy. Search criteria were limited to English language and human studies. Articles pertaining to vaccine demand, supply, and public policy were selected and reviewed for inclusion. By the authors. Vaccines are biologic medications, therefore making their development and production more difficult and costly compared with "small-molecule" drugs. Research and development costs for vaccines can exceed $800 million, and development may require 10 years or more. Strict manufacturing regulations and facility upgrades add to these costs. Policy options to increase and stabilize the supply of vaccines include those aimed at increasing supply, such as government subsidies for basic vaccine research, liability protection for manufacturers, and fast-track approval for new vaccines. Options to increase vaccine demand include advance purchase commitments, government stockpiles, and government financing for select populations. High development costs and multiple barriers to entry have led to a decline in the number of vaccine manufacturers. Although a number of vaccine policies have met with mixed success in increasing the supply of and demand for vaccines, a variety of concerns remain, including developing vaccines for complex pathogens and increasing immunization rates with available vaccines. New policy innovations such as advance market commitments and Medicare Part D vaccine coverage have been implemented and may aid in resolving some of the problems in the vaccine industry.
Federman, Ross S
Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating.
Buckingham, Lindsey; Becher, Julie; Voytek, Chelsea D; Fiore, Danielle; Dunbar, Debora; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David S; Frank, Ian
To compare the use of four different social media sites to recruit men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women to a phase 2b HIV prevention vaccine trial, HVTN 505. Retrospective, observational study. The University of Pennsylvania HIV Vaccine Trials Unit (Penn HVTU) employed street outreach and online recruitment methods to recruit participants for HVTN 505 using a combination of national recruitment images/messages with Philadelphia-specific language and imagery. We compared the efficiency (number of enrolled participants per number of completed phone screens) and effectiveness (number of enrolled participants per time interval employed) of each strategy, as well as the demographics and risk behaviors of the populations. Online recruitment strategies populated 37% (71/191) of trial participants at our site. Among the four social media strategies employed, 45.1% (32/71) were enrolled through Facebook, 16.9% (12/71) through Craigslist, 15.5% (11/71) through a web-based marketing company (WBMC), and 22.5% (16/71) via GRINDR. The number of participants enrolled per month of strategy and the months the strategy was employed were Facebook - 32(33months), Craigslist - 12(33months), WBMC - 11(6months), and GRINDR - 16(0.56months). In-person and online recruitment strategies yielded participants of similar demographics and levels of risk behavior. Use of several social media recruitment modalities produced large numbers of MSM engaging in high risk behavior and willing to participate in an HIV prevention vaccine trial. In comparison to other social media and online strategies, recruitment via GRINDR was the most effective. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
L. Punzi; Y. Shoenfeld; B. Bottazzi; M. Gatto; A. Ghirardello; R. Luisetto; N. Bassi; A. Doria
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease involving many organ systems. Glomerulonephritis (GLN) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in SLE. It has recently been demonstrated that adjuvants of vaccines could cause the so called ASIA syndrome. The study aimed to assess the effects of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) vs alum injections in NZB/NZWF1 mice. Mice (n=10 each group) were injected with a total volume of 200 μL of: CFA in PBS (group 1), alum in PBS (...
Paul, Proma; Tanner, Amanda E; Gravitt, Patti E; Vijayaraghavan, K; Shah, Keerti V; Zimet, Gregory D; Study Group, Catch
Due to high cervical cancer rates and limited research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in India, the research team examined parental attitudes toward HPV vaccines. Thirty-six interviews with parents were conducted to assess sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge and HPV-specific vaccine awareness and acceptability. Despite limited knowledge, parents had positive views toward HPV vaccines. Common barriers included concerns about side effects, vaccine cost, and missing work to receive the vaccine. Parents were strongly influenced by health care providers' recommendations. Our findings suggest that addressing parental concerns, health worker training and polices, and efforts to minimize cost will be central to successful HPV vaccine implementation.
Development of vaccines for aquaculture fish represent an important applied functional aspect of fish immunology research. Particularly in the case of recombinant vaccines, where a single antigen is usually expected to induce immunity to a specific pathogen, knowledge of mechanisms involved...... in induction of a protective immune response may become vital. The few recombinant vaccines licensd so far, despite much research during the last decade, illustrate that this is not a straightforward matter. However, as vaccine technology as well as our knowledge of the fish immune system is steadily improved......, these fields will open up a number of interesting research objectives of mutual benefit. Recent aspects of recombinant protein vaccines, live recombinant vaccines and DNA vaccines are discussed....
Rodrigues, Charlene M C; Pinto, Marta V; Sadarangani, Manish; Plotkin, Stanley A
Currently used vaccines have had major effects on eliminating common infections, largely by duplicating the immune responses induced by natural infections. Now vaccinology faces more complex problems, such as waning antibody, immunosenescence, evasion of immunity by the pathogen, deviation of immunity by the microbiome, induction of inhibitory responses, and complexity of the antigens required for protection. Fortunately, vaccine development is now incorporating knowledge from immunology, structural biology, systems biology and synthetic chemistry to meet these challenges. In addition, international organisations are developing new funding and licensing pathways for vaccines aimed at pathogens with epidemic potential that emerge from tropical areas. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Since the turn of the century, a remarkable expansion has been achieved in the range and effectiveness of products and strategies available to prevent, treat, and control malaria, including advances in diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control. These advances have once again put malaria elimination on the agenda. However, it is clear that even with the means available today, malaria control and elimination pose a formidable challenge in many settings. Thus, currently available resources must be used more effectively, and new products and approaches likely to achieve these goals must be developed. This paper considers tools (both those available and others that may be required) to achieve and maintain malaria elimination. New diagnostics are needed to direct treatment and detect transmission potential; new drugs and vaccines to overcome existing resistance and protect against clinical and severe disease, as well as block transmission and prevent relapses; and new vector control measures to overcome insecticide resistance and more powerfully interrupt transmission. It is also essential that strategies for combining new and existing approaches are developed for different settings to maximise their longevity and effectiveness in areas with continuing transmission and receptivity. For areas where local elimination has been recently achieved, understanding which measures are needed to maintain elimination is necessary to prevent rebound and the reestablishment of transmission. This becomes increasingly important as more countries move towards elimination.
Gilla K. Shapiro
Full Text Available Background: Parents’ vaccine attitudes influence their decision regarding child vaccination. To date, no study has evaluated the impact of vaccine conspiracy beliefs on human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance. The authors assessed the validity of a Vaccine Conspiracy Beliefs Scale (VCBS and determined whether this scale was associated with parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine. Methods: Canadian parents completed a 24-min online survey in 2014. Measures included socio-demographic variables, HPV knowledge, health care provider recommendation, Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ, the seven-item VCBS, and parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son at two price points. Results: A total of 1427 Canadian parents completed the survey in English (61.2% or French (38.8%. A Factor Analysis revealed the VCBS is one-dimensional and has high internal consistency (α=0.937. The construct validity of the VCBS was supported by a moderate relationship with the CMQ (r=0.44, p<0.001. Hierarchical regression analyses found the VCBS is negatively related to parents’ willingness to vaccinate their son with the HPV vaccine at both price points (‘free’ or ‘$300′ after controlling for gender, age, household income, education level, HPV knowledge, and health care provider recommendation. Conclusions: The VCBS is a brief, valid scale that will be useful in further elucidating the correlates of vaccine hesitancy. Future research could use the VCBS to evaluate the impact of vaccine conspiracies beliefs on vaccine uptake and how concerns about vaccination may be challenged and reversed. Keywords: Cancer prevention, Conspiracy beliefs, Human papillomavirus, Vaccine hesitancy, Vaccines, Vaccine Conspiracy Belief Scale
Two hundreds years after the discovery of the smallpox vaccine, immunization remains one of the most powerful tools of preventive medicine. Immunization was born with Jenner, then Pasteur and expanded during the 19th and 20th century. It started with the empirical observation of cross-immunity between two diseases, cowpox and smallpox. It became a real science, with pathogen isolation, culture and attenuation or inactivation, to prepare a vaccine. Together with clinical and biological efficacy studies and adverse events assessments, it constructed the concept of "vaccinology". Protein conjugation of polyosidic vaccines has made possible early immunisation of infants. Nowadays, recombinant, reassortant, or virus-like particles technologies open the road for new vaccines. Ongoing research opens the way for the development of new vaccines that will help to control transmittable diseases for which we are lacking antimicrobial agents.
Roč. 3, Suppl. 1 (2005), S7 ISSN 1214-021X. [Cells VI - Biological Days /18./. 24.10.2005-26.10.2005, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumour vaccines * HPV16 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology
Østerhus, Sven Frederick
The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....
Abbey M. Jones
Full Text Available In recent years, use of the Internet to obtain vaccine information has increased. Historical data are necessary to evaluate current vaccine information seeking trends in context. Between 2002 and 2003, surveys were mailed to 1,630 parents of fully vaccinated children and 815 parents of children with at least one vaccine exemption; 56.1% responded. Respondents were asked about their vaccine information sources, perceptions of these sources accuracy, and their beliefs about vaccination. Parents who did not view their child’s healthcare provider as a reliable vaccine information source were more likely to obtain vaccine information using the Internet. Parents who were younger, more highly educated, and opposed to school immunization requirements were more likely than their counterparts to use the Internet for vaccine information. Compared to parents who did not use the Internet for vaccine information, those who sought vaccine information on the Internet were more likely to have lower perceptions of vaccine safety (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.18–2.35, vaccine effectiveness (aOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.32–2.53, and disease susceptibility (aOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.49–2.90 and were more likely to have a child with a nonmedical exemption (aOR 3.53, 95% CI, 2.61–4.76. These findings provide context to interpret recent vaccine information seeking research.
... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) ... safety of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. ...
... Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ... and/or fungi from contaminating the vaccine. Do flu vaccines contain thimerosal? Flu vaccines in multi-dose ...
... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...
Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix
The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
The call for a new decade of vaccines was made in December 2010. The aims are to secure the further discovery, development and delivery of vaccination. The first challenge is the acquisition of funds for the research and development of 20 new vaccines1. The Gates Foundation has pledged $10 billion for this venture. The other major players are WHO, UNICEF and the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The top priorities are TB, AIDS and Malaria. It is hoped that a Malaria vaccine will available in 3 years. The ambitious target of saving the lives of over 7 million children has been set. The programme must also address the need for vaccines in insulin dependent diabetes, cancers and degenerative diseases2.
The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research’s Vaccine Pilot Plant, part of the Vaccine Clinical Materials Program (VCMP), is helping researchers produce investigational Zika vaccines for a new round of clinical trials. The plant has been
Kaddar, Miloud; Milstien, Julie; Schmitt, Sarah
Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--have made considerable progress in vaccine production, regulation and development over the past 20 years. In 1993, all five countries were producing vaccines but the processes used were outdated and non-standardized, there was little relevant research and there was negligible international recognition of the products. By 2014, all five countries had strong initiatives for the development of vaccine technology and had greatly improved their national regulatory capacity. South Africa was then the only BRICS country that was not completely producing vaccines. South Africa is now in the process of re-establishing its own vaccine production and passing beyond the stage of simply importing, formulating and filling vaccine bulks. Changes in the public sector's price per dose of selected vaccines, the global market share represented by products from specific manufacturers, and the attractiveness, for multinational companies, of partnership and investment opportunities in BRICS companies have all been analysed. The results indicate that the BRICS countries have had a major impact on vaccine price and availability, with much of that impact attributable to the output of Indian vaccine manufacturers. China is expected to have a greater impact soon, given the anticipated development of Chinese vaccine manufacturers in the near future. BRICS' accomplishments in the field of vaccine development are expected to reshape the global vaccine market and accelerate access to vaccines in the developing world. The challenge is to turn these expectations into strategic actions and practical outcomes.
Collins, Natalie D; Barrett, Alan D T
Live attenuated 17D vaccine is considered one of the safest and efficacious vaccines developed to date. This review highlights what is known and the gaps in knowledge of vaccine-induced protective immunity. Recently, the World Health Organization modifying its guidance from 10-year booster doses to one dose gives lifelong protection in most populations. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting immunity, though protective, may wane over time in certain populations and more research is needed to address this question. Despite having an effective vaccine to control yellow fever, vaccine shortages were identified during outbreaks in 2016, eventuating the use of a fractional-dosing campaign in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Limited studies hinder identification of the underlying mechanism(s) of vaccine longevity; however, concurrent outbreaks during 2016 provide an opportunity to evaluate vaccine immunity following fractional dosing and insights into vaccine longevity in populations where there is limited information.
Suzuki, Masayasu; Takizawa, Akitoshi; Furuta, Akira; Yanada, Shuichi; Iwamuro, Shinya; Tashiro, Kazuya
In Japan, freeze-dried live attenuated mumps vaccine has been used optionally since 1981. The effectiveness of mumps vaccination has been established by worldwide research since 1971. On the other hand, because of it's live activity several untoward effects have been reported. Vaccination-related mumps orchitis is a rare adverse effect of mumps vaccine. Only 9 cases of vaccination-related mumps orchitis have been reported in Japan. We describe a case of orchitis following mumps vaccination in adolescence. A 16 years-old male has admitted because of acute orchitis with high fever and painful swelling of right testis. The patient had received vaccination with freeze-dried live attenuated mumps vaccine 16 days before admission. After admission, the bed-rest had completely relieved the symptoms on 6th hospital day. The impaired testis has maintained normal size and consistency 6 months after discharge.
Halloran, M Elizabeth; Hudgens, Michael G
Vaccination in populations can have several kinds of effects. Establishing that vaccination produces population-level effects beyond the direct effects in the vaccinated individuals can have important consequences for public health policy. Formal methods have been developed for study designs and analysis that can estimate the different effects of vaccination. However, implementing field studies to evaluate the different effects of vaccination can be expensive, of limited generalizability, or unethical. It would be advantageous to use routinely collected data to estimate the different effects of vaccination. We consider how different types of data are needed to estimate different effects of vaccination. The examples include rotavirus vaccination of young children, influenza vaccination of elderly adults, and a targeted influenza vaccination campaign in schools. Directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Scientific consultation on the safety and containment of new poliovirus strains for vaccine production, clinical/regulatory testing and research. Report of a meeting held at NIBSC, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, UK, 6/7th July 2016.
Minor, Philip D; Lane, Blanche; Mimms, South; Bar, Potters
When poliomyelitis is totally eradicated from the natural world containment will be vital to prevent its re-emergence. The matter has become pressing as type 2 component of oral polio vaccine was completely withdrawn by May 2016 as wild ty[e 2 was declared eradicated. Work on polioviruses must be contained in accordance with GAPIII (the third version of the Global Action Plan of WHO). Some activities will be essential for years after eradication. Vaccine production and control, surveillance and supportive applied and academic research must all continue. Most laboratories do not currently comply with GAPIII and could not do so in the short term without disruption of essential activities including vaccine supply. The development and use of safer strains is raised in GAPIII and the meeting considered the strains available and the uses to which they could be put to facilitate compliance with the aims of GAPIII. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bloom, David E; Madhavan, Guruprasad
This review focuses on selected challenges and opportunities concerning broader valuation of vaccines and immunization. The challenges involve conceptualizing and measuring the value of vaccines, while the opportunities relate to the strategic and systematic use of that information in health policy decisions that range from the adoption of particular vaccines in national immunization plans to the allocation of resources to vaccine research, development, and delivery. Clarifying the demonstrable individual, family, and community-level benefits of vaccines will allow the public health community to make better-informed and more meaningful comparisons of the costs of vaccines in relation to their full benefits. Taking advantage of this opportunity will require enhanced data collection and the development of strategic planning tools for transparently assessing trade-offs among the myriad attributes of different vaccines in various social and economic contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jun 7, 2016 ... Nicholas Muraguri1, Robert Davis3. 1Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya, 2World Health Organization, Nairobi, Kenya, 3American Red Cross, Nairobi, Kenya. &Corresponding author: Ian Njeru, Ministry of Health, Nairobi, Kenya. Key words: Polio vaccine, vaccination, vaccine safety, boycott, Catholic bishops.
Several proposals are offered for production of high-quality vaccines within developing countries. The World Health Organization's Vaccine Supply and Quality (VSQ) team from the Global Program for Vaccines and Immunization (GPV) visited 10 countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Pakistan, Philippines, and South Africa) out of 14 priority countries (China, Russia, Thailand, and Vietnam were not visited) producing vaccines and found only two with a quality control system that was acceptable. Vaccine-producing countries are urged to consider the full costs of production that include necessary infrastructure, an independent national control authority and laboratory, manufacturers with managerial autonomy, and manufacturers with good management, a qualified staff, and adequate technology. UNICEF has urged both private and public sectors to combine forces in bringing down the price of new vaccines for distribution to a very large market. Some imaginative proposals were made by some manufacturers for vaccine production and supply for a range of less traditional vaccines. The Director of the Massachusetts Public Health Biologic Laboratories proposed the formation of a consortium of vaccine manufacturers who would support public health priorities for market-affordable, simple vaccines against the major childhood diseases. The aim would be international validation of high-quality local vaccine production in developing countries, ease of research collaboration, improvement in information exchange between countries, and structured assistance. Lack of political commitment has been blamed for poor quality local production. A small cooperative effort among some Latin American countries, the Pan American Association's Regional Vaccine System for Latin America (SIREVA), is backed by the Children's Vaccine Initiative. SIREVA is a consortium of manufacturers in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico that plans joint development of some vaccines. Donor assistance is
Brewer, Noel T; Chapman, Gretchen B; Rothman, Alexander J; Leask, Julie; Kempe, Allison
Vaccination is one of the great achievements of the 20th century, yet persistent public-health problems include inadequate, delayed, and unstable vaccination uptake. Psychology offers three general propositions for understanding and intervening to increase uptake where vaccines are available and affordable. The first proposition is that thoughts and feelings can motivate getting vaccinated. Hundreds of studies have shown that risk beliefs and anticipated regret about infectious disease correlate reliably with getting vaccinated; low confidence in vaccine effectiveness and concern about safety correlate reliably with not getting vaccinated. We were surprised to find that few randomized trials have successfully changed what people think and feel about vaccines, and those few that succeeded were minimally effective in increasing uptake. The second proposition is that social processes can motivate getting vaccinated. Substantial research has shown that social norms are associated with vaccination, but few interventions examined whether normative messages increase vaccination uptake. Many experimental studies have relied on hypothetical scenarios to demonstrate that altruism and free riding (i.e., taking advantage of the protection provided by others) can affect intended behavior, but few randomized trials have tested strategies to change social processes to increase vaccination uptake. The third proposition is that interventions can facilitate vaccination directly by leveraging, but not trying to change, what people think and feel. These interventions are by far the most plentiful and effective in the literature. To increase vaccine uptake, these interventions build on existing favorable intentions by facilitating action (through reminders, prompts, and primes) and reducing barriers (through logistics and healthy defaults); these interventions also shape behavior (through incentives, sanctions, and requirements). Although identification of principles for changing
Rosario M Bartolini
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the sociocultural environment, health systems' capacities, and policy processes related to cervical cancer and HPV vaccines in order to inform HPV vaccine introduction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mixed-method formative research using qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques. Participants included girls, parents, community leaders, health and education officials, and policymakers. RESULTS: Respondents, including policymakers, generally supported HPV vaccine introduction, due partly to appreciation for the benefits of vaccination and the desire to prevent cancer. Community-level concerns regarding safety and quality of services will need to be addressed. The immunization system in Peru is strong and has capacity for including the HPV vaccine. CONCLUSION: Formative research provides key insights to help shape an effective program for HPV vaccine introduction.OBJETIVO: Comprender el contexto sociocultural, las capacidades del sistema de salud y las condiciones políticas vinculadas al cáncer cervical y a la vacuna contra el VPH para diseñar una estrategia apropiada de introducción de la vacuna contra el VPH. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Investigación formativa usando técnicas cualitativas y cuantitativas. Los participantes incluyeron niños, padres, líderes, funcionarios del sector salud y educación, y diseñadores de políticas. RESULTADOS: Generalmente se apoya la introducción de la vacuna contra el VPH, dado que se aprecian los beneficios de la vacunación y se desea prevenir el cáncer. En la comunidad se encontraron preocupaciones sobre seguridad, confianza y calidad de atención. El sistema de inmunizaciones en el Perú es eficiente y tiene la capacidad para incluir la vacuna contra el VPH. CONCLUSIONES: La investigación formativa permite comprender elementos clave que ayudan a diseñar un programa efectivo para la introducción de la vacuna contra el VPH.
Vernon J Lee
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4-0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. CONCLUSIONS: The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines.
Enkel, Stephanie L; Attwell, Katie; Snelling, Thomas L; Christian, Hayley E
Some parents are hesitant about vaccines and yet still vaccinate their children. Vaccine behaviours are not fixed and parents who are concerned but nonetheless adherent to standard schedules could switch to an unconventional schedule, delaying or cherry-picking vaccines. There is a need to better understand vaccine hesitancy in specific contexts, acknowledging cultural and geographical variation, to ensure interventions targeting hesitancy are well directed and received. To identify the behaviours, knowledge and attitudes of 'hesitant compliers' in Perth, Western Australia, nine one-on-one in-depth interviews were conducted with vaccinating parents of children (vaccination as important for themselves and their community, despite their limited knowledge of vaccine preventable diseases. Parents reported concerns about potential side effects, and worried about the safety of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and seasonal influenza vaccines. Concerned about the role of anti-vaccination information in the community, some sought to isolate themselves from parents who did not vaccinate, although others were concerned that this could entrench non-vaccinators' behaviours. Parents' views were all underlaid by two pivotal 'vaccine-related events' that had occurred in the community: the severe injury of a baby from seasonal influenza vaccination in 2010, and the death of a baby from whooping cough in 2015. Parents interpreted pivotal vaccine-related events in the community as requiring them to take personal responsibility for vaccine decisions. Their reports of continued vaccine fears (evident in international studies in recent decades) demonstrate that vaccine scares have long lasting effects. With vaccine rates high and stable, current strategies appear to be have little impact on addressing parental vaccine concerns. Further research is required to determine the prevalence of hesitancy amongst vaccinating parents and identify critical points for intervention. Copyright © 2017
Knobler, Stacey; Bok, Karin; Gellin, Bruce
SMART Vaccines 2.0 software is being developed to support decision-making among multiple stakeholders in the process of prioritizing investments to optimize the outcomes of vaccine development and deployment. Vaccines and associated vaccination programs are one of the most successful and effective public health interventions to prevent communicable diseases and vaccine researchers are continually working towards expanding targets for communicable and non-communicable diseases through preventive and therapeutic modes. A growing body of evidence on emerging vaccine technologies, trends in disease burden, costs associated with vaccine development and deployment, and benefits derived from disease prevention through vaccination and a range of other factors can inform decision-making and investment in new and improved vaccines and targeted utilization of already existing vaccines. Recognizing that an array of inputs influences these decisions, the strategic multi-attribute ranking method for vaccines (SMART Vaccines 2.0) is in development as a web-based tool-modified from a U.S. Institute of Medicine Committee effort (IOM, 2015)-to highlight data needs and create transparency to facilitate dialogue and information-sharing among decision-makers and to optimize the investment of resources leading to improved health outcomes. Current development efforts of the SMART Vaccines 2.0 framework seek to generate a weighted recommendation on vaccine development or vaccination priorities based on population, disease, economic, and vaccine-specific data in combination with individual preference and weights of user-selected attributes incorporating valuations of health, economics, demographics, public concern, scientific and business, programmatic, and political considerations. Further development of the design and utility of the tool is being carried out by the National Vaccine Program Office of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Fogarty International Center of the
Edible vaccines are sub-unit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. Edible vaccines are mucosal-targeted vaccines where stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune network takes place. Foods under study ...
Full Text Available Over 130,000 humans in Brazil are infected with Zika virus (ZIKV since March 2015, and presently 29 countries in Americas have reported local autochthonous ZIKV transmission. Besides the associated clinical features, Brazil has also reported a temporal and spatial association of ZIKV with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS and Zika fetal syndrome. ZIKV vaccine approaches include purified inactivated virus, nucleic acid-based vaccines (DNA, RNA, live vector vaccines, subunit vaccines, virus-like particle technologies, and live recombinant vaccines similar to the technologies used against other human flaviviruses. At present, 15 commercial entities are involved in the development of ZIKV vaccine. Vaccines developed through different approaches would have their own inherent advantages and disadvantages. The presentation of disease in different populations and lack of clarity on the pathogenesis and complications is the most important obstacle. Second, Zika belongs to a genus that is notorious for the antibody-mediated enhancement of infection, which proved to be a stumbling block during the development of the dengue vaccine. Identifying large naive and yet uninfected at-risk populations may be an obstacle to demonstrating efficacy. Next, the association of Zika with GBS is being researched since the vaccine may have the potential to provoke similar neuropathophysiologic mechanisms. Zika's association with adverse fetal outcomes necessitates that pregnant women and women of childbearing age are considered for evaluating vaccines, which form a vulnerable group for vaccine trials.
Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease involving many organ systems. Glomerulonephritis (GLN is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in SLE. It has recently been demonstrated that adjuvants of vaccines could cause the so called ASIA syndrome. The study aimed to assess the effects of Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA vs alum injections in NZB/NZWF1 mice. Mice (n=10 each group were injected with a total volume of 200 μL of: CFA in PBS (group 1, alum in PBS (group 2, PBS (group 3 as controls, PTX3/CFA (group 4, PTX3/alum (group 5, 3 times, 3 weeks apart /given in each injection, three weeks apart from ten weeks of age. Urine samples were collected weekly to evaluate proteinuria. Blood samples were collected before every injection, at 21 weeks of age, and at death to evaluate levels of anti-PTX3 and anti-dsDNA. Proteinuria free survival and survival rates were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method using Mantel-Cox’s test for comparisons. CFA-treated mice developed both anti-dsDNA antibodies and proteinuria earlier and at higher levels than alumtreated and PBS-injected mice, starting from 13 weeks of age. Proteinuria free survival rates (proteinuria ≥300 mg/dL and survival rates were lower in CFA-treated mice than those treated with alum or injected with PBS (P<0.001 for all. No difference was observed between the alum-treated group and PBS-injected mice. Notably, groups 4 and 5, immunized with PTX3, developed anti-PTX3 antibodies and no significant difference was observed. Alum seems to be as effective as and safer than CFA as adjuvant, since it did not affect disease progression in immunized NZB/NZWF1 mice.
Sánchez-Sampedro, Lucas; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Mejías-Pérez, Ernesto; García-Arriaza, Juan; Di Pilato, Mauro; Esteban, Mariano
After Edward Jenner established human vaccination over 200 years ago, attenuated poxviruses became key players to contain the deadliest virus of its own family: Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox. Cowpox virus (CPXV) and horsepox virus (HSPV) were extensively used to this end, passaged in cattle and humans until the appearance of vaccinia virus (VACV), which was used in the final campaigns aimed to eradicate the disease, an endeavor that was accomplished by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980. Ever since, naturally evolved strains used for vaccination were introduced into research laboratories where VACV and other poxviruses with improved safety profiles were generated. Recombinant DNA technology along with the DNA genome features of this virus family allowed the generation of vaccines against heterologous diseases, and the specific insertion and deletion of poxvirus genes generated an even broader spectrum of modified viruses with new properties that increase their immunogenicity and safety profile as vaccine vectors. In this review, we highlight the evolution of poxvirus vaccines, from first generation to the current status, pointing out how different vaccines have emerged and approaches that are being followed up in the development of more rational vaccines against a wide range of diseases. PMID:25853483
Full Text Available After Edward Jenner established human vaccination over 200 years ago, attenuated poxviruses became key players to contain the deadliest virus of its own family: Variola virus (VARV, the causative agent of smallpox. Cowpox virus (CPXV and horsepox virus (HSPV were extensively used to this end, passaged in cattle and humans until the appearance of vaccinia virus (VACV, which was used in the final campaigns aimed to eradicate the disease, an endeavor that was accomplished by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1980. Ever since, naturally evolved strains used for vaccination were introduced into research laboratories where VACV and other poxviruses with improved safety profiles were generated. Recombinant DNA technology along with the DNA genome features of this virus family allowed the generation of vaccines against heterologous diseases, and the specific insertion and deletion of poxvirus genes generated an even broader spectrum of modified viruses with new properties that increase their immunogenicity and safety profile as vaccine vectors. In this review, we highlight the evolution of poxvirus vaccines, from first generation to the current status, pointing out how different vaccines have emerged and approaches that are being followed up in the development of more rational vaccines against a wide range of diseases.
