WorldWideScience

Sample records for vaccination laboratory analysis

  1. Rash after measles vaccination: laboratory analysis of cases reported in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Maria I

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical differential diagnosis of rash due to viral infections is often difficult, and misdiagnosis is not rare, especially after the introduction of measles and rubella vaccination. A study to determine the etiological diagnosis of exanthema was carried out in a group of children after measles vaccination. METHODS: Sera collected from children with rash who received measles vaccine were reported in 1999. They were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus, rubella virus, human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19 using ELISA commercial techniques, and human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6 using immunofluorescence commercial technique. Viremia for each of those viruses was tested using a polimerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of children with exanthema after measles immunization were reported in 1999. The children, aged 9 to 12 months (median 10 months, had a blood sample taken for laboratory analysis. The time between vaccination and the first rash signs varied from 1 to 60 days. The serological results of those 17 children suspected of measles or rubella infection showed the following etiological diagnosis: 17.6% (3 in 17 HPV B19 infection; 76.5% (13 in 17 HHV 6 infection; 5.9% (1 in 17 rash due to measles vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicate that infection due to HPV B19 or HHV 6 can be misdiagnosed as exanthema due to measles vaccination. Therefore, it is important to better characterize the etiology of rash in order to avoid attributing it incorrectly to measles vaccine.

  2. Rash after measles vaccination: laboratory analysis of cases reported in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical differential diagnosis of rash due to viral infections is often difficult, and misdiagnosis is not rare, especially after the introduction of measles and rubella vaccination. A study to determine the etiological diagnosis of exanthema was carried out in a group of children after measles vaccination. METHODS: Sera collected from children with rash who received measles vaccine were reported in 1999. They were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus, rubella virus, human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19 using ELISA commercial techniques, and human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6 using immunofluorescence commercial technique. Viremia for each of those viruses was tested using a polimerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of children with exanthema after measles immunization were reported in 1999. The children, aged 9 to 12 months (median 10 months, had a blood sample taken for laboratory analysis. The time between vaccination and the first rash signs varied from 1 to 60 days. The serological results of those 17 children suspected of measles or rubella infection showed the following etiological diagnosis: 17.6% (3 in 17 HPV B19 infection; 76.5% (13 in 17 HHV 6 infection; 5.9% (1 in 17 rash due to measles vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicate that infection due to HPV B19 or HHV 6 can be misdiagnosed as exanthema due to measles vaccination. Therefore, it is important to better characterize the etiology of rash in order to avoid attributing it incorrectly to measles vaccine.

  3. Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....

  4. Nanotechnology Laboratory Collaborates with Army to Develop Botulism Vaccine | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) is collaborating with the Army to develop a candidate vaccine against botulism. Under a collaboration agreement between the National Cancer Institute and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of

  5. Bioinformatics analysis of Brucella vaccines and vaccine targets using VIOLIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun; Xiang, Zuoshuang

    2010-09-27

    Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the commonest zoonotic diseases found worldwide in humans and a variety of animal species. While several animal vaccines are available, there is no effective and safe vaccine for prevention of brucellosis in humans. VIOLIN (http://www.violinet.org) is a web-based vaccine database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes published data of commercialized vaccines, and vaccines in clinical trials or in research. VIOLIN contains information for 454 vaccines or vaccine candidates for 73 pathogens. VIOLIN also contains many bioinformatics tools for vaccine data analysis, data integration, and vaccine target prediction. To demonstrate the applicability of VIOLIN for vaccine research, VIOLIN was used for bioinformatics analysis of existing Brucella vaccines and prediction of new Brucella vaccine targets. VIOLIN contains many literature mining programs (e.g., Vaxmesh) that provide in-depth analysis of Brucella vaccine literature. As a result of manual literature curation, VIOLIN contains information for 38 Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates, 14 protective Brucella antigens, and 68 host response studies to Brucella vaccines from 97 peer-reviewed articles. These Brucella vaccines are classified in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) system and used for different ontological applications. The web-based VIOLIN vaccine target prediction program Vaxign was used to predict new Brucella vaccine targets. Vaxign identified 14 outer membrane proteins that are conserved in six virulent strains from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis that are pathogenic in humans. Of the 14 membrane proteins, two proteins (Omp2b and Omp31-1) are not present in B. ovis, a Brucella species that is not pathogenic in humans. Brucella vaccine data stored in VIOLIN were compared and analyzed using the VIOLIN query system. Bioinformatics curation and ontological representation of Brucella vaccines

  6. Rash after measles vaccination: laboratory analysis of cases reported in São Paulo, Brazil Exantema após vacinação do sarampo: análise laboratorial de casos notificados em São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical differential diagnosis of rash due to viral infections is often difficult, and misdiagnosis is not rare, especially after the introduction of measles and rubella vaccination. A study to determine the etiological diagnosis of exanthema was carried out in a group of children after measles vaccination. METHODS: Sera collected from children with rash who received measles vaccine were reported in 1999. They were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus, rubella virus, human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19 using ELISA commercial techniques, and human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6 using immunofluorescence commercial technique. Viremia for each of those viruses was tested using a polimerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of children with exanthema after measles immunization were reported in 1999. The children, aged 9 to 12 months (median 10 months, had a blood sample taken for laboratory analysis. The time between vaccination and the first rash signs varied from 1 to 60 days. The serological results of those 17 children suspected of measles or rubella infection showed the following etiological diagnosis: 17.6% (3 in 17 HPV B19 infection; 76.5% (13 in 17 HHV 6 infection; 5.9% (1 in 17 rash due to measles vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicate that infection due to HPV B19 or HHV 6 can be misdiagnosed as exanthema due to measles vaccination. Therefore, it is important to better characterize the etiology of rash in order to avoid attributing it incorrectly to measles vaccine.OBJETIVO: O diagnóstico diferencial de doenças exantemáticas causadas por vírus é geralmente difícil, e equívocos não são raros, especialmente depois da introdução da vacina contra o sarampo e a rubéola. Um estudo laboratorial foi conduzido com o objetivo de estabelecer o diagnóstico etiológico de casos de exantema em crianças que receberam a vacina contra o sarampo. MÉTODOS: Soros de casos de exantema em crianças que

  7. Frederick National Laboratory Rallies to Meet Demand for Zika Vaccine | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research is producing another round of Zika vaccine for ongoing studies to determine the best delivery method and dosage. This will lay the groundwork for additional tests to see if the vaccine prevents i

  8. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccination Status of Laboratory Workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of Hepatitis B virus vaccine uptake among medical laboratory workers (Scientists, technicians and phlebotomists) practicing in hospitals in Warri, Delta state, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Informed consent was received from subjects before inclusion in the ...

  9. Exploration Laboratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, M.; Ronzano, K.; Shaw, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk to minimize or reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance due to in-flight medical capabilities on human exploration missions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability for manned exploration missions. Since a single, compact space-ready laboratory analysis capability to perform all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available, the ELA project objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of emerging operational and analytical capability as a biomedical diagnostics precursor to long duration manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations in fiscal year (FY) 2015 was the down selection of platform technologies for demonstrations in the space environment. The technologies selected included two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) performers: DNA Medicine Institutes rHEALTH X and Intelligent Optical Systems later flow assays combined with Holomics smartphone analyzer. The selection of these technologies were based on their compact size, breadth of analytical capability and favorable ability to process fluids in a space environment, among several factors. These two technologies will be advanced to meet ground and flight demonstration success criteria and requirements that will be finalized in FY16. Also, the down selected performers will continue the technology development phase towards meeting prototype deliverables in either late 2016 or 2017.

  10. Vaccines for human papillomavirus infection: A critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Amiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a critical look at the pros and cons of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines. There is enough evidence to suggest that the prophylactic vaccines are efficacious in preventing various benign and malignant conditions (including cervical cancers caused by HPV. Even though the vaccine is costly, hypothetical analysis has shown that HPV vaccination will be cost effective in the long run. Therapeutic HPV vaccines used to treat established disease are still undergoing evaluation in clinical studies, and results seem to be encouraging. Although several countries have started mandatory vaccination programs with the prophylactic HPV vaccines, conservatives have voiced concerns regarding the moral impact of such vaccination programs.

  11. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) for standard biomass analysis. These procedures help scientists and analysts understand more about the chemical composition of raw biomass

  12. Exploration Laboratory Analysis FY13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael; Perusek, Gail P.; Fung, Paul P.; Shaw, Tianna, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk, which is stated as the Risk of Inability to Adequately Treat an Ill or Injured Crew Member, and ExMC Gap 4.05: Lack of minimally invasive in-flight laboratory capabilities with limited consumables required for diagnosing identified Exploration Medical Conditions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability in future exploration missions. Mission architecture poses constraints on equipment and procedures that will be available to treat evidence-based medical conditions according to the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Conditions List (SMEMCL), and to perform human research studies on the International Space Station (ISS) that are supported by the Human Health and Countermeasures (HHC) element. Since there are significant similarities in the research and medical operational requirements, ELA hardware development has emerged as a joint effort between ExMC and HHC. In 2012, four significant accomplishments were achieved towards the development of exploration laboratory analysis for medical diagnostics. These achievements included (i) the development of high priority analytes for research and medical operations, (ii) the development of Level 1 functional requirements and concept of operations documentation, (iii) the selection and head-to-head competition of in-flight laboratory analysis instrumentation, and (iv) the phase one completion of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects under the topic Smart Phone Driven Blood-Based Diagnostics. To utilize resources efficiently, the associated documentation and advanced technologies were integrated into a single ELA plan that encompasses ExMC and HHC development efforts. The requirements and high priority analytes was used in the selection of the four in-flight laboratory analysis performers. Based upon the

  13. A comparative analysis of influenza vaccination programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threat of avian influenza and the 2004-2005 influenza vaccine supply shortage in the United States have sparked a debate about optimal vaccination strategies to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality caused by the influenza virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present a comparative analysis of two classes of suggested vaccination strategies: mortality-based strategies that target high-risk populations and morbidity-based strategies that target high-prevalence populations. Applying the methods of contact network epidemiology to a model of disease transmission in a large urban population, we assume that vaccine supplies are limited and then evaluate the efficacy of these strategies across a wide range of viral transmission rates and for two different age-specific mortality distributions. We find that the optimal strategy depends critically on the viral transmission level (reproductive rate of the virus: morbidity-based strategies outperform mortality-based strategies for moderately transmissible strains, while the reverse is true for highly transmissible strains. These results hold for a range of mortality rates reported for prior influenza epidemics and pandemics. Furthermore, we show that vaccination delays and multiple introductions of disease into the community have a more detrimental impact on morbidity-based strategies than mortality-based strategies. CONCLUSIONS: If public health officials have reasonable estimates of the viral transmission rate and the frequency of new introductions into the community prior to an outbreak, then these methods can guide the design of optimal vaccination priorities. When such information is unreliable or not available, as is often the case, this study recommends mortality-based vaccination priorities.

  14. Rotavirus Infection in the Auckland Region After the Implementation of Universal Infant Rotavirus Vaccination: Impact on Hospitalizations and Laboratory Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Gary N; Taylor, Susan L; Drinković, Dragana; Roberts, Sally A; Wilson, Elizabeth M; Best, Emma J

    2018-01-01

    In July 2014, New Zealand introduced universal infant vaccination with RotaTeq (Merk & Co.) administered as 3 doses at 6 weeks, 3 and 5 months of age. We sought to assess the impact of rotavirus vaccination on gastroenteritis (GE) hospitalizations in the greater Auckland region and analyze changes in rotavirus testing in the period around vaccine introduction. Hospitalizations, laboratory testing rates and methods were compared between the pre-vaccine period (2009-2013), post-vaccine period (January 2015 to December 2015) and year of vaccine introduction (2014). There was a 68% decline in rotavirus hospitalizations of children Auckland region. However, continued rotavirus testing at pre-vaccine rates risks generating false positive results. Laboratories and clinicians should consider reviewing their testing algorithms before vaccine introduction.

  15. Semantic network analysis of vaccine sentiment in online social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gloria J; Ewing-Nelson, Sinclair R; Mackey, Lauren; Schlitt, James T; Marathe, Achla; Abbas, Kaja M; Swarup, Samarth

    2017-06-22

    To examine current vaccine sentiment on social media by constructing and analyzing semantic networks of vaccine information from highly shared websites of Twitter users in the United States; and to assist public health communication of vaccines. Vaccine hesitancy continues to contribute to suboptimal vaccination coverage in the United States, posing significant risk of disease outbreaks, yet remains poorly understood. We constructed semantic networks of vaccine information from internet articles shared by Twitter users in the United States. We analyzed resulting network topology, compared semantic differences, and identified the most salient concepts within networks expressing positive, negative, and neutral vaccine sentiment. The semantic network of positive vaccine sentiment demonstrated greater cohesiveness in discourse compared to the larger, less-connected network of negative vaccine sentiment. The positive sentiment network centered around parents and focused on communicating health risks and benefits, highlighting medical concepts such as measles, autism, HPV vaccine, vaccine-autism link, meningococcal disease, and MMR vaccine. In contrast, the negative network centered around children and focused on organizational bodies such as CDC, vaccine industry, doctors, mainstream media, pharmaceutical companies, and United States. The prevalence of negative vaccine sentiment was demonstrated through diverse messaging, framed around skepticism and distrust of government organizations that communicate scientific evidence supporting positive vaccine benefits. Semantic network analysis of vaccine sentiment in online social media can enhance understanding of the scope and variability of current attitudes and beliefs toward vaccines. Our study synthesizes quantitative and qualitative evidence from an interdisciplinary approach to better understand complex drivers of vaccine hesitancy for public health communication, to improve vaccine confidence and vaccination coverage

  16. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine against laboratory-confirmed influenza, in the late 2011–2012 season in Spain, among population targeted for vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Spain, the influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated in the last three seasons using the observational study cycEVA conducted in the frame of the existing Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System. The objective of the study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza-like illness (ILI) among the target groups for vaccination in Spain in the 2011–2012 season. We also studied influenza VE in the early (weeks 52/2011-7/2012) and late (weeks 8-14/2012) phases of the epidemic and according to time since vaccination. Methods Medically attended patients with ILI were systematically swabbed to collect information on exposure, laboratory outcome and confounding factors. Patients belonging to target groups for vaccination and who were swabbed 4 months, respectively, since vaccination. A decrease in VE with time since vaccination was only observed in individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Regarding the phase of the season, decreasing point estimates were only observed in the early phase, whereas very low or null estimates were obtained in the late phase for the shortest time interval. Conclusions The 2011–2012 influenza vaccine showed a low-to-moderate protective effect against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza in the target groups for vaccination, in a late season and with a limited match between the vaccine and circulating strains. The suggested decrease in influenza VE with time since vaccination was mostly observed in the elderly population. The decreasing protective effect of the vaccine in the late part of the season could be related to waning vaccine protection because no viral changes were identified throughout the season. PMID:24053661

  17. Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and emergency procedures optimization, and human factors engineering studies. An advanced graphic interface, driven through touch-sensitive screens, provides the means to interact with specialized software and nuclear codes. The interface allows the visualization and control of all observable variables in a nuclear power plant (NPP), as well as a selected set of nonobservable or not directly controllable variables from conventional control panels

  18. Vaxjo: A Web-Based Vaccine Adjuvant Database and Its Application for Analysis of Vaccine Adjuvants and Their Uses in Vaccine Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Sayers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bioinformatics scripts are developed and used to link vaccine adjuvants to different adjuvanted vaccines stored in the general VIOLIN vaccine database. Presently, 103 vaccine adjuvants have been curated in Vaxjo. Among these adjuvants, 98 have been used in 384 vaccines stored in VIOLIN against over 81 pathogens, cancers, or allergies. All these vaccine adjuvants are categorized and analyzed based on adjuvant types, pathogens used, and vaccine types. As a use case study of vaccine adjuvants in infectious disease vaccines, the adjuvants used in Brucella vaccines are specifically analyzed. A user-friendly web query and visualization interface is developed for interactive vaccine adjuvant search. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine adjuvants is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO in the Web Ontology Language (OWL format.

  19. Vaxjo: a web-based vaccine adjuvant database and its application for analysis of vaccine adjuvants and their uses in vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Samantha; Ulysse, Guerlain; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bioinformatics scripts are developed and used to link vaccine adjuvants to different adjuvanted vaccines stored in the general VIOLIN vaccine database. Presently, 103 vaccine adjuvants have been curated in Vaxjo. Among these adjuvants, 98 have been used in 384 vaccines stored in VIOLIN against over 81 pathogens, cancers, or allergies. All these vaccine adjuvants are categorized and analyzed based on adjuvant types, pathogens used, and vaccine types. As a use case study of vaccine adjuvants in infectious disease vaccines, the adjuvants used in Brucella vaccines are specifically analyzed. A user-friendly web query and visualization interface is developed for interactive vaccine adjuvant search. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine adjuvants is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) format.

