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Sample records for vaccine markedly increases

  1. Increasing Coverage of Appropriate Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Verughese; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K.; Hopkins, David P.; Morgan, Jennifer Murphy; Pitan, Adesola A.; Clymer, John

    2016-01-01

    Context Population-level coverage for immunization against many vaccine-preventable diseases remains below optimal rates in the U.S. The Community Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended several interventions to increase vaccination coverage based on systematic reviews of the evaluation literature. The present study provides the economic results from those reviews. Evidence acquisition A systematic review was conducted (search period, January 1980 through February 2012) to identify economic evaluations of 12 interventions recommended by the Task Force. Evidence was drawn from included studies; estimates were constructed for the population reach of each strategy, cost of implementation, and cost per additional vaccinated person because of the intervention. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Evidence synthesis Reminder systems, whether for clients or providers, were among the lowest-cost strategies to implement and the most cost effective in terms of additional people vaccinated. Strategies involving home visits and combination strategies in community settings were both costly and less cost effective. Strategies based in settings such as schools and managed care organizations that reached the target population achieved additional vaccinations in the middle range of cost effectiveness. Conclusions The interventions recommended by the Task Force differed in reach, cost, and cost effectiveness. This systematic review presents the economic information for 12 effective strategies to increase vaccination coverage that can guide implementers in their choice of interventions to fit their local needs, available resources, and budget. PMID:26847663

  2. Modular vaccine packaging increases packing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Bryan A; Rajgopal, Jayant; Lim, Jung; Gorham, Katrin; Haidari, Leila; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2015-06-17

    Within a typical vaccine supply chain, vaccines are packaged into individual cylindrical vials (each containing one or more doses) that are bundled together in rectangular "inner packs" for transport via even larger groupings such as cold boxes and vaccine carriers. The variability of vaccine inner pack and vial size may hinder efficient vaccine distribution because it constrains packing of cold boxes and vaccine carriers to quantities that are often inappropriate or suboptimal in the context of country-specific vaccination guidelines. We developed in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) a spreadsheet model that evaluated the impact of different packing schemes for the Benin routine regimen plus the introduction of the Rotarix vaccine. Specifically, we used the model to compare the current packing scheme to that of a proposed modular packing scheme. Conventional packing of a Dometic RCW25 that aims to maximize fully-immunized children (FICs) results in 123 FICs and a packing efficiency of 81.93% compared to a maximum of 155 FICs and 94.1% efficiency for an alternative modular packaging system. Our analysis suggests that modular packaging systems could offer significant advantages over conventional vaccine packaging systems with respect to space efficiency and potential FICs, when they are stored in standard vaccine carrying devices. This allows for more vaccines to be stored within the same volume while also simplifying the procedures used by field workers to pack storage devices. Ultimately, modular packaging systems could be a simple way to help increase vaccine coverage worldwide. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Modular vaccine packaging increases packing efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Bryan A.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Lim, Jung; Gorham, Katrin; Haidari, Leila; Brown, Shawn T.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Within a typical vaccine supply chain, vaccines are packaged into individual cylindrical vials (each containing one or more doses) that are bundled together in rectangular “inner packs” for transport via even larger groupings such as cold boxes and vaccine carriers. The variability of vaccine inner pack and vial size may hinder efficient vaccine distribution because it constrains packing of cold boxes and vaccine carriers to quantities that are often inappropriate or suboptimal in the context of country-specific vaccination guidelines. Methods We developed in Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) a spreadsheet model that evaluated the impact of different packing schemes for the Benin routine regimen plus the introduction of the Rotarix vaccine. Specifically, we used the model to compare the current packing scheme to that of a proposed modular packing scheme. Results Conventional packing of a Dometic RCW25 that aims to maximize fully-immunized children (FICs) results in 123 FICs and a packing efficiency of 81.93% compared to a maximum of 155 FICs and 94.1% efficiency for an alternative modular packaging system. Conclusions Our analysis suggests that modular packaging systems could offer significant advantages over conventional vaccine packaging systems with respect to space efficiency and potential FICs, when they are stored in standard vaccine carrying devices. This allows for more vaccines to be stored within the same volume while also simplifying the procedures used by field workers to pack storage devices. Ultimately, modular packaging systems could be a simple way to help increase vaccine coverage worldwide. PMID:25957666

  4. Increasing vaccine production using pulsed ultrasound waves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jida Xing

    Full Text Available Vaccination is a safe and effective approach to prevent deadly diseases. To increase vaccine production, we propose that a mechanical stimulation can enhance protein production. In order to prove this hypothesis, Sf9 insect cells were used to evaluate the increase in the expression of a fusion protein from hepatitis B virus (HBV S1/S2. We discovered that the ultrasound stimulation at a frequency of 1.5 MHz, intensity of 60 mW/cm2, for a duration of 10 minutes per day increased HBV S1/S2 by 27%. We further derived a model for transport through a cell membrane under the effect of ultrasound waves, tested the key assumptions of the model through a molecular dynamics simulation package, NAMD (Nanoscale Molecular Dynamics program and utilized CHARMM force field in a steered molecular dynamics environment. The results show that ultrasound waves can increase cell permeability, which, in turn, can enhance nutrient / waste exchange thus leading to enhanced vaccine production. This finding is very meaningful in either shortening vaccine production time, or increasing the yield of proteins for use as vaccines.

  5. [Health information on the Internet and trust marks as quality indicators: vaccines case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Miguel Angel; Leis, Angela; Sanz, Ferran

    2009-10-01

    To find out the prevalence of quality trust marks present in websites and to analyse the quality of these websites displaying trust marks compared with those that do not display them, in order to put forward these trust marks as a quality indicator. Cross-sectional study. Internet. Websites on vaccines. Using "vacunas OR vaccines" as key words, the features of 40 web pages were analysed. These web pages were selected from the page results of two search engines, Google and Yahoo! Based on a total of 9 criteria, the average score of criteria fulfilled was 7 (95% CI 3.96-10.04) points for the web pages offered by Yahoo! and 7.3 (95% CI 3.86-10.74) offered by Google. Amongst web pages offered by Yahoo!, there were three with clearly inaccurate information, while there were four in the pages offered by Google. Trust marks were displayed in 20% and 30% medical web pages, respectively, and their presence reached statistical significance (P=0.033) when fulfilling the quality criteria compared with web pages where trust marks were not displayed. A wide variety of web pages was obtained by search engines and a large number of them with useless information. Although the websites analysed had a good quality, between 15% and 20% showed inaccurate information. Websites where trust marks were displayed had more quality than those that did not display one and none of them were included amongst those where inaccurate information was found.

  6. [Improvement strategy to increase vaccination rates in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggendorf, H; Freynik, P; Hofmann, F

    2011-08-01

    Vaccination rates in adolescents in Germany are not sufficient. An intervention programme, which has been launched by the community health centre in Essen, should significantly increase vaccination coverage. In 2001 the Children and Youth Health Service at the Community Health Centre in Essen implemented a specific strategy to improve vaccination rates in adolescents. Vaccination rates were determined by control of vaccination certificates of all 6 (th) graders in Essen (n=5 589). After control of vaccination records the parents got a written, individual vaccination counselling for their child as well as a referral to the paediatrician to get the missing vaccinations. After 6 months the vaccination certificates were looked at again and vaccination coverage was determined. At the initial vaccination record control of 6 (th) graders in 2001 only 15% of the students, who presented their vaccination certificate, had an appropriate age related immunisation status. 84% of the students had had the tetanus/diphtheria and polio booster. But only 43% had been given a second measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) immunisation and only 24% had a complete hepatitis B coverage. The intervention programme (e. g., individual vaccination counselling) improved vaccination rates for hepatitis B and MMR by 16%. From 2001 to 2008 vaccination coverage in this age group could be improved from 43% to 87% for the second MMR vaccination and from 24% to 85% for hepatitis B. A remarkable improvement in vaccination coverage in children and adolescents could be achieved by a single, individual, written vaccination reminder. As a prerequisite a good cooperation between schools/paediatricians and the health authorities is needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Can the vaccine adverse event reporting system be used to increase vaccine acceptance and trust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura D; Shaffer, Victoria A; Patel, Niraj; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2016-05-05

    Vaccine refusal has an impact on public health, and the human pappillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is particularly underutilized. Research suggests that it may be difficult to change vaccine-related attitudes, and there is currently no good evidence to recommend any particular intervention strategy. One reason for vaccine hesitancy is lack of trust that vaccine harms are adequately documented and reported, yet few communication strategies have explicitly attempted to improve this trust. This study tested the possibility that data from the vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS) can be used to increase trust that vaccine harms are adequately researched and that potential harms are disclosed to the public, and thereby improve perceptions of vaccines. In the study, participants were randomly assigned to one of three communication interventions. All participants read the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) vaccine information statement (VIS) for the HPV vaccine. Two other groups were exposed to additional information about VAERS, either summary data or full detailed reports of serious adverse events from 2013. Results showed that the CDC's VIS alone significantly increased perceptions of vaccine benefits and decreased perceived risks. Participants who were also educated about VAERS and given summary data about the serious adverse events displayed more trust in the CDC and greater HPV vaccine acceptance relative to the VIS alone. However, exposure to the detailed VAERS reports significantly reduced trust in the CDC and vaccine acceptance. Hence, general information about the VAERS data slightly increased trust in the CDC and improved vaccine acceptance, but the specific VAERS reports negatively influenced both trust and acceptance. Implications for communicating about vaccines are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increasing Parental Knowledge Related to the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Joseph J; Scoloveno, Robert; Kelly, Angela

    2017-08-16

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate parental attitudes toward general vaccination protocols and increase parental knowledge of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. A nonprobability convenience sample (N = 75) using a pre-/postintervention study design was conducted in a pediatric office in southern New Jersey. The Parental Attitudes Module measured the general disposition toward having children receive any type of vaccine. The HPV Knowledge Survey was a second tool used to specifically measures knowledge of the HPV vaccine. A self-directed computer-based learning was part of the educational intervention. A paired t test showed that HPV Knowledge Survey postintervention scores were significantly higher than HPV Knowledge Survey preintervention scores (t = -10.585, p HPV Knowledge Survey pretest showed a positive moderate relationship (rs = .552, p HPV vaccine has been on the market, there is a continued need to increase parental knowledge about the HPV vaccine to close the gap on vaccine nonadherence. A self-directed, computer-based learning tablet appears to be an effective tool to educate parents or legal guardians about the purpose, efficacy, and safety of the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Does framing human papillomavirus vaccine as preventing cancer in men increase vaccine acceptability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Reiter, Paul L; Chantala, Kim; Brewer, Noel T

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is now approved for use in males in the United States to prevent genital warts. We conducted an experiment to see whether framing HPV vaccination as also preventing cancer in men would increase men's vaccination willingness. We conducted an online survey in January 2009 with a national sample of men ages 18 to 59 years who self-identified as gay/bisexual (n = 312) or heterosexual (n = 296). In the within-subjects experiment, men read four randomly ordered vignettes that described hypothetical vaccines that prevented either genital warts alone, or genital warts and either anal cancer, oral cancer, or penile cancer. We analyzed data using repeated measures ANOVA and tested whether perceived severity or perceived likelihood mediated the effect of disease outcome framing on men's HPV vaccination willingness. Although only 42% of men were willing to receive HPV vaccine when it was framed as preventing genital warts alone, 60% were willing to get it when it was framed as preventing cancer in addition to genital warts (P HPV vaccination willingness. Men may be more accepting of HPV vaccine when it is framed as preventing cancer, regardless which of the three most common HPV-related cancers in men is described. Study findings may be useful in developing health communication messages that maximize HPV vaccine acceptability among young men. (c)2010 AACR.

  10. Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pijnacker (Roan); M.G.A. Goris (Marga); M. te Wierik (Margreet); E.M. Broens; J.W.B. van der Giessen (Joke); M. de Rosa (Mauro); J.A. Wagenaar (Jaap A.); R.A. Hartskeerl (Rudy); D.W. Notermans (Daan); K. Maassen (Kitty); B. Schimmer

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans

  11. Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, Roan; Goris, Marga G A; Te Wierik, Margreet J M; Broens, Els M; van der Giessen, Joke W B; de Rosa, Mauro; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Notermans, Daan W; Maassen, Kitty; Schimmer, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with an

  12. Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnacker, Roan; Goris, M.G.; Wierik, te M.J.; Broens, E.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.; Rosa, de M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Hartskeerl, R.A.; Notermans, D.W.; Maassen, K.; Schimmer, B.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with

  13. Increasing the coverage of vaccination against influenza by general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perenboom, R.J.M.; Davidse, W.

    1996-01-01

    Background. To increase the coverage of influenza vaccination in groups of patients at risk, an experiment was conducted in 1993, aimed at logistic support of general practitioners (GPs). Methods. Support was given to 56 GPs with 133 000 patients to select and invite patients at risk. The coverage

  14. Parental financial incentives for increasing preschool vaccination uptake: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Sarah; Ternent, Laura; Bryant, Andrew; Robalino, Shannon; Sniehotta, Falko F; Adams, Jean

    2014-10-01

    Financial incentives have been used to promote vaccination uptake but are not always viewed as acceptable. Quasimandatory policies, such as requiring vaccinations for school enrollment, are widely implemented in some countries. A systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness, acceptability, and economic costs and consequences of parental financial incentives and quasimandatory schemes for increasing the uptake of preschool vaccinations in high-income countries. Electronic databases and gray literature were searched for randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies, and time series analyses examining the effectiveness of parental financial incentives and quasimandatory schemes, as well as any empirical studies exploring acceptability. All included studies were screened for information on economic costs and consequences. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed the quality of selected articles by using established instruments. Studies were synthesized in narrative reviews. Four studies on the effectiveness and 6 on the acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasimandatory interventions met the inclusion criteria. Only 1 study reported on costs and consequences. Studies of effectiveness had low risk of bias but displayed substantial heterogeneity in terms of interventions and methods. There was insufficient evidence to conclude whether these interventions were effective. Studies of acceptability suggested a preference, in settings where this already occurs, for incentives linking vaccinations to access to education. There was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on economic costs and consequences. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Combined exposure to anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequencies of hypospadias in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Scholze, M.; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of hypospadias is increasing in young boys, but it remains unclear whether human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals plays a role. Risk assessment is based on estimation of no-observed-adverse-effect levels for single compounds, although humans are exposed to combinations...... reproductive organs were assessed on PND 47 using a score from 0 to 3 (normal to marked) for hypospadias. Markedly increased frequencies were observed after exposure to a MIX of the three chemicals compared to administration of the three chemicals alone. Anogenital distance at PND 1, nipple retention at PND 13......, and dysgenesis score at PND 16 were highly correlated with the occurrence of hypospadias, and MIX effects were seen at doses where each of the individual chemicals caused no observable effects. Therefore, the results indicate that doses of anti-androgens, which appear to induce no hypospadias when judged...

  16. Intracellular modulation, extracellular disposal and serum increase of MiR-150 mark lymphocyte activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola de Candia

    Full Text Available Activated lymphocytes release nano-sized vesicles (exosomes containing microRNAs that can be monitored in the bloodstream. We asked whether elicitation of immune responses is followed by release of lymphocyte-specific microRNAs. We found that, upon activation in vitro, human and mouse lymphocytes down-modulate intracellular miR-150 and accumulate it in exosomes. In vivo, miR-150 levels increased significantly in serum of humans immunized with flu vaccines and in mice immunized with ovalbumin, and this increase correlated with elevation of antibody titers. Immunization of immune-deficient mice, lacking MHCII, resulted neither in antibody production nor in elevation of circulating miR-150. This study provides proof of concept that serum microRNAs can be detected, with minimally invasive procedure, as biomarkers of vaccination and more in general of adaptive immune responses. Furthermore, the prompt reduction of intracellular level of miR-150, a key regulator of mRNAs critical for lymphocyte differentiation and functions, linked to its release in the external milieu suggests that the selective extracellular disposal of microRNAs can be a rapid way to regulate gene expression during lymphocyte activation.

  17. Recommendation for use of immunization information systems to increase vaccination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Based on findings of a systematic review, the Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends immunization information systems on the basis of strong evidence of effectiveness in increasing vaccination rates. Evidence is considered strong, based on the findings from 108 published articles and 132 conference abstracts showing that immunization information systems are effective in increasing vaccination rates and reducing vaccine-preventable disease through their capabilities to (1) create or support effective interventions such as client reminder and recall systems, provider assessment and feedback, and provider reminders; (2) generate and evaluate public health responses to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable disease; (3) facilitate vaccine management and accountability; (4) determine client vaccination status for decisions made by clinicians, health departments, and schools; and (5) aid surveillance and investigations on vaccination rates, missed vaccination opportunities, invalid dose administration, and disparities in vaccination coverage.

  18. Process Evaluation of an Intervention to Increase Provision of Adolescent Vaccines at School Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D.; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Feld, Ashley L.; Turner, Kea L.; DeFrank, Jessica T.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vaccination programs in school health centers (SHCs) may improve adolescent vaccine coverage. We conducted a process evaluation of an intervention to increase SHC-located vaccination to better understand the feasibility and challenges of such interventions. Method: Four SHCs participated in an intervention to increase provision of…

  19. Increasing influenza vaccination coverage in recommended population groups in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Patricia R; Szucs, Thomas D

    2009-04-01

    The clinical and economic burden of seasonal influenza is frequently underestimated. The cornerstone of controlling and preventing influenza is vaccination. National and international guidelines aim to implement immunization programs and targeted vaccination-coverage rates, which should help to enhance the vaccine uptake, especially in the at-risk population. This review purposes to highlight the vaccination guidelines and the actual vaccination situation in four target groups (the elderly, people with underlying chronic conditions, healthcare workers and children) from a European point of view.

  20. Meal ingestion markedly increases liver stiffness suggesting the need for liver stiffness determination in fasting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Daniel; Orozco, Federico; Mella, José María; Anders, Maria; Antinucci, Florencia; Mastai, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of noninvasive liver stiffness (LS) determination has heralded a new stage in the diagnosis and treatment of liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of food intake on LS in patients with different degrees of liver disease. We evaluated 24 patients (F≤1, n=11 and F> 1, n=13). LS (Fibroscan®) and portal blood flow (PBF) (Doppler ultrasound) were studied before and 30min after ingestion of a standard liquid meal. Food intake increased PBF (51±10%, p1). Hemodynamic and LS values returned to baseline pre-meal levels within 2hours. LS increases markedly after ingestion of a standard meal, irrespective of the degree of fibrosis. Our results strongly suggest that LS should be measured in fasting conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  1. Marked increase in leptospirosis infections in humans and dogs in the Netherlands, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijnacker, Roan; Goris, Marga G A; Te Wierik, Margreet J M; Broens, Els M; van der Giessen, Joke W B; de Rosa, Mauro; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Hartskeerl, Rudy A; Notermans, Daan W; Maassen, Kitty; Schimmer, Barbara

    2016-04-28

    In the Netherlands, 97 human leptospirosis cases were notified in 2014. This represents a 4.6-fold increase in autochthonous cases (n = 60) compared with the annual average between 2010 and 2013. Most cases had symptom onset between June and November. This marked increase in humans coincided with an increase of leptospirosis in dogs. In 2014, 13 dogs with leptospirosis were reported, compared with two to six dogs annually from 2010 to 2013. The majority of the autochthonous cases (n = 20) were linked to recreational exposure, e.g. swimming or fishing, followed by occupational exposure (n = 15). About sixty per cent (n = 37) of the autochthonous cases were most likely attributable to surface water contact, and 13 cases to direct contact with animals, mainly rats. A possible explanation for this increase is the preceding mild winter of 2013-2014 followed by the warmest year in three centuries, possibly enabling rodents and Leptospira spp. to survive better. A slight increase in imported leptospirosis was also observed in Dutch tourists (n = 33) most of whom acquired their infection in Thailand (n = 18). More awareness and early recognition of this mainly rodent-borne zoonosis by medical and veterinary specialists is warranted.

  2. Increasing adolescent vaccination: barriers and strategies in the context of policy, legal, and financial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Carol A; English, Abigail; Davenport, Amy F; Stinnett, Amy J

    2009-06-01

    To increase understanding of the policy, legal, and financial issues influencing efforts to achieve high rates of adolescent vaccination. We conducted semistructured telephone interviews with 49 key informants in nine states, five jurisdictions, and at the national level. We elicited: (a) experiences with human papillomavirus (HPV) and meningococcal vaccine programs; (b) perspectives on policy, legal, and financing issues influencing adolescent vaccine program effectiveness; and (c) strategies to increase rates of adolescent vaccination. Common and informative themes were identified by content analyses. Participants reported that barriers to adolescent vaccination included: public concerns (insufficient knowledge, negative attitudes, safety concerns, controversy); practitioner concerns (insufficient knowledge or ambivalence about recommendations); delivery issues (insufficient access to or use of healthcare, vaccines not at healthcare site or part of routine care); minor consent issues; cost/financing issues; and lack of coordination in timing of vaccine recommendations, supply, and financing. Many barriers and promising strategies for overcoming them vary depending on adolescent age. For example, concerns about providing vaccines to prevent sexually transmitted diseases are less frequent with respect to older adolescents; issues of consent vary widely between 11 and 25 years of age; and financial barriers/potential solutions vary by age. We develop a framework to address policy, legal, and financial issues influencing adolescent vaccination based on adolescent age. A comprehensive description of factors influencing adolescent vaccination reveals variation based on age. A framework that incorporates this complexity may enhance strategies to increase rates of vaccine delivery to adolescent populations.

  3. Society of behavioral medicine supports increasing HPV vaccination uptake: an urgent opportunity for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Caryn E; Dykens, J Andrew; Brewer, Noel T; Buscemi, Joanna; Watson, Karriem; Comer-Hagans, DeLawnia; Ramamonjiarivelo, Zo; Fitzgibbon, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage remains low in the USA. The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) supports the goals outlined by Healthy People 2020, the President's Cancer Panel, and the National Vaccine Advisory Committee to increase vaccination coverage among both males and females. SBM makes the following recommendations in support of efforts to reduce structural and other barriers to HPV vaccination services in order to increase rates of series completion. We encourage legislators and other policymakers to improve administration authority, insurance coverage, and reimbursement rates to healthcare providers who make the HPV vaccine available to adolescents; provide instrumental support to fund the development of school curricula on HPV vaccination; and increase public awareness that HPV vaccination can prevent cancer. We urge healthcare providers and healthcare systems to increase the strength, quality, and consistency of HPV vaccination recommendations for all eligible patients; to treat HPV vaccination as a routine preventive service; employ culturally appropriate communication strategies in clinical settings to educate eligible patients, parents, and guardians about the importance, effectiveness, and safety of HPV vaccination; and to strengthen and better coordinate the use of electronic medical records and immunization information systems.

  4. Increased immunogenicity of recombinant Ad35-based malaria vaccine through formulation with aluminium phosphate adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophorst, Olga J A E; Radosević, Katarina; Klap, Jaco M; Sijtsma, Jeroen; Gillissen, Gert; Mintardjo, Ratna; van Ooij, Mark J M; Holterman, Lennart; Companjen, Arjen; Goudsmit, Jaap; Havenga, Menzo J E

    2007-08-29

    Previously, we have shown the potency of recombinant Adenovirus serotype 35 viral vaccines (rAd35) to induce strong immune response against the circumsporozoite protein (CS) of the plasmodium parasite. To further optimize immunogenicity of Ad35-based malaria vaccines we formulated rAd35.CS vaccine with aluminium phosphate adjuvant (AlPO(4)). In contrast to the conventional protein based vaccines no absorption to aluminium adjuvant was observed and rAd35 viral in vitro infectivity in mammalian cells was preserved. Immunization with Ad35.CS formulated with AlPO(4) resulted in significantly higher CS specific T and B cell responses in mice upon either single or prime-boost vaccination regimens as compared to rAd35.CS alone. With these results we report for the first time the feasibility of using an AlPO(4) adjuvant to increase the potency of a live adenovirus serotype 35-based vaccine.

  5. A response to Fu et al.'s "Educational interventions to increase HPV vaccination acceptance".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Gilla K; Joyal-Desmarais, Keven; Perez, Samara; Rosberger, Zeev

    2014-11-12

    This commentary is a response to a systematic review, recently published in Vaccine, which investigates the effectiveness of educational interventions in increasing uptake of the human papillomavirus vaccine. The systematic review by Fu et al. (2014) enhances the field's understanding of human papillomavirus vaccine interventions; however, their review contains a number of conceptual and methodological limitations. This commentary begins by addressing these limitations. We then address the importance of studying human papillomavirus vaccine interventions in diverse populations, and conclude by making recommendations for future research.

  6. Nurses' attitudes towards enforced measures to increase influenza vaccination: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Anina; Shaw, David; McLennan, Stuart; Elger, Bernice S

    2017-05-01

    Despite studies demonstrating that the annual influenza vaccination of healthcare workers reduces morbidity and mortality among vulnerable patients, vaccination rates remain very low, particularly in nursing staff. Educational programmes have failed to improve rates, which has led to a diverse range of enforced approaches being advocated and implemented. To examine the attitudes of non-vaccinated nursing staff towards various enforced measures aimed at increasing rates of influenza vaccination. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of 18 non-vaccinated nurses, working in units with high-risk patients at two hospitals in Switzerland. Analysis of interviews was done using conventional content analysis. Nurses were critical of enforced measures. However, measures that include an element of choice were perceived as more acceptable. Declination forms and mandatory vaccinations as part of the employment requirements were found to be the most accepted measures. The perception of choice is crucial to the acceptance of a measure. Respect for choice and autonomy has a positive effect on behavioural change. Mandatory influenza vaccination as a condition of new (and perhaps ongoing) employment could be a feasible, effective and ethical measure to increase vaccination rates among nurses who oppose vaccination. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Augmenting transport versus increasing cold storage to improve vaccine supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Leila A; Connor, Diana L; Wateska, Angela R; Brown, Shawn T; Mueller, Leslie E; Norman, Bryan A; Schmitz, Michelle M; Paul, Proma; Rajgopal, Jayant; Welling, Joel S; Leonard, Jim; Chen, Sheng-I; Lee, Bruce Y

    2013-01-01

    When addressing the urgent task of improving vaccine supply chains, especially to accommodate the introduction of new vaccines, there is often a heavy emphasis on stationary storage. Currently, donations to vaccine supply chains occur largely in the form of storage equipment. This study utilized a HERMES-generated detailed, dynamic, discrete event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain to compare the impacts on vaccine availability of adding stationary cold storage versus transport capacity at different levels and to determine whether adding stationary storage capacity alone would be enough to relieve potential bottlenecks when pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines are introduced by 2015. Relieving regional level storage bottlenecks increased vaccine availability (by 4%) more than relieving storage bottlenecks at the district (1% increase), central (no change), and clinic (no change) levels alone. Increasing transport frequency (or capacity) yielded far greater gains (e.g., 15% increase in vaccine availability when doubling transport frequency to the district level and 18% when tripling). In fact, relieving all stationary storage constraints could only increase vaccine availability by 11%, whereas doubling the transport frequency throughout the system led to a 26% increase and tripling the frequency led to a 30% increase. Increasing transport frequency also reduced the amount of stationary storage space needed in the supply chain. The supply chain required an additional 61,269L of storage to relieve constraints with the current transport frequency, 55,255L with transport frequency doubled, and 51,791L with transport frequency tripled. When evaluating vaccine supply chains, it is important to understand the interplay between stationary storage and transport. The HERMES-generated dynamic simulation model showed how augmenting transport can result in greater gains than only augmenting stationary storage and can reduce stationary storage needs.

  8. Financial Incentives for Increasing Uptake of HPV Vaccinations: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations by 17- to 18-year-old girls in England is below (incentives on uptake and completion of an HPV vaccination program, and (b) whether impacts are moderated by participants’ deprivation level. It also assesses the impact of incentives on decision quality to get vaccinated, as measured by attitudes toward the vaccination and knowledge of its consequences. Method: One thousand 16- to 18-year-old girls were invited to participate in an HPV vaccination program: 500 previously uninvited, and 500 unresponsive to previous invitations. Girls randomly received either a standard invitation letter or a letter including the offer of vouchers worth £45 (€56; $73) for undergoing 3 vaccinations. Girls attending their first vaccination appointment completed a questionnaire assessing decision quality to be vaccinated. Outcomes were uptake of the first and third vaccinations and decision quality. Results: The intervention increased uptake of the first (first-time invitees: 28.4% vs. 19.6%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI; 1.08, 2.47]; previous nonattenders: 23.6% vs. 10.4%, OR = 2.65, 95% CI [1.61, 4.38]) and third (first-time invitees: 22.4% vs. 12%, OR = 2.15, 95% CI [1.32, 3.50]; previous nonattenders: 12.4% vs. 3%, OR = 4.28, 95% CI [1.92, 9.55]) vaccinations. Impacts were not moderated by deprivation level. Decision quality was unaffected by the intervention. Conclusions: Although the intervention increased completion of HPV vaccinations, uptake remained lower than the national target, which, in addition to cost effectiveness and acceptability issues, necessitates consideration of other ways of achieving it. PMID:25133822

  9. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik Bylling; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine...... is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar...

  10. A behavioral economics intervention to increase pertussis vaccination among infant caregivers: A randomized feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Fiks, Alexander G; Burson, Randall C; Wang, Eileen; Coffin, Susan E; Metlay, Joshua P; Feemster, Kristen A

    2016-02-03

    The incidence of pertussis has tripled in the past five years. Infants can be protected by "cocooning," or vaccinating household contacts with the Tdap vaccine. However, Tdap coverage for adult caregivers of infants is low. This study evaluated the feasibility and impact of interventions informed by behavioral economics (retail pharmacy vouchers for Tdap vaccines and a celebrity public service announcement) to increase Tdap vaccination among caregivers of young infants. We conducted a randomized controlled feasibility trial among adults attending newborn well-child visits at an urban Philadelphia pediatric primary care clinic who were not previously vaccinated with Tdap. Participants were randomized to one of four conditions: ($5-off Tdap voucher vs. free voucher)×(watching a 1min video public service announcement (PSA) about Tdap vaccination vs. no PSA). Tdap vaccination was assessed by tracking voucher redemption and following up with participants by phone. Ninety-five adult caregivers of 74 infants were enrolled in the study (mean age 29.3 years; 61% male; relationship to newborn: 54% father, 33% mother, 13% grandparent or other; caregiver insurance status: 35% Medicaid, 34% private insurance, 32% uninsured). Only 1 subject redeemed the retail pharmacy Tdap voucher. Follow-up interviews suggest that, even with the voucher, significant barriers to vaccination remained including: delaying planned vaccination, perceived inconvenient pharmacy locations, and beliefs about pertussis risk and severity. Despite leveraging existing infrastructure for adult vaccination, results suggest that retail pharmacy vouchers delivered during a newborn visit are not an effective strategy for promoting Tdap. Alternate approaches are needed that prioritize convenience and provide an immediate opportunity to vaccinate when motivation is high. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Interventions to increase the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination among pregnant women: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Valerie W Y; Lok, Kris Y W; Tarrant, Marie

    2016-01-02

    Pregnant women and their infants under 6 months of age infected with influenza have a high risk of serious morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccine during pregnancy offers 3-for-1 benefits to pregnant women, fetuses and newborn infants. Current vaccination uptake rates during pregnancy, however, are often lower than other high-risk groups and the general population. We systematically reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to improve influenza vaccination coverage in pregnant women. Risk differences (RDs) were calculated from the included studies. Eleven studies were included in the review, of which four were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Three cohort studies assessed provider-focused interventions while four RCTs and one cohort study evaluated pregnant women-focused interventions. Two cohort studies and a prospective intervention study assessed the effectiveness of bundled interventions. No study solely assessed the effectiveness of interventions to enhance access to influenza vaccination. One moderate quality RCT showed that an influenza pamphlet, with or without a verbalized benefit statement, improved the vaccination rate (RD=0.26; RD=0.39). The other reviewed RCTs showed discordant results, with RDs ranging from -0.15 to 0.03. Although all observational studies significantly improved vaccination rates (RDs ranged from 0.03 to 0.44), the quality of the evidence varied. There is a lack of effective interventions to increase the influenza vaccination rate in pregnant women. Based on the existing research, we recommend that clinicians provide influenza pamphlets to pregnant women with a verbalized statement about the benefits of influenza vaccine to newborns. Further high-quality RCTs are needed to develop successful maternal influenza vaccination programs. Increased clarity in reporting the content of interventions would help to improve the comparability and generalizability of the published studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Universal paid leave increases influenza vaccinations among employees in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Fernando A; Wang, Yang; Stimpson, Jim P

    2014-05-01

    We predict the impact of paid leave in increasing influenza vaccinations for employees, thus decreasing workdays lost and healthcare visits resulting from infection. Nationally representative data from the 2006-2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were used. We examined working adults aged 18 and above (N=51,471). Logistic regression measured the association of paid leave with flu vaccination. We predicted the impact on labor and healthcare markets if universal paid leave were provided. The proportion of workers receiving vaccination annually was higher for those with paid leave versus without paid leave (34.0% vs. 21.0%, Pvaccination increased with paid leave vs. without paid leave (OR=1.42, CI: 1.31-1.53). Universal paid leave is predicted to increase vaccinations by 1.6 million, resulting in 63.8 thousand fewer absences from work and 18.2 thousand fewer healthcare visits for the flu annually. Our study suggests that employees without paid leave are significantly less likely to have had a flu vaccination. Expanding paid leave could substantially increase flu vaccination, resulting in fewer workdays lost to influenza and savings in healthcare costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of factors required to increase uptake of influenza vaccination among hospital-based healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, C E; Riphagen-Dalhuisen, J; Looijmans-van den Akker, I; Frijstein, G; Van der Geest-Blankert, A D J; Danhof-Pont, M B; De Jager, H J; Bos, A A; Smeets, E; De Vries, M J T; Gallee, P M M; Lenderink, A F; Hak, E

    2011-04-01

    A questionnaire study was performed in all eight University Medical Centers in The Netherlands to determine the predictors of influenza vaccination compliance in hospital-based healthcare workers (HCWs). Demographical, behavioural and organisational determinants were assessed based on behavioural and implementation models. Multivariable regression analysis was applied to assess the independent predictors for influenza vaccine uptake. Age >40 years, the presence of a chronic illness, awareness of personal risk and awareness of risk of infecting patients, trust in the effectiveness of the vaccine to reduce the risk of infecting patients, the HCWs' duty to do no harm and their duty to ensure continuity of care, finding vaccination useful despite the constant flow of visitors and having knowledge of the Health Council's advice, social influence and convenient time for vaccination were all independently associated with vaccine uptake. The accuracy of the prediction model was very high (area under the receiver operating curve: 0.95). Intervention programmes to increase influenza vaccine uptake among HCWs should target the relevant determinants identified in this study. Copyright © 2010 the Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exercise in vivo marks human myotubes in vitro: Training-induced increase in lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Lund

    Full Text Available Physical activity has preventive as well as therapeutic benefits for overweight subjects. In this study we aimed to examine effects of in vivo exercise on in vitro metabolic adaptations by studying energy metabolism in cultured myotubes isolated from biopsies taken before and after 12 weeks of extensive endurance and strength training, from healthy sedentary normal weight and overweight men.Healthy sedentary men, aged 40-62 years, with normal weight (body mass index (BMI < 25 kg/m2 or overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 were included. Fatty acid and glucose metabolism were studied in myotubes using [14C]oleic acid and [14C]glucose, respectively. Gene and protein expressions, as well as DNA methylation were measured for selected genes.The 12-week training intervention improved endurance, strength and insulin sensitivity in vivo, and reduced the participants' body weight. Biopsy-derived cultured human myotubes after exercise showed increased total cellular oleic acid uptake (30%, oxidation (46% and lipid accumulation (34%, as well as increased fractional glucose oxidation (14% compared to cultures established prior to exercise. Most of these exercise-induced increases were significant in the overweight group, whereas the normal weight group showed no change in oleic acid or glucose metabolism.12 weeks of combined endurance and strength training promoted increased lipid and glucose metabolism in biopsy-derived cultured human myotubes, showing that training in vivo are able to induce changes in human myotubes that are discernible in vitro.

  15. Exercise in vivo marks human myotubes in vitro: Training-induced increase in lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Jenny; Mudry, Jonathan M.; Langleite, Torgrim M.; Feng, Yuan Z.; Stensrud, Camilla; Brubak, Mari G.; Drevon, Christian A.; Birkeland, Kåre I.; Kolnes, Kristoffer J.; Johansen, Egil I.; Tangen, Daniel S.; Stadheim, Hans K.; Gulseth, Hanne L.; Krook, Anna; Kase, Eili T.; Jensen, Jørgen; Thoresen, G. Hege

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Physical activity has preventive as well as therapeutic benefits for overweight subjects. In this study we aimed to examine effects of in vivo exercise on in vitro metabolic adaptations by studying energy metabolism in cultured myotubes isolated from biopsies taken before and after 12 weeks of extensive endurance and strength training, from healthy sedentary normal weight and overweight men. Methods Healthy sedentary men, aged 40–62 years, with normal weight (body mass index (BMI) exercise showed increased total cellular oleic acid uptake (30%), oxidation (46%) and lipid accumulation (34%), as well as increased fractional glucose oxidation (14%) compared to cultures established prior to exercise. Most of these exercise-induced increases were significant in the overweight group, whereas the normal weight group showed no change in oleic acid or glucose metabolism. Conclusions 12 weeks of combined endurance and strength training promoted increased lipid and glucose metabolism in biopsy-derived cultured human myotubes, showing that training in vivo are able to induce changes in human myotubes that are discernible in vitro. PMID:28403174

  16. Increasing the Potency of an Alhydrogel-Formulated Anthrax Vaccine by Minimizing Antigen-Adjuvant Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Watkinson, Allan; Soliakov, Andrei; Ganesan, Ashok; Hirst, Karie; LeButt, Chris; Fleetwood, Kelly; Fusco, Peter C.; Fuerst, Thomas R.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum salts are the most widely used vaccine adjuvants, and phosphate is known to modulate antigen-adjuvant interactions. Here we report an unexpected role for phosphate buffer in an anthrax vaccine (SparVax) containing recombinant protective antigen (rPA) and aluminum oxyhydroxide (AlOH) adjuvant (Alhydrogel). Phosphate ions bind to AlOH to produce an aluminum phosphate surface with a reduced rPA adsorption coefficient and binding capacity. However, these effects continued to increase as ...

  17. Total and cause-specific mortality by moderately and markedly increased ferritin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Marott, Jacob Louis; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    : We examined total and cause-specific mortality according to baseline plasma ferritin concentrations in a Danish population-based study (the Copenhagen City Heart Study) of 8988 individuals, 6364 of whom died (median follow-up 23 years). We also included a metaanalysis of total mortality comprising...... population-based studies according to ferritin quartiles or tertiles. RESULTS: Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for total mortality for individuals with ferritin ≥200 vs 1.2 (1.0-1.3; P = 0.03) in women....... Stepwise increasing concentrations of ferritin were associated with a stepwise increased risk of premature death overall (log rank, P = 2 × 10(-22)), with median survival of 55 years at ferritin concentrations ≥600 μg/L, 72 years at 400-599 μg/L, 76 years at 200-399 μg/L, and 79 years at ferritin

  18. Early adolescent cognitive gains are marked by increased sleep EEG coherence

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Tarokh; Carskadon, Mary A.; Peter Achermann

    2014-01-01

    Although the increases in cognitive capacities of adolescent humans are concurrent with significant cortical restructuring, functional associations between these phenomena are unclear. We examined the association between cortical development, as measured by the sleep EEG, and cognitive performance in a sample of 9/10 year olds followed up 1 to 3 years later. Our cognitive measures included a response inhibition task (Stroop), an executive control task (Trail Making), and a verbal fluency task...

  19. Grapefruit juice markedly increases the plasma concentrations and antiplatelet effects of ticagrelor in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Mikko T; Tornio, Aleksi; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Neuvonen, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Lassila, Riitta; Niemi, Mikko; Backman, Janne T

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study examined the effects of grapefruit juice on the new P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor, which is a substrate of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein. Methods In a randomized crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers ingested 200 ml of grapefruit juice or water thrice daily for 4 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 90 mg dose of ticagrelor. Results Grapefruit juice increased ticagrelor geometric mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) to 165% (95% confidence interval 147, 184%) and area under the concentration–time curve (AUC(0,∞)) to 221% of control (95% confidence interval 200, 245%). The Cmax and AUC(0,34 h) (P ticagrelor elimination half-life prolonging it from 6.7 to 7.2 h (P = 0.036). In good correlation with the elevated plasma ticagrelor concentrations, grapefruit juice enhanced the antiplatelet effect of ticagrelor, assessed with VerifyNow® and Multiplate® methods, and postponed the recovery of platelet reactivity. Conclusions Grapefruit juice increased ticagrelor exposure by more than two-fold, leading to an enhanced and prolonged ticagrelor antiplatelet effect. The grapefruit juice–ticagrelor interaction seems clinically important and indicates the significance of intestinal metabolism to ticagrelor pharmacokinetics. PMID:23126367

  20. Steam drying compared to drum drying markedly increases early phase rumen fermentability of sugar beet pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Larsen, Kasper; Jensen, Arne Sloth

    2017-01-01

    Freshly pressed and dried sugar beet pulp was sampled from 2 different factories located within a distance of 30 km and on 4 different dates. One factory was equipped with a steam dryer and the other with a drum dryer. A recognized in vitro technique was used to establish, how the drying process...... affected rumen fermentability of the pulp, since fibrous feeds (such as sugar beet pulp) rely on microbial fermentation in the rumen to be digestible to the cow. Steam dried pulp had a remarkable >60% higher fermentability compared to drum dried pulp during the first 12(-15) hours of fermentation...... (such as pectin) and small particles as low as 6.7-13.3 hours. Future feeding trials are needed to establish exactly how much the feeding value is increased in steam dried sugar beet pulp....

  1. Comparison of mark-resight methods to estimate abundance and rabies vaccination coverage of free-roaming dogs in two urban areas of south Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzin, Tenzin; McKenzie, Joanna S; Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Rai, Bir Doj; Rinzin, Karma; Tshering, Yeshey; Pem, Rinzin; Tshering, Chenga; Dahal, Narapati; Dukpa, Kinzang; Dorjee, Sithar; Wangchuk, Sonam; Jolly, Peter D; Morris, Roger; Ward, Michael P

    2015-03-01

    In Bhutan, Capture-Neuter-Vaccinate-Release (CNVR) programs have been implemented to manage the dog population and control rabies, but no detailed evaluation has been done to assess their coverage and impact. We compared estimates of the dog population using three analytical methods: Lincoln-Petersen index, the Chapman estimate, and the logit-normal mixed effects model, and a varying number of count periods at different times of the day to recommend a protocol for applying the mark-resight framework to estimate free-roaming dog population abundance. We assessed the coverage of the CNVR program by estimating the proportion of dogs that were ear-notched and visually scored the health and skin condition of free-roaming dogs in Gelephu and Phuentsholing towns in south Bhutan, bordering India, in September-October 2012. The estimated free-roaming dog population in Gelephu using the Lincoln-Petersen index and Chapman estimates ranged from 612 to 672 and 614 to 671, respectively, while the logit-normal mixed effects model estimate based on the combined two count events was 641 (95% CI: 603-682). In Phuentsholing the Lincoln-Petersen index and Chapman estimates ranged from 525 to 583 and 524 to 582, respectively, while the logit-normal mixed effects model estimate based on the combined four count events was 555 (95% CI: 526-587). The total number of dogs counted was significantly associated with the time of day (AM versus PM; P=0.007), with a 17% improvement in dog sightings during the morning counting events. We recommend to conduct a morning marking followed by one count event the next morning and estimate population size by applying the Lincoln-Peterson corrected Chapman method or conduct two morning count events and apply the logit-normal mixed model to estimate population size. The estimated proportion of vaccinated free-roaming dogs was 56% (95% CI: 52-61%) and 58% (95% CI: 53-62%) in Gelephu and Phuentsholing, respectively. Given coverage in many neighbourhoods was

  2. Early adolescent cognitive gains are marked by increased sleep EEG coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, Leila; Carskadon, Mary A; Achermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Although the increases in cognitive capacities of adolescent humans are concurrent with significant cortical restructuring, functional associations between these phenomena are unclear. We examined the association between cortical development, as measured by the sleep EEG, and cognitive performance in a sample of 9/10 year olds followed up 1 to 3 years later. Our cognitive measures included a response inhibition task (Stroop), an executive control task (Trail Making), and a verbal fluency task (FAS). We correlated sleep EEG measures of power and intra-hemispheric coherence at the initial assessment with performance at that assessment. In addition we correlated the rate of change across assessments in sleep EEG measures with the rate of change in performance. We found no correlation between sleep EEG power and performance on cognitive tasks for the initial assessment. In contrast, we found a significant correlation of the rate of change in intra-hemispheric coherence for the sigma band (11 to 16 Hz) with rate of change in performance on the Stroop (r = 0.61; p<0.02) and Trail Making (r =  -0.51; p<0.02) but no association for the FAS. Thus, plastic changes in connectivity (i.e., sleep EEG coherence) were associated with improvement in complex cognitive function.

  3. Early adolescent cognitive gains are marked by increased sleep EEG coherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Tarokh

    Full Text Available Although the increases in cognitive capacities of adolescent humans are concurrent with significant cortical restructuring, functional associations between these phenomena are unclear. We examined the association between cortical development, as measured by the sleep EEG, and cognitive performance in a sample of 9/10 year olds followed up 1 to 3 years later. Our cognitive measures included a response inhibition task (Stroop, an executive control task (Trail Making, and a verbal fluency task (FAS. We correlated sleep EEG measures of power and intra-hemispheric coherence at the initial assessment with performance at that assessment. In addition we correlated the rate of change across assessments in sleep EEG measures with the rate of change in performance. We found no correlation between sleep EEG power and performance on cognitive tasks for the initial assessment. In contrast, we found a significant correlation of the rate of change in intra-hemispheric coherence for the sigma band (11 to 16 Hz with rate of change in performance on the Stroop (r = 0.61; p<0.02 and Trail Making (r =  -0.51; p<0.02 but no association for the FAS. Thus, plastic changes in connectivity (i.e., sleep EEG coherence were associated with improvement in complex cognitive function.

  4. Strategies and actions of multi-purpose health communication on vaccine preventable infectious diseases in order to increase vaccination coverage in the population: The ESCULAPIO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Lauri, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Levi, Miriam; Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Pellizzari, Barbara; Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Vitale, Francesco; Iannazzo, Stefania; Boccalini, Sara

    2017-02-01

    The ESCULAPIO Project aims at increasing awareness on vaccine preventable infectious diseases (VPID) and vaccinations in different target populations and to spread the culture of prevention. Information/training interventions on VPID have been developed and health promotion activities for the general population, students and their parents, teachers and health care workers (HCWs) were set up. In Tuscany, educational courses on VPID in high schools were organized and students were stimulated to prepare informative materials on VPID for lower grade school pupils. In Liguria, an educational card game (named 'Vaccine at the Fair') was presented to children of primary schools. Stands in shopping centers were used in Palermo to distribute the regional vaccination schedule and gadgets, also providing indications on reliable websites where to find correct information on vaccinations. A music video played by health care workers (HCWs) was created and used in the University Hospital of Cagliari to promote the anti-flu vaccination campaign in HCWs. In Apulia, meetings with the general population were organized to collect controversial issues about vaccinations and a national call center was launched to create a direct line from the general population to experts in vaccines and vaccination strategies. In Veneto, meetings in the birth centers and home visits for subjects refusing vaccination have been organized. All activities are useful and effective tools to increase knowledge about VPID and confidence in vaccination, which are crucial aspects in order to increase vaccine uptake. The project was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) in 2013.

  5. Inconsistent protective efficacy and marked polymorphism limits the value of Schistosoma japonicum tetraspanin-2 as a vaccine target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbao Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin 2 (Sm-TSP-2 has been shown to be strongly recognized by IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies from individuals putatively resistant to schistosome infection, but not chronically infected people, and to induce high levels of protection against challenge infection in the murine model of schistosomiasis. Amplification by PCR of homologous sequences from male and female S. japonicum worms showed the presence of 7 different clusters or subclasses of S. japonicum TSP-2. We determined the protective efficacy of one subclass - Sj-TSP-2e. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following the alignment of 211 cDNAs, we identified 7 clusters encoding S. japonicum TSP-2 (Sj-TSP-2 based on sequence variation in the large extracellular loop (LEL region with differing frequency of transcription in male and female worms. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed elevated expression of Sj-TSP-2 in adult worms compared with other life cycle stages. We expressed in E. coli the LEL region of one of the clusters which exhibited a high frequency of transcription in female worms, and showed the purified recombinant protein (Sj-TSP-2e was recognised by 43.1% of sera obtained from confirmed schistosomiasis japonica patients. Vaccination of mice with the recombinant protein induced high levels of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies, but no consistent protective efficacy against challenge infection was elicited in three independent trials. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The highly polymorphic nature of the Sj-TSP-2 gene at the transcriptional level may limit the value of Sj-TSP-2 as a target for future S. japonicum vaccine development.

  6. Web-based Social Media Intervention to Increase Vaccine Acceptance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Jason M; Wagner, Nicole M; Narwaney, Komal J; Kraus, Courtney R; Shoup, Jo Ann; Xu, Stanley; O'Leary, Sean T; Omer, Saad B; Gleason, Kathy S; Daley, Matthew F

    2017-12-01

    Interventions to address vaccine hesitancy and increase vaccine acceptance are needed. This study sought to determine if a Web-based, social media intervention increases early childhood immunization. A 3-arm, randomized controlled trial was conducted in Colorado from September 2013 to July 2016. Participants were pregnant women, randomly assigned (3:2:1) to a Web site with vaccine information and interactive social media components (VSM), a Web site with vaccine information (VI), or usual care (UC). Vaccination was assessed in infants of participants from birth to age 200 days. The primary outcome was days undervaccinated, measured as a continuous and dichotomous variable. Infants of 888 participants were managed for 200 days. By using a nonparametric rank-based analysis, mean ranks for days undervaccinated were significantly lower in the VSM arm versus UC (P = .02) but not statistically different between the VI and UC (P = .08) or between VSM and VI arms (P = .63). The proportions of infants up-to-date at age 200 days were 92.5, 91.3, and 86.6 in the VSM, VI, and UC arms, respectively. Infants in the VSM arm were more likely to be up-to-date than infants in the UC arm (odds ratio [OR] = 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-3.47). Up-to-date status was not statistically different between VI and UC arms (OR = 1.62; 95% CI, 0.87-3.00) or between the VSM and VI arms (OR = 1.19, 95% CI, 0.70-2.03). Providing Web-based vaccine information with social media applications during pregnancy can positively influence parental vaccine behaviors. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Pragmatic trial of an intervention to increase human papillomavirus vaccination in safety-net clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Sanderson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been causally linked to six cancers, and many disproportionately affect minorties. This study reports on the development and effectiveness of an intervention aimed at increasing HPV vaccine uptake among African American and Hispanic pediatric patients in safety-net clinics. Methods Formative research, community engagement, and theory guided development of the intervention. A clustered, non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial was conducted in four clinics providing healthcare for the underserved in Tennessee, U.S., with two intervention sites and two usual care sites. Patients aged 9-18 years (N = 408 and their mothers (N = 305 enrolled, with children clustered within families. The intervention consisted of two provider/staff training sessions and provision of patient education materials, consisting of a video/flyer promoting HPV vaccine. Medical records were reviewed before/after the initial visit and after 12 months. Results At the initial visit, provision of patient education materials and provider recommendation were higher at intervention sites versus usual care sites, and receipt of HPV vaccine was higher at intervention sites (45.4% versus 32.9% but not significantly after adjusting for patient’s age and mother’s education. Provider recommendation, but not education materials, increased the likelihood of vaccine receipt at the initial visit, although over one-third of intervention mothers cited the flyer/video as motivating vaccination. Completion of the 3-dose series at follow-up was lower in the intervention arm. Conclusions Future interventions should combine patient education, intensive provider/staff education, and patient reminders. Research should compare patient education focusing on HPV vaccine only versus all adolescent vaccines. Trial registration Retrospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02808832 , 9/12/16

  8. Vaccine quality and safety: scrutinizing the reported 3-fold increase in adverse effects following immunization (Aefi) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Rajan R

    2014-01-01

    There has been major controversy over vaccine safety in India following newspaper reports citing right to information (RTI) disclosure that there have been increasing vaccine related deaths following immunization in children in the recent years. Secondary data analysis. Adverse effect following immunization (AEFI) events in recent years are being linked to closure of three government owned vaccine producing public sector units (PSU) closures in India. The media reports quoting government sources suggest that the total number of reported deaths due to AEFI in a pre-closure of vaccine PSUs 7 years (2001-2007) was 136, whereas it is 355 in the post vaccine PSU closure 3 years (2008 to 2010). There is an issue of comparability of numbers of AEFI deaths pre- (2001-2007) and post-vaccine PSU closure era (2008-2011) and linking increased AEFI deaths to vaccine PSU closure.

  9. Measles Vaccination Supports Millennium Development Goal 4: Increasing Coverage and Increasing Child Survival in Northern Ghana, 1996–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Welaga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMeasles vaccine (MV administered as the last vaccine after the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP may be associated with better child survival unrelated to prevention of measles infection. Other studies have shown that MV administered after DTP was more beneficial and was associated with lower mortality compared with DTP administered after MV or DTP administered simultaneously with MV. We compared the difference in mortality between measles vaccinated after DTP3 and measles-unvaccinated children in Navrongo, Ghana.MethodsThis was a follow-up study involving annual cohort of children aged 9–23 months from 1996 to 2012. We assessed survival in relation to the measles vaccination status within the first 12 months from interview date and until 5 years of age using Cox proportional hazards models.ResultsIn all, 38,333 children were included in the study. The proportion of children vaccinated with MV-after-DTP3 increased from 45% in 1996 to 95% in 2012. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR for measles unvaccinated compared with MV-after-DTP3 vaccinated children was 1.38 (1.15–1.66 in the first 12 months after assessment of vaccination status and 1.22 (1.05–1.41 with follow-up to 5 years of age. The national immunization days campaigns with oral polio vaccine or MV might have reduced the effect of being MV-after-DTP3 vaccinated vs MV-unvaccinated. For 12 months of follow-up, the HR before a campaign for MV-unvaccinated children was 1.63 (1.23–2.17 compared to those who received MV-after-DTP3. After the campaign, the HR reduced to 1.23 (0.97–1.54. Stratifying the analysis by sex, measles-unvaccinated boys had a HR of 1.69 (1.33–2.61 compared to measles-unvaccinated girls who had a HR 1.06 (0.79–1.40 during 1-year follow-up. In 1989, only 7% of children in the area had received MV-after-DTP3; the increase in MV-after-DTP3 coverage from 1989 to 2012 may have lowered mortality rate among children aged 9 months to

  10. Stepwise intervention including 1-on-1 counseling is highly effective in increasing influenza vaccination among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghee; Kwon, Mihye; Song, Jeongmi

    2017-06-01

    The influenza vaccination rate among health care workers (HCWs) remains suboptimal. We attempted to increase vaccine uptake in HCWs by nonmandatory measures, including 1-on-1 counseling. In 2015 we used a stepwise approach including (1) text messaging on the last day of the vaccination period, (2) extending the vaccination period by 3 days, (3) education for the low uptake group, and (4) 1-on-1 counseling for unvaccinated HCWs after the 3 interventions. There were 1,433 HCWs included. By the end of the initial 3 days, the uptake rate was 80.0% (1,146/1,433). During an extension for a further 3 days, 33 additional HCWs received the vaccine. One month after starting the vaccination, 90.1% (1,291/1,433) of the HCWs were vaccinated, but this included only 76.1% (210/276) of the doctors (lowest among HCWs). After 3 educational presentations targeted at the unvaccinated doctors, no additional individuals were vaccinated in the following 2 weeks. After 1-on-1 counseling for unvaccinated HCWs, the overall vaccination rate increased to 94.7% (1,357/1,433) in 2015, higher than in the previous year (82.5%, P vaccinated, therefore achieving 92.4% (255/276) compliance, higher than the 56.5% in the previous year (152/269, P vaccination rates among HCWs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk of immunodeficiency virus infection may increase with vaccine-induced immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbusch, Matthias; Ignatius, Ralf; Temchura, Vladimir; Nabi, Ghulam; Tippler, Bettina; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Salazar, Andres M; Sauermann, Ülrike; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Uberla, Klaus

    2012-10-01

    To explore the efficacy of novel complementary prime-boost immunization regimens in a nonhuman primate model for HIV infection, rhesus monkeys primed by different DNA vaccines were boosted with virus-like particles (VLP) and then challenged by repeated low-dose rectal exposure to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Characteristic of the cellular immune response after the VLP booster immunization were high numbers of SIV-specific, gamma interferon-secreting cells after stimulation with inactivated SIV particles, but not SIV peptides, and the absence of detectable levels of CD8(+) T cell responses. Antibodies specific to SIV Gag and SIV Env could be induced in all animals, but, consistent with a poor neutralizing activity at the time of challenge, vaccinated monkeys were not protected from acquisition of infection and did not control viremia. Surprisingly, vaccinees with high numbers of SIV-specific, gamma interferon-secreting cells were infected fastest during the repeated low-dose exposures and the numbers of these immune cells in vaccinated macaques correlated with susceptibility to infection. Thus, in the absence of protective antibodies or cytotoxic T cell responses, vaccine-induced immune responses may increase the susceptibility to acquisition of immunodeficiency virus infection. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that virus-specific T helper cells mediate this detrimental effect and contribute to the inefficacy of past HIV vaccination attempts (e.g., STEP study).