Cervical cancer vaccination for my daughter, no thanks: A research synthesis on parental explained barriers to delayed or non-acceptance of HPV vaccination in high-income (OECD) nations. Parental expressed reasons on why they delay or rejected HPV vaccination for their daughters aged 9-17 within OECD nations between 2008 and 2016
Ayino, Kenneth A.
Background: The World Health Organization including high income nations recommends that Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination should be given to young girls as they believe it’s the best available method to reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. HPV vaccination remains lower than anticipated within OECD nations. Through responses, we may understand the main reasons to why parents delayed or declined to accept their daughters to be vaccinated. Objective: To determine and identify...
Xiang, Zuoshuang; Todd, Thomas; Ku, Kim P; Kovacic, Bethany L; Larson, Charles B; Chen, Fang; Hodges, Andrew P; Tian, Yuying; Olenzek, Elizabeth A; Zhao, Boyang; Colby, Lesley A; Rush, Howard G; Gilsdorf, Janet R; Jourdian, George W; He, Yongqun
Vaccines are among the most efficacious and cost-effective tools for reducing morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases. The vaccine investigation and online information network (VIOLIN) is a web-based central resource, allowing easy curation, comparison and analysis of vaccine-related research data across various human pathogens (e.g. Haemophilus influenzae, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Plasmodium falciparum) of medical importance and across humans, other natural hosts and laboratory animals. Vaccine-related peer-reviewed literature data have been downloaded into the database from PubMed and are searchable through various literature search programs. Vaccine data are also annotated, edited and submitted to the database through a web-based interactive system that integrates efficient computational literature mining and accurate manual curation. Curated information includes general microbial pathogenesis and host protective immunity, vaccine preparation and characteristics, stimulated host responses after vaccination and protection efficacy after challenge. Vaccine-related pathogen and host genes are also annotated and available for searching through customized BLAST programs. All VIOLIN data are available for download in an eXtensible Markup Language (XML)-based data exchange format. VIOLIN is expected to become a centralized source of vaccine information and to provide investigators in basic and clinical sciences with curated data and bioinformatics tools for vaccine research and development. VIOLIN is publicly available at http://www.violinet.org.
The work done at the Indian Veternary Research Institute, Izatnagar, on the development of a vaccine for lungworm diseases is reported. Research work done includes: (1) studies on the epidemiology and the incidence of the lungworm infections, (ii) studies on the radiation-attenuated lungworm Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine, (iii) studies on other parasites using ionizing radiation, (iv) incidence of lungworm infection in sheep in Jammu and Kashmir State, (v) suitable dose of gamma radiation for attenuation, (vi) laboratory studies with radiation-attenuated D. filaria vaccine, (vii) serology of D. filaria infection, (viii) field trials with the radiation-attenuated vaccine, (ix) immune response of previously exposed lambs to vaccination, (x) comparative susceptibility of sheep and goats to infection with D. filaria, (xi) quantitative studies of D. filaria in lambs and (xii) production and supply of lungworm vaccine. (A.K.)
Full Text Available Dengue is one of the most important vector-borne disease and an increasing problem worldwide because of current globalization trends. Roughly, half the world′s population lives in dengue endemic countries, and nearly 100 million people are infected annually with dengue. India has the highest burden of the disease with 34% of the global cases. In the context of an expanding and potentially fatal infectious disease without effective prevention or specific treatment, the public health value of a protective vaccine is clear. There is no licensed dengue vaccine is available still, but several vaccines are under development. Keeping in view the rise in dengue prevalence globally, there is a need to increase clinical drug and vaccine research on dengue. This paper briefly reviews on the development and current status of dengue vaccine to provide information to policymakers, researchers, and public health experts to design and implement appropriate vaccine for prophylactic intervention.
Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine some blood and other physiological parameters with potential for use as prognostic indicators of viability of newborn goat kids. Of the 143 kids born during the on-farmstudy, 97 were crosses of Galla Ã— Small East African (SEA and 46 were pure SEA. The SEA Ã— Galla kids were 46 single males, with a mean body weight at birth of 2.77 Â± 0.22 kg , 43 females with a mean body weight at birth of 2.36 Â± 0.76 kg and 5 and 3 sets of female and male twins (mean body weight at birth of 1.8 Â± 0.19 kg and 2.05 Â± 0.07 kg for the female and male kids, respectively. The SEA kids comprised 36 single male and female kids (mean body weight at birth of 2.48 Â± 0.04 kg and 10 sets of twins (both male and female (mean body weight at birth of 1.50 Â± 0.04 kg . Pre-suckling sera obtained on-station from kids born of does vaccinated against Escherichia coli (n = 8 and unvaccinated does (n = 7 had a total protein content of 5 mmol/l and had an E. coli antibody titre of between 1/160 and 1/640. On the other hand, kids that died within 48 hours of birth (parturient deaths and had been classified in categories 3 and 4 righting reaction had low ( 45 minutes, low rectal temperature (< 36 Â°C, low birth weights (< 1.5 kg for singles and < 1.0 kg for twins, low white blood cells (< 4000/ m/l , low (< 2 mmol/l blood glucose levels, low total protein (< 40.0 g//l , low (< 1:160 E. coli antibody titre and IgG ( < 3350 mg//l in sera obtained 12 hours after birth have a poor prognosis for survival.
Hegge, Sara R; Hickey, Bradley W; Mcgrath, Shannon M; Stewart, V Ann
Guidelines on safe volume limits for blood collection from research participants in both humans and laboratory animals vary widely between institutions. The main adverse event that may be encountered in large blood volume withdrawal is iron-deficiency anemia. Monitoring various parameters in a standard blood panel may help to prevent this outcome. To this end, we analyzed the Hgb and MCV values from 43 humans and 46 macaques in malaria vaccine research trials. Although the percentage of blood volume removed was greater for macaques than humans, macaques demonstrated an overall increase of MCV over time, indicating the ability to respond appropriately to frequent volume withdrawals. In contrast, humans showed a consistent declining trend in MCV. These declines in human MCV and Hgb were significant from the beginning to end of the study despite withdrawals that were smaller than recommended volume limits. Limiting the volume withdrawn to no more than 12.5% seemed to be sufficient for macaques, and at 14% or more individual animals tended to fail to respond appropriately to large-volume blood loss, as demonstrated by a decrease in MCV. The overall positive erythropoietic response seen in macaques was likely due to the controlled, iron-fortified diet they received. The lack of erythropoietic response in the human subjects may warrant iron supplementation or reconsideration of current blood volume withdrawal guidelines.
Wu, Xiao-Xin; Yao, Hang-Ping; Wu, Nan-Ping; Gao, Hai-Nv; Wu, Hai-Bo; Jin, Chang-Zhong; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Xie, Tian-Shen; Li, Lan-Juan
Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans and non-human primates (NHPs). Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs), vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV)-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirusx2206;VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Ebolaviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause lethal Ebola virus disease (EVD in humans and non-human primates (NHPs. Due to their high pathogenicity and transmissibility, as well as the potential to be misused as a bioterrorism agent, ebolaviruses would threaten the health of global populations if not controlled. In this review, we describe the origin and structure of ebolaviruses and the development of vaccines from the beginning of the 1980s, including conventional ebolavirus vaccines, DNA vaccines, Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs, vaccinia virus-based vaccines, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV-like replicon particles, Kunjin virus-based vaccine, recombinant Zaire Ebolavirus∆VP30, recombinant cytomegalovirus (CMV-based vaccines, recombinant rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines, recombinant paramyxovirus-based vaccines, adenovirus-based vaccines and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-based vaccines. No licensed vaccine or specific treatment is currently available to counteract ebolavirus infection, although DNA plasmids and several viral vector approaches have been evaluated as promising vaccine platforms. These vaccine candidates have been confirmed to be successful in protecting NHPs against lethal infection. Moreover, these vaccine candidates were successfully advanced to clinical trials. The present review provides an update of the current research on Ebola vaccines, with the aim of providing an overview on current prospects in the fight against EVD.
Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Simionatto, Simone; Dellagostin, Odir
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that affects swine production worldwide. Vaccination is the most cost-effective strategy for the control and prevention of the disease. Research using genome-based approach has the potential to elucidate the biology and pathogenesis of M. hyopneumoniae and contribute to the development of more effective vaccines. Here, we describe the protocol for developing M. hyopneumoniae recombinant vaccines using reverse vaccinology approaches.
Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. No effective prophylaxis or treatment for filovirus diseases is yet commercially available. The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has accelerated efforts to develop anti-Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment, and unapproved drugs were indeed used for the treatment of patients during the outbreak. This article reviews previous researches and the latest topics on vaccine and therapy for Ebola virus disease.
Robbins, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sheldon H
Pediatric immunization programs in the USA are a successful and cost-effective public health endeavor, profoundly reducing mortalities caused by infectious diseases. Two important issues relate to the success of the immunization programs, the selection of cost-effective vaccines and the appropriate pricing of vaccines. The recommended childhood immunization schedule, published annually by the CDC, continues to expand with respect to the number of injections required and the number of vaccines available for selection. The advent of new vaccines to meet the growing requirements of the schedule results: in a large, combinatorial number of possible vaccine formularies. The expansion of the schedule and the increase in the number of available vaccines constitutes a challenge for state health departments, large city immunization programs, private practices and other vaccine purchasers, as a cost-effective vaccine formulary must be selected from an increasingly large set of possible vaccine combinations to satisfy the schedule. The pediatric vaccine industry consists of a relatively small number of pharmaceutical firms engaged in the research, development, manufacture and distribution of pediatric vaccines. The number of vaccine manufacturers has dramatically decreased in the past few decades for a myriad of reasons, most notably due to low profitability. The contraction of the industry negatively impacts the reliable provision of pediatric vaccines. The determination of appropriate vaccine prices is an important issue and influences a vaccine manufacturer's decision to remain in the market. Operations research is a discipline that applies advanced analytical methods to improve decision making; analytics is the application of operations research to a particular problem using pertinent data to provide a practical result. Analytics provides a mechanism to resolve the challenges facing stakeholders in the vaccine development and delivery system, in particular, the selection
Elisabeth A Innes
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.
Morain, Stephanie R; Concannon, Thomas W; Wittenberg, Eve
Substantially engaging stakeholders in research involves making extensive changes to the full life cycle of research, from the initial stage of selecting research priorities to the final stages of dissemination and implementation. Recent scholarship has explored logistical and methodological challenges, including the time, training and resources required for engagement. However, inadequate attention has been given to the intended ends or goals of engagement - what do we want engagement to achieve? An examination of historical case studies can yield important insights regarding engagement and its intended ends. Using historical perspective methods, we explore how clarity about the ends of engagement can inform the design of engagement efforts and lead to better outcomes. We present several lessons for improving stakeholder-engaged research.
Diamond, Judy; McQuillan, Julia; Spiegel, Amy N; Hill, Patricia Wonch; Smith, Rebecca; West, John; Wood, Charles
Current research in virology is changing public conceptions about vaccines and infectious disease. The University of Nebraska State Museum collaborated with research virologists, science writers, artists and learning researchers to create public outreach materials about viruses and infectious disease. The project, funded by the National Institute of Health's SEPA program, developed comics, a book with Carl Zimmer, and other materials and programs. The project launched three kinds of learning research: 1) a survey of Nebraska adults on their opinions about vaccines and infectious disease; 2) a study comparing the mental models of viruses, vaccines and infection from virologists, teachers, and students; and 3) a controlled study 873 high school students randomly assigned to read either a comic or a text-based essay with the same virus information.
... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...
Chettri, Jiwan Kumar
vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....
Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...
Background Vaccine protection investigation includes three processes: vaccination, pathogen challenge, and vaccine protection efficacy assessment. Many variables can affect the results of vaccine protection. Brucella, a genus of facultative intracellular bacteria, is the etiologic agent of brucellosis in humans and multiple animal species. Extensive research has been conducted in developing effective live attenuated Brucella vaccines. We hypothesized that some variables play a more important role than others in determining vaccine protective efficacy. Using Brucella vaccines and vaccine candidates as study models, this hypothesis was tested by meta-analysis of Brucella vaccine studies reported in the literature. Results Nineteen variables related to vaccine-induced protection of mice against infection with virulent brucellae were selected based on modeling investigation of the vaccine protection processes. The variable "vaccine protection efficacy" was set as a dependent variable while the other eighteen were set as independent variables. Discrete or continuous values were collected from papers for each variable of each data set. In total, 401 experimental groups were manually annotated from 74 peer-reviewed publications containing mouse protection data for live attenuated Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates. Our ANOVA analysis indicated that nine variables contributed significantly (P-value Brucella vaccine protection efficacy: vaccine strain, vaccination host (mouse) strain, vaccination dose, vaccination route, challenge pathogen strain, challenge route, challenge-killing interval, colony forming units (CFUs) in mouse spleen, and CFU reduction compared to control group. The other 10 variables (e.g., mouse age, vaccination-challenge interval, and challenge dose) were not found to be statistically significant (P-value > 0.05). The protection level of RB51 was sacrificed when the values of several variables (e.g., vaccination route, vaccine viability, and
To avoid the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and polio outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) was introduced for routine immunization in a number of countries with a low risk of polio outbreaks. Currently, production and marketing of a standalone conventional IPV and two diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-IPV (Sabin-derived IPV; sIPV) products have been submitted, and it is expected that the IPV products will be introduced in Japan in the autumn of 2012. At the same time, a decline in the OPV immunization rate became apparent in Japan due to serious public concerns about a remaining risk of VAPP and introduction of IPV in the near future. Therefore, the recent development of polio immunity gaps should be carefully monitored, and surveillance of suspected polio cases and laboratory diagnosis of polioviruses have to be intensified for the transition period from OPV to IPV in Japan. The development of sIPV is one of the most realistic options to introduce affordable IPV to developing countries. In this regard, further clinical studies on its efficacy, safety, and interchangeability of sIPV will be needed after the introduction of the sIPV products, which will be licensed in Japan for the first time in the world.
... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)
Lehner, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Clerici, Mario; Gotch, Frances; Pedneault, Louise; Tartaglia, Jim; Gray, Clive; Mestecky, Jiri; Sattentau, Quentin; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Toure, Coumba; Osmanov, Saladin; Schmidt, Reinold E.; Debre, Patrice; Romaris, Manuel; Hoeveler, Arnd; Di Fabio, Simonetta
The European Commission (EC) has strong commitments and recognises the need to continue to ensure that HIV/AIDS research efforts receive global attention. The EC is facing this challenge in a global context and has made substantial investments together with European Developing Countries Clinical
Mosca, Paul J; Lyerly, H Kim; Clay, Timothy M; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim
Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells that have been shown to stimulate tumor antigen-specific T cell responses in preclinical studies. Consequently, there has been intense interest in developing dendritic cell based cancer vaccines. A variety of methods for generating dendritic cells, loading them with tumor antigens, and administering them to patients have been described. In recent years, a number of early phase clinical trials have been performed and have demonstrated the safety and feasibility of dendritic cell immunotherapies. A number of these trials have generated valuable preliminary data regarding the clinical and immunologic response to DC-based immunotherapy. The emphasis of dendritic cell immunotherapy research is increasingly shifting toward the development of strategies to increase the potency of dendritic cell vaccine preparations.
Despite intensive research since the viral pathogen was discovered some 25 years ago, not much progress has been reported on the development of a safe vaccine that protects against human immunodeficiency virus type 1. A vaccine approach that has been abandoned because its safety cannot be guaranteed
Pasetti, Marcela F.; Simon, Jakub K.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Levine, Myron M.
Summary Understanding the mechanisms underlying the induction of immunity in the gastrointestinal mucosa following oral immunization and the cross-talk between mucosal and systemic immunity should expedite the development of vaccines to diminish the global burden caused by enteric pathogens. Identifying an immunological correlate of protection in the course of field trials of efficacy, animal models (when available), or human challenge studies is also invaluable. In industrialized country populations, live attenuated vaccines (e.g. polio, typhoid, and rotavirus) mimic natural infection and generate robust protective immune responses. In contrast, a major challenge is to understand and overcome the barriers responsible for the diminished immunogenicity and efficacy of the same enteric vaccines in underprivileged populations in developing countries. Success in developing vaccines against some enteric pathogens has heretofore been elusive (e.g. Shigella). Different types of oral vaccines can selectively or inclusively elicit mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A and serum immunoglobulin G antibodies and a variety of cell-mediated immune responses. Areas of research that require acceleration include interaction between the gut innate immune system and the stimulation of adaptive immunity, development of safe yet effective mucosal adjuvants, better understanding of homing to the mucosa of immunologically relevant cells, and elicitation of mucosal immunologic memory. This review dissects the immune responses elicited in humans by enteric vaccines. PMID:21198669
Brazil recently announced an agreement between its Bio-Manguinhos vaccine unit and two US companies to research and develop a new yellow fever vaccine. Claudia Jurberg and Julia D’Aloisio talk to Jaime Benchimol about the controversial history of the development of the vaccine that benefits millions of people today.
Grossman, Zachi; van Esso, Diego; Del Torso, Stefano; Hadjipanayis, Adamos; Drabik, Anna; Gerber, Andreas; Miron, Dan
An electronic survey assessing primary care pediatricians' estimations and practices regarding parents' vaccination refusal was sent to 395 members of the European Academy of Pediatrics Research in Ambulatory Setting network, with a response rate of 87%. Of respondents who vaccinate in the clinic, 93% estimated the total vaccine refusal rate as refusing parents.
Avila-Calderón, Eric Daniel; Lopez-Merino, Ahidé; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M; Contreras-Rodríguez, Araceli
Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis affecting animal and human health. In the last several decades, much research has been performed to develop safer Brucella vaccines to control the disease mainly in animals. Till now, no effective human vaccine is available. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the importance of methodologies used to develop Brucella vaccines in pursuing this challenge.
Giuseppe La Torre
Full Text Available Vaccination strategies are recognised as one of the most powerful interventions in the field of Public health worldwide, capable of reducing both morbidity and mortality. There is wide availability of new vaccines, at least in Developed Countries, that have the potential to control infectious diseases, while on the other hand there are new vaccines that will become available in the next few years. This paper aims to describe the different perspectives one could take into account in valuing particularly new vaccines. The epidemiological approach has been one of underlying principles in setting priorities for immunization programs. The introduction in the health market of a new vaccine is based on the assessment of the related burden of infection/disease and the consequent impact on population health. In the economic evaluation approach several types of analysis are available. The budget impact analysis is concerned more with the immediate impact; in this sense cost is considered instead of value as well as giving higher consideration to short-term effects, while cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analysis can be utilised to examine effects in the long term. In the field of vaccinations a public approach through the use of media campaigns or non-profit organisations, might or might not push politicians and physicians to take action to address a perceived health problem via a vaccine. A Health Technology Assessment approach has been developed in some European countries to examine, in a multidisciplinary way, the clinical, economic, organizational, ethical, juridical, social and cultural implications of the introduction or the implementation of a specific technology. The HTA approach in Italy was demonstrated to be a comprehensive tool in assessing the introduction of a new vaccine, giving insight to the issue to several stakeholders, i.e. decision makers, researchers, and patients.
S.M. Kharit; T.V. Chernyaeva; E.P. Nacharova; O.V. Goleva
The researchers observed 45 children inoculated with the Russian divalent vaccine (measles–parotiditis). 25 children received mineral and vitamin complex «jungle» for a month since the date of vaccination. The application of «jungle» medication was efficient and conduced to prophylaxis of the complication of the vaccination, prevention of the inter current diseases among the vaccinated, as well as positively affected the intensity of the special antibody formation because of activation of cel...
Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.
Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor
Nov 30, 2017 ... Data were summarized using proportions and presented using tables, charts and figures. Results: .... availability of anti-rabies vaccines at the health facilities, source of vaccines .... person was involved in carrying and preparing of meat of a dog that ..... Rabies Encephalitis in Malaria-Endemic Area,. Malawi ...
Fisher, William A; Kohut, Taylor; Salisbury, Claire M A; Salvadori, Marina I
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an exceedingly prevalent sexually transmitted infection with serious medical, sexual, and relationship consequences. HPV vaccine protection is available but vaccine uptake is very inconsistent. This research applies two major theories of health behavior uptake, the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior, in an effort to understand intentions to receive HPV vaccine among vaccine target age women and men. The Theory of Reasoned Action asserts that attitudes toward HPV vaccination and perceptions of social support for HPV vaccination are the determinants of intentions to be vaccinated, whereas the Theory of Planned Behavior holds that attitudes toward vaccination, perceptions of social support for vaccination, and perceived ability to get vaccinated are the determinants of intentions to be vaccinated. Canadian university men (N=118) and women (N=146) in the HPV vaccine target age range took part in this correlational study online. Participants completed standard measures of attitudes toward HPV vaccination, perceptions of social support for vaccination, perceived ability to get vaccinated, beliefs about vaccination, and intentions to be vaccinated in the coming semester. Findings confirmed the propositions of the Theory of Reasoned Action and indicated that attitudes toward undergoing HPV vaccination and perceptions of social support for undergoing HPV vaccination contributed uniquely to the prediction of women's (R2=0.53) and men's (R2=0.44) intentions to be vaccinated in the coming semester. Clinical and public health education should focus on strengthening attitudes and perceptions of social support for HPV vaccination, and on the basic beliefs that appear to underlie attitudes and perceptions of social support for HPV vaccination, in efforts to promote HPV vaccine uptake. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
... high or when infection would pose a high risk to the mother or baby, vaccination with a live vaccine is discussed. If there ... and benefits. For some diseases the benefit of vaccination outweighs any risks that may be associated with the vaccine. What ...
Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.
Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.
Lyke, Kirsten E
Great progress has been made in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality, yet the parasite continues to cause a startling 200 million infections and 500 000 deaths annually. Malaria vaccine development is pushing new boundaries by steady advancement toward a licensed product. Despite 50 years of research, the complexity of Plasmoidum falciparum confounds all attempts to eradicate the organism. This very complexity has pushed the boundaries of vaccine development to new heights, yet it remains to be seen if an affordable vaccine can provide durable and high-level protection. Novel vaccines such as RTS,S/AS01E are on the edge of licensure, but old techniques have resurged with the ability to deliver vialed, whole organism vaccines. Novel adjuvants, multistage/multiantigen approaches and transmission blocking vaccines all contribute to a multipronged battle plan to conquer malaria. Vaccines are the most cost-effective tools to control infectious diseases, yet the complexity of malaria has frustrated all attempts to develop an effective product. This review concentrates on recent advances in malaria vaccine development that lend hope that a vaccine can be produced and malaria eradicated.
Underwood, Natasha L; Weiss, Paul; Gargano, Lisa M; Seib, Katherine; Rask, Kimberly J; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M; Sales, Jessica M
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage for adolescent females and males remains low in the United States. We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in middle and high schools in eastern Georgia from 2011-2013 to determine the effect of 2 educational interventions used to increase adolescent vaccination coverage for the 4 recommended adolescent vaccines: Tdap, MCV4, HPV and influenza. As part of this RCT, this article focuses on: 1) describing initiation and completion of HPV vaccine series among a diverse population of male and female adolescents; 2) assessing parental attitudes toward HPV vaccine; and 3) examining correlates of HPV vaccine series initiation and completion. Parental attitude score was the strongest predictor of HPV vaccine initiation among adolescents (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.39). Other correlates that significantly predicted HPV series initiation were gender, study year, and intervention arm. Parental attitudes remained a significant predictor of receipt of 3 doses of HPV vaccine along with gender, race, school type and insurance type. This study demonstrates that positive parental attitudes are important predictors of HPV vaccination and critical to increasing coverage rates. Our findings suggest that more research is needed to understand how parental attitudes are developed and evolve over time.
Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio
In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000
Yee, Pinn Tsin Isabel; Poh, Chit Laa
The hand, foot and mouth disease is caused by a group of Enteroviruses such as Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackievirus CV-A5, CV-A8, and CV-A16. Mild symptoms of EV-A71 infection in children range from high fever, vomiting, rashes and ulcers in mouth but can produce more severe symptoms such as brainstem and cerebellar encephalitis, leading up to cardiopulmonary failure and death. The lack of vaccines and antiviral drugs against EV-A71 highlights the urgency of developing preventive and treatment agents against EV-A71 to prevent further fatalities. Research groups have developed experimental inactivated vaccines, recombinant Viral Protein 1 (VP1) vaccine and virus-like particles (VLPs). The inactivated EV-A71 vaccine is considered the safest viral vaccine, as there will be no reversion to the infectious wild type strain. The recombinant VP1 vaccine is a cost-effective immunogen, while VLPs contain an arrangement of epitopes that can elicit neutralizing antibodies against the virus. As each type of vaccine has its advantages and disadvantages, increased studies are required in the development of such vaccines, whereby high efficacy, long-lasting immunity, minimal risk to those vaccinated, safe and easy production, low cost, dispensing the need for refrigeration and convenient delivery are the major goals in their design. PMID:26729152
Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.
Ettarh Remare R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent trends in global vaccination coverage have shown increases with most countries reaching 90% DTP3 coverage in 2008, although pockets of undervaccination continue to persist in parts of sub-Saharan Africa particularly in the urban slums. The objectives of this study were to determine the vaccination status of children aged between 12-23 months living in two slums of Nairobi and to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Methods The study was carried out as part of a longitudinal Maternal and Child Health study undertaken in Korogocho and Viwandani slums of Nairobi. These slums host the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS run by the African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC. All women from the NUHDSS area who gave birth since September 2006 were enrolled in the project and administered a questionnaire which asked about the vaccination history of their children. For the purpose of this study, we used data from 1848 children aged 12-23 months who were expected to have received all the WHO-recommended vaccinations. The vaccination details were collected during the first visit about four months after birth with follow-up visits repeated thereafter at four month intervals. Full vaccination was defined as receiving all the basic childhood vaccinations by the end of 24 months of life, whereas up-to-date (UTD vaccination referred to receipt of BCG, OPV 1-3, DTP 1-3, and measles vaccinations within the first 12 months of life. All vaccination data were obtained from vaccination cards which were sighted during the household visit as well as by recall from mothers. Multivariate models were used to identify the risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination. Results Measles coverage was substantially lower than that for the other vaccines when determined using only vaccination cards or in addition to maternal recall. Up-to-date (UTD coverage with all vaccinations
Mike L.T. Berendsen
Conclusions: We found a general time-dependent pattern of non-specific effects of vaccination, with positive associations for vaccinations given early in life and negative associations for vaccinations given later in infancy. If confirmed in further research, our findings may provide a new perspective on the non-specific effects of vaccination.