  20. Sieve analysis in HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlefsen, Paul T; Gilbert, Peter B; Rolland, Morgane

    2013-09-01

    The genetic characterization of HIV-1 breakthrough infections in vaccine and placebo recipients offers new ways to assess vaccine efficacy trials. Statistical and sequence analysis methods provide opportunities to mine the mechanisms behind the effect of an HIV vaccine. The release of results from two HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials, Step/HVTN-502 (HIV Vaccine Trials Network-502) and RV144, led to numerous studies in the last 5 years, including efforts to sequence HIV-1 breakthrough infections and compare viral characteristics between the vaccine and placebo groups. Novel genetic and statistical analysis methods uncovered features that distinguished founder viruses isolated from vaccinees from those isolated from placebo recipients, and identified HIV-1 genetic targets of vaccine-induced immune responses. Studies of HIV-1 breakthrough infections in vaccine efficacy trials can provide an independent confirmation to correlates of risk studies, as they take advantage of vaccine/placebo comparisons, whereas correlates of risk analyses are limited to vaccine recipients. Through the identification of viral determinants impacted by vaccine-mediated host immune responses, sieve analyses can shed light on potential mechanisms of vaccine protection.

  1. Identification Of Protein Vaccine Candidates Using Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rohrbough, James G

    2007-01-01

    Presented in this dissertation are proteomic analysis studies focused on identifying proteins to be used as vaccine candidates against Coccidioidomycosis, a potentially fatal human pulmonary disease...

  2. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  3. Ontology-based Brucella vaccine literature indexing and systematic analysis of gene-vaccine association network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    identified. The asserted and inferred VO hierarchies provide semantic support for inferring novel knowledge of association of vaccines and genes from the retrieved data. New hypotheses were generated based on this analysis approach. Conclusion VO-SciMiner can be used to improve the efficiency for PubMed searching in the vaccine domain. PMID:21871085

  4. Progression of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 upon vaccination in an industrial rabbitry: a laboratorial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Carvalho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2 emerged recently in several European countries, leading to extensive economic losses in the industry. In response to this new infection, specific inactivated vaccines were developed in Europe and full and rapid setup of protective immunity induced by vaccination was reported. However, data on the efficacy of these vaccines in an ongoing-infection scenario is unavailable. In this study we investigated an infected RHDV2 indoor industrial meat rabbitry, where fatalities continued to occur after the implementation of the RHDV2 vaccination, introduced to control the disease. The aim of this study was to understand if these mortalities were RHDV2-related, to discover if the dead animals showed any common features such as age or time distance from vaccination, and to identify the source of the outbreak. Anatomo-pathological analysis of vaccinated animals with the virus showed lesions compatible with systemic haemorrhagic disease and RHDV2-RNA was detected in 85.7% of the animals tested. Sequencing of the vp60 gene amplified from liver samples led to the recognition of RHDV2 field strains demonstrating that after the implementation of vaccination, RHDV2 continued to circulate in the premises and to cause sporadic deaths. A nearby, semi-intensive, RHDV2 infected farm belonging to the same owner was identified as the most probable source of the virus. The main risk factors for virus introduction in these two industries were identified. Despite the virus being able to infect a few of the vaccinated rabbits, the significant decrease in mortality rate observed in vaccinated adult rabbits clearly reflects the efficacy of the vaccination. Nonetheless, the time taken to control the infection also highlights the importance of RHDV2 vaccination prior to the first contact with the virus, highly recommendable in endemic areas, to mitigate the infection’s impact on the industry.

  5. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide a summary quantification of the efficacy of FMD emergency vaccination based on a systematic review and a meta-analysis of available literature, and to further discuss the suitability of this review and meta-analysis to summarize and further interpret...... of clinical signs including FMD lesions and fever, while the virological protection parameter was estimated based on the outcome of laboratory tests that were used to diagnose FMD infection. A meta-analysis relative risk was calculated per protection parameter. Results of the meta-analyses were examined using...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis showed to be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  6. Meta-analysis of variables affecting mouse protection efficacy of whole organism Brucella vaccines and vaccine candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccine protection investigation includes three processes: vaccination, pathogen challenge, and vaccine protection efficacy assessment. Many variables can affect the results of vaccine protection. Brucella, a genus of facultative intracellular bacteria, is the etiologic agent of brucellosis in humans and multiple animal species. Extensive research has been conducted in developing effective live attenuated Brucella vaccines. We hypothesized that some variables play a more important role than others in determining vaccine protective efficacy. Using Brucella vaccines and vaccine candidates as study models, this hypothesis was tested by meta-analysis of Brucella vaccine studies reported in the literature. Results Nineteen variables related to vaccine-induced protection of mice against infection with virulent brucellae were selected based on modeling investigation of the vaccine protection processes. The variable "vaccine protection efficacy" was set as a dependent variable while the other eighteen were set as independent variables. Discrete or continuous values were collected from papers for each variable of each data set. In total, 401 experimental groups were manually annotated from 74 peer-reviewed publications containing mouse protection data for live attenuated Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates. Our ANOVA analysis indicated that nine variables contributed significantly (P-value Brucella vaccine protection efficacy: vaccine strain, vaccination host (mouse) strain, vaccination dose, vaccination route, challenge pathogen strain, challenge route, challenge-killing interval, colony forming units (CFUs) in mouse spleen, and CFU reduction compared to control group. The other 10 variables (e.g., mouse age, vaccination-challenge interval, and challenge dose) were not found to be statistically significant (P-value > 0.05). The protection level of RB51 was sacrificed when the values of several variables (e.g., vaccination route, vaccine viability, and

  7. An economic analysis of adult hepatitis B vaccination in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Wang, Fu-zhen; Zhang, Guo-min; Cui, Fu-qiang; Wu, Zhen-hua; Miao, Ning; Sun, Xiao-jin; Liang, Xiao-feng; Li, Li

    2015-11-27

    With the universal infant hepatitis B vaccination (HepB) program, China has made remarkable achievements to prevent and control hepatitis B. In order to further reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, the Chinese government is considering implementing a widespread adult HBV vaccination campaign. We performed an economic analysis of two different adult HepB vaccination strategies for 21-59-years-olds: vaccination without screening and screening-based vaccination. Cost-benefit analyses were conducted. All 21-59-year-olds were divided into two groups: young adults (ages 21-39) and middle-aged adults (ages 40-59). Costs and benefits were estimated using the direct cost and societal (direct and indirect costs) perspectives. All costs and benefits were adjusted to 2014 US dollars, where future values were discounted at a 3% annual rate. We calculated benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) of the two vaccination strategies for the two different age groups. Sensitivity analyses varied key parameters within plausible ranges. Among young adults, the direct and societal BCRs for a vaccination campaign with no screening would be 1.06 and 1.42; with a screening-based vaccination campaign, the model estimated the direct and societal BCRs would be 1.19 and 1.73. Among middle-aged adults, the direct and societal BCRs for a vaccination campaign without screening would be 0.59 and 0.59; with a screening-based vaccination campaign, the model estimated the direct and societal BCRs would be 0.68 and 0.73. The results of our study support a HepB vaccination campaign for young adults. Additionally, a vaccination campaign with screening appeared to provide greater value than a vaccination without screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on Feasibility and Logistics of Vaccination with Typhoid Vi-vaccine on School Children in North Jakarta Indonesia: Analysis of the Vaccination Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Massie, Roy G.A

    2011-01-01

    Background: In recent years, Indonesia government has become increasingly concerned with the issues of financing childhood vaccines and immunization programs including vaccine for typhoid fever. The objective of the analysis is to provide alternative resources and to provide understandable data generated from the Study on Feasibility and Logistics of Vaccination School Age Children With Typhoid Vi-Vaccine in North Jakarta Indonesia. Methods: The analysis was focus on measurement of the cost ...

  9. Stability analysis for a general age-dependent vaccination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-05-01

    An SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination model is investigated when the fertility, mortality and removal rates depends on age. We give threshold criteria of the existence of equilibriums and perform stability analysis. Furthermore a critical vaccination coverage that is sufficient to eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 12 refs

  10. Immunoproteomics analysis of the murine antibody response to vaccination with an improved Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Twine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis is the causative agent of a spectrum of diseases collectively known as tularemia. An attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS has been shown to be efficacious in humans, but safety concerns have prevented its licensure by the FDA. Recently, F. tularensis LVS has been produced under Current Good Manufacturing Practice (CGMP guidelines. Little is known about the immunogenicity of this new vaccine preparation in comparison with extensive studies conducted with laboratory passaged strains of LVS. Thus, the aim of the current work was to evaluate the repertoire of antibodies produced in mouse strains vaccinated with the new LVS vaccine preparation.In the current study, we used an immunoproteomics approach to examine the repertoire of antibodies induced following successful immunization of BALB/c versus unsuccessful vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with the new preparation of F. tularensis LVS. Successful vaccination of BALB/c mice elicited antibodies to nine identified proteins that were not recognized by antisera from vaccinated but unprotected C57BL/6 mice. In addition, the CGMP formulation of LVS stimulated a greater repertoire of antibodies following vaccination compared to vaccination with laboratory passaged ATCC LVS strain. A total of 15 immunoreactive proteins were identified in both studies, however, 16 immunoreactive proteins were uniquely reactive with sera from the new formulation of LVS.This is the first report characterising the antibody based immune response of the new formulation of LVS in the widely used murine model of tularemia. Using two mouse strains, we show that successfully vaccinated mice can be distinguished from unsuccessfully vaccinated mice based upon the repertoire of antibodies generated. This opens the door towards downselection of antigens for incorporation into tularemia subunit vaccines. In addition, this work also highlights differences in the humoral immune response to

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urueña, Analía; Pippo, Tomás; Betelu, María Sol; Virgilio, Federico; Hernández, Laura; Giglio, Norberto; Gentile, Ángela; Diosque, Máximo; Vizzotti, Carla

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5. In Argentina, the most affected regions are the Northeast and Northwest, where hospitalizations and deaths are more frequent. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness of adding either of the two licensed rotavirus vaccines to the routine immunization schedule. The integrated TRIVAC vaccine cost-effectiveness model from the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative (Version 2.0) was used to assess health benefits, costs savings, life-years gained (LYGs), DALYs averted, and cost/DALY averted of vaccinating 10 successive cohorts, from the health care system and societal perspectives. Two doses of monovalent (RV1) rotavirus vaccine and three doses of pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccine were each compared to a scenario assuming no vaccination. The price/dose was US$ 7.50 and US$ 5.15 for RV1 and RV5, respectively. We ran both a national and sub-national analysis, discounting all costs and benefits 3% annually. Our base case results were compared to a range of alternative univariate and multivariate scenarios. The number of LYGs was 5962 and 6440 for RV1 and RV5, respectively. The cost/DALY averted when compared to no vaccination from the health care system and societal perspective was: US$ 3870 and US$ 1802 for RV1, and US$ 2414 and US$ 358 for RV5, respectively. Equivalent figures for the Northeast were US$ 1470 and US$ 636 for RV1, and US$ 913 and US$ 80 for RV5. Therefore, rotavirus vaccination was more cost-effective in the Northeast compared to the whole country; and, in the Northwest, health service's costs saved outweighed the cost of introducing the vaccine. Vaccination with either vaccine compared to no vaccination was highly cost-effective based on WHO guidelines and Argentina's 2011 per capita GDP of US$ 9090. Key variables influencing results were vaccine efficacy, annual loss of efficacy, relative coverage of deaths, vaccine price, and discount rate. Compared to no

  12. Engineering Water Analysis Laboratory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    The purposes of water treatment in a marine steam power plant are to prevent damage to boilers, steam-operated equipment, and steam and condensate lives, and to keep all equipment operating at the highest level of efficiency. This laboratory exercise is designed to provide students with experiences in making accurate boiler water tests and to…

  13. Construction and analysis of experimental DNA vaccines against megalocytivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Hu, Yong-Hua; Xiao, Zhi-Zhong; Sun, Yun; Sun, Li

    2012-11-01

    Iridoviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses with icosahedral capsid. The Iridoviridae family contains five genera, one of which is Megalocytivirus. Megalocytivirus has emerged in recent years as an important pathogen to a wide range of marine and freshwater fish. In this study, we aimed at developing effective genetic vaccines against megalocytivirus affecting farmed fish in China. For this purpose, we constructed seven DNA vaccines based on seven genes of rock bream iridovirus isolate 1 from China (RBIV-C1), a megalocytivirus with a host range that includes Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). The protective potentials of these vaccines were examined in a turbot model. The results showed that after vaccination via intramuscular injection, the vaccine plasmids were distributed in spleen, kidney, muscle, and liver, and transcription of the vaccine genes and production of the vaccine proteins were detected in these tissues. Following challenge with a lethal-dose of RBIV-C1, fish vaccinated with four of the seven DNA vaccines exhibited significantly higher levels of survival compared to control fish. Of these four protective DNA vaccines, pCN86, which is a plasmid that expresses an 86-residue viral protein, induced the highest protection. Immunological analysis showed that pCN86 was able to (i) stimulate the respiratory burst of head kidney macrophages at 14 d, 21 d, and 28 d post-vaccination, (ii) upregulate the expression of immune relevant genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity, and (iii) induce production of serum antibodies that, when incubated with RBIV-C1 before infection, significantly reduced viral loads in kidney and spleen following viral infection of turbot. Taken together, these results indicate that pCN86 is an effective DNA vaccine that may be used in the control of megalocytivirus-associated diseases in aquaculture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaccine Images on Twitter: Analysis of What Images are Shared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Dredze, Mark

    2018-04-03

    Visual imagery plays a key role in health communication; however, there is little understanding of what aspects of vaccine-related images make them effective communication aids. Twitter, a popular venue for discussions related to vaccination, provides numerous images that are shared with tweets. The objectives of this study were to understand how images are used in vaccine-related tweets and provide guidance with respect to the characteristics of vaccine-related images that correlate with the higher likelihood of being retweeted. We collected more than one million vaccine image messages from Twitter and characterized various properties of these images using automated image analytics. We fit a logistic regression model to predict whether or not a vaccine image tweet was retweeted, thus identifying characteristics that correlate with a higher likelihood of being shared. For comparison, we built similar models for the sharing of vaccine news on Facebook and for general image tweets. Most vaccine-related images are duplicates (125,916/237,478; 53.02%) or taken from other sources, not necessarily created by the author of the tweet. Almost half of the images contain embedded text, and many include images of people and syringes. The visual content is highly correlated with a tweet's textual topics. Vaccine image tweets are twice as likely to be shared as nonimage tweets. The sentiment of an image and the objects shown in the image were the predictive factors in determining whether an image was retweeted. We are the first to study vaccine images on Twitter. Our findings suggest future directions for the study and use of vaccine imagery and may inform communication strategies around vaccination. Furthermore, our study demonstrates an effective study methodology for image analysis. ©Tao Chen, Mark Dredze. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 03.04.2018.

  15. Vaccine Images on Twitter: Analysis of What Images are Shared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dredze, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Background Visual imagery plays a key role in health communication; however, there is little understanding of what aspects of vaccine-related images make them effective communication aids. Twitter, a popular venue for discussions related to vaccination, provides numerous images that are shared with tweets. Objective The objectives of this study were to understand how images are used in vaccine-related tweets and provide guidance with respect to the characteristics of vaccine-related images that correlate with the higher likelihood of being retweeted. Methods We collected more than one million vaccine image messages from Twitter and characterized various properties of these images using automated image analytics. We fit a logistic regression model to predict whether or not a vaccine image tweet was retweeted, thus identifying characteristics that correlate with a higher likelihood of being shared. For comparison, we built similar models for the sharing of vaccine news on Facebook and for general image tweets. Results Most vaccine-related images are duplicates (125,916/237,478; 53.02%) or taken from other sources, not necessarily created by the author of the tweet. Almost half of the images contain embedded text, and many include images of people and syringes. The visual content is highly correlated with a tweet’s textual topics. Vaccine image tweets are twice as likely to be shared as nonimage tweets. The sentiment of an image and the objects shown in the image were the predictive factors in determining whether an image was retweeted. Conclusions We are the first to study vaccine images on Twitter. Our findings suggest future directions for the study and use of vaccine imagery and may inform communication strategies around vaccination. Furthermore, our study demonstrates an effective study methodology for image analysis. PMID:29615386

  16. Source Code Analysis Laboratory (SCALe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    products (including services) and processes. The agency has also published ISO / IEC 17025 :2005 General Requirements for the Competence of Testing...SCALe undertakes. Testing and calibration laboratories that comply with ISO / IEC 17025 also operate in accordance with ISO 9001. • NIST National...assessed by the accreditation body against all of the requirements of ISO / IEC 17025 : 2005 General requirements for the competence of testing and

  17. Leaky Vaccines Protect Highly Exposed Recipients at a Lower Rate: Implications for Vaccine Efficacy Estimation and Sieve Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Edlefsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available “Leaky” vaccines are those for which vaccine-induced protection reduces infection rates on a per-exposure basis, as opposed to “all-or-none” vaccines, which reduce infection rates to zero for some fraction of subjects, independent of the number of exposures. Leaky vaccines therefore protect subjects with fewer exposures at a higher effective rate than subjects with more exposures. This simple observation has serious implications for analysis methodologies that rely on the assumption that the vaccine effect is homogeneous across subjects. We argue and show through examples that this heterogeneous vaccine effect leads to a violation of the proportional hazards assumption, to incomparability of infected cases across treatment groups, and to nonindependence of the distributions of the competing failure processes in a competing risks setting. We discuss implications for vaccine efficacy estimation, correlates of protection analysis, and mark-specific efficacy analysis (also known as sieve analysis.