  12. [Abolition of compulsory vaccination against smallpox. Increased danger to humans from animal smallpox? (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A; Danner, K

    1979-12-14

    After the world-wide eradication of human smallpox, compulsory vaccination against smallpox will no longer be applicable in future in most countries. Although the human smallpox virus (variola virus) appears to have no animal reservoir, humanity is increasingly endangered in future by animal smallpox viruses pathogenic in man against which he has been so far protected by the general smallpox vaccination. This is a virus type of the Genus Orthopox virus. The risk from animal pox viruses, which are not related to the Orthopox virus, remains unchanged. Of the animal Orthopox viruses the monkey pox viruses deserve special attention; possibly rodents also play a decisive role in transmission of smallpox.

  13. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Oliva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Glucose, an aldose, spontaneously reacts with protein amino acids yielding glycosylated proteins. The compounds may reorganize to produce advanced glycosylation products, which regulatory importance is increasingly being recognized. Protein glycosylation is produced without the direct intervention of enzymes and results in the loss of function. Glycosylated plasma albumin, and glycosylated haemoglobin are currently used as index of mean plasma glucose levels, since higher glucose availability results in higher glycosylation rates. In this study we intended to detect the early changes in blood protein glycosylation elicited by an obesogenic diet.Experimental Design. Since albumin is in constant direct contact with plasma glucose, as are the red blood cell (RBC membranes, we analyzed their degree or glycosylation in female and male rats, either fed a standard diet or subjected to a hyper-energetic self-selected cafeteria diet for 30 days. This model produces a small increase in basal glycaemia and a significant increase in body fat, leaving the animals in the initial stages of development of metabolic syndrome. We also measured the degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin, and the concentration of glucose in contact with this protein, that within the RBC. Glycosylation was measured by colorimetric estimation of the hydroxymethylfurfural liberated from glycosyl residues by incubation with oxalate.Results. Plasma glucose was higher in cafeteria diet and in male rats, both independent effects. However, there were no significant differences induced by sex or diet in either hemoglobin or plasma proteins. Purified RBC membranes showed a marked effect of diet: higher glycosylation in cafeteria rats, which was more marked in females (not in controls. In any case, the number of glycosyl residues per molecule were higher in hemoglobin than in plasma proteins (after correction for molecular weight. The detected levels of glucose in

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Increasing Influenza Vaccination Coverage in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Akın

    Full Text Available In Turkey, the prevalence of diabetes is high but the influenza vaccination coverage rate (VCR is low (9.1% in 2014, despite vaccination being recommended and reimbursed. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing the influenza VCR of adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to 20%.A decision-analytic model was adapted to Turkey using data derived from published sources. Direct medical costs and indirect costs due to productivity loss were included in the societal perspective. The time horizon was set at 1 year to reflect the seasonality of influenza.Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes to 20% is predicted to avert an additional 19,777 influenza cases, 2376 hospitalizations, and 236 deaths. Associated influenza costs avoided were estimated at more than 8.3 million Turkish Lira (TRY, while the cost of vaccination would be more than TRY 8.4 million. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at TRY 64/quality-adjusted life years, which is below the per capita gross domestic product of TRY 21,511 and therefore very cost-effective according to World Health Organization guidelines. Factors most influencing the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were the excess hospitalization rate, inpatient cost, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization, and influenza attack rate. Increasing the VCR to >20% was also estimated to be very cost-effective.Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to ≥20% would be very cost-effective.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of Increasing Influenza Vaccination Coverage in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Levent; Macabéo, Bérengère; Caliskan, Zafer; Altinel, Serdar; Satman, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    In Turkey, the prevalence of diabetes is high but the influenza vaccination coverage rate (VCR) is low (9.1% in 2014), despite vaccination being recommended and reimbursed. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing the influenza VCR of adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to 20%. A decision-analytic model was adapted to Turkey using data derived from published sources. Direct medical costs and indirect costs due to productivity loss were included in the societal perspective. The time horizon was set at 1 year to reflect the seasonality of influenza. Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes to 20% is predicted to avert an additional 19,777 influenza cases, 2376 hospitalizations, and 236 deaths. Associated influenza costs avoided were estimated at more than 8.3 million Turkish Lira (TRY), while the cost of vaccination would be more than TRY 8.4 million. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at TRY 64/quality-adjusted life years, which is below the per capita gross domestic product of TRY 21,511 and therefore very cost-effective according to World Health Organization guidelines. Factors most influencing the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were the excess hospitalization rate, inpatient cost, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization, and influenza attack rate. Increasing the VCR to >20% was also estimated to be very cost-effective. Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to ≥20% would be very cost-effective.

  16. Combined exposure to dissimilarly acting anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequency of hypospadias in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of hypospadias is increasing, but it is unclear whether human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals is related to this. Risk assessment based on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for single compounds indicates that human tissue levels are too low levels to cause concern...... organs were scored on PND 47/48 using a score from 0 to 3 (normal-marked) for the endpoints hypospadia and vaginal opening. Animals with scores 2 or 3 were only found in the two highest mixture groups and the highest dose of vinclozolin, and score 3 was only observed in the highest mixture group. Also......, a combination of doses of each chemical that on its own did not produce clear sign of hypospadias (DEHP, finasteride and prochloraz) or a frequency around 14% (vinclozolin) induced a 100% frequency of hypospadias. In conclusion, doses of anti-androgens, which appear to induce only low frequencies of hypospadias...

  17. Blocking blue light during mania - markedly increased regularity of sleep and rapid improvement of symptoms: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Tone E G; Skrede, Silje; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Hamre, Børge; Grønli, Janne; Lund, Anders

    2014-12-01

    Available pharmacological treatment of mania is insufficient. Virtual darkness therapy (blue light-blocking treatment by means of orange-tinted glasses) is a promising new treatment option for mania. The basis for this might be the recently identified blue light-sensitive retinal photoreceptor, which is solely responsible for light stimulus to the circadian master clock. This is the first case report describing the clinical course of a closely monitored, hospitalized patient in a manic episode first receiving clear-lensed, and then blue light-blocking glasses. A 58-year-old Caucasian man, with bipolar I disorder and three previous manic episodes, was hospitalized during a manic episode. In addition to pharmacological treatment, he was treated with clear-lensed glasses for seven days, then one day without glasses, followed by six days of blue light-blocking glasses. During the entire observational period, he wore an actigraph with internal light sensors. Manic symptoms were unaltered during the first seven days. The transition to the blue-blocking regime was followed by a rapid and sustained decline in manic symptoms accompanied by a reduction in total sleep, a reduction in motor activity during sleep intervals, and markedly increased regularity of sleep intervals. The patient's total length of hospital stay was 20 days shorter than the average time during his previous manic episodes. The unusually rapid decline in symptoms, accompanied by uniform sleep parameter changes toward markedly increased regularity, suggest that blue-blockers might be targeting a central mechanism in the pathophysiology of mania that needs to be explored both in clinical research and in basic science. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. High-titer measles vaccination before 9 months of age and increased female mortality: do we have an explanation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, Henrik; Simondon, Francois; Whittle, Hilton

    2003-07-01

    In 1989, high-titer (HT) Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine with a titer more than 10(4.7) plaque-forming-units was recommended by the World Health Organization for use in areas with a high incidence of measles in children younger than 9 months. In 1992, the recommendation was rescinded following reports from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Haiti showing an increased incidence of female mortality occurring after administration of HT Edmonston-Zagreb vaccination. We reviewed 9 studies of HT measles vaccines that reported data on mortality. These reports included 4 randomized trials comparing HT vaccine administered to children younger than 9 months with standard-titer (ST) vaccines (10(3.0) to 10(4.0) plaque-forming-units) given at 9 months of age. Five studies from Zaire, Haiti, Senegal, Rwanda, and Zaire had no control group receiving ST vaccine at 9 months of age, but investigators were able to examine the female-to-male mortality ratio within these HT studies. Investigators have hypothesized that HT vaccine had caused immune suppression similar to that of measles infection. The present review suggests first that the HT vaccine itself is unlikely to be the cause because the effect was not found in all studies. Second, the increased mortality started only after 9 to 10 months of age when controls received ST measles vaccine, and HT groups received the "control vaccine." It was not found in the studies that provided another measles vaccine instead of control vaccine. Third, because the HT studies with excess mortality rates showed increased female mortality rates, we need to find environmental or contextual conditions associated with increased female mortality rates in some studies to explain the problem associated with HT measles vaccination.

  19. Vaccine hesitancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  20. Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Østergaard, Marie Drivsholm; Bale, Carlito; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter

    2014-01-23

    Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar negative effects. In 2007-2011, we conducted a randomised placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A at routine vaccination contacts among children aged 6-23 months in urban and rural Guinea-Bissau. In the present study, we included 2331 children randomised to placebo who received live vaccines only (MV or MV+YF) or a combination of live and inactivated vaccines (MV+DTP or MV+YF+pentavalent). Mortality was compared in Cox proportional hazards models stratified for urban/rural enrolment adjusted for age and unevenly distributed baseline factors. While DTP was still used 685 children received MV only and 358 MV+DTP; following the change in programme, 940 received MV+YF only and 348 MV+YF+pentavalent. During 6 months of follow-up, the adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) for co-administered live and inactivated vaccines compared with live vaccines only was 3.24 (1.20-8.73). For MV+YF+pentavalent compared with MV+YF only, the adjusted MRR was 7.73 (1.79-33.4). In line with previous studies of DTP, the present results indicate that pentavalent vaccine co-administered with MV and YF is associated with increased mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased emergency room visits or hospital admissions in females after 12-month MMR vaccination, but no difference after vaccinations given at a younger age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; Ducharme, Robin; Ward, Brian; Hawken, Steven

    2014-02-26

    Previous studies have suggested that a child's sex may be a predictor of vaccine reactions. We used a self-controlled case series design, an extension of retrospective cohort methodology which controls for fixed confounders using a conditional Poisson modeling approach. We compared a risk period immediately following vaccination to a control period farther removed from vaccination in each child and estimated the relative incidence of emergency room visits and/or hospital admissions following the 2-, 4-, 6-, and 12-month vaccinations to investigate the effect of sex on relative incidence. All infants born in Ontario, Canada between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2009 were eligible for study inclusion. In analyses combining immunizations at 2, 4 and 6 months and examining these vaccinations separately, there was no significant relationship between the relative incidence of an event and sex of the child. At 12 months, we observed a significant effect of sex, with female sex being associated with a significantly higher relative incidence of events (P=0.0027). The relative incidence ratio (95% CI) comparing females to males following the 12-month vaccination was 1.08 (1.03 to 1.14), which translates to 192 excess events per 100,000 females vaccinated compared to the number of events that would have occurred in 100,000 males vaccinated. As the MMR vaccine is given at 12 months of age in Ontario, our findings suggest that girls may have an increased reactogenicity to the MMR vaccine which may be indicative of general sex differences in the responses to the measles virus. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The increase in plasma nitrite after a dietary nitrate load is markedly attenuated by an antibacterial mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Mirco; Jansson, Emmelie A; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies surprisingly show that dietary inorganic nitrate, abundant in vegetables, can be metabolized in vivo to form nitrite and then bioactive nitric oxide. A reduction in blood pressure was recently noted in healthy volunteers after dietary supplementation with nitrate; an effect consistent with formation of vasodilatory nitric oxide. Oral bacteria have been suggested to play a role in bioactivation of nitrate by first reducing it to the more reactive anion nitrite. In a cross-over designed study in seven healthy volunteers we examined the effects of a commercially available chlorhexidine-containing antibacterial mouthwash on salivary and plasma levels of nitrite measured after an oral intake of sodium nitrate (10mg/kg dissolved in water). In the control situation the salivary and plasma levels of nitrate and nitrite increased greatly after the nitrate load. Rinsing the mouth with the antibacterial mouthwash prior to the nitrate load had no effect on nitrate accumulation in saliva or plasma but abolished its conversion to nitrite in saliva and markedly attenuated the rise in plasma nitrite. We conclude that the acute increase in plasma nitrite seen after a nitrate load is critically dependent on nitrate reduction in the oral cavity by commensal bacteria. The removal of these bacteria with an antibacterial mouthwash will very likely attenuate the NO-dependent biological effects of dietary nitrate.

  3. Vaccination and triploidy increase relative heart weight in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, T W K; Mayer, I; Hansen, T; Poppe, T T; Skjaeraasen, J E; Koppang, E O; Fjelldal, P G

    2015-02-01

    Heart morphology is particularly plastic in teleosts and differs between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon. However, little is known about how different culture practices and sex affect heart morphology. This study investigated how vaccination, triploidy and sex affected heart size and heart morphology (ventricle shape, angle of the bulbus arteriosus) in farmed Atlantic salmon for 18 months following vaccination (from c. 50-3000 g body weight). In addition, hearts were examined histologically after 7 months in sea water. All fish sampled were sexually immature. Vaccinated fish had significantly heavier hearts relative to body weight and a more triangular ventricle than unvaccinated fish, suggesting a greater cardiac workload. Irrespective of time, triploids had significantly heavier hearts relative to body weight, a more acute angle of the bulbus arteriosus and less fat deposition in the epicardium than diploids. The ventricle was also more triangular in triploids than diploids at seawater transfer. Sex had transient effects on the angle of the bulbus arteriosus, but no effect on relative heart weight or ventricle shape. From a morphological perspective, the results indicate that vaccination and triploidy increase cardiac workload in farmed Atlantic salmon. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Marked increase in the prevalence of obesity in children of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country, between 1998 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Madeleine, George; Gabriel, Anne; Stettler, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    There are few data on overweight in children in developing countries. Such data are important to guide public health policy. We assessed trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from the Seychelles, a middle-income island state in the Indian Ocean. Multiple cross-sectional surveys were conducted each year between 1998 and 2004 on all students of all schools in four selected school grades (creche, 4th, 7th and 10th years of mandatory school). Weight and height were measured and children were asked about walking time and frequency of physical exercise at leisure time. Excess weight categories were defined according to the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data were available for 33 340 observations in 1998-2004, corresponding to 23,459 individual children measured once or several times. Based on IOTF criteria, the prevalence of 'overweight' or 'obesity' increased from 8.7% to 13.5% in boys, and from 11.8% to 18.6% in girls from 1998 to 2004 (P risk of overweight' and 'overweight' increased by similar proportions. The shift towards higher values over time was larger in the upper than the lower tail of the BMI distribution. Physical activity decreased over calendar years and was inversely associated with excess weight. The prevalence of excess weight increased markedly over a seven-year period in children in the Seychelles. This is likely to reflect a rapid nutrition transition with increasingly positive energy balance. These findings stress the need for programs and policies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy nutrition in countries in epidemiological transition.

  5. Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease — reinforcing the importance of vaccines in your pet's preventive health care program. Are there risks? Any treatment carries some risk, but these risks should be weighed against the benefits of protecting your pet from potentially fatal diseases. ...

  6. Increased measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine uptake in the context of a targeted immunisation campaign during a measles outbreak in a vaccine-reluctant community in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Menach, Arnaud; Boxall, Naomi; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Maddock, Liz; Balasegaram, Sooria; Mindlin, Miranda

    2014-02-26

    Following a measles outbreak in a vaccine-rejecting community between April and September 2011 in South-East England, local health agencies implemented a two-pronged measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunisation campaign from August to October offered at the local general practice where most cases were registered. The campaign included (a) accelerated vaccination of children earlier than scheduled (1st dose at 6-11 months, or 2nd dose at 18-39 months), (b) catch-up of those aged over 18 months who had had no MMR immunisations or were late for second MMR. We investigated the impact of the outbreak and campaign on the number of MMR doses given. In January 2012, we collected information on MMR vaccination for children registered at the practice aged 6 months-16 years on 1 August 2011, through the child health information system. We counted the number of MMR doses administered in 2011 and compared it to 2008-2010 data. We estimated the proportion vaccinated among the children eligible for the accelerated and catch-up campaign. The local practice administered 257 MMR doses in 2011, a 114% increase on the average for 2008-2010. Among children eligible for earlier MMR vaccination 5/26 (19%) received a first dose, and 34/57 (60%) a second dose. Among children eligible for catch-up, 20/329 (6%) received their first MMR and 39/121 (32%) their second. Of 1538 children, the proportion completely unimmunised for MMR declined by 3 percentage-points after the outbreak. Uptake of MMR vaccination significantly increased during the outbreak following the immunisation campaign. Those amenable to MMR vaccination seem to have benefited from the campaign more than those with no previous vaccinations. Future evaluations should address what made a few parents change their mind and have their children vaccinated for the first time during the outbreak. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trophic assimilation efficiency markedly increases at higher trophic levels in four-level host-parasitoid food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Dirk; Moser, Andrea; Newton, Jason; van Veen, F J Frank

    2016-03-16

    Trophic assimilation efficiency (conversion of resource biomass into consumer biomass) is thought to be a limiting factor for food chain length in natural communities. In host-parasitoid systems, which account for the majority of terrestrial consumer interactions, a high trophic assimilation efficiency may be expected at higher trophic levels because of the close match of resource composition of host tissue and the consumer's resource requirements, which would allow for longer food chains. We measured efficiency of biomass transfer along an aphid-primary-secondary-tertiary parasitoid food chain and used stable isotope analysis to confirm trophic levels. We show high efficiency in biomass transfer along the food chain. From the third to the fourth trophic level, the proportion of host biomass transferred was 45%, 65% and 73%, respectively, for three secondary parasitoid species. For two parasitoid species that can act at the fourth and fifth trophic levels, we show markedly increased trophic assimilation efficiencies at the higher trophic level, which increased from 45 to 63% and 73 to 93%, respectively. In common with other food chains, δ(15)N increased with trophic level, with trophic discrimination factors (Δ(15)N) 1.34 and 1.49‰ from primary parasitoids to endoparasitic and ectoparasitic secondary parasitoids, respectively, and 0.78‰ from secondary to tertiary parasitoids. Owing to the extraordinarily high efficiency of hyperparasitoids, cryptic higher trophic levels may exist in host-parasitoid communities, which could alter our understanding of the dynamics and drivers of community structure of these important systems. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. How to develop a program to increase influenza vaccine uptake among workers in health care settings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Delden Johan JM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apart from direct protection and reduced productivity loss during epidemics, the main reason to immunize healthcare workers (HCWs against influenza is to provide indirect protection of frail patients through reduced transmission in healthcare settings. Because the vaccine uptake among HCWs remains far below the health objectives, systematic programs are needed to take full advantage of such vaccination. In an earlier report, we showed a mean 9% increase of vaccine uptake among HCWs in nursing homes that implemented a systematic program compared with control homes, with higher rates in those homes that implemented more program elements. Here, we report in detail the process of the development of the implementation program to enable researchers and practitioners to develop intervention programs tailored to their setting. Methods We applied the intervention mapping (IM method to develop a theory- and evidence-based intervention program to change vaccination behaviour among HCWs in nursing homes. Results After a comprehensive needs assessment, we were able to specify proximal program objectives and selected methods and strategies for inducing behavioural change. By consensus, we decided on planning of three main program components, i.e., an outreach visit to all nursing homes, plenary information meetings, and the appointment of a program coordinator -- preferably a physician -- in each home. Finally, we planned program adoption, implementation, and evaluation. Conclusion The IM methodology resulted in a systematic, comprehensive, and transparent procedure of program development. A potentially effective intervention program to change influenza vaccination behaviour among HCWs was developed, and its impact was assessed in a clustered randomised controlled trial.

  9. Intranasal delivery of nanoparticle-based vaccine increases protection against S. pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, Brittney [University of North Texas Health Science Center, Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology (United States); Thamake, Sanjay [Radio-Isotope Therapy of America Foundation (United States); Vishwanatha, Jamboor; Jones, Harlan P., E-mail: harlan.jones@unthsc.edu [University of North Texas Health Science Center, Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Nanoparticle (NP) technologies are becoming commonplace in the development of vaccine delivery systems to protect against various diseases. The current study determined the efficacy of intranasal delivery of a 234 {+-} 87.5 nm poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticle vaccine construct in establishing protection against experimental respiratory pneumococcal infection. Nanoparticles encapsulating heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (NP-HKSP) were retained in the lungs 11 days following nasal administration compared to empty NP. Immunization with NP-HKSP produced significant resistance against S. pneumoniae infection compared to administration of HKSP alone. Increased protection correlated with a significant increase in antigen-specific Th1-associated IFN-{gamma} cytokine response by pulmonary lymphocytes. This study establishes the efficacy of NP-based technology as a non-invasive and targeted approach for nasal-pulmonary immunization against pulmonary infections.

  10. Marked increase of CYP24A1 mRNA level in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines following vitamin D administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Evelin; Lakatos, Péter; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János Pál; Tóbiás, Bálint; Jozilan, Hasan; Borka, Katalin; Horváth, Henrik Csaba; Kovalszky, Ilona; Szalay, Ferenc

    2012-11-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in numerous types of tumors. We aimed to examine the mRNA and protein expression of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-inactivating CYP24A1 and mRNA expression of the activating CYP27B1 enzymes, as well as that of vitamin D receptor (VDR), in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell cultures in response to 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) administration. Increasing amounts of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (0.256-10 nM) were added to cultures of HepG2, Huh-Neo, Hep3B, Huh5-15 human HCC cell lines and cells then incubated for various time periods (30 min-28 h). The mRNA expression was analyzed by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CYP24A1 protein in HepG2 cells was detected by immuncytochemistry. CYP24A1 mRNA expression significantly (pVDR gene expression in any cell cultures. Immuncytochemistry in HepG2 cells proved that gene activation was followed by CYP24A1 protein synthesis. Our novel data indicate that administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) results in a marked increase of CYP24A1 mRNA expression in some, but not all, human HCC lines in vitro. These differences could be dependent upon the origin of the tumor cells.

  11. Lactococcus lactis carrying a DNA vaccine coding for the ESAT-6 antigen increases IL-17 cytokine secretion and boosts the BCG vaccine immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, V B; da Cunha, V P; Preisser, T M; Souza, B M; Turk, M Z; De Castro, C P; Azevedo, M S P; Miyoshi, A

    2017-06-01

    A regimen utilizing Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and another vaccine system as a booster may represent a promising strategy for the development of an efficient tuberculosis vaccine for adults. In a previous work, we confirmed the ability of Lactococcus lactis fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA+) (pValac:ESAT-6), a live mucosal DNA vaccine, to produce a specific immune response in mice after oral immunization. In this study, we examined the immunogenicity of this strain as a booster for the BCG vaccine in mice. After immunization, cytokine and immunoglobulin profiles were measured. The BCG prime L. lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:ESAT-6) boost group was the most responsive group, with a significant increase in splenic pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-6 and TNF-α compared with the negative control. Based on the results obtained here, we demonstrated that L. lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:ESAT-6) was able to increase the BCG vaccine general immune response. This work is of great scientific and social importance because it represents the first step towards the development of a booster to the BCG vaccine using L. lactis as a DNA delivery system. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Increasing Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Coverage Among Men Who Have Sex With Men-National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Sara E; Hoots, Brooke E; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Markowitz, Lauri E; Meites, Elissa

    2017-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause oropharyngeal and anogenital cancers among men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) extended HPV vaccine recommendations to males through age 21 and MSM through age 26. Because of this distinction, vaccination for some MSM might rely on sexual behavior disclosure to health care providers. Receipt of ≥1 HPV vaccination among MSM aged 18-26 in National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) was 4.9% in 2011. We evaluated HPV vaccine coverage and associated factors among MSM in 2014. Twenty US metropolitan statistical areas in 2014. Coverage was calculated as percentage of MSM self-reporting ≥1 HPV vaccination. Adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated from Poisson regression models to estimate associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with HPV vaccination. Among 2892 MSM aged 18-26 years, HPV vaccine coverage was 17.2%. Overall, 2326 (80.4%) reported a health care visit within 12 months, and 2095 (72.4%) disclosed MSM attraction or behavior to a health care provider. Factors associated with vaccination included self-reported HIV infection; having a health care visit within 12 months, health insurance, or a usual place of care; and disclosing MSM attraction or behavior to a health care provider. Since the 2011 recommendation for vaccination of males, HPV vaccine coverage among MSM increased, but remains low. Most MSM reported a recent health care visit and disclosed sexual behavior, indicating opportunities for vaccination. Potential strategies for increasing MSM coverage include improving access to recommended care, and offering education for providers and patients.

  13. GNPAT p.D519G is independently associated with markedly increased iron stores in HFE p.C282Y homozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Chen, Wen-Pin; Emond, Mary J; Phatak, Pradyumna D; Subramaniam, V Nathan; Adams, Paul C; Gurrin, Lyle C; Anderson, Gregory J; Ramm, Grant A; Powell, Lawrie W; Allen, Katrina J; Phillips, John D; Parker, Charles J; McLaren, Gordon D; McLaren, Christine E

    2017-03-01

    GNPAT p.D519G positivity is significantly increased in HFE p.C282Y homozygotes with markedly increased iron stores. We sought to determine associations of p.D519G and iron-related variables with iron stores in p.C282Y homozygotes. We defined markedly increased iron stores as serum ferritin >2247pmol/L (>1000μg/L) and either hepatic iron >236μmol/g dry weight or iron >10g by induction phlebotomy (men and women). We defined normal or mildly elevated iron stores as serum ferritin stores with these variables: age; iron supplement use (dichotomous); whole blood units donated; erythrocyte units received as transfusion; daily alcohol consumption, g; and p.D519G positivity (heterozygosity or homozygosity). The mean age of 56 participants (94.6% men) was 55±10 (SD) y; 41 had markedly increased iron stores. Prevalences of swollen/tender 2nd/3rd metacarpophalangeal joints and elevated aspartate or alanine aminotransferase were significantly greater in participants with markedly increased iron stores. Only participants with markedly increased iron stores had cirrhosis. In multivariable analyses, p.D519G positivity was the only exposure variable significantly associated with markedly increased iron stores (odds ratio 9.9, 95% CI [1.6, 60.3], p=0.0126). GNPAT p.D519G is strongly associated with markedly increased iron stores in p.C282Y homozygotes after correction for age, iron-related variables, and alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Travelers' vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2011-09-01

    The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.

  15. Profiling RNA-Seq at multiple resolutions markedly increases the number of causal eQTLs in autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhams, Christopher A; Cunninghame Graham, Deborah S; Vyse, Timothy J

    2017-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of risk loci for autoimmune disease, yet only a minority (~25%) share genetic effects with changes to gene expression (eQTLs) in immune cells. RNA-Seq based quantification at whole-gene resolution, where abundance is estimated by culminating expression of all transcripts or exons of the same gene, is likely to account for this observed lack of colocalisation as subtle isoform switches and expression variation in independent exons can be concealed. We performed integrative cis-eQTL analysis using association statistics from twenty autoimmune diseases (560 independent loci) and RNA-Seq data from 373 individuals of the Geuvadis cohort profiled at gene-, isoform-, exon-, junction-, and intron-level resolution in lymphoblastoid cell lines. After stringently testing for a shared causal variant using both the Joint Likelihood Mapping and Regulatory Trait Concordance frameworks, we found that gene-level quantification significantly underestimated the number of causal cis-eQTLs. Only 5.0-5.3% of loci were found to share a causal cis-eQTL at gene-level compared to 12.9-18.4% at exon-level and 9.6-10.5% at junction-level. More than a fifth of autoimmune loci shared an underlying causal variant in a single cell type by combining all five quantification types; a marked increase over current estimates of steady-state causal cis-eQTLs. Causal cis-eQTLs detected at different quantification types localised to discrete epigenetic annotations. We applied a linear mixed-effects model to distinguish cis-eQTLs modulating all expression elements of a gene from those where the signal is only evident in a subset of elements. Exon-level analysis detected disease-associated cis-eQTLs that subtly altered transcription globally across the target gene. We dissected in detail the genetic associations of systemic lupus erythematosus and functionally annotated the candidate genes. Many of the known and novel genes were concealed at gene

  16. Evaluation of fotonovela to increase human papillomavirus vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and intentions in a low-income Hispanic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alvin; Brown, Brandon; Sepulveda, Enedina; Teran-Clayton, Lorena

    2015-10-29

    It has nearly been a decade since the introduction of the vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV), yet vaccination rates in the United States have remained suboptimal, particularly among Hispanics. Culturally and linguistically relevant health education tools targeting Hispanics are needed to increase the current rate of HPV vaccination. This article evaluates a theory-informed, evidence-guided fotonovela (photographic short story) intervention to improve HPV vaccination knowledge, attitudes, and intention among young adults. Young adults (N = 41, aged 18-26 years) in a low-income primary care clinic in Southern California were administered pre- and post-intervention surveys to measure changes in perceived susceptibility to HPV, perceived benefit of vaccination in committed relationship, intention to vaccinate, intention to encourage social networks to vaccinate, and attitude towards vaccination. Post-intervention survey also examined attitudes towards fotonovela. Relationships between attitudes towards fotonovela and demographic characteristics were assessed with Fisher's exact test. Self-reported gains in knowledge were categorized and tabulated. Changes in perceptions and intentions were analyzed with the marginal homogeneity test. The majority of participants were female (78.0%), Latino/Hispanic (92.7%), single (70.7%), and had at least a college education (61.0%). The mean age was 21.9 years (SD 0.4). The fotonovela was viewed as entertaining (95.1%), educational (97.6%), and easy to read (100 %). Following the intervention, Hispanic participants improved in all five variables of interest measured in the survey, including perceived susceptibility (+10.5%, p = 0.03), benefit of vaccination (+7.8%, p = 0.25), intent to vaccinate (+18.4%, p = 0.06), intent to encourage others to vaccinate (+10.5%, p = 0.14) and attitude towards vaccination (+13.1%, p = 0.05). Improvements in perceived susceptibility and attitude towards vaccination reached statistical

  17. Barriers, facilitators, and potential strategies for increasing HPV vaccination: A statewide assessment to inform action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmell, Kathleen B; Young-Pierce, Jennifer; McGue, Shannon; Alberg, Anthony J; Luque, John S; Zubizarreta, Maria; Brandt, Heather M

    2017-12-07

    The objective was to investigate how state level strategies in South Carolina could maximize HPV vaccine uptake. An environmental scan identified barriers, facilitators, and strategies for improving HPV vaccination in South Carolina. Interviews were conducted with state leaders from relevant organizations such as public health agencies, medical associations, K-12 schools, universities, insurers, and cancer advocacy organizations. A thematic content analysis design was used. Digital interview files were transcribed, a data dictionary was created and data were coded using the data dictionary. Thirty four interviews were conducted with state leaders. Barriers to HPV vaccination included lack of HPV awareness, lack of provider recommendation, HPV vaccine concerns, lack of access and practice-level barriers. Facilitators included momentum for improving HPV vaccination, school-entry Tdap requirement, pharmacy-based HPV vaccination, state immunization registry, HEDIS measures and HPV vaccine funding. Strategies for improving HPV vaccination fell into three categories: 1) addressing lack of awareness about the importance of HPV vaccination among the public and providers; 2) advocating for policy changes around HPV vaccine coverage, vaccine education, and pharmacy-based vaccination; and 3) coordination of efforts. A statewide environmental scan generated a blueprint for action to be used to improve HPV vaccination in the state. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased immunogenicity of recombinant Ad35-based malaria vaccine through formulation with aluminium phosphate adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ophorst, Olga J. A. E.; Radosevic, Katarina; Klap, Jaco M.; Sijtsma, Jeroen; Gillissen, Gert; Mintardjo, Ratna; van Ooij, Mark J. M.; Holterman, Lennart; Companjen, Arjen; Goudsmit, Jaap; Havenga, Menzo J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we have shown the potency of recombinant Adenovirus serotype 35 viral vaccines (rAd35) to induce strong immune response against the circumsporozoite protein (CS) of the plasmodium parasite. To further optimize immunogenicity of Ad35-based malaria vaccines we formulated rAd35.CS vaccine

  19. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Increases High-Risk Sexual Behaviors: A Myth or Valid Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the first human pappilomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved for females aged 9 to 26. However, the national HPV vaccination rate among young women has been low. Public concerns were raised in regard to the fact that HPV vaccination might encourage unsafe sex. This cross-sectional study examined the differences in sexual practices between…

  20. In a safety net population HPV4 vaccine adherence worsens as BMI increases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane M Harper

    Full Text Available Obesity adversely inhibits antibody response to vaccination. Three doses of HPV4 may or may not provide adequate long term protection against HPV 16/18 in obese females. The aim of this study was to determine whether adherence to HPV4 vaccination in a safety net population was reduced with increasing body mass index (BMI.We designed a historical prospective study evaluating the number and dates of HPV4 dosing that occurred from July 1, 2006 through October 1, 2009 by the demographic characteristics of the 10-26 year old recipient females. The defined dosing intervals were adapted from the literature and obesity categories were defined by the WHO.1240 females with BMI measurements received at least one dose of HPV4; 38% were obese (class I, II and III and 25% were overweight. Females with normal BMI received on-time triplet dosing significantly more often than did the obese class II and III females (30% vs. 18%, p<0.001. Obese class II/III females have a significant 45% less chance of completing the on-time triplet HPV4 series than normal women (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.83. Pregnancy history has a significant influence on BMI and HPV4 dosing compliance in this safety net population where 71% had been gravid. Hispanic females were less likely to complete HPV4 dosing regardless of BMI (aOR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.95.Obesity, as well as gravidity and Hispanic race, are risk factors for lack of HPV4 vaccine adherence among young females in a safety net population.

  1. Interleukin-15 Increases Vaccine Efficacy through a Mechanism Linked to Dendritic Cell Maturation and Enhanced Antibody Titers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-26

    of STEBVax, 143 g of alhydrogel ( Alh ), and 0.1 g, 0.5 g, or 5 g of IL-15/mouse in a 200-l volume of PBS. The ratio of vaccine to alhydrogel was 1...Coadministration of IL-15 with STEBVax and alhydrogel ( Alh ) increased the protection of mice from lethal SEB toxin chal- lenge. (A) BALB/c mice were vaccinated with

  2. [Preventive vaccinations for medical personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Goedecke, Marcel; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2014-05-01

    Vaccinations are among the most efficient and important preventive medical procedures. Modern vaccines are well tolerated. In Germany there are no longer laws for mandatory vaccinations, either for the general public or for medical personnel. Vaccinations are now merely "officially recommended" by the top health authorities on the basis of recommendations from the Standing Committee on Vaccinations (STIKO) of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) according to § 20 para 3 of the Protection against Infection law (IfSG). The management of vaccine damage due to officially recommended vaccinations is guaranteed by the Federal States. Whereas vaccinations in childhood are generally considered to be a matter of course, the willingness to accept them decreases markedly with increasing age. In the medical sector vaccinations against, for example, hepatitis B are well accepted while other vaccinations against, for example, whooping cough or influenza are not considered to be so important. The fact that vaccinations, besides offering protection for the medical personnel, may also serve to protect the patients entrusted to medical care from nosocomial infections is often ignored. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  3. [Travelers attending an international vaccine center. Is the risk for the pediatric traveler increasing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calavia Garsaball, O; Otero Romero, S; Campins Martí, M; Martínez-Gómez, X; Rodrigo Pendas, J A; Armadans Gil, L

    2013-09-01

    There is a perception that the number of pediatric travelers is increasing, mainly due to the so-called visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) group. Both the demographic and trips characteristics in this group may lead to an increased risk and a greater complexity in vaccinations and other preventive recommendations. To analyze the outcomes of different groups of pediatric travelers. To describe the demographic and travel characteristics within the pediatric population, and to analyze whether the VFRs differ from non-VFRs with regards to the factors that may contribute to a greater risk. A cross sectional descriptive study of the characteristics of pediatric travelers treated in the International Pre-travel Consultation Unit of the University Hospital Vall d'Hebron, from July 2002 to January 2009. Of the 692 children analyzed, with a mean age of 8 years (SD 5.4), an increase in the overall number of travelers was identified, along with an initial increase in the number of VFR children in the early years of the study, although later on, the numbers of this group stabilized. The mean age of the VFR travelers was also found to be lower. A lack of planning prior to the start of the travel was also noted in the VFRs group, as well as longer trip durations. A routine vaccine was administered to 29.2% of children, and malaria prophylaxis was recommended for 52% of travelers. Despite the progressive increase in international travel and the initial increase in VFR travelers, the percentage of this group has remained stable in recent years. However, the perception of a low risk among the immigrant population suggests the need to encourage an adequate pre-travel consultation within this group. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Potentiation of human papilloma vaccine candidate using naloxone/alum mixture as an adjuvant: increasing immunogenicity of HPV-16E7d vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasaghi, Mahsa; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Many types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been identified, with some leading to cancer and others to skin lesions such as anogenital warts. Studies have demonstrated an association between oncogenic HPV and cervical cancer and many researchers have focused on therapeutic vaccines development. At present, the modulatory effect of opioids on the innate and acquired immune system is characterized. Antagonists of opioid receptors such as naloxone (NLX) can contribute to the shifting Th2 response toward Th1. Herein; we studied the adjuvant activity of NLX/Alum mixture for improvement of the immunogenicity of HPV-16E7d vaccine. The mice were administered different regimens of vaccine; E7d, E7d-NLX, E7d-Alum, E7d-NLX-Alum, NLX, alum and PBS via subcutaneous route for three times with two weeks interval. Two weeks after the last immunization, the sera were assessed for total antibody, IgG1 and IgG2a with an optimized ELISA method. The splenocytes culture supernatant was analyzed by ELISA for the presence of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17 cytokines and lymphocyte proliferation was evaluated with Brdu method. Immunization of mice with HPV-16 E7d vaccine formulated in NLX/Alum mixture significantly increased lymphocyte proliferation and Th1 and Th17 cytokines responses compared to other experimental groups. Analysis of humoral immune responses revealed that administration of vaccine with NLX/Alum mixture significantly increased specific IgG responses and also isotypes compared to control groups. NLX/Alum mixture as an adjuvant could improve cellular and humoral immune responses and the adjuvant maybe useful for HPV vaccines model for further studies in human clinical trial.

  5. Mumps virus infection in vaccinated patients can be detected by an increase in specific IgG antibodies to high titres: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmann, S; Schwab, F; Santibanez, S; Mankertz, A

    2014-11-01

    Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations with genotype G have been reported repeatedly. Detection of these outbreaks can be difficult in a setting with relatively high vaccination coverage when acute cases of mumps are routinely diagnosed by IgM serology since this marker is not reliable for diagnosis of mumps re-infection. To learn whether diagnostic tests performed in a large private laboratory may be useful to detect mumps outbreaks retrospectively, we reviewed the results of almost 7000 mumps tests. Two groups were compared: group 1 comprised of 3438 samples from patients submitted by physicians and clinicians (it was assumed that these patients visited their doctor due to acute disease). Group 2 comprised of 3398 samples submitted from company medical officers and occupational physicians. Since these patients usually attend for routine check-ups and certification of immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases, these samples comprised a control group. From July 2010 to May 2011, a mumps virus outbreak with more than 300 cases occurred in Bavaria, Southeast Germany. Our study includes samples received for serological mumps tests from January 2009 until December 2011 (36 months). The two groups were analysed with regard to the number of IgM-positive cases per month and the level of IgG titre. We found a marked increase for both parameters in group 1 during the time of the outbreak, while the samples submitted by the occupational medical physicians did not display significant alterations. These parameters reflect the outbreak with high accuracy, indicating that a retrospective analysis of IgG titres may be a useful tool for detection of mumps outbreaks when, as was the case in Germany, (i) a nationwide notification system has not been implemented and (ii) a highly vaccinated population is affected.

  6. Rhesus Macaque Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Demonstrate T Cell Inhibitory Functions and Are Transiently Increased after Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ang; Liang, Frank; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Vono, Maria; Ols, Sebastian; Lindgren, Gustaf; Hassett, Kimberly; Salter, Hugh; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Loré, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are major regulators of T cell responses in several pathological conditions. Whether MDSCs increase and influence T cell responses in temporary inflammation, such as after vaccine administration, is unknown. Using the rhesus macaque model, which is critical for late-stage vaccine testing, we demonstrate that monocytic (M)-MDSCs and polymorphonuclear (PMN)-MDSCs can be detected using several of the markers used in humans. However, whereas rhesus M-MDSCs lacked expression of CD33, PMN-MDSCs were identified as CD33+ low-density neutrophils. Importantly, both M-MDSCs and PMN-MDSCs showed suppression of T cell proliferation in vitro. The frequency of circulating MDSCs rapidly and transiently increased 24 h after vaccine administration. M-MDSCs infiltrated the vaccine injection site, but not vaccine-draining lymph nodes. This was accompanied by upregulation of genes relevant to MDSCs such as arginase-1, IDO1, PDL1, and IL-10 at the injection site. MDSCs may therefore play a role in locally maintaining immune balance during vaccine-induced inflammation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in HIV-infected Women: Need for Increased Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Erna Milunka; Rana, Aadia I.; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected women carry a significant burden on HPV infection and associated diseases. As HIV-infected individuals are living longer, the prevalence of HPV infection is rising and HPV-associated cytologic abnormalities remain high despite successful treatments of HIV infection. Several HPV vaccines are currently available and recommended for adolescents and adults up to age 26. The vaccine is safe, immunogenic and effective in preventing diseases due to HPV types included in the vaccines, particularly among persons without prior HPV exposure. This review summarizes available data on the use of the HPV vaccines among HIV infected women. The immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine is highlighted and in particular, barriers to vaccination among HIV infected women are discussed. PMID:26599305

  8. Communicating to increase public uptake of pandemic flu vaccination in the UK: Which messages work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Fiona; Marcu, Afrodita; Godinho, Cristina A; Michie, Susan; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-06-14

    Vaccination is considered the most effective preventive measure against influenza transmission, yet vaccination rates during the 2009/10 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic were low across the world, with the majority of people declining to receive the vaccine. Despite extensive research on the predictors of uptake of influenza vaccination, little research has focused on testing the effectiveness of evidence and theory-based messages. To examine the persuasiveness of messages promoting vaccination and antiviral use either as health-enhancing or as risk-reducing, as well as messages which conveyed evidence-based information about the costs and benefits of vaccination, or which applied anticipated regret as a motivator for vaccine uptake. We conducted 11 focus groups with forty-one members of the general population in England including young and older adults, those with lower education, parents, and those with elevated health risk. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The factual, evidence-based messages were well received with participants finding them the most convincing and useful, particularly where they gave cost-benefit comparisons. Health-enhancing messages were received with scepticism and concern that the messages were not honest about the potential lack of safety of vaccination. In contrast, risk-reduction messages were perceived as being more balanced and credible. Messages aiming to elicit feelings of anticipated regret for not getting vaccinated were generally perceived as patronising and unprofessional. Vaccination messages should be kept brief, but convey balanced, evidence-based information, and be transparent in their communication of potential side-effects. The general public seem to prefer messages that are factual and emphasise the costs and benefits of vaccination, particularly with regards to vaccine safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Maureen; Bresee, Joseph S.; Gentsch, Jon R.; Glass, Roger I.

    2000-10-01

    The past few years have seen important developments in understanding the epidemiological and virological characteristics of rotaviruses, and rapid progress has been made in rotavirus vaccine development, but further challenges remain before a vaccine is introduced into widespread use. The licensure of the first rotavirus vaccine, a tetravalent rhesus-based rotavirus vaccine, in the United States in 1998, marked a significant advance in preventing the morbidity associated with rotavirus diarrhea. The association between the tetravalent rhesus-based rotavirus vaccine and intussusception has created significant hurdles as well as new opportunities to study the pathogenesis of rotavirus and rotavirus vaccine infection. Several other rotavirus vaccine candidates are in late stages of development, and results from trials have been encouraging.

  10. Stretch marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done. Tretinoin cream may help reduce stretch marks. Laser treatment may also help. In very rare cases, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  11. Steeper posterior tibial slope markedly increases ACL force in both active gait and passive knee joint under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouane, H; Shirazi-Adl, A; Adouni, M; Hashemi, J

    2014-04-11

    The role of the posterior tibial slope (PTS) in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) risk of injury has been supported by many imaging studies but refuted by some in vitro works. The current investigation was carried out to compute the effect of ±5(o) change in PTS on knee joint biomechanics in general and ACL force/strain in particular. Two validated finite element (FE) models of the knee joint were employed; one active lower extremity musculoskeletal model including a complex FE model of the knee joint driven by in vivo kinematics/kinetics collected in gait of asymptomatic subjects, and the other its isolated unconstrained passive tibiofemoral (TF) joint considered under 1400 N compression at four different knee flexion angles (0°-45°). In the TF model, the compression force was applied at the joint mechanical balance point causing no rotations in sagittal and frontal planes. Changes in PTS moderately affected muscle forces and joint contact forces at mid-stance period. Both active (at mid-stance) and passive (at all flexion angles) models showed a substantial increase in the anterior tibial translation and ACL force as PTS increased with reverse trends as PTS decreased. In the active model of gait at mid-stance, ACL force increased by 75% (from 181 N to 317 N) in steeper PTS but decreased by 44% (to 102 N) in flatter PTS. The posterolateral bundle of ACL carried the load at smaller flexion angles with a shift to its anteromedial bundle as flexion increased. In accordance with earlier imaging studies, greater PTS is a major risk factor for ACL rupture especially in activities involving large compression forces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased plasma citrulline in mice marks diet-induced obesity and may predict the development of the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Sailer

    Full Text Available In humans, plasma amino acid concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA and aromatic amino acids (AAA increase in states of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. We here assessed whether these putative biomarkers can also be identified in two different obesity and diabetic mouse models. C57BL/6 mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO mimic the metabolic impairments of obesity in humans characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ to induce insulin deficiency were used as a type 1 diabetes model. Plasma amino acid profiling of two high fat (HF feeding trials revealed that citrulline and ornithine concentrations are elevated in obese mice, while systemic arginine bioavailability (ratio of plasma arginine to ornithine + citrulline is reduced. In skeletal muscle, HF feeding induced a reduction of arginine levels while citrulline levels were elevated. However, arginine or citrulline remained unchanged in their key metabolic organs, intestine and kidney. Moreover, the intestinal conversion of labeled arginine to ornithine and citrulline in vitro remained unaffected by HF feeding excluding the intestine as prime site of these alterations. In liver, citrulline is mainly derived from ornithine in the urea cycle and DIO mice displayed reduced hepatic ornithine levels. Since both amino acids share an antiport mechanism for mitochondrial import and export, elevated plasma citrulline may indicate impaired hepatic amino acid handling in DIO mice. In the insulin deficient mice, plasma citrulline and ornithine levels also increased and additionally these animals displayed elevated BCAA and AAA levels like insulin resistant and diabetic patients. Therefore, type 1 diabetic mice but not DIO mice show the "diabetic fingerprint" of plasma amino acid changes observed in humans. Additionally, citrulline may serve as an early indicator of the obesity-dependent metabolic

  13. CAF01 adjuvant increases the protection conferred by a commercially available influenza split vaccine in a ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martel, Cyril; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    the induction of cell-mediated immune responses is negligible. Recently, a cationic liposomal adjuvant (dimethyldioctadecylammonium/trehalose 6,6’-dibehenate, CAF01) was developed, which was proven to enhance both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses of a number of vaccine candidates. In the current study...... by ELISA, as well as IFN-gamma production by peripheral blood lymphocytes by FACS, and virus excretion by RT-PCR. CAF01 improved the immunogenicity of the vaccine, increasing the specific IgA and IgG levels as well as triggering cellular-mediated immunity. The adjuvant also enhanced the protection...

  14. Increasing the efficacy of antitumor glioma vaccines by photodynamic therapy and local injection of allogeneic glioma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Catherine E.; Peng, Qian; Madsen, Steen J.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Hirschberg, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Immunotherapy of brain tumors involves the stimulation of an antitumor immune response. This type of therapy can be targeted specifically to tumor cells thus sparing surrounding normal brain. Due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier, the brain is relatively isolated from the systemic circulation and, as such, the initiation of significant immune responses is more limited than other types of cancers. The purpose of this study was to show that the efficacy of tumor primed antigen presenting macrophage vaccines could be increased by: (1) PDT of the priming tumor cells, and (2) injection of allogeneic glioma cells directly into brain tumors. Experiments were conducted in an in vivo brain tumor model using Fisher rats and BT4C (allogeneic) and F98 (syngeneic) glioma cells. Preliminary results showed that vaccination alone had significantly less inhibitory effect on F98 tumor growth compared to the combination of vaccination and allogeneic cell (BT4C) injection.

  15. How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…

  16. Determination of factors required to increase uptake of influenza vaccination among hospital-based healthcare workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, C.E.; Riphagen-Dalhuisen, J.; Looijmans-van den Akker, I; Frijstein, G.; Van der Geest-Blankert, A.D.; Danhof-Pont, M.B.; De Jager, H.J.; Bos, A.A.; Smeets, E.; De Vries, M.J.; Gallee, P.M.; Lenderink, A.F.; Hak, E.

    A questionnaire study was performed in all eight University Medical Centers in The Netherlands to determine the predictors of influenza vaccination compliance in hospital-based healthcare workers (HCWs). Demographical, behavioural and organisational determinants were assessed based on behavioural

  17. Determination of factors required to increase uptake of influenza vaccination among hospital-based healthcare workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, C. E.; Riphagen-Dalhuisen, J.; Looijmans-van den Akker, I.; Frijstein, G.; van der Geest-Blankert, A. D. J.; Danhof-Pont, M. B.; de Jager, H. J.; Bos, A. A.; Smeets, E.; de Vries, M. J. T.; Gallee, P. M. M.; Lenderink, A. F.; Hak, E.

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire study was performed in all eight University Medical Centers in The Netherlands to determine the predictors of influenza vaccination compliance in hospital-based healthcare workers (HCWs). Demographical, behavioural and organisational determinants were assessed based on behavioural

  18. Increased humoral immunity by DNA vaccination using an alpha-tocopherol-based adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Ingrid; Borggren, Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    DNA vaccines induce broad immunity, which involves both humoral and strong cellular immunity, and can be rapidly designed for novel or evolving pathogens such as influenza. However, the humoral immunogenicity in humans and higher animals has been suboptimal compared to that of traditional vaccine......). The animals received two intracutaneous immunizations spaced 3 weeks apart. When combined with Diluvac Forte® or the emulsion containing alpha-tocopherol, the DNA vaccine induced a more potent and balanced immunoglobulin G (IgG)1 and IgG2c response, and both IgG subclass responses were significantly enhanced...... constituent alpha-tocopherol plays an important role in this immunogenicity. This induction of a potent and balanced humoral response without impairment of cellular immunity constitutes an important advancement toward effective DNA vaccines....

  19. Live RB51 vaccine lyophilized hydrogel formulations with increased shelf life for practical ballistic delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistic delivery capability is essential to delivering vaccines and other therapeutics effectively to both livestock and wildlife in many global scenarios. Here, lyophilized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-glycolide dimethacrylate crosslinked but degradable hydrogels were assessed as payload vehicles ...

  20. Beta2-adrenoceptor Thr164Ile polymorphism is associated with markedly decreased vasodilator and increased vasoconstrictor sensitivity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishy, Victor; Landau, Ruth; Sofowora, Gbenga G; Xie, Hong-Guang; Smiley, Richard M; Kim, Richard B; Byrne, Daniel W; Wood, Alastair J J; Stein, C Michael

    2004-08-01

    The uncommon Thr164Ile polymorphism of the beta2-adrenoceptor is associated with profoundly altered responses to agonist in vitro; however its effects on vascular responses in vivo are not known. Altered adrenergic vascular sensitivity may contribute to the decreased survival observed in patients with congestive heart failure carrying the Ile164 allele. We used the linear variable differential transformer dorsal hand vein technique to compare vasodilation in response to the beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, isoproterenol, and vasoconstriction in response to the alpha-adrenergic receptor agonist, phenylephrine, in healthy homozygous (Thr164/Thr164) (n = 21) and heterozygous Thr164/Ile164 (n = 5) women. The dose of isoproterenol required to achieve 50% venodilation (geometric mean; 95% CI) was significantly higher in women with the Ile164 allele (82.5 ng/min; 17.3-394 ng/min) than those without (15.8 ng/min; 11-25 ng/min; P = 0.004). The maximum response to isoproterenol was not different (102 +/- 1% and 102 +/- 3%, respectively, P = 0.9). The dose of phenylephrine needed to induce 50% venoconstriction was significantly lower in women with the Ile164 allele (151 ng/min; 42-543 ng/min) than those without (540 ng/min; 350-835 ng/min; P = 0.02). The Thr164Ile polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor is associated with a five-fold reduction in sensitivity to beta2 receptor agonist-mediated vasodilation; vasoconstrictor sensitivity is increased. The overall effect of the Thr164Ile polymorphism is to shift the balance of adrenergic vascular tone toward vasoconstriction. This suggests a mechanistic explanation for the clinical observation of decreased survival in patients with congestive heart failure heterozygous for the Thr164Ile polymorphism.

  1. Interventions to increase seasonal influenza vaccine coverage in healthcare workers: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytras, Theodore; Kopsachilis, Frixos; Mouratidou, Elisavet; Papamichail, Dimitris; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2016-03-03

    Influenza vaccination is recommended for healthcare workers (HCWs), but coverage is often low. We reviewed studies evaluating interventions to increase seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in HCWs, including a meta-regression analysis to quantify the effect of each component. Fourty-six eligible studies were identified. Domains conferring a high risk of bias were identified in most studies. Mandatory vaccination was the most effective intervention component (Risk Ratio of being unvaccinated [RRunvacc] = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.08-0.45), followed by "soft" mandates such as declination statements (RRunvacc = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.92), increased awareness (RRunvacc = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.71-0.97) and increased access (RRunvacc = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.78-1.00). For incentives the difference was not significant, while for education no effect was observed. Heterogeneity was substantial (τ(2) = 0.083). These results indicate that effective alternatives to mandatory HCWs influenza vaccination do exist, and need to be further explored in future studies.

  2. Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Elizabeth Bond

    Full Text Available Multiple-choice question (MCQ examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the

  3. Beta-3 adrenergic agonist, BRL-26830A, and alpha/beta blocker, arotinolol, markedly increase regional blood flow in the brown adipose tissue in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Yoshida, T; Nishimura, M; Nakanishi, T; Kondo, M; Yoshimura, M

    1992-09-01

    Regional vascular effects of some adrenergic agents, focussing on brown adipose tissue (BAT), were investigated using tracer microspheres with a reference sample method in the anesthetized rat. Intravenous injections of 0.5 mg/kg BRL-26830A, a beta 3-adrenergic agonist, increased heart rate, but changes in blood pressure and cardiac output were not significant. The drug decreased blood flow in the brain, the spleen and the kidneys, but markedly increased it in BAT. At 2 mg/kg, arotinolol, an alpha/beta-adrenergic blocker, decreased blood pressure by 20 mmHg and increased cardiac output by 95 ml/min/kg. It slightly but significantly decreased blood flow in the liver and the spleen, but markedly increased the flow in BAT. Acebutolol, a beta 1-adrenergic blocker, decreased blood flow in the liver, the spleen, the pancreas, the kidneys, the adrenals, the skeletal muscle and the skin. Bunazosin, an alpha 1-adrenergic blocker, decreased it in all organs and tissue expect the brain and BAT. The pattern of redistribution of blood flow by arotinolol was very similar to that caused by BRL-26830A. Acebutolol and bunazosin rather decreased the blood flow in the BAT. These results indicate that stimulation of beta 3-adrenergic receptors, in BAT results in vasodilation, and that arotinolol may bind to those beta 3-adrenergic receptors.

  4. CFP10: mFcγ2 as a novel tuberculosis vaccine candidate increases immune response in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghani, Ali Asghar; Soleimanpour, Saman; Farsiani, Hadi; Mosavat, Arman; Yousefi, Masoud; Meshkat, Zahra; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim; Jamehdar, Saeid Amel; Eydgahi, Mohammad Reza Akbari; Sadeghian, Hamid; Ghazvini, Kiarash

    2017-02-01

    Despite treatment with antibiotics and vaccination with BCG, tuberculosis (TB) is still considered as one of the most important public health problems in the world. Therefore, designing and producing a more effective vaccine against TB seems urgently. In this study, immunogenicity of a fusion protein which consisting or comprising CFP-10 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the Fc-domain of mouse IgG2a was evaluated as a novel subunit vaccine candidate against TB. The genetic constructs were cloned in pPICZαA expression vector and recombinant vectors (pPICZαA-CFP-10: Fcγ2a and pPICZαA-CFP-10:His) were transformed into Pichia pastoris. To evaluate the expression of recombinant proteins, SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting were used. The immunogenicity of recombinant proteins, with and without BCG were assessed in BALB/c mice and specific cytokines against recombinant proteins (IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-4, IL-17 and TGF-β) were evaluated. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in mice that received recombinant proteins was higher than the control groups (BCG and PBS). Thus, both recombinant proteins (CFP-10:Fcγ2a and CFP-10:His) could excite good response in Th1-cells. The Fc-tagged protein had a stronger Th1 response with low levels of IL-4, as compared to CFP-10:His. However, the highest level of Th1 response was observed in groups that were vaccinated with BCG (prime) and then received recombinant protein CFP-10: Fcγ2a (booster). The results demonstrated that binding mice Fc-domain to CFP-10 protein can increase the immunogenicity of the subunit vaccine. Further studies, might be able to design and produce a new generation of subunit vaccines based on the Fc-fused immunogen.