Vaccine development, supported by infusions of public and private venture capital, is re-entering a golden age as one of the fastest growing sectors in the life-sciences industry. Demand is driven by great unmet need in underdeveloped countries, increased resistance to current treatments, bioterrorism, and for prevention indications in travelers, pediatric, and adult diseases. Production systems are becoming less reliant on processes such as egg-based manufacturing, while new processes can help to optimize vaccines. Expeditious development hinges on efficient study conduct, which is greatly enhanced through research partnerships with specialized contract research organizations (CROs) that are licensed and knowledgeable in the intricacies of immunology and with the technologic and scientific foundation to support changing timelines and strategies inherent to vaccine development. The CRO often brings a more objective assessment for probability of success and may offer alternative development pathways. Vaccine developers are afforded more flexibility and are free to focus on innovation and internal core competencies. Functions readily outsourced to a competent partner include animal model development, safety and efficacy studies, immunotoxicity and immunogenicity, dose response studies, and stability and potency testing. These functions capitalize on the CRO partner's regulatory and scientific talent and expertise, and reduce infrastructure expenses for the vaccine developer. Successful partnerships result in development efficiencies, elimination or reduced redundancies, and improved time to market. Keys to success include honest communications, transparency, and flexibility.
Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria
The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...
Casciotti, Dana M.; Smith, Katherine C.; Tsui, Amy
Given the sexually transmitted nature of human papillomavirus (HPV), some worry the HPV vaccine will create a false sense of security and promote adolescent sexual activity. Media coverage of vaccines can influence social norms, parental attitudes, and vaccine acceptance; in this paper we examine U.S. news media messages related to sexuality and HPV vaccination. Drawing on a structured analysis of 447 articles published during 2005-2009, we qualitatively analyzed a purposive sample of 49 articles discussing adolescent health behaviors related to HPV vaccination. Commonly, articles discussed vaccination in the context of abstinence-only versus comprehensive sexual health education; cited research findings to support vaccination or sex education; argued against connecting vaccination to promiscuous behavior; but included fear-inducing messages. Media messages concerning health behaviors related to HPV vaccination tended to support government and parental involvement in sex education, and dismiss concerns linking vaccination to sexual activity, while also presenting the vaccine as lifesaving. PMID:24439619
Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley
Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. Copyright © 2015. Published by
Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum/ chagasi represents the second most challenging infectious disease worldwide, affecting nearly 500,000 people and 60,000 deaths annually. Zoonotic VL (ZVL caused by L. infantum is re-emergent canid zoonoses which represents a complex epidemiological cycle in New world where domestic dogs serve as reservoir host responsible for potentially fatal human infection where dog culling is the only control measure for eliminating reservoir host. Lifelong immunity in human against reinfection has motivated several attempts in developing prophylactic vaccines against the disease but very few have progressed beyond experimental stage. Absence of any licensed vaccine along with high toxicity and increasing resistance to the current chemotherapeutic drugs has further complicated the situation in endemic regions of the world. Advances in vaccinology, including recombinant proteins, novel antigen-delivery systems/adjuvants, heterologous prime-boost regimens and strategies for intracellular antigen presentation, have contributed to recent advances in vaccine development against VL. Attempts to develop an effective vaccine for use in domestic dogs in areas of canine VL should be pursued for preventing human infection. Studies in animal models and human patients have revealed the pathogenic mechanisms of disease progression and features of protective immunity. This review will summarize the accumulated knowledge about pathogenesis, immune response and prerequisites for protective immunity against human VL. Authors will discuss promising vaccine targets, their developmental status and future prospects in a quest for rational vaccine development against VL. In addition, several challenges such as safety issues, a renewed and coordinated commitment to basic research, preclinical studies and trial design will be addressed to overcome the problems faced in developing effective vaccines
Milstien, Julie; Schmitt, Sarah
Abstract Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa – the countries known as BRICS – have made considerable progress in vaccine production, regulation and development over the past 20 years. In 1993, all five countries were producing vaccines but the processes used were outdated and non-standardized, there was little relevant research and there was negligible international recognition of the products. By 2014, all five countries had strong initiatives for the development of vaccine technology and had greatly improved their national regulatory capacity. South Africa was then the only BRICS country that was not completely producing vaccines. South Africa is now in the process of re-establishing its own vaccine production and passing beyond the stage of simply importing, formulating and filling vaccine bulks. Changes in the public sector’s price per dose of selected vaccines, the global market share represented by products from specific manufacturers, and the attractiveness, for multinational companies, of partnership and investment opportunities in BRICS companies have all been analysed. The results indicate that the BRICS countries have had a major impact on vaccine price and availability, with much of that impact attributable to the output of Indian vaccine manufacturers. China is expected to have a greater impact soon, given the anticipated development of Chinese vaccine manufacturers in the near future. BRICS’ accomplishments in the field of vaccine development are expected to reshape the global vaccine market and accelerate access to vaccines in the developing world. The challenge is to turn these expectations into strategic actions and practical outcomes. PMID:24940018
Medaglini, Donata; De Azero, Magdalena R; Leroy, Odile; Bietrix, Florence; Denoel, Philippe
A clear vision for vaccines research and development (R&D) is needed if Europe is to continue to lead the discovery of next generation vaccines. Innovation Partnership for a Roadmap on Vaccines in Europe (IPROVE) is a collaboration between leading vaccine experts to develop a roadmap setting out how Europe can best invest in the science and technology essential for vaccines innovation. This FP7 project, started in December 2013, brought together more than 130 key public and private stakeholders from academia, public health institutes, regulators, industry and small and medium-sized enterprises to determine and prioritise the gaps and challenges to be addressed to bolster innovation in vaccines and vaccination in Europe. The IPROVE consultation process was structured around seven themes: vaccine R&D, manufacturing and quality control, infrastructure, therapeutic vaccines, needs of small and medium-sized enterprises, vaccines acceptance and training needs. More than 80 recommendations were made by the consultation groups, mainly focused on the need for a multidisciplinary research approach to stimulate innovation, accelerated translation of scientific knowledge into technological innovation, and fostering of real collaboration within the European vaccine ecosystem. The consultation also reinforced the fact that vaccines are only as good as their vaccine implementation programmes, and that more must be done to understand and address vaccination hesitancy of both the general public and healthcare professionals. Bringing together a wide range of stakeholders to work on the IPROVE roadmap has increased mutual understanding of their different perspectives, needs and priorities. IPROVE is a first attempt to develop such a comprehensive view of the vaccine sector. This prioritisation effort, aims to help policy-makers and funders identify those vaccine-related areas and technologies where key investment is needed for short and medium-long term success. Copyright © 2017 The
Wichmann, Ole; Vannice, Kirsten; Asturias, Edwin J; de Albuquerque Luna, Expedito José; Longini, Ira; Lopez, Anna Lena; Smith, Peter G; Tissera, Hasitha; Yoon, In-Kyu; Hombach, Joachim
Since December 2015, the first dengue vaccine has been licensed in several Asian and Latin American countries for protection against disease from all four dengue virus serotypes. While the vaccine demonstrated an overall good safety and efficacy profile in clinical trials, some key research questions remain which make risk-benefit-assessment for some populations difficult. As for any new vaccine, several questions, such as very rare adverse events following immunization, duration of vaccine-induced protection and effectiveness when used in public health programs, will be addressed by post-licensure studies and by data from national surveillance systems after the vaccine has been introduced. However, the complexity of dengue epidemiology, pathogenesis and population immunity, as well as some characteristics of the currently licensed vaccine, and potentially also future, live-attenuated dengue vaccines, poses a challenge for evaluation through existing monitoring systems, especially in low and middle-income countries. Most notable are the different efficacies of the currently licensed vaccine by dengue serostatus at time of first vaccination and by dengue virus serotype, as well as the increased risk of dengue hospitalization among young vaccinated children observed three years after the start of vaccination in one of the trials. Currently, it is unknown if the last phenomenon is restricted to younger ages or could affect also seronegative individuals aged 9years and older, who are included in the group for whom the vaccine has been licensed. In this paper, we summarize scientific and methodological considerations for public health surveillance and targeted post-licensure studies to address some key research questions related to live-attenuated dengue vaccines. Countries intending to introduce a dengue vaccine should assess their capacities to monitor and evaluate the vaccine's effectiveness and safety and, where appropriate and possible, enhance their surveillance
Buschard, K.; Funda, David P.
Roč. 360, - (2002), s. 488-489 ISSN 0140-6736 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : vaccination * diabetes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 15.397, year: 2002
Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri
This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sep 29, 2017 ... Conclusion: Knowledge gaps existed regarding cord care, eye care, and immunization. Mothers .... umbilical cord should be left clean and dry without applying any .... Disease prevented by vaccine given orally at birth (OPV).
Mar 16, 2016 ... Introduction: Symptom-free human immunodeficiency virus antibody-negative Zambian adults (51 ..... cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus, which could have affected the .... responses to HIV infection and vaccination.
Nov 17, 2015 ... implications on the ministry of health, the SRH programs and health service ... HPV vaccination as a key component of cervical cancer control and prevention. ... any government agency ever reviewed, evaluated or proposed.
infection practices. ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major health concerns .... constituted 95.7% of all those that started the vaccination exercise. .... Natural history and disease progression in Chinese chronic.
Sep 13, 2017 ... Use of cellular phone contacts to increase return rates for immunization services in ... Key words: Vaccination, immunization schedule, cell phones, defaulter tracking, ..... Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), ICF Macro.
Sep 30, 2015 ... key informant interviews with community leaders and traditional healers were conducted. Results: ... children to participate in vaccine trials is critical. Very few .... A few FGDs and KIs also referred to an incident where children ...
panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/27/186/full/ ... caregivers are less likely to complete immunization schedules if they ... and scientifically valid information about vaccines can help parents .... infertility later in adult life.
Lynch, Rebecca M; Yamamoto, Takuya; McDermott, Adrian B
Here we highlight the latest advances in HIV vaccine concepts that will expand our knowledge on how to elicit effective acquisition-prevention and/or control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in the nonhuman primate (NHP) model. In the context of the promising analyses from the RV144 Thai Trial and the effective control of SIV replication exerted by rhCMV-(SIV) elicited EM CD8 T cells, the HIV field has recently shifted toward vaccine concepts that combine protection from acquisition with effective control of SIV replication. Current studies in the NHP model have demonstrated the efficacy of HIV-neutralizing antibodies via passive transfer, the potential importance of the CD4 Tfh subset, the ability to effectively model the RV144 vaccine trial and the capacity of an Ad26 prime and modified vaccinia Ankara virus boost to elicit Env-specific antibody and cellular responses that both limit acquisition and control heterologous SIVmac251 challenge. The latest work in the NHP model suggests that the next generation HIV-1 vaccines should aim to provoke a comprehensive adaptive immune response for both prevention of SIV acquisition as well as control of replication in breakthrough infection.
... Hepatitis A vaccine supply in the US. Updated Mar 2018 Note 2 : Pediatric hepatitis B vaccine: Merck ... Submitted, Licensed, and Recommended Vaccines & Biologics Red Book® Online Influenza Vaccination Recommendations Childhood & Adolescent Immunization Schedules Adult ...
... Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs Tips for Finding Vaccine Records Trusted Sources of ... efficacy, and use of vaccines within the broad immunization community of patients, parents, healthcare organizations, and government health agencies.
Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J
This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Whitaker, Jennifer A; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Poland, Gregory A
Despite the enormous population benefits of routine vaccination, vaccine adverse events (AEs) and reactions, whether real or perceived, have posed one of the greatest barriers to vaccine acceptance--and thus to infectious disease prevention--worldwide. A truly integrated clinical, translational, and basic science approach is required to understand the mechanisms behind vaccine AEs, predict them, and then apply this knowledge to new vaccine design approaches that decrease, or avoid, these events. The term 'adversomics' was first introduced in 2009 and refers to the study of vaccine adverse reactions using immunogenomics and systems biology approaches. In this review, we present the current state of adversomics research, review known associations and mechanisms of vaccine AEs/reactions, and outline a plan for the further development of this emerging research field.
Gray, Glenda E.; Laher, Fatima; Lazarus, Erica; Ensoli, Barbara; Corey, Lawrence
Novel strategies are being researched to discover vaccines to prevent and treat HIV-1. Nonefficacious preventative vaccine approaches include bivalent recombinant gp120 alone, HIV gene insertion into an Adenovirus 5 (Ad5) virus vector and the DNA prime/Ad5 boost vaccine regimen. However, the ALVAC-HIV prime/AIDSVAX® B/E gp120 boost regimen showed 31.2% efficacy at 3.5 years, and is being investigated as clade C constructs with an additional boost. Likewise, although multiple therapeutic vaccines have failed in the past, in a non-placebo controlled trial, a Tat vaccine demonstrated immune cell restoration, reduction of immune activation, and reduced HIV-1 DNA viral load. Monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization or treatment show promise, with VRC01 entering advanced clinical trials. PMID:26985884
Full Text Available Most of the cases of vaccine associated myocarditis have been following small pox vaccination. Reports have also been there after streptococcal pneumonia vaccine and influenza vaccine. In some cases, autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA used in the vaccine have been implicated. Exclusion of other causes is very important in the diagnostic process, especially that of acute coronary syndrome. Management is similar to that of other etiologies of myocarditis. These rare instances of myocarditis should not preclude one from taking necessary immunization for vaccine preventable diseases.
Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E
Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Deng, Shunzhou; Martin, Carly; Patil, Rasika; Zhu, Felix; Zhao, Bin; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun
A recombinant vector vaccine uses an attenuated virus, bacterium, or parasite as the carrier to express a heterologous antigen(s). Many recombinant vaccine vectors and related vaccines have been developed and extensively investigated. To compare and better understand recombinant vectors and vaccines, we have generated Vaxvec (http://www.violinet.org/vaxvec), the first web-based database that stores various recombinant vaccine vectors and those experimentally verified vaccines that use these vectors. Vaxvec has now included 59 vaccine vectors that have been used in 196 recombinant vector vaccines against 66 pathogens and cancers. These vectors are classified to 41 viral vectors, 15 bacterial vectors, 1 parasitic vector, and 1 fungal vector. The most commonly used viral vaccine vectors are double-stranded DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, adenoviruses, and poxviruses. For example, Vaxvec includes 63 poxvirus-based recombinant vaccines for over 20 pathogens and cancers. Vaxvec collects 30 recombinant vector influenza vaccines that use 17 recombinant vectors and were experimentally tested in 7 animal models. In addition, over 60 protective antigens used in recombinant vector vaccines are annotated and analyzed. User-friendly web-interfaces are available for querying various data in Vaxvec. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine vectors, vaccines, and related information is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO). Vaxvec is a timely and vital source of vaccine vector database and facilitates efficient vaccine vector research and development. PMID:26403370
Wang, Zhen; Bauch, Chris T.; Bhattacharyya, Samit; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero; Perc, Matjaž; Perra, Nicola; Salathé, Marcel; Zhao, Dawei
Historically, infectious diseases caused considerable damage to human societies, and they continue to do so today. To help reduce their impact, mathematical models of disease transmission have been studied to help understand disease dynamics and inform prevention strategies. Vaccination-one of the most important preventive measures of modern times-is of great interest both theoretically and empirically. And in contrast to traditional approaches, recent research increasingly explores the pivotal implications of individual behavior and heterogeneous contact patterns in populations. Our report reviews the developmental arc of theoretical epidemiology with emphasis on vaccination, as it led from classical models assuming homogeneously mixing (mean-field) populations and ignoring human behavior, to recent models that account for behavioral feedback and/or population spatial/social structure. Many of the methods used originated in statistical physics, such as lattice and network models, and their associated analytical frameworks. Similarly, the feedback loop between vaccinating behavior and disease propagation forms a coupled nonlinear system with analogs in physics. We also review the new paradigm of digital epidemiology, wherein sources of digital data such as online social media are mined for high-resolution information on epidemiologically relevant individual behavior. Armed with the tools and concepts of statistical physics, and further assisted by new sources of digital data, models that capture nonlinear interactions between behavior and disease dynamics offer a novel way of modeling real-world phenomena, and can help improve health outcomes. We conclude the review by discussing open problems in the field and promising directions for future research.
Full Text Available The researchers observed 45 children inoculated with the Russian divalent vaccine (measles–parotiditis. 25 children received mineral and vitamin complex «jungle» for a month since the date of vaccination. The application of «jungle» medication was efficient and conduced to prophylaxis of the complication of the vaccination, prevention of the inter current diseases among the vaccinated, as well as positively affected the intensity of the special antibody formation because of activation of cellular and antiviral mechanisms.Key words: vaccination, measles, parotiditis, prevention, mineral and vitamin complex, children.
Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles M?rieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global hea...
He, Yongqun; Racz, Rebecca; Sayers, Samantha; Lin, Yu; Todd, Thomas; Hur, Junguk; Li, Xinna; Patel, Mukti; Zhao, Boyang; Chung, Monica; Ostrow, Joseph; Sylora, Andrew; Dungarani, Priya; Ulysse, Guerlain; Kochhar, Kanika; Vidri, Boris; Strait, Kelsey; Jourdian, George W; Xiang, Zuoshuang
The integrative Vaccine Investigation and Online Information Network (VIOLIN) vaccine research database and analysis system (http://www.violinet.org) curates, stores, analyses and integrates various vaccine-associated research data. Since its first publication in NAR in 2008, significant updates have been made. Starting from 211 vaccines annotated at the end of 2007, VIOLIN now includes over 3240 vaccines for 192 infectious diseases and eight noninfectious diseases (e.g. cancers and allergies). Under the umbrella of VIOLIN, >10 relatively independent programs are developed. For example, Protegen stores over 800 protective antigens experimentally proven valid for vaccine development. VirmugenDB annotated over 200 'virmugens', a term coined by us to represent those virulence factor genes that can be mutated to generate successful live attenuated vaccines. Specific patterns were identified from the genes collected in Protegen and VirmugenDB. VIOLIN also includes Vaxign, the first web-based vaccine candidate prediction program based on reverse vaccinology. VIOLIN collects and analyzes different vaccine components including vaccine adjuvants (Vaxjo) and DNA vaccine plasmids (DNAVaxDB). VIOLIN includes licensed human vaccines (Huvax) and veterinary vaccines (Vevax). The Vaccine Ontology is applied to standardize and integrate various data in VIOLIN. VIOLIN also hosts the Ontology of Vaccine Adverse Events (OVAE) that logically represents adverse events associated with licensed human vaccines.
The creation of two different vaccines to eradicate polio stands out as one of modern science most important accomplishments. The current article examines Swedish polio vaccine research, the vaccination campaign and especially how the Cutter incident came to affect Swedish Science, scientists and society in the 1950s. Sweden is one of the few countries that came to produce its own inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in the 1950s, a type of vaccine they never abandoned. This article highlights the...
Tao, Cui; He, Yongqun; Arabandi, Sivaram
The "Vaccine and Drug Ontology Studies" (VDOS) international workshop series focuses on vaccine- and drug-related ontology modeling and applications. Drugs and vaccines have been critical to prevent and treat human and animal diseases. Work in both (drugs and vaccines) areas is closely related - from preclinical research and development to manufacturing, clinical trials, government approval and regulation, and post-licensure usage surveillance and monitoring. Over the last decade, tremendous efforts have been made in the biomedical ontology community to ontologically represent various areas associated with vaccines and drugs - extending existing clinical terminology systems such as SNOMED, RxNorm, NDF-RT, and MedDRA, developing new models such as the Vaccine Ontology (VO) and Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), vernacular medical terminologies such as the Consumer Health Vocabulary (CHV). The VDOS workshop series provides a platform for discussing innovative solutions as well as the challenges in the development and applications of biomedical ontologies for representing and analyzing drugs and vaccines, their administration, host immune responses, adverse events, and other related topics. The five full-length papers included in this 2014 thematic issue focus on two main themes: (i) General vaccine/drug-related ontology development and exploration, and (ii) Interaction and network-related ontology studies.
Kang, Hee Sun; Shin, Hyunsook; Hyun, Myung-Sun; Kim, Mi Ja
This paper is a report of a descriptive study of young Korean women's perceptions of use of the human papilloma virus vaccine. In Korea, cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers in women, and the rate of human papilloma virus infection is increasing. A national media campaign has recently begun to promote human papilloma virus vaccination. However, research addressing the acceptability of this vaccine to women in Korea has been limited. Twenty-five Korean women, 21-30 years of age, participated in seven focus groups. The data were collected in 2007. Participants were concerned about the potential harmful effects of the human papilloma virus vaccine, a possible increase in unsafe sexual behaviours, and the high cost of the vaccine, which is not covered by health insurance. They suggested group vaccination at-cost or free of charge. They discussed ambivalence about the vaccination, the need for more information about the vaccine, and questions about its effectiveness. Most preferred to wait until more people have been vaccinated. There is a need for more aggressive dissemination of information about the safety and efficacy of the human papilloma virus vaccine. More reasonable cost, insurance coverage, or free vaccination using a group approach might increase young Korean women's acceptance and use of the human papilloma virus vaccine.
Ledgerwood, Julie E; DeZure, Adam D; Stanley, Daphne A; Coates, Emily E; Novik, Laura; Enama, Mary E; Berkowitz, Nina M; Hu, Zonghui; Joshi, Gyan; Ploquin, Aurélie; Sitar, Sandra; Gordon, Ingelise J; Plummer, Sarah A; Holman, LaSonji A; Hendel, Cynthia S; Yamshchikov, Galina; Roman, Francois; Nicosia, Alfredo; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Bailer, Robert T; Schwartz, Richard M; Roederer, Mario; Mascola, John R; Koup, Richard A; Sullivan, Nancy J; Graham, Barney S
the 2×10 11 particle-unit dose, glycoprotein Zaire-specific antibody responses were in the range reported to be associated with vaccine-induced protective immunity in challenge studies involving nonhuman primates, and responses were sustained to week 48. Phase 2 studies and efficacy trials assessing cAd3-EBO are in progress. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health; VRC 207 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02231866 .).
Blome, S.; Aebischer, A.; Lange, E.; Hofmann, M.; Leifer, I.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Koenen, F.; Beer, M.
Due to the tremendous socio-economic impact of classical swine fever (CSF) outbreaks, emergency vaccination scenarios are continuously under discussion. Unfortunately, all currently available vaccines show restrictions either in terms of marker capacities or immunogenicity. Recent research efforts
Mumpsvax® Mumps Vaccine ... Biavax® II (as a combination product containing Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)
Full Text Available The seasonal influenza vaccination uptake of the elderly in Poland is one of the lowest in Europe. Objective: to assess the vaccination coverage and influencing determinants in patients ≥65 years of age. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted (November 2015–April 2016 among consecutive patients admitted to a municipal hospital located in the city of Szczecin, North-west Poland. Patients completed researcher-administered, anonymous questionnaires on socio- demographic data/factors related to the vaccination. Results: The response rate: 92.0%. Among 230 patients (79.6% women, median of age 69 years, range 65–89 who agreed to participate, 34.8% (95% Confidence Interval: 28.6–41.0% were vaccinated. About 15.7% of respondents had not previously heard about the vaccination; 41.3% of those who stated they were vaccinated or planned on being vaccinated the following year, compared to 19.3% of respondents who stated they were not currently vaccinated (p < 0.001. A multivariable regression analysis revealed that patient factors, such as younger age (Odds Ratio, OR = 7.69, living in the urban area (OR = 7.69, having comorbidities (OR = 2.70, having a vaccinated family member (OR = 3.57, and being informed about vaccination (OR = 5.00 were each associated with greater odds of being immunized. Willingness for vaccination the next year was strongly associated (OR = 8.59 with vaccination status. Conclusions: The influenza vaccination uptake in the elderly population in Poland is disturbingly low. Improved education strategies are needed to increase the uptake. Vaccinated respondents are more likely to plan on being vaccinated the following year. Future interventions related to maximizing vaccination coverage should be more tailored, focusing especially on older patients living in rural areas.
Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Paul, Joydeb; Evensen, Øystein
Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia ( Niloticus oreochromis ) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of vaccination strategies and antigen delivery systems currently used for S. agalactiae vaccines in tilapia. Furthermore, as shown herein, current vaccine designs include the use of replicative antigen delivery systems, such as attenuated virulent strains, heterologous vectors and DNA vaccines, while non-replicative vaccines include the inactivated whole cell (IWC) and subunit vaccines encoding different S. agalactiae immunogenic proteins. Intraperitoneal vaccination is the most widely used immunization strategy, although immersion, spray and oral vaccines have also been tried with variable success. Vaccine efficacy is mostly evaluated by use of the intraperitoneal challenge model aimed at evaluating the relative percent survival (RPS) of vaccinated fish. The major limitation with this approach is that it lacks the ability to elucidate the mechanism of vaccine protection at portals of bacterial entry in mucosal organs and prevention of pathology in target organs. Despite this, indications are that the correlates of vaccine protection can be established based on antibody responses and antigen dose, although these parameters require optimization before they can become an integral part of routine vaccine production. Nevertheless, this review shows that different approaches can be used to produce protective vaccines against S. agalactiae in tilapia although there is a need to optimize the measures of vaccine efficacy.
Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba; Paul, Joydeb; Evensen, Øystein
Streptococcus agalactiae is an emerging infectious disease adversely affecting Nile tilapia (Niloticus oreochromis) production in aquaculture. Research carried out in the last decade has focused on developing protective vaccines using different strategies, although no review has been carried out to evaluate the efficacy of these strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of vaccination strategies and antigen delivery systems currently used for S. agalactiae vaccines in tilapia. Furthermore, as shown herein, current vaccine designs include the use of replicative antigen delivery systems, such as attenuated virulent strains, heterologous vectors and DNA vaccines, while non-replicative vaccines include the inactivated whole cell (IWC) and subunit vaccines encoding different S. agalactiae immunogenic proteins. Intraperitoneal vaccination is the most widely used immunization strategy, although immersion, spray and oral vaccines have also been tried with variable success. Vaccine efficacy is mostly evaluated by use of the intraperitoneal challenge model aimed at evaluating the relative percent survival (RPS) of vaccinated fish. The major limitation with this approach is that it lacks the ability to elucidate the mechanism of vaccine protection at portals of bacterial entry in mucosal organs and prevention of pathology in target organs. Despite this, indications are that the correlates of vaccine protection can be established based on antibody responses and antigen dose, although these parameters require optimization before they can become an integral part of routine vaccine production. Nevertheless, this review shows that different approaches can be used to produce protective vaccines against S. agalactiae in tilapia although there is a need to optimize the measures of vaccine efficacy. PMID:27983591
Corace, Kimberly; Prematunge, Chatura; McCarthy, Anne; Nair, Rama C; Roth, Virginia; Hayes, Thomas; Suh, Kathryn N; Balfour, Louise; Garber, Gary
Health care worker (HCW) vaccination was critical to protecting HCW during the H1N1 pandemic. However, vaccine uptake rates fell below recommended targets. This study examined motivators and barriers influencing HCW pH1N1 vaccination to identify modifiable factors that can improve influenza vaccine uptake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at a large Canadian tertiary care hospital. HCW (N = 3,275) completed measures of demographics, vaccination history, influenza risk factors, and attitudes toward pH1N1 vaccination. Self-reported vaccination was verified with staff vaccination records. Of the total sample, 2,862 (87.4%) HCW received the pH1N1 vaccine. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict HCW vaccination. HCW attitudes toward vaccination significantly predicted vaccination, even after adjusting for demographics, vaccine history, and influenza risk factors. This model correctly predicted 95% (confidence interval [CI]: 0.93-0.96) of HCW vaccination. Key modifiable factors driving HCW vaccination include (1) desire to protect family members and patients, (2) belief that vaccination is important even if one is healthy, (3) confidence in vaccine safety, and (4) supervisor and physician encouragement. This research identified fundamental reasons why HCW get vaccinated and provides direction for future influenza vaccination programs. To enhance vaccine uptake, it is important to target HCW attitudes in influenza vaccine campaigns and create a culture of vaccine promotion in the workplace, including strong messaging from supervisors and physicians. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Jesani, Amar; Johari, Veena
Vaccines and vaccination have emerged as key medical scientific tools for prevention of certain diseases. Documentation of the history of vaccination shows that the initial popular resistance to universal vaccination was based on false assumptions and eventually gave way to acceptance of vaccines and trust in their ability to save lives. The successes of the global eradication of smallpox, and now of polio, have only strengthened the premier position occupied by vaccines in disease prevention. However, the success of vaccines and public trust in their ability to eradicate disease are now under challenge, as increasing numbers of people refuse vaccination, questioning the effectiveness of vaccines and the need to vaccinate.