  18. Leaky vaccines protect highly exposed recipients at a lower rate: implications for vaccine efficacy estimation and sieve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlefsen, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    "Leaky" vaccines are those for which vaccine-induced protection reduces infection rates on a per-exposure basis, as opposed to "all-or-none" vaccines, which reduce infection rates to zero for some fraction of subjects, independent of the number of exposures. Leaky vaccines therefore protect subjects with fewer exposures at a higher effective rate than subjects with more exposures. This simple observation has serious implications for analysis methodologies that rely on the assumption that the vaccine effect is homogeneous across subjects. We argue and show through examples that this heterogeneous vaccine effect leads to a violation of the proportional hazards assumption, to incomparability of infected cases across treatment groups, and to nonindependence of the distributions of the competing failure processes in a competing risks setting. We discuss implications for vaccine efficacy estimation, correlates of protection analysis, and mark-specific efficacy analysis (also known as sieve analysis).

  19. STUDY ON FEASIBILITY AND LOGISTICS OF VACCINATION WITH TYPHOID VI-VACCINE ON SCHOOL CHILDREN IN NORTH JAKARTA INDONESIA: ANALYSIS OF THE VACCINATION COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy G.A. Massie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, Indonesia government has become increasingly concerned with the issues of financing childhood vaccines and immunization programs including vaccine for typhoid  fever. The objective of the analysis is to provide alternative resources and to provide understandable data generated from the Study on Feasibility and Logistics of Vaccination School Age Children With Typhoid Vi-Vaccine in North Jakarta Indonesia. Methods: The analysis was focus on measurement of the cost for vaccinating school children with Typhoid Vi-vaccine from 18 selected primary schools in North Jakarta. The primary source of data was generated from the actual expenditures that were used in the vaccine delivery program in Indonesia. Results: The Vaccination Cost from the Study on Feasibility and Logistics of Vaccination School Age Children with Typhoid Vi-Vaccine conducted by DOMI project is not applicable for public vaccination program. The program might be feasible to be delivered only in private health sector settings.   Key words: Immunization expenditure, vaccine for typhoid fever, North Jakarta Indonesia

  20. Immunological consequences of using three different clinical/laboratory techniques of emulsifying peptide-based vaccines in incomplete Freund's adjuvant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kast W Martin

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA serves as a carrier for water-in-oil emulsion (W/O vaccines. The stability of such emulsions greatly affects vaccine safety and efficacy since continued presence of antigen depots at lymphoid organs releasing low-level antigens is known to stimulate a potent immune response and high-level systemic release of antigens can lead to tolerance. W/O emulsions for the purpose of clinical and laboratory peptide-based vaccinations have been prepared using the techniques of syringe extrusion, vortex or high-speed homogenization. There is no consensus in the field over which technique would be best to use and no immunological data are available that compare the three techniques. In this study, we compared the immune responses induced by a peptide-based vaccine prepared using vortex, syringe-extrusion and homogenization. The vaccination led to tumor rejection by mice vaccinated with the peptide-based vaccine prepared using all three techniques. The immunological data from the in vivo cytotoxicity assay showed a trend for lower responses and a higher variability and greater range in the immune responses induced by a vaccine that was emulsified by the vortex or homogenizer techniques as compared to the syringe-extrusion technique. There were statistically significant lower numbers of IFNγ-secreting cells induced when the mice were vaccinated with a peptide-based vaccine emulsion prepared using the vortex compared to the syringe-extrusion technique. At a suboptimal vaccine dose, the mice vaccinated with a peptide-based vaccine emulsion prepared using the vortex technique had the largest tumors compared to the syringe-extrusion or the homogenizer technique. In the setting of a busy pharmacy that prepares peptide-based vaccine emulsions for clinical studies, the vortex technique can still be used but we urge investigators to take special care in their choice of mixing vessels for the vortex technique as that can

  1. Managing quality in laboratory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciorea, Iuliana

    2007-01-01

    For the results of analyses to be reliable, the laboratories has to be authorized or to prove that they follows ISO/CEI standard no. 17025:2005 'General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories'. Analytic measurements are the results of analytic methods and procedures. It is considered that the chosen analytic method or procedure is appropriated for the desired purpose. From the legal point of view 'matching for a purpose' means that all methods and procedures are valid and this validation is made using qualified and verified equipment. Using state of art equipment in a laboratory, it is not enough to obtain correct results. The type, the extension and management of a validation action permit to obtain conclusions regarding the existence of adequate equipment, showing at the same time that the lab has an adequate management and competent personnel. To give results of required quality ensuring the conformity with national and international regulations, hence to prove its qualifications and competence some of measures are required as follows: - the usage of validated testing methods; - the usage of their quality control procedures; - participating to capability testing of the lab; -accreditation according to the requirements of an international standard as ISO/CEI 17025:2005. This accreditation is a set of technical and organization requirements about equipment checking, the way of choosing test methods, personal competence, determination of measurement uncertainty, etc. According to ISO, the validation represents the confirmation throughout examination and supplying of realistic proofs showing that the necessary requirements needed for utilization are fulfilled. The object of validation is checking the fact that the measurement conditions and the equation used to get the final result include all influences that could affect it. For validation studies, a series of checks is made: - linearity check - it is checked if the method is

  2. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundergan, C.D.

    1975-06-01

    The systems analysis capabilities at Sandia Laboratories are summarized. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs. (U.S.)

  3. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: engineering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundergan, C.D.

    1975-12-01

    This report characterizes the engineering analysis capabilities at Sandia Laboratories. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs

  4. Vaccination of children with a live-attenuated, intranasal influenza vaccineanalysis and evaluation through a Health Technology Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersohn, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Influenza is a worldwide prevalent infectious disease of the respiratory tract annually causing high morbidity and mortality in Germany. Influenza is preventable by vaccination and this vaccination is so far recommended by the (STIKO as a standard vaccination for people from the age of 60 onwards. Up to date a parenterally administered trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV has been in use almost exclusively. Since 2011 however a live-attenuated vaccine (LAIV has been approved additionally. Consecutively, since 2013 the STIKO recommends LAIV (besides TIV for children from 2 to 17 years of age, within the scope of vaccination by specified indications. LAIV should be preferred administered in children from 2 to 6 of age. The objective of this Health Technology Assessment (HTA is to address various research issues regarding the vaccination of children with LAIV. The analysis was performed from a medical, epidemiological and health economic perspective, as well as from an ethical, social and legal point of view.Method: An extensive systematic database research was performed to obtain relevant information. In addition a supplementary research by hand was done. Identified literature was screened in two passes by two independent reviewers using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Included literature was evaluated in full-text using acknowledged standards. Studies were graded with the highest level of evidence (1++, if they met the criteria of Results: For the medical section, the age of the study participants ranges from 6 months to 17 years. Regarding study efficacy, in children aged 6 months to ≤7 years, LAIV is superior to placebo as well as to a vac-cination with TIV (Relative Risk Reduction – RRR – of laboratory confirmed influenza infection approx. 80% and 50%, respectively. In children aged >7 to 17 years (= 18th year of their lives, LAIV is superior to a vaccination with TIV (RRR 32%. For this age group, no

  5. ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF FLU VACCINE PREVENTION FOR CHILDREN AND TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Yu. Belousov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinicalaeconomical analysis includes all possible treatament expenditures and possible profit from vaccinating chiladren and teenagers versus flue. It shoes that mass vaccination of children and teenagers will lead to lower disease incidence and mortality during epidemical rising of the disease and proavide significant economical effect both because of direct medaical expenses and because of collateral expenses. Collateral expenses are the main source of loss for the state of Russia from child and teenager flue and sars. Vaccination brings sick leaves and lost time payments down by 57%, expenses for treataing flue and sars together with their complications by 52%. In the Russian society total child and teenager vaccination appears as more profitable, for insurance companies as well. in this case insurance companies will be able to benefit from indirect medaical profit and, most probably, won't be needing state subsidizing for conducting total vaccination against flue of all citizens aged under 14. Antiaflue vaccination is feasible both in terms of clinical results and economic feasibility.Key words: pharmaeconomics, flue, sars, children, teenagers, vaccine prevention.

  6. Seasonal influenza vaccination for children in Thailand: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeyai, Aronrag; Praditsitthikorn, Naiyana; Kotirum, Surachai; Kulpeng, Wantanee; Putthasri, Weerasak; Cooper, Ben S; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2015-05-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Routine immunization of children has the potential to reduce this mortality through both direct and indirect protection, but has not been adopted by any low- or middle-income countries. We developed a framework to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination policies in developing countries and used it to consider annual vaccination of school- and preschool-aged children with either trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) or trivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in Thailand. We also compared these approaches with a policy of expanding TIV coverage in the elderly. We developed an age-structured model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of eight vaccination policies parameterized using country-level data from Thailand. For policies using LAIV, we considered five different age groups of children to vaccinate. We adopted a Bayesian evidence-synthesis framework, expressing uncertainty in parameters through probability distributions derived by fitting the model to prospectively collected laboratory-confirmed influenza data from 2005-2009, by meta-analysis of clinical trial data, and by using prior probability distributions derived from literature review and elicitation of expert opinion. We performed sensitivity analyses using alternative assumptions about prior immunity, contact patterns between age groups, the proportion of infections that are symptomatic, cost per unit vaccine, and vaccine effectiveness. Vaccination of children with LAIV was found to be highly cost-effective, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios between about 2,000 and 5,000 international dollars per disability-adjusted life year averted, and was consistently preferred to TIV-based policies. These findings were robust to extensive sensitivity analyses. The optimal age group to vaccinate with LAIV, however, was sensitive both to the willingness to pay for health benefits and to assumptions about contact

  7. Equilibrium Analysis of a Yellow Fever Dynamical Model with Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martorano Raimundo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an equilibrium analysis of a dynamical model of yellow fever transmission in the presence of a vaccine. The model considers both human and vector populations. We found thresholds parameters that affect the development of the disease and the infectious status of the human population in the presence of a vaccine whose protection may wane over time. In particular, we derived a threshold vaccination rate, above which the disease would be eradicated from the human population. We show that if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is greater than a given threshold, then the disease is naturally (without intervention eradicated from the population. In contrast, if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is less than that threshold, then the disease is eradicated from the populations only when the growing rate of humans is less than another threshold; otherwise, the disease is eradicated only if the reproduction number of the infection after vaccination is less than 1. When this reproduction number is greater than 1, the disease will be eradicated from the human population if the vaccination rate is greater than a given threshold; otherwise, the disease will establish itself among humans, reaching a stable endemic equilibrium. The analysis presented in this paper can be useful, both to the better understanding of the disease dynamics and also for the planning of vaccination strategies.

  8. [VACCINES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs.

  9. Integrated immunogenicity analysis of a tetravalent dengue vaccine up to 4 y after vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Claire; Dupuy, Martin; Richetin, Aline; Guy, Bruno; Jackson, Nicholas; Bonaparte, Matthew; Hu, Branda; Saville, Melanie; Chansinghakul, Danaya; Noriega, Fernando; Plennevaux, Eric

    2017-09-02

    Two large pivotal phase III studies demonstrated the efficacy of the tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV; Dengvaxia®, Sanofi Pasteur) against all dengue serotypes. Here we present an unprecedented integrated summary of the immunogenicity of CYD-TDV to identify the parameters driving the neutralizing humoral immune response and evolution over time. We summarized the immunogenicity profiles of a 3-dose schedule of CYD-TDV administered 6 months apart across 10 phase II and 6 phase III trials undertaken in dengue endemic and non-endemic countries. Dengue neutralizing antibody titers in sera were determined at centralized laboratories using the 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT 50 ) at baseline, 28 d after the third dose, and annually thereafter for up to 4 y after the third dose in some studies. CYD-TDV elicits neutralizing antibody responses against all 4 dengue serotypes; geometric mean titers (GMTs) increased from baseline to post-dose 3. GMTs were influenced by several parameters including age, baseline dengue seropositivity and region. In the 2 pivotal studies, GMTs decreased initially during the first 2 y post-dose 3 but appear to stabilize or slightly increase again in the third year. GMTs persisted 1.2-3.2-fold higher than baseline levels for up to 4 y post-dose 3 in other studies undertaken in dengue endemic countries. Our integrated analysis captures the fullness of the CYD-TDV immunogenicity profile across studies, age groups and regions; by presenting the available data in this way general trends and substantial outliers within each grouping can be easily identified. CYD-TDV elicits neutralizing antibody responses against all dengue serotypes, with differences by age and endemicity, which persist above baseline levels in endemic countries.

  10. Analysis of hepatitis B vaccination behavior and vaccination willingness among migrant workers from rural China based on protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rugang; Li, Youwei; Wangen, Knut R; Maitland, Elizabeth; Nicholas, Stephen; Wang, Jian

    2016-05-03

    With China's accelerating urbanization, migrant workers comprise up to 40% of the urban population of China's largest cities. More mobile than non-migrant urban dwellers, migrants are more likely to contract and spread hepatitis B (HB) than non-migrants. Due to the mandatory system of household registration (hukou), migrants are less likely to be covered by national HB immunization programs and also to have more limited access to public health services where they work than non-migrants. Migrants form a significant sub-group in all Chinese cities posing unique public policy vaccination challenges. Using protection motivation theory (PMT), we developed and measured HB cognitive variables and analyze the factors affecting HB vaccination behavior and willingness to vaccinate by migrant workers. We propose public policy interventions to increase HB vaccination rates of migrant workers. We developed a questionnaire to collect information on the HB vaccination characteristics of 1684 respondents from 6 provinces and Beijing. Exploratory factor analysis was used to create PMT variables and a binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the factors affecting migrant workers' HB vaccination behavior and willingness to vaccinate. Vulnerability and response-efficacy were significant PMT cognition factors determining HB vaccination behavior. The HB vaccination rate for migrants decreased with increasing age and was smaller for the primary education than the high education group. The vaccination rate of the medical insurance group was significantly greater than the non-insured group, and the vaccination probability was significantly higher for the self-rated good health compared to the self-rated poor health group. Geographical birth location mattered: the vaccination rate for Beijing city and Ningxia province migrants were higher than for Hebei province and the vaccination rate was lower for migrants born far from health facilities compared to those located middle

  11. A virtual laboratory for medical image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olabarriaga, Sílvia D.; Glatard, Tristan; de Boer, Piter T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation, and usage of a virtual laboratory for medical image analysis. It is fully based on the Dutch grid, which is part of the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) production infrastructure and driven by the gLite middleware. The adopted service-oriented

  12. Vaccine effectiveness against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza in Japan, 2011-2012 Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2011-2012 season in Japan using a test-negative case-control study design. The effect of co-circulating non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs on VE estimates was also explored. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs in a community hospital in Nagasaki, Japan. Thirteen respiratory viruses (RVs, including influenza A and B, were identified from the samples using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The difference in VE point estimates was assessed using three different controls: ILI patients that tested negative for influenza, those that tested negative for all RVs, and those that tested positive for NIRVs. The adjusted VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza using all influenza-negative controls was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60.5 to 44.1. The adjusted VEs using RV-negative and NIRV-positive controls were -1.5% (95% CI, -74.7 to 41 and 50% (95% CI, -43.2 to 82.5, respectively. Influenza VE was limited in Japan during the 2011-2012 season. Although the evidence is not conclusive, co-circulating NIRVs may affect influenza VE estimates in test-negative case-control studies.