  5. Live RB51 vaccine lyophilized hydrogel formulations with increased shelf life for practical ballistic delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Jonathan L; Christie, R James; Pollard, Emily J; Olsen, Steven C; Grainger, David W

    2016-02-10

    Ballistic delivery capability is essential to delivering vaccines and other therapeutics effectively to both livestock and wildlife in many global scenarios. Here, lyophilized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-glycolide dimethacrylate crosslinked but degradable hydrogels were assessed as payload vehicles to protect and deliver a viable bacterial vaccine, Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51), ballistically using commercial thermoplastic cellulosic degradable biobullets. Degradable PEG hydrogel rods loaded with ∼10(10) live RB51 bacteria (CFUs) were fabricated using three different polymerization methods, cut into fixed-sized payload segments, and lyophilized. Resulting dense, glassy RB51 vaccine-loaded monoliths were inserted into thermoplastic biobullet 100-μL payload chambers. Viability studies of lyophilized formulations assessed as a function of time and storage temperature supported the abilities of several conditions to produce acceptable vaccine shelf-lives. Fired from specifically designed air rifles, gel-loaded biobullets exhibit down-range ballistic properties (i.e., kinetic energy, trajectory, accuracy) similar to unloaded biobullets. Delivered to bovine tissue, these hydrogels rehydrate rapidly by swelling in tissue fluids, with complete hydration observed after 5h in serum. Live RB51 vaccine exhibited excellent viability following carrier polymerization, lyophilization, and storage, at levels sufficient for vaccine dosing to wild range bison, the intended target. These data validate lyophilized degradable PEG hydrogel rods as useful drug carriers for remote delivery of both live vaccines and other therapeutics to livestock, wildlife, or other free-range targets using ballistic technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. TLR9 agonist, but not TLR7/8, functions as an adjuvant to diminish FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced disease, while either agonist used as therapy during primary RSV infection increases disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa R; Rao, Srinivas; Seder, Robert A; Chen, Man; Graham, Barney S

    2009-05-18

    Agonists for TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 have been shown to enhance vaccine immunogenicity. We evaluated the impact of TLR activation on RSV disease in a murine model by administering TLR7/8 and TLR9 agonists during FI-RSV immunization or RSV infection. CpG administered during immunization reduced disease following challenge as evidenced by decreased lung pathology, illness, and cytokines. In marked contrast, TLR7/8 agonist had little impact. To evaluate potential therapeutic use, TLR agonists were administered during primary infection. Although type 2 cytokine responses decreased and type 1 cytokines and MIP-1-alpha/beta increased, both TLR7/8 and TLR9 agonists increased clinical symptoms and pulmonary inflammation when administered during primary infection. Thus, TLR9-induced signaling during FI-RSV immunization reduced vaccine-enhanced disease whereas immunostimulatory properties of TLR agonists enhanced disease severity when used during RSV infection. Immunomodulation elicited by TLR9 agonist confirms the adjuvant potential of TLR agonists during RSV immunization. However, in contrast to work done with HIV-1 vaccines, the inability of TLR7/8 agonist to boost type 1 vaccine-induced RSV immunity demonstrates pathogen-TLR specificity. These data reveal that the timing of administration of immunomodulatory agents is critical. Furthermore, these data underscore that amplification of anti-viral immune responses may result in immunopathology rather than immune-mediated protection.

  7. Murine Cerebral Malaria Is Associated with a Vasospasm-Like Microcirculatory Dysfunction, and Survival upon Rescue Treatment Is Markedly Increased by Nimodipine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrales, Pedro; Zanini, Graziela M.; Meays, Diana; Frangos, John A.; Carvalho, Leonardo J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Brain hemodynamics in cerebral malaria (CM) is poorly understood, with apparently conflicting data showing microcirculatory hypoperfusion and normal or even increased blood flow in large arteries. Using intravital microscopy to assess the pial microvasculature through a closed cranial window in the murine model of CM by Plasmodium berghei ANKA, we show that murine CM is associated with marked decreases (mean: 60%) of pial arteriolar blood flow attributable to vasoconstriction and decreased blood velocity. Leukocyte sequestration further decreased perfusion by narrowing luminal diameters in the affected vessels and blocking capillaries. Remarkably, vascular collapse at various degrees was observed in 44% of mice with CM, which also presented more severe vasoconstriction. Coadministration of artemether and nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker used to treat postsubarachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm, to mice presenting CM markedly increased survival compared with artemether plus vehicle only. Administration of nimodipine induced vasodilation and increased pial blood flow. We conclude that vasoconstriction and vascular collapse play a role in murine CM pathogenesis and nimodipine holds potential as adjunctive therapy for CM. PMID:20110412

  8. Increased risk for an atypical autism diagnosis following Thimerosal-containing vaccine exposure in the United States: A prospective longitudinal case-control study in the Vaccine Safety Datalink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Geier, Mark R

    2017-07-01

    Thimerosal is an organic-mercury (Hg)-containing compound (49.55% Hg by weight) historically added to many multi-dose vials of vaccine as a preservative and still added to some vaccines today. Concerns about the toxic effects from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the risk of an atypical autism diagnosis were evaluated in this study. A hypothesis-testing, prospective longitudinal, case-control study assessed exposure to Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB) among cases diagnosed with atypical autism (n=164) and controls (n=15,216). Automated medical records for subjects born from 1991 to 2000 and continuously enrolled in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database were examined. Cases diagnosed with atypical autism were statistically significantly more likely to have received greater overall and dose-dependent exposures to Hg from TM-HepB vaccines administered within the first month of life, first two months of life, and first six months of life than the controls. Similar phenomena were observed when cases and controls were separated by gender. Routine childhood vaccination is an important public health tool to reduce infectious diseases. The present study provides important epidemiological evidence significantly associating increasing Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of atypical autism diagnosis, and suggests that Thimerosal should be eliminated from vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Paroxetine markedly increases plasma concentrations of ophthalmic timolol; CYP2D6 inhibitors may increase the risk of cardiovascular adverse effects of 0.5% timolol eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäenpää, Jukka; Volotinen-Maja, Marjo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Neuvonen, Mikko; Niemi, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T

    2014-12-01

    Although ophthalmic timolol is generally well tolerated, a significant fraction of topically administered timolol can be systemically absorbed. We investigated the effect of the strong CYP2D6 inhibitor paroxetine on the pharmacokinetics of timolol after ophthalmic administration. In a four-phase crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers ingested either paroxetine (20 mg) or placebo daily for 3 days. In phases 1-2, timolol 0.1% gel, and in phases 3-4, timolol 0.5% drops were administered to both eyes. Paroxetine increased the plasma concentrations of timolol with both timolol formulations to a similar degree. The geometric mean ratio (95% confidence interval) of timolol peak concentration was 1.53-fold (1.23-1.91) with 0.1% timolol and 1.49-fold (0.94-2.36) with 0.5% timolol, and that of timolol area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to 12 hours was 1.61-fold (1.26- to 2.06-fold) and 1.78-fold (1.21-2.62), respectively. During paroxetine administration, six subjects on 0.5% timolol drops, but none on 0.1% timolol gel, had plasma timolol concentrations exceeding 0.7 ng/ml, which can cause systemic adverse effects in patients at risk. There was a positive correlation between the AUC from time 0 to 13 hours of paroxetine and the placebo phase AUC from time 0 to infinity of timolol after timolol 0.5% drops (P paroxetine phase than during the placebo phase at 1 and 3 hours after 0.5% timolol dosing. In conclusion, paroxetine and other CYP2D6 inhibitors can have a clinically important interaction with ophthalmic timolol, particularly when patients are using 0.5% timolol formulations. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Using Social Marketing Theory as a Framework for Understanding and Increasing HPV Vaccine Series Completion Among Hispanic Adolescents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Carmack, Chakema C; Muñoz, Becky T; Cano, Miguel A; Cribbs, Felicity

    2017-02-01

    HPV vaccine series completion rates among adolescent Hispanic females and males (~39 and 21 %, respectively) are far below the Healthy People 80 % coverage goal. Completion of the 3-dose vaccine series is critical to reducing the incidence of HPV-associated cancers. This formative study applies social marketing theory to assess the needs and preferences of Hispanic mothers in order to guide the development of interventions to increase HPV vaccine completion. We conducted 51 in-depth interviews with Hispanic mothers of adolescents to identify the key concepts of social marketing theory (i.e., the four P's: product, price, place and promotion). Results suggest that a desire complete the vaccine series, vaccine reminders and preventing illnesses and protecting their children against illnesses and HPV all influence vaccination (product). The majority of Completed mothers did not experience barriers that prevented vaccine series completion and Initiated mothers perceived a lack of health insurance and the cost of the vaccine as potential barriers. Informational barriers were prevalent across both market segments (price). Clinics are important locations for deciding to complete the vaccine series (place). They are the preferred sources to obtain information about the HPV vaccine thus making them ideal locations to deliver intervention messages, followed by television, the child's school and brochures (promotion). Increasing HPV vaccine coverage among Hispanic adolescents will reduce the rates of HPV-associated cancers and the cervical cancer health disparity among Hispanic women. This research can inform the development of an intervention to increase HPV vaccine series completion in this population.

  11. Marcados en la piel: vacunación y viruela en Argentina (1870-1910 Marked on the skin: vaccination and smallpox in Argentina (1870-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia Di Liscia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la vacunación antivariólica en Argentina desde 1870, cuando se inician los debates al respecto, hasta la década de 1910, cuando se amplía al resto del país. Se analizan las prácticas de inmunización puestas en marcha con anterioridad a la Ley de vacunación obligatoria, aprobada en 1886 para la Capital y en 1904 para el resto del país. Tal medida fue resistida desde diferentes sectores. Su aprobación dependió de las consecuencias del proceso de modernización y urbanización acelerada, del peso de los higienistas en el escenario político y su extensión dependió de una concepción administrativa diferente, que incorporaba nuevas áreas y sectores al escenario nacional.This paper studies the smallpox vaccination in Argentina since 1870, when these discussions were inittiaded until the 1910s, when they were extended to the rest of the country. We analyze immunization practices implemented prior to the compulsory vaccination law, passed in 1886 for the Capital and in 1904 for the rest of the country. Such a move found resistance from different sectors. Its approval depended on the consequences of modernization and urbanization, the weight of hygienists in the political arena, and its extension depended on a different administrative conception, incorporating new areas and sectors to the national scenario.

  12. Advances Towards Painless Vaccination and Newer Modes of Vaccine Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neha; Aggarwal, Anju

    2017-06-16

    Vaccines have been successful in reducing the mortality and morbidity, but most of them are delivered by intramuscular or intravenous route. They are associated with pain to the baby and bring lot of anxiety for the parents. There has been a marked increase in the number of injections required in first two years of life for completing the vaccination schedule. Hence, there is a need to have a painless vaccine delivery system. Numerous new routes of vaccination like, oral, nasal and transdermal routes are being tried. Oral polio and intranasal influenza have already been a success. Other newer approaches like edible vaccines, nasal sprays, dry powder preparations, jet injectors, microneedles and nanopatches are promising in delivering painless vaccines. Many of them are under clinical trials. These vaccine delivery systems will not only be painless but also cost effective, safe and easy to administer in mass population. They may be devoid of the need of cold chain. Painless delivery system will ensure better compliance to vaccination schedule.

  13. Prenatal exposure to a low-frequency electromagnetic field demasculinizes adult scent marking behavior and increases accessory sex organ weights in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGivern, R.F.; Sokol, R.Z.; Adey, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to a low-level, low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic (EM) field (15 Hz, 0.3 msec duration, peak intensity 8 gauss) for 15 min twice a day from day 15 through day 20 of gestation, a period in development that is critical for sexual differentiation of the male rat brain. No differences in litter size, number of stillborns, or body weight were observed in offspring from field-exposed dams. At 120 days of age, field-exposed male offspring exhibited significantly less scent marking behavior than controls. Accessory sex organ weights, including epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate, were significantly higher in field-exposed subjects at this age. However, circulating levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone, as well as epididymal sperm counts, were normal. These data indicate that brief, intermittent exposure to low-frequency EM fields during the critical prenatal period for neurobehavioral sex differentiation can demasculinize male scent marking behavior and increase accessory sex organ weights in adulthood.

  14. On denture marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrman, H I; DiZinno, J A; Wasén, J; René, N

    1999-06-01

    During the last decades in Sweden dentures have been permanently marked with a stainless steel metal band incorporated into the acrylic and containing the patient's birth date, a special number, and "S" for Sweden. The last recommendation issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare states that "the patients shall always be offered denture marking and be informed about the benefit thereof. Denture marking is not permitted if the patient refuses it". Requirements for denture markers have been that they should be biologically inert (when incorporated into the denture), not be expensive, be easy to inscribe, be possible to retrieve after an accident, and survive elevated temperatures for a reasonable time under normal circumstances. Although the frequency of edentulousness has decreased in recent years due to the improvement in oral health there remains a need to address the issue of marking of complete dentures, because there is a large variation in the oral status of populations in different countries. Given that only one marked denture can reveal the identity of a deceased person when all other methods fail to do so, makes it worthwhile. Furthermore, denture marking is important in long-term care facilities. We have investigated the issue of denture marking in Europe and in the United States. The results from the European survey show that denture marking is, to our knowledge regulated by law only in Sweden and Iceland. In the US denture marking is so far mandatory in 21 states while New York State requires dentures to be marked if the patient requests it and several other states impose the obligation to mark dentures on long-term care facilities. Since there is no international consensus regarding the issue of denture marking it is important to address it. A survey from the Nordic countries has shown that if denture marking was in general use, the contribution to the establishment of identity by forensic odontology in cases of fire would increase by about 10

  15. Cationic lipid/DNA complexes (JVRS-100) combined with influenza vaccine (Fluzone) increases antibody response, cellular immunity, and antigenically drifted protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Marla; Callejo, Bernadette; Chang, Stella; Hong, David K; Lewis, David B; Carroll, Timothy D; Matzinger, Shannon; Fritts, Linda; Miller, Christopher J; Warner, John F; Liang, Lily; Fairman, Jeffery

    2009-06-12

    Safe and effective adjuvants for influenza vaccines that could increase both the levels of neutralizing antibody, including against drifted viral subtypes, and T-cell immunity would be a major advance in vaccine design. The JVRS-100 adjuvant, consisting of DOTIM/cholesterol cationic liposome-DNA complexes, is particularly promising for vaccines that require induction of high levels of antibody and T-cell immunity, including CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Inclusion of protein antigens with JVRS-100 results in the induction of enhanced humoral and cell-mediated (i.e., CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells) immune responses. The JVRS-100 adjuvant combined with a split trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone-sanofi pasteur) elicited increased antibody and T-cell responses in mice and non-human primates compared to vaccination with Fluzone alone. Mice vaccinated with JVRS-100-Fluzone and challenged with antigenically drifted strains of H1N1 (PR/8/34) and influenza B (B/Lee/40) viruses had higher grade protection, as measured by attenuation of weight loss and increased survival, compared to recipients of unadjuvanted vaccine. The results indicate that the JVRS-100 adjuvant substantially increases immunogenicity and protection from drifted-strain challenge using an existing influenza vaccine.

  16. Increasing exposure to antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides in vaccines is not associated with risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Frank; Price, Cristofer S; Weintraub, Eric S

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the association between autism and the level of immunologic stimulation received from vaccines administered during the first 2 years of life. We analyzed data from a case-control study conducted in 3 managed care organizations (MCOs) of 256 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 752 control children matched on birth year, sex, and MCO. In addition to the broader category of ASD, we also evaluated autistic disorder and ASD with regression. ASD diagnoses were validated through standardized in-person evaluations. Exposure to total antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides from vaccines was determined by summing the antigen content of each vaccine received, as obtained from immunization registries and medical records. Potential confounding factors were ascertained from parent interviews and medical charts. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between ASD outcomes and exposure to antigens in selected time periods. The aOR (95% CI) of ASD associated with each 25-unit increase in total antigen exposure was 0.999 (0.994-1.003) for cumulative exposure to age 3 months, 0.999 (0.997-1.001) for cumulative exposure to age 7 months, and 0.999 (0.998-1.001) for cumulative exposure to age 2 years. Similarly, no increased risk was found for autistic disorder or ASD with regression. In this study of MCO members, increasing exposure to antibody-stimulating proteins and polysaccharides in vaccines during the first 2 years of life was not related to the risk of developing an ASD. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumption of juice fortified with oregano extract markedly increases excretion of phenolic acids but lacks short- and long-term effects on lipid peroxidation in healthy nonsmoking men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Anna; Mursu, Jaakko; Nurmi, Tarja; Nyyssönen, Kristiina; Alfthan, Georg; Hiltunen, Raimo; Kaikkonen, Jari; Salonen, Jukka T; Voutilainen, Sari

    2006-08-09

    Oregano has been shown to possess antioxidant capacity in various in vitro models and has thus been suggested to be potentially beneficial to human health, but studies in humans are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability and the effects of Origanum vulgare extract supplementation on serum lipids and lipid peroxidation in healthy nonsmoking men. A four-week double-blinded supplementation trial was concluded in which volunteers (n = 45) were randomized to consume daily mango-orange juice (placebo), mango-orange juice enriched with 300 mg/d total phenolic compounds from oregano extract, or mango-orange juice enriched with 600 mg/d total phenolic compounds from oregano extract. The excretion of phenolic compounds was markedly increased in the higher phenolic group as compared to the placebo group, but no significant changes were observed in the safety parameters, serum lipids, or biomarkers of lipid peroxidation.

  18. Increasing uptake of influenza vaccine by pregnant women post H1N1 pandemic: a longitudinal study in Melbourne, Australia, 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Elizabeth Anne; Pollock, Wendy Elizabeth; Tapper, Lauren; Sommerville, Maree; McDonald, Susan

    2015-03-05

    A Melbourne (Australia) university affiliated, tertiary obstetric hospital provides lay and professional education about influenza vaccine in pregnancy annually each March, early in the local influenza season. Responding to a 2011 survey of new mothers' opinions, the hospital made influenza vaccine freely available in antenatal clinics from 2012. We wished to determine influenza vaccination uptake during pregnancy with these strategies 5 years after 2009 H1N1. Face to face interviews based on US Center for Disease Control and Prevention Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System with new mothers in postnatal wards each July, 2010 to 2014. We calculated recalled influenza vaccine uptake each year and assessed trends with chi square tests, and logistic regression. We recorded 1086 interviews. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy increased by 6% per year (95% confidence interval 4 to 8%): from 29.6% in 2010 to 51.3% in 2014 (p benefits are increasingly being heeded. However, there was progressively lower awareness of maternal benefits of influenza vaccination, especially for women with risk factors for severe disease. We observed improving influenza vaccination during pregnancy. There is potential to integrate technology such as text message or internet with antenatal consultations to increase vaccination coverage further.

  19. Risk of Immunodeficiency Virus Infection May Increase with Vaccine-Induced Immune Response

    OpenAIRE

    Tenbusch, Matthias; Ignatius, Ralf; Temchura, Vladimir; Nabi, Ghulam; Tippler, Bettina; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Salazar, Andres M.; Sauermann, Ulrike; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Überla, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    To explore the efficacy of novel complementary prime-boost immunization regimens in a nonhuman primate model for HIV infection, rhesus monkeys primed by different DNA vaccines were boosted with virus-like particles (VLP) and then challenged by repeated low-dose rectal exposure to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Characteristic of the cellular immune response after the VLP booster immunization were high numbers of SIV-specific, gamma interferon-secreting cells after stimulation with inacti...

  20. Benevolent personification of the MoH increases compliance with an emergency polio vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Golan; Noyman-Veksler, Gal; Itamar, Shai; Greenberg, David; Grotto, Itamar

    2017-09-05

    Parental compliance is crucial to the success of mass vaccination campaigns targeting children. Relying on psychological/neuroscientific research concerning the role of personification (i.e., viewing the inanimate as human) in behavior, the authors examined the effect of parents' personification of the Israeli Ministry of Health (MoH) on compliance with a publicly controversial mass vaccination campaign, which was aimed at stopping the spread of a wild poliovirus. Participants were 555 parents of children aged 9 or younger, residing in the center/north of Israel, an area covered by Phase 2 of the campaign. T1 assessment, employed two days prior to Phase 2, tapped into demographics, attitudes towards vaccination, intent to comply, and a benevolent personification of the MoH (i.e., "The MoH is caring") vs. a malevolent personification of the MoH ("The MoH is hysteric"). T2 assessment, transpiring four months after the end of the campaign, addressed presence and reasons for (non-)compliance. The study's overall compliance rate was 61.8%. The principal reason for compliance was "adherence to the recommendations of the MoH" (68.49%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, prospective predictors of compliance were: an early intent to comply (O.R.=2.56, p=0.000), being male (O. R.=1.51, p=0.023), and a benevolent personification of the MoH (O.R.=1.21, p=0.019). Parents who experienced the Israeli MoH as a benevolent protagonist were more likely to comply with the mass vaccination campaign. Findings highlight the role of leadership in public health campaigns during emergencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Standardized deceased donor kidney donation rates in the UK reveal marked regional variation and highlight the potential for increasing kidney donation: a prospective cohort study†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, D. M.; Johnson, R. J.; Hudson, A. J.; Collett, D.; Murphy, P.; Watson, C. J. E.; Neuberger, J. M.; Bradley, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The UK has implemented a national strategy for organ donation that includes a centrally coordinated network of specialist nurses in organ donation embedded in all intensive care units and a national organ retrieval service for deceased organ donors. We aimed to determine whether despite the national approach to donation there is significant regional variation in deceased donor kidney donation rates. Methods The UK prospective audit of deaths in critical care was analysed for a cohort of patients who died in critical care between April 2010 and December 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with kidney donation. The logistic regression model was then used to produce risk-adjusted funnel plots describing the regional variation in donation rates. Results Of the 27 482 patients who died in a critical care setting, 1528 (5.5%) became kidney donors. Factors found to influence donation rates significantly were: type of critical care [e.g. neurointensive vs general intensive care: OR 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34–1.75, P69 vs age 18–39 yr: OR 0.2, 0.15–0.25, Pdeath [e.g. ‘other’ (excluding ‘stroke’ and ‘trauma’) vs ‘trauma’: OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.03–0.05, Pdonation rates for the 20 UK kidney donor regions showed marked variation. The overall standardized donation rate ranged from 3.2 to 7.5%. Four regions had donation rates of >2 standard deviations (sd) from the mean (two below and two above). Regional variation was most marked for donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidney donors with 9 of the 20 regions demonstrating donation rates of >2 sd from the mean (5 below and 4 above). Conclusions The marked regional variation in kidney donation rates observed in this cohort after adjustment for factors strongly associated with donation rates suggests that there is considerable scope for further increasing kidney donation rates in the UK, particularly DCD. PMID:24335581

  2. AS03 adjuvanted AH1N1 vaccine associated with an abrupt increase in the incidence of childhood narcolepsy in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Nohynek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder with strong genetic predisposition causing excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. A sudden increase in childhood narcolepsy was observed in Finland soon after pandemic influenza epidemic and vaccination with ASO3-adjuvanted Pandemrix. No increase was observed in other age groups. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010 we retrospectively followed the cohort of all children living in Finland and born from January 1991 through December 2005. Vaccination data of the whole population was obtained from primary health care databases. All new cases with assigned ICD-10 code of narcolepsy were identified and the medical records reviewed by two experts to classify the diagnosis of narcolepsy according to the Brighton collaboration criteria. Onset of narcolepsy was defined as the first documented contact to health care because of excessive daytime sleepiness. The primary follow-up period was restricted to August 15, 2010, the day before media attention on post-vaccination narcolepsy started. FINDINGS: Vaccination coverage in the cohort was 75%. Of the 67 confirmed cases of narcolepsy, 46 vaccinated and 7 unvaccinated were included in the primary analysis. The incidence of narcolepsy was 9.0 in the vaccinated as compared to 0.7/100,000 person years in the unvaccinated individuals, the rate ratio being 12.7 (95% confidence interval 6.1-30.8. The vaccine-attributable risk of developing narcolepsy was 1:16,000 vaccinated 4 to 19-year-olds (95% confidence interval 1:13,000-1:21,000. CONCLUSIONS: Pandemrix vaccine contributed to the onset of narcolepsy among those 4 to 19 years old during the pandemic influenza in 2009-2010 in Finland. Further studies are needed to determine whether this observation exists in other populations and to elucidate potential underlying immunological mechanism. The role of the adjuvant in particular warrants further research before drawing

  3. Vaccinations Administered During Off-Clinic Hours at a National Community Pharmacy: Implications for Increasing Patient Access and Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, Jeffery A.; Taitel, Michael S.; Fensterheim, Leonard E.; Cannon, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Approximately 50,000 adults die annually from vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Most traditional vaccine providers (eg, physician offices) administer vaccinations during standard clinic hours, but community pharmacies offer expanded hours that allow patients to be vaccinated at convenient times. We analyzed the types of vaccines administered and patient populations vaccinated during off-clinic hours in a national community pharmacy, and their implications for vaccination access and convenience. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed data for all vaccinations given at the Walgreens pharmacy chain between August 2011 and July 2012. The time of vaccination was categorized as occurring during traditional hours (9:00 am–6:00 pm weekdays) or off-clinic hours, consisting of weekday evenings, weekends, and federal holidays. We compared demographic characteristics and types of vaccine. We used a logistic regression model to identify predictors of being vaccinated during off-clinic hours. RESULTS During the study period, pharmacists administered 6,250,402 vaccinations, of which 30.5% were provided during off-clinic hours: 17.4% were provided on weekends, 10.2% on evenings, and 2.9% on holidays. Patients had significantly higher odds of off-clinic vaccination if they were younger than 65 years of age, were male, resided in an urban area, and did not have any chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS A large proportion of adults being vaccinated receive their vaccines during evening, weekend, and holiday hours at the pharmacy, when traditional vaccine providers are likely unavailable. Younger, working-aged, healthy adults, in particular, a variety of immunizations during off-clinic hours. With the low rates of adult and adolescent vaccination in the United States, community pharmacies are creating new opportunities for vaccination that expand access and convenience. PMID:24019274

  4. Analysis of body composition in individuals with high bone mass reveals a marked increase in fat mass in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregson, Celia L; Paggiosi, Margaret A; Crabtree, Nicola; Steel, Sue A; McCloskey, Eugene; Duncan, Emma L; Fan, Bo; Shepherd, John A; Fraser, William D; Smith, George Davey; Tobias, Jon H

    2013-02-01

    High bone mass (HBM), detected in 0.2% of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, is characterized by raised body mass index, the basis for which is unclear. To investigate why body mass index is elevated in individuals with HBM, we characterized body composition and examined whether differences could be explained by bone phenotypes, eg, bone mass and/or bone turnover. We conducted a case-control study of 153 cases with unexplained HBM recruited from 4 UK centers by screening 219 088 DXA scans. A total of 138 first-degree relatives (of whom 51 had HBM) and 39 spouses were also recruited. Unaffected individuals served as controls. We measured fat mass, by DXA, and bone turnover markers. Among women, fat mass was inversely related to age in controls (P = .01), but not in HBM cases (P = .96) in whom mean fat mass was 8.9 [95% CI 4.7, 13.0] kg higher compared with controls (fully adjusted mean difference, P fat mass in male HBM cases was less marked (gender interaction P = .03). Compared with controls, lean mass was also increased in female HBM cases (by 3.3 [1.2, 5.4] kg; P fat mass increases, resulting in 4.5% lower percentage lean mass in HBM cases (P fat mass were fully attenuated after hip bone mineral density (BMD) adjustment (P = .52) but unchanged after adjustment for bone turnover (P fat mass adjustment (P fat mass in females, statistically explained by their greater BMD, but not by markers of bone turnover.

  5. Vaccine allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun Hee

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the increasing numbers of vaccine administrations are associated with increased reports of adverse vaccine reactions. Whilst the general adverse reactions including allergic reactions caused by the vaccine itself or the vaccine components, are rare, they can in some circumstances be serious and even fatal. In accordance with many IgE-mediated reactions and immediate-type allergic reactions, the primary allergens are proteins. The proteins most often implicated in vaccine allergies are egg and gelatin, with perhaps rare reactions to yeast or latex. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the injectable influenza vaccine can be safely administered, although with appropriate precautions, to patients with severe egg allergy, as the current influenza vaccines contain small trace amounts of egg protein. If an allergy is suspected, an accurate examination followed by algorithms is vital for correct diagnosis, treatment and decision regarding re-vaccination in patients with immediate-type reactions to vaccines. Facilities and health care professionals should be available to treat immediate hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis) in all settings where vaccines are administered.

  6. Co-delivery of ccl19 gene enhances anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P immunogenicity in mice by increasing dendritic cell migration to secondary lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan-hong; Qi, Sheng-cai; Su, Ling-kai; Xu, Qing-an; Fan, Ming-wen

    2013-03-01

    To investigate how co-delivery of the gene encoding C-C chemokine ligand-19 (CCL-19) affected the systemic immune responses to an anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P in mice. Plasmid encoding CCL19-GFP fusion protein (pCCL19/GFP) was constructed by inserting murine ccl19 gene into GFP-expressing vector pAcGFP1-N1. Chemotactic effect of the fusion protein on murine dendritic cells (DCs) was assessed in vitro and in vivo using transwell and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. BALB/c mice were administered anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P plus pCCL19/GFP (each 100 μg, im) or pCIA-P alone. Serum level of anti-PAc IgG was assessed with ELISA. Splenocytes from the mice were stimulated with PAc protein for 48 h, and IFN-γ and IL-4 production was measured with ELISA. The presence of pCCL19/GFP in spleen and draining lymph nodes was assessed using PCR. The expression of pCCL19/GFP protein in these tissues was analyzed under microscope and with flow cytometry. The expression level of CCL19-GFP fusion protein was considerably increased 48 h after transfection of COS-7 cells with pCCL19/GFP plasmids. The fusion protein showed potent chemotactic activity on DCs in vitro. The level of serum PAc-specific IgG was significantly increased from 4 to 14 weeks in the mice vaccinated with pCIA-P plus pCCL19/GFP. Compared to mice vaccinated with pCIA-P alone, the splenocytes from mice vaccinated with pCIA-P plus pCCL19/GFP produced significantly higher level of IFN-γ, but IL-4 production had no significant change. Following intromuscular co-delivery, pCCL19/GFP plasmid and fusion protein were detected in the spleen and draining lymph nodes. Administration of CCL19 gene in mice markedly increased the number of mature DCs in secondary lymphoid tissues. CCL19 serves as an effective adjuvant for anti-caries DNA vaccine by inducing chemotactic migration of DCs to secondary lymphoid tissues.

  7. Co-immunization of cattle with a vaccine against babesiosis and Lactobacillus casei increases specific IgG1 levels to Babesia bovis and B. bigemina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Garfias, Carlos Ramón; Lozano, Astrid Rodríguez; Martínez, Carmen Rojas; Martínez, Jesús Antonio Álvarez; Millán, Julio Vicente Figueroa; García, Gustavo Román Reyes; Castañeda-Arriola, Roberto; Aguilar-Figueroa, Blanca Rosa

    2015-10-01

    The effect of Lactobacillus casei administered along with a live attenuated vaccine vs. bovine babesiosis (VAC) on induction of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies to Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina was assessed by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in bovines of an endemic babesiosis area before (day 0) and after vaccination (days 15 and 30). We previously reported that L. casei increases the efficiency of VAC under controlled conditions and under extreme conditions in the field; however, the levels of IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies to B. bovis and B. bigemina are not known in vaccinated animals. Twenty-one dairy cows were allocated into three groups (seven animals per group): unvaccinated, vaccinated with VAC and vaccinated simultaneously with VAC and L. casei (VAC-LC). All animals were kept in a babesiosis endemic area at Tlalixcoyan, Veracruz. At days 15 and 30 after vaccination, the average levels of IgG1 to B. bovis and to B. bigemina were significantly higher in VAC-LC group than levels observed in VAC and control groups (Pcasei boost of IgG1 over IgG2 antibodies to B. bovis and B. bigemina when the bacteria is co-inoculated with this vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vaccination timeliness and co-administration among Kenyan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Nina B; Wagner, Abram L; Carlson, Bradley F; Boulton, Matthew L

    2018-03-07

    Timely administration of recommended vaccines requires children to have multiple vaccines co-administered in the first year of life. The objectives of this study were to estimate the proportion of timely vaccinations and the proportion of co-administered vaccines, and to assess the relationship between vaccine co-administration and vaccine timeliness in Kenyan children. Using the 2014 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), we calculated the proportion of children who received co-administered and timely vaccine doses. Co-administration was defined as doses administered on the same day with dates recorded on vaccination cards. Vaccines were considered timely if given within four days before to four weeks after the recommended interval for administration. 10,385 children aged 1-4 years in the Kenyan 2014 DHS dataset had vaccination cards which comprised the study sample. Analysis revealed wide a range for receipt of timely doses, from 90.2% for OPV0 to 56.0% for Measles. Co-administration of the 6-week dose was associated with 2.81 times higher odds of a timely Penta dose 1 (95% CI: 2.28, 3.46) and birth-dose co-administration was associated with a substantial increase in timely BCG vaccination: AOR 7.43 (95% CI: 6.31, 8.75). Though vaccine coverage in Kenya was high, timely vaccination was markedly low, with resultant implications for population immunity and potential spread of communicable diseases in unvaccinated infants. Co-administration of vaccines, place of residence, wealth index, and child age were consistently related to the odds of timely vaccine receipt. These relationships reinforce the importance of dedicating resources to programs that educate low socio-economic groups about the importance of vaccine co-administration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new DTPw-HB/Hib combination vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of infants in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregnaghi, Miguel; López, Pio; Rocha, Crisanta; Rivera, Luis; David, Marie-Pierre; Rüttimann, Ricardo; Schuerman, Lode

    2006-03-01

    In 1998 the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the inclusion of Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) conjugate vaccines in infant immunization programs, whenever in accordance with national priorities. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals has developed a new pentavalent combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B/Hib (DTPw-HB/Hib) vaccine containing 5 microg of polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP), and we assessed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary and booster vaccination of healthy children with this new vaccine compared with a reference regimen consisting of the licensed DTPw-HB (Tritanrix) and Hib (Hiberix) vaccines given as simultaneous concomitant injections. We performed a randomized, double-blind study from September 1998 to August 1999 to establish the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary and booster vaccination of healthy children with the new pentavalent combined DTPw-HB/Hib vaccine given as a single injection, compared with the reference regimen. Both vaccination regimens elicited excellent immune responses, with all subjects in both groups achieving seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations of > or = 0.15 microg/mL one month after primary vaccination. The combined DTPw-HB/Hib vaccine was non-inferior to the licensed vaccines in terms of seroprotection/seropositivity/vaccine response rates for all antigen components. Persistence of antibodies against all study vaccine antigens up to the time of booster vaccination was comparable between groups, and a marked increase of all antibody concentrations was observed after the booster dose. Both vaccine regimens were similar in terms of their overall reactogenicity profiles. Our results indicate that the new DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine provides an efficient and reliable way of implementing WHO recommendations for controlling hepatitis B and Hib infections on a worldwide basis.

  10. Towards the conservation of endangered avian species: a recombinant West Nile Virus vaccine results in increased humoral and cellular immune responses in Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay A Young

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV arrived in North America in 1999 and is now endemic. Many families of birds, especially corvids, are highly susceptible to WNV and infection often results in fatality. Avian species susceptible to WNV infection also include endangered species, such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropbasianuts and the Eastern Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans. The virus has been shown to contribute towards the likelihood of their extinction. Although a clear and present threat, there exists no avian WNV vaccine available to combat this lethal menace. As a first step in establishing an avian model for testing candidate WNV vaccines, avian antibody based reagents were assessed for cross-reactivity with Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica T cell markers CD4 and CD8; the most reactive were found to be the anti-duck CD8 antibody, clone Du-CD8-1, and the anti-chicken/turkey CD4 antibody, clone CT4. These reagents were then used to assess vaccine performance as well as to establish T cell populations in quail, with a novel population of CD4/CD8 double positive T cells being identified in Japanese quail. Concurrently, non-replicating recombinant adenoviruses, expressing either the WNV envelope or NS3 'genes' were constructed and assessed for effectiveness as avian vaccines. Japanese Quail were selected for testing the vaccines, as they provide an avian model that parallels the population diversity of bird species in the wild. Both the level of WNV specific antibodies and the number of T cells in vaccinated birds were increased compared to unvaccinated controls. The results indicate the vaccines to be effective in increasing both humoral and cellular immune responses. These recombinant vaccines therefore may find utility as tools to protect and maintain domestic and wild avian populations. Their implementation may also arrest the progression towards extinction of endangered avian species and reduce the viral reservoir that

  11. Vaccination against canine leishmaniosis increases the phagocytic activity, nitric oxide production and expression of cell activation/migration molecules in neutrophils and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Marcela L; Costa-Pereira, Christiane; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; Marteleto, Bruno H; Ribeiro, Vitor M; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo C; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Araújo, Márcio S S

    2016-04-15

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is transmitted by phlebotomine sandfly vectors and domestic dogs serve as a reservoir. The elimination of seropositive dogs has been a recommended strategy for managing the disease in Brazil. A protective canine vaccine would be an important tool for controlling the disease, reducing the parasites available to sandfly vectors and, consequently, reducing the number of human VL cases. Leishmune(®) is an anti-canine Leishmaniosis (VL Canine) vaccine produced by Zoetis (Pfizer, Brazil) that was commercially available in Brazil until 2014. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the protective immunological events induced by vaccination with Leishmune(®) in the time frame of one year. Healthy, non-vaccinated dogs and dogs of 1, 6 and 10 months post-vaccination were evaluated. Results showed that Leishmune(®) induced an increase in phagocytic activity of neutrophils and monocytes and also increased NO production. Immunological events were correlated with functional responses, as high levels of IgG and an increase of the receptor Fcγ were detected. Vaccination induced an increased expression of TLR (2, 4, 5, 9), integrin (CD29, CD49f), activation (MHCII) and co-stimulatory (CD80, CD81) molecules by neutrophils and monocytes. Vaccination led to decrease of IL-4 and an increase of IL-8 production by monocytes and higher IFN-γ and IL-17 production by T-cells. The results suggested that Leishmune(®) was able to induce a long-lasting change in immune response, mediated by supportive immunological events that may be participating in protective immunity against CL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  13. Increased Incidence and Clinical Picture of Childhood Narcolepsy following the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination Campaign in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partinen, Markku; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Ilveskoski, Ismo; Hublin, Christer; Linna, Miika; Olsén, Päivi; Nokelainen, Pekka; Alén, Reija; Wallden, Tiina; Espo, Merimaaria; Rusanen, Harri; Olme, Jan; Sätilä, Heli; Arikka, Harri; Kaipainen, Pekka; Julkunen, Ilkka; Kirjavainen, Turkka

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcolepsy is a rare neurological sleep disorder especially in children who are younger than 10 years. In the beginning of 2010, an exceptionally large number of Finnish children suffered from an abrupt onset of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy. Therefore, we carried out a systematic analysis of the incidence of narcolepsy in Finland between the years 2002–2010. Methods All Finnish hospitals and sleep clinics were contacted to find out the incidence of narcolepsy in 2010. The national hospital discharge register from 2002 to 2009 was used as a reference. Findings Altogether 335 cases (all ages) of narcolepsy were diagnosed in Finland during 2002–2009 giving an annual incidence of 0.79 per 100 000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval 0.62–0.96). The average annual incidence among subjects under 17 years of age was 0.31 (0.12–0.51) per 100 000 inhabitants. In 2010, 54 children under age 17 were diagnosed with narcolepsy (5.3/100 000; 17-fold increase). Among adults ≥20 years of age the incidence rate in 2010 was 0.87/100 000, which equals that in 2002–2009. Thirty-four of the 54 children were HLA-typed, and they were all positive for narcolepsy risk allele DQB1*0602/DRB1*15. 50/54 children had received Pandemrix vaccination 0 to 242 days (median 42) before onset. All 50 had EDS with abnormal multiple sleep latency test (sleep latency narcolepsy. Interpretation A sudden increase in the incidence of abrupt childhood narcolepsy was observed in Finland in 2010. We consider it likely that Pandemrix vaccination contributed, perhaps together with other environmental factors, to this increase in genetically susceptible children. PMID:22470463

  14. Regulatory T cell frequencies and phenotypes following anti-viral vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, A Charlotte M T; van Aalst, Susan; Ludwig, Irene S; Bodinham, Caroline L; Lewis, David J; van der Zee, Ruurd; van Eden, Willem; Broere, Femke

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) function in the prevention of excessive inflammation and maintenance of immunological homeostasis. However, these cells may also interfere with resolution of infections or with immune reactions following vaccination. Effects of Treg on vaccine responses are nowadays investigated, but the impact of vaccination on Treg homeostasis is still largely unknown. This may be a relevant safety aspect, since loss of tolerance through reduced Treg may trigger autoimmunity. In exploratory clinical trials, healthy adults were vaccinated with an influenza subunit vaccine plus or minus the adjuvant MF59®, an adjuvanted hepatitis B subunit vaccine or a live attenuated yellow fever vaccine. Frequencies and phenotypes of resting (rTreg) and activated (aTreg) subpopulations of circulating CD4+ Treg were determined and compared to placebo immunization. Vaccination with influenza vaccines did not result in significant changes in Treg frequencies and phenotypes. Vaccination with the hepatitis B vaccine led to slightly increased frequencies of both rTreg and aTreg subpopulations and a decrease in expression of functionality marker CD39 on aTreg. The live attenuated vaccine resulted in a decrease in rTreg frequency, and an increase in expression of activation marker CD25 on both subpopulations, possibly indicating a conversion from resting to migratory aTreg due to vaccine virus replication. To study the more local effects of vaccination on Treg in lymphoid organs, we immunized mice and analyzed the CD4+ Treg frequency and phenotype in draining lymph nodes and spleen. Vaccination resulted in a transient local decrease in Treg frequency in lymph nodes, followed by a systemic Treg increase in the spleen. Taken together, we showed that vaccination with vaccines with an already established safe profile have only minimal impact on frequencies and characteristics of Treg over time. These findings may serve as a bench-mark of inter-individual variation of Treg

  15. Regulatory T cell frequencies and phenotypes following anti-viral vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Charlotte M T de Wolf

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Treg function in the prevention of excessive inflammation and maintenance of immunological homeostasis. However, these cells may also interfere with resolution of infections or with immune reactions following vaccination. Effects of Treg on vaccine responses are nowadays investigated, but the impact of vaccination on Treg homeostasis is still largely unknown. This may be a relevant safety aspect, since loss of tolerance through reduced Treg may trigger autoimmunity. In exploratory clinical trials, healthy adults were vaccinated with an influenza subunit vaccine plus or minus the adjuvant MF59®, an adjuvanted hepatitis B subunit vaccine or a live attenuated yellow fever vaccine. Frequencies and phenotypes of resting (rTreg and activated (aTreg subpopulations of circulating CD4+ Treg were determined and compared to placebo immunization. Vaccination with influenza vaccines did not result in significant changes in Treg frequencies and phenotypes. Vaccination with the hepatitis B vaccine led to slightly increased frequencies of both rTreg and aTreg subpopulations and a decrease in expression of functionality marker CD39 on aTreg. The live attenuated vaccine resulted in a decrease in rTreg frequency, and an increase in expression of activation marker CD25 on both subpopulations, possibly indicating a conversion from resting to migratory aTreg due to vaccine virus replication. To study the more local effects of vaccination on Treg in lymphoid organs, we immunized mice and analyzed the CD4+ Treg frequency and phenotype in draining lymph nodes and spleen. Vaccination resulted in a transient local decrease in Treg frequency in lymph nodes, followed by a systemic Treg increase in the spleen. Taken together, we showed that vaccination with vaccines with an already established safe profile have only minimal impact on frequencies and characteristics of Treg over time. These findings may serve as a bench-mark of inter-individual variation

  16. Written reminders increase vaccine coverage in Danish children - evaluation of a nationwide intervention using The Danish Vaccination Register, 2014 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Camilla Hiul; Rasmussen, Mette; Valentiner-Branth, Palle

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated a national intervention of sending written reminders to parents of children lacking childhood vaccinations, using the Danish Vaccination Register (DDV). The intervention cohort included the full birth cohort of 124,189 children born in Denmark who reached the age of 2 and 6.5 years...... from 15 May 2014 to 14 May 2015. The reference cohort comprised 124,427 children who reached the age of 2 and 6.5 years from 15 May 2013 to 14 May 2014. Vaccination coverage was higher in the intervention cohort at 2.5 and 7 years of age. The differences were most pronounced for the second dose...... of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR2) and the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio vaccine DTaP-IPV4 among the 7-year-olds, with 5.0 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-5.4) and 6.4 percentage points (95% CI: 6.0-6.9), respectively. Among the 2.5 and 7-year-olds, the proportion...

  17. Written reminders increase vaccine coverage in Danish children - evaluation of a nationwide intervention using The Danish Vaccination Register, 2014 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Camilla Hiul; Rasmussen, Mette; Valentiner-Branth, Palle

    2017-01-01

    of the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR2) and the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio vaccine DTaP-IPV4 among the 7-year-olds, with 5.0 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-5.4) and 6.4 percentage points (95% CI: 6.0-6.9), respectively. Among the 2.5 and 7-year-olds, the proportion......We evaluated a national intervention of sending written reminders to parents of children lacking childhood vaccinations, using the Danish Vaccination Register (DDV). The intervention cohort included the full birth cohort of 124,189 children born in Denmark who reached the age of 2 and 6.5 years...... from 15 May 2014 to 14 May 2015. The reference cohort comprised 124,427 children who reached the age of 2 and 6.5 years from 15 May 2013 to 14 May 2014. Vaccination coverage was higher in the intervention cohort at 2.5 and 7 years of age. The differences were most pronounced for the second dose...

  18. A coordinated cross-disciplinary research initiative to address an increased incidence of narcolepsy following the 2009-2010 Pandemrix vaccination programme in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltelius, N; Persson, I; Ahlqvist-Rastad, J; Andersson, M; Arnheim-Dahlström, L; Bergman, P; Granath, F; Adori, C; Hökfelt, T; Kühlmann-Berenzon, S; Liljeström, P; Maeurer, M; Olsson, T; Örtqvist, Å; Partinen, M; Salmonson, T; Zethelius, B

    2015-10-01

    In response to the 2009-2010 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, a mass vaccination programme with the AS03-adjuvanted influenza A(H1N1) vaccine Pandemrix was initiated in Sweden. Unexpectedly, there were a number of narcolepsy cases amongst vaccinated children and adolescents reported. In this review, we summarize the results of a joint cross-disciplinary national research effort to investigate the adverse reaction signal from the spontaneous reporting system and to better understand possible causative mechanisms. A three- to fourfold increased risk of narcolepsy in vaccinated children and adolescents was verified by epidemiological studies. Of importance, no risk increase was observed for the other neurological and autoimmune diseases studied. Genetic studies confirmed the association with the allele HLA-DQB1*06:02, which is known to be related to sporadic narcolepsy. Furthermore, a number of studies using cellular and molecular experimental models investigated possible links between influenza vaccination and narcolepsy. Serum analysis, using a peptide microarray platform, showed that individuals who received Pandemrix exhibited a different epitope reactivity pattern to neuraminidase and haemagglutinin, as compared to individuals who were infected with H1N1. Patients with narcolepsy were also found to have increased levels of interferon-gamma production in response to streptococcus-associated antigens. The chain of patient-related events and the study results emerging over time were subjected to intense nationwide media attention. The importance of transparent communication and collaboration with patient representatives to maintain public trust in vaccination programmes is also discussed in the review. Organizational challenges due to this unexpected event delayed the initiation of some of the research projects, still the main objectives of this joint, cross-disciplinary research effort were reached, and important insights were acquired for future, similar

  19. Project VOGUE: A partnership for increasing HIV knowledge and HIV vaccine trial awareness among House Ball leaders in Western New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Amina P; Fields, Sheldon D; Humes, Damon L; Bunce, Catherine A; Wallace, Stephaun E; Lewis, Cindi; Elder, Heather; Wakefield, Steven; Keefer, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    Men who sleep with men (MSM) and transgender individuals of color, the largest demographic in the House Ball community (HBC) are amongst the group at highest risk for HIV infection in the United States. The HBC have limited access to culturally appropriate HIV education. This study aimed to develop a partnership with HBC leaders to uncover strategies for increasing HIV prevention knowledge, including participation in HIV vaccine trials. To this end a research institution-community-HBC partnership was established. In-depth qualitative and quantitative data were collected from the 14 HBC leaders in western New York, revealing that knowledge of HIV and related vaccine trials was limited. Barriers to increasing HIV knowledge included fear of peer judgment, having inaccurate information about HIV, and lack of education. Among the HBC, community partnerships will further aid in the development of future HIV prevention programs and increase individuals' willingness to participate in future HIV vaccine trials.

  20. Synthetic peptide vaccines: palmitoylation of peptide antigens by a thioester bond increases immunogenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekman, N.J.C.M.; Schaaper, W.M.M.; Tesser, G.I.

    1997-01-01

    Synthetic peptides have frequently been used to immunize animals. However, peptides less than about 20 to 30 amino acids long are poor immunogens. In general, to increase its immunogenicity, the presentation of the peptide should be improved, and molecular weight needs to be increased. Many attem...

  1. Synthetic peptide vaccines: palmitoylation of peptide antigens by an thioester bond increases immunogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, N.J.C.M.; Schaaper, W.M.M.; Tesser, G.I.; Dalsgaard, K.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Boshuizen, R.S.; Meloen, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Synthetic peptides have frequently been used to immunize animals. However, peptides less than about 20 to 30 amino acids long are poor immunogens. In general, to increase its immunogenicity, the presentation of the peptide should be improved, and molecular weight needs to be increased. Many attempts

  2. AS03 Adjuvanted AH1N1 Vaccine Associated with an Abrupt Increase in the Incidence of Childhood Narcolepsy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Hanna; Jokinen, Jukka; Partinen, Markku; Vaarala, Outi; Kirjavainen, Turkka; Sundman, Jonas; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Hublin, Christer; Julkunen, Ilkka; Olsén, Päivi; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Kilpi, Terhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder with strong genetic predisposition causing excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. A sudden increase in childhood narcolepsy was observed in Finland soon after pandemic influenza epidemic and vaccination with ASO3-adjuvanted Pandemrix. No increase was observed in other age groups. Methods Retrospective cohort study. From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010 we retrospectively followed the cohort of all children living in Finland and born from January 1991 through December 2005. Vaccination data of the whole population was obtained from primary health care databases. All new cases with assigned ICD-10 code of narcolepsy were identified and the medical records reviewed by two experts to classify the diagnosis of narcolepsy according to the Brighton collaboration criteria. Onset of narcolepsy was defined as the first documented contact to health care because of excessive daytime sleepiness. The primary follow-up period was restricted to August 15, 2010, the day before media attention on post-vaccination narcolepsy started. Findings Vaccination coverage in the cohort was 75%. Of the 67 confirmed cases of narcolepsy, 46 vaccinated and 7 unvaccinated were included in the primary analysis. The incidence of narcolepsy was 9.0 in the vaccinated as compared to 0.7/100,000 person years in the unvaccinated individuals, the rate ratio being 12.7 (95% confidence interval 6.1–30.8). The vaccine-attributable risk of developing narcolepsy was 1∶16,000 vaccinated 4 to 19-year-olds (95% confidence interval 1∶13,000–1∶21,000). Conclusions Pandemrix vaccine contributed to the onset of narcolepsy among those 4 to 19 years old during the pandemic influenza in 2009–2010 in Finland. Further studies are needed to determine whether this observation exists in other populations and to elucidate potential underlying immunological mechanism. The role of the adjuvant in particular warrants further research before drawing

  3. Pertussis circulation has increased T-cell immunity during childhood more than a second acellular booster vaccination in Dutch children 9 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose-Minke Schure

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Here we report the first evaluation of T-cell responses upon a second acellular pertussis booster vaccination in Dutch children at 9 years of age, 5 years after a preschool booster vaccination. Blood samples of children 9 years of age were studied longitudinally until 1 year after the second aP booster and compared with those after the first aP booster in children 4 and 6 years of age from a cross-sectional study. After stimulation with pertussis-vaccine antigens, Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine responses were measured and effector memory cells (CCR7-CD45RA- were characterized by 8-colour FACS analysis. The second aP booster vaccination at pre-adolescent age in wP primed individuals did increase pertussis-specific Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses. Noticeably, almost all T-cell responses had increased with age and were already high before the booster vaccination at 9 years of age. The enhancement of T-cell immunity during the 5 year following the booster at 4 years of age is probably caused by natural boosting due to the a high circulation of pertussis. However, the incidence of pertussis is high in adolescents and adults who have only received the Dutch wP vaccine during infancy and no booster at 4 years of age. Therefore, an aP booster vaccination at adolescence or later in these populations might improve long-term immunity against pertussis and reduce the transmission to the vulnerable newborns. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN64117538.

  4. DTP with or after measles vaccination is associated with increased in-hospital mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Biai, Sidu; Veirum, Jens Erik

    2007-01-01

    The sequence of routine immunisations may be important for childhood mortality. Three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) should be given at 6, 10, and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age. The sequence is not always respected. We examined in-hospital mortality...

  5. Increased hepatitis C virus vaccine clinical trial literacy following a brief intervention among people who inject drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, Bethany; Madden, Annie; Hellard, Margaret; Kerr, Thomas; Prins, Maria; Page, Kimberly; Dore, Gregory J.; Maher, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    While people who inject drugs are at high risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and will be the target population for future HCV vaccine trials, little is known about clinical trial literacy (CTL) in this group. We assessed the impact of a brief intervention (BI) designed to improve HCV vaccine

  6. Synergistic tumoricidal effect of combined hPD-L1 vaccine and HER2 gene vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangqian; Wang, Shuning; Gu, Jintao; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Kuo; Mu, Nan; Huang, Tonglie; Li, Weina; Hao, Qiang; Xue, Xiaochang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhang, Cun

    2018-02-10

    Immunotherapy is gathering momentum as a kind of important therapy for cancer patients. However, monotherapies have limited efficacy in improving outcomes and benefit only in a small subset of patients. Combination therapies targeting multiple pathways often can augment an immune response to improve survival further. Here, the tumoricidal effects of the dual hPD-L1(human programmed cell death ligand 1) vaccination/HER2(human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) gene vaccination immunotherapy against the established HER2-expressed cancers were observed. Animals treated with combination therapy using hPD-L1 vaccine and HER2 gene vaccine had significantly improved survival in a mammary carcinoma model. We observed an increase in tumor growth inhibition following treatment. The percentage of the tumor-free mice (%) was much higher in the combined PD-L1/HER2 group. Furthermore, under the tumor-burden condition, hPD-L1 vaccine enhanced humoral immunity of HER2 gene vaccine. And the combination treatment increased the IFN-γ-producing effector T cells. Additionally, splenocytes from the combined PD-L1/HER2 group immunized mice possessed higher CTL activity. Notably, vaccination with combination therapy induced a significant decrease in the percentage of CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PD-L1/HER2 gene vaccine combination therapy synergistically generates marked tumoricidal effects against established HER2-expressing cancers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; Abnormal ...

  8. Combination vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David AG Skibinski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines into a single product has been central to the protection of the pediatric population over the past 50 years. The addition of inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae, and hepatitis B vaccines into the combination has facilitated the introduction of these vaccines into recommended immunization schedules by reducing the number of injections required and has therefore increased immunization compliance. However, the development of these combinations encountered numerous challenges, including the reduced response to Haemophilus influenzae vaccine when given in combination; the need to consolidate the differences in the immunization schedule (hepatitis B; and the need to improve the safety profile of the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis combination. Here, we review these challenges and also discuss future prospects for combination vaccines.

  9. Increased incidence and clinical picture of childhood narcolepsy following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccination campaign in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Partinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcolepsy is a rare neurological sleep disorder especially in children who are younger than 10 years. In the beginning of 2010, an exceptionally large number of Finnish children suffered from an abrupt onset of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS and cataplexy. Therefore, we carried out a systematic analysis of the incidence of narcolepsy in Finland between the years 2002-2010. METHODS: All Finnish hospitals and sleep clinics were contacted to find out the incidence of narcolepsy in 2010. The national hospital discharge register from 2002 to 2009 was used as a reference. FINDINGS: Altogether 335 cases (all ages of narcolepsy were diagnosed in Finland during 2002-2009 giving an annual incidence of 0.79 per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval 0.62-0.96. The average annual incidence among subjects under 17 years of age was 0.31 (0.12-0.51 per 100,000 inhabitants. In 2010, 54 children under age 17 were diagnosed with narcolepsy (5.3/100,000; 17-fold increase. Among adults ≥20 years of age the incidence rate in 2010 was 0.87/100,000, which equals that in 2002-2009. Thirty-four of the 54 children were HLA-typed, and they were all positive for narcolepsy risk allele DQB1*0602/DRB1*15. 50/54 children had received Pandemrix vaccination 0 to 242 days (median 42 before onset. All 50 had EDS with abnormal multiple sleep latency test (sleep latency <8 min and ≥2 sleep onset REM periods. The symptoms started abruptly. Forty-seven (94% had cataplexy, which started at the same time or soon after the onset of EDS. Psychiatric symptoms were common. Otherwise the clinical picture was similar to that described in childhood narcolepsy. INTERPRETATION: A sudden increase in the incidence of abrupt childhood narcolepsy was observed in Finland in 2010. We consider it likely that Pandemrix vaccination contributed, perhaps together with other environmental factors, to this increase in genetically susceptible children.

  10. The effect of malnutrition on vaccination against Dermatophilus congolensis infection in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, A B; How, S J; Lloyd, D H; Hill, R

    1991-07-01

    Vaccination against Dermatophilus congolensis was carried out in groups of lambs raised on optimal or energy deficient diets. The groups differed significantly in weight, body condition score and plasma total protein and albumin. All animals were then challenged with D. congolensis in a dose response infection model. The vaccine was effective in the well nourished animals, reducing the number of affected lambs in the vaccinated group and the severity of the lesions and increasing the minimum dose required to cause infection. In contrast, all of the vaccinated energy-deficient lambs developed lesions. There was some evidence of vaccine effect in these animals but this was not as marked as that seen in the well nourished lambs. The malnourished lambs, vaccinated and non-vaccinated, took longer to heal than the well nourished groups. Resistance to challenge was not associated with serum antibodies or skin test reactivity to D. congolensis antigens.

  11. Bacterial superglue enables easy development of efficient virus-like particle based vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Matondo, Sungwa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a significant advance in the development of subunit vaccines, combining high safety and efficacy. Their particulate nature and dense repetitive subunit organization makes them ideal scaffolds for display of vaccine antigens. Traditional approaches...... vaccine antigens fused to SpyCatcher or SpyTag resulted in formation of antigen-VLP complexes with coupling efficiencies (% occupancy of total VLP binding sites) ranging from 22-88 %. In mice, spy-VLP vaccines presenting the malaria proteins Pfs25 or VAR2CSA markedly increased antibody titer, affinity......, longevity and functional efficacy compared to corresponding vaccines employing monomeric proteins. The spy-VLP vaccines also effectively broke B cell self-tolerance and induced potent and durable antibody responses upon vaccination with cancer or allergy-associated self-antigens (PD-L1, CTLA-4 and IL-5...