Full Text Available Development of novel vaccine deliveries and vaccine adjuvants is of great importance to address the dilemma that the vaccine field faces: to improve vaccine efficacy without compromising safety. Harnessing the specific effects of laser on biological systems, a number of novel concepts have been proposed and proved in recent years to facilitate vaccination in a safer and more efficient way. The key advantage of using laser technology in vaccine delivery and adjuvantation is that all processes are initiated by physical effects with no foreign chemicals administered into the body. Here, we review the recent advances in using laser technology to facilitate vaccine delivery and augment vaccine efficacy as well as the underlying mechanisms.
The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.
Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.
... term seizures, coma, lowered consciousness, and permanent brain damage have been reported following DTaP vaccination. These reports are extremely rare. Pneumococcal Vaccine Mild Problems: drowsiness or temporary loss of appetite ( ...
... term seizures, coma, lowered consciousness, and permanent brain damage have been reported following DTaP vaccination. These reports are extremely rare. Pneumococcal Vaccine Mild Problems: Drowsiness or temporary loss of appetite ( ...
Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R
Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.
vaccines for malaria and HIV infection. Despite the ... decades, effective vaccines against the major causes of ... challenge antibodies, specific helper and effector T lymphocytes ... materials to produced immunity to a disease. It was originally ...
... Educators Search English Español Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Child's Immunizations: ... cochlear implants. Why Are the PCV and PPSV Vaccines Recommended? Children younger than 2 years old, adults ...
Attwell, Katie; Leask, Julie; Meyer, Samantha B; Rokkas, Philippa; Ward, Paul
In attempting to provide protection to individuals and communities, childhood immunization has benefits that far outweigh disease risks. However, some parents decide not to immunize their children with some or all vaccines for reasons including lack of trust in governments, health professionals, and vaccine manufacturers. This article employs a theoretical analysis of trust and distrust to explore how twenty-seven parents with a history of vaccine rejection in two Australian cities view the expert systems central to vaccination policy and practice. Our data show how perceptions of the profit motive generate distrust in the expert systems pertaining to vaccination. Our participants perceived that pharmaceutical companies had a pernicious influence over the systems driving vaccination: research, health professionals, and government. Accordingly, they saw vaccine recommendations in conflict with the interests of their child and "the system" underscored by malign intent, even if individual representatives of this system were not equally tainted. This perspective was common to parents who declined all vaccines and those who accepted some. We regard the differences between these parents-and indeed the differences between vaccine decliners and those whose Western medical epistemology informs reflexive trust-as arising from the internalization of countering views, which facilitates nuance.
Attwell, Katie; Smith, David T; Ward, Paul R
To address the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy and rejection, researchers increasingly recognise the need to engage with the social context of parents' decision-making. This study examines how vaccine rejecting parents socially construct the vaccinating mainstream in opposition to themselves. We analyse qualitative data from interviews with parents in Adelaide, South Australia. Applying insights from Social Identity Theory (SIT), we show how these parents bolster their own sense of identity and self-belief by employing a discourse that casts vaccinators as an Unhealthy Other. We demonstrate how the parents identify vaccination as a marker of parental conformity to the 'toxic practices of mass industrial society', linking it to other ways in which membership of the consumerist mainstream requires individuals to 'neglect their health.' This is explored through themes of appearance, diet, (over) consumption of pharmaceuticals, inadequate parenting values and wilful or misguided ignorance. This construction of the Unhealthy Other elevates the self-concept of vaccine hesitant and rejecting parents, who see themselves as part of an enlightened, but constantly besieged, group of healthy and virtuous parents. It is common for the vaccinating mainstream to present vaccine hesitant and rejecting parents as a group subject to epistemic closure, groupthink, confirmation bias and over-confidence in their own expertise. However, vaccine hesitant and rejecting parents also see mainstream society as a group-a much larger one-subject to the same problems. We suggest the need to mitigate the 'groupness' of vaccination and non-vaccination by extending the practice of vaccination to recognisable practitioners of holistic health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M
In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.
Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z
Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both...
Gilchrist, Shawn A N; Nanni, Angeline
The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) anticipated that growing demand for new vaccines could sufficiently impact the vaccines market to allow low-income countries (LICs) to self-finance new vaccines. But the time required to lower vaccine prices was underestimated and the amount that prices would decline overestimated. To better understand how prices in the LIC vaccine market can be impacted, the vaccine market was retrospectively examined. GAVI archives and the published literature on the vaccine markets in LICs were reviewed for the purpose of identifying GAVI's early assumptions for the evolution of vaccine prices, and contrasting these retrospectively with actual outcomes. The prices in Phases I and II of GAVI-supported vaccines failed to decline to a desirable level within a projected 5-year timeframe. GAVI-eligible countries were unable to sustain newly introduced vaccines without prolonged donor support. Two key lessons can be applied to future vaccine market-shaping strategies: (1) accurate demand forecasting together with committed donor funding can increase supply to the LIC vaccines market, but even greater strides can be made to increase the certainty of purchase; and (2) the expected time to lower prices took much longer than 5 years; market competition is inherently linked to the development time for new vaccines--a minimum of 5-10 or more years. Other factors that can lower vaccine prices include: large-scale production or alternate financing mechanisms that can hasten vaccine price maturation. The impacts of competition on vaccine prices in the LIC new-vaccines market occurred after almost 10 years. The time for research and development, acquisition of technological know-how and to scale production must be accounted for to more accurately predict significant declines on vaccine prices. Alternate financing mechanisms and the use of purchase agreements should also be considered for lowering prices when planning new vaccine
Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria
The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen
... previous dose of meningococcal vaccine, to the DTaP vaccine , or to latex If your child has a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome (a disease of the nervous system that causes progressive weakness), talk to your doctor about whether the vaccines are a good idea. Caring for Your Child ...
Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...
Lechuga, Julia; Vera-Cala, Lina; Martinez-Donate, Ana
Latina women are at heightened risk of cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the principal cause of the majority of cervical cancer cases. A vaccine that protects against HPV was licensed in 2006. Eight years post-licensure, mixed research findings exist regarding the factors that predict vaccine uptake in Latinas. We conducted a population-based phone survey with a random sample of 296 Latinas living in a Midwestern U.S. City. Intention to vaccinate was significantly associated with health care provider recommendations, worry about side effects, knowing other parents have vaccinated, perceived severity of HPV, and worry that daughter may become sexually active following vaccination. Worry that daughter may become sexually active was the only factor related to vaccine uptake. Findings suggest that training providers to discuss the low risk of severe side effects, consequences of persistent HPV, and sexuality related concerns with Latino women may encourage vaccination.
Langley, J M; MacDougall, D M; Halperin, B A; Swain, A; Halperin, S A; Top, K A; McNeil, S A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Marty, K; De Serres, G; Dubé, E; Bettinger, J A
An outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis serotype B infection occurred at a small residential university; public health announced an organizational vaccination program with the 4-component Meningococcal B (4CMenB) vaccine (Bexsero(TM), Novartis/GlaxoSmithKline Inc.) several days later. Since there were limited published data on reactogenicity of 4CMenB in persons over 17years of age, this study sought to conduct rapid surveillance of health events in vaccinees and controls using an online survey. Vaccine uptake was 84.7% for dose 1 (2967/3500) and 70% (2456/3500) for dose 2; the survey response rates were 33.0% (987/2967) and 18.7% (459/2456) in dose 1 and dose 1 recipients respectively, and 12% in unvaccinated individuals (63/533). Most students were 20-29years of age (vaccinees, 64.0%; controls, 74.0). A new health problem or worsening of an existing health problem was reported by 30.0% and 30.3% of vaccine recipients after doses 1 and 2 respectively; and by 15.9% of controls. These health problems interfered with the ability to perform normal activities in most vaccinees reporting these events (74.7% post dose 1; 62.6% post dose 2), and in 60% of controls. The health problems led to a health care provider visit (including emergency room) in 12.8% and 14.4% of vaccinees post doses 1 and 2, respectively and in 40% of controls. The most common reactions in vaccinees were injection site reactions (20.6% post dose 1, 16.1% post dose 20 and non-specific systemic complaints (22.6% post dose 1, 17.6% post dose 2). No hospitalizations were reported. An online surveillance program during an emergency meningococcal B vaccine program was successfully implemented, and detected higher rates of health events in vaccinees compared to controls, and high rates of both vaccinees and controls seeking medical attention. The types of adverse events reported by young adult vaccinees were consistent with those previously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rappuoli, Rino; Hanon, Emmanuel
Vaccination remains the most cost-effective public health intervention after clean water, and the benefits impressively outweigh the costs. The efforts needed to fulfill the steadily growing demands for next-generation and novel vaccines designed for emerging pathogens and new indications are only realizable in a sustainable business model. Vaccine development can be fast-tracked through strengthening international collaborations, and the continuous innovation of technologies to accelerate their design, development, and manufacturing. However, these processes should be supported by a balanced project portfolio, and by managing sustainable vaccine procurement strategies for different types of markets. Collectively this will allow a gradual shift to a more streamlined and profitable vaccine production, which can significantly contribute to the worldwide effort to shape global health. Copyright © 2018 GlaxoSmithKine Biologicals SA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Globally, $200-250 million/year are devoted to HIV vaccine research. Most of those funds pay for basic research rather than product development. Moreover, most of the funds are aimed at the HIV strain commonly found in the US and Europe, and not at the strains common to Africa and other developing countries. While US President Bill Clinton set in 1997 a 10-year target for the development of an HIV vaccine, that target date is looking increasingly unlikely. International vaccine and pharmaceutical companies typically drive vaccine research and development. However, concern over the ultimate profitability of developing and marketing an HIV vaccine, and the fear of major litigation should an eventual vaccine go awry have caused such firms to shy away from investing large amounts of money into HIV vaccine development. These companies somehow have to be attracted back into the field. A World Bank special task force is slated to present its report by mid-1999 on possible funding mechanisms to promote HIV vaccine development. It remains to be resolved whether public funds could and should be used, perhaps through a pooled international vaccine development fund. 2 new International AIDS Vaccine Initiative projects are described.
Full Text Available Raju Sunagar, Sudeep Kumar, Brian J Franz, Edmund J Gosselin Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, USA Abstract: Francisella tularensis (Ft is a gram-negative intercellular pathogen and category A biothreat agent. However, despite 15 years of strong government investment and intense research focused on the development of a US Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against Ft, the primary goal remains elusive. This article reviews research efforts focused on developing an Ft vaccine, as well as a number of important factors, some only recently recognized as such, which can significantly impact the development and evaluation of Ft vaccine efficacy. Finally, an assessment is provided as to whether a US Food and Drug Administration-approved Ft vaccine is likely to be forthcoming and the potential means by which this might be achieved. Keywords: Sex bias, media impact, differential protection, cellular immunity, humoral immunity
In 2010, vaccines have achieved good effectiveness against invasive meningococcal infection. Development of monovalent and bivalent polysaccharide (PS) vaccines in the 70s and later of tetravalent PS vaccine (ACWY) was followed by development in 2003 of a trivalent ACW vaccine in response to the W135 or mixed A/W135 epidemics that appeared in Africa. More recently PS-conjugated vaccines have shown numerous advantages in comparison with PS vaccines. Mass vaccination campaigns with the C-conjugated vaccine have almost completely eradicated group C meningitis in the UK. It is hoped that introduction of the A-conjugated vaccine MenAfriVac in Africa at the end of year 2010 will end group A meningococcal epidemics in the meningitis belt. The problem of group B meningococcal meningitis has not been completely resolved. For the B strain that has been implicated in hyperendemic waves, a protein vaccine has been produced from outer membrane vesicles (OMV). Use of OMV vaccines achieved good results in Norway and recently in New Zealand. The Norwegian vaccine was also used in Normandy since the strain responsible for the Norman epidemic showed the same PorA as the Norwegian strain. In this regard, a major limitation for OMV vaccines is that they are effective only against the immuno-dominant porin A protein. Current efforts to develop a vaccine against group B meningococci causing sporadic cases are promising. Research is being focused on a blend of surface proteins targeting most of circulating isolates. Field tests will be carried out in the next years, but it is probable that the efficacy of these vaccines will be short-lived since meningococcal antigens vary over time.
Driving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods. Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South. View moreDriving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods ...
Driving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods. Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South. View moreDriving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods ...
Driving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods. Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South. View moreDriving vaccine innovations to improve lives and livelihoods ...
Vaccines are very effective in providing individual and community (herd) immunity against a range of diseases. In addition to protection against a range of diseases, vaccines also have social and economic benefits. However, for vaccines to be effective, routine immunization programmes must be undertaken regularly to ensure individual and community protection. Nonetheless, in many countries in Africa, vaccination coverage is low because governments struggle to deliver vaccines to the most remote areas, thus contributing to constant outbreaks of various vaccine-preventable diseases. African governments fail to deliver vaccines to a significant percentage of the target population due to many issues in key areas such as policy setting, programme management and financing, supply chain, global vaccine market, research and development of vaccines. This review gives an overview of the causes of these issues and what is currently being done to address them. This review will discuss the role of philanthropic organisations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and global partnerships such as the global alliance for vaccines and immunizations in the development, purchase and delivery of vaccines.
Rory C. F. De Brito
Full Text Available Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.
De Brito, Rory C F; Cardoso, Jamille M De O; Reis, Levi E S; Vieira, Joao F; Mathias, Fernando A S; Roatt, Bruno M; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian D O; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Resende, Daniela de M; Reis, Alexandre B
Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.
Direct eye drop vaccination of poultry using live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines provides the most efficient route of vaccination. The research reported in this study examines the effect of diluent used to rehydrate lyophilized M. gallisepticum vaccines on its ability to induce a measurable humo...
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... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its...
mash feed as vaccine carriers was conducted. Newcastle disease vaccine strain I2 and. NDV La Sota vaccines provided protection to commercial and local chickens vaccinated through i/o, i/m or dw. No significant difference (P≤0.05) was observed in the antibody titre of commercial or local chickens vaccinated with either ...
Sahu, Rajnish; Verma, Richa; Dixit, Saurabh; Igietseme, Joseph U; Black, Carolyn M; Duncan, Skyla; Singh, Shree R; Dennis, Vida A
There is a persisting global burden and considerable public health challenge by the plethora of ocular, genital and respiratory diseases caused by members of the Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Chlamydia. The major diseases are conjunctivitis and blinding trachoma, non-gonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, tubal factor infertility, and interstitial pneumonia. The failures in screening and other prevention programs led to the current medical opinion that an efficacious prophylactic vaccine is the best approach to protect humans from chlamydial infections. Unfortunately, there is no human Chlamydia vaccine despite successful veterinary vaccines. A major challenge has been the effective delivery of vaccine antigens to induce safe and effective immune effectors to confer long-term protective immunity. The dawn of the era of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles and the adjuvanted derivatives may accelerate the realization of the dream of human vaccine in the foreseeable future. Areas covered: This review focuses on the current status of human chlamydial vaccine research, specifically the potential of biodegradable polymeric nanovaccines to provide efficacious Chlamydia vaccines in the near future. Expert commentary: The safety of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles-based experimental vaccines with or without adjuvants and the array of available chlamydial vaccine candidates would suggest that clinical trials in humans may be imminent. Also, the promising results from vaccine testing in animal models could lead to human vaccines against trachoma and reproductive diseases simultaneously.
Aggarwal, Anju; Garg, Neha
Mosquitos are responsible for a number of protozoal and viral diseases. Malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE) and chikungunya epidemics occur commonly all over the world, leading to marked mortality and morbidity in children. Zika, Yellow fever and West Nile fever are others requiring prevention. Environmental control and mosquito bite prevention are useful in decreasing the burden of disease but vaccination has been found to be most cost-effective and is the need of the hour. RTS,S/AS01 vaccine is the first malaria vaccine being licensed for use against P. falciparum malaria. Dengvaxia (CYD-TDV) against dengue was licensed first in Mexico in 2015. A Vero-cell derived, inactivated and alum-adjuvanted JE vaccine based on the SA14-14-2 strain was approved in 2009 in North America, Australia and various European countries. It can be used from 2 mo of age. In India, immunization is carried out in endemic regions at 1 y of age. Another inactivated Vero-cell culture derived Kolar strain, 821564XY, JE vaccine is being used in India. Candidate vaccines against dengue, chikungunya and West Nile fever are been discussed. A continued research and development of new vaccines are required for controlling these mosquito-borne diseases.
Sterner, Rosalie M; Takahashi, Paul Y; Yu Ballard, Aimee C
Vaccination against peptides specific to Alzheimer disease may generate an immune response that could help inhibit disease and symptom progression. PubMed and Scopus were searched for clinical trial articles, review articles, and preclinical studies relevant to the field of active Alzheimer disease vaccines and raw searches yielded articles ranging from 2016 to 1973. ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for active Alzheimer disease vaccine trials. Manual research and cross-referencing from reviews and original articles was performed. First generation Aβ42 phase 2a trial in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease resulted in cases of meningoencephalitis in 6% of patients, so next generation vaccines are working to target more specific epitopes to induce a more controlled immune response. Difficulty in developing these vaccines resides in striking a balance between providing a vaccine that induces enough of an immune response to actually clear protein sustainably but not so much of a response that results in excess immune activation and possibly adverse effects such as meningoencephalitis. Although much work still needs to be done in the field to make this a practical possibility, the enticing allure of being able to treat or even prevent the extraordinarily impactful disease that is Alzheimer disease makes the idea of active vaccination for Alzheimer disease very appealing and something worth striving toward. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kulkarni, Prasad S; Hurwitz, Julia L; Simões, Eric A F; Piedra, Pedro A
Correlates of protection (CoPs) can play a significant role in vaccine development by assisting the selection of vaccine candidates for clinical trials, supporting clinical trial design and implementation, and simplifying tests of vaccine modifications. Because of this important role in vaccine development, it is essential that CoPs be defined by well-designed immunogenicity and efficacy studies, with attention paid to benefits and limitations. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) field is unique in that a great deal of information about the humoral response is available from basic research and clinical studies. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been used routinely in the clinic to protect vulnerable infants from infection, providing a wealth of information about correlations between neutralizing antibodies and disease prevention. Considerations for the establishment of future CoPs to support RSV vaccine development in different populations are therefore discussed.
Sep 13, 2017 ... sought to establish the effect of CS on infant vaccination Coverage (IVC) in Mwingi west sub-county; Kenya. ... health outcomes through immunization coverage, Kenya needs to fast-track ...... Development Plan; Planning for Sustainable Socio-Economic ... Screening mammography & breast cancer.
Apr 20, 2016 ... Key words: Cholera, oral cholera vaccine, sub-Saharan Africa, Malawi ... 54.4% were females and over half (55.4%) were children under the age of 15 ... Malawi, despite some improvements in access to safe drinking water.
May 15, 2015 ... in 2003 . To provide a second opportunity for measles vaccination, nationwide measles SIAs started in 2002, using a phased approach intended to cover the country every 3 years . Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) was established in 2000 with aggregate reporting of 18 infectious.
15 août 2014 ... Epidémiologie des PFA et les performances du système de surveillance en Mauritanie ... ont été classés compatible et un cas de paralysie associée à la vaccination contre .... Organisation du système de surveillance des PFA.
Full Text Available Anto Vrdoljak Development Laboratory, Genera, Rakov Potok, Croatia Abstract: Microneedles (MNs have been developed as medical devices for enhanced and painless transdermal drug and vaccine delivery. MN-based vaccine application, unlike conventional intramuscular or subcutaneous application using hypodermic needles, delivers vaccine directly into skin, which is known to be an immunologically much more relevant vaccination site than underlying tissue. Vaccination using MN devices targets the skin's rich immune system, leading to better utilization of the antigen and resulting in superior immune response, often achieved using a lower vaccine dose than required by conventional delivery routes. However, despite the number of advantages and nearly four decades of research, the number of licensed MN-based vaccines remains limited to date. Nevertheless, it is to be expected that on the back of a number of recently developed scalable and robust MN-fabrication methods, more intensive translation into clinical practice will follow. Here, we review the current status and trends in research of MN-related vaccine delivery platforms, focusing on the most promising approaches and clinically relevant applications. Keywords: microneedles, vaccine delivery, skin vaccination
Liang, Steven; Bulir, David; Kaushic, Charu; Mahony, James
Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of preventable blindness and the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Remarkable progress in vaccine research over the past six decades has led to the advancement of novel C. trachomatis vaccine candidates into clinical trials. However, many questions regarding the role of specific cellular populations and molecular mechanisms in protective immunity against human C. trachomatis genital tract infections remain unanswered. Biomarkers of vaccine induced protective immunity are elusive in humans, while a cautionary message on the translatability of data obtained from current animal models has emanated from vaccine research and development efforts against other important human pathogens. In this commentary, we highlight recent advances in Chlamydia vaccine development and discuss their implications in the context of a rational approach to the design of a human C. trachomatis vaccine.
Immunization. Safety and Use of Polio Vaccines. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment, Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, House of Representatives.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
This report presents information on the status of the safety and use of polio vaccines in the United States. Topics discussed include: (1) the role of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in processing an inactivated polio vaccine license application; (2) the steps the federal government has taken to improve the safety of the vaccine; (3) the…
Flávia Maria Palmeira Nunes
Full Text Available Introduction: The Ministry of Health has provided for the girls population aged nine to 13 years, the quadrivalent vaccine against Human Papillomavirus as a preventive measure for cancer of the cervix, with the initial proposal to achieve 80% of this population. Objective: To analyze the vaccine coverage and the perspective of the target population about the vaccine against the Human Papillomavirus. Methods: This was a quantitative and qualitative field research in descriptive character, conducted through the Information System of the National Program for Immunization and with a sample of 86 adolescents in the city of São José do Egito/PE/BR. Results: The vaccination coverage showed a reduction in sequence of the vaccination schedules of 19,53% in the first phase of the campaign and of 24.07% in the second phase. It was also noted that lack accurate information for more than 50% of respondents, 15.11% had local and / or systemic reactions and 89,53% of them expect positive results with the vaccine against the Human Papillomavirus. Conclusion: The results showed a discontinuity in the prophylaxis scheme, but for the teenagers who took the vaccine there is confidence that the immunobiological has the desired effect, protecting them against viruses and future cancer of the cervix. Keywords: Health services; Vaccine; Adolescents; Human Papillomavirus.
Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893
Barocchi, Michèle Anne; Rappuoli, Rino
Thanks to the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), the Vaccine Fund and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the global health community has made enormous progress in providing already existing vaccines to developing countries. However, there still exists a gap to develop vaccines for which there is no market in the Western world, owing to low economic incentives for the private sector to justify the investments necessary for vaccine development. In many cases, industry has the technologies, but lacks the impetus to direct resources to develop these vaccine products. The present emergency with the Ebola vaccine provides us an excellent example where a vaccine was feasible several years ago, but the global health community waited for a humanitarian disaster to direct efforts and resources to develop this vaccine. In the beginning of 2015, the first large-scale trials of two experimental vaccines against Ebola virus disease have begun in West Africa. During the past few years, several institutions have dedicated efforts to the development of vaccines against diseases present only in low-income countries. These include the International Vaccine Institute, the Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health, the Hilleman Institute, the Sabin Vaccine Institute and the Infectious Disease Research Institute. Nevertheless, solving this problem requires a more significant global effort than that currently invested. These efforts include a clear policy, global coordination of funds dedicated to the development of neglected disease and an agreement on regulatory strategies and incentives for the private sector. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
Sandler, Diana S; Ruderman, Eric M; Brown, Tiffany; Lee, Ji Young; Mixon, Amanda; Liss, David T; Baker, David W
Appropriate vaccinations are important for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who are often treated with highly immunosuppressive therapies that increase their risk of infection. However, rates of vaccination among patients with RA are below optimal levels. We conducted a patient survey to assess self-reported vaccination status and to compare that status with electronic health record (EHR) data. We recruited randomly selected patients with RA in an academic practice in 2013. Eligible participants had a diagnosis of RA, at least 1 visit to a rheumatology clinic in each of the previous 2 years, were 18 years or older, and had English listed as their preferred language. The survey included the following domains: a) patient self-reported receipt of influenza, pneumococcal (PNVX), and herpes zoster (HZVX) vaccinations; b) attitudes about these vaccines, including reasons for unvaccinated status, if applicable; and c) provider recommendations about these vaccines. Based on participants' self-report, we found a high vaccination rate for influenza during the previous season (79.4%), a moderate rate of any previous vaccination for pneumococcus (53.9%), and a very low rate of any previous vaccination for herpes zoster (7.8%). If we assume that all self-reports are accurate and we include vaccinations recorded in the EHR that were not reported by patients, the vaccination rates were approximately 8% to 9% higher for PNVX and HZVX. Vaccination rates are low among patients with RA based on self-report data. Further research is needed to investigate system-level barriers to vaccination and the impact of evidence-based, provider-level interventions on vaccination rates.
Bookchin, Debbie; Schumacher, Jim
.... But now SV40 in showing up in human cancers, and prominent researchers are demanding a serious public health response to this forgotten polio vaccine contaminant. A gripping medical detective story, The Virus and the Vaccine raises major questions about vaccine policy.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increasing number of diphteria cases in Sidoarjo Regency, with occurrence of cases in those who had received DPT immunization shows the existence of problem concerning to immunization. The efficacy itself, depends on the quality of vaccines given. Insufficiency in cold chain may lower the quality of DPT vaccines. The purpose of this study was to analyze relationship between DPT vaccine storage and recording for DPT vaccines cold chain with quality of DPT vaccine cold chain in puskesmas Sidoarjo Regency. This research is a descriptive research with cross sectional design. Sample used were total population, which includes all 26 puskesmas within Sidoarjo. The variables were DPT vaccine storage, recording for DPT vaccines cold chain and quality of DPT vaccine cold chain. The result of this study showed that DPT vaccine storage was good (58%, recording for DPT vaccines cold chain were insufficient (77%, and quality of DPT vaccine cold chain in puskesmas was also good (62%. Spearman correlation test showed relationship between DPT vaccine storage and quality of DPT vaccine cold chain in Puskesmas was strong and positive (r = 0,561. Relationship between recording for DPT vaccines cold chain and quality of DPT vaccine cold chain in puskesmas was moderate and positive (r = 0,421. the better the storage for DPT vaccines and recording for DPT vaccines cold chain in puskesmas, the better its cold chain quality in puskesmas. Improvement in officers’ obedience in storing DPT vaccine and its recording concerning to the cold chain which appropriate according to procedures, were really needed. Keywords: storage, recording, quality, cold chain, DPT vaccine
Wagemakers, A; Mason, L M K; Oei, A; de Wever, B; van der Poll, T; Bins, A D; Hovius, J W R
Borrelia afzelii is the predominant Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Currently there is no human vaccine against Lyme borreliosis, and most research focuses on recombinant protein vaccines against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. DNA tattooing is a novel vaccination method that can be applied in a rapid vaccination schedule. We vaccinated C3H/HeN mice with B. afzelii strain PKo OspC (outer-surface protein C) using a codon-optimized DNA vaccine tattoo and compared this with recombinant protein vaccination in a 0-2-4 week vaccination schedule. We also assessed protection by DNA tattoo in a 0-3-6 day schedule. DNA tattoo and recombinant OspC vaccination induced comparable total IgG responses, with a lower IgG1/IgG2a ratio after DNA tattoo. Two weeks after syringe-challenge with 5 × 10(5) B. afzelii spirochetes most vaccinated mice had negative B. afzelii tissue DNA loads and all were culture negative. Furthermore, DNA tattoo vaccination in a 0-3-6 day regimen also resulted in negative Borrelia loads and cultures after challenge. To conclude, DNA vaccination by tattoo was fully protective against B. afzelii challenge in mice in a rapid vaccination protocol, and induces a favorable humoral immunity compared to recombinant protein vaccination. Rapid DNA tattoo is a promising vaccination strategy against spirochetes.