  13. Adolescent Attitudes toward Influenza Vaccination and Vaccine Uptake in a School-Based Influenza Vaccination Intervention: A Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…

  14. Elementary School-Based Influenza Vaccination: Evaluating Impact on Respiratory Illness Absenteeism and Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjos, Sonia A.; Irving, Stephanie A.; Meece, Jennifer K.; Belongia, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of influenza vaccine effectiveness in schools have assessed all-cause absenteeism rather than laboratory-confirmed influenza. We conducted an observational pilot study to identify absences due to respiratory illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza in schools with and without school-based vaccination. Methods A local public health agency initiated school-based influenza vaccination in two Wisconsin elementary schools during October 2010 (exposed schools); two nearby schools served as a comparison group (non-exposed schools). Absences due to fever or cough illness were monitored for 12 weeks. During the 4 weeks of peak influenza activity, parents of absent children with fever/cough illness were contacted and offered influenza testing. Results Parental consent for sharing absenteeism data was obtained for 937 (57%) of 1,640 students. Fifty-two percent and 28%, respectively, of all students in exposed and non-exposed schools were vaccinated. Absences due to fever or cough illness were significantly lower in the exposed schools during seven of 12 surveillance weeks. Twenty-seven percent of students at exposed schools and 39% at unexposed schools had one or more days of absence due to fever/cough illness (pabsenteeism due to fever or cough illness, but not absenteeism for other reasons. Although nonspecific, absence due to fever or cough illness may be a useful surrogate endpoint in school-based studies if identification of laboratory confirmed influenza is not feasible. PMID:23991071

  15. Identification Of Protein Vaccine Candidates Using Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    that fascinating fungus known as Coccidioides. I also want to thank the UA Mass Spectrometry Facility and the UA Proteomics Consortium, especially...W. & N. N. Kav. 2006. The proteome of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Proteomics 6: 5995-6007. 127. de Godoy, L. M., J. V...IDENTIFICATION OF PROTEIN VACCINE CANDIDATES USING COMPREHENSIVE PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS STRATEGIES by James G. Rohrbough

  16. Updates on the web-based VIOLIN vaccine database and analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun; Racz, Rebecca; Sayers, Samantha; Lin, Yu; Todd, Thomas; Hur, Junguk; Li, Xinna; Patel, Mukti; Zhao, Boyang; Chung, Monica; Ostrow, Joseph; Sylora, Andrew; Dungarani, Priya; Ulysse, Guerlain; Kochhar, Kanika; Vidri, Boris; Strait, Kelsey; Jourdian, George W; Xiang, Zuoshuang

    2014-01-01

    The integrative Vaccine Investigation and Online Information Network (VIOLIN) vaccine research database and analysis system (http://www.violinet.org) curates, stores, analyses and integrates various vaccine-associated research data. Since its first publication in NAR in 2008, significant updates have been made. Starting from 211 vaccines annotated at the end of 2007, VIOLIN now includes over 3240 vaccines for 192 infectious diseases and eight noninfectious diseases (e.g. cancers and allergies). Under the umbrella of VIOLIN, >10 relatively independent programs are developed. For example, Protegen stores over 800 protective antigens experimentally proven valid for vaccine development. VirmugenDB annotated over 200 'virmugens', a term coined by us to represent those virulence factor genes that can be mutated to generate successful live attenuated vaccines. Specific patterns were identified from the genes collected in Protegen and VirmugenDB. VIOLIN also includes Vaxign, the first web-based vaccine candidate prediction program based on reverse vaccinology. VIOLIN collects and analyzes different vaccine components including vaccine adjuvants (Vaxjo) and DNA vaccine plasmids (DNAVaxDB). VIOLIN includes licensed human vaccines (Huvax) and veterinary vaccines (Vevax). The Vaccine Ontology is applied to standardize and integrate various data in VIOLIN. VIOLIN also hosts the Ontology of Vaccine Adverse Events (OVAE) that logically represents adverse events associated with licensed human vaccines.

  17. Are Clade Specific HIV Vaccines a Necessity? An Analysis Based on Mathematical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobromir Dimitrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As HIV-1 envelope immune responses are critical to vaccine related protection, most candidate HIV vaccines entering efficacy trials are based upon a clade specific design. This need for clade specific vaccine prototypes markedly reduces the implementation of potentially effective HIV vaccines. We utilized a mathematical model to determine the effectiveness of immediate roll-out of a non-clade matched vaccine with reduced efficacy compared to constructing clade specific vaccines, which would take considerable time to manufacture and test in safety and efficacy trials. We simulated the HIV epidemic in San Francisco (SF and South Africa (SA and projected effectiveness of three vaccination strategies: i immediate intervention with a 20–40% vaccine efficacy (VE non-matched vaccine, ii delayed intervention by developing a 50% VE clade-specific vaccine, and iii immediate intervention with a non-matched vaccine replaced by a clade-specific vaccine when developed. Immediate vaccination with a non-clade matched vaccine, even with reduced efficacy, would prevent thousands of new infections in SF and millions in SA over 30 years. Vaccination with 50% VE delayed for five years needs six and 12 years in SA to break-even with immediate 20 and 30% VE vaccination, respectively, while not able to surpass the impact of immediate 40% VE vaccination over 30 years. Replacing a 30% VE with a 50% VE vaccine after 5 years reduces the HIV acquisition by 5% compared to delayed vaccination. The immediate use of an HIV vaccine with reduced VE in high risk communities appears desirable over a short time line but higher VE should be the pursued to achieve strong long-term impact. Our analysis illustrates the importance of developing surrogate markers (correlates of protection to allow bridging types of immunogenicity studies to support more rapid assessment of clade specific vaccines.

  18. Battery Test Facility- Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory (EADL) provides battery developers with reliable, independent, and unbiased performance evaluations of their...

  19. Ontology-Based Vaccine Adverse Event Representation and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiangan; He, Yongqun

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine is the one of the greatest inventions of modern medicine that has contributed most to the relief of human misery and the exciting increase in life expectancy. In 1796, an English country physician, Edward Jenner, discovered that inoculating mankind with cowpox can protect them from smallpox (Riedel S, Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center) 18(1):21, 2005). Based on the vaccination worldwide, we finally succeeded in the eradication of smallpox in 1977 (Henderson, Vaccine 29:D7-D9, 2011). Other disabling and lethal diseases, like poliomyelitis and measles, are targeted for eradication (Bonanni, Vaccine 17:S120-S125, 1999).Although vaccine development and administration are tremendously successful and cost-effective practices to human health, no vaccine is 100% safe for everyone because each person reacts to vaccinations differently given different genetic background and health conditions. Although all licensed vaccines are generally safe for the majority of people, vaccinees may still suffer adverse events (AEs) in reaction to various vaccines, some of which can be serious or even fatal (Haber et al., Drug Saf 32(4):309-323, 2009). Hence, the double-edged sword of vaccination remains a concern.To support integrative AE data collection and analysis, it is critical to adopt an AE normalization strategy. In the past decades, different controlled terminologies, including the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) (Brown EG, Wood L, Wood S, et al., Drug Saf 20(2):109-117, 1999), the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) (NCI, The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). Available from: http://evs.nci.nih.gov/ftp1/CTCAE/About.html . Access on 7 Oct 2015), and the World Health Organization (WHO) Adverse Reactions Terminology (WHO-ART) (WHO, The WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology - WHO-ART. Available from: https://www.umc-products.com/graphics/28010.pdf

  20. Sandia National Laboratories analysis code data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, mission is to solve important problems in the areas of national defense, energy security, environmental integrity, and industrial technology. The Laboratories` strategy for accomplishing this mission is to conduct research to provide an understanding of the important physical phenomena underlying any problem, and then to construct validated computational models of the phenomena which can be used as tools to solve the problem. In the course of implementing this strategy, Sandia`s technical staff has produced a wide variety of numerical problem-solving tools which they use regularly in the design, analysis, performance prediction, and optimization of Sandia components, systems and manufacturing processes. This report provides the relevant technical and accessibility data on the numerical codes used at Sandia, including information on the technical competency or capability area that each code addresses, code ``ownership`` and release status, and references describing the physical models and numerical implementation.

  1. Sandia National Laboratories analysis code data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. W.

    1994-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' mission is to solve important problems in the areas of national defense, energy security, environmental integrity, and industrial technology. The laboratories' strategy for accomplishing this mission is to conduct research to provide an understanding of the important physical phenomena underlying any problem, and then to construct validated computational models of the phenomena which can be used as tools to solve the problem. In the course of implementing this strategy, Sandia's technical staff has produced a wide variety of numerical problem-solving tools which they use regularly in the design, analysis, performance prediction, and optimization of Sandia components, systems, and manufacturing processes. This report provides the relevant technical and accessibility data on the numerical codes used at Sandia, including information on the technical competency or capability area that each code addresses, code 'ownership' and release status, and references describing the physical models and numerical implementation.

  2. The Measles Vaccination Narrative in Twitter: A Quantitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzikowski, Jacek; Stefanidis, Anthony; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew; Delamater, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of social media is providing an alternative avenue for information exchange and opinion formation on health-related issues. Collective discourse in such media leads to the formation of a complex narrative, conveying public views and perceptions. This paper presents a study of Twitter narrative regarding vaccination in the aftermath of the 2015 measles outbreak, both in terms of its cyber and physical characteristics. We aimed to contribute to the analysis of the data, as well as presenting a quantitative interdisciplinary approach to analyze such open-source data in the context of health narratives. We collected 669,136 tweets referring to vaccination from February 1 to March 9, 2015. These tweets were analyzed to identify key terms, connections among such terms, retweet patterns, the structure of the narrative, and connections to the geographical space. The data analysis captures the anatomy of the themes and relations that make up the discussion about vaccination in Twitter. The results highlight the higher impact of stories contributed by news organizations compared to direct tweets by health organizations in communicating health-related information. They also capture the structure of the antivaccination narrative and its terms of reference. Analysis also revealed the relationship between community engagement in Twitter and state policies regarding child vaccination. Residents of Vermont and Oregon, the two states with the highest rates of non-medical exemption from school-entry vaccines nationwide, are leading the social media discussion in terms of participation. The interdisciplinary study of health-related debates in social media across the cyber-physical debate nexus leads to a greater understanding of public concerns, views, and responses to health-related issues. Further coalescing such capabilities shows promise towards advancing health communication, thus supporting the design of more effective strategies that take into account the complex

  3. Inspecting the Mechanism: A Longitudinal Analysis of Socioeconomic Status Differences in Perceived Influenza Risks, Vaccination Intentions, and Vaccination Behaviors during the 2009-2010 Influenza Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    Influenza vaccination is strongly associated with socioeconomic status, but there is only limited evidence on the respective roles of socioeconomic differences in vaccination intentions versus corresponding differences in follow-through on initial vaccination plans for subsequent socioeconomic differences in vaccine uptake. Nonparametric mean smoothing, linear regression, and probit models were used to analyze longitudinal survey data on perceived influenza risks, behavioral vaccination intentions, and vaccination behavior of adults during the 2009-2010 influenza A/H1N1 ("swine flu") pandemic in the United States. Perceived influenza risks and behavioral vaccination intentions were elicited prior to the availability of H1N1 vaccine using a probability scale question format. H1N1 vaccine uptake was assessed at the end of the pandemic. Education, income, and health insurance coverage displayed positive associations with behavioral intentions to get vaccinated for pandemic influenza while employment was negatively associated with stated H1N1 vaccination intentions. Education and health insurance coverage also displayed significant positive associations with pandemic vaccine uptake. Moreover, behavioral vaccination intentions showed a strong and statistically significant positive partial association with later H1N1 vaccination. Incorporating vaccination intentions in a statistical model for H1N1 vaccine uptake further highlighted higher levels of follow-through on initial vaccination plans among persons with higher education levels and health insurance. Sampling bias, misreporting in self-reported data, and limited generalizability to nonpandemic influenza are potential limitations of the analysis. Closing the socioeconomic gap in influenza vaccination requires multipronged strategies that not only increase vaccination intentions by improving knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs but also facilitate follow-through on initial vaccination plans by improving behavioral

  4. Seropositivity to non-vaccine incorporated genotypes induced by the bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Sara L; Godi, Anna; Jit, Mark; Beddows, Simon

    2017-07-13

    Human papillomavirus vaccines have demonstrated remarkable efficacy against persistent infection and disease associated with vaccine-incorporated genotypes and a degree of efficacy against some genetically related, non-vaccine-incorporated genotypes. The vaccines differ in the extent of cross-protection against these non-vaccine genotypes. Data supporting the role for neutralizing antibodies as a correlate or surrogate of cross-protection are lacking, as is a robust assessment of the seroconversion rates against these non-vaccine genotypes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available data on vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody seropositivity to non-vaccine incorporated HPV genotypes. Of 304 articles screened, 9 were included in the analysis representing ca. 700 individuals. The pooled estimate for seropositivity against HPV31 for the bivalent vaccine (86%; 95%CI 78-91%) was higher than that for the quadrivalent vaccine (61%; 39-79%; p=0.011). The pooled estimate for seropositivity against HPV45 for the bivalent vaccine (50%; 37-64%) was also higher than that for the quadrivalent vaccine (16%; 6-36%; p=0.007). Seropositivity against HPV33, HPV52 and HPV58 were similar between the vaccines. Mean seropositivity rates across non-vaccine genotypes were positively associated with the corresponding vaccine efficacy data reported from vaccine trials. These data improve our understanding of vaccine-induced functional antibody specificity against non-vaccine incorporated genotypes and may help to parameterize vaccine-impact models and improve patient management in a post-vaccine setting. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of Hungarian goose parvovirus isolates and vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatár-Kis, Tímea; Mató, Tamás; Markos, Béla; Palya, Vilmos

    2004-08-01

    Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to analyse goose parvovirus field isolates and vaccine strains. Two fragments of the genome were amplified. Fragment "A" represents a region of VP3 gene, while fragment "B" represents a region upstream of the VP3 gene, encompassing part of the VP1 gene. In the region of fragment "A" the deduced amino acid sequence of the strains was identical, therefore differentiation among strains could be done only at the nucleotide level, which resulted in the formation of three groups: Hungarian, West-European and Asian strains. In the region of fragment "B", separation of groups could be done by both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence level. The nucleotide sequences resulted in the same groups as for fragment "A" but with a different clustering pattern among the Hungarian strains. Within the "Hungarian" group most of the recent field isolates fell into one cluster, very closely related or identical to each other, indicating a very slow evolutionary change. The attenuated strains and field isolates from 1979/80 formed a separate cluster. When vaccine strains and field isolates were compared, two specific amino acid differences were found that can be considered as possible markers for vaccinal strains. Sequence analysis of fragment "B" seems to be a suitable method for differentiation of attenuated vaccine strains from virulent strains. Copyright 2004 Houghton Trust Ltd

  6. Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) for the analysis of raw and upgraded pyrolysis bio-oils. These standard procedures have been validated and allow for reliable bio-oil analysis. Procedures Determination

  7. Safety Analysis for Pentavaccine Used in Premature Infants: Family Vaccination Centre’s Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. А. Novikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined vaccines containing non-cellular pertussis component and having low reactogenicity, increase vaccination coverage against controllable infections. However, the safety of vaccination in children dealing with health issues, as well as those having a history of premature infancy, requires additional research. The article presents reactogenicity analysis for the DTP-IPV/HIB pentavaccine during primary vaccination and revaccination of premature infants (n = 85, as well as vaccination of mature newborns (n = 1433 inoculated in accordance with the national Vaccination Calendar behind the schedule. The occurrence of post-vaccinal reactions in the premature infant group was the same as in the mature infant group and amounted to 41.2% and 45.0%; the occurrence of common reactions was 18.8% and 22.4%; local effects measured 25.8% and 27.9% respectively. Post-vaccinal reactions were either weak or moderate, not requiring treatment, and they would completely disappear by the end of the third post-vaccinal day. Simultaneous injection of pentavaccine and Hepatitis B vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with a history of premature infancy, showed no influence during the post-vaccinal period. The reactogenicity of pentavaccine increased along with the vaccination ratio during the primary series of vaccinations

  8. Cost analysis of public health influenza vaccine clinics in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Nicola J

    2009-01-01

    Public health in Ontario delivers, promotes and provides each fall the universal influenza immunization program. This paper addresses the question of whether Ontario public health agencies are able to provide the influenza immunization program within the Ministry of Health fiscal funding envelope of $5 per dose. Actual program delivery data from the 2006 influenza season of Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph Public Health (WDGPH) were used to create a model template for influenza clinics capturing all variable costs. Promotional and administrative costs were separated from clinic costs. Maximum staff workloads were estimated. Vaccine clinics were delivered by public health staff in accordance with standard vaccine administration practices. The most significant economic variables for influenza clinics are labour costs and number of vaccines given per nurse per hour. The cost of facility rental was the only other significant cost driver. The ability of influenza clinics to break even depended on the ability to manage these cost drivers. At WDGPH, weekday flu clinics required the number of vaccines per nurse per hour to exceed 15, and for weekend flu clinics this number was greater than 21. We estimate that 20 vaccines per hour is at the limit of a safe workload over several hours. Managing cost then depends on minimizing hourly labour costs. The results of this analysis suggest that by managing the labour costs along with planning the volume of patients and avoiding expensive facilities, flu clinics can just break even. However, any increased costs, including negotiated wage increases or the move to safety needles, with a fixed revenue of $5.00 per dose will negate this conclusion.