  12. The Efficacy of Social Role Models to Increase Motivation to Obtain Vaccination against Hepatitis B among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vet, R.; de Wit, J. B. F.; Das, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of role models in persuasive messages about risk and social norms to increase motivation to obtain hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM at risk for HBV in The Netherlands (N = 168) were recruited online via a range of websites and were randomly assigned to one of four…

  13. Evaluation of the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Computer-Tailored Intervention to Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Andrea L.; Lipschitz, Jessica M.; Fernandez, Anne C.; Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feasibility of a Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based computer-tailored intervention (CTI) for increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in college-aged women. Participants: Two hundred forty-three women aged 18-26 were recruited between February and May of 2011. Methods: Participants completed the…

  14. Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). Increasing Flu Vaccination Rates among Healthcare Workers Position statements from professional organizations, mandatory influenza vaccination policies, and many helpful ...

  15. Recombinant Invasive Lactococcus lactis Carrying a DNA Vaccine Coding the Ag85A Antigen Increases INF-γ, IL-6, and TNF-α Cytokines after Intranasal Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Mancha-Agresti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a major threat throughout the world and in 2015 it caused the death of 1.4 million people. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin is the only existing vaccine against this ancient disease; however, it does not provide complete protection in adults. New vaccines against TB are eminently a global priority. The use of bacteria as vehicles for delivery of vaccine plasmids is a promising vaccination strategy. In this study, we evaluated the use of, an engineered invasive Lactococcus lactis (expressing Fibronectin-Binding Protein A from Staphylococcus aureus for the delivery of DNA plasmid to host cells, especially to the mucosal site as a new DNA vaccine against tuberculosis. One of the major antigens documented that offers protective responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the Ag85A. L. lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:Ag85A which was obtained and used for intranasal immunization of C57BL/6 mice and the immune response profile was evaluated. In this study we observed that this strain was able to produce significant increases in the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the stimulated spleen cell supernatants, showing a systemic T helper 1 (Th1 cell response. Antibody production (IgG and sIgA anti-Ag85A was also significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage, as well as in the serum of mice. In summary, these findings open new perspectives in the area of mucosal DNA vaccine, against specific pathogens using a Lactic Acid Bacteria such as L. lactis.

  16. Absence of associations between influenza vaccines and increased risks of seizures, Guillain-Barré syndrome, encephalitis, or anaphylaxis in the 2012-2013 season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Alison Tse; Li, Lingling; Kulldorff, Martin; Vellozzi, Claudia; Weintraub, Eric; Baxter, Roger; Belongia, Edward A; Daley, Matthew F; Jacobsen, Steven J; Naleway, Allison; Nordin, James D; Lee, Grace M

    2014-05-01

    We conducted weekly surveillance for pre-specified adverse events following receipt of the 2012-2013 influenza vaccines in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). For each outcome, risk intervals (i.e., period after vaccination with a potentially increased risk) were defined on the basis of biologic plausibility and prior literature. Seizures following inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) were monitored in children in three age groups (6-23 months, 24-59 months, and 5-17 years) using a self-controlled risk interval design. We also monitored for Guillain-Barré syndrome, encephalitis, and anaphylaxis following IIV in patients ≥6 months of age using a cohort design with historical controls. In the risk intervals following live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), we collected weekly counts of Guillain-Barré syndrome, encephalitis, and anaphylaxis in patients ages 2-49. Among LAIV vaccinees, numbers of expected events based on rates in historical controls were calculated, adjusted for age and site. At the end of surveillance, approximately 3.6 million first doses of IIV and 250 000 first doses of LAIV had been administered in the VSD. No elevated risks were identified in risk intervals following 2012-2013 IIV, as compared with a self-matched control interval or to historical controls. For each outcome, fewer than three events occurred in the risk interval following 2012-2013 LAIV, and we thus were unable to estimate measures of relative risks. No increased risk was identified for any of the pre-specified outcomes following 2012-2013 influenza vaccinations in the VSD. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Increased efficacy of inactivated vaccine candidates prepared with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains of predominant genotypes in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, S Y; Kwon, Y K; Song, C S; Lee, H J; Jeong, O M; Choi, B K; Jung, S C; Kang, M S

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has been a major causative agent of food-borne human disease, mainly due to consumption of contaminated food animal products. In particular, ducks serve as a reservoir of serovar Typhimurium, and are one of the common sources of human infection. To prevent infection of ducks, and therefore minimize human infection, it is critical to control the persistent epidemic strains in ducks. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity and virulence of serovar Typhimurium isolates from ducks in Korea to identify the predominant strains that might be used as efficient vaccine candidates for ducks. Among the isolates, 2 representative isolates (ST26 and ST76) of predominant genotypes were selected as vaccine strains on the basis of genotypic analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA microarrays. Two-week-old ducks were then injected intramuscularly with inactivated vaccine candidates prepared using ST26 or ST76 (10(8) cfu/0.5 mL/duck or 10(9) cfu/0.5 mL/duck), and oral challenge with a highly virulent serovar Typhimurium strain (10(9) cfu/0.5 mL/duck) was carried out 2 wk later. Shedding of the challenge strain was significantly decreased in group 2 after vaccination. The antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all vaccinated groups were enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the unvaccinated control group. Overall, vaccination with ST26 or ST76 reduced bacterial shedding and colonization in internal organs, and induced elevated antibody response. In particular, serovar Typhimurium ST26 (10(8) cfu/0.5 mL/duck) was the most effective vaccine candidate, which can provide efficient protection against serovar Typhimurium in ducks with higher effectiveness compared to a commercial vaccine currently used worldwide. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Effectiveness and acceptability of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing uptake of vaccinations in preschool children: systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Bateman, Belinda; Becker, Frauke; Cresswell, Tricia; Flynn, Darren; McNaughton, Rebekah; Oluboyede, Yemi; Robalino, Shannon; Ternent, Laura; Sood, Benjamin Gardner; Michie, Susan; Shucksmith, Janet; Sniehotta, Falko F; Wigham, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Uptake of preschool vaccinations is less than optimal. Financial incentives and quasi-mandatory policies (restricting access to child care or educational settings to fully vaccinated children) have been used to increase uptake internationally, but not in the UK. To provide evidence on the effectiveness, acceptability and economic costs and consequences of parental financial incentives and quasi-mandatory schemes for increasing the uptake of preschool vaccinations. Systematic review, qualitative study and discrete choice experiment (DCE) with questionnaire. Community, health and education settings in England. Qualitative study - parents and carers of preschool children, health and educational professionals. DCE - parents and carers of preschool children identified as 'at high risk' and 'not at high risk' of incompletely vaccinating their children. Qualitative study - focus groups and individual interviews. DCE - online questionnaire. The review included studies exploring the effectiveness, acceptability or economic costs and consequences of interventions that offered contingent rewards or penalties with real material value for preschool vaccinations, or quasi-mandatory schemes that restricted access to 'universal' services, compared with usual care or no intervention. Electronic database, reference and citation searches were conducted. Systematic review - there was insufficient evidence to conclude that the interventions considered are effective. There was some evidence that the quasi-mandatory interventions were acceptable. There was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on economic costs and consequences. Qualitative study - there was little appetite for parental financial incentives. Quasi-mandatory schemes were more acceptable. Optimising current services was consistently preferred to the interventions proposed. DCE and questionnaire - universal parental financial incentives were preferred to quasi-mandatory interventions, which were preferred to targeted

  19. Brief education to increase uptake of influenza vaccine among pregnant women: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Valerie W Y; Fong, Daniel Y T; Tarrant, Marie

    2014-01-14

    Pregnant women are the highest priority group for annual influenza vaccination. Studies have shown unacceptably low uptake of both seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccination among pregnant women. This paper will describe the study protocol and methodology of a randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in improving the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine among pregnant women in Hong Kong. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted with pregnant women in at least the second trimester of pregnancy from four publicly funded hospital antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. Participants will be randomly assigned to either one of the two treatment groups: standard care (control) or standard care plus brief education (intervention). Pregnant women in the standard care group will receive the usual antenatal care with an educational pamphlet developed by the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection and those in the intervention group will be provided with usual care plus a brief ten-minute education intervention. Content of the education session will cover four core components recommended in the research literature. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants who have received influenza vaccine during their pregnancy. A total of 184 pregnant women (92 per group) will be required to give an 80% power to detect a treatment effect of 15%. Most intervention studies aimed at improving influenza vaccination rates in pregnant women have targeted obstetric-care providers and the results of the two patient-oriented RCT interventions are conflicting. The high priority for vaccination given to pregnant women and the low influenza vaccination rate among pregnant women worldwide strongly indicates a need for interventions to improve uptake.

  20. Combination of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA with whole cell pertussis vaccine increases protection against pneumococcal challenge in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leonor S Oliveira

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of respiratory acute infections around the world. In Latin America, approximately 20,000 children under 5 years of age die of pneumococcal diseases annually. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA is among the best-characterized pneumococcal antigens that confer protection in animal models of pneumococcal infections and, as such, is a good alternative for the currently available conjugated vaccines. Efficient immune responses directed to PspA in animal models have already been described. Nevertheless, few low cost adjuvants for a subunit pneumococcal vaccine have been proposed to date. Here, we have tested the adjuvant properties of the whole cell Bordetella pertussis vaccine (wP that is currently part of the DTP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine administrated to children in several countries, as an adjuvant to PspA. Nasal immunization of BALB/c mice with a combination of PspA5 and wP or wP(low--a new generation vaccine that contains low levels of B. pertussis LPS--conferred protection against a respiratory lethal challenge with S. pneumoniae. Both PspA5-wP and PspA5-wP(low vaccines induced high levels of systemic and mucosal antibodies against PspA5, with similar profile, indicating no essential requirement for B. pertussis LPS in the adjuvant properties of wP. Accordingly, nasal immunization of C3H/HeJ mice with PspA5-wP conferred protection against the pneumococcal challenge, thus ruling out a role for TLR4 responses in the adjuvant activity and the protection mechanisms triggered by the vaccines. The high levels of anti-PspA5 antibodies correlated with increased cross-reactivity against PspAs from different clades and also reflected in cross-protection. In addition, passive immunization experiments indicated that antibodies played an important role in protection in this model. Finally, subcutaneous immunization with a combination of PspA5 with DTP(low protected mice against challenge with two

  1. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009

  2. Interventions to increase influenza vaccination rates in children with high-risk conditions--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigbogun, N W; Hawker, J I; Stewart, A

    2015-02-04

    Influenza is a common cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the elderly and those with certain chronic diseases. Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for individuals in at-risk groups, but rates of vaccination are particularly low in children with high-risk conditions (HRCs). To conduct a systematic review of studies that have examined interventions aimed at improving influenza vaccination in children with HRCs. Two databases - PubMed and SCOPUS - were searched (with no time or language restrictions) using a combination of keywords - Influenza AND vaccination OR immunization OR children AND asthma OR malignancy OR high-risk AND reminder. Duplicates were removed, and abstracts of relevant articles were screened using specific inclusion/exclusion criteria. Thirteen articles were selected, and five additional studies were identified following a review of the reference lists of the initial thirteen articles, bringing the total number to eighteen. Most studies were conducted in the United States. Among the 18 studies, there was one systematic review of a specific intervention in asthmatic children, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), six before-and-after studies, one non-randomized controlled trial, one retrospective cohort study, one quasi-experimental post-test study, and one letter to editors. Interventions reported include multi-component strategies, letter reminders, telephone recall, letters plus telephone calls, an asthma education tool and year-round scheduling for influenza vaccination, amongst others. There is good evidence that reminder letters will improve influenza vaccination uptake in children with HRCs, but the evidence that telephone recall or a combination of letter reminder and telephone recall will improve uptake is weak. It is not known if multiple reminder letters are more effective than single letters or if multi-component strategies are more effective than single or dual component strategies. There is a need for further

  3. Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udani Jay K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabinogalactan from Larch tree (Larix spp. bark has previously demonstrated immunostimulatory activity. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that ingestion of a proprietary arabinogalactan extract, ResistAid™, would selectively enhance the antibody response to the pneumococcal (pneumonia vaccine in healthy adults. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group pilot study included 45 healthy adults who had not previously been vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The volunteers began taking the study product or placebo (daily dosage 4.5 g at the screening visit (V1-Day 0 and continued over the entire 72 day study period. After 30 days the subjects received the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (V2. They were monitored the following day (V3-Day 31, as well as 21 days (V4-Day 51 and 42 days (V5-Day 72 after vaccination. Responses by the adaptive immune system (antigen specific were measured via pneumococcal IgG antibodies (subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F and salivary IgA levels. Responses by the innate immune system (non-specific were measured via white blood cell counts, inflammatory cytokines and the complement system. Results Vaccination significantly increased pneumococcal IgG levels as expected. The arabinogalactan group demonstrated a statistically significant greater IgG antibody response than the placebo group in two antibodies subtypes (18C and 23F at both Day 51 (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002 and at Day 72 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.041. These same subtypes (18C and 23F also demonstrated change scores from baseline which were significant, in favor of the arabinogalactan group, at Day 51 (p = 0.033 and 0.001 and at Day 72 (p = 0.012 and p = 0.003. Change scores from baseline and mean values were greater in the arabinogalactan group than placebo for most time points in antibody subtypes 4, 6B, 9V, and 19F, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. There

  4. Co-Administration of Lipid Nanoparticles and Sub-Unit Vaccine Antigens Is Required for Increase in Antigen-Specific Immune Responses in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Thoryk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A vast body of evidence suggests that nanoparticles function as potent immune-modulatory agents. We have previously shown that Merck proprietary Lipid NanoParticles (LNPs markedly boost B-cell and T-cell responses to sub-unit vaccine antigens in mice. To further evaluate the specifics of vaccine delivery and dosing regimens in vivo, we performed immunogenicity studies in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using two model antigens, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg and Ovalbumin (OVA, respectively. To assess the requirement for co-administration of antigen and LNP for the elicitation of immune responses, we evaluated immune responses after administering antigen and LNP to separate limbs, or administering antigen and LNP to the same limb but separated by 24 h. We also evaluated formulations combining antigen, LNP, and aluminum-based adjuvant amorphous aluminum hydroxylphosphate sulfate (MAA to look for synergistic adjuvant effects. Analyses of antigen-specific B-cell and T-cell responses from immunized mice revealed that the LNPs and antigens must be co-administered—both at the same time and in the same location—in order to boost antigen-specific immune responses. Mixing of antigen with MAA prior to formulation with LNP did not impact the generation of antigen-specific B-cell responses, but drastically reduced the ability of LNPs to boost antigen-specific T-cell responses. Overall, our data demonstrate that the administration of LNPs and vaccine antigen together enables their immune-stimulatory properties.

  5. [Developments in HPV vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melker, Hester; Kenter, Gemma; van Rossum, Tekla; Conyn-van Spaendonck, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been included in the national Vaccination Programme of the Netherlands for 12-year-old girls since 2010. Vaccination coverage for the birth cohort of 1997 was 56.; there is a gradual increase in uptake. Continuous safety monitoring brought no new unknown serious side effects to light; many girls suffered from transient symptoms such as painful arm, fatigue and headache. After the current vaccines that protect against HPV types 2 and 4 types, respectively and induce some cross protection, vaccines are being developed that can induce broader protection. HPV vaccination of 12-year-old girls is cost-effective, even for relatively low vaccination coverage. The potential protection of HPV vaccination extends beyond prevention of cervical cancer by preventing other oncological manifestations of HPV infection in women as well as men and genital warts. The preventive HPV vaccines do not appear to be effective in treating existing abnormalities.

  6. Extremely rapid increase in fatty acid transport and intramyocellular lipid accumulation but markedly delayed insulin resistance after high fat feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonen, Arend; Jain, Swati S; Snook, Laelie A; Han, Xiao-Xia; Yoshida, Yuko; Buddo, Kathryn H; Lally, James S; Pask, Elizabeth D; Paglialunga, Sabina; Beaudoin, Marie-Soleil; Glatz, Jan F C; Luiken, Joost J F P; Harasim, Ewa; Wright, David C; Chabowski, Adrian; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms for diet-induced intramyocellular lipid accumulation and its association with insulin resistance remain contentious. In a detailed time-course study in rats, we examined whether a high-fat diet increased intramyocellular lipid accumulation via alterations in fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36)-mediated fatty acid transport, selected enzymes and/or fatty acid oxidation, and whether intramyocellular lipid accretion coincided with the onset of insulin resistance. We measured, daily (on days 1-7) and/or weekly (for 6 weeks), the diet-induced changes in circulating substrates, insulin, sarcolemmal substrate transporters and transport, selected enzymes, intramyocellular lipids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and basal and insulin-stimulated sarcolemmal GLUT4 and glucose transport. We also examined whether upregulating fatty acid oxidation improved glucose transport in insulin-resistant muscles. Finally, in Cd36-knockout mice, we examined the role of FAT/CD36 in intramyocellular lipid accumulation, insulin sensitivity and diet-induced glucose intolerance. Within 2-3 days, diet-induced increases occurred in insulin, sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 (but not fatty acid binding protein [FABPpm] or fatty acid transporter [FATP]1 or 4), fatty acid transport and intramyocellular triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and ceramide, independent of enzymatic changes or muscle fatty acid oxidation. Diet-induced increases in mitochondria and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and impairments in insulin-stimulated glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation occurred much later (≥21 days). FAT/CD36 ablation impaired insulin-stimulated fatty acid transport and lipid accumulation, improved insulin sensitivity and prevented diet-induced glucose intolerance. Increasing fatty acid oxidation in insulin-resistant muscles improved glucose transport. High-fat feeding rapidly increases intramyocellular lipids (in 2-3 days) via insulin-mediated upregulation of sarcolemmal FAT/CD36 and fatty acid

  7. Loss of BRCA1 or BRCA2 markedly increases the rate of base substitution mutagenesis and has distinct effects on genomic deletions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamborszky, J.; Szikriszt, B.; Gervai, J. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of cancer. Owing to their function in homologous recombination repair, much research has focused on the unstable genomic phenotype of BRCA1/2 mutant cells manifest mainly as large-scale rearrangements. We used whole......-genome sequencing of multiple isogenic chicken DT40 cell clones to precisely determine the consequences of BRCA1/2 loss on all types of genomic mutagenesis. Spontaneous base substitution mutation rates increased sevenfold upon the disruption of either BRCA1 or BRCA2, and the arising mutation spectra showed strong...... and specific correlation with a mutation signature associated with BRCA1/2 mutant tumours. To model endogenous alkylating damage, we determined the mutation spectrum caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and showed that MMS also induces more base substitution mutations in BRCA1/2-deficient cells...

  8. Long-term Temozolomide Treatment Induces Marked Amino Metabolism Modifications and an Increase in TMZ Sensitivity in Hs683 Oligodendroglioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Lamoral-Theys

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomas account for more than 50% of all primary brain tumors. The worst prognosis is associated with gliomas of astrocytic origin, whereas gliomas with an oligodendroglial origin offer higher sensitivity to chemotherapy, especially when oligodendroglioma cells display 1p19q deletions. Temozolomide (TMZ provides therapeutic benefits and is commonly used with radiotherapy in highly malignant astrocytic tumors, including glioblastomas. The actual benefits of TMZ during long-term treatment in oligodendroglioma patients have not yet been clearly defined. In this study, we have investigated the effects of such a long-term TMZ treatment in the unique Hs683 oligodendroglioma model. We have observed increased TMZ sensitivity of Hs683 orthotopic tumors that were previously treated in vitro with months of progressive exposure to increasing TMZ concentrations before being xenografted into the brains of immunocompromised mice. Whole-genome and proteomic analyses have revealed that this increased TMZ sensitivity of Hs683 oligodendroglioma cells previously treated for long periods with TMZ can be explained, at least partly, by a TMZ-induced p38-dependant dormancy state, which in turn resulted in changes in amino acid metabolism balance, in growth delay, and in a decrease in Hs683 oligodendroglioma cell-invasive properties. Thus, long-term TMZ treatment seems beneficial in this Hs683 oligodendroglioma model, which revealed itself unable to develop resistance against TMZ.

  9. The effects of increasing dietary levels of soy protein concentrate (SPC) on the immune responses and disease resistance (furunculosis) of vaccinated and non-vaccinated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metochis, Christoforos P; Spanos, I; Auchinachie, N; Crampton, V O; Bell, J G; Adams, A; Thompson, K D

    2016-12-01

    Juvenile salmon, with an initial weight of 9 g, were fed three experimental diets, formulated to replace 35 (SPC35), 58 (SPC58) and 80 (SPC80) of high quality fishmeal (FM) with soy protein concentrate (SPC) in quadruplicate tanks. Higher dietary SPC inclusion was combined with increased supplementation of methionine, lysine, threonine and phosphorus. The experiment was carried out for 177 days. On day 92 salmon in each tank were bulk weighed. Post weighing eighty salmon from each tank were redistributed in two sets of 12 tanks. Salmon from the first set of tanks were vaccinated, while the second group was injected with phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Salmon were sampled on day 92 (pre-vaccination), day 94 (2 days post vaccination [dpv]/PBS injection [dpPBSinj]) and day 154 (62 dpv/dpPBSinj) of the trial for the assessment of their immune responses, prior to the performance of salmon bulk weights for each tank. On day 154, fish from each tank were again bulk weighed and then seventeen salmon per tank were redistributed in two sets of twelve tanks and intra-peritoneally infected with Aeromonas salmonicida. At Day 154, SPC80 demonstrated lower performance (weight gain, specific growth rate and thermal growth coefficient and feed conversion ratio) compared to SPC35 salmon. Reduced classical and total complement activities for salmon fed diets with over 58% of protein from SPC, were demonstrated prior to vaccination. Reduced alternative complement activity was detected for both SPC58 and SPC80 salmon at 2 dpv and for the SPC80 group at 62 dpv. Total and classical complement activities demonstrated no differences among the dietary groups after vaccination. Numerical increases in classical complement activity were apparent upon increased dietary SPC levels. Increased phagocytic activity (% phagocytosis and phagocytic index) was exhibited for the SPC58 group compared to SPC35 salmon at 62 dpPBSinj. No differences in serum lysozyme activity, total IgM, specific antibodies

  10. Progressive seizure aggravation in the repeated 6-Hz corneal stimulation model is accompanied by marked increase in hippocampal p-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Giordano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 6-Hz corneal stimulation test is used to screen novel antiepileptic molecules to overcome the problem of drug refractoriness. Although recognized as a standard test, it has been evaluated only recently in the attempt to characterize the putative neuronal networks involved in seizures caused by corneal stimulation. In particular, by recording from the CA1 region we previously established that the hippocampus participates to propagation of seizure activity. However, these findings were not corroborated by using markers of neuronal activation such as FosB/ΔFosB antigens. In view of this discrepancy, we performed new experiments to characterize the changes in levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases1/2 (p-ERK1/2, which are also used as markers of neuronal activation. To this aim, mice underwent corneal stimulation up to three different times, in three sessions separated by an interval of three days. To characterize a group in which seizures could be prevented by pharmacological treatment, we also considered pretreatment with the ghrelin receptor antagonist EP-80317 (330 µg/kg. Control mice were sham-treated. Video electrocorticographic recordings were obtained from mice belonging to each group of treatment. Animals were finally used to characterize the immunoreactivity for FosB/ΔFosB and p-ERK1/2 in the hippocampus. As previously shown, FosB/ΔFosB levels were highly increased throughout the hippocampus by the first induced seizure but, in spite of the progressively increased seizure severity, they were restored to control levels after the third stimulation. At variance, corneal stimulation caused a progressive increase in p-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity all over the hippocampus, especially in CA1, peaking in the third session. Predictably, EP-80317 administration reduced both duration and severity of seizures, prevented the increase in FosB/ΔFosB levels in the first session, and partially counteracted the increase in p-ERK1

  11. Increasing a Robust Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response by FMDV DNA Vaccination with IL-9 Expressing Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Various chemokines and cytokines as adjuvants can be used to improve efficacy of DNA vaccination. In this study, we sought to investigate if a DNA construct expressing IL-9 (designed as proV-IL9 as a molecular adjuvant enhance antigen specific immune responses elicited by the pcD-VP1 DNA vaccination. Mice immunized with pcD-VP1 combined with proV-IL9 developed a strong humoral response. In addition, the coinoculation induced significant higher level of antigen-specific cell proliferation and cytotoxic response. This agreed well with higher expression level of IFN-γ and perforin in CD8+ T cells, but not with IL-17 in these T cells. The results indicate that IL-9 induces the development of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc1, but not the IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc17. Up-regulated expressions of BCL-2 and BCL-XL were exhibited in these Tc1 cells, suggesting that IL-9 may trigger antiapoptosis mechanism in these cells. Together, these results demonstrated that IL-9 used as molecular adjuvant could enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccination, in augmenting humoral and cellular responses and particularly promoting Tc1 activations. Thus, the IL-9 may be utilized as a potent Tc1 adjuvant for DNA vaccines.

  12. PD-L1 peptide co-stimulation increases immunogenicity of a dendritic cell-based cancer vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munir Ahmad, Shamaila; Martinenaite, Evelina; Hansen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    -derived epitope. We incubated a PD-L1-derived peptide epitope (19 amino acids long) or a control peptide (an irrelevant HIV epitope) with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with malignant melanoma who had received a DC-based vaccine. We observed a significantly higher number of T cells...

  13. Valiti maailma ilusaim mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Mai algul Nürnbergis toimunud filateelia maailmanäitusel valiti 1997. a. maailma kõige ilusam postmark. Konkursi võitis Ahvenamaa mark "75 aastat Ahvenamaa iseseisvust, II koht ئ Soome mark "Postmargipäev: Aino lugulaul", III ئ Saksamaal Heinrich von Stephani 100. surma-aastapäeva puhul välja antud mark.

  14. Vaccine adjuvants: Why and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dennis

    2016-10-02

    Novel vaccine strategies include the so-called subunit vaccines, which encompass only the part of the pathogen to which immune recognition results in protection. The high purity of these vaccines make adverse events less likely, but it also makes the vaccines less immunogenic and therefore potentially less effective. Vaccine adjuvants that increase and modulate the immunogenicity of the vaccine are therefore added to solve this problem. Besides aluminum salts, which have been used in vaccines for 90 years, a number of novel vaccine adjuvants have been included in licensed vaccines over the last 30 years. Increasing insight into immunological mechanisms and how to manipulate them has replaced empirical with rational design of adjuvants, leading to vaccine adjuvants with increased and customized immunogenicity profiles without compromising vaccine safety.

  15. The induction of colitis and ileitis in mice is associated with marked increases in intestinal concentrations of stimulants of TLRs 2, 4, and 5.

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    Clett Erridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs appear to be modulated by the interaction of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs derived from intestinal bacteria with their respective innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs. We aimed to establish if intestinal concentrations of proinflammatory bacterial ligands of TLR2, TLR4, or TLR5 may be altered in murine IBD models, and to characterize which of the major bacterial groups may contribute to each signal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PAMPs specific for TLR2 (lipopeptide equivalents, TLR4 (lipopolysaccharide equivalents, and TLR5 (flagellin equivalents in human and murine fecal and intestinal samples were quantified using HEK-293 cells transfected with respective TLRs and calibrated with defined standard PAMPs. The induction of colitis in mice by dextran-sodium-sulphate treatment significantly increased colonic lipopeptide (fourfold and LPS equivalent (550-fold concentrations, while flagellin equivalent concentrations remained similar. The induction of ileitis by oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii dramatically increased ileal concentrations of lipopeptide (370-fold, LPS (3,300-fold, and flagellin equivalents (38-fold, all P<0.01. Analysis of representative strains of the major bacterial groups of the human intestine revealed that enterobacterial species are likely to be more significant contributors of soluble TLR2 and TLR4 stimulants to the intestinal milieu than Bacteroides species or Gram-positive Firmicutes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the induction of colitis or ileitis in mice is associated with significant disease-specific alterations to the PAMP profile of the gut microbiota.

  16. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross......-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law....

  17. Global reduction of the epigenetic H3K79 methylation mark and increased chromosomal instability in CALM-AF10-positive leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hui; Kakadia, Purvi M; Chen, Ying; Li, Ya-Qiang; Deshpande, Aniruddha J; Buske, Christian; Zhang, Kang-Ling; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Guo-Liang; Bohlander, Stefan K

    2009-07-16

    Chromosomal translocations generating fusion proteins are frequently found in human leukemias. The fusion proteins play an important role in leukemogenesis by subverting the function of one or both partner proteins. The leukemogenic CALM-AF10 fusion protein is capable of interacting with the histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79)-specific methyltransferase hDOT1L through the fused AF10 moiety. This interaction leads to local H3K79 hypermethylation on Hoxa5 loci, which up-regulates the expression of Hoxa5 and contributes to leukemogenesis. However, the long latency of leukemogenesis of CALM-AF10 transgenic mice suggests that the direct effects of fusion oncogene are not sufficient for the induction of leukemia. In this study, we show that the CALM-AF10 fusion protein can also greatly reduce global H3K79 methylation in both human and murine leukemic cells by disrupting the AF10-mediated association of hDOT1L with chromatin. Cells with reduced H3K79 methylation are more sensitive to gamma-irradiation and display increased chromosomal instability. Consistently, leukemia patients harboring CALM-AF10 fusion have more secondary chromosomal aberrations. These findings suggest that chromosomal instability associated with global epigenetic alteration contributes to malignant transformation in certain leukemias, and that leukemias with this type of epigenetic alteration might benefit from treatment regimens containing DNA-damaging agents. This study is registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00266136.

  18. Oral contraceptives containing ethinyl estradiol and gestodene markedly increase plasma concentrations and effects of tizanidine by inhibiting cytochrome P450 1A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfors, Marika T; Backman, Janne T; Laitila, Jouko; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2005-10-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) can inhibit drug metabolism, but their effect on various cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and drugs can be different. Our objective was to study the effect of combined OCs, containing ethinyl estradiol (INN, ethinylestradiol) and gestodene, on CYP1A2 activity, as well as their interaction potential with tizanidine. In a parallel-group study, 15 healthy women using OCs and 15 healthy women without OCs (control subjects) ingested a single dose of 4 mg tizanidine. Plasma and urine concentrations of tizanidine, as well as several of its metabolites (M-3, M-4, M-5, M-9, and M-10), and pharmacodynamic variables were measured until 24 hours after dosing. As a marker of CYP1A2 activity, an oral caffeine test was performed in both groups. The mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity [AUC0-infinity] of tizanidine was 3.9 times greater (Pgestodene increase, to a clinically significant extent, the plasma concentrations and effects of tizanidine, probably mainly by inhibiting its CYP1A2-mediated presystemic metabolism. Care should be exercised when tizanidine is prescribed to OC users.

  19. Diabetes and hypertension markedly increased the risk of ischemic stroke associated with high serum resistin concentration in a general Japanese population: the Hisayama Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura Ryoichi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance in mice. The relationship between resistin and coronary artery disease is highly controversial, and the information regarding resistin and ischemic stroke is limited. In the present study, the association between serum resistin concentration and cardiovascular disease (CVD was investigated in a general Japanese population. Methods A total of 3,201 community-dwelling individuals aged 40 years or older (1,382 men and 1,819 women were divided into quintiles of serum resistin, and the association between resistin and CVD was examined cross-sectionally. The combined effect of either diabetes or hypertension and high serum resistin was also assessed. Serum resistin was measured using ELISA. Results Compared to those without CVD, age- and sex-adjusted mean serum resistin concentrations were greater in subjects with CVD (p = 0.002 or ischemic stroke (p Conclusion Elevated serum resistin concentration appears to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, especially lacunar and atherothrombotic infarction in the general Japanese population. The combination of high resistin and the presence of either diabetes or hypertension increased the risk of ischemic stroke.

  20. Vaccines against poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  1. Vaccines against poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan

    2014-08-26

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented.

  2. Optimal pandemic influenza vaccine allocation strategies for the Canadian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashleigh R Tuite

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The world is currently confronting the first influenza pandemic of the 21(st century. Influenza vaccination is an effective preventive measure, but the unique epidemiological features of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 (pH1N1 introduce uncertainty as to the best strategy for prioritization of vaccine allocation. We sought to determine optimal prioritization of vaccine distribution among different age and risk groups within the Canadian population, to minimize influenza-attributable morbidity and mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a deterministic, age-structured compartmental model of influenza transmission, with key parameter values estimated from data collected during the initial phase of the epidemic in Ontario, Canada. We examined the effect of different vaccination strategies on attack rates, hospitalizations, intensive care unit admissions, and mortality. In all scenarios, prioritization of high-risk individuals (those with underlying chronic conditions and pregnant women, regardless of age, markedly decreased the frequency of severe outcomes. When individuals with underlying medical conditions were not prioritized and an age group-based approach was used, preferential vaccination of age groups at increased risk of severe outcomes following infection generally resulted in decreased mortality compared to targeting vaccine to age groups with higher transmission, at a cost of higher population-level attack rates. All simulations were sensitive to the timing of the epidemic peak in relation to vaccine availability, with vaccination having the greatest impact when it was implemented well in advance of the epidemic peak. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our model simulations suggest that vaccine should be allocated to high-risk groups, regardless of age, followed by age groups at increased risk of severe outcomes. Vaccination may significantly reduce influenza-attributable morbidity and mortality, but the benefits are

  3. Indoor Air Pollution and Delayed Measles Vaccination Increase the Risk of Severe Pneumonia in Children: Results from a Case-Control Study in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PrayGod, George; Mukerebe, Crispin; Magawa, Ruth; Jeremiah, Kidola; Török, M Estée

    2016-01-01

    Mortality due to severe pneumonia during childhood in resource-constrained settings is high, but data to provide basis for interventions to improve survival are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for severe pneumonia in children aged under five years old in Mwanza, Tanzania. We conducted a case-control study of children aged 2 to 59 months at Sekou-Toure regional hospital in Mwanza City, north-western, Tanzania from May 2013 to March 2014. Cases were children with severe pneumonia and controls were children with other illnesses. Data on demography, social-economical status, nutritional status, environmental factors, vaccination status, vitamin A supplementation and deworming, and nasopharyngeal carriage were collected and analysed using logistic regression. 117 patients were included in the study. Of these, 45 were cases and 72 controls. Cases were younger than controls, but there were no differences in social-economic or nutritional status between the two groups. In multiple regression, we found that an increased risk of severe pneumonia was associated with cooking indoors (OR 5.5, 95% CI: 1.4, 22.1), and delayed measles vaccination (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 14.8). The lack of vitamin A supplementation in the preceding six month and Enterobacter spp nasopharyngeal carriage were not associated with higher risk of severe pneumonia. Age ≥24 months (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.8) and not receiving antibiotics before referral (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9) were associated with lower risk for severe pneumonia. Indoor air pollution and delayed measles vaccination increase the risk for severe pneumonia among children aged below five years. Interventions to reduce indoor air pollution and to promote timely administration of measles vaccination are urgently needed to reduce the burden of severe pneumonia in children in Tanzania.

  4. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  5. Transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1 is an effective target for a breast cancer vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunping; Zhou, He; Mizutani, Masato; Mizutani, Noriko; Reisfeld, Ralph A.; Xiang, Rong

    2003-07-01

    Protection against breast cancer was achieved with a DNA vaccine against murine transcription factor Fos-related antigen 1, which is overexpressed in aggressively proliferating D2F2 murine breast carcinoma. Growth of primary s.c. tumor and dissemination of pulmonary metastases was markedly suppressed by this oral DNA vaccine, carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium, encoding murine Fos-related antigen 1, fused with mutant polyubiquitin, and cotransformed with secretory murine IL-18. The life span of 60% of vaccinated mice was tripled in the absence of detectable tumor growth after lethal tumor cell challenge. Immunological mechanisms involved activation of T, natural killer, and dendritic cells, as indicated by up-regulation of their activation markers and costimulatory molecules. Markedly increased specific target cell lysis was mediated by both MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T cells and natural killer cells isolated from splenocytes of vaccinated mice, including a significant release of proinflammatory cytokines IFN- and IL-2. Importantly, fluorescence analysis of fibroblast growth factor 2 and tumor cell-induced vessel growth in Matrigel plugs demonstrated marked suppression of angiogenesis only in vaccinated animals. Taken together, this multifunctional DNA vaccine proved effective in protecting against growth and metastases of breast cancer by combining the action of immune effector cells with suppression of tumor angiogenesis. vaccine | tumor | metastases | antiangiogenesis

  6. Vaccination coverage among adults, excluding influenza vaccination - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Bridges, Carolyn B; Kim, David K; Pilishvili, Tamara; Hales, Craig M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-02-06

    Vaccinations are recommended throughout life to prevent vaccine-preventable diseases and their sequelae. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains low for most routinely recommended vaccines and below Healthy People 2020 targets. In October 2014, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the adult immunization schedule for 2015. With the exception of influenza vaccination, which is recommended for all adults each year, other adult vaccinations are recommended for specific populations based on a person's age, health conditions, behavioral risk factors (e.g., injection drug use), occupation, travel, and other indications. To assess vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥19 years for selected vaccines, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report highlights results of that analysis for pneumococcal, tetanus toxoid-containing (tetanus and diphtheria vaccine [Td] or tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis vaccine [Tdap]), hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster (shingles), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines by selected characteristics (age, race/ethnicity,† and vaccination indication). Influenza vaccination coverage estimates for the 2013-14 influenza season have been published separately. Compared with 2012, only modest increases occurred in Tdap vaccination among adults aged ≥19 years (a 2.9 percentage point increase to 17.2%), herpes zoster vaccination among adults aged ≥60 years (a 4.1 percentage point increase to 24.2%), and HPV vaccination among males aged 19-26 years (a 3.6 percentage point increase to 5.9%); coverage among adults in the United States for the other vaccines did not improve. Racial/ethnic disparities in coverage persisted for all six vaccines and widened for Tdap and herpes zoster vaccination. Increases in vaccination coverage are needed to reduce the occurrence of vaccine-preventable diseases among adults. Awareness of the need for vaccines for adults is low

  7. Lujan Mark-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocko, Michael Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavorka, Lukas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-13

    This is a review of Mark-IV target neutronics design. It involved the major redesign of the upper tier, offering harder neutron spectra for upper-tier FPs; a redesign of the high-resolution (HR) moderator; and a preservation of the rest of Mark-III features.

  8. Marks, Prof. Tobin J

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2011 Honorary. Marks, Prof. Tobin J. Date of birth: 25 November 1944. Address: Prof. of Materials Sci. & Engg., Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145, Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208, USA Contact: Office: (+1-847) 491 5658. Email: t-marks@northwestern.edu. YouTube; Twitter ...

  9. [Identification from bite marks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, P

    1980-02-01

    Criteria to be considered for establishing the guilt or innocence of a possible offender on the basis of bite marks on the skin of the murder victim were presented using four analyses of bite marks on murder victims. The bite marks must be identifiable; a clear 1:1 photograph should be made which is then compared with impression of a model of the suspect's bite. These impressions are made with graphite on, for example, the surface of a balloon or modelling clay. The evidence provided by a distinct bite mark is almost as conclusive as a fingerprint. Using only the bite mark photographs, the forensic-stomatologic evaluation influenced the course of argumentation in the legal proceedings of three of the four cases discussed; the evaluation was central for the proceedings in one case.

  10. A clinical trial examining the effect of increased total CRM(197) carrier protein dose on the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b CRM(197) conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usonis, Vytautas; Bakasenas, Vytautas; Lockhart, Stephen; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William; Laudat, France

    2008-08-18

    CRM(197) is a carrier protein in certain conjugate vaccines. When multiple conjugate vaccines with the same carrier protein are administered simultaneously, reduced response to vaccines and/or antigens related to the carrier protein may occur. This study examined responses of infants who, in addition to diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) received either diphtheria CRM(197)-based Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (HbOC) or HbOC and a diphtheria CRM(197)-based combination 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine/meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine. Administration of conjugate vaccines with CRM(197) carrier protein load >50 microg did not reduce response to CRM(197) conjugate vaccines or immunogenicity to immunologically cross-reactive diphtheria toxoid.

  11. Parental vaccine concerns in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J; Woods, Charles R; Marshall, Gary S

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of parents are questioning the safety and necessity of routine childhood immunizations. Locally produced vaccine risk communication materials may be effective in reassuring these parents. However, little is known about specific vaccine safety concerns in the state of Kentucky. An Internet-based survey focusing on parental vaccine safety concerns and potential vaccine risk communication strategies was sent to all members of the Kentucky Chapter of the Amerian Academy of Pediatrics. There were 121 respondents who routinely administered childhood vaccines. Of these, 85% reported parental concern about the combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. Concerns about the influenza and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines were also frequent. Of the respondents, 46% noted parental skepticism about all vaccines in general. However, refusal of all vaccines was uncommon in most practices (median 1%, interquartile range 1%-3%). The belief that vaccines cause autism was the most prevalent parental concern, reported by 70% of pediatricians. Physicians also reported that a list of reliable vaccine information Websites and pamphlets addressing common vaccine safety concerns would be the most helpful materials to use during their discussions with concerned parents. These findings suggest that specific information about the MMR, influenza, and HPV vaccines, as well as data refuting the putative link between vaccines and autism would be useful to physicians who administer vaccinations. Respondents were especially interested in reliable vaccine information on the Internet. The Websites listed below offer accurate scientific information about vaccines and the diseases they prevent.

  12. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  13. Vaccinations in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Megan; Rowe, Theresa

    2018-02-01

    Vaccines are important for preventing infections in adults aged ≥65 years. Older adults are at increased risk for complications from vaccine-preventable illnesses due to age-associated changes in immune function and chronic medical comorbidities. Vaccination rates for older adults remain low despite widely accepted practice guidelines. Recommended vaccinations for older adults include (1) influenza; (2) pneumococcal; (3) herpes zoster; (4) tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis; and (5) hepatitis B. Cost influences vaccination rates in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaccinations for the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, Gowrishankar; Biedenbender, Rex; Davidson, Harley Edward; Gravenstein, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Vaccine response declines with age, but currently recommended vaccines are safe and effective in reducing, if not preventing, disease altogether. Over the last decade, advancements in vaccine immunogenicity, either by increasing dose or conjugating vaccines to protein, have resulted in more immunogenic vaccines that also seem more effective in reducing clinical disease both for influenza and pneumococcus. Meanwhile, there is a resurgence in incident pertussis, exceeding prevalence from five decades ago, adding older adults to a recommended target vaccination group. This article discusses currently available vaccines, in the context of current epidemiology and recommendations, for older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  16. Prosodic focus marking in Bai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.Z.H.; Chen, A.; Van de Velde, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates prosodic marking of focus in Bai, a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in the Southwest of China, by adopting a semi-spontaneous experimental approach. Our data show that Bai speakers increase the duration of the focused constituent and reduce the duration of the post-focus

  17. Minnesota Local Agency Pavement Marking : Mining Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Pavement marking is important for safety. Maximizing pavement marking performance in terms of increased retroreflectivity, within limited budget constraints, allows agencies to make better decisions toward providing more effective pavement marking pe...

  18. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  19. Use of MenACWY-CRM vaccine in children aged 2 through 23 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jessica R; Rubin, Lorry; McNamara, Lucy; Briere, Elizabeth C; Clark, Thomas A; Cohn, Amanda C

    2014-06-20

    During its October 2013 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended use of a third meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, Novartis), as an additional option for vaccinating infants aged 2 through 23 months at increased risk for meningococcal disease. MenACWY-CRM is the first quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine licensed for use in children aged 2 through 8 months. MenACWY-D (Menactra, Sanofi Pasteur) is recommended for use in children aged 9 through 23 months who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease, and Hib-MenCY-TT (MenHibrix, GlaxoSmithKline) is recommended for use in children aged 6 weeks through 18 months at increased risk. This report summarizes information on MenACWY-CRM administration in infants and provides recommendations for vaccine use in infants aged 2 through 23 months who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease. Because the burden of meningococcal disease in infants is low in the United States and the majority of cases that do occur are caused by serogroup B, which is not included in any vaccine licensed in the United States, only those infants who are at increased risk for meningococcal disease are recommended to receive a meningococcal vaccine.

  20. Marks of Metal Copenhell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet.......Planchebaseret udendørs udstilling på musikfestivalen Copenhell 18-20/6 2015. En mindre udgave af udstillingen Marks of Metal - Logodesign og visualitet i heavy metal. Udarbejdet i samarbejde med Mediemuseet....

  1. Bite Mark Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SK Padmakumar; VT Beena; N Salmanulfaris; Ashith B Acharya; G Indu; Sajai J Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the in...

  2. COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de protection des biens

    2000-01-01

    As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

  3. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borràs Eva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.

  4. Validity of vaccination cards and parental recall to estimate vaccination coverage: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Melody; Ryman, Tove K; Dietz, Vance; Zell, Elizabeth; Luman, Elizabeth T

    2013-03-15

    Immunization programs frequently rely on household vaccination cards, parental recall, or both to calculate vaccination coverage. This information is used at both the global and national level for planning and allocating performance-based funds. However, the validity of household-derived coverage sources has not yet been widely assessed or discussed. To advance knowledge on the validity of different sources of immunization coverage, we undertook a global review of literature. We assessed concordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and coverage percentage point difference when subtracting household vaccination source from a medical provider source. Median coverage difference per paper ranged from -61 to +1 percentage points between card versus provider sources and -58 to +45 percentage points between recall versus provider source. When card and recall sources were combined, median coverage difference ranged from -40 to +56 percentage points. Overall, concordance, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value showed poor agreement, providing evidence that household vaccination information may not be reliable, and should be interpreted with care. While only 5 papers (11%) included in this review were from low-middle income countries, low-middle income countries often rely more heavily on household vaccination information for decision making. Recommended actions include strengthening quality of child-level data and increasing investments to improve vaccination card availability and card marking. There is also an urgent need for additional validation studies of vaccine coverage in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Human T cell responses induced by vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, P; Boesen, H; Pedersen, B K

    1997-01-01

    depending on the prevaccination sensitivity to PPD. Previously sensitized donors mounted a potent and highly accelerated recall response within the first week of BCG vaccination. Nonsensitized donors, in contrast, exhibited a gradually increasing responsiveness to mycobacterial Ags, reaching maximal levels......Many aspects of the widely used bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis are still the subject of controversy. There is a huge variation in efficacy from one clinical trial to another and no relationship between vaccine-induced skin test conversion and subsequent protection. We...... have studied in vitro cell-mediated immune responses primed by BCG vaccination in 22 healthy Danish donors with different levels of in vitro purified protein derivative (PPD) reactivity before vaccination. The study demonstrated a markedly different development of reactivity to mycobacterial Ags...

  6. The Mark 5C VLBI Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Alan; Ruszczyk, Chester; Romney, Jon; Owens, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The Mark 5C disk-based VLBI data system is being developed as the third-generation Mark 5 disk-based system, increasing the sustained data-recording rate capability to 4 Gbps. It is built on the same basic platform as the Mark 5A, Mark 5B and Mark 5B+ systems and will use the same 8-disk modules as earlier Mark 5 systems, although two 8-disk modules will be necessary to support the 4 Gbps rate. Unlike its earlier brethren, which use proprietary data interfaces, the Mark 5C will accept data from a standard 10 Gigabit Ethernet connection and be compatible with the emerging VLBI Data Interchange Format (VDIF) standard. Data sources for the Mark 5C system will be based on new digital backends now being developed, specifically the RDBE in the U.S. and the dBBC in Europe, as well as others. The Mark 5C system is being planned for use with the VLBI2010 system and will also be used by NRAO as part of the VLBA sensitivity upgrade program; it will also be available to the global VLBI community from Conduant. Mark 5C system specification and development is supported by Haystack Observatory, NRAO, and Conduant Corporation. Prototype Mark 5C systems are expected in early 2010.

  7. Combined Stimulation of IL-2 and 4-1BB Receptors Augments the Antitumor Activity of E7 DNA Vaccines by Increasing Ag-Specific CTL Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha; Kwon, Byungsuk; Sin, Jeong-Im

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer. Here, we investigate whether concurrent therapy using HPV E7 DNA vaccines (pE7) plus IL-2 vs. IL-15 cDNA and anti-4-1BB Abs might augment antitumor activity against established tumors. IL-2 cDNA was slightly better than IL-15 cDNA as a pE7 adjuvant. Co-delivery of pE7+IL-2 cDNA increased tumor cure rates from 7% to 27%, whereas co-delivery of pE7+IL-2 cDNA with anti-4-1BB Abs increased tumor cure rates from 27% to 67% and elicited long-term memory responses. This increased activity was concomitant with increased induction of Ag-specific CTL activity and IFN-γ responses, but not with Ag-specific IgG production. Moreover, the combined stimulation of IL-2 and 4-1BB receptors with rIL-2 and anti-4-1BB Abs resulted in enhanced production of IFN-γ from Ag-specific CD8+ T cells. However, this effect was abolished by treatment with anti-IL-2 Abs and 4-1BB-Fc, suggesting that the observed effect was IL-2- and anti-4-1BB Ab-specific. A similar result was also obtained for Ag-specific CTL activity. Thus, these studies demonstrate that combined stimulation through the IL-2 and 4-1BB receptors augments the Ag-specific CD8+ CTL responses induced by pE7, increasing tumor cure rates and long-term antitumor immune memory. These findings may have implications for the design of DNA-based therapeutic vaccines against cancer. PMID:24391824

  8. Augmented marked graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, King Sing

    2014-01-01

    Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume

  9. Laser vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797

  10. The incidence of varicella and herpes zoster in Massachusetts as measured by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS during a period of increasing varicella vaccine coverage, 1998–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clements Karen M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The authors sought to monitor the impact of widespread varicella vaccination on the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. While varicella incidence would be expected to decrease, mathematical models predict an initial increase in herpes zoster incidence if re-exposure to varicella protects against reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. Methods In 1998–2003, as varicella vaccine uptake increased, incidence of varicella and herpes zoster in Massachusetts was monitored using the random-digit-dial Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Results Between 1998 and 2003, varicella incidence declined from 16.5/1,000 to 3.5/1,000 (79% overall with ≥66% decreases for all age groups except adults (27% decrease. Age-standardized estimates of overall herpes zoster occurrence increased from 2.77/1,000 to 5.25/1,000 (90% in the period 1999–2003, and the trend in both crude and adjusted rates was highly significant (p Conclusion As varicella vaccine coverage in children increased, the incidence of varicella decreased and the occurrence of herpes zoster increased. If the observed increase in herpes zoster incidence is real, widespread vaccination of children is only one of several possible explanations. Further studies are needed to understand secular trends in herpes zoster before and after use of varicella vaccine in the United States and other countries.

  11. Co-administration of plasmid-encoded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor increases human immunodeficiency virus-1 DNA vaccine-induced polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Canato Santana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available T-cell based vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV generate specific responses that may limit both transmission and disease progression by controlling viral load. Broad, polyfunctional, and cytotoxic CD4+ T-cell responses have been associated with control of simian immunodeficiency virus/HIV-1 replication, supporting the inclusion of CD4+ T-cell epitopes in vaccine formulations. Plasmid-encoded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (pGM-CSF co-administration has been shown to induce potent CD4+ T-cell responses and to promote accelerated priming and increased migration of antigen-specific CD4+ T-cells. However, no study has shown whether co-immunisation with pGM-CSF enhances the number of vaccine-induced polyfunctional CD4+ T-cells. Our group has previously developed a DNA vaccine encoding conserved, multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR binding HIV-1 subtype B peptides, which elicited broad, polyfunctional and long-lived CD4+ T-cell responses. Here, we show that pGM-CSF co-immunisation improved both magnitude and quality of vaccine-induced T-cell responses, particularly by increasing proliferating CD4+ T-cells that produce simultaneously interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2. Thus, we believe that the use of pGM-CSF may be helpful for vaccine strategies focused on the activation of anti-HIV CD4+ T-cell immunity.

  12. Co-administration of plasmid-encoded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor increases human immunodeficiency virus-1 DNA vaccine-induced polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Vinicius Canato; Almeida, Rafael Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Susan Pereira; Ferreira, Luís Carlos de Souza; Kalil, Jorge; Rosa, Daniela Santoro; Cunha-Neto, Edecio

    2015-12-01

    T-cell based vaccines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) generate specific responses that may limit both transmission and disease progression by controlling viral load. Broad, polyfunctional, and cytotoxic CD4+T-cell responses have been associated with control of simian immunodeficiency virus/HIV-1 replication, supporting the inclusion of CD4+ T-cell epitopes in vaccine formulations. Plasmid-encoded granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (pGM-CSF) co-administration has been shown to induce potent CD4+ T-cell responses and to promote accelerated priming and increased migration of antigen-specific CD4+ T-cells. However, no study has shown whether co-immunisation with pGM-CSF enhances the number of vaccine-induced polyfunctional CD4+ T-cells. Our group has previously developed a DNA vaccine encoding conserved, multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR binding HIV-1 subtype B peptides, which elicited broad, polyfunctional and long-lived CD4+ T-cell responses. Here, we show that pGM-CSF co-immunisation improved both magnitude and quality of vaccine-induced T-cell responses, particularly by increasing proliferating CD4+ T-cells that produce simultaneously interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2. Thus, we believe that the use of pGM-CSF may be helpful for vaccine strategies focused on the activation of anti-HIV CD4+ T-cell immunity.

  13. Using formative evaluation in an implementation project to increase vaccination rates in high-risk veterans: QUERI Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legro Marcia W

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of research into practice in health care systems is a challenging and often unsuccessful endeavor. The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI research teams include formative evaluations (FE in their action-oriented VA implementation projects to identify critical information about the processes of implementation that can guide adjustments to project activities, in order to better meet project goals. This article describes the development and use of FE in an action-oriented implementation research project. Methods This two-year action-oriented implementation research project was conducted at 23 VA Spinal Cord Injury (SCI Centers, and targeted patients, staff and the system of care, such as administration and information technology. Data for FE were collected by electronic and paper surveys, semi-structured and open-ended interviews, notes during conference calls, and exchange of e-mail messages. Specific questions were developed for each intervention (designed to improve vaccination rates for influenza in veterans with spinal cord injury and disorder; informants were selected for their knowledge of interventions and their use in SCI Centers. Results Data from FE were compiled separately for each intervention to describe barriers to progress and guide adjustments to implementation activities. These data addressed the processes of implementing the interventions, problem-solving activities and the status of interventions at SCI Centers. Conclusion Formative evaluations provided the project team with a broad view of the processes of implementing multi-targeted interventions as well as the evolving status of the related best practice. Using FE was useful, although the challenges of conducting FE for non-field researchers should be addressed. Work is needed to develop methods for conducting FE across multiple sites, as well as acknowledging variations in local

  14. Monoclonal Antibody against G Glycoprotein Increases Respiratory Syncytial Virus Clearance In Vivo and Prevents Vaccine-Enhanced Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jeong Lee

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a common cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants, young children, and the elderly. The G glycoprotein plays a role in host cell attachment and also modulates the host immune response, thereby inducing disease pathogenesis. We generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; 5H6 and 3A5 against G protein core fragment (Gcf, which consisted of amino acid residues 131 to 230 from RSV A2 G protein. Epitope mapping study revealed that 5H6 specifically binds to the G/164-176 peptide that includes conserved sequences shared by both RSV A and B subtypes, and 3A5 binds to the G/190-204 peptide. Studies with mutant Gcf proteins in which cysteine residues were substituted with alanine revealed that 5H6 requires four cysteines for binding and 3A5 binds to Gcf variants with alanine substitutions better than wild-type. To determine if these mAbs reduce pulmonary viral infection, BALB/c mice were administered mAb and subsequently challenged with RSV. On day 4 post-infection, lung viral titers were reduced by up to 93% with the 5H6 injection and 90% with the 3A5 injection, indicating that prophylactic injection of these mAbs contributes to RSV clearance in vivo. Importantly, 5H6 injection reduced vaccine-enhanced diseases. Overall, our results suggest that this novel anti-G mAb could be used as a prophylactic regimen against RSV diseases.