Zimet, Gregory D; Rosberger, Zeev; Fisher, William A; Perez, Samara; Stupiansky, Nathan W
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine uptake in many countries has been sub-optimal. We examine several issues associated with non-vaccination that have received particular attention, including fears about sexual risk compensation, concerns about vaccine safety, inadequate vaccination recommendations by health care providers (HCPs), and distrust due to the perceived "newness" of HPV vaccines. Selective review of behavioral and social science literature on HPV vaccine attitudes and uptake. There is no evidence of post-vaccination sexual risk compensation, HPV vaccines are quite safe, and they can no longer be considered "new". Nonetheless, research findings point to these issues and, most importantly, to the failure of HCPs to adequately recommend HPV vaccine as major drivers of non-vaccination. Most fears related to HPV vaccine are more related to myth than reality. In the absence of major health policy initiatives, such as those implemented in Canada, the U.K., and Australia, a multi-level, multi-faceted approach will be required to achieve high rates of HPV vaccination. It will be essential to focus on the education of HCPs regarding indications for HPV vaccination and approaches to communicating most effectively with parents and patients about the safety and benefits of vaccination and the risks associated with non-vaccination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz
Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078
Søborg, Christian; Mølbak, Kåre; Doherty, T Mark; Ulleryd, Peter; Brooks, Tim; Coenen, Claudine; van der Zeijst, Ben
Preparing populations for health threats, including threats from new or re-emerging infectious diseases is recognised as an important public health priority. The development, production and application of emergency vaccinations are the important measures against such threats. Vaccines are cost-effective tools to prevent disease, and emergency vaccines may be the only means to prevent a true disaster for global society in the event of a new pandemic with potential to cause morbidity and mortality comparable to the Spanish flu, the polio epidemics in the 1950s, or the SARS outbreak in 2003 if its spread had not been contained in time. Given the early recognition of a new threat, and given the advances of biotechnology, vaccinology and information systems, it is not an unrealistic goal to have promising prototype vaccine candidates available in a short time span following the identification of a new infectious agent; this is based on the assumption that the emerging infection is followed by natural immunity. However, major bottlenecks for the deployment of emergency vaccine are lack of established systems for fast-track regulatory approval of such candidates and limited international vaccine production capacity. In the present discussion paper, we propose mechanisms to facilitate development of emergency vaccines in Europe by focusing on public-private scientific partnerships, fast-track approval of emergency vaccine by regulatory agencies and proposing incentives for emergency vaccine production in private vaccine companies.
LaForce, F Marc; Konde, Kader; Viviani, Simonetta; Préziosi, Marie-Pierre
Epidemic meningococcal meningitis is an important public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control measures rely on reactive immunizations with polysaccharide (PS) vaccines that do not induce herd immunity and are of limited effectiveness in those under 2 years of age. Conversely, polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are effective in infants and have consistently shown an important effect on decreasing carriage, two characteristics that facilitate disease control. In 2001 the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was created as a partnership between PATH and the World Health Organization (WHO) with the goal of eliminating meningococcal epidemics in Africa through the development, licensure, introduction, and widespread use of conjugate meningococcal vaccines. Since group A Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) is the dominant pathogen causing epidemic meningitis in Africa MVP is developing an affordable (US$ 0.40 per dose) meningococcal A (Men A) conjugate vaccine through an innovative international partnership that saw transfer of a conjugation and fermentation technology to a developing country vaccine manufacturer. A Phase 1 study of the vaccine in India has shown that the product is safe and immunogenic. Phase 2 studies have begun in Africa, and a large demonstration study of the conjugate vaccine is envisioned for 2008-2009. After extensive consultations with African public health officials a vaccine introduction plan has been developed that includes introduction of the Men A conjugate vaccine into standard Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) schedules but also emphasizes mass vaccination of 1-29 years old to induce herd immunity, a strategy that has been shown to be highly effective when the meningococcal C (Men C) conjugate vaccine was introduced in several European countries. The MVP model is a clear example of the usefulness of a "push mechanism" to finance the development of a needed vaccine for the developing world.
... Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... information materials for rotavirus vaccine. DATES: Written comments are invited and must be received on or... (chickenpox), pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and...
Eric Daniel Avila-Calderón
Full Text Available Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis affecting animal and human health. In the last several decades, much research has been performed to develop safer Brucella vaccines to control the disease mainly in animals. Till now, no effective human vaccine is available. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the importance of methodologies used to develop Brucella vaccines in pursuing this challenge.
Avila-Calder?n, Eric Daniel; Lopez-Merino, Ahid?; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M.; Contreras-Rodr?guez, Araceli
Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis affecting animal and human health. In the last several decades, much research has been performed to develop safer Brucella vaccines to control the disease mainly in animals. Till now, no effective human vaccine is available. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the importance of methodologies used to develop Brucella vaccines in pursuing this challenge. CONACYT CB-2011-01, 169259 SIP-IPN 20110891, 20134610 ICYTDF-IPN (Project of Investiga...
Fisker, Ane B; Hornshøj, Linda; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Balde, Ibraima; Fernandes, Manuel; Benn, Christine S; Aaby, Peter
increased coverage of DTP, but decreased coverage of measles vaccine. In 1999-2006, child mortality was higher in children who had not received measles vaccine than in those who had. DANIDA, European Research Council, the Danish Independent Research Council, European Union FP7 via OPTIMUNISE, and Danish National Research Foundation. Copyright © 2014 Fisker et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by .. All rights reserved.
Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry
The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory
The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year. Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...
Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao
Hepatitis E has been increasingly recognized as an underestimated global disease burden in recent years. Subpopulations with more serious infection-associated damage or death include pregnant women, patients with basic liver diseases, and elderly persons. Vaccine would be the most effective means for prevention of HEV infection. The lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV makes the development of classic inactive or attenuated vaccine infeasible. Hence, the recombinant vaccine approaches are explored deeply. The neutralizing sites are located almost exclusively in the capsid protein, pORF2, of the virion. Based on pORF2, many vaccine candidates showed potential of protecting primate animals; two of them were tested in human and evidenced to be well tolerated in adults and highly efficacious in preventing hepatitis E. The world's first hepatitis E vaccine, Hecolin ® (HEV 239 vaccine), was licensed in China and launched in 2012.
Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.
Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola
The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.
Lithgow, Karen V; Cameron, Caroline E
Syphilis, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, continues to be a globally prevalent disease despite remaining susceptible to penicillin treatment. Syphilis vaccine development is a viable preventative approach that will serve to complement public health-oriented syphilis prevention, screening and treatment initiatives to deliver a two-pronged approach to stemming disease spread worldwide. Areas covered: This article provides an overview of the need for development of a syphilis vaccine, summarizes significant information that has been garnered from prior syphilis vaccine studies, discusses the critical aspects of infection that would have to be targeted by a syphilis vaccine, and presents the current understanding within the field of the correlates of protection needed to be achieved through vaccination. Expert commentary: Syphilis vaccine development should be considered a priority by industry, regulatory and funding agencies, and should be appropriately promoted and supported.
Barraza, Leila; Schmit, Cason; Hoss, Aila
This paper discusses recent changes to state legal frameworks for mandatory vaccination in the context of school and healthcare worker vaccination. It then discusses state laws that allow pharmacists the authority to vaccinate.
Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Huckriede, Anke
Vaccination is the cornerstone of influenza control in epidemic and pandemic situations. Influenza vaccines are typically given by intramuscular injection. However, needle-free vaccinations could offer several distinct advantages over intramuscular injections: they are pain-free, easier to
... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics The Adult Vaccine Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are recommended for adults based on age, health ...
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Linhares Alexandre C.
Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be
Alexandre C. Linhares
Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be
LeBlanc, Jason J; ElSherif, May; Ye, Lingyun; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Li, Li; Ambrose, Ardith; Hatchette, Todd F; Lang, Amanda L; Gillis, Hayley; Martin, Irene; Andrew, Melissa K; Boivin, Guy; Bowie, William; Green, Karen; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark; McCarthy, Anne; McGeer, Allison; Moraca, Sanela; Semret, Makeda; Stiver, Grant; Trottier, Sylvie; Valiquette, Louis; Webster, Duncan; McNeil, Shelly A
Pneumococcal community acquired pneumonia (CAP Spn ) and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although childhood immunization programs have reduced the overall burden of pneumococcal disease, there is insufficient data in Canada to inform immunization policy in immunocompetent adults. This study aimed to describe clinical outcomes of pneumococcal disease in hospitalized Canadian adults, and determine the proportion of cases caused by vaccine-preventable serotypes. Active surveillance for CAP Spn and IPD in hospitalized adults was performed in hospitals across five Canadian provinces from December 2010 to 2013. CAP Spn were identified using sputum culture, blood culture, a commercial pan-pneumococcal urine antigen detection (UAD), or a serotype-specific UAD. The serotype distribution was characterized using Quellung reaction, and PCR-based serotyping on cultured isolates, or using a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotype-specific UAD assay. In total, 4769 all-cause CAP cases and 81 cases of IPD (non-CAP) were identified. Of the 4769 all-cause CAP cases, a laboratory test for S. pneumoniae was performed in 3851, identifying 14.3% as CAP Spn . Of CAP cases among whom all four diagnostic test were performed, S. pneumoniae was identified in 23.2% (144/621). CAP Spn cases increased with age and the disease burden of illness was evident in terms of requirement for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and 30-day mortality. Of serotypeable CAP Spn or IPD results, predominance for serotypes 3, 7F, 19A, and 22F was observed. The proportion of hospitalized CAP cases caused by a PCV13-type S. pneumoniae ranged between 7.0% and 14.8% among cases with at least one test for S. pneumoniae performed or in whom all four diagnostic tests were performed, respectively. Overall, vaccine-preventable pneumococcal CAP and IPD were shown to be significant causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized
Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...
Full Text Available There is a growing appreciation for the role of vaccines in confronting the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR. Vaccines can reduce the prevalence of resistance by reducing the need for antimicrobial use and can reduce its impact by reducing the total number of cases. By reducing the number of pathogens that may be responsible for a particular clinical syndrome, vaccines can permit the use of narrower-spectrum antibiotics for empirical therapy. These effects may be amplified by herd immunity, extending protection to unvaccinated persons in the population. Because much selection for resistance is due to selection on bystander members of the normal flora, vaccination can reduce pressure for resistance even in pathogens not included in the vaccine. Some vaccines have had disproportionate effects on drug-resistant lineages within the target species, a benefit that could be more deliberately exploited in vaccine design. We describe the effects of current vaccines in controlling AMR, survey some vaccines in development with the potential to do so further, and discuss strategies to amplify these benefits. We conclude with a discussion of research and policy priorities to more fully enlist vaccines in the battle against AMR.
Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar
The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
31 mai 2013 ... paralysie flasque aigüe (PFA) enregistrés de décembre 2010 à décembre 2011, les données de surveillance des PFA, les données de couverture vaccinale et celles du monitorage indépendant des activités de vaccination supplémentaires. Résultats: Entre décembre 2010 à décembre 2011,. 298 cas de ...
Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)
Full Text Available Vaccines have significantly reduced the detrimental effects of numerous human infectious diseases worldwide, helped to reduce drastically child mortality rates and even achieved eradication of major pathogens, such as smallpox. These achievements have been possible due to a dedicated effort for vaccine research and development, as well as an effective transfer of these vaccines to public health care systems globally. Either public or private institutions have committed to developing and manufacturing vaccines for local or international population supply. However, current vaccine manufacturers worldwide might not be able to guarantee sufficient vaccine supplies for all nations when epidemics or pandemics events could take place. Currently, different countries produce their own vaccine supplies under Good Manufacturing Practices, which include the USA, Canada, China, India, some nations in Europe and South America, such as Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, France, Argentina, and Brazil, respectively. Here, we discuss some of the vaccine programs and manufacturing capacities, comparing the current models of vaccine management between industrialized and developing countries. Because local vaccine production undoubtedly provides significant benefits for the respective population, the manufacture capacity of these prophylactic products should be included in every country as a matter of national safety.
Ruch-Gallie, R; Moroff, S; Lappin, M R
Canine adenovirus 2, parainfluenza, and Bordetella bronchiseptica cause respiratory disease in dogs, and each has a modified live intranasal vaccine available. Molecular diagnostic assays to amplify specific nucleic acids are available for each of these agents. If positive molecular diagnostic assay results are common after vaccination, the positive predictive value of the diagnostic assays for disease would be decreased. To determine the impact of administration of commercially available modified live topical adenovirus 2, B. bronchiseptica, and parainfluenza vaccine has on the results of a commercially available PCR panel. Eight puppies from a research breeding facility negative for these pathogens. Blinded prospective pilot study. Puppies were vaccinated with a single dose of modified live topical adenovirus 2, B. bronchiseptica, and parainfluenza and parenteral dose of adenovirus 2, canine distemper virus, and parvovirus. Nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected on multiple days and submitted for PCR assay. Nucleic acids of all 3 organisms contained in the topical vaccine were detected from both samples multiple times through 28 days after vaccination with higher numbers of positive samples detected between days 3 and 10 after vaccination. Vaccine status should be considered when interpreting respiratory agent PCR results if modified live vaccines have been used. Development of quantitative PCR and wild-type sequencing are necessary to improve positive predictive value of these assays by distinguishing vaccinate from natural infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Rey-Jurado, Emma; Tapia, Felipe; Muñoz-Durango, Natalia; Lay, Margarita K; Carreño, Leandro J; Riedel, Claudia A; Bueno, Susan M; Genzel, Yvonne; Kalergis, Alexis M
Vaccines have significantly reduced the detrimental effects of numerous human infectious diseases worldwide, helped to reduce drastically child mortality rates and even achieved eradication of major pathogens, such as smallpox. These achievements have been possible due to a dedicated effort for vaccine research and development, as well as an effective transfer of these vaccines to public health care systems globally. Either public or private institutions have committed to developing and manufacturing vaccines for local or international population supply. However, current vaccine manufacturers worldwide might not be able to guarantee sufficient vaccine supplies for all nations when epidemics or pandemics events could take place. Currently, different countries produce their own vaccine supplies under Good Manufacturing Practices, which include the USA, Canada, China, India, some nations in Europe and South America, such as Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, France, Argentina, and Brazil, respectively. Here, we discuss some of the vaccine programs and manufacturing capacities, comparing the current models of vaccine management between industrialized and developing countries. Because local vaccine production undoubtedly provides significant benefits for the respective population, the manufacture capacity of these prophylactic products should be included in every country as a matter of national safety.
1 ABSTRACT Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine- Evaluation of clinical effectiveness and national vaccine programs Author: Nataša Lekić Research Advisor: PharmDr. Lenka Práznovcová, Ph.D. Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague. SUMMARY QUADRIVALENT HPV VACCINE- EVALUATION OF CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS AND NATIONAL VACCINE PROGRAMS Background: Human papillomavirus types 6, 11,16 and 18 cause majority of genital warts an...
Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.
Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.
Full Text Available Rhodococcus equi is a respiratory pathogen which primarily infects foals and is endemic on farms around the world with 50% mortality and 80% morbidity in affected foals. Unless detected early and treated appropriately the disease can be fatal. Currently, there is no vaccine available to prevent this disease. For decades researchers have endeavoured to develop an effective vaccine to no avail. In this study a novel human adenoviral vector vaccine for R. equi was developed and tested in the mouse model. This vaccine generated a strong antibody and cytokine response and clearance of R. equi was demonstrated following challenge. These results show that this vaccine could potentially be developed further for use as a vaccine to prevent R. equi disease in foals.
Emily K. Brunson MPH, PhD
Full Text Available While health care providers are often cited as parents’ most trusted source for information and advice about vaccination, parents differ in their level of receptiveness to pro-vaccination conversations. The purpose of this research was to identify points in individual parents’ decision-making processes when parents are particularly open to receiving information and advice from their children’s health care providers. Interview data were collected from 20 mothers and 5 couples. Analysis of these data suggested 3 primary circumstances when parents were particularly open to receiving information and advice: during parents’ initial decision-making, as parents continued to assess vaccination options, and during particular circumstances that prompted parents to reconsider previously made vaccination choices. These results provide a mechanism for providers to identify parents who may be particularly receptive to pro-vaccination conversations. By prioritizing conversations with parents at one of these points, health care providers’ efforts at promoting vaccination may be more effective.
Stern, Alexandra Minna; Markel, Howard
Human beings have benefited from vaccines for more than two centuries. Yet the pathway to effective vaccines has been neither neat nor direct. This paper explores the history of vaccines and immunization, beginning with Edward Jenner's creation of the world's first vaccine for smallpox in the 1790s. We then demonstrate that many of the issues salient in Jenner's era-such as the need for secure funding mechanisms, streamlined manufacturing and safety concerns, and deep-seated public fears of inoculating agents-have frequently reappeared and have often dominated vaccine policies. We suggest that historical awareness can help inform viable long-term solutions to contemporary problems with vaccine research, production, and supply.
Fleming, Wayne S; Sznajder, Kristin K; Nepps, Margaret; Boktor, Sameh W
This study determined facilitators and barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination perceived by providers of healthcare in the federally funded Pennsylvania Vaccines for Children (PA VFC) program. The cross-sectional study gathered descriptive data through a survey research design. Providers of healthcare were recruited through an email containing a link to an 18-question online survey. The survey was divided into four main sections which assessed the perceived facilitators and barriers to HPV vaccination of PA VFC program-eligibles. Survey respondents represented 65 of 66 Pennsylvania counties covered by the PA VFC Program. The study recruited 772 PA VFC participating healthcare facilities for a response rate of 52%. Ninety eight percent of the responding facilities reported that they offered the HPV vaccine. The most common barriers to vaccine administration were the parental belief that HPV vaccination is associated with sexual activity and parent/patient refusal of the HPV vaccination which together accounted for (44%) of responses. The majority of respondents (75.6%) indicated counseling parents and adolescents on the benefits of HPV vaccination was a very important factor in HPV vaccination uptake. Healthcare provider facility based training (32%) and web-based training for healthcare providers (22%) were the most recommended avenues for HPV training. The most common barrier to HPV vaccination was identified as the parental misconception that HPV vaccination is associated with sexual activity. Providers believed that the best way to increase HPV vaccination is through counseling parents and adolescents on the benefits of HPV vaccination and to correct misconceptions and change attitudes. Providers are desirous of receiving HPV web-based or workplace training.
Clark, K; Cavicchi, J; Jensen, K; Fitzgerald, R; Bennett, A; Kowalski, S P
Global access to advanced vaccine technologies is challenged by the interrelated components of intellectual property (IP) management strategies, technology transfer (legal and technical) capabilities and the capacity necessary for accelerating R&D, commercialization and delivery of vaccines. Due to a negative association with the management of IP, patents are often overlooked as a vast resource of freely available, information akin to scientific journals as well as business and technological information and trends fundamental for formulating policies and IP management strategies. Therefore, a fundamental step towards facilitating global vaccine access will be the assembly, organization and analysis of patent landscapes, to identify the amount of patenting, ownership (assignees) and fields of technology covered. This is critical for making informed decisions (e.g., identifying licensees, building research and product development collaborations, and ascertaining freedom to operate). Such information is of particular interest to the HIV vaccine community where the HIV Vaccine Enterprise, have voiced concern that IP rights (particularly patents and trade secrets) may prevent data and materials sharing, delaying progress in research and development of a HIV vaccine. We have compiled and analyzed a representative HIV vaccine patent landscape for a prime-boost, DNA/adenoviral vaccine platform, as an example for identifying obstacles, maximizing opportunities and making informed IP management strategy decisions towards the development and deployment of an efficacious HIV vaccine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
D. А. Novikova
Full Text Available Combined vaccines containing non-cellular pertussis component and having low reactogenicity, increase vaccination coverage against controllable infections. However, the safety of vaccination in children dealing with health issues, as well as those having a history of premature infancy, requires additional research. The article presents reactogenicity analysis for the DTP-IPV/HIB pentavaccine during primary vaccination and revaccination of premature infants (n = 85, as well as vaccination of mature newborns (n = 1433 inoculated in accordance with the national Vaccination Calendar behind the schedule. The occurrence of post-vaccinal reactions in the premature infant group was the same as in the mature infant group and amounted to 41.2% and 45.0%; the occurrence of common reactions was 18.8% and 22.4%; local effects measured 25.8% and 27.9% respectively. Post-vaccinal reactions were either weak or moderate, not requiring treatment, and they would completely disappear by the end of the third post-vaccinal day. Simultaneous injection of pentavaccine and Hepatitis B vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with a history of premature infancy, showed no influence during the post-vaccinal period. The reactogenicity of pentavaccine increased along with the vaccination ratio during the primary series of vaccinations.
Gerdts, Volker; Wilson, Heather L; Meurens, Francois; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Wilson, Don; Walker, Stewart; Wheler, Colette; Townsend, Hugh; Potter, Andrew A
The development of human vaccines continues to rely on the use of animals for research. Regulatory authorities require novel vaccine candidates to undergo preclinical assessment in animal models before being permitted to enter the clinical phase in human subjects. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in reducing and replacing the number of animals used for preclinical vaccine research through the use of bioinformatics and computational biology to design new vaccine candidates. However, the ultimate goal of a new vaccine is to instruct the immune system to elicit an effective immune response against the pathogen of interest, and no alternatives to live animal use currently exist for evaluation of this response. Studies identifying the mechanisms of immune protection; determining the optimal route and formulation of vaccines; establishing the duration and onset of immunity, as well as the safety and efficacy of new vaccines, must be performed in a living system. Importantly, no single animal model provides all the information required for advancing a new vaccine through the preclinical stage, and research over the last two decades has highlighted that large animals more accurately predict vaccine outcome in humans than do other models. Here we review the advantages and disadvantages of large animal models for human vaccine development and demonstrate that much of the success in bringing a new vaccine to market depends on choosing the most appropriate animal model for preclinical testing. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cover, Jane K; Nghi, Nguyen Quy; LaMontagne, D Scott; Huyen, Dang Thi Thanh; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Nga, Le Thi
The GAVI Alliance's decision in late 2011 to invite developing countries to apply for funding for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine introduction underscores the importance of understanding levels of HPV vaccine acceptance in developing country settings. In this paper, we present findings from qualitative research on parents' rationales for vaccinating or not vaccinating their daughters (vaccine acceptance) and their decision-making process in the context of an HPV vaccination demonstration project in Vietnam (2008-2009). We designed a descriptive qualitative study of HPV vaccine acceptability among parents of girls eligible for vaccination in four districts of two provinces in Vietnama. The study was implemented after each of two years of vaccinations was completed. In total, 133 parents participated in 16 focus group discussions and 27 semi-structured interviews. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with parents of girls vaccinated revealed that they were generally very supportive of immunization for disease prevention and of vaccinating girls against HPV. The involvement of the National Expanded Program of Immunization in the demonstration project lent credibility to the HPV vaccine, contributing to high levels of acceptance. For parents who declined participation, concerns about side effects, the possibility that the vaccine was experimental, and the possible impact of the vaccine on future fertility rose to the surface. In terms of the decision-making process, many parents exhibited 'active decision-making,' reaching out to friends, family, and opinion leaders for guidance prior to making their decision. Vietnam's HPV vaccination experience speaks to the importance of close collaboration with the government to make the most of high levels of trust, and to reduce suspicions about new vaccines that may arise in the context of vaccine introduction in developing country settings.
Cover Jane K
Full Text Available Abstract Background The GAVI Alliance’s decision in late 2011 to invite developing countries to apply for funding for human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine introduction underscores the importance of understanding levels of HPV vaccine acceptance in developing country settings. In this paper, we present findings from qualitative research on parents’ rationales for vaccinating or not vaccinating their daughters (vaccine acceptance and their decision-making process in the context of an HPV vaccination demonstration project in Vietnam (2008–2009. Methods We designed a descriptive qualitative study of HPV vaccine acceptability among parents of girls eligible for vaccination in four districts of two provinces in Vietnama. The study was implemented after each of two years of vaccinations was completed. In total, 133 parents participated in 16 focus group discussions and 27 semi-structured interviews. Results Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with parents of girls vaccinated revealed that they were generally very supportive of immunization for disease prevention and of vaccinating girls against HPV. The involvement of the National Expanded Program of Immunization in the demonstration project lent credibility to the HPV vaccine, contributing to high levels of acceptance. For parents who declined participation, concerns about side effects, the possibility that the vaccine was experimental, and the possible impact of the vaccine on future fertility rose to the surface. In terms of the decision-making process, many parents exhibited ‘active decision-making,’ reaching out to friends, family, and opinion leaders for guidance prior to making their decision. Conclusion Vietnam’s HPV vaccination experience speaks to the importance of close collaboration with the government to make the most of high levels of trust, and to reduce suspicions about new vaccines that may arise in the context of vaccine introduction in developing country settings.
Martínez-Diz, S; Martínez Romero, M; Fernández-Prada, M; Cruz Piqueras, M; Molina Ruano, R; Fernández Sierra, M A
To examine the opinions, beliefs and attitudes about vaccination, of parents who decide not to vaccinate their children. To determine the opinions and attitudes of the health professionals on the behaviour towards childhood vaccination. Qualitative research based on semi-structured interviews and focal groups in Granada, Spain, including parents who chose to not vaccinate their children, and healthcare professionals who can provide a technical point of view. An analysis was made of the semantic content, and answers were categorized in thematic units. The parents argued on the benefit of suffering vaccine-preventable diseases in a natural way, without non-natural, aggressive or toxic products. Vaccination was considered unnecessary, if given adequate hygienic-sanitary conditions, effectiveness unproven and more dangerous than the diseases they prevent, especially the polyvalent vaccines. They believed that vaccination programs are moved by biased studies and interests other than prevention. Health care professionals believe that they had fears without scientific basis, which requires improving information systems. Non-vaccinators are unaware of the benefit/risk ratio between the vaccination and the individual risk for preventable diseases, and ask for informed consent. Health care professionals believe that non-vaccinators' arguments are not correctly contrasted and expose the existence of failures in actual vaccination coverage and information registration systems. It was suggested to centralize registers and compare them in schools, working with local leaders and reporting regularly on the status of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
The paper reviews recent advances in schistosome research achieved through the application of nuclear techniques and aimed at the development of a vaccine. Two principal areas are discussed: first, immune effector mechanisms; and secondly, the application of hybridoma and recombinant DNA technology to the problem of production of large quantities of parasite antigens suitable for inclusion in an experimental vaccine. (author)
This project will allow researchers from Canada and Kenya to field trial a vaccine for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. This endemic livestock disease affects the livelihoods of more than 24 million cattle producers and results in annual losses estimated at US$1 billion across sub-Saharan Africa. About the vaccine Using ...
Their work has set the stage for commercial development of a sub-unit vaccine. ... The sub-unit vaccine will be cost-effective, easy to produce, and safe. How it will make a ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Doctoral Research Awards.
Avrett, Sam; Collins, Chris
Volume seven of the Review will mark the tenth anniversary of the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network with a series of articles that describe past developments and future directions in several areas of policy and law related to HIV/AIDS. The following article is the first of these, discussing current challenges and future directions in the development of and access to HIV vaccines. It argues that governments are under public health, ethical, and legal obligations to develop and provide access to HIV vaccines. It further explains what is required for governments to fulfill their obligations: additional commitment and resources for HIV vaccine development in the context of increased global research and development regarding diseases of the poor; increased support and advocacy for partnerships to develop HIV vaccines; enhanced regulatory capacity in every country to review, approve, and monitor HIV vaccines; and assurance of global supply of, procurement of, delivery of, and access to vaccines in the context of efforts to increase global access to public health measures and technologies.