  9. Genome sequencing and analysis of BCG vaccine strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine against tuberculosis (TB has been available for more than 75 years, one third of the world's population is still infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and approximately 2 million people die of TB every year. To reduce this immense TB burden, a clearer understanding of the functional genes underlying the action of BCG and the development of new vaccines are urgently needed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Comparative genomic analysis of 19 M. tuberculosis complex strains showed that BCG strains underwent repeated human manipulation, had higher region of deletion rates than those of natural M. tuberculosis strains, and lost several essential components such as T-cell epitopes. A total of 188 BCG strain T-cell epitopes were lost to various degrees. The non-virulent BCG Tokyo strain, which has the largest number of T-cell epitopes (359, lost 124. Here we propose that BCG strain protection variability results from different epitopes. This study is the first to present BCG as a model organism for genetics research. BCG strains have a very well-documented history and now detailed genome information. Genome comparison revealed the selection process of BCG strains under human manipulation (1908-1966. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed the cause of BCG vaccine strain protection variability at the genome level and supported the hypothesis that the restoration of lost BCG Tokyo epitopes is a useful future vaccine development strategy. Furthermore, these detailed BCG vaccine genome investigation results will be useful in microbial genetics, microbial engineering and other research fields.

  10. Routine Pediatric Enterovirus 71 Vaccination in China: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Joseph T; Jit, Mark; Zheng, Yaming; Leung, Kathy; Xing, Weijia; Yang, Juan; Liao, Qiaohong; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yang, Bingyi; Lau, Eric H Y; Takahashi, Saki; Farrar, Jeremy J; Grenfell, Bryan T; Leung, Gabriel M; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-03-01

    China accounted for 87% (9.8 million/11.3 million) of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases reported to WHO during 2010-2014. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for most of the severe HFMD cases. Three EV71 vaccines recently demonstrated good efficacy in children aged 6-71 mo. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine pediatric EV71 vaccination in China. We characterized the economic and health burden of EV71-associated HFMD (EV71-HFMD) in China using (i) the national surveillance database, (ii) virological surveillance records from all provinces, and (iii) a caregiver survey on the household costs and health utility loss for 1,787 laboratory-confirmed pediatric cases. Using a static model parameterized with these data, we estimated the effective vaccine cost (EVC, defined as cost/efficacy or simply the cost of a 100% efficacious vaccine) below which routine pediatric vaccination would be considered cost-effective. We performed the base-case analysis from the societal perspective with a willingness-to-pay threshold of one times the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) and an annual discount rate of 3%. We performed uncertainty analysis by (i) accounting for the uncertainty in the risk of EV71-HFMD due to missing laboratory data in the national database, (ii) excluding productivity loss of parents and caregivers, (iii) increasing the willingness-to-pay threshold to three times GDPpc, (iv) increasing the discount rate to 6%, and (v) accounting for the proportion of EV71-HFMD cases not registered by national surveillance. In each of these scenarios, we performed probabilistic sensitivity analysis to account for parametric uncertainty in our estimates of the risk of EV71-HFMD and the expected costs and health utility loss due to EV71-HFMD. Routine pediatric EV71 vaccination would be cost-saving if the all-inclusive EVC is below US$10.6 (95% CI US$9.7-US$11.5) and would remain cost-effective if EVC is below US$17.9 (95% CI US$16.9-US$18.8) in

  11. Routine Pediatric Enterovirus 71 Vaccination in China: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kathy; Xing, Weijia; Yang, Juan; Liao, Qiaohong; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yang, Bingyi; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Takahashi, Saki; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    Background China accounted for 87% (9.8 million/11.3 million) of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases reported to WHO during 2010–2014. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for most of the severe HFMD cases. Three EV71 vaccines recently demonstrated good efficacy in children aged 6–71 mo. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine pediatric EV71 vaccination in China. Methods and Findings We characterized the economic and health burden of EV71-associated HFMD (EV71-HFMD) in China using (i) the national surveillance database, (ii) virological surveillance records from all provinces, and (iii) a caregiver survey on the household costs and health utility loss for 1,787 laboratory-confirmed pediatric cases. Using a static model parameterized with these data, we estimated the effective vaccine cost (EVC, defined as cost/efficacy or simply the cost of a 100% efficacious vaccine) below which routine pediatric vaccination would be considered cost-effective. We performed the base-case analysis from the societal perspective with a willingness-to-pay threshold of one times the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) and an annual discount rate of 3%. We performed uncertainty analysis by (i) accounting for the uncertainty in the risk of EV71-HFMD due to missing laboratory data in the national database, (ii) excluding productivity loss of parents and caregivers, (iii) increasing the willingness-to-pay threshold to three times GDPpc, (iv) increasing the discount rate to 6%, and (v) accounting for the proportion of EV71-HFMD cases not registered by national surveillance. In each of these scenarios, we performed probabilistic sensitivity analysis to account for parametric uncertainty in our estimates of the risk of EV71-HFMD and the expected costs and health utility loss due to EV71-HFMD. Routine pediatric EV71 vaccination would be cost-saving if the all-inclusive EVC is below US$10.6 (95% CI US$9.7–US$11.5) and would remain cost-effective if EVC is below

  12. Routine Pediatric Enterovirus 71 Vaccination in China: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available China accounted for 87% (9.8 million/11.3 million of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD cases reported to WHO during 2010-2014. Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is responsible for most of the severe HFMD cases. Three EV71 vaccines recently demonstrated good efficacy in children aged 6-71 mo. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine pediatric EV71 vaccination in China.We characterized the economic and health burden of EV71-associated HFMD (EV71-HFMD in China using (i the national surveillance database, (ii virological surveillance records from all provinces, and (iii a caregiver survey on the household costs and health utility loss for 1,787 laboratory-confirmed pediatric cases. Using a static model parameterized with these data, we estimated the effective vaccine cost (EVC, defined as cost/efficacy or simply the cost of a 100% efficacious vaccine below which routine pediatric vaccination would be considered cost-effective. We performed the base-case analysis from the societal perspective with a willingness-to-pay threshold of one times the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc and an annual discount rate of 3%. We performed uncertainty analysis by (i accounting for the uncertainty in the risk of EV71-HFMD due to missing laboratory data in the national database, (ii excluding productivity loss of parents and caregivers, (iii increasing the willingness-to-pay threshold to three times GDPpc, (iv increasing the discount rate to 6%, and (v accounting for the proportion of EV71-HFMD cases not registered by national surveillance. In each of these scenarios, we performed probabilistic sensitivity analysis to account for parametric uncertainty in our estimates of the risk of EV71-HFMD and the expected costs and health utility loss due to EV71-HFMD. Routine pediatric EV71 vaccination would be cost-saving if the all-inclusive EVC is below US$10.6 (95% CI US$9.7-US$11.5 and would remain cost-effective if EVC is below US$17.9 (95% CI US$16.9-US$18.8 in

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 60 reportable events (23 from the 4th Qtr FY14 and 37 from the prior three reporting quarters) as well as 58 other issue reports (including not reportable events and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL from July 2013 through October 2014. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) operates the INL under contract DE AC07 051D14517.

  14. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  15. Progression of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 upon vaccination in an industrial rabbitry: a laboratorial approach

    OpenAIRE

    C.L. Carvalho; E.L. Duarte; J.M. Monteiro; C. Afonso; J. Pacheco; P. Carvalho; P. Mendonça; A. Botelho; T. Albuquerque; P. Themudo; M. Fevereiro; A.M. Henriques; S.S. Santos Barros; M. Dias Duarte

    2017-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) emerged recently in several European countries, leading to extensive economic losses in the industry. In response to this new infection, specific inactivated vaccines were developed in Europe and full and rapid setup of protective immunity induced by vaccination was reported. However, data on the efficacy of these vaccines in an ongoing-infection scenario is unavailable. In this study we investigated an infected RHDV2 indoor industrial meat rabbitry...

  16. Influenza vaccination for immunocompromised patients: systematic review and meta-analysis from a public health policy perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Beck

    Full Text Available Immunocompromised patients are vulnerable to severe or complicated influenza infection. Vaccination is widely recommended for this group. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses influenza vaccination for immunocompromised patients in terms of preventing influenza-like illness and laboratory confirmed influenza, serological response and adverse events.Electronic databases and grey literature were searched and records were screened against eligibility criteria. Data extraction and risk of bias assessments were performed in duplicate. Results were synthesised narratively and meta-analyses were conducted where feasible. Heterogeneity was assessed using I(2 and publication bias was assessed using Begg's funnel plot and Egger's regression test. Many of the 209 eligible studies included an unclear or high risk of bias. Meta-analyses showed a significant effect of preventing influenza-like illness (odds ratio [OR]=0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.16-0.34; p<0.001 and laboratory confirmed influenza infection (OR=0.15; 95% CI=0.03-0.63; p=0.01 through vaccinating immunocompromised patie nts compared to placebo or unvaccinated controls. We found no difference in the odds of influenza-like illness compared to vaccinated immunocompetent controls. The pooled odds of seroconversion were lower in vaccinated patients compared to immunocompetent controls for seasonal influenza A(H1N1, A(H3N2 and B. A similar trend was identified for seroprotection. Meta-analyses of seroconversion showed higher odds in vaccinated patients compared to placebo or unvaccinated controls, although this reached significance for influenza B only. Publication bias was not detected and narrative synthesis supported our findings. No consistent evidence of safety concerns was identified.Infection prevention and control strategies should recommend vaccinating immunocompromised patients. Potential for bias and confounding and the presence of heterogeneity mean the evidence

  17. A qualitative analysis of the beliefs of Japanese anti-influenza vaccination website authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Okuhara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza vaccine coverage among the Japanese population is less than optimal. Anti-vaccination sentiment exists worldwide, and Japan is no exception. Anti-influenza vaccination activists argue on the internet that influenza vaccine has little or no efficacy and a high risk of side effects, and they warn that people should forgo vaccination. We conducted a qualitative analysis to explore beliefs underlying the messages of anti-influenza vaccination websites, by focusing on the perceived value these beliefs provide to those who hold them. Methods: We conducted online searches in January 2017 using two major Japanese search engines (Google Japan and Yahoo! Japan. Targeted websites were classified as “pro”, “anti”, or “neutral” depending on their claims. We applied a dual analytic approach—inductive thematic analysis and deductive interpretative analysis—to textual data of the anti websites. Results: Of the 113 anti websites, we identified two themes that correspond to beliefs: it is necessary to 1 protect others against risks and exploitation related to influenza vaccination, and 2 educate others about hidden truths and self-determination. Authors of anti websites ascribed two values (people's “safety” and one's own “self-esteem” to their beliefs. Discussion: Website authors may engage in anti-vaccination activities because they want to feel they are virtuous, saving people from harm caused by vaccination, and to boost their self-esteem, thinking “I am enlightening uninformed people.” The anti-vaccination beliefs of website authors were considered to be strong. In promoting vaccination, it would be better not to target outright vaccine refusers, such as the authors of anti-vaccination websites; it is preferable to target vaccine-hesitant people who are more amenable to changing their attitudes toward vaccination. We discuss possible means of promoting vaccination in that target population. Keywords

  18. Laboratory analysis of phacoemulsifier compliance and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Mitra; Injev, Valentine P; Miller, Kevin M

    2012-11-01

    To compare the compliance and capacity of 7 fluidics modules used by 6 phacoemulsifiers from 3 manufacturers. Jules Stein Eye Institute, Los Angeles, California, USA. Experimental study. Previous-model and current-model phacoemulsifiers from 3 manufacturers were subjected to laboratory analysis of compliance and capacity. Previous-generation models tested included the Legacy Advantec, Whitestar Sovereign Phacoemulsification System, and Millennium Microsurgical System. Current models tested were the Infiniti Vision System with standard and Intrepid cassettes, Whitestar Signature Phacoemulsification System, and Stellaris Vision Enhancement System. To measure compliance, the aspiration line was connected to an electronic pressure transducer and small volumes of fluid were injected or aspirated. To measure capacity, the space between the distal end of the aspiration line and the pump was filled with methylene blue-dyed fluid. The Legacy was the most compliant phacoemulsifier. The old and new Whitestar systems, Millennium system, and Stellaris system showed similar midrange compliances. The Infiniti Vision System with the Intrepid fluidic management system was the least compliant. The Infiniti cassettes had the greatest capacity, which is a detriment from a surge-control perspective, and Signature cassettes had the least capacity. The Infiniti Intrepid system had the lowest compliance of the 6 units tested, which is optimum from a surge-control perspective. All other things being equal, the Infiniti should have the safest occlusion-break surge response. Mr. Injev is an employee of Alcon Laboratories. Dr. Miller is a consultant to and investigator for Alcon Laboratories. Ms. Nejad has no financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies: Data collection, analysis and reporting results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R; Baqui, Abdullah H; Broome, Claire V; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Cheryl; Farrar, Jennifer L; Feikin, Daniel R; Groome, Michelle J; Hajjeh, Rana A; Johnson, Hope L; Madhi, Shabir A; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santosham, Mathuram; Scott, J Anthony; Smith, Peter G; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tate, Jacqueline E; Victor, J Chris; Whitney, Cynthia G; Zaidi, Anita K; Zell, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-05

    The case-control methodology is frequently used to evaluate vaccine effectiveness post-licensure. The results of such studies provide important insight into the level of protection afforded by vaccines in a 'real world' context, and are commonly used to guide vaccine policy decisions. However, the potential for bias and confounding are important limitations to this method, and the results of a poorly conducted or incorrectly interpreted case-control study can mislead policies. In 2012, a group of experts met to review recent experience with case-control studies evaluating vaccine effectiveness; we summarize the recommendations of that group regarding best practices for data collection, analysis, and presentation of the results of case-control vaccine effectiveness studies. Vaccination status is the primary exposure of interest, but can be challenging to assess accurately and with minimal bias. Investigators should understand factors associated with vaccination as well as the availability of documented vaccination status in the study context; case-control studies may not be a valid method for evaluating vaccine effectiveness in settings where many children lack a documented immunization history. To avoid bias, it is essential to use the same methods and effort gathering vaccination data from cases and controls. Variables that may confound the association between illness and vaccination are also important to capture as completely as possible, and where relevant, adjust for in the analysis according to the analytic plan. In presenting results from case-control vaccine effectiveness studies, investigators should describe enrollment among eligible cases and controls as well as the proportion with no documented vaccine history. Emphasis should be placed on confidence intervals, rather than point estimates, of vaccine effectiveness. Case-control studies are a useful approach for evaluating vaccine effectiveness; however careful attention must be paid to the collection

  20. A qualitative analysis of the beliefs of Japanese anti-influenza vaccination website authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Kato, Mio; Okada, Masafumi; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2018-04-01

    Influenza vaccine coverage among the Japanese population is less than optimal. Anti-vaccination sentiment exists worldwide, and Japan is no exception. Anti-influenza vaccination activists argue on the internet that influenza vaccine has little or no efficacy and a high risk of side effects, and they warn that people should forgo vaccination. We conducted a qualitative analysis to explore beliefs underlying the messages of anti-influenza vaccination websites, by focusing on the perceived value these beliefs provide to those who hold them. We conducted online searches in January 2017 using two major Japanese search engines (Google Japan and Yahoo! Japan). Targeted websites were classified as "pro", "anti", or "neutral" depending on their claims. We applied a dual analytic approach-inductive thematic analysis and deductive interpretative analysis-to textual data of the anti websites. Of the 113 anti websites, we identified two themes that correspond to beliefs: it is necessary to 1) protect others against risks and exploitation related to influenza vaccination, and 2) educate others about hidden truths and self-determination. Authors of anti websites ascribed two values (people's "safety" and one's own "self-esteem") to their beliefs. Website authors may engage in anti-vaccination activities because they want to feel they are virtuous, saving people from harm caused by vaccination, and to boost their self-esteem, thinking "I am enlightening uninformed people." The anti-vaccination beliefs of website authors were considered to be strong. In promoting vaccination, it would be better not to target outright vaccine refusers, such as the authors of anti-vaccination websites; it is preferable to target vaccine-hesitant people who are more amenable to changing their attitudes toward vaccination. We discuss possible means of promoting vaccination in that target population.