  15. Airbag bounce marks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Looking east from the lander, the last few bounce marks as Pathfinder rolled to a stop on July 4 are visible in the soil in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The two most distant marks, identified by pointers in the image, consist of dark patches of disturbed soil. The three closest marks are clearly visible in the foreground, with one easily identifiable behind the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast, is at right. The most distant positively identified bounce mark, indicated by the pointer at right, is approximately 11.3 meters (37 feet) from the lander.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  16. Is diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) associated with increased female mortality? A meta-analysis testing the hypotheses of sex-differential non-specific effects of DTP vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Fisker, Ane B; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Benn, Christine S

    2016-12-01

    Ten years ago, we formulated two hypotheses about whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination: first, when given after BCG, DTP increases mortality in girls and, second, following DTP there is an increase in the female/male mortality rate ratio (MRR). A recent review by WHO found no convincing evidence that DTP increases mortality in females. We used previous DTP reviews as well as the recent WHO review for assessing the hypotheses. As pre-specified we excluded studies with survival or frailty bias; if children had received BCG and DTP simultaneously; and if the children had received neonatal vitamin A. In seven studies of BCG-vaccinated children, DTP vaccination was associated with a 2.54 (95% CI 1.68-3.86) increase in mortality in girls (with no increase in boys [ratio 0.96, 0.55-1.68]). In 10 studies of BCG-vaccinated children, the female-to-male mortality ratio was 2.45 (1.48-4.06) times higher after DTP than before DTP. In 15 studies of children who had received DTP after previous BCG vaccination, mortality was 1.53 (1.21-1.93) times higher in girls than boys. The findings were similar in studies conducted before and after formulation of the hypotheses. The two hypotheses were confirmed in the studies that fulfilled pre-specified criteria. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Probiotics, antibiotics and the immune responses to vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharaj, Ira; John, Sushil M.; Bandyopadhyay, Rini; Kang, Gagandeep

    2015-01-01

    Orally delivered vaccines have been shown to perform poorly in developing countries. There are marked differences in the structure and the luminal environment of the gut in developing countries resulting in changes in immune and barrier function. Recent studies using newly developed technology and analytic methods have made it increasingly clear that the intestinal microbiota activate a multitude of pathways that control innate and adaptive immunity in the gut. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the underperformance of oral vaccines in developing countries, and modulation of the intestinal microbiota is now being tested in human clinical trials. Supplementation with specific strains of probiotics has been shown to have modulatory effects on intestinal and systemic immune responses in animal models and forms the basis for human studies with vaccines. However, most studies published so far that have evaluated the immune response to vaccines in children and adults have been small and results have varied by age, antigen, type of antibody response and probiotic strain. Use of anthelminthic drugs in children has been shown to possibly increase immunogenicity following oral cholera vaccination, lending further support to the rationale for modulation of the immune response to oral vaccination through the intestinal microbiome. PMID:25964456

  18. Probiotics, antibiotics and the immune responses to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharaj, Ira; John, Sushil M; Bandyopadhyay, Rini; Kang, Gagandeep

    2015-06-19

    Orally delivered vaccines have been shown to perform poorly in developing countries. There are marked differences in the structure and the luminal environment of the gut in developing countries resulting in changes in immune and barrier function. Recent studies using newly developed technology and analytic methods have made it increasingly clear that the intestinal microbiota activate a multitude of pathways that control innate and adaptive immunity in the gut. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the underperformance of oral vaccines in developing countries, and modulation of the intestinal microbiota is now being tested in human clinical trials. Supplementation with specific strains of probiotics has been shown to have modulatory effects on intestinal and systemic immune responses in animal models and forms the basis for human studies with vaccines. However, most studies published so far that have evaluated the immune response to vaccines in children and adults have been small and results have varied by age, antigen, type of antibody response and probiotic strain. Use of anthelminthic drugs in children has been shown to possibly increase immunogenicity following oral cholera vaccination, lending further support to the rationale for modulation of the immune response to oral vaccination through the intestinal microbiome. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Incompatibility of lyophilized inactivated polio vaccine with liquid pentavalent whole-cell-pertussis-containing vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, H.; Have, Ten R.; Maas, van der L.; Kersten, G.F.A.; Amorij, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    A hexavalent vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, whole cell pertussis, Haemophilius influenza type B, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may: (i) increase the efficiency of vaccination campaigns, (ii) reduce the number of injections thereby reducing needlestick

  20. Mannan-Abeta28 conjugate prevents Abeta-plaque deposition, but increases microhemorrhages in the brains of vaccinated Tg2576 (APPsw mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapetyan Adrine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New pre-clinical trials in AD mouse models may help to develop novel immunogen-adjuvant configurations with the potential to avoid the adverse responses that occurred during the clinical trials with AN-1792 vaccine formulation. Recently, we have pursued an alternative immunization strategy that replaces QS21 the Th1 type adjuvant used in the AN-1792 clinical trial with a molecular adjuvant, mannan that can promote a Th2-polarized immune response through interactions with mannose-binding and CD35/CD21 receptors of the innate immune system. Previously we established that immunization of wild-type mice with mannan-Aβ28 conjugate promoted Th2-mediated humoral and cellular immune responses. In the current study, we tested the efficacy of this vaccine configuration in amyloid precursor protein (APP transgenic mice (Tg2576. Methods Mannan was purified, activated and chemically conjugated to Aβ28 peptide. Humoral immune responses induced by the immunization of mice with mannan-Aβ28 conjugate were analyzed using a standard ELISA. Aβ42 and Aβ40 amyloid burden, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA, astrocytosis, and microgliosis in the brain of immunized and control mice were detected using immunohistochemistry. Additionally, cored plaques and cerebral vascular microhemorrhages in the brains of vaccinated mice were detected by standard histochemistry. Results Immunizations with low doses of mannan-Aβ28 induced potent and long-lasting anti-Aβ humoral responses in Tg2576 mice. Even 11 months after the last injection, the immunized mice were still producing low levels of anti-Aβ antibodies, predominantly of the IgG1 isotype, indicative of a Th2 immune response. Vaccination with mannan-Aβ28 prevented Aβ plaque deposition, but unexpectedly increased the level of microhemorrhages in the brains of aged immunized mice compared to two groups of control animals of the same age either injected with molecular adjuvant fused with an irrelevant

  1. Xenogeneic cell-based vaccine therapy for colorectal cancer: Safety, association of clinical effects with vaccine-induced immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seledtsova, G V; Shishkov, A A; Kaschenko, E A; Seledtsov, V I

    2016-10-01

    An accumulating body of evidence suggests that xenogeneic vaccines can be very effective in breaking the immune tolerance to human tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). We assessed adverse effects, as well as clinical and immune responses induced by a lyophilized xenogeneic polyantigenic vaccine (XPV) prepared from murine melanoma B16 and carcinoma LLC cells in 60 stage IV colorectal cancer patients. Neither grade III/IV toxicities, nor laboratory and clinical signs of systemic severe autoimmune disorders were documented in any XPV-treated patient. Clinical effects of various grades (complete response, partial response and disease stabilization) with duration of no shorter than 6 months was observed in 25 (41.67%) vaccinated patients. The average survival time of the XPV-treated patients was markedly longer than that of the clinically matched control patients (20 vs. 7 months). The overall 3-year survival rate in the XPV-treated and control group was 16.7% (10 patients) and 0%, respectively. Following a course of ten XPV vaccinations, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assays revealed increased T-cell immune responses to human Caco-2 colon adenocarcinoma-associated antigens. In addition, relative contents of CD25+ FoxP3+regulatory T-cells in patients with proven immunotherapy-mediated clinical effects (responders) were significantly decreased in the blood, which was paralleled by marked increases in serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-alpha (IFN-α), IFN-ɣ, and interleukin-8 (IL-8). Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-4, and IL-6 were not affected in both responder and non-responder patients. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the safety, clinical feasibility and immunogenicity of xenogeneic composite cell vaccine administration in colorectal cancer patients. This is the first demonstration that clinical effects of such a vaccine are associated with vaccine-induced, proinflammatory

  2. Effect of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage by respiratory pathogens among Greenlandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navne, Johan Emdal; Koch, Anders; Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2010, Greenland introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar 13®- PCV-13) in the childhood immunisation program. The authors aimed to evaluate the impact of PCV-13 on nasopharyngeal carriage of bacteria frequently associated with respiratory infections in children....... Overall carriage rate of S. pneumoniae remained unchanged from 2011 to 2013 (51% and 56%, p=0.13), but significant serotype shifts were observed among both vaccinated and unvaccinated children with marked reductions in carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci, counterbalanced by increasing carriage of non-vaccine...... types. Carriage rate of S. aureus decreased significantly among vaccinated children whereas that of M. catarrhalis increased. CONCLUSION: PCV-13 introduction in Greenland is associated with significant changes in nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage. Continued surveillance is warranted to clarify whether...

  3. LBSapSal-vaccinated dogs exhibit increased circulating T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) as well as a reduction of parasitism after challenge with Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland of Lutzomyia longipalpis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of a protective vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is an alternative approach for interrupting the domestic cycle of Leishmania infantum. Given the importance of sand fly salivary proteins as potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in the last few decades. In this context, we previously immunized dogs with a vaccine composed of L. braziliensis antigens plus saponin as the adjuvant and sand fly salivary gland extract (LBSapSal vaccine). This vaccine elicited an increase in both anti-saliva and anti-Leishmania IgG isotypes, higher counts of specific circulating CD8+ T cells, and high NO production. Methods We investigated the immunogenicity and protective effect of LBSapSal vaccination after intradermal challenge with 1 × 107 late-log-phase L. infantum promastigotes in the presence of sand fly saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis. The dogs were followed for up to 885 days after challenge. Results The LBSapSal vaccine presents extensive antigenic diversity with persistent humoral and cellular immune responses, indicating resistance against CVL is triggered by high levels of total IgG and its subtypes (IgG1 and IgG2); expansion of circulating CD5+, CD4+, and CD8+ T lymphocytes and is Leishmania-specific; and reduction of splenic parasite load. Conclusions These results encourage further study of vaccine strategies addressing Leishmania antigens in combination with proteins present in the saliva of the vector. PMID:24507702

  4. Increased level of protection of respiratory tract and kidney by combining different infectious bronchitis virus vaccines against challenge with nephropathogenic Brazilian genotype subcluster 4 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wit, J J; Brandao, P; Torres, C A; Koopman, R; Villarreal, L Y

    2015-10-01

    Genotyping of seven infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains isolated in Brazil showed that all belonged to the common Brazilian genotype and that these strains were closest to the subcluster of strain IBV/Brazil/2007/USP-19. Pathotyping of four selected Brazilian strains showed that they all caused a considerable level of ciliostasis in the trachea but at a somewhat lower level than did M41 and Brazilian strains 50/96, 57/96, 62/96 and 64/96 representing four different serotypes that had been reported earlier. In contrast to the M41 challenge strain, all Brazilian isolates replicated in kidney tissue in a high percentage of non-vaccinated challenged birds, clearly showing that they are nephropathogenic. As for the tracheal protection, the results using Massachusetts (Mass) vaccination against the recent strains seemed to show protection higher on average than for the strains reported earlier. A single or twofold vaccination with a Mass vaccine resulted in a mean tracheal protection level against the four challenge strains of 92% and 90%, respectively, whereas a single and twofold vaccination with a Mass vaccine halved the percentage of infected kidneys (14% and 13%, respectively, P protection of 99% and a reduction of the percentage of infected kidneys to a mean of 2%. This was a significantly (P protection than that achieved by a single or twofold Mass vaccination, showing the added value of the 793B vaccination following priming with a vaccine of the Mass type.

  5. Interview with Mark Watson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Shaw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mark Watson is a British comedian and novelist. His five novels to date – 'Bullet Points' (2004, 'A Light-Hearted Look At Murder' (2007, 'Eleven' (2010, 'The Knot' (2012 and 'Hotel Alpha' (2014 – explore human relationships and communities in contemporary society. His latest novel Hotel Alpha tells the story of an extraordinary hotel in London and two mysterious disappearances that raise questions no one seems willing to answer. External to the novel, readers can also discover more about the hotel and its inhabitants in one hundred extra stories that expand the world of the novel and can be found at http://www.hotelalphastories.com. In conversation here with Dr Katy Shaw, Mark offers some reflections on his writing process, the field of contemporary literature, and the vitality of the novel form in the twenty-first century.

  6. Epilepsy and vaccinations: Italian guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruna, Dario; Balestri, Paolo; Zamponi, Nelia; Grosso, Salvatore; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Franzoni, Emilio; Osti, Maria; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Longhi, Riccardo; Verrotti, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Reports of childhood epilepsies in temporal association with vaccination have had a great impact on the acceptance of vaccination programs by health care providers, but little is known about this possible temporal association and about the types of seizures following vaccinations. For these reasons the Italian League Against Epilepsy (LICE), in collaboration with other Italian scientific societies, has decided to generate Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy. The aim of Guidelines on Vaccinations and Epilepsy is to present recent unequivocal evidence from published reports on the possible relationship between vaccines and epilepsy in order to provide information about contraindications and risks of vaccinations in patients with epilepsy. The following main issues have been addressed: (1) whether contraindications to vaccinations exist in patients with febrile convulsions, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies; and (2) whether any vaccinations can cause febrile seizures, epilepsy, and/or epileptic encephalopathies. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination (MMR) increase significantly the risk of febrile seizures. Recent observations and data about the relationships between vaccination and epileptic encephalopathy show that some cases of apparent vaccine-induced encephalopathy could in fact be caused by an inherent genetic defect with no causal relationship with vaccination. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Increase in viral yield in eggs and MDCK cells of reassortant H5N1 vaccine candidate viruses caused by insertion of 38 amino acids into the NA stalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Xue, Tao; Wu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Pinghu; Zhao, Guo; Peng, Daxing; Hu, Shunlin; Wang, Xiaoquan; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Xiufan

    2011-10-19

    The H5N1 subtype of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses has spread to over 63 countries in Asia, Europe, and Africa and has become endemic in poultry. Since 2004, vaccination against H5N1 influenza has become common in domestic poultry operations in China. Most influenza vaccines have been produced in embryonated chicken eggs. High yield is the essential feature of a good vaccine candidate virus. Therefore, the large-scale manufacture of such a vaccine requires that the viral yield of H5N1 reassortant vaccine viruses in eggs and MDCK cells be increased. We generated two sets of reassortant H5N1 viruses based on backbone viruses A/Chicken/F/98 (H9N2) and A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1) using reverse genetics. The HAs and NAs of the reassortants were derived from the three epidemic H5N1 strains found in China. We compared the replication properties of these recombinant H5N1 viruses in embryonated chicken eggs and MDCK cells after inserting either 20 or 38 amino acids into their NA stalks. In this study, we demonstrated that inserting 38 amino acids into the NA stalks can significantly increase the viral yield of H5N1 reassortant viruses in both embryonated chicken eggs and MDCK cells, while inserting only 20 amino acids into the same NA stalks does not. Hemagglutinin inhibition testing and protection assays indicated that recombinant H5N1 viruses with 38 aa inserted into their NA stalks had the same antigenicity as the viruses with wt-NA. These results suggest that the generation of an H5N1 recombinant vaccine seed by the insertion of 38 aa into the NA stalk may be a suitable and more economical strategy for the increase in viral yield in both eggs and MDCK cells for the purposes of vaccine production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Telicity marking in Hungarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kardos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the encoding of telicity in Hungarian. While proposing a mereological, scalar semantic analysis, it shows that Hungarian uses a telicity-marking strategy in which it contrasts with English, where telicity is not the direct consequence of an overt marker but arises as a cumulative effect of specific, well-definable properties of various components of verbal predicates including the head verb and its argument(s. A major contribution of the analysis, which mainly addresses telicity marking in the class of non-creation/non-consumption predicates in neutral sentences, lies in the fact that it reveals important cross-linguistic differences with respect to the aspectual role of verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions and the referential properties of telic verbal predicates. As for the former, it is demonstrated that Hungarian verbal particles and resultative/locative expressions mark telicity by directly placing bounds on events by virtue of serving an event maximalizing function, whereas the English counterparts of these elements do not have such direct event-bounding effects. As for the latter, it emerges that in Hungarian quantized reference is a necessary and sufficient condition for telicity in cases where in English it is only sufficient.

  9. vaccination using profilin and NetB proteins in Montanide IMS adjuvant increases protective immunity against experimentally-induced necrotic enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Soon Lillehoj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The effects of vaccinating 18-day-old chicken embryos with the combination of recombinant Eimeria profilin plus Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens NetB proteins mixed in the Montanide IMS adjuvant on the chicken immune response to necrotic enteritis (NE were investigated using an Eimeria maxima (E. maxima/C. perfringens co-infection NE disease model that we previously developed. Methods Eighteen-day-old broiler embryos were injected with 100 μL of phosphate-buffered saline, profilin, profilin plus necrotic enteritis B-like (NetB, profilin plus NetB/Montanide adjuvant (IMS 106, and profilin plus Net-B/Montanide adjuvant (IMS 101. After post-hatch birds were challenged with our NE experimental disease model, body weights, intestinal lesions, serum antibody levels to NetB, and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA levels in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes were measured. Results Chickens in ovo vaccinated with recombinant profilin plus NetB proteins/IMS106 and recombinant profilin plus NetB proteins/IMS101 showed significantly increased body weight gains and reduced gut damages compared with the profilin-only group, respectively. Greater antibody response to NetB toxin were observed in the profilin plus NetB/IMS 106, and profilin plus NetB/IMS 101 groups compared with the other three vaccine/adjuvant groups. Finally, diminished levels of transcripts encoding for proinflammatory cytokines such as lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor, tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15, and interleukin-8 were observed in the intestinal lymphocytes of chickens in ovo injected with profilin plus NetB toxin in combination with IMS 106, and profilin plus NetB toxin in combination with IMS 101 compared with profilin protein alone bird. Conclusion These results suggest that the Montanide IMS adjuvants potentiate host immunity to experimentally-induced avian NE when administered in ovo in conjunction with the profilin and

  10. How influenza vaccination policy may affect vaccine logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Brown, Shawn T; Welling, Joel S; Norman, Bryan A; Connor, Diana L; Chen, Sheng-I; Slayton, Rachel B; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Wateska, Angela R; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Lee, Bruce Y

    2012-06-22

    When policymakers make decision about the target populations and timing of influenza vaccination, they may not consider the impact on the vaccine supply chains, which may in turn affect vaccine availability. Our goal is to explore the effects on the Thailand vaccine supply chain of introducing influenza vaccines and varying the target populations and immunization time-frames. We Utilized our custom-designed software HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains), we developed a detailed, computational discrete-event simulation model of the Thailand's National Immunization Program (NIP) supply chain in Trang Province, Thailand. A suite of experiments simulated introducing influenza vaccines for different target populations and over different time-frames prior to and during the annual influenza season. Introducing influenza vaccines creates bottlenecks that reduce the availability of both influenza vaccines as well as the other NIP vaccines, with provincial to district transport capacity being the primary constraint. Even covering only 25% of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice-recommended population while administering the vaccine over six months hinders overall vaccine availability so that only 62% of arriving patients can receive vaccines. Increasing the target population from 25% to 100% progressively worsens these bottlenecks, while increasing influenza vaccination time-frame from 1 to 6 months decreases these bottlenecks. Since the choice of target populations for influenza vaccination and the time-frame to deliver this vaccine can substantially affect the flow of all vaccines, policy-makers may want to consider supply chain effects when choosing target populations for a vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polio Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctorMost kids have no problems with the polio vaccine. However, call your doctor if your child has any reaction after getting the vaccine. Call ... Tell the doctor when (day and time) your child received the vaccine. You also should file a Vaccine Adverse Event ...

  12. Vaccination against Lyme disease: Are we ready for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem

    2016-03-03

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern hemisphere and is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. A first sign of Borrelia infection is a circular skin rash, erythema migrans, but it can develop to more serious manifestations affecting skin, nervous system, joints, and/or heart. The marked increase in Lyme disease incidence over the past decades, the severity of the disease, and the associated high medical costs of, in particular, the persistent forms of Lyme disease requires adequate measures for control. Vaccination would be the most effective intervention for prevention, but at present no vaccine is available. In the 1990s, 2 vaccines against Lyme disease based on the OspA protein from the predominant Borrelia species of the US showed to be safe and effective in clinical phase III studies. However, failed public acceptance led to the demise of these monovalent OspA-based vaccines. Nowadays, public seem to be more aware of the serious health problems that Lyme disease can cause and seem more ready for the use of a broadly protective vaccine. This article discusses several aspects that should be considered to enable the development and implementation of a vaccine to prevent Lyme disease successfully.

  13. Vaccination against Lyme disease: Are we ready for it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne illness in the Northern hemisphere and is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. A first sign of Borrelia infection is a circular skin rash, erythema migrans, but it can develop to more serious manifestations affecting skin, nervous system, joints, and/or heart. The marked increase in Lyme disease incidence over the past decades, the severity of the disease, and the associated high medical costs of, in particular, the persistent forms of Lyme disease requires adequate measures for control. Vaccination would be the most effective intervention for prevention, but at present no vaccine is available. In the 1990s, 2 vaccines against Lyme disease based on the OspA protein from the predominant Borrelia species of the US showed to be safe and effective in clinical phase III studies. However, failed public acceptance led to the demise of these monovalent OspA-based vaccines. Nowadays, public seem to be more aware of the serious health problems that Lyme disease can cause and seem more ready for the use of a broadly protective vaccine. This article discusses several aspects that should be considered to enable the development and implementation of a vaccine to prevent Lyme disease successfully. PMID:26337648

  14. Increasing girls' knowledge about human papillomavirus vaccination with a pre-test and a national leaflet: A quasi-experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hofman (Robine); P.A. Schiffers (Puck Awh); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); H. Raat (Hein); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); I.J. Korfage (Ida)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Adolescent girls are at an age to be involved in the decision about HPV vaccination uptake and therefore need adequate information about the vaccination. This study assesses to what extent reading an official information leaflet about HPV contributes to girls' knowledge

  15. Increased B and T Cell Responses in M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccinated Pigs Co-Immunized with Plasmid DNA Encoding a Prototype Tuberculosis Antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle

    2015-01-01

    two regions with strong predicted SLA-1*0401/SLA-1*0801 binding affinity, was promiscuously recognized by 6/6 animals vaccinated with the BCG-pAg85A combination. Our study provides a proof of concept in a large mammalian species, for a new Th1 and CD8+ targeting tuberculosis vaccine, based on BCG...

  16. BCG vaccine in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Sun Myung; Ryoo, Sungweon

    2013-07-01

    The anti-tuberculosis Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes of Lille in France, and was adopted by many countries. BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that BCG sub-strains differ markedly in virulence levels. The tuberculosis became endemic in Korea after the Korean War (1950s). The BCG strain, which was donated by Pasteur Institutes, was brought to Korea in 1955, and the first domestic BCG vaccine was produced by the National Defense Research Institute (NDRI), current Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), in 1960. Since 1987, BCG manufacture work was handed over to the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis (KIT), the freeze-dried BCG vaccine was manufactured at a scale required to meet the whole amount of domestic consumption. However, since 2006, the manufacture of BCG vaccine suspended and the whole amount of BCG was imported at this point of time. Now KIT is planning to re-produce the BCG vaccine in Korea under the supervision of KCDC, this will be render great role to National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP) and provide initiating step for developing new tuberculosis vaccines in Korea.

  17. BCG vaccine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Sun Myung

    2013-01-01

    The anti-tuberculosis Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes of Lille in France, and was adopted by many countries. BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that BCG sub-strains differ markedly in virulence levels. The tuberculosis became endemic in Korea after the Korean War (1950s). The BCG strain, which was donated by Pasteur Institutes, was brought to Korea in 1955, and the first domestic BCG vaccine was produced by the National Defense Research Institute (NDRI), current Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC), in 1960. Since 1987, BCG manufacture work was handed over to the Korean Institute of Tuberculosis (KIT), the freeze-dried BCG vaccine was manufactured at a scale required to meet the whole amount of domestic consumption. However, since 2006, the manufacture of BCG vaccine suspended and the whole amount of BCG was imported at this point of time. Now KIT is planning to re-produce the BCG vaccine in Korea under the supervision of KCDC, this will be render great role to National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP) and provide initiating step for developing new tuberculosis vaccines in Korea. PMID:23858398

  18. [Chickenpox and shingles: one virus, two diseases and current vaccination recommendations in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Nadine; Masserey Spicher, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Adults, pregnant women, premature babies and immunocompromised persons are at increased risk for varicella complications. Therefore the current Swiss vaccination recommendations against varicella include a general recommendation for 11 to 15 year old adolescents with a negative varicella history, as well as a specific recommendation for risk groups. The goal of both recommendations is to reduce varicella complications in persons most at risk. The vaccine is not universally recommended for all toddlers in Switzerland, while this is the case in some countries such as the United States. Pros and cons of different vaccination strategies, as well as possible short- and long-term effects on herpes zoster incidence are taken into account. In the United States, there was a marked decline in incidence and hospitalisations, but an increased herpes zoster incidence in the short term. Finally, public health aspects of herpes zoster, post-herpetic neuralgia and possible vaccination strategies are outlined.

  19. Ceremony marking Einstein Year

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Sunday 13th November at 10:00amat Geneva's St. Peter's Cathedral To mark Einstein Year and the importance of the intercultural dialogue of which it forms a part, a religious service will take place on Sunday 13 November at 10 a.m. in St. Peter's Cathedral, to which CERN members and colleagues are warmly welcomed. Pastor Henry Babel, senior minister at the Cathedral, will speak on the theme: 'God in Einstein's Universe'. Diether Blechschmidt will convey a message on behalf of the scientific community.

  20. GM-CSF increases mucosal and systemic immunogenicity of an H1N1 influenza DNA vaccine administered into the epidermis of non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Peter T; Yager, Eric J; Lynch, Debbie T; Narendran, Amithi; Stagnar, Cristy; Franchini, Anthony M; Fuller, James T; White, Phil A; Nyuandi, Julia; Wiley, Clayton A; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Fuller, Deborah H

    2010-06-08

    The recent H5N1 avian and H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus outbreaks reaffirm that the threat of a world-wide influenza pandemic is both real and ever-present. Vaccination is still considered the best strategy for protection against influenza virus infection but a significant challenge is to identify new vaccine approaches that offer accelerated production, broader protection against drifted and shifted strains, and the capacity to elicit anti-viral immune responses in the respiratory tract at the site of viral entry. As a safe alternative to live attenuated vaccines, the mucosal and systemic immunogenicity of an H1N1 influenza (A/New Caledonia/20/99) HA DNA vaccine administered by particle-mediated epidermal delivery (PMED or gene gun) was analyzed in rhesus macaques. Macaques were immunized at weeks 0, 8, and 16 using a disposable single-shot particle-mediated delivery device designed for clinical use that delivers plasmid DNA directly into cells of the epidermis. Significant levels of hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies and cytokine-secreting HA-specific T cells were observed in the periphery of macaques following 1-3 doses of the PMED HA DNA vaccine. In addition, HA DNA vaccination induced detectable levels of HA-specific mucosal antibodies and T cells in the lung and gut-associated lymphoid tissues of vaccinated macaques. Importantly, co-delivery of a DNA encoding the rhesus macaque GM-CSF gene was found to significantly enhance both the systemic and mucosal immunogenicity of the HA DNA vaccine. These results provide strong support for the development of a particle-mediated epidermal DNA vaccine for protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza and demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of skin-delivered GM-CSF to serve as an effective mucosal adjuvant for vaccine induction of immune responses in the gut and respiratory tract.

  1. GM-CSF increases mucosal and systemic immunogenicity of an H1N1 influenza DNA vaccine administered into the epidermis of non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Loudon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent H5N1 avian and H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus outbreaks reaffirm that the threat of a world-wide influenza pandemic is both real and ever-present. Vaccination is still considered the best strategy for protection against influenza virus infection but a significant challenge is to identify new vaccine approaches that offer accelerated production, broader protection against drifted and shifted strains, and the capacity to elicit anti-viral immune responses in the respiratory tract at the site of viral entry. As a safe alternative to live attenuated vaccines, the mucosal and systemic immunogenicity of an H1N1 influenza (A/New Caledonia/20/99 HA DNA vaccine administered by particle-mediated epidermal delivery (PMED or gene gun was analyzed in rhesus macaques.Macaques were immunized at weeks 0, 8, and 16 using a disposable single-shot particle-mediated delivery device designed for clinical use that delivers plasmid DNA directly into cells of the epidermis. Significant levels of hemagglutination inhibiting (HI antibodies and cytokine-secreting HA-specific T cells were observed in the periphery of macaques following 1-3 doses of the PMED HA DNA vaccine. In addition, HA DNA vaccination induced detectable levels of HA-specific mucosal antibodies and T cells in the lung and gut-associated lymphoid tissues of vaccinated macaques. Importantly, co-delivery of a DNA encoding the rhesus macaque GM-CSF gene was found to significantly enhance both the systemic and mucosal immunogenicity of the HA DNA vaccine.These results provide strong support for the development of a particle-mediated epidermal DNA vaccine for protection against respiratory pathogens such as influenza and demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of skin-delivered GM-CSF to serve as an effective mucosal adjuvant for vaccine induction of immune responses in the gut and respiratory tract.

  2. A Perfect Storm: Increased Colonization and Failure of Vaccination Leads to Severe Secondary Bacterial Infection in Influenza Virus-Infected Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik A. Karlsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a risk factor for developing severe disease following influenza virus infection; however, the comorbidity of obesity and secondary bacterial infection, a serious complication of influenza virus infections, is unknown. To fill this gap in knowledge, lean and obese C57BL/6 mice were infected with a nonlethal dose of influenza virus followed by a nonlethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Strikingly, not only did significantly enhanced death occur in obese coinfected mice compared to lean controls, but also high mortality was seen irrespective of influenza virus strain, bacterial strain, or timing of coinfection. This result was unexpected, given that most influenza virus strains, especially seasonal human A and B viruses, are nonlethal in this model. Both viral and bacterial titers were increased in the upper respiratory tract and lungs of obese animals as early as days 1 and 2 post-bacterial infection, leading to a significant decrease in lung function. This increased bacterial load correlated with extensive cellular damage and upregulation of platelet-activating factor receptor, a host receptor central to pneumococcal invasion. Importantly, while vaccination of obese mice against either influenza virus or pneumococcus failed to confer protection, antibiotic treatment was able to resolve secondary bacterial infection-associated mortality. Overall, secondary bacterial pneumonia could be a widespread, unaddressed public health problem in an increasingly obese population.

  3. [The seroprevalence rate, vaccination rate and seroconversion rate of hepatitis A in central region of Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seung Wook; Lee, Won Kyung; Cho, Sun Young; Moon, Sung Hoon; Shin, Hyun Deok; Yun, Se Young; Kim, Suk Bae; Shin, Jeong Eun; Kim, Hong Ja; Song, Il Han; Lee, Kun Song; Lee, Jae Hyun

    2011-03-01

    Acute hepatitis A (HAV) is markedly increasing recently on. Some patients with acute hepatitis A show severe clinical course. The seroprevalence rate of IgG anti-HAV has been changing with the regions and the times. Vaccination and seroconversion rate of HAV are not well known. In this study, we aimed to study the difference of seroprevalence rate of IgG anti-HAV according to various clinical factors and to know the vaccination rate and seroconversion rate below 10 years old in the central region of South Korea including Cheonan city. Seven hundred seventy two subjects were included in the study from January to September 2009. We analyzed seroprevalence rate of IgG anti-HAV according to sex, age, region, and other viral markers. We interviewed the history of vaccination(1st, 2nd) and analyzed seroconversion rate according to vaccination time below 10 years old. The total seroprevalence rate of IgG anti-HAV was 65.3%. The seroprevalence rate of IgG anti-HAV rate in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th decade was very low (1.9%, 18.8%, 44.8%). The vaccination rate of children was about 50%. The seroconversion rate after 1st, and 2nd vaccination were 85%, 96%. Catch-up vaccination for teenagers and young adults is needed. Immunizing children with HAV vaccine as a routine schedule should be considered.

  4. The Impact of Making Vaccines Thermostable in Niger’s Vaccine Supply Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Cakouros, Brigid E.; Assi, Tina-Marie; Connor, Diana L.; Welling, Joel; Kone, Souleymane; Djibo, Ali; Wateska, Angela R.; Pierre, Lionel; Brown, Shawn T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine the effects on the vaccine cold chain of making different types of World Health Organization (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunizations (EPI) vaccines thermostable. Methods Utilizing a detailed computational, discrete-event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain, we simulated the impact of making different combinations of the six current EPI vaccines thermostable. Findings Making any EPI vaccine thermostable relieved existing supply chain bottlenecks (especially at the lowest levels), increased vaccine availability of all EPI vaccines, and decreased cold storage and transport capacity utilization. By far, the most substantial impact came from making the pentavalent vaccine thermostable, increasing its own vaccine availability from 87% to 97% and the vaccine availabilities of all other remaining non-thermostable EPI vaccines to over 93%. By contrast, making each of the other vaccines thermostable had considerably less effect on the remaining vaccines, failing to increase the vaccine availabilities of other vaccines to more than 89%. Making tetanus toxoid vaccine along with the pentavalent thermostable further increased the vaccine availability of all EPI vaccines by at least 1–2%. Conclusion Our study shows the potential benefits of making any of Niger’s EPI vaccines thermostable and therefore supports further development of thermostable vaccines. Eliminating the need for refrigerators and freezers should not necessarily be the only benefit and goal of vaccine thermostability. Rather, making even a single vaccine (or some subset of the vaccines) thermostable could free up significant cold storage space for other vaccines, and thereby help alleviate supply chain bottlenecks that occur throughout the world. PMID:22789507

  5. The impact of making vaccines thermostable in Niger's vaccine supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Cakouros, Brigid E; Assi, Tina-Marie; Connor, Diana L; Welling, Joel; Kone, Souleymane; Djibo, Ali; Wateska, Angela R; Pierre, Lionel; Brown, Shawn T

    2012-08-17

    Determine the effects on the vaccine cold chain of making different types of World Health Organization (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunizations (EPI) vaccines thermostable. Utilizing a detailed computational, discrete-event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain, we simulated the impact of making different combinations of the six current EPI vaccines thermostable. Making any EPI vaccine thermostable relieved existing supply chain bottlenecks (especially at the lowest levels), increased vaccine availability of all EPI vaccines, and decreased cold storage and transport capacity utilization. By far, the most substantial impact came from making the pentavalent vaccine thermostable, increasing its own vaccine availability from 87% to 97% and the vaccine availabilities of all other remaining non-thermostable EPI vaccines to over 93%. By contrast, making each of the other vaccines thermostable had considerably less effect on the remaining vaccines, failing to increase the vaccine availabilities of other vaccines to more than 89%. Making tetanus toxoid vaccine along with the pentavalent thermostable further increased the vaccine availability of all EPI vaccines by at least 1-2%. Our study shows the potential benefits of making any of Niger's EPI vaccines thermostable and therefore supports further development of thermostable vaccines. Eliminating the need for refrigerators and freezers should not necessarily be the only benefit and goal of vaccine thermostability. Rather, making even a single vaccine (or some subset of the vaccines) thermostable could free up significant cold storage space for other vaccines, and thereby help alleviate supply chain bottlenecks that occur throughout the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On the implications of desexualizing vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases: health policy challenges in a multicultural society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Baruch; Yadgar, Yaacov

    2017-07-01

    Two vaccines against sexually transmitted infections are included in many national vaccination programs: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) vaccine and Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine. The trajectories of the implementation of these two programs were marked by differences in the way the sexual context of risk was communicated to the public. These trajectories fluctuated between full accounts of the sexual nature of the infection and attempts to desexualize the vaccines. Vaccine desexualization can be achieved by withholding information of sexual context, blurring information, and distancing the age of vaccination from the age of sexual debut. Desexualization may be advantageous in promoting public health and personal health of people who believe that HPV vaccination leads to increased promiscuity, people who believe that protection against STD is not relevant to their children, and people who are not comfortable discussing the sexuality of their children. On the other hand, desexualizing may be disadvantageous for children to parents who tend to express passiveness towards vaccination, parents who attribute importance to sex education, and teenagers with homosexual orientations. The ethical analysis of vaccine desexualization reveals a complex interplay of considerations related to utility, causation of harm, duty of transparency, right to know, and right not to know. This analysis suggests that the moral merits of applying desexualization are questionable. Lastly, a sociopolitical consideration of the matter, suggests that decisions on vaccine desexualization can have implications on the interrelationships between various social groups and subgroups composing a certain population, and may highlight intercultural schisms. All this indicates that shaping the sexual framework of vaccination programs bears implications far beyond the practical considerations of vaccine promotion.

  7. Assessment of bivalent and tetravalent dengue vaccine formulations in flavivirus-naïve adults in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Gustavo H; Galán-Herrera, Juan-Francisco; Forrat, Remi; Zambrano, Betzana; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Harenberg, Anke; Guy, Bruno; Lang, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Several ChimeriVax-Dengue (CYD)-based vaccination strategies were investigated as potential alternatives to vaccination with tetravalent CYD vaccine (CYD-TDV) in this phase IIa trial conducted in 2008-9 in 150 healthy adults. Participants were randomized and vaccinated on D0 and D105 (± 15 days). One group received bivalent CYD vaccine against serotypes 1 and 3 (CYD-1;3) on day 0 and CYD-2;4 on day 105 (± 15 days). Two groups received an injection at each timepoint of a tetravalent blend of CYD-1;3;4 and a VERO cell derived, live attenuated vaccine against serotype 2 (VDV-2), or the reference CYD-TDV. A fourth group received Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine on days -14, -7 and 0, followed by CYD-TDV on day 105. Viraemia was infrequent in all groups. CYD-4 viraemia was most frequent after tetravalent vaccination, while CYD-3 viraemia was most frequent after the first bivalent vaccination. Immunogenicity as assessed by 50% plaque reduction neutralisation test on D28 was comparable after the first injection of either tetravalent vaccine, and increased after the second injection, particularly with the blended CYD-1;3;4/ VDV-2 vaccine. In the bivalent vaccine group, immune response against serotype 3 was highest and the second injection elicited a low immune response against CYD 2 and 4. Immune responses after the first injection of CYD-TDV in the JE-primed group were in general higher than after the first injection in the other groups. All tested regimens were well tolerated without marked differences between groups. Bivalent vaccination showed no advantage in terms of immunogenicity. NCT00740155.

  8. Extended Essay Marking on Screen: Is Examiner Marking Accuracy Influenced by Marking Mode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin; Hopkin, Rebecca; Shiell, Hannah; Bell, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK and elsewhere, large-scale educational assessment agencies are shifting the mode of school examination marking towards having examiners mark examination scripts on screen rather than on paper. This shift has prompted questions about whether the mode of marking might influence examiner marking accuracy, particularly in relation to…

  9. Economic impact of thermostable vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Wedlock, Patrick T; Haidari, Leila A; Elder, Kate; Potet, Julien; Manring, Rachel; Connor, Diana L; Spiker, Marie L; Bonner, Kimberly; Rangarajan, Arjun; Hunyh, Delphine; Brown, Shawn T

    2017-05-25

    While our previous work has shown that replacing existing vaccines with thermostable vaccines can relieve bottlenecks in vaccine supply chains and thus increase vaccine availability, the question remains whether this benefit would outweigh the additional cost of thermostable formulations. Using HERMES simulation models of the vaccine supply chains for the Republic of Benin, the state of Bihar (India), and Niger, we simulated replacing different existing vaccines with thermostable formulations and determined the resulting clinical and economic impact. Costs measured included the costs of vaccines, logistics, and disease outcomes averted. Replacing a particular vaccine with a thermostable version yielded cost savings in many cases even when charging a price premium (two or three times the current vaccine price). For example, replacing the current pentavalent vaccine with a thermostable version without increasing the vaccine price saved from $366 to $10,945 per 100 members of the vaccine's target population. Doubling the vaccine price still resulted in cost savings that ranged from $300 to $10,706, and tripling the vaccine price resulted in cost savings from $234 to $10,468. As another example, a thermostable rotavirus vaccine (RV) at its current (year) price saved between $131 and $1065. Doubling and tripling the thermostable rotavirus price resulted in cost savings ranging from $102 to $936 and $73 to $808, respectively. Switching to thermostable formulations was highly cost-effective or cost-effective in most scenarios explored. Medical cost and productivity savings could outweigh even significant price premiums charged for thermostable formulations of vaccines, providing support for their use. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Induction of Cell Cycle and NK Cell Responses by Live-Attenuated Oral Vaccines against Typhoid Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph J. Blohmke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which oral, live-attenuated vaccines protect against typhoid fever are poorly understood. Here, we analyze transcriptional responses after vaccination with Ty21a or vaccine candidate, M01ZH09. Alterations in response profiles were related to vaccine-induced immune responses and subsequent outcome after wild-type Salmonella Typhi challenge. Despite broad genetic similarity, we detected differences in transcriptional responses to each vaccine. Seven days after M01ZH09 vaccination, marked cell cycle activation was identified and associated with humoral immunogenicity. By contrast, vaccination with Ty21a was associated with NK cell activity and validated in peripheral blood mononuclear cell stimulation assays confirming superior induction of an NK cell response. Moreover, transcriptional signatures of amino acid metabolism in Ty21a recipients were associated with protection against infection, including increased incubation time and decreased severity. Our data provide detailed insight into molecular immune responses to typhoid vaccines, which could aid the rational design of improved oral, live-attenuated vaccines against enteric pathogens.

  11. Induction of Cell Cycle and NK Cell Responses by Live-Attenuated Oral Vaccines against Typhoid Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blohmke, Christoph J; Hill, Jennifer; Darton, Thomas C; Carvalho-Burger, Matheus; Eustace, Andrew; Jones, Claire; Schreiber, Fernanda; Goodier, Martin R; Dougan, Gordon; Nakaya, Helder I; Pollard, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms by which oral, live-attenuated vaccines protect against typhoid fever are poorly understood. Here, we analyze transcriptional responses after vaccination with Ty21a or vaccine candidate, M01ZH09. Alterations in response profiles were related to vaccine-induced immune responses and subsequent outcome after wild-type Salmonella Typhi challenge. Despite broad genetic similarity, we detected differences in transcriptional responses to each vaccine. Seven days after M01ZH09 vaccination, marked cell cycle activation was identified and associated with humoral immunogenicity. By contrast, vaccination with Ty21a was associated with NK cell activity and validated in peripheral blood mononuclear cell stimulation assays confirming superior induction of an NK cell response. Moreover, transcriptional signatures of amino acid metabolism in Ty21a recipients were associated with protection against infection, including increased incubation time and decreased severity. Our data provide detailed insight into molecular immune responses to typhoid vaccines, which could aid the rational design of improved oral, live-attenuated vaccines against enteric pathogens.

  12. DNA Priming Increases Frequency of T-Cell Responses to a Vesicular Stomatitis Virus HIV Vaccine with Specific Enhancement of CD8+ T-Cell Responses by Interleukin-12 Plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying S; Kochar, Nidhi K; Elizaga, Marnie; Hay, Christine M; Wilson, Gregory J; Cohen, Kristen W; De Rosa, Stephen C; Xu, Rong; Ota-Setlik, Ayuko; Morris, Daryl; Finak, Greg; Allen, Mary; Tieu, Hong-Van; Frank, Ian; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Hannaman, Drew; Gottardo, Raphael; Gilbert, Peter B; Tomaras, Georgia D; Corey, Lawrence; Clarke, David K; Egan, Michael A; Eldridge, John H; McElrath, M Juliana; Frahm, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) 087 vaccine trial assessed the effect of increasing doses of pIL-12 (interleukin-12 delivered as plasmid DNA) adjuvant on the immunogenicity of an HIV-1 multiantigen (MAG) DNA vaccine delivered by electroporation and boosted with a vaccine comprising an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus expressing HIV-1 Gag (VSV-Gag). We randomized 100 healthy adults to receive placebo or 3 mg HIV-MAG DNA vaccine (ProfectusVax HIV-1 gag/pol or ProfectusVax nef/tat/vif, env) coadministered with pIL-12 at 0, 250, 1,000, or 1,500 μg intramuscularly by electroporation at 0, 1, and 3 months followed by intramuscular inoculation with 3.4 × 107 PFU VSV-Gag vaccine at 6 months. Immune responses were assessed after the prime and boost and 6 months after the last vaccination. High-dose pIL-12 increased the magnitude of CD8+ T-cell responses postboost compared to no pIL-12 (P = 0.02), while CD4+ T-cell responses after the prime were higher in the absence of pIL-12 than with low- and medium-dose pIL-12 (P ≤ 0.05). The VSV boost increased Gag-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in all groups (P T cells), inducing a median of four Gag epitopes in responders. Six to 9 months after the boost, responses decreased in magnitude, but CD8+ T-cell response rates were maintained. The addition of a DNA prime dramatically improved responses to the VSV vaccine tested previously in the HVTN 090 trial, leading to broad epitope targeting and maintained CD8+ T-cell response rates at early memory. The addition of high-dose pIL-12 given with a DNA prime by electroporation and boosted with VSV-Gag increased the CD8+ T-cell responses but decreased the CD4+ responses. This approach may be advantageous in reshaping the T-cell responses to a variety of chronic infections or tumors. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01578889.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. The development of flavivirus vaccines | Pulmanausahakul | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaccine development to eliminate flaviviral infections has been marked by uneven progress and a large number of setbacks. To date, no single approach has proved successful in leading to vaccine development against a wide range of flaviviruses, but the application of modern techniques to the problem is opening up new ...

  14. BCG vaccine in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Joung, Sun Myung; Ryoo, Sungweon

    2013-01-01

    The anti-tuberculosis Bacille de Calmette et Gu?rin (BCG) vaccine was developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes of Lille in France, and was adopted by many countries. BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that BCG sub-strains differ markedly in virulence levels. The tuberculosis became endemic in Korea after the Korean War (1950s). The BCG strain, which was donated by Pasteur Institutes, was brought to Korea in 1955, and ...

  15. Vaccine Targeting of Subdominant CD8+ T Cell Epitopes Increases the Breadth of the T Cell Response upon Viral Challenge, but May Impair Immediate Virus Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Maria A; Pedersen, Louise Holm; Jahn, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    , hence, a greater efficiency in controlling escape variants. However, to our knowledge the evidence supporting this concept is limited at best. To improve upon this, we used the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus model and adenoviral vectors to compare a vaccine expressing unmodified Ag......As a result of the difficulties in making efficient vaccines against genetically unstable viruses such as HIV, it has been suggested that future vaccines should preferentially target subdominant epitopes, the idea being that this should allow a greater breadth of the induced T cell response and...... to a vaccine expressing the same Ag without its immunodominant epitope. We found that removal of the dominant epitope allowed the induction of CD8(+) T cell responses targeting at least two otherwise subdominant epitopes. Importantly, the overall magnitude of the induced T cell responses was similar, allowing...

  16. Increase in EPI vaccines coverage after implementation of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infant with Sulfadoxine -pyrimethamine in the district of Kolokani, Mali: Results from a cluster randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Roger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the efficacy of Intermittent Preventive Treatment in infants (IPTi with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP against clinical disease and the absence of its interaction with routine vaccines of the Expanded Immunization Programme (EPI have been established, there are still some concerns regarding the addition of IPTi, which may increase the work burden and disrupt the routine EPI services especially in Africa where the target immunization coverage remains to be met. However IPTi may also increase the adherence of the community to EPI services and improve EPI coverage, once the benefice of strategy is perceived. Methods To assess the impact of IPTi implementation on the coverage of EPI vaccines, 22 health areas of the district of Kolokani were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to either receive IPTi-SP or to serve as a control. The EPI vaccines coverage was assessed using cross-sectional surveys at baseline in November 2006 and after one year of IPTi pilot-implementation in December 2007. Results At baseline, the proportion of children of 9-23 months who were completely vaccinated (defined as children who received BGG, 3 doses of DTP/Polio, measles and yellow fever vaccines was 36.7% (95% CI 25.3% -48.0%. After one year of implementation of IPTi-SP using routine health services, the proportion of children completely vaccinated rose to 53.8% in the non intervention zone and 69.5% in the IPTi intervention zone (P The proportion of children in the target age groups who received IPTi with each of the 3 vaccinations DTP2, DTP3 and Measles, were 89.2% (95% CI 85.9%-92.0%, 91.0% (95% CI 87.6% -93.7% and 77.4% (95% CI 70.7%-83.2% respectively. The corresponding figures in non intervention zone were 2.3% (95% CI 0.9% -4.7%, 2.6% (95% CI 1.0% -5.6% and 1.7% (95% CI 0.4% - 4.9%. Conclusion This study shows that high coverage of the IPTi can be obtained when the strategy is implemented using routine health services and implementation results

  17. [Development of oral vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Akihiro; Shimizu, Yuya; Karamatsu, Katsuo; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro

    2008-10-01

    In the increasing crisis of pandemic of infectious diseases all over the world in recent years, it is the most necessary to develop readily available vaccines even in developing countries. Since many pathogens establish their initial infections through the mucosal surface in our bodies, the induction of mucosal immune responses by vaccines are thought to be important for the prevention of infectious diseases through mucosal site. Oral administration of vaccines has abilities to elicit mucosal immune responses at mucosal tissues with various advantages such as easy skill for administration, less stressful for vaccine recipients and safer than systemic injection. Here, we show our novel strategies for inducing mucosal immune responses by oral vaccine administration.

  18. Efficacy of recombinant birch pollen vaccine for the treatment of birch-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Larsen, Tina H; Rak, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter......, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to compare the following 3 vaccines in 134 adults with birch pollen allergy: recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine (rBet v 1a), licensed birch pollen extract, natural purified birch pollen allergen (nBet v 1), and placebo. Patients...... = .0011; nBet v 1, P = .0025; birch extract, P = .0063), and skin sensitivities (P pollen seasons. Clinical improvement was accompanied by marked increases in Bet v 1-specific IgG levels, which were higher...

  19. MODELING THE EFFECTS OF UPDATING THE INFLUENZA VACCINE ON THE EFFICACY OF REPEATED VACCINATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. SMITH; A. LAPEDES; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    The accumulated wisdom is to update the vaccine strain to the expected epidemic strain only when there is at least a 4-fold difference [measured by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay] between the current vaccine strain and the expected epidemic strain. In this study we investigate the effect, on repeat vaccines, of updating the vaccine when there is a less than 4-fold difference. Methods: Using a computer model of the immune response to repeated vaccination, we simulated updating the vaccine on a 2-fold difference and compared this to not updating the vaccine, in each case predicting the vaccine efficacy in first-time and repeat vaccines for a variety of possible epidemic strains. Results: Updating the vaccine strain on a 2-fold difference resulted in increased vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccines compared to leaving the vaccine unchanged. Conclusions: These results suggest that updating the vaccine strain on a 2-fold difference between the existing vaccine strain and the expected epidemic strain will increase vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccines compared to leaving the vaccine unchanged.

  20. Vaccine hesitancy and healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Pauline; Meurice, François; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Glismann, Steffen; Rosenthal, Susan L; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-12-20

    While most people vaccinate according to the recommended schedule, this success is challenged by individuals and groups who delay or refuse vaccines. The aim of this article is to review studies on vaccine hesitancy among healthcare providers (HCPs), and the influences of their own vaccine confidence and vaccination behaviour on their vaccination recommendations to others. The search strategy was developed in Medline and then adapted across several multidisciplinary mainstream databases including Embase Classic & Embase, and PschInfo. All foreign language articles were included if the abstract was available in English. A total of 185 articles were included in the literature review. 66% studied the vaccine hesitancy among HCPs, 17% analysed concerns, attitudes and/or behaviour of HCPs towards vaccinating others, and 9% were about evaluating intervention(s). Overall, knowledge about particular vaccines, their efficacy and safety, helped to build HCPs own confidence in vaccines and their willingness to recommend vaccines to others. The importance of societal endorsement and support from colleagues was also reported. In the face of emerging vaccine hesitancy, HCPs still remain the most trusted advisor and influencer of vaccination decisions. The capacity and confidence of HCPs, though, are stretched as they are faced with time constraints, increased workload and limited resources, and often have inadequate information or training support to address parents' questions. Overall, HCPs need more support to manage the quickly evolving vaccine environment as well as changing public, especially those who are reluctant or refuse vaccination. Some recommended strategies included strengthening trust between HCPs, health authorities and policymakers, through more shared involvement in the establishment of vaccine recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. [Influenza vaccine and adjuvant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine.

  2. Evaluation of pavement marking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the useful life of pavement markings. The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) provides general guidelines for the application and installation of pavement markings. However, performance...

  3. Vaccine Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... list . Showing availability for 25,354 locations. Influenza Vaccine Recommended for everyone greater than or equal to ... which one may be right for you! Flu Vaccines Protects again influenza, commonly called flu, a respiratory ...

  4. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Vaccine Safety Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) New website and ...

  5. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common and serious health ... to 60 died. Since the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, hospitalizations and emergency visits for rotavirus have dropped ...

  6. Gene Expression Driven by a Strong Viral Promoter in MVA Increases Vaccination Efficiency by Enhancing Antibody Responses and Unmasking CD8⁺ T Cell Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Pablo D; Nörder, Miriam; Weissmann, Sebastian; Ljapoci, Ronny; Erfle, Volker; Drexler, Ingo; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2014-07-22

    Viral vectors are promising tools for vaccination strategies and immunotherapies. However, CD8⁺ T cell responses against pathogen-derived epitopes are usually limited to dominant epitopes and antibody responses to recombinant encoded antigens (Ags) are mostly weak. We have previously demonstrated that the timing of viral Ag expression in infected professional Ag-presenting cells strongly shapes the epitope immunodominance hierarchy. T cells recognizing determinants derived from late viral proteins have a clear disadvantage to proliferate during secondary responses. In this work we evaluate the effect of overexpressing the recombinant Ag using the modified vaccinia virus early/late promoter H5 (mPH5). Although the Ag-expression from the natural promoter 7.5 (P7.5) and the mPH5 seemed similar, detailed analysis showed that mPH5 not only induces higher expression levels than P7.5 during early phase of infection, but also Ag turnover is enhanced. The strong overexpression during the early phase leads to broader CD8 T cell responses, while preserving the priming efficiency of stable Ags. Moreover, the increase in Ag-secretion favors the induction of strong antibody responses. Our findings provide the rationale to develop new strategies for fine-tuning the responses elicited by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara by using selected promoters to improve the performance of this viral vector.

  7. Gene Expression Driven by a Strong Viral Promoter in MVA Increases Vaccination Efficiency by Enhancing Antibody Responses and Unmasking CD8+ T Cell Epitope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Pablo D.; Nörder, Miriam; Weissmann, Sebastian; Ljapoci, Ronny; Erfle, Volker; Drexler, Ingo; Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Viral vectors are promising tools for vaccination strategies and immunotherapies. However, CD8+ T cell responses against pathogen-derived epitopes are usually limited to dominant epitopes and antibody responses to recombinant encoded antigens (Ags) are mostly weak. We have previously demonstrated that the timing of viral Ag expression in infected professional Ag-presenting cells strongly shapes the epitope immunodominance hierarchy. T cells recognizing determinants derived from late viral proteins have a clear disadvantage to proliferate during secondary responses. In this work we evaluate the effect of overexpressing the recombinant Ag using the modified vaccinia virus early/late promoter H5 (mPH5). Although the Ag-expression from the natural promoter 7.5 (P7.5) and the mPH5 seemed similar, detailed analysis showed that mPH5 not only induces higher expression levels than P7.5 during early phase of infection, but also Ag turnover is enhanced. The strong overexpression during the early phase leads to broader CD8 T cell responses, while preserving the priming efficiency of stable Ags. Moreover, the increase in Ag-secretion favors the induction of strong antibody responses. Our findings provide the rationale to develop new strategies for fine-tuning the responses elicited by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara by using selected promoters to improve the performance of this viral vector. PMID:26344747

  8. Gene Expression Driven by a Strong Viral Promoter in MVA Increases Vaccination Efficiency by Enhancing Antibody Responses and Unmasking CD8+ T Cell Epitopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D. Becker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral vectors are promising tools for vaccination strategies and immunotherapies. However, CD8+ T cell responses against pathogen-derived epitopes are usually limited to dominant epitopes and antibody responses to recombinant encoded antigens (Ags are mostly weak. We have previously demonstrated that the timing of viral Ag expression in infected professional Ag-presenting cells strongly shapes the epitope immunodominance hierarchy. T cells recognizing determinants derived from late viral proteins have a clear disadvantage to proliferate during secondary responses. In this work we evaluate the effect of overexpressing the recombinant Ag using the modified vaccinia virus early/late promoter H5 (mPH5. Although the Ag-expression from the natural promoter 7.5 (P7.5 and the mPH5 seemed similar, detailed analysis showed that mPH5 not only induces higher expression levels than P7.5 during early phase of infection, but also Ag turnover is enhanced. The strong overexpression during the early phase leads to broader CD8 T cell responses, while preserving the priming efficiency of stable Ags. Moreover, the increase in Ag-secretion favors the induction of strong antibody responses. Our findings provide the rationale to develop new strategies for fine-tuning the responses elicited by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara by using selected promoters to improve the performance of this viral vector.

  9. Analysis of rotavirus genotypes in Korea during 2013: an increase in the G2P[4] genotype after the introduction of rotavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Seok; Kim, Hyun Soo; Hyun, Jungwon; Kim, Han-Sung; Song, Wonkeun; Lee, Kyu Man; Shin, Seon-Hee

    2014-11-12

    Group A rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. We investigated G and P genotypes of group A rotavirus strains isolated from patients during 2013 and investigated which genotypes were identified from vaccinated patients. From January to December 2013, 2235 fecal specimens were tested for rotavirus antigen, of which 374 specimens (16.7%) showed positive results. Strains from 288 rotavirus-positive specimens were genotyped using PCR and sequencing, and individual patients' corresponding vaccine histories were investigated through the Korean Center for Disease Control website. G2 (22.6%) and P[4] (24.0%) were the most frequently identified G and P genotypes, respectively; accordingly, G2P[4] (19.8%) was the most prevalent G/P genotype observed in this period. G4P[6] (10.1%) was the second most prevalent G/P genotype and was mostly detected in neonates. Other genotypes, G1P[8], G9P[8], G1P[6], and G3P[6], were also detected. Of 288 rotavirus-positive specimens, 48 specimens were obtained from previously vaccinated patients. G2P[4] was also the genotype most frequently isolated from vaccinated patients. VP7 epitope analysis of G1P[8] and G2P[4] strains showed at least one amino acid differences in comparison with Rotarix and RotaTeq vaccine strains. The genotypic distribution of rotavirus strains in Korea has been shown temporal and geographical differences. This study showed that G2P[4] was the genotype most frequently isolated from both vaccinated and unvaccinated patients in Korea during 2013. However, it is unclear whether the change of predominant genotype is due to the effect of vaccination or due to natural variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Contraceptive Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Supotnitsky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches to develop vaccines with contraceptive effect are being carried out since the 1920s. Since 1972, the contraceptive vaccines are one of the priority programs of the World Health Organization (WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Rockefeller Foundation participates in implementing the program. Openly declared objective of creating such vaccines — the regulation of the population in the Third World countries. There are currently three main directions of contraceptive vaccine design: 1 vaccines targeted at blocking the production of gametes; 2 impairing their function; 3 violating the fertilization process. Contraceptive vaccines for more than 10 years are widely used to reduce fertility and castration of wild and domestic animals. In the commercial realization there are veterinary vaccines Equity®, Improvac®, GonaCon®, Repro-BLOC (based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone; SpayVac™ and IVT-PZP® (based on zona pellucida antigens. Clinical studies have shown effective contraceptive action (in women of vaccines, in which human chorionic gonadotropin is used as an antigen. At the same time, there are found the side effects of such vaccines: for vaccines containing gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone as antigenic components — castration, impotence; for vaccines containing follicle stimulating hormone — oligospermia; zona pellucida antigens — irreversible oophoritis. This paper discusses approaches to detection of sterilizing components in vaccines intended for mass prevention of infectious diseases, not reported by manufacturers, and the consequences of their use. Hidden use of contraceptive vaccines, which already took place, can be detected: 1 by the presence of antibodies to their antigenic components (in unvaccinated by contraceptive vaccines people such antibodies do not exist, except infertility cases; 2 by change in the hormonal levels of the

  11. Yellow Fever Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... travel to a yellow fever area should discuss vaccination with their doctor. They might be at increased risk for severe ... yellow fever. If travel cannot be avoided, discuss vaccination with your doctor. If you cannot get the vaccine for medical ...