Katz, S L
Advances in medical biotechnology mean that vaccines to prevent more than 75 infectious diseases are being or have been developed. Vaccination is unfortunately not reliant purely on biotechnology but also on politics and resources. Countries with the greatest demand for vaccines have the least ability to pay for or produce them. Health-care Infrastructure and diagnostic facilities also hamper immunisation projects in developing countries. Charitable organisations are relied on heavily to support such projects but the challenge to ensure all infants are immunised against the most common infections of childhood is still enormous. Difficulties that present themselves now should not prevent us looking into future possibilities such as immunisation during pregnancy and targeting of children for immunisation against sexually transmitted diseases. Other avenues for research are in administration of vaccines. A move to mucosal immunisation rather than use of the syringe and needle would be positive both economically and from the point of view of risk of needle contamination. Plant science may also provide a new vehicle for vaccines by engineering plants such as the banana tree to be naturally bioencapsulated vaccines. Prospects for control and eradication of infectious disease in the next century are certainly good.
Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had significant effects on hen day egg production and egg quality of egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell breaking strength, shell thickness, albumen height, Haugh Units, and IB antibody titre levels, but had no effect on percentage of shell and yolk colour. Egg weight and shell reflectivity were less favourable in the control hens. In contrast, shell breaking strength and shell thickness were highest for the group that initially received A3 vaccine in water. However, regular revaccination had some deleterious effects on egg production and egg quality. There were no significant effects of revaccination on IB antibody titres. It is concluded that there was little advantage in regularly revaccinating laying hens for IB virus, since they had received appropriate initial vaccination.
Wagemakers, A.; Mason, L. M. K.; Oei, A.; de Wever, B.; van der Poll, T.; Bins, A. D.; Hovius, J. W. R.
Borrelia afzelii is the predominant Borrelia species causing Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Currently there is no human vaccine against Lyme borreliosis, and most research focuses on recombinant protein vaccines against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. DNA tattooing is a novel vaccination method
The Ebola epidemic that occurred in West Africa between 2013-2016 significantly accelerated the research and development of Ebola vaccines. Few dozens of clinical trials have been recently conducted leading to opportunities to test several new vaccine candidates. Other vaccines are still in early development phases (table 1). This paper provides an overview of the new developments in that area.
...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function... Immunoregulation, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center for Biologics...
...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function... Polysaccharides, Division of Bacterial, Parasitic, and Allergenic Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review...
...] Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public. Name of Committee: Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee. General Function... Laboratory of Method Development, Division of Viral Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center...
Francis, Mark Rohit; Nohynek, Hanna; Larson, Heidi; Balraj, Vinohar; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Kang, Gagandeep; Nuorti, J Pekka
Despite almost three decades of the Universal Immunization Program in India, a little more than half the children aged 12-23months receive the full schedule of routine vaccinations. We examined socio-demographic factors associated with partial-vaccination and non-vaccination and the reasons for non-vaccination among Indian children during 1998 and 2008. Data from three consecutive, nationally-representative, District Level Household and Facility Surveys (1998-99, 2002-04 and 2007-08) were pooled. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify individual and household level socio-demographic variables associated with the child's vaccination status. The mother's reported reasons for non-vaccination were analyzed qualitatively, adapting from a previously published framework. The pooled dataset contained information on 178,473 children 12-23months of age; 53%, 32% and 15% were fully vaccinated, partially vaccinated and unvaccinated respectively. Compared with the 1998-1999 survey, children in the 2007-2008 survey were less likely to be unvaccinated (Adjusted Prevalence Odds Ratio (aPOR): 0.92, 95%CI=0.86-0.98) but more likely to be partially vaccinated (aPOR: 1.58, 95%CI=1.52-1.65). Vaccination status was inversely associated with female gender, Muslim religion, lower caste, urban residence and maternal characteristics such as lower educational attainment, non-institutional delivery, fewer antenatal care visits and non-receipt of maternal tetanus vaccination. The mother's reported reasons for non-vaccination indicated gaps in awareness, acceptance and affordability (financial and non-financial costs) related to routine vaccinations. Persisting socio-demographic disparities related to partial-vaccination and non-vaccination were associated with important childhood, maternal and household characteristics. Further research investigating the causal pathways through which maternal and social characteristics influence decision-making for childhood vaccinations is
Day, Tracey A.; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hatherill, Mark; Hanekom, Willem A.; Evans, Thomas G.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Kublin, James G.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Self, Steven G.
SUMMARY Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death worldwide despite the availability of effective chemotherapy for over 60 years. Although Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination protects against active TB disease in some populations, its efficacy is suboptimal. Development of an effective TB vaccine is a top global priority that has been hampered by an incomplete understanding of protective immunity to TB. Thus far, preventing TB disease, rather than infection, has been the primary target for vaccine development. Several areas of research highlight the importance of including preinfection vaccines in the development pipeline. First, epidemiology and mathematical modeling studies indicate that a preinfection vaccine would have a high population-level impact for control of TB disease. Second, immunology studies support the rationale for targeting prevention of infection, with evidence that host responses may be more effective during acute infection than during chronic infection. Third, natural history studies indicate that resistance to TB infection occurs in a small percentage of the population. Fourth, case-control studies of BCG indicate that it may provide protection from infection. Fifth, prevention-of-infection trials would have smaller sample sizes and a shorter duration than disease prevention trials and would enable opportunities to search for correlates of immunity as well as serve as a criterion for selecting a vaccine product for testing in a larger TB disease prevention trial. Together, these points support expanding the focus of TB vaccine development efforts to include prevention of infection as a primary goal along with vaccines or other interventions that reduce the rate of transmission and reactivation. PMID:25428938
Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Bacon, Kristina M; Beaumier, Coreen; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brooker, Simon; Couto, Artur Roberto; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Homma, Akira; Lee, Bruce Y; Loukas, Alex; Loblack, Marva; Morel, Carlos Medicis; Oliveira, Rodrigo Correa; Russell, Philip K
Hookworm infection is one of the world's most common neglected tropical diseases and a leading cause of iron deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries. A Human Hookworm Vaccine is currently being developed by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and is in phase 1 clinical testing. The candidate vaccine is comprised of two recombinant antigens known as Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1, each of which is an important parasite enzyme required for hookworms to successfully utilize host blood as a source of energy. The recombinant proteins are formulated on Alhydrogel(®) and are being tested in combination with a synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist. The aim of the vaccine is to induce anti-enzyme antibodies that will reduce both host blood loss and the number of hookworms attached to the gut. Transfer of the manufacturing technology to the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)/Bio-Manguinhos (a Brazilian public sector developing country vaccine manufacturer) is planned, with a clinical development plan that could lead to registration of the vaccine in Brazil. The vaccine would also need to be introduced in the poorest regions of Africa and Asia, where hookworm infection is highly endemic. Ultimately, the vaccine could become an essential tool for achieving hookworm control and elimination, a key target in the 2012 London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lehmann, B.; Eilers, R.; Donken, R.; Barug, D.; Swillens, J.; Vriend, C. de; Weerdenburg, S.; Pot, M.; Keulen, H. van; Paulussen, T.; Vermey, K.; Alberts, N.; Marra, E.; Melker, H.E. de; Mollema, L.
Both in 2013 and 2015 the mean intention of parents to vaccinate their child was high. Only 21% of parents reported making an informed decision about childhood vaccinations included in the NIP. Mass media attention on the use of allegedly inferior needles, which was later refuted, appeared to have a
... the disease no longer exists. If we keep vaccinating now, parents in the future may be able to trust that diseases like polio and meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about ...
Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin
Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics.
Jadhav, Emmanuel D; Winkler, Danielle L; Anderson, Billie S
The resurgence of vaccine preventable diseases occurs more often among intentionally unvaccinated individuals, placing at direct risk young adults not caught up on vaccinations. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of young adults with and without vaccination waivers and identify their perceived benefits, barriers, and influencers of vaccination. Young adults ( n = 964) from a Midwestern rural university responded to a survey (fall 2015-spring 2016) designed to identify their perception toward vaccination. Instrument consistency was measured using the Cronbach α-scores. The Chi-square test was used to test any sociodemographic differences and Mann-Whitney U -tests results for differences between exempt and non-exempt students. Analysis occurred in spring 2017. A little over one-third of young adults with a vaccination waiver were not up to date on their vaccinations, and think that vaccinations can cause autism. The biggest identifiable benefit was effective control against disease. The surveyed young adults ranked the out of pocket cost associated with vaccination as the most important barrier and safe and easy to use vaccines as the most important influencer of vaccination. Young adults who have had a vaccination waiver appear to not be up to date on their vaccinations. Vaccine administration programs, such as university campus clinics, would benefit from addressing perceptions unique to young adults with and without a vaccine waiver. This would subsequently better provide young adults a second shot for getting appropriately caught up on vaccinations.
Graves, P; Gelband, H
A malaria vaccine is needed because of the heavy burden of mortality and morbidity due to this disease. This review describes the results of trials of blood (asexual)-stage vaccines. Several are under development, but only one (MSP/RESA, also known as Combination B) has been tested in randomized controlled trials. To assess the effect of blood-stage malaria vaccines in preventing infection, disease, and death. In March 2006, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and the Science Citation Index. We also searched conference proceedings and reference lists of articles, and contacted organizations and researchers in the field. Randomized controlled trials comparing blood-stage vaccines (other than SPf66) against P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, or P. ovale with placebo, control vaccine, or routine antimalarial control measures in people of any age receiving a challenge malaria infection. Both authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Results for dichotomous data were expressed as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Five trials of MSP/RESA vaccine with 217 participants were included; all five reported on safety, and two on efficacy. No severe or systemic adverse effects were reported at doses of 13 to 15 microg of each antigen (39 to 45 microg total). One small efficacy trial with 17 non-immune participants with blood-stage parasites showed no reduction or delay in parasite growth rates after artificial challenge. In the second efficacy trial in 120 children aged five to nine years in Papua New Guinea, episodes of clinical malaria were not reduced, but MSP/RESA significantly reduced parasite density only in children who had not been pretreated with an antimalarial drug (sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine). Infections with the 3D7 parasite subtype of MSP2 (the variant included in the vaccine) were reduced (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.26 to
Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup
DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...
Nelson, E Anthony S; Sack, David; Wolfson, Lara; Walker, Damian G; Seng, Lim Fong; Steele, Duncan
A 2006 Commonwealth Association of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition workshop on financing children's vaccines highlighted the potential for vaccines to control diarrhoea and other diseases as well as spur economic development through better health. Clear communication of vaccination value to decision-makers is required, together with sustainable funding mechanisms. GAVI and partners have made great progress providing funding for vaccines for children in the poorest countries but other solutions may be required to achieve the same gains in middle- and high-income countries. World Health Organization has a wealth of freely available country-level data on immunisation that academics and advocates can use to communicate the economic and health benefits of vaccines to decision-makers.
Riedmann, Eva M
In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines.
Duerr, Ann; Wasserheit, Judith N; Corey, Lawrence
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is the most promising and feasible strategy to prevent the events during acute infection that simultaneously set the course of the epidemic in the community and the course of the disease for the individual. Because safety concerns limit the use of live, attenuated HIV and inactivated HIV, a variety of alternate approaches is being investigated. Traditional antibody-mediated approaches using recombinant HIV envelope proteins have shown no efficacy in 2 phase III trials. Current HIV vaccine trials are focusing primarily on cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated products that use viral vectors, either alone or as boosts to DNA plasmids that contain viral genes. The most immunogenic of these products appear to be the recombinant adenovirus vector vaccines, 2 of which are now in advanced clinical development.
Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick
In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2-3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, yet little research has investigated how participants' context and experiences influence their vaccination decision-making process over time. This paper aims to provide a detailed account of a mixed methods approach designed to understand the wider constellation of social and psychological factors likely to influence adult vaccination decisions, as well as the context in which these decisions take place, in the USA, the UK, France, India, China and Brazil. We employ a combination of qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing vaccination decisions, specifically seasonal flu and tetanus. To elicit these factors, we developed the journey to vaccination, a new qualitative approach anchored on the heuristics and biases tradition and the customer journey mapping approach. A purposive sampling strategy is used to select participants who represent a range of key sociodemographic characteristics. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. Typical journeys to vaccination will be proposed. Vaccination uptake is significantly influenced by social and psychological factors, some of which are under-reported and poorly understood. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the barriers and drivers to adult vaccination. Our findings will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. They will also be presented as practical recommendations at policy and industry meetings and healthcare
Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C
Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797
Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa
Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans
Most people do not react to vaccination and the incidence of vaccine anaphylaxis is estimated to be <1/million for all vaccines. Most anaphylactic reactions occur in non-food allergic children. It is strongly recommended that anyone admin- istering vaccines has resuscitation equipment available to manage potential ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.
Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C
The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine
Wilkins, A L; Snape, M D
The prevention of paediatric bacterial meningitis and septicaemia has recently entered a new era with the availability of two vaccines against capsular group B meningococcus (MenB). Both of these vaccines are based on sub-capsular proteins of the meningococcus, an approach that overcomes the challenges set by the poorly immunogenic MenB polysaccharide capsule but adds complexity to predicting and measuring the impact of their use. This review describes the development and use of MenB vaccines to date, from the use of outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines in MenB outbreaks around the world, to emerging evidence on the effectiveness of the newly available vaccines. While recent data from the United Kingdom supports the potential for protein-based vaccines to provide direct protection against MenB disease in immunised children, further research is required to understand the breadth and duration of this protection. A more detailed understanding of the impact of immunisation with these vaccines on nasopharyngeal carriage of the meningococcus is also required, to inform both their potential to induce herd immunity and to preferentially select for carriage of strains not susceptible to vaccine-induced antibodies. Although a full understanding of the potential impact of these vaccines will only be possible with this additional information, the availability of new tools to prevent the devastating effect of invasive MenB disease is a significant breakthrough in the fight against childhood sepsis and meningitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kristensen, Debra; Chen, Dexiang
New vaccine platform and delivery technologies that can have significant positive impacts on the effectiveness, acceptability, and safety of immunizations in developing countries are increasingly available. Although donor support for vaccine technology development is strong, the uptake of proven technologies by the vaccine industry and demand for them by purchasers continues to lag. This article explains the challenges and opportunities associated with accelerating the availability of innovative and beneficial vaccine technologies to meet critical needs in resource-poor settings over the next decade. Progress will require increased dialog between the public and private sectors around vaccine product attributes; establishment of specifications for vaccines that mirror programmatic needs; stronger encouragement of vaccine developers to consider novel technologies early in the product development process; broader facilitation of research and access to technologies through the formation of centers of excellence; the basing of vaccine purchase decisions on immunization systems costs rather than price per dose alone; possible subsidization of early technology adoption costs for vaccine producers that take on the risks of new technologies of importance to the public sector; and the provision of data to purchasers, better enabling them to make informed decisions that take into account the value of specific product attributes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hickling, JK; Jones, KR; Friede, M; Chen, D; Kristensen, D
Abstract Delivery of vaccine antigens to the dermis and/or epidermis of human skin (i.e. intradermal delivery) might be more efficient than injection into the muscle or subcutaneous tissue, thereby reducing the volumes of antigen. This is known as dose-sparing and has been demonstrated in clinical trials with some, but not all, vaccines. Dose-sparing could be beneficial to immunization programmes by potentially reducing the costs of purchase, distribution and storage of vaccines; increasing vaccine availability and effectiveness. The data obtained with intradermal delivery of some vaccines are encouraging and warrant further study and development; however significant gaps in knowledge and operational challenges such as reformulation, optimizing vaccine presentation and development of novel devices to aid intradermal vaccine delivery need to be addressed. Modelling of the costs and potential savings resulting from intradermal delivery should be done to provide realistic expectations of the potential benefits and to support cases for investment. Implementation and uptake of intradermal vaccine delivery requires further research and development, which depends upon collaboration between multiple stakeholders in the field of vaccination. PMID:21379418
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide. It is also the most common STI in adolescents. This highlights a great clinical and public health concern that must be addressed. Parents are typically involved in the clinical decision-making process of vaccine administration to children and adolescents. Therefore, understanding the acceptability of the HPV vaccination as a method to prevent STIs and certain cancers is critical. To present the three primary themes that emerged from the literature: parental attitudes, parental beliefs and parental barrier towards vaccinating children and adolescents with the HPV vaccine. A literature search using Scopus to determine parents' attitudes and beliefs towards vaccinating children and adolescents with the HPV vaccine. The initial search included the key search terms of 'children' and 'HPV vaccine'. The publication year was limited from 2006 to present. The three themes greatly influence parents' decisions to vaccinate their children. In the future, more attention needs to be paid to specific subgroups. Future research should include groups that are currently under-represented: fathers, urban populations, low socio-economic status and ethnic minorities. Since nurses worldwide are often sought as healthcare resources by parents in the clinical decision-making process, their understanding of the attitude, beliefs and barriers parents have towards the HPV vaccine is paramount. © 2012 The Author. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.
Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia
Biodefense vaccines are developed against a diverse group of pathogens. Vaccines were developed for some of these pathogens a long time ago but they are facing new challenges to move beyond the old manufacturing technologies. New vaccines to be developed against other pathogens have to determine whether to follow traditional vaccination strategies or to seek new approaches. Advances in basic immunology and recombinant DNA technology have fundamentally transformed the process of formulating a vaccine concept, optimizing protective antigens, and selecting the most effective vaccine delivery approach for candidate biodefense vaccines. PMID:19837293
Matejić, Bojana; Kesić, Vesna
The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the
Full Text Available The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years, attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years
Chen, Tao; Dredze, Mark
Visual imagery plays a key role in health communication; however, there is little understanding of what aspects of vaccine-related images make them effective communication aids. Twitter, a popular venue for discussions related to vaccination, provides numerous images that are shared with tweets. The objectives of this study were to understand how images are used in vaccine-related tweets and provide guidance with respect to the characteristics of vaccine-related images that correlate with the higher likelihood of being retweeted. We collected more than one million vaccine image messages from Twitter and characterized various properties of these images using automated image analytics. We fit a logistic regression model to predict whether or not a vaccine image tweet was retweeted, thus identifying characteristics that correlate with a higher likelihood of being shared. For comparison, we built similar models for the sharing of vaccine news on Facebook and for general image tweets. Most vaccine-related images are duplicates (125,916/237,478; 53.02%) or taken from other sources, not necessarily created by the author of the tweet. Almost half of the images contain embedded text, and many include images of people and syringes. The visual content is highly correlated with a tweet's textual topics. Vaccine image tweets are twice as likely to be shared as nonimage tweets. The sentiment of an image and the objects shown in the image were the predictive factors in determining whether an image was retweeted. We are the first to study vaccine images on Twitter. Our findings suggest future directions for the study and use of vaccine imagery and may inform communication strategies around vaccination. Furthermore, our study demonstrates an effective study methodology for image analysis. ©Tao Chen, Mark Dredze. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 03.04.2018.
Full Text Available Roger E Thomas,1 Dave Jackson2,3 1Department of Family Medicine, G012 Health Sciences Centre, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Independent Research Consultant, Calgary, AB, Canada; 3Database Consultant, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: To provide a free flexible database for use by any researcher for assessing reports of adverse events after vaccination. Results: A database was developed in Microsoft ACCESS to assess reports of serious adverse events after yellow fever vaccination using Brighton Collaboration criteria. The database is partly automated (if data panels contain identical data fields the data are automatically also entered into those fields. The purpose is to provide the database free for developers to add additional panels to assess other vaccines. Keywords: serious adverse events after vaccination, database, process to assess vaccine-associated events
Tabbara, Khaled S
Leishmaniasis is a vector-born protozoan disease. Approximately 12 million individuals are affected worldwide with an estimated annual incidence of 1.5-2 million. Two clinical manifestations are recognized, cutaneous, and visceral, both of which are common in the Middle East. In both forms, infection is chronic, with potential deformities, persistence following cure, and lifelong risk of reactivation. Attempts to develop an effective human Leishmania vaccine have not yet succeeded. Leishmanization, a crude form of live vaccination historically originated in this part of the world. Experimental vaccination has been extensively studied in model animals in the past 2 decades. In this review, major human killed vaccine trials are surveyed, and modern trends in Leishmania vaccine development, including subunit vaccines, naked DNA vaccines, and transmission blocking vaccines are explored. Recent findings of a link between persistence of live parasites, and maintenance of long-term immunity suggest live vaccination with attenuated strains, as a future vaccination strategy.
Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Khomvilai, Sumana
The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers Network (DCVMN) assembled high-profile leaders from global health organisations and vaccine manufactures for its 16th Annual General Meeting to work towards a common goal: providing quality vaccines for all people. Vaccines contribute to a healthy community and robust health system; the Ebola outbreak has raised awareness of the threat and damage one single infectious disease can make, and it is clear that the world was not prepared. However, more research to better understand emerging infectious agents might lead to suitable vaccines which help prevent future outbreaks. DCVMN members presented their progress in developing novel vaccines against Dengue, HPV, Chikungunya, Cholera, cell-based influenza and other vaccines, demonstrating the commitment towards eliminating and eradicating preventable diseases worldwide through global collaboration and technology transfer. The successful introduction of novel Sabin-IPV and Oral Cholera vaccine in China and Korea respectively in 2015 was highlighted. In order to achieve global immunisation, local authorities and community leaders play an important role in the decision-making in vaccine introduction and uptake, based on the ability of vaccines to protect vaccinated people and protect non-vaccinated in the community through herd immunity. Reducing the risk of vaccine shortages can also be achieved by increasing regulatory convergence at regional and international levels. Combatting preventable diseases remains challenging, and collective efforts for improving multi-centre clinical trials, creating regional vaccine security strategies, fostering developing vaccine markets and procurement, and building trust in vaccines were discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
M. P. Kostinov
Full Text Available Recent epidemiological events showed that pregnant women are the most vulnerable part of population if there is the flu in the country and they die much more often than the rest part of people. That is why influenza vaccination of population including pregnant women is one of the priorities of public health service in our state. Worldwide experience of influenza vaccination of either adults or children by new adjuvant vaccine has caused our research of its efficiency among pregnant women. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of antibodies to influenza virus strain A/H1N1/v, A/H3N2 and B in pregnant women vaccinated adjuvant trivalent subunit vaccine. Our research is randomized and comparative on parallel groups. It was carried out within the demands of Russian Federation and International ethic norms adapted to such kind of researches. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the vaccine was conducted in 27 pregnant women in the II trimester of gestation, and in 23 pregnant women in the III trimester of gestation, 19 non-pregnant women was in the control group. The level of antibodies in the serum was determined using a reaction of hemagglutination inhibition before and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the vaccination. Revealed that influenza vaccination of pregnant women in the II and III trimester, causes the increase in titers of antibodies to vaccine influenza strains A and B, to fully meet the required criteria CPMP, and does not differ from the nonpregnant group. In a month after vaccination the level of seroprotective against A/H1N1/v was 77.0%, A/H3N2 — 88.9%, B — 85.2% after vaccination in II trimester, and 87.0; 87.0; 91.35% in III trimester of gestation. The factor of seroconversion after vaccination in II trimester for A/H1N1/v was equal to 6.5, A/H3N2 — 7.2, B — 6.5, after vaccination in III trimester of pregnancy: 7.1, 6.5 and 5.1 correspondingly. At the same time revealed accelerated decline in antibody titer against
Maksiutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Shchelkunov, S N
The review gives data on the history of smallpox vaccination and shows the high topicality of designing the current safe vaccines against orthopoxviruses. Four generations of live smallpox, protein subunit, and DNA vaccines are considered. Analysis of the data published leads to the conclusion that it is promising to use the up-to-date generations of safe smallpox subunit or DNA vaccines for mass primary immunization with possible further revaccination with classical live vaccine.
Sandra Crouse Quinn
Full Text Available Black adults are significantly less likely to be immunized for seasonal influenza when compared to Whites. This persistent disparity contributes to increased influenza-related morbidity and mortality in the African American population. Most scholarship on vaccine disparities has compared Whites and Blacks. Employing Public Health Critical Race Praxis, this study seeks to shift the focus to explore differences within the Black population. Utilizing a nationally-representative 2015 survey of US Black adults (n = 806, we explore differences by gender, age, income, and education across vaccine-related measures (e.g., perceived risk, knowledge, attitudes and racial factors (e.g. racial salience, racial fairness, perceived discrimination. We also explore differences by vaccine behavior in the past five years among those who vaccinate every year, most years but not all, once or twice, and never. Greater frequency of flu vaccine uptake was associated with better self-reported vaccine knowledge, more positive vaccine attitudes, more trust in the flu vaccine and the vaccine process, higher perceived disease risk, lower perceived risk of vaccine side effects, stronger subjective and moral norms, lower general vaccine hesitancy, higher confidence in the flu vaccine, and lower perceived barriers. Logistic regression results highlighted other significant differences among the groups, emphasizing areas to target for improved vaccination rates. We find great diversity within the Black community related to influenza immunization decisions, highlighting the need to “break down the monolith” in future research.
Mroz, Sarah; Zhang, Xiao; Williams, Mercedes; Conlon, Amy; LoConte, Noelle K
Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is common and can progress to various types of cancer. HPV infection can be prevented through vaccination; however, vaccination rates among adolescents are low. The objective of this study was to assess efforts among Wisconsin stakeholders in HPV vaccination and organizational capacity for future collaborative work. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 277 stakeholders in HPV vaccination activities, from April 30, 2015, through June 30, 2015. Stakeholders were public health professionals, health care providers, educators, quality improvement professionals, researchers, and advocates identified as engaged in HPV vaccination work. Of the 277 invited stakeholders, 117 (42%) responded to the survey. Findings showed that most current HPV vaccination activities targeted 3 groups: adolescents and parents, clinical and health professionals, and communities and health systems. The main activities directed at these groups were providing printed educational materials, professional education, and media campaigns to raise awareness. Common barriers reported were lack of understanding about the link between HPV and cancer, requests to delay vaccination, difficulty completing the 3-dose vaccine series, and reluctance to discuss sexuality. HPV vaccination rates are far below those of other vaccinations administered to adolescents in Wisconsin. Our study showed that various local efforts were being made to increase HPV vaccination uptake; however, many barriers exist to initiation and completion of the vaccine series. Future interventions should address barriers and employ evidence-based strategies for increasing HPV vaccination rates.
Olsen, Glenn H; Miller, Kimberli J; Docherty, Douglas E; Bochsler, Valerie S; Sileo, Louis
West Nile virus was introduced into the United States in the vicinity of New York, New York, USA in 1999. The virus has since killed large numbers of birds nationwide, especially, but not limited to, crows (Corvus brachyrhinchos). One sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) at the Bridgeport Zoo (Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA) reportedly died from West Nile virus, so sandhill cranes and endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana), both in the wild and in captive breeding colonies at United States Geological Service (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Laurel, Maryland, USA) were considered at risk. A killed vaccine in sandhill cranes was evaluated by vaccinating and then challenging these cranes with live West Nile virus. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the killed vaccine developed significant titers when compared with unvaccinated controls. No sandhill cranes inoculated with the vaccine and challenged with the virus died from West Nile virus infection. In addition, no unvaccinated challenged sandhill cranes died. However, 2 days postchallenge, vaccinated cranes had significantly less viremia (P cranes. Seven days postchallenge vaccinated cranes had significantly less cloacal shedding of the virus (P cranes and significantly less weight loss (P cranes. Vaccinated sandhill cranes developed significantly higher titers 14 days postchallenge and were viremic for shorter periods of time after challenge than unvaccinated individuals. Unvaccinated challenged cranes had glial cell aggregates in both the brain and brain stem areas, and this was not observed in vaccinated challenged cranes or in vaccinated unchallenged cranes.
Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...
Hansen, M; Met, Ö; Svane, I M
Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... to transiently affect in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....
Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Carrasquila, Gabriel; Luna, Expedito; Ramos-Castañeda, José
The vaccine against Dengue virus (DENV), Dengvaxia® (CYD), produced by Sanofi-Pasteur, has been registered by several national regulatory agencies; nevertheless, the performance and security of this vaccine have been challenged in a series of recent papers. In this work, we intend to contribute to the debate by analyzing the concept of an enhancing vaccine, presenting objections to the epidemiological model base of the concept and, likewise, presenting data that contradict that concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deirdre Therese Little MBBS, DRANZCOG, FACRRM
Full Text Available Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been prescribed the oral contraceptive pill to treat menstrual cycle abnormalities prior to investigation and diagnosis. Vaccine research does not present an ovary histology report of tested rats but does present a testicular histology report. Enduring ovarian capacity and duration of function following vaccination is unresearched in preclinical studies, clinical and postlicensure studies. Postmarketing surveillance does not accurately represent diagnoses in adverse event notifications and can neither represent unnotified cases nor compare incident statistics with vaccine course administration rates. The potential significance of a case series of adolescents with idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency following HPV vaccination presenting to a general practice warrants further research. Preservation of reproductive health is a primary concern in the recipient target group. Since this group includes all prepubertal and pubertal young women, demonstration of ongoing, uncompromised safety for the ovary is urgently required. This matter needs to be resolved for the purposes of population health and public vaccine confidence.
Full Text Available Monika Simmons1, Nimfa Teneza-Mora1, Robert Putnak21Viral and Rickettsial Diseases Department, Naval Medical Research Center, 2Division of Viral Diseases, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USAAbstract: Dengue fever is caused by the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV serotypes 1–4, and is the most common arboviral infection of humans in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. There are currently no prophylaxis or treatment options in the form of vaccines or antivirals, leaving vector control the only method of prevention. A particular challenge with DENV is that a successful vaccine has to be effective against all four serotypes without predisposing for antibody-mediated enhanced disease. In this review, we discuss the current lead vaccine candidates in clinical trials, as well as some second-generation vaccine candidates undergoing preclinical evaluation. In addition, we discuss DENV epidemiology, clinical disease and strategies used for Flavivirus antivirals in the past, the development of new DENV therapeutics, and their potential usefulness for prophylaxis and treatment.Keywords: tetravalent dengue vaccine, live attenuated vaccine, purified inactivated vaccine, DNA vaccine, antibody-dependent enhancement, antivirals
MA Badhul Haq
Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV, the causative virus of the disease, is found in most shrimp farming areas of the world, where it causes large economic losses to the shrimp farming industry. The potentially fatal virus has been found to be a threat not only to all shrimp species, but also to other marine and freshwater crustaceans, such as crab and crayfish. To date, no effective prophylactic treatment measures are available for viral infections in shrimp and other crustaceans. Due to current aquaculture practices and the broad host range of WSSV, intervention strategies including vaccination against this virus would be pivotal to save and protect shrimp farming. Several achievements have been attained in the search of novel vaccines for WSSV. DNA vaccination, recombinant vaccines, oral vaccination techniques and gene therapy are some of the thrust areas of focus for scientists and researchers. This review article highlights the recent trends in the development of WSSV vaccines either as DNA vaccines or recombinant vaccines and their functioning strategies as suggested by the researchers worldwide.
Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Bloom, David; Plotkin, Stanley; Picot, Valentina; Louis, Jacques; Watson, Michael
Vaccination is a complex ecosystem with several components that interact with one another and with the environment. Today's vaccine ecosystem is defined by the pursuit of polio eradication, the drive to get as many of the new vaccines to as many people as possible and the research and development against immunologically challenging diseases. Despite these successes, vaccine ecosystem is facing keys issues with regard to supply/distribution and cost/profitability asymmetry that risk slowing its global growth. The conference "Vaccination ecosystem health check: achieving impact today and sustainability for tomorrow" held in Annecy-France (January 19-21, 2015) took stock of the health of today's vaccination ecosystem and its ability to reliably and sustainably supply high-quality vaccines while investing in tomorrow's needed innovation. Small and decreasing numbers of suppliers/manufacturing facilities; paucity of research-driven companies; regulatory pressures; market uncertainties; political prioritization; anti-vaccine movements/complacency; and technological and programmatic issues were acknowledged as the major challenges that could weaken today's vaccination ecosystem. The expert panel discussed also drivers and barriers to a sustainable vaccination ecosystem; the metrics of a vaccination ecosystem; and what should be added, removed, increased, or reduced to maintain the health of the vaccination ecosystem.
Danchin, M H; Costa-Pinto, J; Attwell, K; Willaby, H; Wiley, K; Hoq, M; Leask, J; Perrett, K P; O'Keefe, Jacinta; Giles, M L; Marshall, H
Maternal and childhood vaccine decision-making begins prenatally. Amongst pregnant Australian women we aimed to ascertain vaccine information received, maternal immunisation uptake and attitudes and concerns regarding childhood vaccination. We also aimed to determine any correlation between a) intentions and concerns regarding childhood vaccination, (b) concerns about pregnancy vaccination, (c) socioeconomic status (SES) and (d) uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccines during pregnancy and routine vaccines during childhood. Women attending public antenatal clinics were recruited in three Australian states. Surveys were completed on iPads. Follow-up phone surveys were done three to six months post delivery, and infant vaccination status obtained via the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR). Between October 2015 and March 2016, 975 (82%) of 1184 mothers consented and 406 (42%) agreed to a follow up survey, post delivery. First-time mothers (445; 49%) had significantly more vaccine concerns in pregnancy and only 73% had made a decision about childhood vaccination compared to 89% of mothers with existing children (p-valuepost delivery survey, 46% and 82% of mothers reported receiving pregnancy influenza and pertussis vaccines respectively. The mother's degree of vaccine hesitancy and two attitudinal factors were correlated with vaccine uptake post delivery. There was no association between reported maternal vaccine uptake or SES and childhood vaccine uptake. First time mothers are more vaccine hesitant and undecided about childhood vaccination, and only two thirds of all mothers believed they received enough information during pregnancy. New interventions to improve both education and communication on childhood and maternal vaccines, delivered by midwives and obstetricians in the Australian public hospital system, may reduce vaccine hesitancy for all mothers in pregnancy and post delivery, particularly first-time mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
Colombian professor Manuel Patarroyo developed a new malaria vaccine (SPF66). In February 1995, WHO and the Colombian government agreed to establish a manufacturing plant in Colombia for mass production of SPF66. This vaccine is likely to be available to persons in Africa, where 90% of all annual global cases live. In fact, Africa witnesses one million of 1.5 million annual malaria cases. Many children die from malaria. An extensive clinical trial of the SPF66 vaccine in Colombia achieved a 22-77% protection rate. The young and the very old had the high protection rates. A series of human clinical trials in the Gambia and Tanzania indicate that SPF66 produces a strong immune response against malaria without any harmful side effects. The results of field tests in the Gambia and Thailand and of trials in Colombia are expected in 1995. If the vaccine could reduce the incidence of malaria by just 50%, the lives of as many as 500,000 African children could be saved. SPF66 contains a combination of synthetic peptides (=or 2 amino acids). Mass production would make it affordable (estimated $5/injection). At least five other malaria vaccines hold promise and are ready for human testing in endemic countries. SPF66 is approximately three years ahead of all other promising malaria vaccines. 20 more vaccines are in the development stage. The large scale production of SPF66 in Colombia could begin within three years. Professor Patarroyo has financed his 12-year-old research himself because he wants to protect the lives of persons in developing countries. In 1992, the Congo's president petitioned the international community at the WHO summit in Amsterdam to join the fight against malaria since it is now in a position to defeat malaria since it finished the cold war.
Blanchard, Tatiana; Srivastava, Pramod K; Duan, Fei
Research shows that cancers are recognized by the immune system but that the immune recognition of tumors does not uniformly result in tumor rejection or regression. Quantitating the success or failure of the immune system in tumor elimination is difficult because we do not really know the total numbers of encounters of the immune system with the tumors. Regardless of that important issue, recognition of the tumor by the immune system implicitly contains the idea of the tumor antigen, which is what is actually recognized. We review the molecular identity of all forms of tumor antigens (antigens with specific mutations, cancer-testis antigens, differentiation antigens, over-expressed antigens) and discuss the use of these multiple forms of antigens in experimental immunotherapy of mouse and human melanoma. These efforts have been uniformly unsuccessful; however, the approaches that have not worked or have somewhat worked have been the source of many new insights into melanoma immunology. From a critical review of the various approaches to vaccine therapy we conclude that individual cancer-specific mutations are truly the only sources of cancer-specific antigens, and therefore, the most attractive targets for immunotherapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
... factors for developing them, such as taking oral contraceptives . A safety review of Gardasil in Denmark and ... and venous thromboembolic adverse events after immunisation of adolescent girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Denmark ...
González-Romo, Fernando; Picazo, Juan J
Recent and important advances in the fields of immunology, genomics, functional genomics, immunogenetics, immunogenomics, bioinformatics, microbiology, genetic engineering, systems biology, synthetic biochemistry, proteomics, metabolomics and nanotechnology, among others, have led to new approaches in the development of vaccines. The better identification of ideal epitopes, the strengthening of the immune response due to new adjuvants, and the search of new routes of vaccine administration, are good examples of advances that are already a reality and that will favour the development of more vaccines, their use in indicated population groups, or its production at a lower cost. There are currently more than 130 vaccines are under development against the more wished (malaria or HIV), difficult to get (CMV or RSV), severe re-emerging (Dengue or Ebola), increasing importance (Chagas disease or Leishmania), and nosocomial emerging (Clostridium difficile or Staphylococcus aureus) infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.
... containing preservative that is added to vials of vaccine that contain more than one dose to prevent contamination and growth of potentially harmful bacteria. For children with a prior history of allergic reactions to any of these substances ...
Ahmed, Tanvir; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R; Zaman, K; Sinclair, David; Qadri, Firdausi
research is needed to develop safe and effective vaccines to provide both short and long-term protection against ETEC diarrhoea.
Biomira is developing a therapeutic cancer vaccine [THERATOPE] for treatment of breast and other cancers. This profile has been selected from R&D Insight, a pharmaceutical intelligence database produced by Adis International Ltd. THERATOPE consists of the mucin antigen, sialyl-Tn (STn), a carbohydrate located on the surface of breast, colorectal and ovarian cancer cells, conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Merck KGaA has acquired a worldwide licence to THERATOPE for treatment of breast cancer. Under the terms of the licence, Biomira and Merck KGaA, via its US affiliate, EMD Pharmaceuticals, will jointly market the vaccine in the US. Merck KGaA holds exclusive marketing rights for the rest of the world, except in Canada (where Biomira retains rights), Israel and the Palestine Autonomy Area. Merck KGaA is now collaborating on phase III development for breast cancer. Biomira stands to receive $US150 million in licence, milestone payments and equity investments. The development costs will be shared between the two companies in North America but Merck KGaA will be solely responsible for these costs in countries outside the US. Previously, Chiron Corporation had purchased a licence to THERATOPE in 1997; however, Chiron terminated this agreement in June 2000. Under the terms of the termination, Biomira paid Chiron $US2.25 million to compensate the company for its investment in the development of THERATOPE. In addition, Biomira will make another payment of $US3.25 million to Chiron upon FDA approval of the vaccine. No further payments or royalties will be made. In the third quarter of 2002, an independent review of interim data from the trial was conducted. This was the fifth scheduled review of the data by the Independent Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB), all of which produced a positive response. Following the completion of the review, the DSMB stated that the trial should continue and that it had no safety concerns regarding this trial. Although the data
Duijzer, L.E.; van Jaarsveld, W.; Dekker, R.
Vaccination is one of the most effective ways to prevent and/or control the outbreak of infectious diseases. This medical intervention also brings about many logistical questions. In the past years, the Operations Research/Operations Management community has shown a growing interest in the
L.E. Duijzer (Evelot); W.L. van Jaarsveld (Willem); R. Dekker (Rommert)
textabstractVaccination is one of the most effective ways to prevent and/or control the outbreak of infectious diseases. This medical intervention also brings about many logistical questions. In the past years, the Operations Research/Operations Management community has shown a growing interest in
L.E. Duijzer (Evelot); W.L. van Jaarsveld (Willem); R. Dekker (Rommert)
markdownabstractVaccination is one of the most effective ways to prevent the outbreak of an infectious disease. This medical intervention also brings about many logistical questions. In recent years, in the Operations Research/Operations Management community there is growing interest in the
A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l
The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund was established in September 2015 as a partnership between the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Global Affairs Canada, and the International Development Research Centre. It represents a joint investment of $57 million over five years to support the development, production, and ...
Joseph T F Lau
Full Text Available HPV vaccines are available to men but there are few studies investigating the acceptability of HPV vaccines among men who have sex with men (MSM, a high risk group. We assessed the intention to take up HPV vaccines among MSM in Hong Kong and the associated factors related to cognitions on HPV and HPV vaccines, basing on the Health Belief Model (n = 542. The acceptability of HPV vaccines was 20% (unconditional on efficacies and price, 29.2% (conditional on efficacies and market price, 51.7% (conditional on efficacies and discounted price and 79.1% (conditional on efficacies and free price. Adjusting for background variables, composite scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers and cue to actions were significantly associated with acceptability of HPV vaccines conditional on specific efficacies and the market price. Acceptability of HPV vaccines was highly price sensitive. Future studies need to use conditional measures. Implementation and translational researches are warranted.
Worz, Chad; Martin, Caren McHenry; Travis, Catherine
Several vaccine-preventable diseases-influenza, pneumonia, herpes zoster, and pertussis-threaten the health of older adults in the United States. Both the costs associated with treating these diseases and the potential to increase morbidity and mortality are high for this patient population. Pharmacists and other health care professionals play a significant role in ensuring the elderly patient receives the recommended vaccines at the recommended intervals.
This photo was taken in the village of Ladji, which is on the outskirts of Cotonou, the capital of Benin. At the time, I was a second year medical student volunteering at a local medical clinic. On every Wednesday morning, many Beninese babies, like this one, cry out of discomfort while receiving their monthly vaccinations. The photo shows a local clinic nurse administering the vaccination.
Full Text Available This photo was taken in the village of Ladji, which is on the outskirts of Cotonou, the capital of Benin. At the time, I was a second year medical student volunteering at a local medical clinic. On every Wednesday morning, many Beninese babies, like this one, cry out of discomfort while receiving their monthly vaccinations. The photo shows a local clinic nurse administering the vaccination.
The development of an effective HIV vaccine has been an ongoing area of research. The high variability in HIV-1 virus strains has represented a major challenge in successful development. Ideally, an effective candidate vaccine would provide protection against the majority of clades of HIV. Two major hurdles to overcome are immunodominance and sequence diversity. This vaccine utilizes a strategy for overcoming these two issues by identifying the conserved regions of the virus and exploiting them for use in a targeted therapy. NCI seeks licensees and/or research collaborators to commercialize this technology, which has been validated in macaque models.
Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... seen after Hepatitis B vaccination are sudden infant death syndrome, multiple sclerosis, chronic ... are very serious conditions, which require hospitalization with immediate medical attention.
Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Non-Vaccination Of Dogs Against Rabies In Ibadan, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease that affects human, domestic and wild animals.
consensus about vaccination rates among dental professionals in the literature as dental surgeons ..... Research Category of the Hatton poster competition in the 3rd. African Middle East ... Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1987;15:125-7. 6.
... it requires ultra-cold storage (-196° C), intravenous administration by veterinary health professionals, ... It is expected that by the end of the project, the production process of the new heartwater vaccine will ... Agricultural Research Council.
The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) is collaborating with the Army to develop a candidate vaccine against botulism. Under a collaboration agreement between the National Cancer Institute and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of
Frierson, J. Gordon
After failed attempts at producing bacteria-based vaccines, the discovery of a viral agent causing yellow fever and its isolation in monkeys opened new avenues of research. Subsequent advances were the attenuation of the virus in mice and later in tissue culture; the creation of the seed lot system to avoid spontaneous mutations; the ability to produce the vaccine on a large scale in eggs; and the removal of dangerous contaminants. An important person in the story is Max Theiler, who was Prof...
Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W
Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.
Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto
Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.
Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.
Baylor, Norman W
A vaccine is an immunogen, the administration of which is intended to stimulate the immune system to result in the prevention, amelioration, or therapy of any disease or infection (US Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry: content and format of chemistry, manufacturing, and controls information and establishment description information for a vaccine or related product). A vaccine may be a live attenuated preparation of microorganisms, inactivated (killed) whole organisms, living irradiated cells, crude fractions, or purified immunogens, including those derived from recombinant DNA in a host cell, conjugates formed by covalent linkage of components, synthetic antigens, polynucleotides (such as the plasmid DNA vaccines), living vectored cells expressing specific heterologous immunogens, or cells pulsed with immunogen. Vaccines are highly complex products that differ from small molecule drugs because of the biological nature of the source materials such as those derived from microorganisms as well as the various cell substrates from which some are derived. Regardless of the technology used, because of their complexities, vaccines must undergo extensive characterization and testing. Special expertise and procedures are needed for their manufacture, control, and regulation. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) in the United States responsible for assuring quality, safety, and effectiveness of all human medical products, including vaccines for human use.The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) within the US FDA is responsible for overseeing the regulation of therapeutic and preventative vaccines against infectious diseases. Authority for the regulation of vaccines resides in Section 351 of the Public Health Service Act and specific sections of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C). Vaccines are regulated as biologics and licensed based on the demonstration of safety and effectiveness. The
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Meningococcal disease remains a devastating and feared infection with a significant morbidity and mortality profile. The successful impact of meningococcal capsular group C glyconconjugate vaccines introduced into the UK infant immunization schedule in 1999, has resulted in >80% of disease now being attributable to meningococcal capsular group B (MenB). MenB glyconconjugate vaccines are not immunogenic and hence, vaccine design has focused on sub-capsular antigens. Recently, a four component vaccine to combat MenB disease (4CMenB) has progressed through clinical development and was approved by the European Medicines Agency at the end of 2012. This vaccine has proven safe and immunogenic and has been predicted to provide protection against ~73% of the MenB disease from England and Wales. Recommendation/implementation of the vaccine into the UK infant schedule is currently being evaluated. 4CMenB has the potential to provide protection against a significant proportion of MenB disease in the UK which is currently unpreventable.
Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.
Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676
Lazalde, Gabriela E; Gilkey, Melissa B; Kornides, Melanie L; McRee, Annie-Laurie
Offering HPV vaccine in settings beyond the traditional medical home holds promise for increasing the currently low levels of coverage. As adolescents frequently visit dentists, dental practices may be one such alternative vaccination setting. This study assessed parent attitudes about the roles dental providers could play in HPV prevention, including vaccine provision. In September 2016, we conducted an online survey using a national sample (n = 1209) of U.S. parents of adolescent children aged 11-17. Adolescents' mean age was 14; 53% were male and 62% were non-Hispanic white. We identified correlates of parents' comfort with dentists as HPV vaccinators using multivariable logistic regression. Overall, 23% of parents reported that they would feel comfortable with their child receiving HPV vaccine from a dentist. In multivariable analyses, parents had greater odds of being comfortable if they had higher trust in their child's primary care provider (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.96-1.68) and lower odds if their child was female (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.50-0.86). Convenience (20%) and oral health expertise (20%) were the most commonly cited benefits of dentists administering the vaccine. Wanting their child's regular provider to administer and track vaccinations (61% and 58%, respectively), and lack of insurance coverage (30%) were the most commonly cited concerns. Parents expressed somewhat greater comfort with roles dentists might play in promoting HPV vaccination other than vaccine delivery, such as providing education. Parents in this sample had low comfort with dentists as HPV vaccinators. Findings from this study highlight potential concerns to be addressed before dental practices consider offering HPV vaccination in the future. Further research should assess dentists' perspectives and explore alternative roles for dental providers in HPV prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Xueting; Wang, Ning; Li, Ning; Zhen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ting
ABSTRACT To overcome drawbacks of current injection vaccines, such as causing needle phobia, needing health professionals for inoculation, and generating dangerous sharps wastes, researchers have designed novel vaccines that are combined with various microneedle arrays (MAs), in particular, with the multifunctional particle-constructed MAs (MPMAs). MPMAs prove able to enhance vaccine stability through incorporating vaccine ingredients in the carrier, and can be painlessly inoculated by minimally trained workers or by self-administration, leaving behind no metal needle pollution while eliciting robust systemic and mucosal immunity to antigens, thanks to delivering vaccines to cutaneous or mucosal compartments enriched in professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Especially, MPMAs can be easily integrated with functional molecules fulfilling targeting vaccine delivery or controlling immune response toward a Th1 or Th2 pathway to generate desired immunity against pathogens. Herein, we introduce the latest research and development of various MPMAs which are a novel but promising vaccine adjuvant delivery system (VADS). PMID:27159879
Voronin, Yegor; Snow, William
To describe and compare the diverse organizational structures and funding mechanisms applied to advance HIV preventive vaccine research and development and to help explain and inform evolving infrastructures and collaborative funding models. On the basis of models that have been tried, improved or abandoned over three decades, the field seems to have settled into a relatively stable set of diverse initiatives, each with its own organizational signature. At the same time, this set of organizations is forging cross-organizational collaborations, which promise to acquire newly emergent beneficial properties. Strong motivation to expedite HIV vaccine R&D has driven a diversity of customized and inventive organizational approaches, largely government and foundation funded. Although no one approach has proven a panacea, the field has evolved into a constellation of often overlapping organizations that complement or reinforce one another. The Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise, a responsive, rapidly evolving loose infrastructure, is an innovative collaboration to catalyze that evolution.
Munzir, Said; Nasir, Muhammad; Ramli, Marwan
Malaria is a disease caused by an amoeba (single-celled animal) type of plasmodium where anopheles mosquito serves as the carrier. This study examines the optimal control problem of malaria disease spread based on Aron and May (1982) SIR type models and seeks the optimal solution by minimizing the prevention of the spreading of malaria by vaccine. The aim is to investigate optimal control strategies on preventing the spread of malaria by vaccination. The problem in this research is solved using analytical approach. The analytical method uses the Pontryagin Minimum Principle with the symbolic help of MATLAB software to obtain optimal control result and to analyse the spread of malaria with vaccination control.
Brewer, Bradley G; Mitchell, Robert A; Harandi, Amir; Eaton, John W
Almost 100 years have passed since the seminal observations of Schöne showing that vaccination of animals with fetal tissue would prevent the growth of transplantable tumors. Many subsequent reports have affirmed the general idea that immunologic rejection of transplantable tumors, as well as prevention of carcinogenesis, may be affected by vaccination with embryonic/fetal material. Following a decade of intense research on this phenomenon during approximately 1964-1974, interest appears to have waned. This earlier experimental work may be particularly pertinent in view of the rising interest in so-called cancer stem cells. We believe that further work - perhaps involving the use of embryonic stem cells as immunogens - is warranted and that the results reviewed herein support the concept that vaccination against the appearance of cancers of all kinds is a real possibility.
Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Brown, Shawn T; Welling, Joel S; Norman, Bryan A; Connor, Diana L; Chen, Sheng-I; Slayton, Rachel B; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Wateska, Angela R; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Lee, Bruce Y
When policymakers make decision about the target populations and timing of influenza vaccination, they may not consider the impact on the vaccine supply chains, which may in turn affect vaccine availability. Our goal is to explore the effects on the Thailand vaccine supply chain of introducing influenza vaccines and varying the target populations and immunization time-frames. We Utilized our custom-designed software HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains), we developed a detailed, computational discrete-event simulation model of the Thailand's National Immunization Program (NIP) supply chain in Trang Province, Thailand. A suite of experiments simulated introducing influenza vaccines for different target populations and over different time-frames prior to and during the annual influenza season. Introducing influenza vaccines creates bottlenecks that reduce the availability of both influenza vaccines as well as the other NIP vaccines, with provincial to district transport capacity being the primary constraint. Even covering only 25% of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice-recommended population while administering the vaccine over six months hinders overall vaccine availability so that only 62% of arriving patients can receive vaccines. Increasing the target population from 25% to 100% progressively worsens these bottlenecks, while increasing influenza vaccination time-frame from 1 to 6 months decreases these bottlenecks. Since the choice of target populations for influenza vaccination and the time-frame to deliver this vaccine can substantially affect the flow of all vaccines, policy-makers may want to consider supply chain effects when choosing target populations for a vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loze, Priscilla Magalhaes; Nasciben, Luciana Bertholim; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Itria, Alexander; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho
Several countries require manufacturers to present a budget impact analysis (BIA), together with a cost-effectiveness analysis, to support national funding requests. However, guidelines for conducting BIA of vaccines are scarce. To analyze the methodological approaches used in published budget impact analysis (BIA) of vaccines, discussing specific methodological issues related to vaccines. This systematic review of the literature on BIA of vaccines was carried out in accordance with the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination - CRD guidelines. We searched multiple databases: MedLine, Embase, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS), Cochrane Library, DARE Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), HTA Database (via Centre for Reviews and Dissemination - CRD), and grey literature. Two researchers, working independently, selected the studies and extracted the data. The methodology quality of individual studies was assessed using the ISPOR 2012 Budget Impact Analysis Good Practice II Task Force. A qualitative narrative synthesis was conducted. Twenty-two studies were reviewed. The most frequently evaluated vaccines were pneumococcal (41%), influenza (23%) and rotavirus (18%). The target population was stated in 21 studies (95%) and the perspective was clear in 20 (91%). Only 36% reported the calculations used to complete the BIA, 27% informed the total and disaggregated costs for each time period, and 9% showed the change in resource use for each time period. More than half of the studies (55%, n=12) reported less than 50% of the items recommended in the checklist. The production of BIA of vaccines has increased from 2009. The report of the methodological steps was unsatisfactory, making it difficult to assess the validity of the results presented. Vaccines specific issues should be discussed in international guidelines for BIA of vaccines, to improve the quality of the studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Gene-based vaccines as typified by plasmid DNA vaccines and recombinant viral-vectored vaccines are expected as promising solutions against infectious diseases for which no effective prophylactic vaccines exist such as HIV, dengue virus, Ebola virus and malaria, and for which more improved vaccines are needed such as tuberculosis and influenza virus. Although many preclinical and clinical trials have been conducted to date, no DNA vaccines or recombinant viral-vectored vaccines expressing heterologous antigens for human use have yet been licensed in the U.S., Europe or Japan. In this research, we describe the current regulatory context for gene-based prophylactic vaccines against infectious disease in the U.S., Europe, and Japan. We identify the important considerations, in particular, on the preclinical assessments that would allow these vaccines to proceed to clinical trials, and the differences on the regulatory pathway for the marketing authorization in each region.
CD4+ T cells are central to the induction and maintenance of CD8+ T cell and antibody-producing B cell responses, and the latter are essential for the protection against disease in subjects with HIV infection. How to elicit HIV-specific CD4+ T cell responses in a given population using vaccines is one of the major areas of current HIV vaccine research. To design vaccine that targets specifically Chinese, we assembled a database that is comprised of sequences from 821 Chinese HIV isolates and 46 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR alleles identified in Chinese population. We then predicted 20 potential HIV epitopes using bioinformatics approaches. The combination of these 20 epitopes has a theoretical coverage of 98.1% of the population for both the prevalent HIV genotypes and also Chinese HLA-DR types. We suggest that testing this vaccine experimentally will facilitate the development of a CD4+ T cell vaccine especially catered for Chinese. PMID:25136573
Otanez, Staci; Torr, Berna M
There are substantial racial and ethnic disparities in the vaccination rate for human papillomavirus (HPV), which helps protect against cervical cancer. Using data from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, we explore differences between Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians in attitudes toward vaccinating adolescent girls for HPV. We use logistic regression models to explore whether racial/ethnic differences in attitudes toward HPV vaccinations are explained by HPV knowledge, demographic and socioeconomic status, and/or general distrust of the healthcare system. We include interactions to explore whether the effects of HPV knowledge and doctor distrust vary by racial/ethnic group. We find that greater HPV knowledge increases general willingness to vaccinate for all groups except Blacks. Our findings point to a need for additional research and design of culturally appropriate interventions that address barriers to vaccination.
Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.
Most vaccines, including the currently available glycoconjugate vaccines, are administered to healthy infants, to prevent future disease. The safety of a prospective vaccine is a key prerequisite for approval. Undesired side effects would not only have the potential to damage the individual infant but also lead to a loss of confidence in the respective vaccine-or vaccines in general-on a population level. Thus, regulatory requirements, particularly with regard to safety, are extremely rigorous. This chapter highlights regulatory aspects on carbohydrate-based vaccines with an emphasis on analytical approaches to ensure the consistent quality of successive manufacturing lots.
Paul, Katharina T.
Vaccination against the sexually transmitted Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a necessary agent for the development of cervical cancer, has triggered much debate. In Austria, HPV policy turned from “lagging behind” in 2008 into “Europe's frontrunner” by 2013. Drawing on qualitative research, the article shows how the vaccine was transformed and made “good enough” over the course of five years. By means of tinkering and shifting storylines, policy officials and experts disassociated the vaccine from gender, vaccine manufacturers, and youth sexuality. Ultimately, the HPV vaccine functioned to strengthen the national immunization program. To this end, preventing an effective problematization of the extant screening program was essential. PMID:26921834
Holman, Dawn M; Benard, Vicki; Roland, Katherine B; Watson, Meg; Liddon, Nicole; Stokley, Shannon
Since licensure of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in 2006, HPV vaccine coverage among US adolescents has increased but remains low compared with other recommended vaccines. To systematically review the literature on barriers to HPV vaccination among US adolescents to inform future efforts to increase HPV vaccine coverage. We searched PubMed and previous review articles to identify original research articles describing barriers to HPV vaccine initiation and completion among US adolescents. Only articles reporting data collected in 2009 or later were included. Findings from 55 relevant articles were summarized by target populations: health care professionals, parents, underserved and disadvantaged populations, and males. Health care professionals cited financial concerns and parental attitudes and concerns as barriers to providing the HPV vaccine to patients. Parents often reported needing more information before vaccinating their children. Concerns about the vaccine's effect on sexual behavior, low perceived risk of HPV infection, social influences, irregular preventive care, and vaccine cost were also identified as potential barriers among parents. Some parents of sons reported not vaccinating their sons because of the perceived lack of direct benefit. Parents consistently cited health care professional recommendations as one of the most important factors in their decision to vaccinate their children. Continued efforts are needed to ensure that health care professionals and parents understand the importance of vaccinating adolescents before they become sexually active. Health care professionals may benefit from guidance on communicating HPV recommendations to patients and parents. Further efforts are also needed to reduce missed opportunities for HPV vaccination when adolescents interface with the health care system. Efforts to increase uptake should take into account the specific needs of subgroups within the population. Efforts that address system
Judith C Maro
Full Text Available Managing emerging vaccine safety signals during an influenza pandemic is challenging. Federal regulators must balance vaccine risks against benefits while maintaining public confidence in the public health system.We developed a multi-criteria decision analysis model to explore regulatory decision-making in the context of emerging vaccine safety signals during a pandemic. We simulated vaccine safety surveillance system capabilities and used an age-structured compartmental model to develop potential pandemic scenarios. We used an expert-derived multi-attribute utility function to evaluate potential regulatory responses by combining four outcome measures into a single measure of interest: 1 expected vaccination benefit from averted influenza; 2 expected vaccination risk from vaccine-associated febrile seizures; 3 expected vaccination risk from vaccine-associated Guillain-Barre Syndrome; and 4 expected change in vaccine-seeking behavior in future influenza seasons.Over multiple scenarios, risk communication, with or without suspension of vaccination of high-risk persons, were the consistently preferred regulatory responses over no action or general suspension when safety signals were detected during a pandemic influenza. On average, the expert panel valued near-term vaccine-related outcomes relative to long-term projected outcomes by 3:1. However, when decision-makers had minimal ability to influence near-term outcomes, the response was selected primarily by projected impacts on future vaccine-seeking behavior.The selected regulatory response depends on how quickly a vaccine safety signal is identified relative to the peak of the pandemic and the initiation of vaccination. Our analysis suggested two areas for future investment: efforts to improve the size and timeliness of the surveillance system and behavioral research to understand changes in vaccine-seeking behavior.
Galbraith-Gyan, Kayoll V; Lechuga, Julia; Jenerette, Coretta M; Palmer, Mary H; Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B
Much of the research on African-Americans' HPV vaccine acceptance has largely focused on racial/ethnic differences related to cognitive, socio-economical, and structural factors that contribute to differences in HPV vaccine acceptance and completion. A growing body of literature suggest that cultural factors, such as mistrust of healthcare providers (HCPs) and the healthcare system, religion, and social norms related to appropriate sexual behaviors, also plays a prominent role in their HPV vaccine acceptance. However, these studies were limited in their use of theoretical approaches necessary to conceptualize and operationalize culture. To explore the influence of culture on African-American mothers' and daughters' HPV vaccine acceptance using the PEN-3, a culturally-centered conceptual framework. Grounded theory techniques were used to explore cultural factors that influenced the acceptance of the HPV vaccine among African-American mothers (n = 28) and their daughters (n = 34). Positive attitudes towards vaccination stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine has cancer prevention benefits and that vaccinations in general protected against infectious diseases. Negative attitudes stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine was too new, not effective, daughters were too young, and that vaccines were not a one-size-fits-all intervention. Majority of mothers and daughters indicated that their religious doctrine did not impede their HPV vaccination decisions. For a few mothers, religious beliefs could not be separated from their HPV vaccination decisions and ultimately deterred HPV vaccine acceptance. HCP recommendations were valued however mothers were often dissatisfied with the detail of information communicated. Support networks provided both positive and negative types of social support to mothers and daughters. The media highlighted the cancer prevention benefits of the HPV vaccine and unintentionally communicated negative information of the HPV vaccine
The EU and Italian institutions have recently reiterated their commitment to harmonize and implement vaccination policies as a fundamental strategy for public health. Nonetheless, vaccines are losing public confidence. False myths related to vaccine adverse reactions and commercial interests, combined with the recent judgements of the Court and the "Fluad® episode", are fuelling vaccine hesitancy. In such a context, a lively debate is ongoing in Italian scientific community. Aim of this contribution is to recall the available solid scientific evidence demonstrating that vaccines are among the most effective prevention tools ever invented and recall the economic data that support the cost-effectiveness of the immunisation. As every other medicine, vaccines are registered after large and solid clinical trials have been conducted. Immunization schedules are proposed by experts in the field of clinical medicine, epidemiology and public health on the basis of the available scientific evidence, and then implemented by policy makers also taking into consideration resources allocation and financial sustainability. The false myth that vaccines are offered because of economic interests is to be dispelled;moreover, researchers, policy makers, scientific societies and the healthcare community at large should renew commitment to invest in health education and communication on vaccines, always disclosing potential conflicts of interests.
Ramsay, M E
In 1964, the Medical Research Council undertook a trial of measles vaccine in over 36,000 United Kingdom children; 9577 of whom received live vaccine, 10,625 received inactivated followed by live vaccines, and 16,328 acted as unvaccinated controls. Participants in this study have been followed to determine the long term protection from measles vaccine and follow-up data were available on 4194, 4638 and 274 respectively. During the 5-year period 1986-90, the protective efficacy of live measles vaccine has remained high at 87%, but the 95% confidence interval was wide (-43 to 99%) due to the small numbers of cases. Between 1976 and 1990, however, the overall efficacy of the live vaccine was 92% (95% confidence interval 86 to 95%) and there was no evidence of a decline in efficacy (P = 0.13) over the 15-year period. This study suggests that the protection from live measles vaccine persists for up to 27 years after vaccination, and that no change in the current United Kingdom measles immunization policy should be made on the grounds of waning immunity.
Kamis, Arnold; Zhang, Yuji; Kamis, Tamara
Vaccinating adults against influenza remains a challenge in the United States. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we present a model for predicting who receives influenza vaccination in the United States between 2012 and 2014, inclusive. The logistic regression model contains nine predictors: age, pneumococcal vaccination, time since last checkup, highest education level attained, employment, health care coverage, number of personal doctors, smoker status, and annual household income. The model, which classifies correctly 67 percent of the data in 2013, is consistent with models tested on the 2012 and 2014 datasets. Thus, we have a multiyear model to explain and predict influenza vaccination in the United States. The results indicate room for improvement in vaccination rates. We discuss how cognitive biases may underlie reluctance to obtain vaccination. We argue that targeted communications addressing cognitive biases could be useful for effective framing of vaccination messages, thus increasing the vaccination rate. Finally, we discuss limitations of the current study and questions for future research.
Zhang, Rui; Kramer, Jake S; Smith, Josiah D; Allen, Brittany N; Leeper, Caitlin N; Li, Xiaolei; Morton, Logan D; Gallazzi, Fabio; Ulery, Bret D
Current vaccine research has shifted from traditional vaccines (i.e., whole-killed or live-attenuated) to subunit vaccines (i.e., protein, peptide, or DNA) as the latter is much safer due to delivering only the bioactive components necessary to produce a desirable immune response. Unfortunately, subunit vaccines are very weak immunogens requiring delivery vehicles and the addition of immunostimulatory molecules termed adjuvants to convey protective immunity. An interesting type of delivery vehicle is peptide amphiphile micelles (PAMs), unique biomaterials where the vaccine is part of the nanomaterial itself. Due to the modularity of PAMs, they can be readily modified to deliver both vaccine antigens and adjuvants within a singular construct. Through the co-delivery of a model antigenic epitope (Ovalbumin 319-340 -OVA BT ) and a known molecular adjuvant (e.g., 2,3-dipalmitoyl-S-glyceryl cysteine-Pam 2 C), greater insight into the mechanisms by which PAMs can exert immunostimulatory effects was gained. It was found that specific combinations of antigen and adjuvant can significantly alter vaccine immunogenicity both in vitro and in vivo. These results inform fundamental design rules that can be leveraged to fabricate optimal PAM-based vaccine formulations for future disease-specific applications. Graphical Abstract.
Tagliabue, C; Principi, N; Giavoli, C; Esposito, S
Obesity is a common condition that has rapidly increased in both the industrialised and developing world in recent decades. Obese individuals show increased risk factors for severe infections and significant immune system dysregulation that may impair the immune response to vaccines. The main aim of this paper was to review the current knowledge regarding the association between obesity and the risk and outcome of infections as well as immune response to vaccines. The results showed that obesity is a highly complex clinical condition in which the functions of several organ and body systems, including the immune system, are modified. However, only a small minority of the biological mechanisms that lead to reduced host defences have been elucidated. Relevant efforts for future research should focus on obese children, as the available data on this population are scarce compared with the adult population. Even if most vaccines are given in the first months of life when obesity is rare, some vaccines require booster doses at preschool age, and other vaccines, such as the influenza vaccine, are recommended yearly in the obese population, but it is not known whether response to vaccines of obese patients is impaired. The reduced immune response of obese patients to vaccination can be deleterious not only for the patient but also for the community.
Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Narasimhan, Balaji; Mallapragada, Surya K
Vaccine development has had a huge impact on human health. However, there is a significant need to develop efficacious vaccines for several existing as well as emerging respiratory infectious diseases. Several challenges need to be overcome to develop efficacious vaccines with translational potential. This review focuses on two aspects to overcome some barriers - 1) the development of nanoparticle-based vaccines, and 2) the choice of suitable animal models for respiratory infectious diseases that will allow for translation. Nanoparticle-based vaccines, including subunit vaccines involving synthetic and/or natural polymeric adjuvants and carriers, as well as those based on virus-like particles offer several key advantages to help overcome the barriers to effective vaccine development. These include the ability to deliver combinations of antigens, target the vaccine formulation to specific immune cells, enable cross-protection against divergent strains, act as adjuvants or immunomodulators, allow for sustained release of antigen, enable single dose delivery, and potentially obviate the cold chain. While mouse models have provided several important insights into the mechanisms of infectious diseases, they are often a limiting step in translation of new vaccines to the clinic. An overview of different animal models involved in vaccine research for respiratory infections, with advantages and disadvantages of each model, is discussed. Taken together, advances in nanotechnology, combined with the right animal models for evaluating vaccine efficacy, has the potential to revolutionize vaccine development for respiratory infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shrivastava, Ambuj; Tripathi, Nagesh K; Dash, Paban K; Parida, Manmohan
Dengue is an emerging viral disease that affects the human population around the globe. Recent advancements in dengue virus research have opened new avenues for the development of vaccines against dengue. The development of a vaccine against dengue is a challenging task because any of the four serotypes of dengue viruses can cause disease. The development of a dengue vaccine aims to provide balanced protection against all the serotypes. Several dengue vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages such as inactivated, live attenuated, recombinant subunit, and plasmid DNA vaccines. Area covered: The authors provide an overview of the progress made in the development of much needed dengue vaccines. The authors include their expert opinion and their perspectives for future developments. Expert opinion: Human trials of a live attenuated tetravalent chimeric vaccine have clearly demonstrated its potential as a dengue vaccine. Other vaccine candidate molecules such as DENVax, a recombinant chimeric vaccine andTetraVax, are at different stages of development at this time. The authors believe that the novel strategies for testing and improving the immune response of vaccine candidates in humans will eventually lead to the development of a successful dengue vaccine in future.
Trnka, L; Danková, D
With the steadily declining risk of tuberculosis infection in CSR the question arose whether vaccination of infants remains worthwhile considering not only resources spent but also complications to vaccination vis-a-vis benefits derived. A prospective study has been designed in which BCG vaccination of newborns is discontinued in an area with 30,000 newborns yearly. In the period from April 1, 1986 to January 31, 1988 there were not vaccinated 43,428 children (84.8% of the newborns). The collaboration of mothers was good. The one year old non-vaccinated children were tested with 2 TU PPD RT 23 with Tween 80. The distribution of positive tuberculin reactions appears unimodal, relatively large reactions being absent. 8 children had reactions with 6 or more mm induration. That corresponds to a risk of infection of 0.04%. The project continues in the research area and might be extended to another area.
Full Text Available The genus Burkholderia consists of diverse species which includes both ‘friends’ and ‘foes’. Some of the ‘friendly’ Burkholderia spp. are extensively used in the biotechnological and agricultural industry for bioremediation and biocontrol. However, several members of the genus including B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. cepacia, are known to cause fatal disease in both humans and animals. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, while B. cepacia infection is lethal to cystic fibrosis patients. Due to the high rate of infectivity and intrinsic resistance to many commonly used antibiotics, together with high mortality rate, B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are considered to be potential biological warfare agents. Treatments of the infections caused by these bacteria are often unsuccessful with frequent relapse of the infection. Thus, we are at a crucial stage of the need for Burkholderia vaccines. Although the search for a prophylactic therapy candidate continues, to date development of vaccines has not advanced beyond research to human clinical trials. In this article, we review the current research on development of safe vaccines with high efficacy against B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. cepacia. It can be concluded that further research will enable elucidation of the potential benefits and risks of Burkholderia vaccines.
Choh, Leang-Chung; Ong, Guang-Han; Vellasamy, Kumutha M.; Kalaiselvam, Kaveena; Kang, Wen-Tyng; Al-Maleki, Anis R.; Mariappan, Vanitha; Vadivelu, Jamuna
The genus Burkholderia consists of diverse species which includes both “friends” and “foes.” Some of the “friendly” Burkholderia spp. are extensively used in the biotechnological and agricultural industry for bioremediation and biocontrol. However, several members of the genus including B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. cepacia, are known to cause fatal disease in both humans and animals. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, while B. cepacia infection is lethal to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Due to the high rate of infectivity and intrinsic resistance to many commonly used antibiotics, together with high mortality rate, B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are considered to be potential biological warfare agents. Treatments of the infections caused by these bacteria are often unsuccessful with frequent relapse of the infection. Thus, we are at a crucial stage of the need for Burkholderia vaccines. Although the search for a prophylactic therapy candidate continues, to date development of vaccines has not advanced beyond research to human clinical trials. In this article, we review the current research on development of safe vaccines with high efficacy against B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. cepacia. It can be concluded that further research will enable elucidation of the potential benefits and risks of Burkholderia vaccines. PMID:23386999
Emmanuel D. Jadhav
Full Text Available IntroductionThe resurgence of vaccine preventable diseases occurs more often among intentionally unvaccinated individuals, placing at direct risk young adults not caught up on vaccinations. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of young adults with and without vaccination waivers and identify their perceived benefits, barriers, and influencers of vaccination.MethodsYoung adults (n = 964 from a Midwestern rural university responded to a survey (fall 2015—spring 2016 designed to identify their perception toward vaccination. Instrument consistency was measured using the Cronbach α-scores. The Chi-square test was used to test any sociodemographic differences and Mann–Whitney U-tests results for differences between exempt and non-exempt students. Analysis occurred in spring 2017.ResultsA little over one-third of young adults with a vaccination waiver were not up to date on their vaccinations, and think that vaccinations can cause autism. The biggest identifiable benefit was effective control against disease. The surveyed young adults ranked the out of pocket cost associated with vaccination as the most important barrier and safe and easy to use vaccines as the most important influencer of vaccination.ConclusionYoung adults who have had a vaccination waiver appear to not be up to date on their vaccinations. Vaccine administration programs, such as university campus clinics, would benefit from addressing perceptions unique to young adults with and without a vaccine waiver. This would subsequently better provide young adults a second shot for getting appropriately caught up on vaccinations.
Guimarães, Luísa Eça; Baker, Britain; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda
Vaccines and autoimmunity are linked fields. Vaccine efficacy is based on whether host immune response against an antigen can elicit a memory T-cell response over time. Although the described side effects thus far have been mostly transient and acute, vaccines are able to elicit the immune system towards an autoimmune reaction. The diagnosis of a definite autoimmune disease and the occurrence of fatal outcome post-vaccination have been less frequently reported. Since vaccines are given to previously healthy hosts, who may have never developed the disease had they not been immunized, adverse events should be carefully accessed and evaluated even if they represent a limited number of occurrences. In this review of the literature, there is evidence of vaccine-induced autoimmunity and adjuvant-induced autoimmunity in both experimental models as well as human patients. Adjuvants and infectious agents may exert their immune-enhancing effects through various functional activities, encompassed by the adjuvant effect. These mechanisms are shared by different conditions triggered by adjuvants leading to the autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA syndrome). In conclusion, there are several case reports of autoimmune diseases following vaccines, however, due to the limited number of cases, the different classifications of symptoms and the long latency period of the diseases, every attempt for an epidemiological study has so far failed to deliver a connection. Despite this, efforts to unveil the connection between the triggering of the immune system by adjuvants and the development of autoimmune conditions should be undertaken. Vaccinomics is a field that may bring to light novel customized, personalized treatment approaches in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
evaluation of other health interventions not available in healthcare systems. This study is important not only for researchers conducting future HIV vaccine research but also for policy decision makers who, in the future, will consider vaccine adoption.
Leelahavarong, Pattara; Teerawattananon, Yot; Werayingyong, Pitsaphun; Akaleephan, Chutima; Premsri, Nakorn; Namwat, Chawetsan; Peerapatanapokin, Wiwat; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj
healthcare systems. This study is important not only for researchers conducting future HIV vaccine research but also for policy decision makers who, in the future, will consider vaccine adoption.
Introduction: Underutilization of vaccines still remains a challenge in many regions across the world. Ileje district is one of the districts in Tanzania with consistently low pentavalent vaccine uptake (69%) and with drop out of 15%. We determined the vaccination completion with regard to Oral Polio virus, Measles, Bacillus ...
Turkey herpesvirus (HVT) has been widely used as a vaccine for Marek’s disease (MD) since the 1970s. Because HVT is a safe vaccine that is poorly sensitive to interference from maternally derived antibodies, it has seen rising use as a vector for vaccines developed for protection against other comm...
Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...
The development of an effective HIV vaccine has become a crucial national healthcare goal. To develop a worldwide AIDS vaccine, an international collaboration with developing countries is needed. The global approach rationale is threefold: millions of lives can be saved, a vaccine preparation can be tested more rapidly and economically among populations with high rates of infections; and the HIV epidemic comprises at least ten different subtypes. Although a number of barriers to the successful development of an HIV vaccine exist, the polio vaccine can be used as an example to show researchers how to overcome the obstacles. Jonas Salk, the polio vaccine developer, used killed whole virus in a technique that critics argued would not be fully effective. However, the Salk vaccine reduced polio-related paralysis by 72 percent, while the more effective Sabin oral vaccine did not become available until several years later. The lesson to be learned is that any percent of effectiveness is better than nothing, and researchers should not abandon uncertain HIV vaccine development efforts because they believe a better solution may develop in the future. The existence of traditional research should not preclude the development of new solutions that might prove more effective. For example, in the case of polio, the March of Dimes campaign pushed both the Salk and Sabin vaccines despite the skepticism of many academic research groups.
... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnancy Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... flu vaccine? Why should pregnant women get a flu shot? Flu is more likely to cause severe ...
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... with a few deaths. Therefore, this vaccine will help reduce one of our most common and potentially ...
MuŽíková, G; Laga, R
Vaccines have helped considerably in eliminating some life-threatening infectious diseases in past two hundred years. Recently, human medicine has focused on vaccination against some of the world's most common infectious diseases (AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, etc.), and vaccination is also gaining popularity in the treatment of cancer or autoimmune diseases. The major limitation of current vaccines lies in their poor ability to generate a sufficient level of protective antibodies and T cell responses against diseases such as HIV, malaria, tuberculosis and cancers. Among the promising vaccination systems that could improve the potency of weakly immunogenic vaccines belong macromolecular carriers (water soluble polymers, polymer particels, micelles, gels etc.) conjugated with antigens and immunistumulatory molecules. The size, architecture, and the composition of the high molecular-weight carrier can significantly improve the vaccine efficiency. This review includes the most recently developed (bio)polymer-based vaccines reported in the literature.
... The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...
... United States currently has the safest, most effective vaccine supply in history. Years of testing are required by law to ensure the safety of vaccines before they are made available for use in ...
Costa Barbosa Bessa, Theolis; Santos de Aragão, Erika; Medeiros Guimarães, Jane Mary; de Araújo Almeida, Bethânia
Based on an exploratory case study regarding the types of institutions funding the research and development to obtain new tuberculosis vaccines, this article intends to provoke discussion regarding the provision of new vaccines targeting neglected disease. Although our findings and discussion are mainly relevant to the case presented here, some aspects are more generally applicable, especially regarding the dynamics of development in vaccines to prevent neglected diseases. Taking into account the dynamics of innovation currently seen at work in the vaccine sector, a highly concentrated market dominated by few multinational pharmaceutical companies, we feel that global PDP models can play an important role throughout the vaccine development cycle. In addition, the authors call attention to issues surrounding the coordination of actors and resources in the research, development, manufacturing, and distribution processes of vaccine products arising from PDP involvement.
T. S. Saraswathy Subramaniam
Full Text Available Since 1992, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases was introduced in Malaysia along with the establishment of the National Poliovirus Laboratory at the Institute for Medical Research. In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, approved a vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV. Eight states started using IPV in the Expanded Immunization Programme, followed by the remaining states in January 2010. The objective of this study was to determine the viral aetiology of AFP cases below 15 years of age, before and after vaccine policy change from oral polio vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine. One hundred and seventy-nine enteroviruses were isolated from the 3394 stool specimens investigated between 1992 and December 2012. Fifty-six out of 107 virus isolates were polioviruses and the remaining were non-polio enteroviruses. Since 2009 after the sequential introduction of IPV in the childhood immunization programme, no Sabin polioviruses were isolated from AFP cases. In 2012, the laboratory AFP surveillance was supplemented with environmental surveillance with sewage sampling. Thirteen Sabin polioviruses were also isolated from sewage in the same year, but no vaccine-derived poliovirus was detected during this period.
Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H
The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure. PMID:24637946
Rossolini, A; Barberi, A
The infection caused by the rubella virus is a mild disease usually with no or rare complications in children and adults. On the contrary, intrauterine fetal infection may result in defects of the child, which may either be present at birth or become apparent later in life. Such a risk led to the preparation and use of active immunoprophylaxis against rubella in females of child-bearing age, in order to prevent congenital rubella. Three rubella viruses are employed to prepare the vaccine, all derived from the same viral strain. Doubts however, exist about vaccination, in particular about (1) its teratogenic potential in pregnancy; (2) the duration of protection. As a matter of fact, congenital malformations in the fetus exposed to vaccine virus through the mother have been reported in 3% of cases. As to the second point, the data on the protective immunity in time of the vaccine are very controversial. It is clear, anyhow, that protection against infection is associated not only with persistence of adequate serum levels of antibody, but also with other immunological parameters which are still unknown. These considerations, together with the observation that a relative high percentage of vaccine recipients do not respond, lead us to suggest modifications in the present scheduling of immunization against rubella.
Postma, Maarten J; Standaert, Baudouin A
Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct and indirect) to be measured in a population when using a cohort model; (1) appropriate rules about discounting the long-term impact of vaccines are absent jeopardizing therefore their value at the initial investment; (2) the presence of opposite contexts when introducing the vaccine in developed vs. the developing world with high benefits, low initial health care investment for the latter vs. marginal benefit and high cost for the former; with a corresponding paradox for the vaccine becoming very cost-effective in low income countries but rather medium in middle low to high middle income countries; (3) and the type of trial assessment for the newer vaccines is now often performed with immunogenicity reaction instead of clinical endpoints which still leaves questions on their real impact and their head-to-head comparison. (4.)
Martin, Carlos; Aguilo, Nacho; Gonzalo-Asensio, Jesús
BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccination is included in the immunization schedule for tuberculosis endemic countries with a global coverage at birth close to 90% worldwide. BCG was attenuated from Mycobacterium bovis almost a century ago, and provides a strong protection against disseminated forms of the disease, though very limited against pulmonary forms of tuberculosis, responsible for transmission. Novel prophylactic tuberculosis vaccines are in clinical development either to replace BCG or to improve its protection against respiratory forms of the disease. There are limitations understanding the immunological responses involved and the precise type of long-lived immunity that new vaccines need to induce. MTBVAC is the first and only tuberculosis vaccine candidate based on live-attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical evaluation. MTBVAC clinical development plans to target tuberculosis prevention in newborns, as a BCG replacement strategy, and as secondary objective to be tested in adolescents and adults previous vaccinated with BCG. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...
Brazil recently announced an agreement between its Bio-Manguinhos vaccine unit and two US companies to research and develop a new yellow fever vaccine. Claudia Jurberg and Julia D'Aloisio talk to Jaime Benchimol about the controversial history of the development of the vaccine that benefits millions of people today.
Full Text Available The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI (1978 and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP (1985 were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.
The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.
Bliddal, Henning; Torp-Pedersen, Søren; Falk-Riecke, Birgit
Shoulder pain may develop after vaccination in the deltoid area due to inadvertent injection of the vaccine into the subdeltoid bursa, which may be located close to the skin. As far as we know, such vaccination reactions occur more frequently than officially registered, and doctors may not be awa...
Pichichero, Michael E
The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057
Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk
Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take recommended vaccination and shouldn’t be afraid of using them.