  1. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  2. Qualitative motivators and barriers to pandemic vs. seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prematunge, Chatura; Corace, Kimberly; McCarthy, Anne; Nair, Rama C; Roth, Virginia; Suh, Kathryn N; Garber, Gary

    2014-12-12

    Influenza is a major concern across healthcare environments. Annual vaccination of healthcare workers (HCW) remains a key mode of influenza prevention in healthcare settings. Yet influenza vaccine coverage among HCWs continues to be below recommended targets, in pandemic and non-pandemic settings. Thus, the primary objective of this analysis is to identify motivators and barriers to pandemic (panINFLU) and seasonal influenza vaccination (sINFLU) through the qualitative analysis of HCW provided reasons driving HCW's personal vaccination decisions. Data were collected from a multi-professional sample of HCWs via a cross-sectional survey study, conducted at a tertiary-care hospital in Ontario, Canada. HCW provided and ranked qualitative reasons for personal (1) panINFLU (pH1N1) and (2) sINFLU (2008/2009 season) vaccine uptake and avoidance were used to identify key vaccination motivators and barriers through content analysis methodology. Most HCW vaccination motivators and barriers were found to be similar for panINFLU and sINFLU vaccines. Personal motivators had the greatest impact on vaccination (panINFLU 29.9% and sINFLU 33.9%). Other motivators included preventing influenza in loved ones, patients, and community, and awareness of HCW role in influenza transmission. In contrast, concerns of vaccine safety and limited HCW knowledge of influenza vaccines (panINFLU 46.2% and sINFLU 37.3%). HCW vaccination during the pandemic was motivated by panINFLU related fear, epidemiology, and workplace pro-vaccination policies. HCW perceptions of accelerated panINFLU vaccine development and vaccine safety compromises, negative views of external sources (i.e. media, pharmaceutical companies, and regulatory agencies) and pandemic management strategies were barriers specific to panINFLU vaccine. HCW panINFLU and sINFLU vaccine coverage can increase if future vaccination programs (1) highlight personal vaccination benefits (2) emphasize the impact HCW non-vaccination on family

  3. Mars Science Laboratory Heatshield Flight Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahzari, Milad; White, Todd

    2017-01-01

    NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), which landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars on August 5th, 2012, was the largest and heaviest Mars entry vehicle representing a significant advancement in planetary entry, descent and landing capability. Hypersonic flight performance data was collected using MSLs on-board sensors called Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI). This talk will give an overview of MSL entry and a description of MEDLI sensors. Observations from flight data will be examined followed by a discussion of analysis efforts to reconstruct surface heating from heatshields in-depth temperature measurements. Finally, a brief overview of MEDLI2 instrumentation, which will fly on NASAs Mars2020 mission, will be presented with a discussion on how lessons learned from MEDLI data affected the design of MEDLI2 instrumentation.

  4. Economic analysis of pandemic influenza vaccination strategies in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon J Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4-0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. CONCLUSIONS: The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines.

  5. 'Hesitant compliers': Qualitative analysis of concerned fully-vaccinating parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkel, Stephanie L; Attwell, Katie; Snelling, Thomas L; Christian, Hayley E

    2017-10-11

    Some parents are hesitant about vaccines and yet still vaccinate their children. Vaccine behaviours are not fixed and parents who are concerned but nonetheless adherent to standard schedules could switch to an unconventional schedule, delaying or cherry-picking vaccines. There is a need to better understand vaccine hesitancy in specific contexts, acknowledging cultural and geographical variation, to ensure interventions targeting hesitancy are well directed and received. To identify the behaviours, knowledge and attitudes of 'hesitant compliers' in Perth, Western Australia, nine one-on-one in-depth interviews were conducted with vaccinating parents of children (vaccination as important for themselves and their community, despite their limited knowledge of vaccine preventable diseases. Parents reported concerns about potential side effects, and worried about the safety of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and seasonal influenza vaccines. Concerned about the role of anti-vaccination information in the community, some sought to isolate themselves from parents who did not vaccinate, although others were concerned that this could entrench non-vaccinators' behaviours. Parents' views were all underlaid by two pivotal 'vaccine-related events' that had occurred in the community: the severe injury of a baby from seasonal influenza vaccination in 2010, and the death of a baby from whooping cough in 2015. Parents interpreted pivotal vaccine-related events in the community as requiring them to take personal responsibility for vaccine decisions. Their reports of continued vaccine fears (evident in international studies in recent decades) demonstrate that vaccine scares have long lasting effects. With vaccine rates high and stable, current strategies appear to be have little impact on addressing parental vaccine concerns. Further research is required to determine the prevalence of hesitancy amongst vaccinating parents and identify critical points for intervention. Copyright © 2017

  6. Arguments and sources on Italian online forums on childhood vaccinations: Results of a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Marta; Allam, Ahmed; Schulz, Peter J

    2015-12-16

    Despite being committed to the immunization agenda set by the WHO, Italy is currently experiencing decreasing vaccination rates and increasing incidence of vaccine-preventable diseases. Our aim is to analyze Italian online debates on pediatric immunizations through a content analytic approach in order to quantitatively evaluate and summarize users' arguments and information sources. Threads were extracted from 3 Italian forums. Threads had to include the keyword Vaccin* in the title, focus on childhood vaccination, and include at least 10 posts. They had to have been started between 2008 and June 2014. High inter-coder reliability was achieved. Exploratory analysis using k-means clustering was performed to identify users' posting patterns for arguments about vaccines and sources. The analysis included 6544 posts mentioning 6223 arguments about pediatric vaccinations and citing 4067 sources. The analysis of argument posting patterns included users who published a sufficient number of posts; they generated 85% of all arguments on the forum. Dominating patterns of three groups were identified: (1) an anti-vaccination group (n=280) posted arguments against vaccinations, (2) a general pro-vaccination group (n=222) posted substantially diverse arguments supporting vaccination and (3) a safety-focused pro-vaccination group (n=158) mainly forwarded arguments that questioned the negative side effects of vaccination. The anti-vaccination group was shown to be more active than the others. They use multiple sources, own experience and media as their cited sources of information. Medical professionals were among the cited sources of all three groups, suggesting that vaccination-adverse professionals are gaining attention. Knowing which information is shared online on the topic of pediatric vaccinations could shed light on why immunization rates have been decreasing and what strategies would be best suited to address parental concerns. This suggests there is a high need for

  7. Comparative analysis of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine strains and G8 rotaviruses identified during vaccine trial in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Ciarlet, Max; Lawrence, Jody; Steele, Duncan; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle

    2015-10-06

    RotaTeqTM is a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine based on a bovine rotavirus genetic backbone in vitro reassorted with human outer capsid genes. During clinical trials of RotaTeqTM in Sub-Saharan Africa, the vaccine efficacy over a 2-year follow-up was lower against the genotypes contained in the vaccine than against the heterotypic G8P[6] and G8P[1] rotavirus strains of which the former is highly prevalent in Africa. Complete genome analyses of 43 complete rotavirus genomes collected during phase III clinical trials of RotaTeqTM in Sub-Saharan Africa, were conducted to gain insight into the high level of cross-protection afforded by RotaTeqTM against these G8 strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a high number of bovine rotavirus gene segments in these human G8 strains. In addition, we performed an in depth analysis on the individual amino acid level which showed that G8 rotaviruses were more similar to the RotaTeqTM vaccine than non-G8 strains. Because RotaTeqTM possesses a bovine genetic backbone, the high vaccine efficacy against G8 strains might be partially explained by the fact that all these strains contain a complete or partial bovine-like backbone. Altogether, this study supports the hypothesis that gene segments other than VP7 and VP4 play a role in vaccine-induced immunity.

  8. Reliability on intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory data of hair mineral analysis comparing with blood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Sun; Hong, Seung Phil; Kim, Myung Hwa; Park, Byung Cheol

    2013-02-01

    Nowadays, although its clinical value remains controversial institutions utilize hair mineral analysis. Arguments about the reliability of hair mineral analysis persist, and there have been evaluations of commercial laboratories performing hair mineral analysis. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory data at three commercial laboratories conducting hair mineral analysis, compared to serum mineral analysis. Two divided hair samples taken from near the scalp were submitted for analysis at the same time, to all laboratories, from one healthy volunteer. Each laboratory sent a report consisting of quantitative results and their interpretation of health implications. Differences among intra-laboratory and interlaboratory data were analyzed using SPSS version 12.0 (SPSS Inc., USA). All the laboratories used identical methods for quantitative analysis, and they generated consistent numerical results according to Friedman analysis of variance. However, the normal reference ranges of each laboratory varied. As such, each laboratory interpreted the patient's health differently. On intra-laboratory data, Wilcoxon analysis suggested they generated relatively coherent data, but laboratory B could not in one element, so its reliability was doubtful. In comparison with the blood test, laboratory C generated identical results, but not laboratory A and B. Hair mineral analysis has its limitations, considering the reliability of inter and intra laboratory analysis comparing with blood analysis. As such, clinicians should be cautious when applying hair mineral analysis as an ancillary tool. Each laboratory included in this study requires continuous refinement from now on for inducing standardized normal reference levels.

  9. Tritium Research Laboratory safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.A.

    1979-03-01

    Design and operational philosophy has been evolved to keep radiation exposures to personnel and radiation releases to the environment as low as reasonably achievable. Each experiment will be doubly contained in a glove box and will be limited to 10 grams of tritium gas. Specially designed solid-hydride storage beds may be used to store temporarily up to 25 grams of tritium in the form of tritides. To evaluate possible risks to the public or the environment, a review of the Sandia Laboratories Livermore (SLL) site was carried out. Considered were location, population, land use, meteorology, hydrology, geology, and seismology. The risks and the extent of damage to the TRL and vital systems were evaluated for flooding, lightning, severe winds, earthquakes, explosions, and fires. All of the natural phenomena and human error accidents were considered credible, although the extent of potential damage varied. However, rather than address the myriad of specific individual consequences of each accident scenario, a worst-case tritium release caused indirectly by an unspecified natural phenomenon or human error was evaluated. The maximum credible radiological accident is postulated to result from the release of the maximum quantity of gas from one experiment. Thus 10 grams of tritium gas was used in the analysis to conservatively estimate the maximum whole-body dose of 1 rem at the site boundary and a maximum population dose of 600 man-rem. Accidental release of this amount of tritium implies simultaneous failure of two doubly contained systems, an occurrence considered not credible. Nuclear criticality is impossible in this facility. Based upon the analyses performed for this report, we conclude that the Tritium Research Laboratory can be operated without undue risk to employees, the general public, or the environment. (ERB)

  10. Tritium Research Laboratory safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.A.

    1979-03-01

    Design and operational philosophy has been evolved to keep radiation exposures to personnel and radiation releases to the environment as low as reasonably achievable. Each experiment will be doubly contained in a glove box and will be limited to 10 grams of tritium gas. Specially designed solid-hydride storage beds may be used to store temporarily up to 25 grams of tritium in the form of tritides. To evaluate possible risks to the public or the environment, a review of the Sandia Laboratories Livermore (SLL) site was carried out. Considered were location, population, land use, meteorology, hydrology, geology, and seismology. The risks and the extent of damage to the TRL and vital systems were evaluated for flooding, lightning, severe winds, earthquakes, explosions, and fires. All of the natural phenomena and human error accidents were considered credible, although the extent of potential damage varied. However, rather than address the myriad of specific individual consequences of each accident scenario, a worst-case tritium release caused indirectly by an unspecified natural phenomenon or human error was evaluated. The maximum credible radiological accident is postulated to result from the release of the maximum quantity of gas from one experiment. Thus 10 grams of tritium gas was used in the analysis to conservatively estimate the maximum whole-body dose of 1 rem at the site boundary and a maximum population dose of 600 man-rem. Accidental release of this amount of tritium implies simultaneous failure of two doubly contained systems, an occurrence considered not credible. Nuclear criticality is impossible in this facility. Based upon the analyses performed for this report, we conclude that the Tritium Research Laboratory can be operated without undue risk to employees, the general public, or the environment

  11. Safety and immunogenicity of a four-component meningococcal group B vaccine (4CMenB) and a quadrivalent meningococcal group ACWY conjugate vaccine administered concomitantly in healthy laboratory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlow, Jamie; Bai, Xilian; Findlow, Helen; Newton, Emma; Kaczmarski, Ed; Miller, Elizabeth; Borrow, Ray

    2015-06-26

    Safety precautions for laboratory staff working with meningococci should primarily rely on laboratory procedures preventing exposure to aerosols containing viable meningococci. Despite this, vaccination is a key component of protection in the occupational setting. In the UK in 2009, there were no licensed vaccines for meningococcal capsular group B or conjugate vaccines for capsular groups A, C, W and Y. We therefore undertook a Phase II trial in laboratory workers to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of a four component group B vaccine (4CMenB) and a quadrivalent group A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine (ACWY-CRM). Enrolment was open to staff aged 18-65 years at the Public Health Laboratory, Manchester who may have had a potential occupational exposure risk to meningococci. 4CMenB was administered at 0, 2 and 6 months in the non-dominant arm and ACWY-CRM concomitantly at 0 months in the dominant arm. Pre- and post-vaccination blood samples were taken and analysed by the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay against A, C, W and Y strains and a panel of seven diverse group B strains. Diary cards were used to record any local and systemic reactions following each vaccination. In total, 38 staff were enrolled and received initial vaccinations with 31 completing the trial per protocol. Both vaccines were proven safe, with local reactogenicity being more commonly reported following 4CMenB than ACWY-CRM. High proportions of subjects had putative protective SBA titres pre-vaccination, with 61-84 and 61-87% protected against A, C, W and Y strains and diverse MenB strains, respectively. Post-vaccination, SBA titres increased with 95-100 and 90-100% of subjects with protective SBA titres against A, C, W and Y strains and diverse MenB strains, respectively. These data suggest that 4CMenB and ACWY-CRM are safe when administered concomitantly and have the potential to enhance protection for laboratory workers. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00962624. Crown

  12. The effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory confirmed influenza hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Bissielo, Ange; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kelly, Heath

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies report the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in preventing hospitalisation for influenza-confirmed respiratory infections. Using a prospective surveillance platform, this study reports the first such estimate from a well-defined ethnically diverse population in New Zealand (NZ). Methods A case test-negative study was used to estimate propensity adjusted vaccine effectiveness. Patients with a severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), defined as a patient of any age requiring hospitalization with a history of a fever or a measured temperature ≥38°C and cough and onset within the past 7 days, admitted to public hospitals in Central, South and East Auckland were eligible for inclusion in the study. Cases were SARI patients who tested positive for influenza, while non-cases (controls) were SARI patients who tested negative. Results were adjusted for the propensity to be vaccinated and the timing of the influenza season Results The propensity and season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 37% (95% CI 18;51). The VE point estimate against influenza A (H1N1) was higher than for influenza B or influenza A (H3N2) but confidence intervals were wide and overlapping. Estimated VE was 51% (95% CI 28;67) in patients aged 18-64 years but only 6% (95% CI -51;42) in those aged 65 years and above. Conclusion Prospective surveillance for SARI has been successfully established in NZ . This study for the first year, the 2012 influenza season, has shown low to moderate protection by TIV against hospitalisation for laboratory-confirmed influenza. PMID:24768730

  13. An Analysis of Laboratory Safety in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Edward J.; Picucci, Ali Callicoatte; Collins, James W.; Swann, Philip

    This paper reports on a survey to discover the types of laboratory accidents that occur in Texas public schools, the factors associated with such accidents, and the practices of schools with regard to current laboratory safety requirements. The purpose of the survey is to better understand safety conditions in Texas public schools and to help…

  14. Stability analysis for an age-dependent vaccination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Doma, M.

    1993-05-01

    The stability of an SIR epidemic model with vaccination is investigated. We determine the steady states and examine their stability. Furthermore, a critical vaccination coverage that will eventually eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 9 refs

  15. Analysis Of Vaccination Campaign Against Hpv And The Perspective Of Vaccinated Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Palmeira Nunes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  The Ministry of Health has provided for the girls population aged nine to 13 years, the quadrivalent vaccine against Human Papillomavirus as a preventive measure for cancer of the cervix, with the initial proposal to achieve 80% of this population.  Objective:  To analyze the vaccine coverage and the perspective of the target population about the vaccine against the Human Papillomavirus.  Methods:  This was a quantitative and qualitative field research in descriptive character, conducted through the Information System of the National Program for Immunization and with a sample of 86 adolescents in the city of São José do Egito/PE/BR.  Results:  The vaccination coverage showed a reduction in sequence of the vaccination schedules of 19,53% in the first phase of the campaign and of 24.07% in the second phase. It was also noted that lack accurate information for more than 50% of respondents, 15.11% had local and / or systemic reactions and 89,53% of them expect positive results with the vaccine against the Human Papillomavirus.  Conclusion: The results showed a discontinuity in the prophylaxis scheme, but for the teenagers who took the vaccine there is confidence that the immunobiological has the desired effect, protecting them against viruses and future cancer of the cervix. Keywords: Health services; Vaccine; Adolescents; Human Papillomavirus.