  12. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL.

  13. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  14. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2012-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global warming, coinfection with immunosuppressive diseases, and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL) in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China, and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases, and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost–effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine VL. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans and dogs against VL. PMID:22566950

  15. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers’ Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R.; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J.; Deal, Allison M.

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11–12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11–12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor’s recommendation), and place (doctors’ offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9–13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas. PMID:21804767

  16. Evaluating a County-Sponsored Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Mothers' Initiation of HPV Vaccine for their Pre-teen Daughters in a Primarily Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Joan R; Shafer, Autumn; Diehl, Sandra J; Deal, Allison M

    2011-01-01

    Routine vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), the main cause of cervical cancer, is recommended for 11-12 year old girls, yet vaccine uptake is low. This study evaluates a social marketing campaign initiated by 13 North Carolina counties to raise awareness among parents and reduce barriers to accessing the vaccine in a primarily rural area. The 3-month campaign targeted mothers of girls ages 11-12 and healthcare practices serving pre-teen girls in four counties. Principles of social marketing were: product (recommended vaccine against HPV), price (cost, perception of safety and efficacy, and access), promotion (posters, brochures, website, news releases, doctor's recommendation), and place (doctors' offices, retail outlets). We analyzed (1) website traffic, hotline calls, and media placement; (2) cross-sectional surveys of mothers and providers; and (3) HPV immunization rates in intervention versus non-intervention counties. Of respondent mothers (n=225), 82% heard or saw campaign messages or materials. Of respondent providers (n=35), 94% used campaign brochures regularly or occasionally in conversations with parents. HPV vaccination rates within six months of campaign launch were 2% higher for 9-13 year old girls in two of the four intervention counties compared to 96 non-intervention counties. This evaluation supports campaign use in other primarily rural and underserved areas.

  17. Public trust in vaccination: an analytical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2017-01-01

    While vaccination is one of the most successful public health interventions, there has always been a parallel movement against vaccines. Apart from scientific factors, the uptake of vaccinations is influenced by historical, political, sociocultural and economic factors. In India, the health system is struggling with logistical weaknesses in taking vaccination to the remotest corners; while on the other hand, some people in places where vaccination is available resist it. Unwillingness to be vaccinated is a growing problem in the developed world. This trend is gradually emerging in several parts of India as well. Other factors, such as heightened awareness of the profit motives of the vaccine industry, conflicts of interest among policy-makers, and social, cultural and religious considerations have eroded the people's trust in vaccination. This paper develops an analytical framework to assess trust in vaccination. The framework considers trust in vaccination from four perspectives - trust in the health system, the vaccine policy, vaccination providers and specific vaccines. The framework considers specific issues involved in vaccination trust, including the increasing scepticism towards medical technology, perceptions of conflicts of interest in the vaccine policy, and of lack of transparency and openness, the presence of strong alternative schools of thought, influence of the social media. The paper will conclude by arguing that engaging with communities and having a dialogue about the vaccination policy is an ethical imperative.

  18. Effectiveness of interventions that apply new media to improve vaccine uptake and vaccine coverage: A systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Odone, Anna; Ferrari, Antonio; Spagnoli, Francesca; Visciarelli, Sara; Shefer, Abigail; Pasquarella, Cesira; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    .... Objective To systematically collect and summarize the available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions that apply new media to promote vaccination uptake and increase vaccination coverage...

  19. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  20. Mark-recapture and mark-resight methods for estimating abundance with remote cameras: a carnivore case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Robert S; McClintock, Brett T; Lyren, Lisa M; Boydston, Erin E; Crooks, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Abundance estimation of carnivore populations is difficult and has prompted the use of non-invasive detection methods, such as remotely-triggered cameras, to collect data. To analyze photo data, studies focusing on carnivores with unique pelage patterns have utilized a mark-recapture framework and studies of carnivores without unique pelage patterns have used a mark-resight framework. We compared mark-resight and mark-recapture estimation methods to estimate bobcat (Lynx rufus) population sizes, which motivated the development of a new "hybrid" mark-resight model as an alternative to traditional methods. We deployed a sampling grid of 30 cameras throughout the urban southern California study area. Additionally, we physically captured and marked a subset of the bobcat population with GPS telemetry collars. Since we could identify individual bobcats with photos of unique pelage patterns and a subset of the population was physically marked, we were able to use traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight methods, as well as the new "hybrid" mark-resight model we developed to estimate bobcat abundance. We recorded 109 bobcat photos during 4,669 camera nights and physically marked 27 bobcats with GPS telemetry collars. Abundance estimates produced by the traditional mark-recapture, traditional mark-resight, and "hybrid" mark-resight methods were similar, however precision differed depending on the models used. Traditional mark-recapture and mark-resight estimates were relatively imprecise with percent confidence interval lengths exceeding 100% of point estimates. Hybrid mark-resight models produced better precision with percent confidence intervals not exceeding 57%. The increased precision of the hybrid mark-resight method stems from utilizing the complete encounter histories of physically marked individuals (including those never detected by a camera trap) and the encounter histories of naturally marked individuals detected at camera traps. This new estimator may be

  1. Mark Kostabi soovib muuta inimesi õnnelikumaks / Kalev Mark Kostabi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kostabi, Kalev Mark, 1960-

    2008-01-01

    Kalev Mark Kostabi oma sisekujunduslikest eelistustest, ameeriklaste ja itaallaste kodude sisekujunduse erinevustest, kunstist kui ruumikujunduse ühest osast, oma New Yorgi ja Rooma korterite kujundusest

  2. [Influenza vaccination. Effectiveness of current vaccines and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Tamames, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is an annual challenge for health-care systems, due to factors such as co-circulation of 2 influenza A subtypes jointly with 2 influenza B lineages; the antigenic drift of these virus, which eludes natural immunity, as well as immunity conferred by vaccination; together with influenza impact in terms of morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccines have been available for more than 70 years and they have progressed in formulation, production and delivery route. Recommendations on vaccination are focused on those with a higher probability of severe disease, and have a progressively wider coverage, and classically based on inactivated vaccines, but with an increasing importance of attenuated live vaccines. More inactivated vaccines are becoming available, from adyuvanted and virosomal vaccines to intradermal delivery, cell-culture or quadrivalent. Overall vaccine effectiveness is about 65%, but varies depending on characteristics of vaccines, virus, population and the outcomes to be prevented, and ranges from less than 10% to almost 90%. Future challenges are formulations that confer more extensive and lasting protection, as well as increased vaccination coverage, especially in groups such as pregnant women and health-care professionals, as well as being extended to paediatrics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunopotentiators Improve the Efficacy of Oil-Emulsion-Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine in Chickens, Ducks and Geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihu Lu

    Full Text Available Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection.

  4. Therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ken; Roosinovich, Elena; Ma, Barbara; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2010-01-01

    It is now well established that most cervical cancers are causally associated with HPV infection. This realization has led to efforts to control HPV-associated malignancy through prevention or treatment of HPV infection. Currently, commercially available HPV vaccines are not designed to control established HPV infection and associated premalignant and malignant lesions. To treat and eradicate pre-existing HPV infections and associated lesions which remain prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, effective therapeutic HPV vaccines are needed. DNA vaccination has emerged as a particularly promising form of therapeutic HPV vaccines due to its safety, stability and ability to induce antigen-specific immunity. This review focuses on improving the potency of therapeutic HPV vaccines through modification of dendritic cells (DCs) by [1] increasing the number of antigen-expressing/antigen-loaded DCs, [2] improving HPV antigen expression, processing and presentation in DCs, and [3] enhancing DC and T cell interaction. Continued improvement in therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines may ultimately lead to an effective DNA vaccine for the treatment of HPV-associated malignancies. PMID:20066511

  5. Vaccines for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worz, Chad; Martin, Caren McHenry; Travis, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    Several vaccine-preventable diseases-influenza, pneumonia, herpes zoster, and pertussis-threaten the health of older adults in the United States. Both the costs associated with treating these diseases and the potential to increase morbidity and mortality are high for this patient population. Pharmacists and other health care professionals play a significant role in ensuring the elderly patient receives the recommended vaccines at the recommended intervals.

  6. An Approach to Mark Arthropods for Mark Capture Type Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of studies were conducted to validate methods for marking a wide variety of arthropods with inexpensive proteins for mark-capture dispersal research. The markers tested included egg albumin protein in chicken egg whites and casein protein in bovine milk. The first study qualified the effec...

  7. Laser marking as environment technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotova, Lydia; Badida, Miroslav

    2017-11-01

    The contribution deals with the laser marking as one of the progressive and environment friendly technologies with utilisation in many branches of industry. Engraving and other types of laser marking of different types of materials are very actual technologies these days. Laser marking decreases the waste creation in comparison with the other classical marking technologies, which use paintings or created chips. In this experimental investigation the laser marking surface texturing of material AL99,7 according to STN 42 4003:1993-08 (STN EN 573) has been conducted. The laser marking machine TruMark 6020 and software TruTops Mark were used. Laser surface texturing after laser marking has been realised under different combinations of process parameters: pulse frequency, pulse energy and laser beam scanning speed. The morphological characterization of engraving or annealing surfaces has been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. The evaluation of roughness of engraved surfaces has been realized according to STN EN ISO 4287 by using Surftest SJ 301. The aim of the contribution was to show how different laser parameters affect the surface texture and colour change of metallic materials while creating minimal waste.

  8. Vaccination with Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins in combination with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant increases protection against experimental necrotic enteritis in commercial broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was performed to compare four Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins as vaccine candidates using the Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Broiler chickens were immunized with clostridial recombinant proteins with ISA 71 VG, and intestinal le...

  9. Flagellin FljB as an adjuvant to the recombinant adenovirus rabies glycoprotein vaccine increases immune responses against rabies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xingxing; Zhang, Yun; Wei, Qiaolin; Yin, Xiangping

    2017-09-01

    Rabies virus (RABV) causes an acute progressive viral encephalitis. Although currently licensed vaccines have an excellent safety and efficacy record, the development of a safer and more cost-effective vaccine is still being sought. An E1-deleted, replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (HAd5) vector expressing RABV glycoprotein (HAd5-G) is thought to be a promising candidate vaccine for immune prophylaxis against rabies. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) flagellin is a well-known immune adjuvant. In this work, we have researched the adjuvant effect of flagellins (FljB and FliC) for HAd5 in mice for the first time. We found that the recombinant HAd5 expressing RABV glycoprotein and FljB (HAd5-GB), if administered intramuscularly, but not orally, could induce stronger immune responses and provide better protection against rabies than HAd5-G or the recombinant HAd5 expressing glycoprotein and FliC (HAd5-GC). These results suggest that the recombinant HAd5-GB has potential for development as a promising rabies vaccine.

  10. Effects of a multi-faceted program to increase influenza vaccine coverage among health care workers : A hospital-based cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen-Dalhuisen, Josien; Burgerhof, Hans; Frijstein, Gerard; Van Der Geest-Blankert, Nannet; Danhof- Pont, Marita; De Jager, Herbert; Bos, Nita; Smeets, Ed; De Vries, Marjan; Gallee, Pieter; Hak, Eelko

    2012-01-01

    Background: Immunizing health care workers (HCWs) against influenza has proven to protect their patients. Despite recommentations of the World Health Organization and the Dutch Health Council, influenza vaccine uptake among hospital HCWs remains low in the Netherlands Objectives: To assess the

  11. Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

    2011-08-06

    Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  13. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  14. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  15. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  16. Influenza Vaccine, Live Intranasal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should NOT be ... What is live, attenuated influenza vaccine-LAIV (nasal spray)?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children younger ...

  17. Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis) Vaccine and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetanus, Diphtheria and Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of ... sheet talks about whether exposure to the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (or Tdap) vaccine may increase the ...

  18. [Development of new vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Romo, Fernando; Picazo, Juan J

    2015-10-01

    Recent and important advances in the fields of immunology, genomics, functional genomics, immunogenetics, immunogenomics, bioinformatics, microbiology, genetic engineering, systems biology, synthetic biochemistry, proteomics, metabolomics and nanotechnology, among others, have led to new approaches in the development of vaccines. The better identification of ideal epitopes, the strengthening of the immune response due to new adjuvants, and the search of new routes of vaccine administration, are good examples of advances that are already a reality and that will favour the development of more vaccines, their use in indicated population groups, or its production at a lower cost. There are currently more than 130 vaccines are under development against the more wished (malaria or HIV), difficult to get (CMV or RSV), severe re-emerging (Dengue or Ebola), increasing importance (Chagas disease or Leishmania), and nosocomial emerging (Clostridium difficile or Staphylococcus aureus) infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... patterns that increase activation of the innate immune system. Importantly, viral-vectored vaccines that act through the induction of one or more of these factors also may benefit from cytokine coadministration and increased antigen presentation. In order to increase immunogenicity to the level achieved...

  20. Vaccinations-Between free will and coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patryn, Rafał K; Zagaja, Anna

    2016-08-02

    Dynamically changing social situation associated with migrations, increasing freedom rights, popularity of anti-vaccine movements and the resulting from that decrease in herd immunity, forces the medical society and the governments of various countries to reflect on the attitude toward vaccinations. Issues of freedoms and self-determination frequently do not accept any medical coercion in case of prophylactic vaccinations, however, recent waves of epidemics revealed that there is a necessity for undertaking strict legal actions to encourage vaccinations. After analyzing various legal approaches toward vaccinations we believe that personal coercion in case of vaccination refusal has too far reaching sanctions and propose the possibility of balancing the right to autonomy and the medical coercion. We postulate that vaccination refusal should be equivalent with covering frequently high medical costs in case of infection, The threat of financing medical treatment should influence the decision making process of those opposing vaccinations simultaneously respecting their rights not too get vaccinated.

  1. Experimental rabies vaccines for humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGettigan, James P

    2011-01-01

    Rabies remains a global public health threat that kills more than 55,000 people per year. Rabies disproportionately affects children and, therefore, is ranked the seventh most important infectious disease due to years lost. Prevention of human rabies is accomplished by controlling rabies in domestic and wild animals, including the use of vaccination programs. The usefulness of human rabies vaccines is hampered by high cost, complicated vaccination regimens and lack of compliance, especially in areas of Africa and Asia where human rabies infections are endemic. A single-dose vaccine would greatly benefit efforts to combat this global health threat. However, a single-dose vaccine based on current inactivated vaccines does not appear feasible and other approaches are needed. Technology has advanced since modern human rabies vaccines were developed over 40 years ago. In addition, our understanding of immunological principles that influence the outcome of vaccination has increased. This article describes the current status of inactivated rabies virus vaccines and recent developments arising from the use of reverse genetics technologies designed to develop replication-deficient or single-cycle live rabies virus-based vectors for use as a single-dose rabies vaccine for humans. PMID:20923268

  2. Self-reported vaccination in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Borda, Miguel German; Arciniegas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of vaccination in older adults within the city of Bogotá and to estimate the association with sociodemographic and health factors. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from the SABE-Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional population-based study that included a total of 2,000 persons aged 60 years. Weighted percentages for self-reported vaccination [influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus] were determined. The association between vaccination and covariates was evaluate by logistic regression models. Results: A total of 73.0% of respondents received influenza, 57.8% pneumococcal and 47.6% tetanus vaccine. Factors independently associated with vaccination included: 1- age (65-74 years had higher odds of receiving vaccinations, compared to 60-64 years); 2- socioeconomic status (SES) (higher SES had lower odds of having influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, compared to those with lower SES); 3- health insurance (those with contributive or subsidized health insurance had higher odds (between 3 and 5 times higher) of having vaccinations, compared to those with no insurance); 4- older adults with better functional status (greater Lawton scores) had increased odds for all vaccinations; 5- older adults with higher comorbidity had increased odds for influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. Conclusion: Vaccination campaigns should be strengthened to increase vaccination coverage, especially in the group more reticent to vaccination or vulnerable to reach it such as the disabled elder. PMID:27226661

  3. A Novel Synthetic TLR-4 Agonist Adjuvant Increases the Protective Response to a Clinical-Stage West Nile Virus Vaccine Antigen in Multiple Formulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Van Hoeven

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-transmitted member of the Flaviviridae family that has emerged in recent years to become a serious public health threat. Given the sporadic nature of WNV epidemics both temporally and geographically, there is an urgent need for a vaccine that can rapidly provide effective immunity. Protection from WNV infection is correlated with antibodies to the viral envelope (E protein, which encodes receptor binding and fusion functions. Despite many promising E-protein vaccine candidates, there are currently none licensed for use in humans. This study investigates the ability to improve the immunogenicity and protective capacity of a promising clinical-stage WNV recombinant E-protein vaccine (WN-80E by combining it with a novel synthetic TLR-4 agonist adjuvant. Using the murine model of WNV disease, we find that inclusion of a TLR-4 agonist in either a stable oil-in-water emulsion (SE or aluminum hydroxide (Alum formulation provides both dose and dosage sparing functions, whereby protection can be induced after a single immunization containing only 100 ng of WN-80E. Additionally, we find that inclusion of adjuvant with a single immunization reduced viral titers in sera to levels undetectable by viral plaque assay. The enhanced protection provided by adjuvanted immunization correlated with induction of a Th1 T-cell response and the resultant shaping of the IgG response. These findings suggest that inclusion of a next generation adjuvant may greatly enhance the protective capacity of WNV recombinant subunit vaccines, and establish a baseline for future development.

  4. Safe handling of vaccines: the rewards of rigorous routines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Kelly; David, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    A recent report published by the Office of Inspector General (OIG) entitled Vaccines for Children Program: Vulnerabilities in Vaccine Management has brought to public awareness the need for increased attention to safe handling of vaccines. The maximum benefit of receiving vaccines for vaccine-preventable diseases can only be attained when we ensure that safe storage and handling occurs through strict adherence to the vaccine cold chain. This compliance can best be accomplished by identifying a vaccine coordinator that is intimately familiar with the components of the vaccine cold chain and provides the necessary oversight to ensure that all links in the chain are maintained. Utilization of helpful resources, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) resources related to safe handling of vaccines, is central to a well defined process for vaccine handling. This adherence provides reassurance, both to patients receiving vaccine and providers administering it, that the safest and most effective vaccine is being delivered.

  5. Rapid DNA vaccination against Burkholderia pseudomallei flagellin by tattoo or intranasal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankelma, Jacqueline M; Wagemakers, Alex; Birnie, Emma; Haak, Bastiaan W; Trentelman, Jos J A; Weehuizen, Tassili A F; Ersöz, Jasmin; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Hovius, Joppe W; Wiersinga, W Joost; Bins, Adriaan D

    2017-11-17

    Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease with a high mortality that is endemic in South-East Asia and Northern Australia. The causative pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei, is listed as potential bioterror weapon due to its high virulence and potential for easy dissemination. Currently, there is no licensed vaccine for prevention of melioidosis. Here, we explore the use of rapid plasmid DNA vaccination against B. pseudomallei flagellin for protection against respiratory challenge. We tested three flagellin DNA vaccines with different subcellular targeting designs. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated via skin tattoo on day 0, 3 and 6 before intranasal challenge with B. pseudomallei on day 21. Next, the most effective construct was used as single vaccination on day 0 by tattoo or intranasal formulation. Mice were sacrificed 72 hours post-challenge to assess bacterial loads, cytokine responses, inflammation and microscopic lesions. A construct encoding a cellular secretion signal resulted in the most effective protection against melioidosis via tattooing, with a 10-fold reduction in bacterial loads in lungs and distant organs compared to the empty vector. Strikingly, a single intranasal administration of the same vaccine resulted in >1000-fold lower bacterial loads and increased survival. Pro-inflammatory cytokine responses were significantly diminished and strong reductions in markers for distant organ damage were observed. A rapid vaccination scheme using flagellin DNA tattoo provides significant protection against intranasal challenge with B. pseudomallei, markedly improved by a single administration via airway mucosa. Hence intranasal vaccination with flagellin-encoding DNA may be applicable when acute mass vaccination is indicated and warrants further testing.

  6. [Effects of vaccination against Q-fever in Lower Saxony dairy cattle farms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Stefanie; Lohan, Katja; Dieckhoff, Heinz-Josef; Gerdes, Ursula

    2017-06-20

    Being a notifiable and zoonotic disease, Q-fever is coming under increasing focus of epizootic disease control. Current studies indicate that the disease is more widespread in Germany than the number of notifications suggest. Therefore, since 2013, under certain conditions a hardship allowance is granted by the Animal Diseases Fund of Lower Saxony for the vaccine costs of the basic immunization to support affected farms. Material und methods: All farmers, on whose farms clinical signs of Q-fever and the pathogen Coxiella burnetii had been detected prior to vaccination and who had taken advantage of the hardship allowance during the previous 2 years were surveyed to assess the effectiveness of the measure. The survey was conducted by telephone using a previously compiled questionnaire. The topics included the observed clinical signs in cattle before and after the vaccination and the evaluation of the vaccination. Clinical manifestations indicating a Q-fever infection may differ widely and include aborts and fertility disorders and/or frequently occurring inflammations (pneumonia, mastitis, metritis) and/or unspecific symptoms presenting as higher susceptibility to disease, weakness, and fever attacks. Following vaccination, the vast majority of the farmers (84 %) observed a marked health improvement in their cattle and two thirds of the respondents intend to continue with the vaccination even without financial support from the Animal Diseases Fund. Adverse effects beyond general vaccination reactions, including transiently elevated body temperature, physical weakness and fluctuations in milk performance, were rarely observed. The clinical signs for Q-fever were diverse and often unspecific. According to the assessments by the farmers, clinical problems in most cases were considerably reduced following Q-fever vaccination. Vaccination appears to be a valuable tool in the control of this zoonosis.

  7. Cancer Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foreign. Most preventive vaccines, including those aimed at cancer-causing viruses ( hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus ), stimulate the ... 9 through 25 for the prevention of cervical cancer caused by HPV. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines. Chronic HBV infection can lead to ...

  8. BCG Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Vanessa; Liu, Jun; Behr, Marcel A

    2014-02-01

    BCG is the collective name for a family of live attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis that are currently used as the only vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). There are two major reasons for studying the genome of these organisms: (i) Because they are attenuated, BCG vaccines provide a window into Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence, and (ii) because they have provided protection in several clinical trials and case-control studies, BCG vaccines may shed light on properties required of a TB vaccine. Since the determination of the M. tuberculosis genome in 1998, the study of BCG vaccines has accelerated dramatically, offering data on the genomic differences between virulent M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and the vaccine strains. While these findings have been rewarding for the study of virulence, there is unfortunately less accrued knowledge about protection. In this chapter, we review briefly the history of BCG vaccines and then touch upon studies over the past two decades that help explain how BCG underwent attenuation, concluding with some more speculative comments as to how these vaccines might offer protection against TB.

  9. The effects of demographic change on disease transmission and vaccine impact in a household structured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geard, Nicholas; Glass, Kathryn; McCaw, James M; McBryde, Emma S; Korb, Kevin B; Keeling, Matt J; McVernon, Jodie

    2015-12-01

    The demographic structure of populations in both more developed and less developed countries is changing: increases in life expectancy and declining fertility have led to older populations and smaller households. The implications of these demographic changes for the spread and control of infectious diseases are not fully understood. Here we use an individual based model with realistic and dynamic age and household structure to demonstrate the marked effect that demographic change has on disease transmission at the population and household level. The decline in fertility is associated with a decrease in disease incidence and an increase in the age of first infection, even in the absence of vaccination or other control measures. Although large households become rarer as fertility decreases, we show that there is a proportionate increase in incidence of disease in these households as the accumulation of susceptible clusters increases the potential for explosive outbreaks. By modelling vaccination, we provide a direct comparison of the relative importance of demographic change and vaccination on incidence of disease. We highlight the increased risks associated with unvaccinated households in a low fertility setting if vaccine behaviour is correlated with household membership. We suggest that models that do not account for future demographic change, and especially its effect on household structure, may potentially overestimate the impact of vaccination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cell-Based Systems Biology Analysis of Human AS03-Adjuvanted H5N1 Avian Influenza Vaccine Responses: A Phase I Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Leigh M; Hoek, Kristen L; Goll, Johannes B; Samir, Parimal; Galassie, Allison; Allos, Tara M; Niu, Xinnan; Gordy, Laura E; Creech, C Buddy; Prasad, Nripesh; Jensen, Travis L; Hill, Heather; Levy, Shawn E; Joyce, Sebastian; Link, Andrew J; Edwards, Kathryn M

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine development for influenza A/H5N1 is an important public health priority, but H5N1 vaccines are less immunogenic than seasonal influenza vaccines. Adjuvant System 03 (AS03) markedly enhances immune responses to H5N1 vaccine antigens, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. We compared the safety (primary endpoint), immunogenicity (secondary), gene expression (tertiary) and cytokine responses (exploratory) between AS03-adjuvanted and unadjuvanted inactivated split-virus H5N1 influenza vaccines. In a double-blinded clinical trial, we randomized twenty adults aged 18-49 to receive two doses of either AS03-adjuvanted (n = 10) or unadjuvanted (n = 10) H5N1 vaccine 28 days apart. We used a systems biology approach to characterize and correlate changes in serum cytokines, antibody titers, and gene expression levels in six immune cell types at 1, 3, 7, and 28 days after the first vaccination. Both vaccines were well-tolerated. Nine of 10 subjects in the adjuvanted group and 0/10 in the unadjuvanted group exhibited seroprotection (hemagglutination inhibition antibody titer > 1:40) at day 56. Within 24 hours of AS03-adjuvanted vaccination, increased serum levels of IL-6 and IP-10 were noted. Interferon signaling and antigen processing and presentation-related gene responses were induced in dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils. Upregulation of MHC class II antigen presentation-related genes was seen in neutrophils. Three days after AS03-adjuvanted vaccine, upregulation of genes involved in cell cycle and division was detected in NK cells and correlated with serum levels of IP-10. Early upregulation of interferon signaling-related genes was also found to predict seroprotection 56 days after first vaccination. Using this cell-based systems approach, novel mechanisms of action for AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccination were observed. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01573312.

  11. Causes of variation in BCG vaccine efficacy: examining evidence from the BCG REVAC cluster randomized trial to explore the masking and the blocking hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Pilger, Daniel; Pereira, Susan M; Genser, Bernd; Cruz, Alvaro A; Cunha, Sergio S; Sant'Anna, Clemax; Hijjar, Miguel A; Ichihara, Maria Y; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2014-06-24

    BCG protection varies and in some places (nearest the equator) is low or absent. Understanding this variation can inform the efforts to develop new vaccines against tuberculosis. Two main hypotheses are used to explain this variation: under masking, new vaccines are unlikely to increase protection; under blocking new vaccines have a greater potential to be effective when BCG is not. We conducted a cluster randomized trial to explored the masking and blocking hypotheses by studying BCG vaccine efficacy of neonatal vaccination and when administered for the first or a second (revaccination) time at school age in two sites (Manaus close and Salvador further south from the equator). Seven hundred and sixty three state schools were matched on socio economic characteristics of the neighborhood and 239,934 children were randomized to vaccine (BCG vaccination at school age) or control group. Protection by first BCG vaccination at school age was high in Salvador (34%, 95% CI 7-53%, p=0.017) but low in Manaus (8%, 95% CI t0 39-40%, p=0.686). For revaccination at school age, protection was modest in Salvador (19%, 95% CI 3-33%, p=0.022) and absent in Manaus (1%, 95% CI to 27-23%, p=0.932). Vaccine efficacy for neonatal vaccination was similar in Salvador (40%, 95% CI 22-54%, pBCG efficacy was marked when vaccine was given at school age but absent at birth, which points towards blocking as the dominant mechanism. New tuberculosis vaccines that overcome or by pass this blocking effect could confer protection in situations where BCG is not protective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Eesti vajab riigiarhitekti / Mark Soosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soosaar, Mark, 1946-

    2006-01-01

    Linnade tekkimisest Eestis, linnaehitusest ja linnaplaneerimisest. Pärnu muinsuskaitsealast ja uute korruselamute ehitamisest. Arhitektuuriameti loomise ja riigiarhitekti ametikoha vajalikkusest. Kommenteerivad Ülar Mark, Triin Ojari, Harry Liivrand, Karin Paulus

  13. THE EDUCATION OF MARK ZUCKERBERG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert Safian

    2012-01-01

    ... do?" This was before The Sodai Network, before Facebook was a global phenomenon, before Mark Zuckerberg was famous. McGirt decided against the ambush and'got her interview the next day Thus began...

  14. Mark Tompkins, Livin' is Deadly

    OpenAIRE

    Ginot, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Cet article rend compte de la longue fréquentation du spectacle " Hommages " de Mark Tompkins, composé de quatre solos hommages à quatre figures de la danse : Nijinski, Valeska Gert, Joséphine Baker et Harry Sheppard. Il est écrit sous une forme fictionnelle qui croise la parole de Mark Tompkins, celle de ses personnages et celle de l'auteure de l'article.

  15. Vaccination coverage and reasons for non-vaccination in a district of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakırcı Nadi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to control and eliminate the vaccine preventable diseases it is important to know the vaccination coverage and reasons for non-vaccination. The primary objective of this study was to determine the complete vaccination rate; the reasons for non-vaccination and the predictors that influence vaccination of children. The other objective was to determine coverage of measles vaccination of the Measles Immunization Days (MID 2005 for children aged 9 month to 6 years in a region of Umraniye, Istanbul, Turkey. Methods A '30 × 7' cluster sampling design was used as the sampling method. Thirty streets were selected at random from study area. Survey data were collected by a questionnaire which was applied face to face to parents of 221 children. A Chi-square test and logistic regression was used for the statistical analyses. Content analysis method was used to evaluate the open-ended questions. Results The complete vaccination rate for study population was 84.5% and 3.2% of all children were totally non-vaccinated. The siblings of non-vaccinated children were also non-vaccinated. Reasons for non-vaccination were as follows: being in the village and couldn't reach to health care services; having no knowledge about vaccination; the father of child didn't allow vaccination; intercurrent illness of child during vaccination time; missed opportunities like not to shave off a vial for only one child. In logistic regression analysis, paternal and maternal levels of education and immigration time of both parents to Istanbul were found to influence whether children were completely vaccinated or non-vaccinated. Measles vaccination coverage during MID was 79.3%. Conclusion Efforts to increase vaccination coverage should take reasons for non-vaccination into account.

  16. VACCINATION: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PHYSICIANS AND PARENTS

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Ivardava

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of mass immunization programs in public health care separated in time the period of infectious diseases in pre-and post-vaccination era. To date, it is clear that there is no more effective preventive programs in medicine, than vaccination. Unfortunately,  at present, the number of unjustified refusals of vaccinations increased that are associated with anti-vaccination parents mood. This article is intended for pediatricians, who often face in their practice with the question...

  17. A reverse evidence of rotavirus vaccines impact

    OpenAIRE

    Martinón-Torres, Federico; Aramburo, Angela; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Cebey, Miriam; Seoane-Pillado, María Teresa; Redondo-Collazo, Lorenzo; Martinón-Sánchez, Jose Maria

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, and due to a quality problem identified in the vaccine manufacture, the rotavirus (RV) vaccination was withheld in Spain during 5 months. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact that this sudden cease had on rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RAGE) hospitalizations. An increase in RAGE hospitalization was observed in parallel to the drop in vaccine coverage. Here, we report the first reverse evidence of rotavirus vaccine impact.

  18. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines Print The meningococcal vaccines protect ...

  19. [Investigation of the practical use of a vaccination device ("Pullet Vaccinator") for young layers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, D; Redmann, T; Rademacher, A; Schormann, R; Zahn, M; Lierz, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety of layer vaccination of the vaccination device "Pullet Vaccinator", its publicised increased operational safety and the practicality of the device using serological monitoring of the vaccination success. In a first trial, two veterinarians experienced in the syringe method vaccinated hens using the syringe and the vaccination device, respectively. After 1 hour, the equipment was switched and both veterinarians continued to vaccinate for a further hour. The second trial proceeded as in the first trial, except with untrained persons. For each of the four vaccination groups (experienced/syringe; experienced/device; untrained/syringe; untrained/device), the number of vaccinated hens was counted and 20 hens were dissected from each group to compare the impact of both inoculation methods on the animals. To monitor vaccination success, blood was collected for serological screening. On the final blood collection day, further hens per group were dissected to evaluate possible long-term injuries. The vaccination device offers greater occupational safety compared to the syringe method. Vaccination injuries to the hens' breast muscles were more pronounced with the syringe application. For experienced persons, the number of vaccinated animals per hour was approximately doubled using the syringe compared to the device. For the untrained, a comparable number of vaccinated animals was recorded for both methods. Serological monitoring did not show any significant differences in antibody response to the vaccination between both methods. In certain points, the device proved technically imperfect and should be revised for improved use in the field.

  20. Enhanced neutralizing antibody titers and Th1 polarization from a novel Escherichia coli derived pandemic influenza vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A G Skibinski

    Full Text Available Influenza pandemics can spread quickly and cost millions of lives; the 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlighted the shortfall in the current vaccine strategy and the need for an improved global response in terms of shortening the time required to manufacture the vaccine and increasing production capacity. Here we describe the pre-clinical assessment of a novel 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine based on the E. coli-produced HA globular head domain covalently linked to virus-like particles derived from the bacteriophage Qβ. When formulated with alum adjuvant and used to immunize mice, dose finding studies found that a 10 µg dose of this vaccine (3.7 µg globular HA content induced antibody titers comparable to a 1.5 µg dose (0.7 µg globular HA content of the licensed 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine Panvax, and significantly reduced viral titers in the lung following challenge with 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza A/California/07/2009 virus. While Panvax failed to induce marked T cell responses, the novel vaccine stimulated substantial antigen-specific interferon-γ production in splenocytes from immunized mice, alongside enhanced IgG2a antibody production. In ferrets the vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies, and following challenge with influenza A/California/07/2009 virus reduced morbidity and lowered viral titers in nasal lavages.

  1. Rotavirus vaccines in routine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D

    2014-11-01

    Vaccines are now available to combat rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide. We review clinical trial data for available rotavirus vaccines and summarize postlicensure data on effectiveness, impact, and safety from countries routinely using these vaccines in national programs. In these countries, rotavirus vaccines have reduced all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus hospitalizations by 17%-55% and 49%-92%, respectively, and all-cause diarrhea deaths by 22%-50% in some settings. Indirect protection of children who are age-ineligible for rotavirus vaccine has also been observed in some high and upper middle income countries. Experience with routine use of rotavirus vaccines in lower middle income countries has been limited to date, but vaccine introductions in such countries have been increasing in recent years. The risk-benefit analysis of rotavirus vaccines is extremely favorable but other strategies to improve the effectiveness of the vaccine, particularly in lower middle income settings, should be considered. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Current controversies in childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Marquez, Maria; White, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    As pediatric practitioners, one of the contemporary challenges in providing medical care for children is the increasing proportion of vaccination refusal. This occurs in spite of the demonstrated individual and collective benefit and cost effectiveness of vaccination. Controversies regarding vaccine components and side effects have misled parents to believe that vaccines might be harmful based on inaccurate data from the Internet, celebrities, as well as misinterpreted and frankly bad science. This belief of vaccines being harmful has led to fear and decreased immunization rates in spite of sound scientific evidence supporting the safety of vaccines and their lack of association with autism, developmental disabilities or other medical disorders. Some parents also believe in alternative ways to avoid disease, often adhering to practices that have little foundation in the best of empiric science. It is not a coincidence that recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases, including measles and pertussis (whooping cough), have occurred in areas where vaccination has declined largely due to exemptors. This article intends to review some of the common vaccine myths and controversies and to serve as a resource to provide accurate information and references for busy practitioners and the families that we serve.

  3. ICAM-1-based rabies virus vaccine shows increased infection and activation of primary murine B cells in vitro and enhanced antibody titers in-vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Norton

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines infect and directly activate murine and human primary B cells in-vitro, which we propose can be exploited to help develop a single-dose RABV-based vaccine. Here we report on a novel approach to utilize the binding of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1 to its binding partner, Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1, on B cells to enhance B cell activation and RABV-specific antibody responses. We used a reverse genetics approach to clone, recover, and characterize a live-attenuated recombinant RABV-based vaccine expressing the murine Icam1 gene (rRABV-mICAM-1. We show that the murine ICAM-1 gene product is incorporated into virus particles, potentially exposing ICAM-1 to extracellular binding partners. While rRABV-mICAM-1 showed 10-100-fold decrease in viral titers on baby hamster kidney cells compared to the parental virus (rRABV, rRABV-mICAM-1 infected and activated primary murine B cells in-vitro more efficiently than rRABV, as indicated by significant upregulation of CD69, CD40, and MHCII on the surface of infected B cells. ICAM-1 expression on the virus surface was responsible for enhanced B cell infection since pre-treating rRABV-mICAM-1 with a neutralizing anti-ICAM-1 antibody reduced B cell infection to levels observed with rRABV alone. Furthermore, 100-fold less rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce antibody titers in immunized mice equivalent to antibody titers observed in rRABV-immunized mice. Of note, only 10(3 focus forming units (ffu/mouse of rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce significant anti-RABV antibody titers as early as five days post-immunization. As both speed and potency of antibody responses are important in controlling human RABV infection in a post-exposure setting, these data show that expression of Icam1 from the RABV genome, which is then incorporated into the virus particle, is a promising strategy for the development of a

  4. ICAM-1-based rabies virus vaccine shows increased infection and activation of primary murine B cells in vitro and enhanced antibody titers in-vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, James E; Lytle, Andrew G; Shen, Shixue; Tzvetkov, Evgeni P; Dorfmeier, Corin L; McGettigan, James P

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines infect and directly activate murine and human primary B cells in-vitro, which we propose can be exploited to help develop a single-dose RABV-based vaccine. Here we report on a novel approach to utilize the binding of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) to its binding partner, Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1), on B cells to enhance B cell activation and RABV-specific antibody responses. We used a reverse genetics approach to clone, recover, and characterize a live-attenuated recombinant RABV-based vaccine expressing the murine Icam1 gene (rRABV-mICAM-1). We show that the murine ICAM-1 gene product is incorporated into virus particles, potentially exposing ICAM-1 to extracellular binding partners. While rRABV-mICAM-1 showed 10-100-fold decrease in viral titers on baby hamster kidney cells compared to the parental virus (rRABV), rRABV-mICAM-1 infected and activated primary murine B cells in-vitro more efficiently than rRABV, as indicated by significant upregulation of CD69, CD40, and MHCII on the surface of infected B cells. ICAM-1 expression on the virus surface was responsible for enhanced B cell infection since pre-treating rRABV-mICAM-1 with a neutralizing anti-ICAM-1 antibody reduced B cell infection to levels observed with rRABV alone. Furthermore, 100-fold less rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce antibody titers in immunized mice equivalent to antibody titers observed in rRABV-immunized mice. Of note, only 10(3) focus forming units (ffu)/mouse of rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce significant anti-RABV antibody titers as early as five days post-immunization. As both speed and potency of antibody responses are important in controlling human RABV infection in a post-exposure setting, these data show that expression of Icam1 from the RABV genome, which is then incorporated into the virus particle, is a promising strategy for the development of a single-dose RABV

  5. Vaccination of active component US military personnel against Salmonella Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Chad K; Sorrell, Tia; Mitra, Indrani; Riddle, Mark S

    2017-03-27

    Vaccination against Salmonella Typhi is one of the leading public health interventions reducing the risk of typhoid fever. There are two available licensed vaccines, Vivotif, oral live-attenuated, and Typhim Vi, intramuscular Vi capsular polysaccharide. The US military is a high risk travel population commonly vaccinated for S. Typhi. We describe the use of S. Typhi vaccination in this population and the acute reactogenicity profile of these vaccines. Data were obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System and vaccination identified between 1998 and 2011 from vaccination codes. Clinical outcomes were assessed for four weeks post vaccination. Adverse event rates and odds ratios were estimated across the two vaccine types. A total of 1.9million predominately male military personnel received 3.6 million S. Typhi vaccinations with 94.3% of vaccinees receiving the Vi capsule vaccine though variability in the vaccine administered was observed. Receipt of other vaccinations in the 6months surrounding the S. Typhi vaccine was common. Rates of nausea (195 per 100,000 vaccinations), headache (13 per 100,000 vaccinations) and fever (40 per 100,000 vaccinations) were significantly higher following Vi capsule vaccination compared to receipt of Vivotif (130, 2, 10 per 100,000 vaccinations, respectively). In contrast the rates of rash and non-infectious diarrhea (186 and 426 per 100,000 vaccinations, respectively) were increased in those receiving Vivotif compared to the Vi capsule vaccine. The US military is a major consumer of S. Typhi vaccines. The parenterally administered vaccine appears to be more amenable, though we were limited in our ability to assess the reasons for its higher usage. While we observed a higher rate of several adverse events in subjects receiving the intramuscular vaccination, the overall rate of these events was low. Future studies assessing more long-term health outcomes are warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Vaccinate-assess-move method of mass canine rabies vaccination utilising mobile technology data collection in Ranchi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew D; Ohal, Praveen; Shervell, Kate; Handel, Ian G; Bronsvoort, Barend M; Mellanby, Richard J; Gamble, Luke

    2015-12-29

    Over 20,000 people die from rabies each year in India. At least 95 % of people contract rabies from an infected dog. Annual vaccination of over 70 % of the dog population has eliminated both canine and human rabies in many countries. Despite having the highest burden of rabies in the world, there have been very few studies which have reported the successful, large scale vaccination of dogs in India. Furthermore, many Indian canine rabies vaccination programmes have not achieved high vaccine coverage. In this study, we utilised a catch-vaccinate-release approach in a canine rabies vaccination programme in 18 wards in Ranchi, India. Following vaccination, surveys of the number of marked, vaccinated and unmarked, unvaccinated dogs were undertaken. A bespoke smartphone 'Mission Rabies' application was developed to facilitate data entry and team management. This enabled GPS capture of the location of all vaccinated dogs and dogs sighted on post vaccination surveys. In areas where coverage was below 70 %, catching teams were re-deployed to vaccinate more dogs followed by repeat survey. During the initial vaccination cycle, 6593 dogs were vaccinated. Vaccination coverage was over 70 % in 14 of the 18 wards. A second cycle of vaccination was performed in the 4 wards where initial vaccination coverage was below 70 %. Following this second round of vaccination, coverage was reassessed and found to be over 70 % in two wards and only just below 70 % in the final two wards (66.7 % and 68.2 %, respectively). Our study demonstrated that mobile technology enabled efficient team management and rapid data entry and analysis. The vaccination approach outlined in this study has the potential to facilitate the rapid vaccination of large numbers of dogs at a high coverage in free roaming dog populations in India.

  7. Non-conventional expression systems for the production of vaccine proteins and immunotherapeutic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legastelois, Isabelle; Buffin, Sophie; Peubez, Isabelle; Mignon, Charlotte; Sodoyer, Régis; Werle, Bettina

    2017-04-03

    The increasing demand for recombinant vaccine antigens or immunotherapeutic molecules calls into question the universality of current protein expression systems. Vaccine production can require relatively low amounts of expressed materials, but represents an extremely diverse category consisting of different target antigens with marked structural differences. In contrast, monoclonal antibodies, by definition share key molecular characteristics and require a production system capable of very large outputs, which drives the quest for highly efficient and cost-effective systems. In discussing expression systems, the primary assumption is that a universal production platform for vaccines and immunotherapeutics will unlikely exist. This review provides an overview of the evolution of traditional expression systems, including mammalian cells, yeast and E.coli, but also alternative systems such as other bacteria than E. coli, transgenic animals, insect cells, plants and microalgae, Tetrahymena thermophila, Leishmania tarentolae, filamentous fungi, cell free systems, and the incorporation of non-natural amino acids.

  8. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  9. AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA INFECTION IN VACCINATED RAINBOW TROUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar

    to that of the commercial vaccine with lower side effects as observed by the Speilberg scoring system. Gene expression analysis did not show a clear trend for Th1 or Th2 response in the vaccinated fish. Exposure of fish to saltwater increased the IgT production. Overall, the immune response in vaccinated fish, the side......In vivo testing of any candidate vaccine is influenced by the choice of challenge method and the external environmental conditions. In the present study, a comparative challenge study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of different vaccines against the bacterial pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida...... causing furunculosis. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were vaccinated with two trivalent adjuvanted experimental vaccines containing formalin-killed A. salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum O1 and O2a and a commercial corresponding vaccine (Alpha Ject 3000). Fish were challenged by i.p. injection...

  10. The societal value of universal childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Isabelle; Goetghebeur, Mireille M; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre

    2004-05-07

    Availability of new vaccines preventing infectious diseases in healthy children populations is increasing worldwide. In Canada, despite the current recommendation of the National Advisory Committee on Immunization to include recent vaccines in routine schedule, only a few provinces have incorporated some of the newer vaccines in routine vaccination programs. A review was undertaken of economic evaluations of childhood vaccination strategies performed from the societal point of view in industrialized countries, to gain perspective on their global benefits. The general trend supports most universal vaccination programs as cost-saving or cost-effective for society. Comparison of vaccination programs with other health care interventions indicates that vaccines are often one of society's best healthcare investments. Current data suggest that the Canadian society would benefit from a more complete immunization program.

  11. Vaccination of healthcare workers: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviari, Skerdi; Bénet, Thomas; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; André, Philippe; Loulergue, Pierre; Vanhems, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine-preventable diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. As new vaccines are proving to be effective and as the incidence of some infections decreases, vaccination practices are changing. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are particularly exposed to and play a role in nosocomial transmission, which makes them an important target group for vaccination. Most vaccine-preventable diseases still carry a significant risk of resurgence and have caused outbreaks in recent years. While many professional societies favor vaccination of HCWs as well as the general population, recommendations differ from country to country. In turn, vaccination coverage varies widely for each microorganism and for each country, making hospitals and clinics vulnerable to outbreaks. Vaccine mandates and non-mandatory strategies are the subject of ongoing research and controversies. Optimal approaches to increase coverage and turn the healthcare workforce into an efficient barrier against infectious diseases are still being debated. PMID:26291642

  12. Is vaccine type seropositivity a marker for human papillomavirus vaccination? National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Emiko Y; Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E; Panicker, Gitika; Unger, Elizabeth R; Dunne, Eileen F

    2015-04-01

    Since 2006, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been routinely recommended for adolescent females in the USA. The quadrivalent vaccine induces long-term seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16, which may be useful as a marker for HPV vaccine coverage. We evaluated vaccine type seropositivity (i.e., seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16 with or without HPV18) among females aged 14-59 years participating in the 2003-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys). We compared pre-vaccine era (2003-2006) to vaccine era (2007-2010) seropositivity and assessed agreement between vaccine era seropositivity and reported vaccination by kappa statistic. Seropositivity was 1.0% among 2151 females in the pre-vaccine era and 22.1% among 1420 females in the vaccine era (p vaccine era females reported receipt of one or more HPV vaccine dose. Seropositivity and reported vaccination had high agreement (kappa = 0.79; 95% confidence interval 0.74-0.84). Among seropositive females, 14.5% reported no vaccination. The increase in vaccine era seropositivity likely reflects vaccination uptake. Our study suggests seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16 may be a useful marker for vaccination coverage in adolescent and young adult females. Discordance between seropositivity and reported vaccination may be explained by inaccurate reporting and/or natural exposure to HPV. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Choice and design of adjuvants for parenteral and mucosal vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Ferro, V.A.; Strioga, M.M.; Schijns, V.E.J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of pathogens that escape recognition by specific vaccines, the need to improve existing vaccines and the increased availability of therapeutic (non-infectious disease) vaccines necessitate the rational development of novel vaccine concepts based on the induction of protective

  14. Vastab Mark Lubotski / Mark Lubotski ; interv. Toomas Velmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lubotski, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Hamburgi Muusikakõrgkooli viiuliprofessor Mark Lubotskist, kes viibis Tallinnas oktoobris 2008 ja oli IV rahvusvahelise Heino Elleri nimelise viiuldajate konkursi žürii esimeheks. Tema sidemetest Eesti muusikutega, pagemisest Läände, Heino Elleri nimelisest konkursist ja tööst žüriis

  15. Mark Napier / Mark Napier ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Napier, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Ameerika kunstnikust Mark Napierist (sünd. 1961) ja tema loomingust, 2001. a. tehtud meiliintervjuu kunstnikuga. Võrguteosest "The Digital Landfill" (1998), koos Andy Deckiga loodud tööst "GrafficJam" (1999), töödest "Shredder" (1998), "Feed", "Riot", "P-Soup" (2000), võrgukunstist ja muust

  16. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  17. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  18. Flu Vaccine Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español ... of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. Hundreds ...

  19. Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend on ... or fungi from contaminating the vaccine. Do flu vaccines contain thimerosal? Flu vaccines in multi-dose vials ...

  20. Vaccine Basics (Smallpox)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Side Effects of Vaccination Who Should Get a Smallpox Vaccination? Bioterrorism The Threat Preparedness Detection and Response Bioterrorism ... Revaccinees Examples of Major or “Take” Reactions to Smallpox Vaccination Vaccine Adverse Reaction Images Laboratory Personnel Specimen Collection ...

  1. Your child's first vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... multi.html . CDC review information for Multi Pediatric Vaccines: Your Child's First Vaccines: What you need to know (VIS): ... of that vaccine. Tell the person giving the vaccines if your child has ever had a severe reaction after any ...

  2. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  3. Next generation prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, John T; Müller, Martin

    2015-05-01

    The two licensed bivalent and quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 (the major papillomavirus virion protein) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines are regarded as safe, effective, and well established prophylactic vaccines. However, they have some inherent limitations, including a fairly high production and delivery cost, virus-type restricted protection, and no reported therapeutic activity, which might be addressed with the development of alternative dosing schedules and vaccine products. A change from a three-dose to a two-dose protocol for the licensed HPV vaccines, especially in younger adolescents (aged 9-13 years), is underway in several countries and is likely to become the future norm. Preliminary evidence suggests that recipients of HPV vaccines might derive prophylactic benefits from one dose of the bivalent vaccine. Substantial interest exists in both the academic and industrial sectors in the development of second-generation L1 VLP vaccines in terms of cost reduction-eg, by production in Escherichia coli or alternative types of yeast. However, Merck's nonavalent vaccine, produced via the Saccharomyces cerevisiae production system that is also used for their quadrivalent vaccine, is the first second-generation HPV VLP vaccine to be available on the market. By contrast, other pharmaceutical companies are developing microbial vectors that deliver L1 genes. These two approaches would add an HPV component to existing live attenuated vaccines for measles and typhoid fever. Prophylactic vaccines that are based on induction of broadly cross-neutralising antibodies to L2, the minor HPV capsid protein, are also being developed both as simple monomeric fusion proteins and as virus-like display vaccines. The strong interest in developing the next generation of vaccines, particularly by manufacturers in middle-to-high income countries, increases the likelihood that vaccine production will become decentralised with the hope that effective HPV vaccines will be

  4. Increase of circulating CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma during treatment with dendritic cell vaccination and low-dose interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Annika; Brimnes, Marie Klinge; thor Straten, Per

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the maintenance of immune tolerance and may be one of the obstacles of successful tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we analyzed the impact of administration of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in combination with low-dose interleukin (IL)-2...... in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma on the frequency of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ Treg cells in peripheral blood. We found that the treatment increased the frequency of Treg cells more than 7-fold compared with pretreatment levels (P...

  5. Is vaccine type seropositivity a marker for human papillomavirus vaccination? National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiko Y. Petrosky

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The increase in vaccine era seropositivity likely reflects vaccination uptake. Our study suggests seropositivity to HPV 6/11/16 may be a useful marker for vaccination coverage in adolescent and young adult females. Discordance between seropositivity and reported vaccination may be explained by inaccurate reporting and/or natural exposure to HPV.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Dengue Vaccination Programs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha

    2017-05-01

    AbstractThe first approved dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV, a chimeric, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus vaccine, was recently licensed in 13 countries, including Brazil. In light of recent vaccine approval, we modeled the cost-effectiveness of potential vaccination policies mathematically based on data from recent vaccine efficacy trials that indicated that vaccine efficacy was lower in seronegative individuals than in seropositive individuals. In our analysis, we investigated several vaccination programs, including routine vaccination, with various vaccine coverage levels and those with and without large catch-up campaigns. As it is unclear whether the vaccine protects against infection or just against disease, our model incorporated both direct and indirect effects of vaccination. We found that in the presence of vaccine-induced indirect protection, the cost-effectiveness of dengue vaccination decreased with increasing vaccine coverage levels because the marginal returns of herd immunity decreases with vaccine coverage. All routine dengue vaccination programs that we considered were cost-effective, reducing dengue incidence significantly. Specifically, a routine dengue vaccination of 9-year-olds would be cost-effective when the cost of vaccination per individual is less than $262. Furthermore, the combination of routine vaccination and large catch-up campaigns resulted in a greater reduction of dengue burden (by up to 93%) than routine vaccination alone, making it a cost-effective intervention as long as the cost per course of vaccination is $255 or less. Our results show that dengue vaccination would be cost-effective in Brazil even with a relatively low vaccine efficacy in seronegative individuals.

  7. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics: News

    OpenAIRE

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term effectiveness shown for Merck’s chickenpox vaccine Again—no link between vaccines and autism Experimental ovarian cancer vaccine successful in phase 1 Sinovac’s HFMD vaccine meets phase 3 study goal A vaccine for long-suffering cat allergy patients Vaccines are key to breaking infectious disease-malnutrition cycle Cancer vaccine failures due to the adjuvant IFA? Novartis’ typhoid vaccine make good progress

  8. Parents’ Source of Vaccine Information and Impact on Vaccine Attitudes, Beliefs, and Nonmedical Exemptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey M. Jones

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, use of the Internet to obtain vaccine information has increased. Historical data are necessary to evaluate current vaccine information seeking trends in context. Between 2002 and 2003, surveys were mailed to 1,630 parents of fully vaccinated children and 815 parents of children with at least one vaccine exemption; 56.1% responded. Respondents were asked about their vaccine information sources, perceptions of these sources accuracy, and their beliefs about vaccination. Parents who did not view their child’s healthcare provider as a reliable vaccine information source were more likely to obtain vaccine information using the Internet. Parents who were younger, more highly educated, and opposed to school immunization requirements were more likely than their counterparts to use the Internet for vaccine information. Compared to parents who did not use the Internet for vaccine information, those who sought vaccine information on the Internet were more likely to have lower perceptions of vaccine safety (adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.18–2.35, vaccine effectiveness (aOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.32–2.53, and disease susceptibility (aOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.49–2.90 and were more likely to have a child with a nonmedical exemption (aOR 3.53, 95% CI, 2.61–4.76. These findings provide context to interpret recent vaccine information seeking research.

  9. Influence of sources of information about influenza vaccine on parental attitudes and adolescent vaccine receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Lisa M; Underwood, Natasha L; Sales, Jessica M; Seib, Katherine; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M

    2015-01-01

    In 2011-2012, only 34% of 13-17 years olds in the United States (US) received seasonal influenza vaccine. Little is known about the link between parents' sources of health information, their vaccine-related attitudes, and vaccination of their adolescent against influenza. This study seeks to determine the relationship between number of sources of information on influenza vaccine, parental attitudes toward influenza vaccine, and influenza vaccine uptake in adolescents. We conducted a telephone and web-based survey among US parents of students enrolled in 6 middle and 5 high schools in Georgia. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to examine associations between the number of information sources about influenza vaccine and vaccine receipt and whether parent vaccine-related attitudes act as a mediator. The most commonly reported sources of information were: a physician/medical professional (95.0%), a family member or friend (80.6%), and television (77.2%). Parents who had higher attitude scores toward influenza vaccine were 5 times as likely to report their adolescent had ever received influenza vaccine compared to parents who had lower attitude scores (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.1; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.1-8.4; P influencing parental decision-making about influenza vaccine for adolescents. Harnessing the power of mass media and family members and friends as health advocates for influenza vaccination can potentially help increase vaccination coverage of adolescents.