  16. A cost-effectiveness analysis of typhoid fever vaccines in US military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, T A; Finder, S F; Brier, K L; Ries, A J; Weber, M P; Miller, M R; Potyk, R P; Reeves, C S; Moran, E L; Tornow, J J

    1996-11-01

    Typhoid fever has been a problem for military personnel throughout history. A cost-effectiveness analysis of typhoid fever vaccines from the perspective of the US military was performed. Currently 3 vaccine preparations are available in the US: an oral live Type 21A whole cell vaccine; a single-dose parenteral, cell subunit vaccine; and a 2-dose parenteral heat-phenol killed, whole cell vaccine. This analysis assumed all vaccinees were US military personnel. Two pharmacoeconomic models were developed, one for personnel who have not yet been deployed, and the other for personnel who are deployed to an area endemic for typhoid fever. Drug acquisition, administration, adverse effect and lost work costs, as well as the costs associated with typhoid fever, were included in this analysis. Unique military issues, typhoid fever attack rates, vaccine efficacy, and compliance with each vaccine's dosage regimen were included in this analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed to test the robustness of the models. Typhoid fever immunisation is not cost-effective for US military personnel unless they are considered imminently deployable or are deployed. The most cost-effective vaccine for US military personnel is the single-dose, cell subunit parenteral vaccine.

  17. Estimated impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Senegal: A country-led analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Abdou; Atherly, Deborah; Faye, Alioune; Lamine Sall, Farba; Clark, Andrew D; Nadiel, Leon; Yade, Binetou; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Fafa Cissé, Moussa; Ba, Mamadou

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute severe diarrhea among children under 5 globally and one of the leading causes of death attributable to diarrhea. Among African children hospitalized with diarrhea, 38% of the cases are due to rotavirus. In Senegal, rotavirus deaths are estimated to represent 5.4% of all deaths among children under 5. Along with the substantial disease burden, there is a growing awareness of the economic burden created by diarrheal disease. This analysis aims to provide policymakers with more consistent and reliable economic evidence to support the decision-making process about the introduction and maintenance of a rotavirus vaccine program. The study was conducted using the processes and tools first established by the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative in the Latin American region. TRIVAC version 2.0, an Excel-based model, was used to perform the analysis. The costs and health outcomes were calculated for 20 successive birth cohorts (2014-2033). Model inputs were gathered from local, national, and international sources with the guidance of a Senegalese group of experts including local pediatricians, personnel from the Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization, as well as disease-surveillance and laboratory specialists. The cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted, discounted at 3%, is US$ 92 from the health care provider perspective and US$ 73 from the societal perspective. For the 20 cohorts, the vaccine is projected to prevent more than 2 million cases of rotavirus and to avert more than 8500 deaths. The proportion of rotavirus deaths averted is estimated to be 42%. For 20 cohorts, the discounted net costs of the program were estimated to be US$ 17.6 million from the healthcare provider perspective and US$ 13.8 million from the societal perspective. From both perspectives, introducing the rotavirus vaccine is highly cost-effective compared to no vaccination. The results are consistent with those

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination: comparing the general population with socially vulnerable individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    After the WHO recommended HPV vaccination of the general population in 2009, government support of HPV vaccination programs was increased in many countries. However, this policy was not implemented in Korea due to perceived low cost-effectiveness. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the cost-utility of HPV vaccination programs targeted to high risk populations as compared to vaccination programs for the general population. Each study population was set to 100,000 people in a simulation study to determine the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR), then standard prevalence rates, cost, vaccination rates, vaccine efficacy, and the Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) were applied to the analysis. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed by assuming discounted vaccination cost. In the socially vulnerable population, QALYs gained through HPV vaccination were higher than that of the general population (General population: 1,019, Socially vulnerable population: 5,582). The results of ICUR showed that the cost of HPV vaccination was higher for the general population than the socially vulnerable population. (General population: 52,279,255 KRW, Socially vulnerable population: 9,547,347 KRW). Compared with 24 million KRW/QALYs as the social threshold, vaccination of the general population was not cost-effective. In contrast, vaccination of the socially vulnerable population was strongly cost-effective. The results suggest the importance and necessity of government support of HPV vaccination programs targeted to socially vulnerable populations because a targeted approach is much more cost-effective. The implementation of government support for such vaccination programs is a critical strategy for decreasing the burden of HPV infection in Korea.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccinations and decision makings on vaccination programmes in Hong Kong: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carlos K H; Liao, Qiuyan; Guo, Vivian Y W; Xin, Yiqiao; Lam, Cindy L K

    2017-05-31

    To describe and systematically review the modelling and reporting of cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination in Hong Kong, and to identify areas for quality enhancement in future cost-effectiveness analyses. We conducted a comprehensive and systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies related to vaccination and government immunisation programmes in Hong Kong published from 1990 to 2015, through database search of Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and OVID Medline. Methodological quality of selected studies was assessed using Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist (CHEERS). Decision making of vaccination was obtained from Scientific Committee on Vaccine Preventable Diseases (SCVPD) and Department of Health in Hong Kong. Nine eligible studies reporting twelve comparative cost-effectiveness comparisons of vaccination programme for influenza (n=2), pneumococcal disease (n=3), influenza plus pneumococcal disease (n=1), chickenpox (n=2), Haemophilus influenzae b (n=1), hepatitis A (n=1), cervical cancer (n=1) and rotavirus (n=1) were identified. Ten comparisons (83.3%) calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of a vaccination strategy versus status quo as outcomes in terms of cost in USD per life-years, cost per quality-adjusted life-years, or cost per disability-adjusted life-years. Among those 10 comparisons in base-case scenario, 4 evaluated interventions were cost-saving relative to status quo while the ICER estimates in 3 of the 6 remaining comparisons were far below commonly accepted threshold and WHO willingness-to-pay threshold, suggestive of very cost-effective. Seven studies were of good quality based on the CHEERS checklist; one was of moderate quality; and one was of excellent quality. The common methodological problems were characterisation of heterogeneity and reporting of study parameters. There was a paucity of cost-effectiveness models evaluating vaccination targeted to the Hong Kong population. All

  20. Correlates of protection for inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine: the analysis of immunological surrogate endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbo; Jin, Pengfei; Li, Jing-Xin; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Liu, Pei

    2017-09-01

    Inactivated Enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines showed significant efficacy against the diseases associated with EV71 and a neutralizing antibody (NTAb) titer of 1:16-1:32 was suggested as the correlates of the vaccine protection. This paper aims to further estimate the immunological surrogate endpoints for the protection of inactivated EV71 vaccines and the effect factors. Pre-vaccination NTAb against EV71 at baseline (day 0), post-vaccination NTAb against EV71 at day 56, and the occurrence of laboratory-confirmed EV71-associated diseases during a 24-months follow-up period were collected from a phase 3 efficacy trial of an inactivated EV71 vaccine. We used the mixed-scaled logit model and the absolute sigmoid function by some extensions in continuous models to estimate the immunological surrogate endpoint for the EV71 vaccine protection, respectively. For children with a negative baseline of EV71 NTAb titers, an antibody level of 26.6 U/ml (1:30) was estimated to provide at least a 50% protection for 12 months, and an antibody level of 36.2 U/ml (1:42) may be needed to achieve a 50% protective level of the population for 24 months. Both the pre-vaccination NTAb level and the vaccine protective period could affect the estimation of the immunological surrogate for EV71 vaccine. A post-vaccination NTAb titer of 1:42 or more may be needed for long-term protection. NCT01508247.

  1. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  2. Modeling the impact of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Chinese infants: an economic analysis of a compulsory vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Datian; Zhou, Hua; He, Jinchun; Wu, Bin

    2014-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to compare, from a Chinese societal perspective, the projected health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of adding pneumococcal conjugate heptavalent vaccine (PCV-7) to the routine compulsory child immunization schedule. A decision-tree model, with data and assumptions adapted for relevance to China, was developed to project the health outcomes of PCV-7 vaccination (compared with no vaccination) over a 5-year period as well as a lifetime. The vaccinated birth cohort included 16,000,000 children in China. A 2 + 1 dose schedule at US$136.51 per vaccine dose was used in the base-case analysis. One-way sensitivity analysis was used to test the robustness of the model. The impact of a net indirect effect (herd immunity) was evaluated. Outcomes are presented in terms of the saved disease burden, costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. In a Chinese birth cohort, a PCV-7 vaccination program would reduce the number of pneumococcus-related infections by at least 32% and would prevent 2,682 deaths in the first 5 years of life, saving $1,190 million in total costs and gaining an additional 9,895 QALYs (discounted by 3%). The incremental cost per QALY was estimated to be $530,354. When herd immunity was taken into account, the cost per QALY was estimated to be $95,319. The robustness of the model was influenced mainly by the PCV-7 cost per dose, effectiveness herd immunity and incidence of pneumococcal diseases. With and without herd immunity, the break-even costs in China were $29.05 and $25.87, respectively. Compulsory routine infant vaccination with PCV-7 is projected to substantially reduce pneumococcal disease morbidity, mortality, and related costs in China. However, a universal vaccination program with PCV-7 is not cost-effective at the willingness-to-pay threshold that is currently recommended for China by the World Health Organization.

  3. The Evidence for Efficacy of HPV Vaccines: Investigations in Categorical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Alison L.; Goossens, Emery T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent approval of HPV vaccines and their widespread provision to young women provide an interesting context to gain experience with the application of statistical methods in current research. We demonstrate how we have used data extracted from a meta-analysis examining the efficacy of HPV vaccines in clinical trials with students in applied…

  4. Spatial and environmental connectivity analysis in a cholera vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emch, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Root, Elisabeth D; Yunus, Mohammad

    2009-02-01

    This paper develops theory and methods for vaccine trials that utilize spatial and environmental information. Satellite imagery is used to identify whether households are connected to one another via water bodies in a study area in rural Bangladesh. Then relationships between neighborhood-level cholera vaccine coverage and placebo incidence and neighborhood-level spatial variables are measured. The study hypothesis is that unvaccinated people who are environmentally connected to people who have been vaccinated will be at lower risk compared to unvaccinated people who are environmentally connected to people who have not been vaccinated. We use four datasets including: a cholera vaccine trial database, a longitudinal demographic database of the rural population from which the vaccine trial participants were selected, a household-level geographic information system (GIS) database of the same study area, and high resolution Quickbird satellite imagery. An environmental connectivity metric was constructed by integrating the satellite imagery with the vaccine and demographic databases linked with GIS. The results show that there is a relationship between neighborhood rates of cholera vaccination and placebo incidence. Thus, people are indirectly protected when more people in their environmentally connected neighborhood are vaccinated. This result is similar to our previous work that used a simpler Euclidean distance neighborhood to measure neighborhood vaccine coverage [Ali, M., Emch, M., von Seidlein, L., Yunus, M., Sack, D. A., Holmgren, J., et al. (2005). Herd immunity conferred by killed oral cholera vaccines in Bangladesh. Lancet, 366(9479), 44-49]. Our new method of measuring environmental connectivity is more precise since it takes into account the transmission mode of cholera and therefore this study validates our assertion that the oral cholera vaccine provides indirect protection in addition to direct protection.

  5. In "Step" with HIV Vaccines? A Content Analysis of Local Recruitment Campaigns for an International HIV Vaccine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Macias, Wendy; Chan, Kayshin; Harding, Ashley C

    2009-01-01

    During the past two decades of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, several recruitment campaigns were designed to generate community involvement in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials. These efforts utilized a blend of advertising and marketing strategies mixed with public relations and community education approaches to attract potential study participants to clinical trials (integrated marketing communications). Although more than 30,000 persons worldwide have participated in preventive HIV vaccine studies, no systematic analysis of recruitment campaigns exists. This content analysis study was conducted to examine several United States and Canadian recruitment campaigns for one of the largest-scale HIV vaccine trials to date (the "Step Study"). This study examined persuasive features consistent with the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) including message content, personal relevance of HIV/AIDS and vaccine research, intended audiences, information sources, and other contextual features. The results indicated variation in messages and communication approaches with gay men more exclusively targeted in these regions. Racial/ethnic representations also differed by campaign. Most of the materials promote affective evaluation of the information through heuristic cueing. Implications for subsequent campaigns and research directions are discussed.

  6. In “Step” with HIV Vaccines? A Content Analysis of Local Recruitment Campaigns for an International HIV Vaccine Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M.; Macias, Wendy; Chan, Kayshin; Harding, Ashley C.

    2009-01-01

    During the past two decades of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, several recruitment campaigns were designed to generate community involvement in preventive HIV vaccine clinical trials. These efforts utilized a blend of advertising and marketing strategies mixed with public relations and community education approaches to attract potential study participants to clinical trials (integrated marketing communications). Although more than 30,000 persons worldwide have participated in preventive HIV vaccine studies, no systematic analysis of recruitment campaigns exists. This content analysis study was conducted to examine several United States and Canadian recruitment campaigns for one of the largest-scale HIV vaccine trials to date (the “Step Study”). This study examined persuasive features consistent with the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) including message content, personal relevance of HIV/AIDS and vaccine research, intended audiences, information sources, and other contextual features. The results indicated variation in messages and communication approaches with gay men more exclusively targeted in these regions. Racial/ethnic representations also differed by campaign. Most of the materials promote affective evaluation of the information through heuristic cueing. Implications for subsequent campaigns and research directions are discussed. PMID:19609373

  7. Budget impact analysis of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b as a part of a Pentavalent vaccine in the childhood immunization schedule of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri, Fatemeh; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Gheiratian, MohammadMahdi; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2017-01-14

    Health decision makers need to know the impact of the development of a new intervention on the public health and health care costs so that they can plan for economic and financial objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the budget impact of adding Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as a part of a Pentavalent vaccine (Hib-HBV-DTP) to the national childhood immunization schedule of Iran. An excel-based model was developed to determine the costs of including the Pentavalent vaccine in the national immunization program (NIP), comparing the present schedule with the previous one (including separate DTP and hepatitis B vaccines). The total annual costs included the cost of vaccination (the vaccine and syringe) and the cost of Hib treatment. The health outcome was the estimated annual cases of the diseases. The net budget impact was the difference in the total annual cost between the two schedules. Uncertainty about the vaccine effectiveness, vaccination coverage, cost of the vaccine, and cost of the diseases were handled through scenario analysis. The total cost of vaccination during 5 years was $18,060,463 in the previous program and $67,774,786 in the present program. Inclusion of the Pentavalent vaccine would increase the vaccination cost about $49 million, but would save approximately $6 million in the healthcare costs due to reduction of disease cases and treatment costs. The introduction of the Pentavalent vaccine resulted in a net increase in the healthcare budget expenditure across all scenarios from $43.4 million to $50.7 million. The results of this study showed that the inclusion of the Pentavalent vaccine in the NIP of Iran had a significant impact on the health care budget and increased the financial burden on the government. Budget impact of including Pentavalent vaccine in the national immunization schedule of Iranᅟ.

  8. Clinical effectiveness and cost effect analysis of quadrivalent HPV vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Lekić, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    1 ABSTRACT Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine- Evaluation of clinical effectiveness and national vaccine programs Author: Nataša Lekić Research Advisor: PharmDr. Lenka Práznovcová, Ph.D. Department of Social and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Charles University in Prague. SUMMARY QUADRIVALENT HPV VACCINE- EVALUATION OF CLINICAL EFFECTIVENESS AND NATIONAL VACCINE PROGRAMS Background: Human papillomavirus types 6, 11,16 and 18 cause majority of genital warts an...