  10. Primary and booster vaccination in Latin American children with a DTPw-HBV/Hib combination: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collard Alix

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis (DTPw-based combination vaccines are an attractive option to rapidly achieve high coverage and protection against other important pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib. To ensure adequate antigen supply, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals has introduced a new DTPw antigen source and developed a new DTPw-HBV/Hib combination vaccine containing a reduced amount of Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP. This study was undertaken to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine with a licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib. Methods This was a randomized, partially-blind, multicenter study in three countries in Latin America (Argentina, Chile and Nicaragua. Healthy children received either the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (1 of 3 lots; n = 439; double-blind or Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib (n = 146; single-blind co-administered with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV at 2, 4 and 6 months, with a booster dose at 18-24 months. Results One month after the end of the 3-dose primary vaccination course, the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine was non-inferior to Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib in terms of seroprotection/vaccine response rates for all component antigens; ≥97.3% and ≥93.9% of subjects in the two groups, respectively, had seroprotective levels of antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B and Hib and a vaccine response to the pertussis component. Persistence of antibodies against all vaccine antigens was comparable between groups, with marked increases in all antibody concentrations after booster administration in both groups. Both vaccines were generally well-tolerated as primary and booster doses. Conclusions Results confirm the suitability of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine comprising antigens from a new source and a reduced PRP content for inclusion into routine childhood vaccination programs. Trial registration http

  11. Vaccination Coverage Cluster Surveys in Middle Dreib - Akkar, Lebanon: Comparison of Vaccination Coverage in Children Aged 12-59 Months Pre- and Post-Vaccination Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Rodolfo; Assaad, Ramia; Rebeschini, Arianna; Hamadeh, Randa

    2016-01-01

    With the high proportion of refugee population throughout Lebanon and continuous population movement, it is sensible to believe that, in particular vulnerable areas, vaccination coverage may not be at an optimal level. Therefore, we assessed the vaccination coverage in children under 5 in a district of the Akkar governorate before and after a vaccination campaign. During the vaccination campaign, conducted in August 2015, 2,509 children were vaccinated. We conducted a pre- and post-vaccination campaign coverage surveys adapting the WHO EPI cluster survey to the Lebanese MoPH vaccination calendar. Percentages of coverage for each dose of each vaccine were calculated for both surveys. Factors associated with complete vaccination were explored. Comparing the pre- with the post-campaign surveys, coverage for polio vaccine increased from 51.9% to 84.3%, for Pentavalent from 49.0% to 71.9%, for MMR from 36.2% to 61.0%, while the percentage of children with fully updated vaccination calendar increased from 32.9% to 53.8%. While Lebanese children were found to be better covered for some antigens compared to Syrians at the first survey, this difference disappeared at the post-campaign survey. Awareness and logistic obstacles were the primary reported causes of not complete vaccination in both surveys. Vaccination campaigns remain a quick and effective approach to increase vaccination coverage in crisis-affected areas. However, campaigns cannot be considered as a replacement of routine vaccination services to maintain a good level of coverage.

  12. HIV-1 vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure. PMID:24637946

  13. Vaccines for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Weinberger, Birgit; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2015-01-01

    The aging of the human population is posing serious challenges to research and to public health authorities in order to prevent diseases that more frequently affect the elderly, a portion of the population that will increase more and more in the coming years. While some vaccines exist and are used in the elderly to effectively fight against some infections (e.g. influenza, pneumococci, varicella-zoster virus, diphtheria, and tetanus), still a lot of work remains to be done to better adapt these vaccines and to develop new ones for this age group. The prevention of infectious diseases affecting the elderly can be successful only through a holistic approach. This approach will aim at the following: (1) a deeper understanding of the mechanisms leading to the senescence of the immune system, (2) a better and broader use of vaccines recommended for the elderly, (3) the use of vaccines currently considered only for other age groups and (4) actively priming the population when they are immunological competent, before the physiological waning of immune responsiveness may affect the beneficial effects of vaccination. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Spear-Marked Black Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Werner; Bruce H. Baker

    1977-01-01

    The spear-marked black moth, Rheumaptera hastata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a serious defoliator of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) in interior Alaska. Epidemic populations have occurred at 15- to 17- year intervals, persisted for 2 years, and then collapsed. Recorded outbreaks occurred in 1941, acreage unknown; from 1957 to 1958, 5 million acres (2...

  15. Antibody persistence after a primary series of a new DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T combined vaccine or separate DTaP-IPV//PRP-T and hepatitis B vaccines at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and the effect of a subsequent DTaP-IPV//PRP-T booster vaccination at 18 months of age in healthy Argentinean infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Zambrano, Betzana; Santos-Lima, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    To assess antibody persistence after vaccination with a new, fully liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine at 18 months of age versus licensed DTaP-IPV//PRP-T and hepatitis B (Hep B) vaccines, and to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a subsequent DTaP-IPV//PRP-T booster. A phase III, open-label, single-center study was conducted. Infants previously primed with 3 doses of DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T (Hexaxim: N = 232 [group 1]) or DTaP-IPV//PRP-T and hepatitis B vaccine (Pentaxim + Engerix B Pediatrico: N = 226 [group 2]) at 2, 4, and 6 months of age received a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T booster at 18 months of age. Antibodies were measured before and 1 month after booster vaccination. Safety was evaluated from parental reports. Analyses were descriptive. Antibody persistence was high and similar in each group for each antigen except for Hep B, for which the percentage (95% confidence interval) of participants with a titer of ≥ 10 mIU/mL was higher in group 2 (99.5% [97.5%, 100.0%]) than in group 1 (85.5% [80.3%, 89.8%]). Postbooster seroprotection (diphtheria, tetanus, inactivated poliovirus, polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate) and serconversion (pertussis toxoid, filamentous hemagglutinin) rates were high and similar in each group, and geometric mean antibody concentrations increased markedly in both groups. Safety after the booster vaccination was good and independent of the primary-series vaccine, although one serious adverse event of convulsions was considered to be vaccine related. The DTaP-IPV/PRP-T booster vaccination at 18 months of age was similarly immunogenic and well tolerated after primary-series vaccination with either the investigational hexavalent vaccine or the reference pentavalent vaccine. This confirms the suitability of a booster vaccination of DTaP-IPV//PRP-T after a primary series of the new DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine.

  16. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi-Parvar, Faeze; Hatam, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  17. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  18. Adverse events following rabies post-exposure prophylaxis: a comparative study of two different schedules and two vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Tugba; Tulek, Necla; Bulut, Cemal; Oral, Behic; Tuncer Ertem, Gunay

    2014-01-01

    Due to lack of effective treatment for rabies, post-exposure prophylaxis becomes very important. In this study, we investigated side effects developed in patients following administration of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. A total of 1685 patients were vaccinated. 265 patients (15.7%) administered the Essen regimen with equine rabies immunoglobulin and 1420 patients (84.2%) administered Zagreb regimen. 761 (45.2%) patients were vaccinated with a verocell vaccine; Verorab and 924 patients (54.8%) were vaccinated with Abhayrab. All side effects were higher in female patients than those of males. The patients with chronic illness also had significantly, increased side effects; headache (12.4%), pain at site of administration (11.3%), and arthralgia (10.5%) compared to the patients without chronic illness. We grouped the patients in three as; 0-15 years, 15-60 years, and 60 years and above. In the first group; fever (21.2%), vomiting (2.4%) and coughing (2.1%); in the second group (15-60 years), headache (8.8%), arthralgia (6.7%) were significantly increased compared to the other groups. Side effects are significantly higher with schema of 2-1-1 and Abhayrab trade mark vaccine, particularly following the first doses. Second generation rabies vaccines are safe, effective and cheaper than HDCV. When fatality of rabies disease is considered, occurring side effects can be tolerated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of pneumococcal vaccination in Denmark during the first 3 years after PCV introduction in the childhood immunization programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingels, Helene; Rasmussen, Jeppe; Andersen, Peter Henrik

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in Denmark in October 2007 in a 2+1 schedule with a catch-up programme for children up to 17 months of age. To assess the impact of PCV we evaluated on the whole population: (1) direct and indirect effects...... and of IPD caused by vaccine serotypes declined significantly from 19.5 to 17.7 and from 7.7 to 3.8 cases per 100,000 persons comparing the two periods. The incidence of IPD due to non-vaccine serotypes (NVT-IPD) increased significantly from 11.8 to 13.9 cases per 100,000 in the whole population (incidence...... rate ratio 1.18; 95% CI [1.12-1.24]) with predominance of the serotypes 1.7F and 19A. CONCLUSIONS: We report a marked decline in incidence in IPD in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated age groups and a minor but statistically significant increase in incidence of IPD due to NVTs in both vaccinated...

  20. Veterinary vaccines: alternatives to antibiotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia van Drunen

    2008-12-01

    The prevention of infectious diseases of animals by vaccination has been routinely practiced for decades and has proved to be one of the most cost-effective methods of disease control. However, since the pioneering work of Pasteur in the 1880s, the composition of veterinary vaccines has changed very little from a conceptual perspective and this has, in turn, limited their application in areas such as the control of chronic infectious diseases. New technologies in the areas of vaccine formulation and delivery as well as our increased knowledge of disease pathogenesis and the host responses associated with protection from disease offer promising alternatives for vaccine formulation as well as targets for the prevention of bacterial disease. These new vaccines have the potential to lessen our reliance on antibiotics for disease control, but will only reach their full potential when used in combination with other intervention strategies.

  1. Seasonal influenza vaccination of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The elderly are at increased risk of the complications of seasonal influenza. Annual vaccination is therefore recommended. However, two systematic reviews published by the Cochrane collaboration have highlighted a number of outstanding issues. This article examines whether annual influenza vaccination of the elderly and their regular contacts is still supported by the available scientific evidence. The randomised trials included in one of the Cochrane reviews suggest that influenza vaccination reduces the incidence of flu-like syndromes and laboratory-confirmed influenza in the elderly. There are no robust randomised trials specifically designed to assess whether vaccination of the elderly prevents influenza complications. Two case-control studies showed a statistical correlation between vaccination and a lower risk of death from influenza complications. Cohort studies have also shown that complications are less frequent when the vaccine strains correspond to circulating strains. Because of a patient selection bias, non-randomised studies seem to overestimate the efficacy of vaccination. Three randomised trials showed that vaccination of care home staff reduced mortality among elderly residents during seasonal flu epidemics. No such effect was observed in another trial, possibly because a large proportion (32%) of staff in the control institutions had also been vaccinated. In practice, influenza vaccination of the elderly with risk factors for complications is justified, especially for care home residents, their regular contacts and healthcare workers. Seasonal flu vaccination of healthy people over 65 provides limited benefit but its harm-benefit balance remains favourable. More studies of routine influenza vaccination of the elderly are needed.

  2. National Vaccine Policy: ethical equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, T

    2013-01-01

    The ministry of health and family welfare published the national vaccination policy in April 2011. The policy document drew severe criticism from several public health experts. A review of the print and web-based literature on the national vaccine policy was done and the issues of ethics and equity involved in introducing new vaccines under the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) were studied. The average coverage of the UIP vaccines at the national level is below 50%. Despite this, the policy document did not state any concrete strategy for increasing the coverage. The main stumbling block for evidence-based vaccine policy in India is the lack of reliable epidemiological data, which makes it difficult for the National Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation to offer sound technical advice to the government. No attempts have been made to prioritise diseases or the selection of vaccines. The policy suggests the introduction of the following vaccines in the UIP: Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal vaccine, rotavirus vaccines and human papillomavirus (HPV). This selection is on the grounds of the vaccines' availability, not on the basis of epidemiological evidence or proven cost-effectiveness. This is a critical review of the current vaccination policy and the move to include the rotavirus and HPV vaccines in the UIP.

  3. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  4. Evaluation of copper for divider subassembly in MCO Mark IA and Mark IV scrap fuel baskets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1997-09-29

    The K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) subprojection eludes the design and fabrication of a canister that will be used to confine, contain, and maintain fuel in a critically safe array to enable its removal from the K Basins, vacuum drying, transport, staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage (Goldinann 1997). Each MCO consists of a shell, shield plug, fuel baskets (Mark IA or Mark IV), and other incidental equipment. The Mark IA intact and scrap fuel baskets are a safety class item for criticality control and components necessary for criticality control will be constructed from 304L stainless steel. It is proposed that a copper divider subassembly be used in both Mark IA and Mark IV scrap baskets to increase the safety basis margin during cold vacuum drying. The use of copper would increase the heat conducted away from hot areas in the baskets out to the wall of the MCO by both radiative and conductive heat transfer means. Thus copper subassembly will likely be a safety significant component of the scrap fuel baskets. This report examines the structural, cost and corrosion consequences associated with using a copper subassembly in the stainless steel MCO scrap fuel baskets.

  5. Dendrimers for Vaccine and Immunostimulatory Uses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Boas, Ulrik; Sørensen, Nanna Skall

    2010-01-01

    for efficient immunostimulating compounds (adjuvants) that can increase the efficiency of vaccines, as dendrimers can provide molecularly defined multivalent scaffolds to produce highly defined conjugates with small molecule immunostimulators and/or antigens. The review gives an overview on the use...... of dendrimers as molecularly defined carriers/presenters of small antigens, including constructs that have built-in immunostimulatory (adjuvant) properties, and as stand-alone adjuvants that can be mixed with antigens to provide efficient vaccine formulations. These approaches allow the preparation...... of molecularly defined vaccines with highly predictable and specific properties and enable knowledge-based vaccine design substituting the traditional empirically based approaches for vaccine development and production....

  6. Imperfect vaccine aggravates the long-standing dilemma of voluntary vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    Full Text Available Achieving widespread population immunity by voluntary vaccination poses a major challenge for public health administration and practice. The situation is complicated even more by imperfect vaccines. How the vaccine efficacy affects individuals' vaccination behavior has yet to be fully answered. To address this issue, we combine a simple yet effective game theoretic model of vaccination behavior with an epidemiological process. Our analysis shows that, in a population of self-interested individuals, there exists an overshooting of vaccine uptake levels as the effectiveness of vaccination increases. Moreover, when the basic reproductive number, R0, exceeds a certain threshold, all individuals opt for vaccination for an intermediate region of vaccine efficacy. We further show that increasing effectiveness of vaccination always increases the number of effectively vaccinated individuals and therefore attenuates the epidemic strain. The results suggest that 'number is traded for efficiency': although increases in vaccination effectiveness lead to uptake drops due to free-riding effects, the impact of the epidemic can be better mitigated.

  7. Vaccinating Girls and Boys with Different Human Papillomavirus Vaccines: Can It Optimise Population-Level Effectiveness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Drolet

    Full Text Available Decision-makers may consider vaccinating girls and boys with different HPV vaccines to benefit from their respective strengths; the quadrivalent (HPV4 prevents anogenital warts (AGW whilst the bivalent (HPV2 may confer greater cross-protection. We compared, to a girls-only vaccination program with HPV4, the impact of vaccinating: 1 both genders with HPV4, and 2 boys with HPV4 and girls with HPV2.We used an individual-based transmission-dynamic model of heterosexual HPV infection and diseases. Our base-case scenario assumed lifelong efficacy of 100% against vaccine types, and 46,29,8,18,6% and 77,43,79,8,0% efficacy against HPV-31,-33,-45,-52,-58 for HPV4 and HPV2, respectively.Assuming 70% vaccination coverage and lifelong cross-protection, vaccinating boys has little additional benefit on AGW prevention, irrespective of the vaccine used for girls. Furthermore, using HPV4 for boys and HPV2 for girls produces greater incremental reductions in SCC incidence than using HPV4 for both genders (12 vs 7 percentage points. At 50% vaccination coverage, vaccinating boys produces incremental reductions in AGW of 17 percentage points if both genders are vaccinated with HPV4, but increases female incidence by 16 percentage points if girls are switched to HPV2 (heterosexual male incidence is incrementally reduced by 24 percentage points in both scenarios. Higher incremental reductions in SCC incidence are predicted when vaccinating boys with HPV4 and girls with HPV2 versus vaccinating both genders with HPV4 (16 vs 12 percentage points. Results are sensitive to vaccination coverage and the relative duration of protection of the vaccines.Vaccinating girls with HPV2 and boys with HPV4 can optimize SCC prevention if HPV2 has higher/longer cross-protection, but can increase AGW incidence if vaccination coverage is low among boys.

  8. Influenza vaccination in the elderly: seeking new correlates of protection and improved vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    McElhaney, Janet E

    2008-01-01

    Influenza is foremost among all infectious diseases for an age-related increase in risk for serious complications and death. Determining the benefit of current influenza vaccines is largely limited to epidemiologic studies, since placebo-controlled trials of influenza vaccines are no longer considered ethical in the older adult population. Vaccine effectiveness is calculated from the relative reduction in influenza outcomes in individuals who elect to be vaccinated compared with those who do ...

  9. Sex differences in the vaccine-specific and non-targeted effects of vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Katie L; Klein, Sabra L; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2011-01-01

    to eliminate infectious diseases through vaccination programmes, the relative impact of NSE of vaccines on mortality is likely to increase, raising important questions regarding the future of certain vaccine schedules. A diverse group of scientists met in Copenhagen to discuss non-specific and sex......-differential effects of vaccination, and explore plausible biological explanations. Herein we describe the contents of the meeting and the establishment of the 'Optimmunize' network aimed at raising awareness of this important issue among the wider scientific community....

  10. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines: The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals ... Influenza vaccine each year to protect against seasonal flu Tdap vaccine to protect against whooping cough and ...

  11. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines: The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals ... Influenza vaccine each year to protect against seasonal flu Tdap vaccine to protect against whooping cough and ...

  12. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines: The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals ... Influenza vaccine each year to protect against seasonal flu Tdap vaccine to protect against whooping cough and ...

  13. EXPERIMENTAL LIPOSOMAL VIRAL VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova OA

    2016-12-01

    efficacy should include the definition the content lipid peroxidation products. Conclusion.Thus, experimental samples influenza liposomal vaccine (without modification and with its for liposomal and antigenic components haven`t found increased levels primary products lipid peroxidation – lipid hydro peroxides and protein oxidation products – carbonyl protein and haven`t significant effects inhibition anti-oxidant enzymes in rat`s serum.More results the study stage the safety most effective vaccine samples will be present in the text.

  14. Hookworm vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemert, David J; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Hotez, Peter J

    2008-01-15

    Hookworm infection caused by the soil-transmitted nematodes Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale is one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide. Although not directly responsible for substantial mortality, it causes significant morbidity in the form of chronic anemia and protein malnutrition. Current global control efforts based on periodic mass anthelmintic administration are unsustainable, and new control strategies must be developed. This review describes progress in the development of vaccines against hookworm infection, including the preclinical and initial clinical testing of the N. americanus Ancylostoma Secreted Protein-2 Hookworm Vaccine. Plans call for eventual development of a vaccine that will combine at least 2 hookworm antigens--one targeting the larval stage of the life cycle and another targeting the adult worm living in the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Mucosal vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizard, Mevyn; Diniz, Mariana O; Roussel, Helene; Tran, Thi; Ferreira, Luis CS; Badoual, Cecile; Tartour, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal immune system displays several adaptations reflecting the exposure to the external environment. The efficient induction of mucosal immune responses also requires specific approaches, such as the use of appropriate administration routes and specific adjuvants and/or delivery systems. In contrast to vaccines delivered via parenteral routes, experimental, and clinical evidences demonstrated that mucosal vaccines can efficiently induce local immune responses to pathogens or tumors located at mucosal sites as well as systemic response. At least in part, such features can be explained by the compartmentalization of mucosal B and T cell populations that play important roles in the modulation of local immune responses. In the present review, we discuss molecular and cellular features of the mucosal immune system as well as novel immunization approaches that may lead to the development of innovative and efficient vaccines targeting pathogens and tumors at different mucosal sites. PMID:25424921

  16. Automated road marking recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinov, R. R.; Shigabiev, R. R.; Talipov, D. N.

    2017-09-01

    Development of the automated road marking recognition systems in existing and future vehicles control systems is an urgent task. One way to implement such systems is the use of neural networks. To test the possibility of using neural network software has been developed with the use of a single-layer perceptron. The resulting system based on neural network has successfully coped with the task both when driving in the daytime and at night.

  17. Pavement Marking Types and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev 2-89) Prescr:bed by ANSI Sid 139-18 298- 102 PREFACF This project was sponsored by the Headquarters, US Army...they are the cost and performance standard used to compare all other marking types. 17. There are several methods that may be employed to classify...rubber base which is usually a chlorinated rubber, drying oil varnish or modified alkyd known as oleoresin , and water based materials (US Department

  18. Awareness among adults of vaccine-preventable diseases and recommended vaccinations, United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kennedy, Erin D; Williams, Walter W; Kim, David; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Donahue, Sara; Bridges, Carolyn B

    2017-05-25

    increase uptake of recommended vaccines, such as patient reminder/recall systems and other healthcare system-based interventions, and ensuring patients' vaccination needs are assessed, are needed to improve vaccination of adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effects of the introduction of new vaccines in Guinea-Bissau on vaccine coverage, vaccine timeliness, and child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Hornshøj, Linda; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2008, the GAVI Alliance funded the introduction of new vaccines (including pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] plus hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens) in Guinea-Bissau. The introduction was accompanied by increased vaccination outreach services...... and a more restrictive wastage policy, including only vaccinating children younger than 12 months. We assessed coverage of all vaccines in the Expanded Program on Immunizations before and after the new vaccines' introduction, and the implications on child survival. METHODS: This observational cohort study...... used data from the Bandim Health Project, which has monitored vaccination status and mortality in randomly selected village clusters in Guinea-Bissau since 1990. We assessed the change in vaccination coverage using cohort data from children born in 2007 and 2009; analysed the proportion of children who...

  20. Forensic odontology, part 4. Human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of bite mark analysis: its usefulness and limitations. The study and analysis of such injuries is challenging and complex. The correct protocols for collection, management, preservation, analysis and interpretation of this evidence should be employed if useful information is to be obtained for the courts. It is now possible, with advances in digital technology, to produce more accurate and reproducible comparison techniques which go some way to preventing and reducing problems such as photographic distortions. Research needs to be continued to increase our knowledge of the behaviour of skin when bitten. However, when presented with a high quality bite mark showing good dental detail, and a limited, accessible number of potential biters, it can be extremely useful in establishing a link between the bitten person and the biter or excluding the innocent.

  1. Evaluation of potentially achievable vaccination coverage with simultaneous administration of vaccines among children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen; Smith, Philip J; Hill, Holly A

    2016-06-08

    Routine administration of all age-appropriate doses of vaccines during the same visit is recommended for children by the National Vaccine Advisory Committee (NVAC) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Evaluate the potentially achievable vaccination coverage for ≥4 doses of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (4+DTaP), ≥4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (4+PCV), and the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib-FS) with simultaneous administration of all recommended childhood vaccines. Compare the potentially achievable vaccination coverage to the reported vaccination coverage for calendar years 2001 through 2013; by state in the United States and by selected socio-demographic factors in 2013. The potentially achievable vaccination coverage was defined as the coverage possible for the recommended 4+DTaP, 4+PCV, and Hib-FS if missed opportunities for simultaneous administration of all age-appropriate doses of vaccines for children had been eliminated. Compared to the reported vaccination coverage, the potentially achievable vaccination coverage for 4+DTaP, 4+PCV, and Hib-FS could have increased significantly (Pvaccination coverage would have achieved the 90% target of Healthy People 2020 for the three vaccines beginning in 2005, 2008, and 2011 respectively. In 2013, the potentially achievable vaccination coverage increased significantly across all selected socio-demographic factors, potentially achievable vaccination coverage would have reached the 90% target for more than 51% of the states in the United States. The findings in this study suggest that fully utilization of all opportunities for simultaneous administration of all age-eligible childhood doses of vaccines during the same vaccination visit is a critical strategy for achieving the vaccination coverage target of Healthy People 2020. Encouraging providers to deliver all recommended vaccines that are due at each visit by

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and vaccination coverage of healthcare workers regarding occupational vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loulergue, P; Moulin, F; Vidal-Trecan, G; Absi, Z; Demontpion, C; Menager, C; Gorodetsky, M; Gendrel, D; Guillevin, L; Launay, O

    2009-06-24

    Immunization of healthcare workers (HCWs) is a major issue for infection control in healthcare facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge regarding occupational vaccinations, HBV, varicella and influenza vaccination rates and attitudes towards influenza vaccine among HCWs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two wards (Medicine and Paediatrics) of a 1182-bed teaching hospital in Paris, France. A standardized, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was used. Of 580 HCWs, 395 (68%) completed the questionnaire. Knowledge about the occupational vaccinations of HCWs was low. HBV (69%), tuberculosis (54%) and influenza (52%) were the most cited vaccinations. Paediatric staff was more aware of influenza and pertussis immunizations (pvaccination rate was 93%, among whom 65% were aware of their immune status. Influenza vaccination rate for 2006-2007 was 30% overall, ranging from 50% among physicians to 20% among paramedical staff (pvaccine efficacy, although paramedics feared side effects. Influenza vaccination was associated with knowledge of vaccine recommendations [OR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.13-2.57] and contact with patients [OR=3.05, 95% CI: 1.50-5.91]. Knowledge of recommended occupational vaccinations is insufficient in HCWs, except for HBV and influenza. Although the HBV vaccine coverage of HCWs is satisfactory, a large proportion of them is unaware of immune status. Influenza vaccine coverage remains low, especially among paramedical staff because of fear of side effects. As vaccine coverage is associated with knowledge, educational campaigns should be strengthened to increase the adhesion of HCWs to vaccinations.

  3. VACCINATION OF PREMATURE INFANTS AND CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE IN IRKUTSK USING CONJUGATED PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Il'ina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: analyzing the results of pneumococcal infection vaccination conducted to reduce infantile morbidity and mortality in 2011-2012 at the expenses of the Irkutsk municipal budget. Patients and methods. Vaccination using the 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine was conducted for more than 700 risk group children: premature infants, children with congenital heart diseases or bronchopulmonary dysplasia from 2 months to 2 years of age. 193 vaccinated children had been observed for 1.5 years. 30% of premature infants and 46% of children with congenital heart diseases were vaccinated using the PCV7/PCV13 vaccine at the age of 2-6 months, 52 and 40% - at the age of 7-11 months, accordingly. The PCV7/PCV13 vaccine was administered together with other vaccines of the national preventive vaccination calendar in 65% of cases. Results. Rate of general post-vaccinal reactions (body temperature increase from 37.6 to 38.0oC – 4%; no local reactions were registered. No other unfavorable phenomena were noted in the post-vaccinal period. No cases of pneumonia, meningitis, acute otitis media and bronchoobstructive syndrome were registered within the observation period. Conclusions: pneumococcal infection vaccination of premature infants with congenital heart diseases and bronchopulmonary dysplasia conducted in Irkutsk proved high efficacy and safety of the used vaccine – PCV7/PCV13. 

  4. Measles, immune suppression and vaccination: direct and indirect nonspecific vaccine benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    The measles virus is among the most transmissible viruses known to infect humans. Prior to measles vaccination programs, measles infected over 95% of all children and was responsible for over 4 million deaths each year. Measles vaccination programs have been among the greatest public health achievements reducing, eliminating endemic measles in the whole of the Americas and across much of the globe. Where measles vaccines are introduced, unexpectedly large reductions in all-cause childhood mortality have been observed. These gains appear to derive in part from direct heterologous benefits of measles vaccines that enhance innate and adaptive immune responses. Additionally, by preventing measles infections, vaccination prevents measles-associated short- and long-term immunomodulating effects. Before vaccination, these invisible hallmarks of measles infections increased vulnerability to non-measles infections in nearly all children for weeks, months, or years following acute infections. By depleting measles incidence, vaccination has had important indirect benefits to reduce non-measles mortality. Delineating the relative importance of these two modes of survival benefits following measles vaccine introduction is of critical public health importance. While both support continued unwavering global commitments to measles vaccination programs until measles eradication is complete, direct heterologous benefits of measles vaccination further support continued commitment to measles vaccination programs indefinitely. We discuss what is known about direct and indirect nonspecific measles vaccine benefits, and their implications for continued measles vaccination programs. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mark Twain: inocente ou pecador? = Mark Twain: innocent or sinner?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helou Doca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A leitura cuidadosa do texto do “Tratado de Paris”, em 1900, leva Mark Twain a concluir que a intenção política norte-americana era, claramente, a de subjugação. Declara-se, abertamente, antiimperialista, nesse momento, apesar das inúmeras críticasrecebidas por antagonistas políticos que defendiam o establishment dos Estados Unidos. Após viajar para a Europa e Oriente, em 1867, como correspondente do jornal Daily Alta Califórnia, Mark Twain publica, em 1869, seu relato de viagem, The Innocents Abroad or TheNew Pilgrim’s Progress. Nosso estudo demonstra que o autor, apesar das diversas máscaras usadas em seus relatos, narra histórias, culturas e tradições, tanto da Europa quanto do Oriente, já com os olhos bem abertos pelo viés antiimperialista. Faz uso da paródia, sátira, ironia e humor para dessacralizar impérios, monarcas e a Igreja que subjugavam os mais fracos, iluminando, desde então, os estudos sobre culturas. Nosso estudo, outrossim, faz uma reflexão sobre cultura, tradição e o olhar do viajante, justificando o “olhar inocente” do narrador em seu relato.After carefully reading the Treaty of Paris in 1900, Mark Twain concluded that the goal of U.S. policy was clearly one ofsubjugation. He openly declared himself an anti-imperialist at that time, in spite of the numerous criticisms he received from political opponents who supported the United States status quo. After traveling to Europe and the East in 1867 as a correspondent for The DailyAlta California newspaper, Mark Twain published his travel report, The Innocents Abroad or The New Pilgrim’s Progress in 1869. Our study demonstrates that the author, in spite of using different guises in his reports, narrated histories, cultures and traditions – from both Europe and the East – with a viewpoint already imbued by his anti-imperialistic ideals. Twain made use of parody, satire, irony and humor within his texts in order to desecrate empires,monarchs and

  6. Are healthcare workers' intentions to vaccinate related to their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes? A systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herzog, Raúl; Álvarez-Pasquin, María José; Díaz, Camino; Del Barrio, José Luis; Estrada, José Manuel; Gil, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    The Summit of Independent European Vaccination Experts (SIEVE) recommended in 2007 that efforts be made to improve healthcare workers' knowledge and beliefs about vaccines, and their attitudes towards them, to increase vaccination coverage...

  7. The crisis in vaccine supply: a framework for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, A; Evans, P; Milstien, J B

    1994-08-01

    Immunization programmes, having made significant progress in protecting over 80% of the world's children against six vaccine-preventable diseases, are now facing a crisis in funding for their vaccine supply. Contributing to this situation are changing donor priorities, rising prices, increased needs for vaccines. The Task Force on Situation Analysis for Vaccine Supply (TFSA) of the Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI) has developed a framework which provides a logical division of countries into groups that might share similar vaccine supply systems. This framework provides a basis on which to analyse the needs and potential solutions for vaccine supply in countries based on their populations, national wealth, and current ability to produce vaccine. This framework has facilitated the development of strategies to strengthen national vaccine supply systems. It has also provided guidance for governments, donors and development agencies on the most appropriate actions for assuring the objective of sustainable vaccine supply.

  8. Vaccination elicits a prominent acute phase response in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susanne A; Petersen, Henrik H; Ersbøll, Annette K; Falk-Rønne, Jørgen; Jacobsen, Stine

    2012-02-01

    European and American guidelines for vaccination against tetanus and influenza in horses recommend annual and annual/semi-annual vaccinations, respectively, against the two pathogens. Too-frequent vaccination may, however, have adverse effects, among other things because an inflammatory response is elicited with subsequent alterations in homeostasis. The objective of the study was to compare the acute phase response (APR) in 10 horses following administration of two different types of vaccines, namely, an inactivated Immune Stimulating COMplex (ISCOM) vaccine and a live recombinant vector vaccine. Blood was sampled before and after vaccination to measure levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell counts (WBC) and iron. Vaccination induced a prominent APR with increased WBC, elevated blood levels of SAA and fibrinogen, and decreased serum iron concentrations. The ISCOM vaccine caused significantly (Phorse owners about convalescence after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intradermal vaccination of pigs against FMD with 1/10 dose results in comparable vaccine efficacy as intramuscular vaccination with a full dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eblé, P L; Weerdmeester, K; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, F; Dekker, A

    2009-02-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether intradermal (ID) vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is suitable as an alternative for the usually used intramuscular (IM) route. We compared vaccine efficacy in groups of pigs in which vaccine administration differed with respect to antigen payload of the vaccine, administrated volume and administration route. When compared with pigs that were IM vaccinated with a full dose vaccine with a standard antigen payload, pigs vaccinated ID with 1/10 dose of the same vaccine were equally protected against clinical disease and subclinical virus shedding. The ID vaccinated pigs were protected against virus shedding at a significant lower VN-titre as compared to IM vaccinated pigs, suggesting that immune responses other than neutralising antibodies also contributed to protection. We conclude that the ID route might be a good alternative for IM application, as ID application might induce a very efficient immunological response against FMD and, moreover, because the dose required by the ID route is lower compared to the IM route, ID application may reduce the production costs per dose of FMD vaccine markedly.

  10. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cholera, hepatitis-B, and many more are in the process of development. Food vaccines may also help to suppress autoimmunity disorders such as Type-1 Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 2 (12), pp. 679-683, December 2003 ...

  11. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible vaccines are sub-unit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. Edible vaccines are mucosal-targeted vaccines where stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune network takes place. Foods under study ...

  12. Estimating rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in Japan using a screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kaoru; Hara, Megumi; Sakanishi, Yuta; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nishida, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Muneaki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2016-05-03

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a highly contagious, acute viral disease that imposes a significant health burden worldwide. In Japan, rotavirus vaccines have been commercially available since 2011 for voluntary vaccination, but vaccine coverage and effectiveness have not been evaluated. In the absence of a vaccination registry in Japan, vaccination coverage in the general population was estimated according to the number of vaccines supplied by the manufacturer, the number of children who received financial support for vaccination, and the size of the target population. Patients with rotavirus gastroenteritis were identified by reviewing the medical records of all children who consulted 6 major hospitals in Saga Prefecture with gastroenteritis symptoms. Vaccination status among these patients was investigated by reviewing their medical records or interviewing their guardians by telephone. Vaccine effectiveness was determined using a screening method. Vaccination coverage increased with time, and it was 2-times higher in municipalities where the vaccination fee was supported. In the 2012/13 season, vaccination coverage in Saga Prefecture was 14.9% whereas the proportion of patients vaccinated was 5.1% among those with clinically diagnosed rotavirus gastroenteritis and 1.9% among those hospitalized for rotavirus gastroenteritis. Thus, vaccine effectiveness was estimated as 69.5% and 88.8%, respectively. This is the first study to evaluate rotavirus vaccination coverage and effectiveness in Japan since vaccination began.

  13. Hepatitis B vaccination practices in hospital newborn nurseries before and after changes in vaccination recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S J; Cabana, M D; Malik, T; Yusuf, H; Freed, G L

    2001-08-01

    Routine use of hepatitis B vaccine for low-risk newborns was suspended on July 7, 1999, because of concern about the potential risk of thimerosal, a mercury-containing vaccine preservative. Reinstatement of the birth dose was recommended when a thimerosal-free vaccine became available. To explore changes in hepatitis B vaccination practices for newborns related to the revised recommendations for low-risk infants (in this study, the terms newborn and infant are used interchangeably). A telephone survey of a random sample of 1000 US hospitals. Nurse managers, nursery directors, and staff nurses of the newborn nurseries. Nursery vaccination practices before and after July 7, 1999, and the availability and use of thimerosal-free vaccine. Interviews were conducted with 773 (87%) of 886 eligible hospitals. Before July 7, 1999, 78% of the hospitals reported vaccination practices that were consistent with recommendations at that time, although only 47% vaccinated all low-risk infants at birth. After July 7, 1999, almost all hospitals discontinued vaccination of low-risk infants, in accordance with the recommendation change; however, there was a 6-fold increase in the number of hospitals that were not vaccinating all high-risk infants. After the introduction of thimerosal-free vaccine, only 39% of the hospitals reported vaccinating all low-risk infants. Most hospital nurseries altered their newborn hepatitis B vaccination practices consistent with changes in national recommendations. However, unintended consequences included the failure of some hospitals to continue vaccinating all high-risk infants and the delay in reintroducing vaccination for low-risk newborns after the introduction of a thimerosal-free vaccine. Assessments of the appropriateness of this country's response to the threat of thimerosal in vaccines should consider these findings.

  14. A crisis of public confidence in vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Steven; Rappuoli, Rino

    2010-12-08

    A meeting was held in Siena, Italy, in July 2010 to review the evidence for a decrease in public confidence in vaccines, to discuss possible reasons for this phenomenon, and to develop possible strategies to improve public confidence in vaccines. Prevention of morbidity and mortality by vaccination is one of the major public health accomplishments of the last century. Nevertheless, despite the improved safety and effectiveness of vaccines, public confidence in vaccination is decreasing. Improved methods of vaccine safety assessment have not improved public confidence. In addition, dissemination of false information on the Internet has undermined public confidence globally. Reductions in vaccine uptake or use of available vaccines can and have resulted in increased morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. The lack of public confidence in vaccines risks undermining the political will necessary to rapidly respond to a more severe influenza pandemic in the future. To improve the current situation, we must define both the risks and the benefits of individual vaccines so that the public can understand the rationale for vaccine recommendations. Key to regaining public trust in vaccines is a credible, consistent, and unified message developed from the private and public sectors that directly addresses public concerns. Unless an active effort is made to improve public confidence and trust in vaccination, there is a risk that gains made in combating the morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases through the use of vaccines will be lost. Loss of political will resulting from this loss of public confidence may also result in inappropriate decisions regarding the development and use of pandemic influenza vaccines for use in future pandemics, thus compromising public health.

  15. Vaccines and pregnancy: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Watson, Amelia K; Kennedy, Erin D; Broder, Karen R; Jamieson, Denise J

    2014-06-01

    Vaccination during pregnancy with certain vaccines can prevent morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their infants. However, previous recommendations often focused on the potential risks of vaccines to the fetus when used during pregnancy. In recent years, additional data have become available on the absence of increased risks for adverse events associated with vaccines when administered during pregnancy and on their benefits to mothers and infants. Currently two vaccines - (i) inactivated influenza, and (ii) tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (Tdap) - are recommended for use by all pregnant women by the United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Here we review the history of vaccination during pregnancy, the current status of recommendations for vaccination during pregnancy in the USA, and the potential for future advances in this area, including key barriers that must be overcome to accommodate these advances. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Dissolving Polymer Microneedle Patches for Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sean P.; Koutsonanos, Dimitrios G.; Martin, Maria del Pilar; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Zarnitsyn, Vladimir; Murthy, Niren; Compans, Richard W.; Skountzou, Ioanna; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Influenza prophylaxis would benefit from a vaccination method enabling simplified logistics and improved immunogenicity without the dangers posed by hypodermic needles. Here, we introduce dissolving microneedle patches for influenza vaccination using a simple patch-based system that targets delivery to skin’s antigen-presenting cells. Microneedles were fabricated using a biocompatible polymer encapsulating inactivated influenza virus vaccine for insertion and dissolution in the skin within minutes. Microneedle vaccination generated robust antibody and cellular immune responses in mice that provided complete protection against lethal challenge. Compared to conventional intramuscular injection, microneedle vaccination resulted in more efficient lung virus clearance and enhanced cellular recall responses after challenge. These results suggest that dissolving microneedle patches can provide a novel technology for simpler and safer vaccination with improved immunogenicity that could facilitate increased vaccination coverage. PMID:20639891

  17. VACCINATION: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PHYSICIANS AND PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Ivardava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of mass immunization programs in public health care separated in time the period of infectious diseases in pre-and post-vaccination era. To date, it is clear that there is no more effective preventive programs in medicine, than vaccination. Unfortunately,  at present, the number of unjustified refusals of vaccinations increased that are associated with anti-vaccination parents mood. This article is intended for pediatricians, who often face in their practice with the questions of parents about vaccination and its pros and cons. We’ll try to answer the most pressing of them and dispel some misconceptions and myths related to infectious diseasesprevention. Key words: vaccination, childhood infections, mandatory vaccinations, complications, the immune system. (Pediatric pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (6: 128–131.

  18. Is HPV vaccination in pregnancy safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zwol, Ulla Bonde; Joergensen, J. S.; Lamont, R. F.

    2016-01-01

    Millions of doses of HPV vaccine have been administered globally. Inadvertent administration of HPV vaccine during pregnancy occurs given that the main recipients of the vaccine are fertile young women, who might be unaware of their pregnancy at the time of their vaccination. To investigate...... the subject of HPV vaccine and pregnancy , the databases of PubMed and Embase were searched to find the relevant literature published in English within the last 10 y. Most of the evidence pertaining to fetal adverse events following HPV vaccination relates to spontaneous miscarriage. None of the relevant...... studies found any significantly increased rate of spontaneous abortion in the overall analyses. There was no indication of other HPV vaccine-associated adverse events in pregnancy or immediately post-conception. © 2016 Taylor & Francis....

  19. Bioinformatics in New Generation Flavivirus Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Koraka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavivirus infections are the most prevalent arthropod-borne infections world wide, often causing severe disease especially among children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. In the absence of effective antiviral treatment, prevention through vaccination would greatly reduce morbidity and mortality associated with flavivirus infections. Despite the success of the empirically developed vaccines against yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus, there is an increasing need for a more rational design and development of safe and effective vaccines. Several bioinformatic tools are available to support such rational vaccine design. In doing so, several parameters have to be taken into account, such as safety for the target population, overall immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine, and efficacy and longevity of the immune responses triggered. Examples of how bio-informatics is applied to assist in the rational design and improvements of vaccines, particularly flavivirus vaccines, are presented and discussed.

  20. Child mortality related to seroconversion or lack of seroconversion after measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Pedersen, I R; Knudsen, K

    1989-01-01

    children) were excluded from the analysis (P less than 0.01). The difference in mortality was particularly marked among children vaccinated in the age group 9 to 11 months. This as well as other community studies suggest that measles vaccination reduces child mortality from the age of vaccination......When blood samples were analyzed for seroconversion after measles vaccination, it was discovered that the vaccine had been ineffective for a certain period. During the 2 years between vaccination and the time of seroanalysis, nonseroconverters had a significantly higher mortality than...

  1. Vaccine hesitancy: Causes, consequences, and a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Daniel A; Dudley, Matthew Z; Glanz, Jason M; Omer, Saad B

    2015-11-27

    Vaccine hesitancy reflects concerns about the decision to vaccinate oneself or one's children. There is a broad range of factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy, including the compulsory nature of vaccines, their coincidental temporal relationships to adverse health outcomes, unfamiliarity with vaccine-preventable diseases, and lack of trust in corporations and public health agencies. Although vaccination is a norm in the U.S. and the majority of parents vaccinate their children, many do so amid concerns. The proportion of parents claiming non-medical exemptions to school immunization requirements has been increasing over the past decade. Vaccine refusal has been associated with outbreaks of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, varicella, pneumococcal disease, measles, and pertussis, resulting in the unnecessary suffering of young children and waste of limited public health resources. Vaccine hesitancy is an extremely important issue that needs to be addressed because effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases generally requires indefinite maintenance of extremely high rates of timely vaccination. The multifactorial and complex causes of vaccine hesitancy require a broad range of approaches on the individual, provider, health system, and national levels. These include standardized measurement tools to quantify and locate clustering of vaccine hesitancy and better understand issues of trust; rapid, independent, and transparent review of an enhanced and appropriately funded vaccine safety system; adequate reimbursement for vaccine risk communication in doctors' offices; and individually tailored messages for parents who have vaccine concerns, especially first-time pregnant women. The potential of vaccines to prevent illness and save lives has never been greater. Yet, that potential is directly dependent on parental acceptance of vaccines, which requires confidence in vaccines, healthcare providers who recommend and administer vaccines, and the

  2. Economic analysis of pandemic influenza vaccination strategies in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4-0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. CONCLUSIONS: The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines.

  3. Economic Analysis of Pandemic Influenza Vaccination Strategies in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vernon J.; Tok, Mei Yin; Chow, Vincent T.; Phua, Kai Hong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Tambyah, Paul A.; Chen, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    Background All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. Methodology We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling) compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay) depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. Principal Findings The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4–0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. Conclusions The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines. PMID:19771173

  4. Vaccine Hesitancy: Causes, Consequences, and a Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Daniel A; Dudley, Matthew Z; Glanz, Jason M; Omer, Saad B

    2015-12-01

    Vaccine hesitancy reflects concerns about the decision to vaccinate oneself or one's children. There is a broad range of factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy, including the compulsory nature of vaccines, their coincidental temporal relationships to adverse health outcomes, unfamiliarity with vaccine-preventable diseases, and lack of trust in corporations and public health agencies. Although vaccination is a norm in the U.S. and the majority of parents vaccinate their children, many do so amid concerns. The proportion of parents claiming non-medical exemptions to school immunization requirements has been increasing over the past decade. Vaccine refusal has been associated with outbreaks of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, varicella, pneumococcal disease, measles, and pertussis, resulting in the unnecessary suffering of young children and waste of limited public health resources. Vaccine hesitancy is an extremely important issue that needs to be addressed because effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases generally requires indefinite maintenance of extremely high rates of timely vaccination. The multifactorial and complex causes of vaccine hesitancy require a broad range of approaches on the individual, provider, health system, and national levels. These include standardized measurement tools to quantify and locate clustering of vaccine hesitancy and better understand issues of trust; rapid, independent, and transparent review of an enhanced and appropriately funded vaccine safety system; adequate reimbursement for vaccine risk communication in doctors' offices; and individually tailored messages for parents who have vaccine concerns, especially first-time pregnant women. The potential of vaccines to prevent illness and save lives has never been greater. Yet, that potential is directly dependent on parental acceptance of vaccines, which requires confidence in vaccines, healthcare providers who recommend and administer vaccines, and the

  5. Vaccination of swine with an inactivated porcine parvovirus vaccine in the presence of passive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P S; Mengeling, W L

    1986-02-15

    A study was conducted to determine whether low hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) titers (1:5) for porcine parvovirus (PPV) block the development of immune response to a PPV vaccine. Pigs with low (1:5), medium (1:10 or 1:20), or high (1:40 or 1:80) titers were obtained by IV injections with various amounts of PPV immune serum. Pigs were inoculated with 1 or 2 doses of vaccine and were monitored for serum HI antibodies to PPV. Pigs with low titers responded to vaccine just as well as did the seronegative pigs. The HI titers of pigs with medium titers did not increase after first vaccination. After the second vaccination, however, their titers increased and were similar to those of pigs with low titers. High titers blocked the response to vaccination. The pigs that received 2 doses of vaccine had higher titers than did those of pigs that received 1 dose of vaccine. The results indicated that low titers, which would be expected in gilts at the time of vaccination, do not interfere with immunization by the inactivated PPV vaccine, and that 2 doses of vaccine may provide better and longer lasting immune response to inactivated PPV vaccine and probably longer lasting immunity against PPV-induced reproductive failure.

  6. Using hepatitis A and B vaccination as a paradigm for effective HIV vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Scott D; Yee, Leland J

    2007-06-01

    An understanding of vaccine acceptance and uptake is imperative for successful vaccination of populations that will be primary targets for vaccination after a vaccine against HIV is developed and ready for dissemination. Experiences with vaccination against vaccine-preventable hepatitis (VPH) among men who have sex with men (MSM) may offer key insights to inform future HIV vaccination strategies. The purpose of this analysis was to explore what is known currently about vaccination among MSM, using knowledge gained from vaccination against VPH, and to identify important considerations from these experiences that must be explored further as a vaccine against HIV is promoted among MSM. Because cultural and political differences make it difficult to extrapolate findings from studies in one country to another, we have focused our analyses on studies conducted in the USA. Through a qualitative systematic review of published reports, we identified eight studies that reported correlates of VPH among MSM in the USA. Six major domains of variables associated with vaccination against VPH were identified, including: demographics (e.g. younger age, higher educational attainment); increased vaccine knowledge; increased access to health care; provider recommendation; behaviours (e.g. same-sex behaviour, health-promoting and disease-preventing behaviours); and psychosocial factors (e.g. openness about one's sexual orientation, reduced barriers to being vaccinated, self-efficacy). Further research is needed to understand vaccination behaviour among MSM and to maximise acceptance and uptake after a vaccine exists. Experiences with VPH provide a real-world model on which to base preliminary assumptions about acceptance and uptake of a vaccine against HIV.

  7. Vaccination errors reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, (VAERS) United States, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Beth F; Moro, Pedro L; Lewis, Paige; Miller, Elaine R; Shimabukuro, Tom T

    2015-06-22

    Vaccination errors are preventable events. Errors can have impacts including inadequate immunological protection, possible injury, cost, inconvenience, and reduced confidence in the healthcare delivery system. To describe vaccination error reports submitted to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and identify opportunities for prevention. We conducted descriptive analyses using data from VAERS, the U.S. spontaneous surveillance system for adverse events following immunization. The VAERS database was searched from 2000 through 2013 for U.S. reports describing vaccination errors and reports were categorized into 11 error groups. We analyzed numbers and types of vaccination error reports, vaccines involved, reporting trends over time, and descriptions of errors for selected reports. We identified 20,585 vaccination error reports documenting 21,843 errors. Annual reports increased from 10 in 2000 to 4324 in 2013. The most common error group was "Inappropriate Schedule" (5947; 27%); human papillomavirus (quadrivalent) (1516) and rotavirus (880) vaccines were most frequently involved. "Storage and Dispensing" errors (4983; 23%) included mostly expired vaccine administered (2746) and incorrect storage of vaccine (2202). "Wrong Vaccine Administered" errors (3372; 15%) included mix-ups between vaccines with similar antigens such as varicella/herpes zoster (shingles), DTaP/Tdap, and pneumococcal conjugate/polysaccharide. For error reports with an adverse health event (5204; 25% of total), 92% were classified as non-serious. We also identified 936 vaccination error clusters (i.e., same error, multiple patients, in a common setting) involving over 6141 patients. The most common error in clusters was incorrect storage of vaccine (582 clusters and more than 1715 patients). Vaccination error reports to VAERS have increased substantially. Contributing factors might include changes in reporting practices, increasing complexity of the immunization schedule

  8. Vexing Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…

  9. Valuing vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  10. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research interests include: eukaryotic gene expres- sion and infectious diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL I ... T -cells: Lymphocytes that differentiate primarily in the thymus and are central to the control and ... enhance DNA delivery into skeletal muscle.

  11. Vaccine Hesitancy: Where We Are and Where We Are Going.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Catherine C; Cataldi, Jessica R; O'Leary, Sean T

    2017-08-01

    Vaccines represent one of the most important aspects of pediatric preventive care. However, parents are increasingly questioning the safety of and need for vaccines, and as a result, vaccination rates have fallen to dangerously low levels in certain communities. The effects of vaccine hesitancy are widespread. Community pediatricians who interact regularly with vaccine-hesitant parents report higher levels of burnout and lower levels of job satisfaction. Not surprisingly, vaccine hesitancy has also had direct influence on vaccination rates, which in turn are linked to increased emergency department use, morbidity, and mortality. Literature from 1999 to 2017 regarding vaccines and vaccine hesitancy was reviewed. Few evidence-based strategies exist to guide providers in their discussions with vaccines-hesitant parents. Recent research has shown a presumptive approach (ie, the provider uses language that presumes the caregiver will vaccinate his or her child) is associated with higher vaccination uptake. Motivational interviewing is a promising technique for more hesitant parents. At the community level, evidence-based communication strategies to address vaccine hesitancy are needed. The practice of dismissing families from pediatric practices who refuse to vaccinate is common, although widely criticized. Other controversial and rapidly evolving topics include statewide vaccination mandates and school exemption policies. Electronic interventions, such as text-messaging services and social media, have recently emerged as effective methods of communication and may become more important in coming years. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Vaccination coverage and out-of-sequence vaccinations in rural Guinea-Bissau: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornshøj, Linda; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fernandes, Manuel; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2012-01-01

    The WHO aims for 90% coverage of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), which in Guinea-Bissau included BCG vaccine at birth, three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months when this study was conducted. The WHO assesses coverage by 12 months of age. The sequence of vaccines may have an effect on child mortality, but is not considered in official statistics or assessments of programme performance. We assessed vaccination coverage and frequency of out-of-sequence vaccinations by 12 and 24 months of age. Observational cohort study. The Bandim Health Project's (BHP) rural Health and Demographic Surveillance site covers 258 randomly selected villages in all regions of Guinea-Bissau. Villages are visited biannually and vaccination cards inspected to ascertain vaccination status. Between 2003 and 2009 vaccination status by 12 months of age was assessed for 5806 children aged 12-23 months; vaccination status by 24 months of age was assessed for 3792 children aged 24-35 months. Coverage of EPI vaccinations and frequency of out-of-sequence vaccinations. Half of 12-month-old children and 65% of 24-month-old children had completed all EPI vaccinations. Many children received vaccines out of sequence: by 12 months of age 54% of BCG-vaccinated children had received DTP with or before BCG and 28% of measles-vaccinated children had received DTP with or after MV. By 24 months of age the proportion of out-of-sequence vaccinations was 58% and 35%, respectively, for BCG and MV. In rural Guinea-Bissau vaccination coverage by 12 months of age was low, but continued to increase beyond 12 months of age. More than half of all children received vaccinations out of sequence. This highlights the need to improve vaccination services.

  13. Laser treatment of stretch marks: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Leonardo; Piccinetti, A. L.; Monache, G. D.; Botta, G.; Mancini, S.

    2000-06-01

    The best treatment of these stretch mark is still unknown. Some authors proposed the treatment with flash-lamp-pumped dye laser 585 nm, with fluence over 8 J/cm2. Reviewing our experiences on no-surgical effects of lasers in the various phases of the wound healing, including the re- epithelization, we would like to apply the no-surgical laser therapy treating the stretch marks of breast, abdomen and lumbo-sacral region. The goal is to inhibit the fibrous tissue metabolism, encouraging the destruction of the collagen fibers with inflammatory mechanism, and increasing the reconstitution of the superficial dermis layers. We treated five cases of stretch marks in women 22-35 years old, since May 1999, with a cycle of applications of double lasers, 511 and 577 nm, with energy of 20 Joule for spot, respecting the maximum thermal relaxation times of the skin. We waited two weeks interval between the applications. Results obtained after five applications are very positive, and we are encouraged to continue this experimentation.

  14. 33 CFR 62.25 - Lateral marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... buoys. (b) Sidemarks are lateral marks which advise the mariner to stay to one side of the mark. Their.... Beacons have green square daymarks, while buoys are green can or pillar buoys. (2) Starboard hand marks.... Preferred channel marks have red and green horizontal bands with the color of the topmost band indicating...

  15. Lasershot(sm) marking system: high-volume labeling for safety-critical parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, C B; Hackel, L; Honig, J; Halpin, J; Chen, H-L; Mendieta, F; Harris, F; Lane, L; Daly, J; Harrison, J

    2001-02-16

    The Lasershot Marking System uses laser pulses to safely and permanently impress identification markings on metal components. This process does not remove material or change surface chemistry and actually increases the marked area's resistance to fatigue and corrosion failure. Lasershot marking is ideally suited for marking parts used in situations where safety is critical--from hip-joint replacements to commercial airliner components. The minimum size of the mark is limited only by the resolution of the reading system, allowing manufacturers to mark parts which, up to now, have been too small to label with mechanical peening techniques. The high resolution of the Lasershot marks makes them difficult to reproduce, providing a solution to the ongoing problem of inferior, counterfeited parts. The high marking rate of up to six marks per second makes this system practical and cost-effective for marking high-volume components.

  16. Is current bite mark analysis a misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J G; Blackwell, S A

    2010-09-10

    Four human-to-human bite mark cases in which forensic odontological opinion was found to be in error, or at best deeply divided between experts, are described. These are used to illustrate that there is a growing awareness on the part of the legal profession that bite mark opinions by experts may often be little more than that and that these opinions often cannot be substantiated given the paucity of rigorous scientific evaluation, and will therefore be increasingly challenged. This may not best serve justice and so it is argued that forensic odontology needs to bring more scientific rigour to the evaluation of bite marks. This may threaten to disenfranchise some of the current practitioners and there may be some resistance to change. Forensic odontology is not the only identification science facing such problems, but nevertheless a paradigm shift is predicted in the way bite mark evidence will have to be gathered and evaluated in the future. Some new scientific approaches are described that strive to unravel some of the most basic problems confronting our profession when we attempt to make morphometric comparisons between injuries and the dentition of the biter. A need to capture the actions and consequences of biting in 3D dimensions and simultaneously in real-time is proposed as a path of investigation highly likely to bring some clarity to a confused situation. There is also an urgent need for the ongoing controversy between some of our eminent peers relating to the assumed uniqueness, or otherwise, of the human anterior dentition to be resolved. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An industry-scale mass marking technique for tracing farmed fish escapees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fletcher Warren-Myers

    Full Text Available Farmed fish escape and enter the environment with subsequent effects on wild populations. Reducing escapes requires the ability to trace individuals back to the point of escape, so that escape causes can be identified and technical standards improved. Here, we tested if stable isotope otolith fingerprint marks delivered during routine vaccination could be an accurate, feasible and cost effective marking method, suitable for industrial-scale application. We tested seven stable isotopes, (134Ba, (135Ba, (136Ba, (137Ba, (86Sr, (87Sr and (26Mg, on farmed Atlantic salmon reared in freshwater, in experimental conditions designed to reflect commercial practice. Marking was 100% successful with individual Ba isotopes at concentrations as low as 0.001 µg. g-1 fish and for Sr isotopes at 1 µg. g-1 fish. Our results suggest that 63 unique fingerprint marks can be made at low cost using Ba (0.0002 - 0.02 $US per mark and Sr (0.46 - 0.82 $US per mark isotopes. Stable isotope fingerprinting during vaccination is feasible for commercial application if applied at a company level within the world's largest salmon producing nations. Introducing a mass marking scheme would enable tracing of escapees back to point of origin, which could drive greater compliance, better farm design and improved management practices to reduce escapes.

  18. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarewski, Anne

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and often affects women under 40 years with young families. Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major advance, since it offers primary prevention against the infectious agent that is the main cause of the disease. Two prophylactic vaccines have shown great promise in clinical trials. One of these (Gardasil(®)) contains all four HPV types, offering protection against genital warts (types 6 and 11) as well as cervical cancer (types 16 and 18). The other (Cervarix(®)) contains types 16 and 18, targeting cervical cancer alone, but also has a degree of cross-protection against types 31 and 45, which could significantly increase the level of protection. Adolescent girls remain the primary target of vaccination programmes, but the issues of vaccinating boys and older women are increasingly debated.

  19. Outpatient-based pneumococcal vaccine campaign and survey of perceptions about pneumococcal vaccination in patients and doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Joon Young; Cheong, Hee Jin; Heo, Jung Yeon; Noh, Ji Yun; Seo, Yu Bin; Kim, In Seon; Choi, Won Suk; Kim, Woo Joo

    2013-03-01

    Despite the ready availability of pneumococcal vaccine, vaccination rates are quite low in South Korea. This study was designed to assess perceptions and awareness about pneumococcal vaccines among subjects at risk and find strategies to increases vaccine coverage rates. A cross sectional, community-based survey was conducted to assess perceptions about the pneumococcal vaccine at a local public health center. In a tertiary hospital, an outpatient- based pneumococcal vaccine campaign was carried out for the elderly and individuals with chronic co-morbidities from May to July of 2007. Based on the survey, only 7.6% were ever informed about pneumococcal vaccination. The coverage rates of the pneumococcal vaccine before and after the hospital campaign showed an increased annual rate from 3.39% to 5.91%. The most common reason for vaccination was "doctor's advice" (53.3%). As for the reasons for not receiving vaccination, about 75% of high risk patients were not aware of the pneumococcal vaccine, which was the most important barrier to vaccination. Negative clinician's attitude was the second most common cause of non-vaccination. Annual outpatient-based campaigns early in the influenza season may improve pneumococcal vaccine coverage rates. Doctor's advice was the most important encouraging factor for vaccination.

  20. Otolith marking of juvenile shortnose gar by immersion in oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Richard A.; Long, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been used to mark a variety of fish species at multiple developmental stages; however, there is little information on batch-marking Lepisosteidae. Juvenile Shortnose Gar Lepisosteus platostomus (53 ± 3 mm TL) were seined from an Oklahoma State University research pond and transported to the Oklahoma Fishery Research Lab. Juvenile Shortnose Gar were exposed to a range of OTC concentrations—0, 500, 600, and 700 mg/L—for 4, 5, or 6 h. Lapillus and sagitta otoliths were examined 14 d postexposure for mark presence and evaluation using fluorescent microscopy. Overall, 93.3% of otoliths exposed to OTC exhibited a mark. Concentration of OTC affected the mean mark quality, whereas duration and otolith type examined did not. However, as concentration increased, so did mortality, suggesting a balance is needed to achieve marking goals. Based on our findings, batch marking of Shortnose Gar can be successful at OTC concentrations from 500 to 700 mg/L for 4–6 h, although mark quality may vary and mortality rates increase at the higher concentrations and longer durations.

  1. The Evolution of Poxvirus Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Sánchez-Sampedro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available After Edward Jenner established human vaccination over 200 years ago, attenuated poxviruses became key players to contain the deadliest virus of its own family: Variola virus (VARV, the causative agent of smallpox. Cowpox virus (CPXV and horsepox virus (HSPV were extensively used to this end, passaged in cattle and humans until the appearance of vaccinia virus (VACV, which was used in the final campaigns aimed to eradicate the disease, an endeavor that was accomplished by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1980. Ever since, naturally evolved strains used for vaccination were introduced into research laboratories where VACV and other poxviruses with improved safety profiles were generated. Recombinant DNA technology along with the DNA genome features of this virus family allowed the generation of vaccines against heterologous diseases, and the specific insertion and deletion of poxvirus genes generated an even broader spectrum of modified viruses with new properties that increase their immunogenicity and safety profile as vaccine vectors. In this review, we highlight the evolution of poxvirus vaccines, from first generation to the current status, pointing out how different vaccines have emerged and approaches that are being followed up in the development of more rational vaccines against a wide range of diseases.

  2. Interview with Professor Mark Wilcox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Mark Wilcox speaks to Georgia Patey, Commissioning Editor: Professor Mark Wilcox is a Consultant Microbiologist and Head of Microbiology at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals (Leeds, UK), the Professor of Medical Microbiology at the University of Leeds (Leeds, UK), and is the Lead on Clostridium difficile and the Head of the UK C. difficile Reference Laboratory for Public Health England (PHE). He was the Director of Infection Prevention (4 years), Infection Control Doctor (8 years) and Clinical Director of Pathology (6 years) at the Leeds Teaching Hospitals. He is Chair of PHE's Rapid Review Panel (reviews utility of infection prevention and control products for National Health Service), Deputy Chair of the UK Department of Health's Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection Committee and a member of PHE's HCAI/AR Programme Board. He is a member of UK/European/US working groups on C. difficile infection. He has provided clinical advice as part of the FDA/EMA submissions for the approval of multiple novel antimicrobial agents. He heads a healthcare-associated infection research team at University of Leeds, comprising approximately 30 doctors, scientists and nurses; projects include multiple aspects of C. difficile infection, diagnostics, antimicrobial resistance and the clinical development of new antimicrobial agents. He has authored more than 400 publications, and is the coeditor of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (5th/6th/7th Editions, 15 December 2007).

  3. [Human papillomavirus prophylactic vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawana, Kei

    2012-06-01

    Human papillomavirus causes viral-dependent cancers, including cervical, anal, vulvar, penile, vaginal, and oropharyngeal, and condyloma acuminata. In the last decade, HPV prophylactic vaccine has been developed and spread worldwide after many large-scale clinical studies. These studies demonstrate significant clinical efficacy for prevention of HPV16/18/6/11-related diseases. In particular, prevention of cervical cancer should be the most important role in the world. In Japan, incidence of cervical cancer does not increase, but the peak of age of the patients at 2005 is 25-45 years old and became 20 years younger than that at 1985. The current two HPV vaccines can prevent the infection of HPV16/18 among high-risk HPVs and will provide a significant impact especially on young-age onset cervical cancer. Furthermore, quadrivalent HPV vaccine, Gardasil, has shown population impact that is decrease of patients with condyloma acuminate in several countries. The clinical efficacy seems to be convincing. Here HPV vaccine will be reviewed based on the literatures.

  4. [Anti-caries vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachini, M; Pierleoni, F

    2002-06-01

    Even though the reduction of caries-incidence in developed countries, its increasing has been observed nowadays. The use of a vaccine was object of many researches, going under modifications and evaluations during years. Wallace and McCollum showed the chance to induce experimental cavities, while Clarke and McIntosh were the first underlining the roll of S. mutans and Lactobacilli as efforts of the pathology. Williams was the first working with humans and Zinner and Fitzgerald continued. So since Bowen the research tried to build a vaccine made of single bacterial molecules with antigenic power. We can count about a large number of targets, like: the Ag I/II, the glucosyltransferase enzyme (GTF), the glucan-binding-protein (GBP), the destranase, the fruttosyltransferase and the glucans. Among the substances used to obtain a vaccine cacao revealed its capacity against bacteria able to develop cavities, thanks to its cariostatic and anti-glucosyltransferase activity due to polyphenols, that we can find in green tea too. It's also interesting a technique that gives passive antibodies like cow's milk, but in particular the one of a monoclonal antibody made with biotechnology of plants: the Guy's 13. It does not show substantial differences in comparison with the human Ig and it's able to prevent the installation of micro-organism and to reduce cavities in adult patients already infected. For the setting-up of a vaccine, however, only studies, comparison and research will be able to show precise instruments of defence.

  5. Therapeutic Vaccines for Gastrointestinal Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Rahma, Osama E; Khleif, Samir N.

    2011-01-01

    Despite progress in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies, these diseases remain devastating maladies. Conventional treatment with chemotherapy and radiation is still only partially effective and highly toxic. In the era of increasing knowledge of the molecular biology of tumors and the interaction between the tumor and immune system, the development of targeted agents, including cancer vaccines, has emerged as a promising modality. In this paper, we discuss the principals of vaccin...

  6. Barriers to human papillomavirus vaccine acceptability in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William A; Laniado, Hila; Shoval, Hila; Hakim, Marwan; Bornstein, Jacob

    2013-11-22

    Barriers to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in Israel include Israel's relatively low incidence of cervical cancer; the religiously-based 80% circumcision rate in Israel, which is regarded as contributing to the lower incidence of HPV infection in the country; the fact that HPV vaccine provides immunity against only few virus types; the vaccine's high cost; and the perception that HPV transmission is associated with unacceptable sexual relations. A recent survey has demonstrated that, following media two campaigns, Israeli's level of awareness of the vaccine increased but the actual vaccination rate remained low, at approximately 10%. Survey findings also indicated that an enduring barrier to HPV vaccination is the vaccine's high cost. Recent research on a convenience sample of Israeli undergraduate women 21 to 24 years of age showed that intentions to receive HPV vaccination in the coming year were a function of women's attitudes towards getting vaccinated and their perceptions of social support for doing so. Undergraduate women who intended to be vaccinated perceived the prevention of cervical cancer, avoidance of personal health threat, and avoidance of HPV infection per se to be the advantages of undergoing HPV vaccination. Disadvantages of getting vaccinated included fear of vaccine side effects, cost of the vaccine, and newness of the vaccine, doubts about vaccines, time required to undergo multiple vaccinations, and dislike of injections. Friends', mothers' and physicians' recommendations influenced women's intentions to be vaccinated in the coming year as well. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in Israel" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 8, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Vaccination in oncology practice and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Ali; Karcı, Ebru; Yaşar, Arzu; Tuncay, Gülseren; Köksoy, Elif Berna; Ürün, Muslih; Şenler, Filiz Çay; Demirkazık, Ahmet; Utkan, Güngör; Akbulut, Hakan; Ürün, Yüksel

    2017-09-01

    Despite, vaccination is a highly effective and widely recommended for prevention of certain infections, vaccination coverage is very low. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the attitudes of medical oncologists towards vaccination and to identify predictors of intention to recommend vaccination in patients with cancer. A structured questionnaire is formed to evaluate the daily practice of vaccination. Turkish medical oncologists were invited to this study via email, SMS, or phone call. Questionnaire was filled out and the data were stored in an online survey platform. Two hundred seventy-three medical oncologists participated in the survey. Influenza, Pneumococcus, and hepatitis B were the most commonly recommended vaccines (87.1, 72.8, 67.0%, respectively). Patients with lung cancer, lymphoma and breast cancer were the main malignancies that medical oncologists suggest vaccination (68.1, 68.1, 24.6%, respectively). The most common times for vaccination were during remission/follow-up period (68.4%) or before beginning chemotherapy (64.1%). Only 23.4% of the physicians thought that their recommendation for vaccination was efficient and adequate. Lack of time and lack of knowledge or experience about vaccination are the most common limitations. There is a positive correlation between experience in the field and evaluating patients for vaccination (r = 0.390, p vaccination (r = -0.080, p = 0.18). Experience with autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplant patients is related with more tendency to evaluate patients for vaccination (p vaccination practice in oncology. The frequency of recommendation increases with degree of experience, knowledge, and visit time per patient.

  8. Increase of Circulating CD4(+)CD25(high)Foxp3(+) Regulatory T Cells in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma During Treatment With Dendritic Cell Vaccination and Low-Dose Interleukin-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Annika; Brimnes, M.K.; Straten, P.T.

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play an important role in the maintenance of immune tolerance and may be one of the obstacles of successful tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we analyzed the impact of administration of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination in combination with low-dose interleukin (IL)-2...... in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma on the frequency of CD4(+) CD25(high)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in peripheral blood. We found that the treatment increased the frequency of Treg cells more than 7-fold compared with pretreatment levels (P cells decreased when patients...... had been off IL-2 treatment for only 8 days, but remained higher than pretreatment levels. A functional assay showed that isolated Treg cells were capable of inhibiting proliferation of responder cells. Also, in vitro studies showed that coculture of mature DCs, autologous T cells and IL-2 leads...

  9. GM-CSF DNA: an adjuvant for higher avidity IgG, rectal IgA, and increased protection against the acute phase of a SHIV-89.6P challenge by a DNA/MVA immunodeficiency virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lilin; Vödrös, Dalma; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Montefiori, David C; Wilson, Robert L; Akerstrom, Vicki L; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Yu, Tianwei; Kannanganat, Sunil; Ofielu, Lazarus; Villinger, Francois; Wyatt, Linda S; Moss, Bernard; Amara, Rama Rao; Robinson, Harriet L

    2007-12-05

    Single intradermal or intramuscular inoculations of GM-CSF DNA with the DNA prime for a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-89.6 vaccine, which consists of DNA priming followed by modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boosting, increased protection of both the blood and intestines against the acute phase of an intrarectal SHIV-89.6P challenge. GM-CSF appeared to contribute to protection by enhancing two antibody responses: the avidity maturation of anti-Env IgG in blood (p=oranti-viral IgA in rectal secretions (p<0.01). The avidity of anti-Env IgG showed strong correlations with protection both pre and post challenge. Animals with the highest avidity anti-Env Ab had 1000-fold reductions in peak viremia over those with the lowest avidity anti-Env Ab. The enhanced IgA response was associated with the best protection, but did not achieve significance.

  10. HIV vaccines: progress to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, C Mee Ling; Andersen, Christopher R; Kelleher, Anthony D

    2011-03-05

    The quest for an effective and safe HIV-1 vaccine has been and still is the aspiration of many scientists and clinicians worldwide. Until recently, the hopes for an effective vaccine were thwarted by the disappointing results and early termination in September 2007 of the STEP study, which saw a subgroup of male vaccine recipients at an increased risk of HIV-1 infection, and the failure of earlier trials of vaccines based on recombinant envelope proteins to provide any level of protection. The results of the STEP study raised important questions in the field of HIV vaccines, including the use of recombinant adenovirus vectors as immunogens, the rationale for the development of T-cell-based vaccines and the development pathway for these vaccines, in terms of assessment of immunogenicity and the challenge models used. The study of neutralizing antibodies has demonstrated that the induction of high-titre, broadly neutralizing antibodies in the majority of recipients is likely to be highly problematic. However, the results of the RV144 Thai trial released in September 2009 have brought new optimism to the field. This study employed envelope-based immunogens delivered as a priming vaccination with a recombinant poxvirus vector and boosting with recombinant proteins. This regimen provided modest protection to HIV-1 infection in a low-risk population. Although the correlates of protection are currently unknown, extensive studies are underway to try to determine these. Neutralizing antibodies were not induced in the RV144 study; however, considerable titres of binding antibodies to HIV-1 viral envelope (Env) were. It is speculated that these antibodies may have provided a means of protection by a mechanism such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In addition, no CD8+ T-cell responses were induced, but robust CD4+ T-cell responses were, and correlates of protection are being sought by analysing the quality of this aspect of the vaccine-induced immune response

  11. LBSapSal-vaccinated dogs exhibit increased circulating T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4⁺ and CD8⁺) as well as a reduction of parasitism after challenge with Leishmania infantum plus salivary gland of Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Ker, Henrique Gama; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Mathias, Fernando Augusto Siqueira; Cardoso, Jamille Mirelle de Oliveira; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2014-02-07

    The development of a protective vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is an alternative approach for interrupting the domestic cycle of Leishmania infantum. Given the importance of sand fly salivary proteins as potent immunogens obligatorily co-deposited during transmission of Leishmania parasites, their inclusion in an anti-Leishmania vaccine has been investigated in the last few decades. In this context, we previously immunized dogs with a vaccine composed of L. braziliensis antigens plus saponin as the adjuvant and sand fly salivary gland extract (LBSapSal vaccine). This vaccine elicited an increase in both anti-saliva and anti-Leishmania IgG isotypes, higher counts of specific circulating CD8⁺ T cells, and high NO production. We investigated the immunogenicity and protective effect of LBSapSal vaccination after intradermal challenge with 1 × 10⁷ late-log-phase L. infantum promastigotes in the presence of sand fly saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis. The dogs were followed for up to 885 days after challenge. The LBSapSal vaccine presents extensive antigenic diversity with persistent humoral and cellular immune responses, indicating resistance against CVL is triggered by high levels of total IgG and its subtypes (IgG1 and IgG2); expansion of circulating CD5⁺, CD4⁺, and CD8⁺ T lymphocytes and is Leishmania-specific; and reduction of splenic parasite load. These results encourage further study of vaccine strategies addressing Leishmania antigens in combination with proteins present in the saliva of the vector.

  12. Dihydralazine induces marked cerebral vasodilation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H

    1987-01-01

    Dihydralazine is widely used for acute control of hypertension. In experimental studies it seems to dilate cerebral resistance vessels and increase intracranial pressure. However, the effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in man has been little studied. Measurements of CBF were performed with the i...... of dihydralazine was of the same order of magnitude as the effect of 5% CO2 inhalation. These results in normal subjects should be extrapolated to diseased persons only with extreme caution. Still, the very marked and long lasting vasodilation observed suggests that dihydralazine, from a theoretical point of view...

  13. Encapsulation of an EP67-Conjugated CTL Peptide Vaccine in Nanoscale Biodegradable Particles Increases the Efficacy of Respiratory Immunization and Affects the Magnitude and Memory Subsets of Vaccine-Generated Mucosal and Systemic CD8(+) T Cells in a Diameter-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuturi, Bala V K; Tallapaka, Shailendra B; Yeapuri, Pravin; Curran, Stephen M; Sanderson, Sam D; Vetro, Joseph A

    2017-05-01

    The diameter of biodegradable particles used to coencapsulate immunostimulants and subunit vaccines affects the magnitude of memory CD8(+) T cells generated by systemic immunization. Possible effects on the magnitude of CD8(+) T cells generated by mucosal immunization or memory subsets that potentially correlate more strongly with protection against certain pathogens, however, are unknown. In this study, we conjugated our novel host-derived mucosal immunostimulant, EP67, to the protective MCMV CTL epitope, pp89, through a lysosomal protease-labile double arginine linker (pp89-RR-EP67) and encapsulated in PLGA 50:50 micro- or nanoparticles. We then compared total magnitude, effector/central memory (CD127/KRLG1/CD62L), and IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 secreting subsets of pp89-specific CD8(+) T cells as well as protection of naive female BALB/c mice against primary respiratory infection with MCMV 21 days after respiratory immunization. We found that decreasing the diameter of encapsulating particle from ∼5.4 μm to ∼350 nm (i) increased the magnitude of pp89-specific CD8(+) T cells in the lungs and spleen; (ii) partially changed CD127/KLRG1 effector memory subsets in the lungs but not the spleen; (iii) changed CD127/KRLG1/CD62L effector/central memory subsets in the spleen; (iv) changed pp89-responsive IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 secreting subsets in the lungs and spleen; (v) did not affect the extent to which encapsulation increased efficacy against primary MCMV respiratory infection over unencapsulated pp89-RR-EP67. Thus, although not observed under our current experimental conditions with MCMV, varying the diameter of nanoscale biodegradable particles may increase the efficacy of mucosal immunization with coencapsulated immunostimulant/subunit vaccines against certain pathogens by selectively increasing memory subset(s) of CD8(+) T cells that correlate the strongest with protection.

  14. Parents’ perceptions of provider communication regarding adolescent vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Amanda F.; Pyrzanowski, Jennifer; Lockhart, Steven; Campagna, Elizabeth; Barnard, Juliana; O'Leary, Sean T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strong provider recommendations for adolescent vaccines are critical for achieving high vaccination levels.  However, little is known about parents’ preferred provider communication strategies for adolescent vaccines in general, and for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines specifically. We performed a cross-sectional survey of 800 parents of 9-14 year olds in April 2014 to assess current adolescent vaccine communication practices by providers, parents’ preferred HPV vaccine-specific communication strategies, and the association of these two outcomes with experiential, attitudinal and demographic characteristics.  Among the 356 parents in the study (response rate 48%), HPV vaccines were reported as less likely to have been “very strongly” recommended by their adolescent’s provider (39%) than other adolescent-targeted vaccines (45%-59%, HPV vaccines was associated with a higher likelihood of vaccine receipt (71% versus 39%, pvaccinated, increased likelihood of positive vaccination intentions (82% vs. 60%, p = 0.015).  Nearly all parents (87%) reported that, if available, they would use a website providing personalized HPV vaccine-related materials before their adolescent’s next check-up, and other technology-based communications were also endorsed by the majority of parents.   From these data we conclude that parents received weaker recommendations for HPV vaccines than other adolescent vaccines, and that most parents want additional HPV vaccine-related materials, preferably delivered using a variety of technology-based modalities which is not their providers’ current practice. PMID:27078515

  15. Laser vaccine adjuvants. History, progress, and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines.

  16. Influenza vaccination accelerates recovery of ferrets from lymphopenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedzad Music

    Full Text Available Ferrets are a useful animal model for human influenza virus infections, since they closely mimic the pathogenesis of influenza viruses observed in humans. However, a lack of reagents, especially for flow cytometry of immune cell subsets, has limited research in this model. Here we use a panel of primarily species cross-reactive antibodies to identify ferret T cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL, B cells, and granulocytes in peripheral blood. Following infection with seasonal H3N2 or H1N1pdm09 influenza viruses, these cell types showed rapid and dramatic changes in frequency, even though clinically the infections were mild. The loss of B cells and CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the increase in neutrophils, were especially marked 1-2 days after infection, when about 90% of CD8+ T cells disappeared from the peripheral blood. The different virus strains led to different kinetics of leukocyte subset alterations. Vaccination with homologous vaccine reduced clinical symptoms slightly, but led to a much more rapid return to normal leukocyte parameters. Assessment of clinical symptoms may underestimate the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in restoring homeostasis.

  17. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA (800) ...

  18. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  19. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  20. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home | About | A-Z | Contact | Follow Vaccine Information You Need VACCINE BASICS Evaluating Online Health Information FAQs How Vaccines Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs ...

  1. Current Vaccine Shortages and Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... value="Submit" /> Related Links Vaccines & Immunizations Current Vaccine Shortages & Delays Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... vaccination are included in this update. Chart of Vaccines* in Delay or Shortage National Vaccine Supply Shortages ...

  2. Adjuvanted vaccines: Aspects of immunosafety and modes of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalst, S.

    2017-01-01

    New developments in vaccine design shift towards safe, though sometimes less immunogenic, subunit and synthetic antigens. Therefore, the majority of current vaccines require adjuvants to increase immunogenicity. Most adjuvants available were developed empirically and their mode of action is only

  3. Update on the Clinical Development of Candidate Malaria Vaccines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ballou, W. R; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Carucci, Daniel; Richie, Thomas L; Corradin, Giampietro; Diggs, Carter; Druilhe, Pierre; Giersing, Birgitte K; Saul, Allan; Heppner, D. G

    2004-01-01

    ... powerful driver for stimulating clinical development of candidate vaccines for malaria. This new way forward promises to greatly increase the likelihood of bringing a safe and effective vaccine to licensure...

  4. Dialectica Interpretation with Marked Counterexamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifon Trifonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Goedel's functional "Dialectica" interpretation can be used to extract functional programs from non-constructive proofs in arithmetic by employing two sorts of higher-order witnessing terms: positive realisers and negative counterexamples. In the original interpretation decidability of atoms is required to compute the correct counterexample from a set of candidates. When combined with recursion, this choice needs to be made for every step in the extracted program, however, in some special cases the decision on negative witnesses can be calculated only once. We present a variant of the interpretation in which the time complexity of extracted programs can be improved by marking the chosen witness and thus avoiding recomputation. The achieved effect is similar to using an abortive control operator to interpret computational content of non-constructive principles.

  5. Are Clade Specific HIV Vaccines a Necessity? An Analysis Based on Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobromir Dimitrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As HIV-1 envelope immune responses are critical to vaccine related protection, most candidate HIV vaccines entering efficacy trials are based upon a clade specific design. This need for clade specific vaccine prototypes markedly reduces the implementation of potentially effective HIV vaccines. We utilized a mathematical model to determine the effectiveness of immediate roll-out of a non-clade matched vaccine with reduced efficacy compared to constructing clade specific vaccines, which would take considerable time to manufacture and test in safety and efficacy trials. We simulated the HIV epidemic in San Francisco (SF and South Africa (SA and projected effectiveness of three vaccination strategies: i immediate intervention with a 20–40% vaccine efficacy (VE non-matched vaccine, ii delayed intervention by developing a 50% VE clade-specific vaccine, and iii immediate intervention with a non-matched vaccine replaced by a clade-specific vaccine when developed. Immediate vaccination with a non-clade matched vaccine, even with reduced efficacy, would prevent thousands of new infections in SF and millions in SA over 30 years. Vaccination with 50% VE delayed for five years needs six and 12 years in SA to break-even with immediate 20 and 30% VE vaccination, respectively, while not able to surpass the impact of immediate 40% VE vaccination over 30 years. Replacing a 30% VE with a 50% VE vaccine after 5 years reduces the HIV acquisition by 5% compared to delayed vaccination. The immediate use of an HIV vaccine with reduced VE in high risk communities appears desirable over a short time line but higher VE should be the pursued to achieve strong long-term impact. Our analysis illustrates the importance of developing surrogate markers (correlates of protection to allow bridging types of immunogenicity studies to support more rapid assessment of clade specific vaccines.

  6. Infrared technique for decoding of invisible laser markings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Jaeschke, Peter; Stein, Johannes; Goede, Martin

    2002-03-01

    Counterfeiting and product piracy continues to be an important issue not only for the Western industry, but also for the society in general. Due to the drastic increase in product imitation and the request for plagiarism protection as well as for reducing thefts there is a high interest in new protection methods providing new security features. The method presented here consists of security markings which are included below paint layers. These markings are invisible for the human eye due to the non-transparency of the upper layers in the visible spectral range. However, the markings can be detected by an infrared technique taking advantage on the partial transparency of the upper paint layers in the IR-region. Metal sheets are marked using laser radiation. The beam of a Nd:YAG-laser provides a modification of the surface structure, resulting in dark markings due to the annealing effect. After coating of the laser-marked material, the markings are invisible for the bare eye. In order to read out the invisible information below the coating, an infrared reflection technique is used. The samples are illuminated with halogen lamps or infrared radiators. Many coating materials (i. e. paints) show a certain transparency in the mid-infrared region, especially between 3 - 5 micrometers . The reflected radiation is detected using an IR-camera with a sensitivity range from 3.4 - 5 micrometers . Due to the different reflection properties between the markings and their surrounding, the information can be detected.

  7. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  8. Immunology Update: New Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, S Paul

    2016-11-01

    A new 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is effective against more cancer-causing HPV types than previous vaccines. HPV vaccine series started with previous vaccines can be completed with the 9-valent vaccine. Two new influenza vaccines are available for adults 65 years and older: a high-dose vaccine and an enhanced adjuvant vaccine. These elicit stronger antibody responses than standard-dose vaccines. Current guidelines specify no preference for the new versus standard-dose vaccines. Two new group B meningococcal vaccines are intended for use during outbreaks and for patients with asplenia, complement deficiencies, frequent occupational meningococcus exposure, or for patients who desire protection from type B meningococcus. These are not substitutes for the quadrivalent vaccine already in use. For pneumococcus, new recommendations state that 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) should be administered to patients 65 years and older, followed at least 1 year later by the polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23). For patients ages 19 to 64 years with immunocompromise and not previously vaccinated against pneumococcus, administration of these two vaccines should be separated by at least 8 weeks. Rotavirus vaccine is standard for infants at age 2 months. Also, there is a new cholera vaccine approved for use in the United States. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  9. [Research progress in rotavirus VP4 subunit vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lianzhi; Li, Tingdong; Ge, Shengxiang

    2017-07-25

    Rotaviruses are leading causes of worldwide acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years old, with severe consequence of social and economic burden. Vaccination is the most effective way to control rotavirus infection, however, the licensed rotavirus vaccines are ineffective in some low-income countries of Africa and Asia, where the mortality caused by rotavirus is higher than other areas. In addition, there are also safety concerns such as increased risk of intussusception. Therefore, it is urgent to improve the efficiency and safety of rotavirus vaccine to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by rotavirus. Till now, many efforts are made to improve the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines, and the inactive vaccine becomes the main trend in the research of rotavirus vaccine. The developments in recombinant rotavirus vaccines, especially in VP4 subunit vaccines are summarized in this review, and it could be helpful to develop effective recombinant rotavirus vaccines in further studies.

  10. Clinical guidance for smallpox vaccine use in a postevent vaccination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Brett W; Damon, Inger K; Pertowski, Carol A; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Guarnizo, Julie T; Beigi, Richard H; Edwards, Kathryn M; Fisher, Margaret C; Frey, Sharon E; Lynfield, Ruth; Willoughby, Rodney E

    2015-02-20

    This report outlines recommendations for the clinical use of the three smallpox vaccines stored in the U.S. Strategic National Stockpile for persons who are exposed to smallpox virus or at high risk for smallpox infection during a postevent vaccination program following an intentional or accidental release of the virus. No absolute contraindications exist for smallpox vaccination in a postevent setting. However, several relative contraindications exist among persons with certain medical conditions. CDC recommendations for smallpox vaccine use were developed in consideration of the risk for smallpox infection, risk for an adverse event following vaccination, and benefit from vaccination. Smallpox vaccines are made from live vaccinia viruses that protect against smallpox disease. They do not contain variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. The three smallpox vaccines stockpiled are ACAM2000, Aventis Pasteur Smallpox Vaccine (APSV), and Imvamune. Surveillance and containment activities including vaccination with replication-competent smallpox vaccine (i.e., vaccine viruses capable of replicating in mammalian cells such as ACAM2000 and APSV) will be the primary response strategy for achieving epidemic control. Persons exposed to smallpox virus are at high risk for developing and transmitting smallpox and should be vaccinated with a replication-competent smallpox vaccine unless severely immunodeficient. Because of a high likelihood of a poor immune response and an increased risk for adverse events, smallpox vaccination should be avoided in persons with severe immunodeficiency who are not expected to benefit from vaccine, including bone marrow transplant recipients within 4 months of transplantation, persons infected with HIV with CD4 cell counts smallpox virus exposure in persons with severe immunodeficiency. Persons without a known smallpox virus exposure might still be at high risk for developing smallpox infection depending on the magnitude of the outbreak and

  11. Complications of MR vaccination in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Eghbalian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Complications of national program vaccination have great importance, because widespread use of vaccines and expanded age range of vaccinees increases the percentage of side effects. Present study was performed for evaluating the complications of national measles and rubella vaccination in Hamedan province. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was done from December sixth to January fifth 2003 and two months after termination of vaccination program. The study was performed by filling complication forms that were distributed in the vaccination centers. The data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: A total of 827468 persons had been vaccinated in Hamedan, 260 out of them showed different complications. They had occurred mostly in 10 to 14 year old age group and had reported mainly by vaccination teams. 61.41 % of complications had been occurred in the first 24 hour after vaccination. 86 % of them had reactions to vaccination. 91 % of cases were outpatient. The complications with incidence rate more than were urticaria, fever, head ache, vomiting, lymphadenopathy, cough, skin rash, myalgia, pharyngitis, arthritis, rhinitis, restlessness and occular complications in decreasing order. The complications with incidence rate less than were sever dyspnea, seizure, diarrhea, paresthesia, anaphylaxis, encephalitis, thrombocytopenia, and Gillan – Barre syndrome. Conclusion: Mild complications were more frequent than severe ones. Most of the complications were related to reaction to vaccine, we didn’t have any program fault. Therefore we suggest a potent and flexible care system for reacting to side effects.

  12. Safety of human papillomavirus vaccines: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillo, Michela; Carrillo Santisteve, Paloma; Lopalco, Pier Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Between 2006 and 2009, two different human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccines were licensed for use: a quadrivalent (qHPVv) and a bivalent (bHPVv) vaccine. Since 2008, HPV vaccination programmes have been implemented in the majority of the industrialized countries. Since 2013, HPV vaccination has been part of the national programs of 66 countries including almost all countries in North America and Western Europe. Despite all the efforts made by individual countries, coverage rates are lower than expected. Vaccine safety represents one of the main concerns associated with the lack of acceptance of HPV vaccination both in the European Union/European Economic Area and elsewhere. Areas covered: Safety data published on bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines, both in pre-licensure and post-licensure phase, are reviewed. Expert opinion: Based on the latest scientific evidence, both HPV vaccines seem to be safe. Nevertheless, public concern and rumors about adverse events (AE) represent an important barrier to overcome in order to increase vaccine coverage. Passive surveillance of AEs is an important tool for detecting safety signals, but it should be complemented by activities aimed at assessing the real cause of all suspect AEs. Improved vaccine safety surveillance is the first step for effective communication based on scientific evidence. PMID:25689872

  13. Primary vaccine failure to routine vaccines: Why and what to do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Ursula; Garner-Spitzer, Erika; Wagner, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    There are 2 major factors responsible for vaccine failures, the first is vaccine-related such as failures in vaccine attenuation, vaccination regimes or administration. The other is host-related, of which host genetics, immune status, age, health or nutritional status can be associated with primary or secondary vaccine failures. The first describes the inability to respond to primary vaccination, the latter is characterized by a loss of protection after initial effectiveness. Our studies concentrate on the evaluation of immunological characteristics responsible for primary vaccine failures in different (risk) populations for which the underlying mechanisms are currently unknown. Here we summarise current knowledge and findings from our studies. About 2-10% of healthy individuals fail to mount antibody levels to routine vaccines. Comparing the immune responses to different vaccines in non-responder and high-responder vaccinees revealed that hypo-responsiveness is antigen/vaccine-specific at the humoral but not at the cellular level. We found that T-regulatory as well as B-regulatory cells and the production of IL-10 are involved in non/hypo-responsiveness. Non-responsiveness increases with age and in particular vaccination to a novel vaccine in persons > 65 years is associated with a high low/non-responder rate, indicating that vaccine schedules and doses (at least for primary vaccination) should be adapted according to age. In light of the growing number of allergic but also obese people, our current studies concentrate on these risk groups to reveal whether different vaccination approaches are necessary for optimal protection compared to healthy individuals. These studies are in line with the significant paradigm shift taking place in many fields of medical research and care, and will extend the concept of personalised medicine into the field of vaccinology.

  14. Sex differences in the vaccine-specific and non-targeted effects of vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Katie L; Klein, Sabra L; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines have non-specific effects (NSE) on subsequent morbidity and mortality from non-vaccine related infectious diseases. Thus NSE refers to any effect that cannot be accounted for by the induction of immunity against the vaccine-targeted disease. These effects are sex-differential, generally...... being more pronounced in females than males. Furthermore, the NSE are substantial causing greater than fifty percent changes in all cause mortality in certain settings, yet have never been systematically tested despite the fact that millions of children receive vaccines each year. As we strive...... to eliminate infectious diseases through vaccination programmes, the relative impact of NSE of vaccines on mortality is likely to increase, raising important questions regarding the future of certain vaccine schedules. A diverse group of scientists met in Copenhagen to discuss non-specific and sex...

  15. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  16. Cooperative Shark Mark Recapture Database (MRDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shark Mark Recapture Database is a Cooperative Research Program database system used to keep multispecies mark-recapture information in a common format for...

  17. Vaccine requirements and priorities for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongcharoen, P

    1986-09-01

    The situation of viral vaccines used in Asian countries is reviewed, focusing on the following vaccines: smallpox, rabies, polio, measles, rubella, mumps, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, hepatitis B, varicella, dengue, and rotavirus. Vaccinations are among the most important strategies to combat communicable diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. Active immunizations are more preferable in most instances than passive ones. It has taken almost 2 centuries to eradicate the highly contagious infection of smallpox from the world. In 1979 the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the global eradication of smallpox. Smallpox vaccination was 1st practiced in 1840 by Dr. Dan Beach Bradley, with the last 2 cases of smallpox reported in Thailand in 1962. Despite the achievement for many years of more ideal rabies vaccine, Semple vaccine continues to be used in developing countries. Attempts should be intensified to produce newer tissue culture vaccines in developing countries themselves and to eradicate vectors. Instances of poliomyelitis were reported in Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand as late as 1983-84, but only a few sporadic cases have occurred in Malaysia since 1980. This mixed record results from polio vaccine having been incorporated into national Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) programs in many countries. Measles remains 1 of the most common viral infections in children in most developing nations, but morbidity and mortality rates are not accurately obtainable in these countries. Rubella outbreaks have been reported from many countries in Southeast Asia with congenital rubella syndromes due to maternal rubella on the increase in many countries, including Thailand. Children who receive the mumps vaccination are those receiving the combined MMR vaccines. Monovalent mumps vaccine is not obtainable in developing countries. Influenza vaccine is impracticable in most developing countries. Japanese encephalitis

  18. Influenza vaccination coverage among medical residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Claudio; Mazzucco, Walter; Azzolini, Elena; Baldini, Cesare; Bergomi, Margherita; Biafiore, Alessio Daniele; Bianco, Manuela; Borsari, Lucia; Cacciari, Paolo; Cadeddu, Chiara; Camia, Paola; Carluccio, Eugenia; Conti, Andrea; De Waure, Chiara; Di Gregori, Valentina; Fabiani, Leila; Fallico, Roberto; Filisetti, Barbara; Flacco, Maria E; Franco, Elisabetta; Furnari, Roberto; Galis, Veronica; Gallea, Maria R; Gallone, Maria F; Gallone, Serena; Gelatti, Umberto; Gilardi, Francesco; Giuliani, Anna R; Grillo, Orazio C; Lanati, Niccolò; Mascaretti, Silvia; Mattei, Antonella; Micò, Rocco; Morciano, Laura; Nante, Nicola; Napoli, Giuseppe; Nobile, Carmelo; Palladino, Raffaele; Parisi, Salvatore; Passaro, Maria; Pelissero, Gabriele; Quarto, Michele; Ricciardi, Walter; Romano, Gabriele; Rustico, Ennio; Saponari, Anita; Schioppa, Francesco S; Signorelli, Carlo; Siliquini, Roberta; Trabacchi, Valeria; Triassi, Maria; Varetta, Alessia; Ziglio, Andrea; Zoccali, Angela; Vitale, Francesco; Amodio, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    Although influenza vaccination is recognized to be safe and effective, recent studies have confirmed that immunization coverage among health care workers remain generally low, especially among medical residents (MRs). Aim of the present multicenter study was to investigate attitudes and determinants associated with acceptance of influenza vaccination among Italian MRs. A survey was performed in 2012 on MRs attending post-graduate schools of 18 Italian Universities. Each participant was interviewed via an anonymous, self-administered, web-based questionnaire including questions on attitudes regarding influenza vaccination. A total of 2506 MRs were recruited in the survey and 299 (11.9%) of these stated they had accepted influenza vaccination in 2011–2012 season. Vaccinated MRs were older (P = 0.006), working in clinical settings (P = 0.048), and vaccinated in the 2 previous seasons (P < 0.001 in both seasons). Moreover, MRs who had recommended influenza vaccination to their patients were significantly more compliant with influenza vaccination uptake in 2011–2012 season (P < 0.001). “To avoid spreading influenza among patients” was recognized as the main reason for accepting vaccination by less than 15% of vaccinated MRs. Italian MRs seem to have a very low compliance with influenza vaccination and they seem to accept influenza vaccination as a habit that is unrelated to professional and ethical responsibility. Otherwise, residents who refuse vaccination in the previous seasons usually maintain their behaviors. Promoting correct attitudes and good practice in order to improve the influenza immunization rates of MRs could represent a decisive goal for increasing immunization coverage among health care workers of the future. PMID:24603089

  19. Vaccinations against respiratory tract infections at Hajj.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, A S; Rashid, H; Heywood, A E

    2015-02-01

    The transmission of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) is very high among the Hajj congregation in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Despite recommendations for vaccinations, pilgrims remain at increased risk of RTIs. In this paper we systematically reviewed available studies assessing the uptake and effectiveness of vaccinations against RTIs among Hajj pilgrims and enumerated important demographic factors, if described, associated with vaccine uptake. Of the 42 included studies, 29 reported on the uptake and effectiveness of influenza vaccine among pilgrims, eight studies reported the uptake of other vaccines, notably pneumococcal, diphtheria and bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccines, and the remaining five studies described both influenza and non-influenza vaccines. The uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine ranged from 0.7% to 100% across the study populations, with coverage highest in the elderly and those with pre-existing co-morbidities. The effectiveness of influenza vaccine was variable across studies but was significantly effective against laboratory-confirmed influenza (risk ratio 0.56; 95% CI 0.41-0.75; p Hajj pilgrims found the presence of pre-Hajj immunity to be significantly protective against disease. Despite favourable evidence of effectiveness, our review shows variable uptake of vaccines across a number of studies with few data available on the uptake of non-influenza vaccines. Mixed-method studies are needed to gauge knowledge, attitudes and practices of Hajj pilgrims regarding vaccination, and randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the efficacy of vaccines and improve uptake in this vulnerable travelling population. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analytics for vaccine economics and pricing: insights and observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sheldon H

    2015-04-01

    Pediatric immunization programs in the USA are a successful and cost-effective public health endeavor, profoundly reducing mortalities caused by infectious diseases. Two important issues relate to the success of the immunization programs, the selection of cost-effective vaccines and the appropriate pricing of vaccines. The recommended childhood immunization schedule, published annually by the CDC, continues to expand with respect to the number of injections required and the number of vaccines available for selection. The advent of new vaccines to meet the growing requirements of the schedule results: in a large, combinatorial number of possible vaccine formularies. The expansion of the schedule and the increase in the number of available vaccines constitutes a challenge for state health departments, large city immunization programs, private practices and other vaccine purchasers, as a cost-effective vaccine formulary must be selected from an increasingly large set of possible vaccine combinations to satisfy the schedule. The pediatric vaccine industry consists of a relatively small number of pharmaceutical firms engaged in the research, development, manufacture and distribution of pediatric vaccines. The number of vaccine manufacturers has dramatically decreased in the past few decades for a myriad of reasons, most notably due to low profitability. The contraction of the industry negatively impacts the reliable provision of pediatric vaccines. The determination of appropriate vaccine prices is an important issue and influences a vaccine manufacturer's decision to remain in the market. Operations research is a discipline that applies advanced analytical methods to improve decision making; analytics is the application of operations research to a particular problem using pertinent data to provide a practical result. Analytics provides a mechanism to resolve the challenges facing stakeholders in the vaccine development and delivery system, in particular, the selection

  1. Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage among Adult Populations - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Walter W; Lu, Peng-Jun; O'Halloran, Alissa; Kim, David K; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Pilishvili, Tamara; Skoff, Tami H; Nelson, Noele P; Harpaz, Rafael; Markowitz, Lauri E; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker

    2017-05-05

    Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults is low. August 2014-June 2015 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2015 (for pneumococcal, tetanus and diphtheria [Td] and tetanus and diphtheria with acellular pertussis [Tdap], hepatitis A, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, and human papillomavirus [HPV] vaccination). The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a continuous, cross-sectional national household survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. In-person interviews are conducted throughout the year in a probability sample of households, and NHIS data are compiled and released annually. The survey objective is to monitor the health of the U.S. population and provide estimates of health indicators, health care use and access, and health-related behaviors. Compared with data from the 2014 NHIS, increases in vaccination coverage occurred for influenza vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years (a 1.6 percentage point increase compared with the 2013-14 season to 44.8%), pneumococcal vaccine among adults aged 19-64 years at increased risk for pneumococcal disease (a 2.8 percentage point increase to 23.0%), Tdap vaccine among adults aged ≥19 years and adults aged 19-64 years (a 3.1 percentage point and 3.3 percentage point increase to 23.1% and to 24.7%, respectively), herpes zoster vaccine among adults aged ≥60 years and adults aged ≥65 years (a 2.7 percentage point and 3.2 percentage point increase to 30.6% and to 34.2%, respectively), and hepatitis B vaccine among health care personnel (HCP) aged

  2. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination of Boys and Extended Catch-up Vaccination: Effects on the Resilience of Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfström, K Miriam; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Franceschi, Silvia; Dillner, Joakim; Baussano, Iacopo

    2016-01-15

    Decreasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prices makes scaling up of vaccination programs attractive for countries that initially targeted 1 or a few birth cohorts of girls and/or achieved low coverage. This article aims to compare the impact of alternative HPV vaccination strategies, using data from Sweden, a high-income country that has experienced vaccine price changes. Using an HPV transmission model, we compared the existing vaccination program to alternatives, accounting for a 1-time catch-up vaccination of 22-26-year-old women, with or without routine vaccination of school-age boys, and for a 1-time catch-up vaccination of males aged 13-26 years. We also assessed the resilience of vaccination alternatives to coverage reduction. On the basis of an HPV16/18 prevalence of 12% before the HPV vaccine era, extended catch-up vaccination for females and males yielded relative reductions in the HPV prevalence of 49.4% and 55.6%, respectively, during the first 10 years after the start of each vaccination strategy, whereas the existing program yielded a relative reduction of 38.6% during the same period. The increased prevalence reduction due to catch-up vaccination continued for about 30 years. As compared to female-only routine and extended catch-up vaccination, routine vaccination of males with or without catch-up was, respectively, 12.6-fold and 7.2-fold more resilient to coverage reduction. Vaccination strategies based on catch-up vaccination of females and males are effective for accelerating HPV prevalence reduction. Inclusion of routine male vaccination improves the resilience of vaccination programs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. EDMS - Reaching the Million Mark

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    When Christophe Seith from the company Cegelec sat down to work on 14 May 2009 at 10:09 a.m. to create the EDMS document entitled "Rapport tournée PH semaine 20", little did he know that he would be the proud creator of the millionth EDMS document and the happy prize winner of a celebratory bottle of champagne to mark the occasion. In the run up to the creation of the millionth EDMS document the EDMS team had been closely monitoring the steady rise in the EDMS number generator, so as to ensure the switch from the six figured i.d. to seven figures would run smoothly and of course, to be able to congratulate the creator of the millionth EDMS document. From left to right: Stephan Petit (GS-ASE- EDS Section Leader), Christophe Delamare (GS- ASE Group Leader), Christophe Seith, creator of the millionth EDMS document, David Widegren, (GS-ASE- EPS Section Leader). The millionth EDMS document. For t...

  4. Factors contributing to suboptimal rates of childhood vaccinations in Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Catherine A; Velazco, Cristine S; Delaney, Thomas V; Bensimhon, Adam; Huang, Kuang-Ning; Jarvis, Paul R; Jolin, Jonathan S; Schaberg, Kurt B; Burke, Marianne; Finley, Christine; Carney, Jan K

    2015-12-01

    Childhood immunizations are invaluable in preventing contagious diseases. Nonetheless, vaccines have become increasingly controversial with growing numbers of caregivers refusing to vaccinate their children. The percentage of fully vaccinated children in Vermont is one of the lowest nationally. This study set out to determine Vermont caregivers' attitudes toward immunizations to better explain why the percentage of fully vaccinated children has fallen in Vermont. A survey regarding caregivers' health care knowledge about children, their vaccination concerns, and their children's vaccination status was sent to participants in the Vermont Women, Infants and Children's Program from two districts. In total, 83% (n = 379) of respondents reported their children received all recommended vaccinations for their age. Respondents who considered themselves highly knowledgeable regarding their children's health care and confident about the safety of vaccinations were significantly associated with reporting their children as being current on vaccinations and with their intent to continue vaccinations. Respondents indicated highest concern regarding the safety and number of vaccinations administered during one visit. Primary care providers were indicated as important resources for addressing concerns about vaccinations and health care knowledge of children. The results help to understand low vaccination rates in Vermont and can be used for targeting health campaigns to improve vaccination rates. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Early Detection of Autism (ASD) by a Non-invasive Quick Measurement of Markedly Reduced Acetylcholine & DHEA and Increased β-Amyloid (1-42), Asbestos (Chrysotile), Titanium Dioxide, Al, Hg & often Coexisting Virus Infections (CMV, HPV 16 and 18), Bacterial Infections etc. in the Brain and Corresponding Safe Individualized Effective Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Lu, Dominic; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Ahdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2015-01-01

    A brief historical background on Autism & some of the important symptoms associated with Autism are summarized. Using strong Electro Magnetic Field Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical molecules with identical weight (which received U.S. Patent) non-invasively & rapidly we can detect various molecules including neurotransmitters, bacteria, virus, fungus, metals & abnormal molecules. Simple non- invasive measurement of various molecules through pupils & head of diagnosed or suspected Autism patients indicated that in Autism patients following changes were often found: 1) Acetylcholine is markedly reduced; 2) Alzheimer's disease markers (i.e. β-Amyloid (1-42), Tau Protein, Apolipoprotein (Apo E4)) are markedly increased; 3) Chrysotile Asbestos is increased; 4) Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is moderately increased; 5) Al is moderately increased; 6) Hg is moderately increased; 7) Dopamine, Serotonin & GABA are significantly reduced (up to about 1/10 of normal); 8) Often viral infections (such as CMV, HHV-6, HPV-16, HPV-18, etc.), and Bacterial infections (such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium TB, Borrelia Burgdorferi, etc.) coexist. Research by others on Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows that it is a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders, with about 70% of ASD patients also suffering from gastro-intestinal problems. While Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by formation of 1) Amyloid plaques, 2) Neurofibrillary tangles inside of neurons, and 3) Loss of connections between neurons. More than 90% of AD develops in people over the age of 65. These 3 characteristics often progressively worsen over time. Although Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alzheimer's disease are completely different diseases they have some similar biochemical changes. Eight examples of such measurement & analysis are shown for comparison. Most of Autism patients improved significantly by removing the source or preventing intake of Asbestos, TiO2, Al & Hg or enhancing urinary output

  6. 30 CFR 7.29 - Approval marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval marking. 7.29 Section 7.29 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... makes such marking impractical, permanent paint or ink may be used to mark the edge with an MSHA...

  7. 7 CFR 160.32 - Marking containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking containers. 160.32 Section 160.32 Agriculture... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.32 Marking containers. The interested person shall provide any labor necessary for marking the containers, after the contents have been...

  8. 27 CFR 24.259 - Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....259 Marks. (a) Required marks. Each container larger than four liters or each case used to remove wine... marked on bulk containers of special natural wine or other wine produced under § 24.218; (4) The net contents of each container larger than four liters or each case in wine gallons, or for containers larger...

  9. Vaccines in the Prevention of Viral Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Clementine S; Jha, Akhilesh; Openshaw, Peter J M

    2017-03-01

    Pneumonia is of great global public health importance. Viral infections play both direct and indirect parts in its cause across the globe. Influenza is a leading cause of viral pneumonia in both children and adults, and respiratory syncytial virus is increasingly recognized as causing disease at both extremes of age. Vaccination offers the best prospect for prevention but current influenza vaccines do not provide universal and durable protection, and require yearly reformulation. In the future, it is hoped that influenza vaccines will give better and universal protection, and that new vaccines can be found for other causes of viral pneumonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. US medical students' willingness to offer the HPV vaccine by vaccination status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Abbey B; Hirth, Jacqueline M; Fuchs, Erika L

    2017-03-01

    We surveyed third-year medical students to assess whether personal vaccination status was associated with willingness to recommend the human papillomavirus vaccine to patients. A total of 231 students completed an anonymous survey evaluating their knowledge, attitudes, and personal vaccine history. Of 122 female students, 81 (66.4%) reported initiating the vaccine, as did 16 of 109 males (14.7%). Females and students ⩽25years old were more likely to be vaccinated. Knowledge did not vary by vaccination status, but anticipated behaviors did. Vaccinated students reported greater willingness to vaccinate adolescents before 15-16years of age (92.1% vs. 78.6%, p=0.008) and discuss vaccination at any type of medical visit (100% vs. 89.7%, pHPV vaccine may influence a provider's future actions. Thus, interventions that increase awareness of this relationship as well as vaccination rates among health care students may be beneficial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinician-parent discussions about influenza vaccination of children and their association with vaccine acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Annika M; Robinson, Jeffrey D; Lepere, Katherine; Cunningham, Morgan; Etsekson, Nicole; Opel, Douglas J

    2017-05-09

    To examine how clinicians communicate with parents about influenza vaccination and the effect of these communication behaviors on parental vaccine decision-making. We performed a secondary analysis of data obtained from a cross-sectional observational study in which health supervision visits between pediatric clinicians and English-speaking parents of young children were videotaped. Eligible visits occurred during the 2011-2012 and 2013-2014 influenza seasons, included children ≥6months, and contained an influenza vaccine discussion. A coding scheme of 10 communication behaviors was developed and applied to each visit. Associations between clinician communication behaviors and parental verbal vaccine acceptance and parental visit experience were examined using bivariate analysis and generalized linear mixed models. Fifty visits involving 17 clinicians from 8 practices were included in analysis. The proportion of parents who accepted influenza vaccine was higher when clinicians initiated influenza vaccine recommendations using presumptive rather than participatory formats (94% vs. 28%, pinfluenza vaccine concurrent with (vs. separate from) recommendations for other vaccines due at the visit (83% vs. 33%, pinfluenza vaccine recommendations, pursuit in the face of resistance, and concurrent vaccine recommendations appear to increase parental acceptance of influenza vaccine without negatively affecting visit experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor

  13. Transport networks and inequities in vaccination: remoteness shapes measles vaccine coverage and prospects for elimination across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, C J E; Tatem, A; Bjornstad, O N; Lessler, J; O'Reilly, K; Takahashi, S; Cutts, F; Grenfell, B T

    2015-05-01

    Measles vaccination is estimated to have averted 13·8 million deaths between 2000 and 2012. Persisting heterogeneity in coverage is a major contributor to continued measles mortality, and a barrier to measles elimination and introduction of rubella-containing vaccine. Our objective is to identify determinants of inequities in coverage, and how vaccine delivery must change to achieve elimination goals, which is a focus of the WHO Decade of Vaccines. We combined estimates of travel time to the nearest urban centre (⩾50 000 people) with vaccination data from Demographic Health Surveys to assess how remoteness affects coverage in 26 African countries. Building on a statistical mapping of coverage against age and geographical isolation, we quantified how modifying the rate and age range of vaccine delivery affects national coverage. Our scenario analysis considers increasing the rate of delivery of routine vaccination, increasing the target age range of routine vaccination, and enhanced delivery to remote areas. Geographical isolation plays a key role in defining vaccine inequity, with greater inequity in countries with lower measles vaccine coverage. Eliminating geographical inequities alone will not achieve thresholds for herd immunity, indicating that changes in delivery rate or age range of routine vaccination will be required. Measles vaccine coverage remains far below targets for herd immunity in many countries on the African continent and is likely to be inadequate for achieving rubella elimination. The impact of strategies such as increasing the upper age range eligible for routine vaccination should be considered.

  14. The current situation of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among children in Takatsuki, Japan: focus on Hib and pneumococcal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yuko; Watanabe, Misuzu; Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Komiyama, Maki; Kono, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to understand the current scenario of voluntary vaccination and the factors influencing its coverage among 18-month-old children of Takatsuki City, Japan. Based on 1167 parents responses, we found that voluntary vaccination coverage rates were low when compared with routine vaccination rates. The children who were not the first born of the family and who had young and poorly educated parents were less likely to receive voluntary vaccination. Japanese government-supported vaccines, such as Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal vaccine, had a higher coverage than the vaccines for which parents had to bear the entire vaccination cost. Furthermore, it was found that mass communication media and family pediatricians were effective means to disseminate voluntary vaccination-related information. We envisage that an active participation of medical professionals, easy access to vaccinations, and mass awareness programs will increase voluntary vaccination coverage in Takatsuki. © 2013 APJPH.

  15. The Cult of Celebrity and Trade Marks: the next instalment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Davies

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increasing use of registered trade marks by celebrities to protect their names from exploitation, the UK Trade Marks Registry has recently issued guidance on registration of "famous names". This article seeks to examine the implications of the guidance in light of the existing legislative framework for registration of a personal name and recent judicial developments, together with examples of some famous names that have been granted registered protection.

  16. Regulation of glucose homeostasis by KSR1 and MARK2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J Klutho

    Full Text Available Protein scaffolds control the intensity and duration of signaling and dictate the specificity of signaling through MAP kinase pathways. KSR1 is a molecular scaffold of the Raf/MEK/ERK MAP kinase cascade that regulates the intensity and duration of ERK activation. Relative to wild-type mice, ksr1⁻/⁻ mice are modestly glucose intolerant, but show a normal response to exogenous insulin. However, ksr1⁻/⁻ mice also demonstrate a three-fold increase in serum insulin levels in response to a glucose challenge, suggesting a role for KSR1 in insulin secretion. The kinase MARK2 is closely related to C-TAK1, a known regulator of KSR1. Mice lacking MARK2 have an increased rate of glucose disposal in response to exogenous insulin, increased glucose tolerance, and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. mark2⁻/⁻ksr1⁻/⁻ (DKO mice were compared to wild type, mark2⁻/⁻, and ksr1⁻/⁻ mice for their ability to regulate glucose homeostasis. Here we show that disruption of KSR1 in mark2⁻/⁻ mice reverses the increased sensitivity to exogenous insulin resulting from MARK2 deletion. DKO mice respond to exogenous insulin similarly to wild type and ksr1⁻/⁻ mice. These data suggest a model whereby MARK2 negatively regulates insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue through inhibition of KSR1. Consistent with this model, we found that MARK2 binds and phosphorylates KSR1 on Ser392. Phosphorylation of Ser392 is a critical regulator of KSR1 stability, subcellular location, and ERK activation. These data reveal an unexpected role for the molecular scaffold KSR1 in insulin-regulated glucose metabolism.

  17. Vaccination in food allergic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    allergy: • Vaccines produced in embryonated eggs, such as yellow fever vaccine, influenza vaccine and rabies vaccine. Yellow fever vaccine is most likely to contain significant amounts of egg protein. • Vaccines produced in chick fibroblast cell cultures, such as measles and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines, do not.

  18. Analysis of a measles epidemic; possible role of vaccine failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, W E; Rawls, M L; Chernesky, M A

    1975-11-22

    A measles epidemic occurred in the Greensville (Ont.) Unit schools during January and February 1975. There were 47 cases of measles in 403 students: 26 (55%) of the children had a history of being vaccinated and 18 (38%) had not been vaccinated. Among children known to have been vaccinated at less than 1 year of age 7 of 13 contracted measles, while among the 48 children who had not been vaccinated 18 contracted measles. The attack rate among vaccinees increased with increasing time since vaccination. The observations of this study as well as those of similar studies suggest that vaccine failures contributed to the genesis of the epidemic. It is recommended that all children initially vaccinated at less than 1 year of age should be revaccinated with live attenuated measles virus vaccine.

  19. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Huygen

    2015-09-01

    There is not sufficient evidence to suggest an increased risk of developing CRPS following vaccination with HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Post-licensure safety surveillance confirms the acceptable benefit-risk of HPV-16/18 vaccination.

  20. Predicting contrast in sentences with and without focus marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Katy

    2014-10-01

    How do we know when a contrast is coming? This study explores the prediction of parallel contrastive phrases, especially NPs, in sentences with and without overt focus marking. A written sentence-completion questionnaire with clauses