  9. Multivariate analysis of the immune response to a vaccine as an alternative to the repetition of animal challenge studies for vaccines with demonstrated efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapat, Ludivine; Hilaire, Florence; Bouvet, Jérome; Pialot, Daniel; Philippe-Reversat, Corinne; Guiot, Anne-Laure; Remolue, Lydie; Lechenet, Jacques; Andreoni, Christine; Poulet, Hervé; Day, Michael J; De Luca, Karelle; Cariou, Carine; Cupillard, Lionel

    2017-07-01

    The assessment of vaccine combinations, or the evaluation of the impact of minor modifications of one component in well-established vaccines, requires animal challenges in the absence of previously validated correlates of protection. As an alternative, we propose conducting a multivariate analysis of the specific immune response to the vaccine. This approach is consistent with the principles of the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction and Replacement) and avoids repeating efficacy studies based on infectious challenges in vivo. To validate this approach, a set of nine immunological parameters was selected in order to characterize B and T lymphocyte responses against canine rabies virus and to evaluate the compatibility between two canine vaccines, an inactivated rabies vaccine (RABISIN ® ) and a combined vaccine (EURICAN ® DAPPi-Lmulti) injected at two different sites in the same animals. The analysis was focused on the magnitude and quality of the immune response. The multi-dimensional picture given by this 'immune fingerprint' was used to assess the impact of the concomitant injection of the combined vaccine on the immunogenicity of the rabies vaccine. A principal component analysis fully discriminated the control group from the groups vaccinated with RABISIN ® alone or RABISIN ® +EURICAN ® DAPPi-Lmulti and confirmed the compatibility between the rabies vaccines. This study suggests that determining the immune fingerprint, combined with a multivariate statistical analysis, is a promising approach to characterizing the immunogenicity of a vaccine with an established record of efficacy. It may also avoid the need to repeat efficacy studies involving challenge infection in case of minor modifications of the vaccine or for compatibility studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of a Program to Eliminate Disparities in Pneumococcal Vaccination Rates in Elderly Minority Populations: An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelidis, Constantinos I.; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Smith, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Invasive pneumococcal disease is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States, particularly among the elderly (>65 years). There are large racial disparities in pneumococcal vaccination rates in this population. Here, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical national vaccination intervention program designed to eliminate racial disparities in pneumococcal vaccination in the elderly. Methods In an exploratory analysis, a Markov decision-analysis model was developed, taking a societal perspective and assuming a 1-year cycle length, 10-year vaccination program duration, and lifetime time horizon. In the base-case analysis, it was conservatively assumed that vaccination program promotion costs were $10 per targeted minority elder per year, regardless of prior vaccination status and resulted in the elderly African American and Hispanic pneumococcal vaccination rate matching the elderly Caucasian vaccination rate (65%) in year 10 of the program. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness of the vaccination program relative to no program was $45,161 per quality-adjusted life-year gained in the base-case analysis. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the likelihood of the vaccination program being cost-effective at willingness-to-pay thresholds of $50,000 and $100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained was 64% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions In a conservative analysis biased against the vaccination program, a national vaccination intervention program to ameliorate racial disparities in pneumococcal vaccination would be cost-effective. PMID:23538183

  11. Potential impact of reactive vaccination in controlling cholera outbreaks: an exploratory analysis using a Zimbabwean experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Choi, Yeongchull; Mason, Peter R; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Goldie, Sue J

    2011-09-05

    To contain ongoing cholera outbreaks, the World Health Organization has suggested that reactive vaccination should be considered in addition to its previous control measures. To explore the potential impact of a hypothetical reactive oral cholera vaccination using the example of the recent large-scale cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe. This was a retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis calculating the health and economic burden of the cholera outbreak in Zimbabwe with and without reactive vaccination. The primary outcome measure was incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted. Under the base-case assumptions (assuming 50% coverage among individuals aged ≥2 years), reactive vaccination could have averted 1 320 deaths and 23 650 DALYs. Considering herd immunity, the corresponding values would have been 2 920 deaths and 52 360 DALYs averted. The total vaccination costs would have been ~$74 million and ~$21 million, respectively, with per-dose vaccine price of US$5 and $1. The incremental costs per DALY averted of reactive vaccination were $2 770 and $370, respectively, for vaccine price set at $5 and $1. Assuming herd immunity, the corresponding cost was $980 with vaccine price of $5, and the programme was cost-saving with a vaccine price of $1. Results were most sensitive to case-fatality rate, per-dose vaccine price, and the size of the outbreak. Reactive vaccination has the potential to be a cost-effective measure to contain cholera outbreaks in countries at high risk. However, the feasibility of implementation should be further evaluated, and caution is warranted in extrapolating the findings to different settings in the absence of other in-depth studies.

  12. Neutronics analysis of the Laboratory Microfusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, M.T.; Singh, M.S.; Meier, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    The radiological safety hazards of the experimental area (EA) for the proposed Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) have been examined. The EA includes those structures required to establish the proper pre-shot environment, point the beams, contain the pellet yield, and measure many different facets of the experiments. The radiation dose rates from neutron activation of representative target chamber materials, the laser beam tubes and the argon gas they contain, the air surrounding the chamber, and the concrete walls of the experimental area are given. Combining these results with the allowable dose rates for workers, we show how radiological considerations affect access to the inside of the target chamber and to the diagnostic platform area located outside the chamber. Waste disposal and tritium containment issues are summarized. Other neutronics issues, such as radiation damage to the final optics and neutron heating of materials placed close to the target, are also addressed. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Impact of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses of childhood vaccinations. A quantitative comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubar, Marisa; Stavroulakis, Maria Christina; Maldonado, Yvonne; Ioannidis, John P A; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina

    2017-01-01

    Inclusion of vaccine herd-protection effects in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) can impact the CEAs-conclusions. However, empirical epidemiologic data on the size of herd-protection effects from original studies are limited. We performed a quantitative comparative analysis of the impact of herd-protection effects in CEAs for four childhood vaccinations (pneumococcal, meningococcal, rotavirus and influenza). We considered CEAs reporting incremental-cost-effectiveness-ratios (ICERs) (per quality-adjusted-life-years [QALY] gained; per life-years [LY] gained or per disability-adjusted-life-years [DALY] avoided), both with and without herd protection, while keeping all other model parameters stable. We calculated the size of the ICER-differences without vs with-herd-protection and estimated how often inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of the cost-effectiveness threshold (of an assumed societal-willingness-to-pay) of $50,000 for more-developed countries or X3GDP/capita (WHO-threshold) for less-developed countries. We identified 35 CEA studies (20 pneumococcal, 4 meningococcal, 8 rotavirus and 3 influenza vaccines) with 99 ICER-analyses (55 per-QALY, 27 per-LY and 17 per-DALY). The median ICER-absolute differences per QALY, LY and DALY (without minus with herd-protection) were $15,620 (IQR: $877 to $48,376); $54,871 (IQR: $787 to $115,026) and $49 (IQR: $15 to $1,636) respectively. When the target-vaccination strategy was not cost-saving without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection always resulted in more favorable results. In CEAs that had ICERs above the cost-effectiveness threshold without herd-protection, inclusion of herd-protection led to crossing of that threshold in 45% of the cases. This impacted only CEAs for more developed countries, as all but one CEAs for less developed countries had ICERs below the WHO-cost-effectiveness threshold even without herd-protection. In several analyses, recommendation for the adoption of the target

  14. [Contribution of the detection of IgA antibodies to the laboratory diagnosis of mumps in the population with a high vaccination coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberková, R; Smíšková, D; Havlíčková, M; Herrmannová, K; Lexová, P; Malý, M

    2015-03-01

    Serological diagnosis of epidemic mumps can be difficult in vaccinated persons, particularly due to the absence of specific IgM antibodies. The aim was to find whether adding the detection of IgA antibodies to the currently used routine serological diagnosis of mumps (detection of IgM and IgG antibodies in an acute serum sample) would make the serological diagnosis of mumps more effective in a population with a high vaccination coverage. At the same time, ELISA kits for the detection of early IgA and IgM antibodies against the mumps virus were compared and statistical analysis of the results was performed. Sixty-four acute sera from patients with laboratory confirmed diagnosis of mumps were included in the study. Clinical specimens were collected at the onset of clinical symptoms. To test the sera, the MASTAZYME ELISA Mumps IgA kit (MAST DIAGNOSTICA, Germany) with the MASTSORB sorbent (RF and IgG) and Enzygnost Anti-Parotitis-Virus/IgM kit (Siemens, Germany) were used. A panel of 121 acute sera with no epidemiological link to mumps virus served as specificity controls for the IgA assay. The epidemiological data were derived from the EPIDAT system. The level of agreement was assessed using the McNemara test and Cohen's coefficient kappa. The Stata 9.2 software (Stata Corp LP, College Station, USA) was used for statistical analysis. The detection of IgA and IgM antibodies against the mumps virus yielded concordant results in 50/64 acute sera, 32 positive and 18 negative, i.e. an agreement of 78.12 %. Of the remaining 14 samples, 13 were only IgA positive and one was only IgM positive. The controls showed non-specific IgA positivity in 5/121 samples which indicates a 96% specificity. The absence of specific IgM antibodies against mumps virus is relatively often seen in vaccinated indivi-duals; nevertheless, the test is routinely used in patients with suspected active infection. The test for IgA antibodies, which is not routinely performed, significantly increased the

  15. Seasonal influenza vaccination in China: Landscape of diverse regional reimbursement policy, and budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Atkins, Katherine E; Feng, Luzhao; Pang, Mingfan; Zheng, Yaming; Liu, Xinxin; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-11-11

    To explore the current landscape of seasonal influenza vaccination across China, and estimate the budget of implementing a national "free-at-the-point-of-care" vaccination program for priority populations recommended by the World Health Organization. In 2014 and 2016, we conducted a survey across provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to collect information on regional reimbursement policies for influenza vaccination, estimated the national uptake using distributed doses of influenza vaccines, and evaluated the budget using population size and vaccine cost obtained from official websites and literatures. Regular reimbursement policies for influenza vaccination are available in 61 mutually exclusive regions, comprising 8 provinces, 45 prefectures, and 8 counties, which were reimbursed by the local Government Financial Department or Basic Social Medical Insurance (BSMI). Finance-reimbursed vaccination was offered mainly for the elderly, and school children for free in Beijing, Dongli district in Tianjin, Karamay, Shenzhen and Xinxiang cities. BSMI-reimbursement policies were limited to specific medical insurance beneficiaries with distinct differences in the reimbursement fractions. The average national vaccination coverage was just 1.5-2.2% between 2004 and 2014. A free national vaccination program for priority populations (n=416million), would cost government US$ 757million (95% CI 726-789) annually (uptake rate=20%). An increasing number of regional governments have begun to pay, partially or fully, for influenza vaccination for selected groups. However, this small-scale policy approach has failed to increase national uptake. A free, nationwide vaccination program would require a substantial annual investment. A cost-effectiveness analysis is needed to identify the most efficient methods to improve coverage. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal leave policies and vaccination coverage: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daku, Mark; Raub, Amy; Heymann, Jody

    2012-01-01

    Childhood vaccination is a proven and cost-effective way to reduce childhood mortality; however, participation in vaccination programs is not universal even where programs are free or low cost. Studies in diverse countries have reported work conflicts as limiting parents' ability to vaccinate their children. Using policy data for 185 UN member countries, we explore the hypothesis that an increased opportunity for parents to bring children to vaccination sites will translate into higher childhood vaccination rates. To do so, we use OLS regression to examine the relationship between the duration of adequately paid maternal leave and the uptake of vaccines. We find that a higher number of full-time equivalent weeks of paid maternal leave is associated with higher childhood vaccination rates, even after controlling for GDP per capita, health care expenditures, and social factors. Further research is needed to assess whether this association is upheld in longitudinal and intervention studies, as well as whether other forms of leave such as paid leave to care for the health of family members is effective at increasing the ability of parents to bring children for needed preventive care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. History of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  18. History of vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  19. Parent-son decision-making about human papillomavirus vaccination: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Andreia B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Licensed for use in males in 2009, Human Papillomavirus (HPV vaccination rates in adolescent males are extremely low. Literature on HPV vaccination focuses on females, adult males, or parents of adolescent males, without including adolescent males or the dynamics of the parent-son interaction that may influence vaccine decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to examine the decision-making process of parent-son dyads when deciding whether or not to get vaccinated against HPV. Methods Twenty-one adolescent males (ages 13–17, with no previous HPV vaccination, and their parents/guardians were recruited from adolescent primary care clinics serving low to middle income families in a large Midwestern city. Dyad members participated in separate semi-structured interviews assessing the relative role of the parent and son in the decision regarding HPV vaccination. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using inductive content analysis. Results Parents and sons focused on protection as a reason for vaccination; parents felt a need to protect their child, while sons wanted to protect their own health. Parents and sons commonly misinterpreted the information about the vaccine. Sons were concerned about an injection in the penis, while some parents and sons thought the vaccine would protect them against other sexually transmitted infections including Herpes, Gonorrhea, and HIV. Parents and sons recalled that the vaccine prevented genital warts rather than cancer. The vaccine decision-making process was rapid and dynamic, including an initial reaction to the recommendation for HPV vaccine, discussion between parent and son, and the final vaccine decision. Provider input was weighed in instances of initial disagreement. Many boys felt that this was the first health care decision that they had been involved in. Dyads which reported shared decision-making were more likely to openly communicate about sexual issues than those

  20. Quality assurance for animal feed analysis laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balthrop, J.; Brand, B.; Cowie, R.A.; Danier, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Jonge, de L.H.; Jackson, F.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Piotrowski, C.

    2011-01-01

    Every sector of the livestock industry, the associated services and the wellbeing of both animals and humans are influenced by animal feeding. The availability of accurate, reliable and reproducible analytical data is imperative for proper feed formulation. Only reliable analysis can lead to the

  1. MEMS cost analysis from laboratory to industry

    CERN Document Server

    Freng, Ron Lawes

    2016-01-01

    The World of MEMS; Chapter 2: Basic Fabrication Processes; Chapter 3: Surface Microengineering. High Aspect Ratio Microengineering; Chapter 5: MEMS Testing; Chapter 6: MEMS Packaging. Clean Rooms, Buildings and Plant; Chapter 8: The MEMSCOST Spreadsheet; Chapter 9: Product Costs - Accelerometers. Product Costs - Microphones. MEMS Foundries. Financial Reporting and Analysis. Conclusions.

  2. Budget impact and cost-utility analysis of universal infant rotavirus vaccination in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaz, Iñaki; Rubio, Beltrán; Cornejo, Ana M; González-Enríquez, Jesús

    2014-04-01

    Rotavirus is not included in the Spanish mass infant vaccination schedule but has also not been economically evaluated for its inclusion. We analysed cost-utility of the universal infant rotavirus vaccination using RotaTeq® versus no vaccination in Spain. We also carried out a budget impact analysis and determined the effect on results of different variables introduced in the model. A deterministic Markov model was built considering loss of quality of life for children and their parents, and introducing direct and indirect costs updated to 2011. The introduction of the vaccination using RotaTeq® as a universal infant vaccination would increase the annual health care budget in 10.43 million euro and would result in a gain of an additional Quality Adjusted Life Year at a cost of 280,338€ from the healthcare system perspective and 210,167€ from the societal perspective. The model was stable to variable modifications. To sum up, according to our model and estimates, the introduction of a universal infant rotavirus vaccination with RotaTeq® in Spain would cause a large impact on the health care budget and would not be efficient unless significant variations in vaccine price, vaccine efficacy and/or utilities took place. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Parental attitudes towards measles vaccination in the canton of Aargau, Switzerland: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carine; Schröpfer, Daniel; Merten, Sonja

    2016-08-11

    Despite the successes of routine national childhood vaccination programmes, measles remains a public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how patterns of parental attitudes are linked to the decision-making process for or against MMR vaccination. This exploratory study was designed to identify distinct patterns of attitudes towards or against measles vaccination through Latent Class Analysis (LCA) in a sub-sample of mothers living in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. Parents of young children below 36 months of age were randomly selected through parents' counsellors' registries. Among other questions, respondents were asked to state their agreement in response to 14 belief statements regarding measles vaccination on a 5-point Likert scale. To identify groups of parents showing distinct patterns of attitudes and beliefs regarding measles vaccination, we used Latent Class Analysis (LCA). The LCA showed three classes of parents with different attitudes and believes towards measles vaccination: The biggest group (class 1) are those having positive attitudes towards immunisation, followed by the second biggest group (class 2) which is characterised by having fearful attitudes and by showing uncertainty about immunisation. The third group (class 3) shows distinct patterns of critical attitudes against immunisation. Within this group over 90 % agree or totally agree that immunisation is an artificial intrusion into the natural immune system and therefore want to vaccinate their children only if necessary. We find that parents in the Canton Aargau who hesitate to vaccinate their children against measles, mumps and rubella show distinct opinions and attitudes. Health professionals should be aware of these perceptions to tailor their messages accordingly and positively influence these parents to vaccinate their children. Special attention needs to be given to those parents who are planning to vaccinate their children but are not following the

  4. Occurrence of severe gastroenteritis in pups after canine parvovirus vaccine administration: a clinical and laboratory diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Elia, Gabriella; Campolo, Marco; Lorusso, Alessio; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2007-01-26

    A total of 29 faecal samples collected from dogs with diarrhoea following canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccination were tested by minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays for discrimination between CPV vaccine and field strains and by diagnostic tests for detection of other canine pathogens. Fifteen samples tested positive only for CPV field strains; however, both vaccine and field strains were detected in three samples. Eleven samples were found to contain only the vaccine strain, although eight of them tested positive for other pathogens of dogs. Only three samples were found to contain the vaccine strain without evidence of canine pathogens. The present study confirms that most cases of parvovirus-like disease occurring shortly after vaccination are related to infection with field strains of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) rather than to reversion to virulence of the modified live virus contained in the vaccine.

  5. A cost-utility analysis of cervical cancer vaccination in preadolescent Canadian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merid Maraki

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that approximately 70% of Canadian women undergo cervical cancer screening at least once every 3 years, approximately 1,300 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and approximately 380 died from it in 2008. This study estimates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccinating 12-year old Canadian females with an AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine. The indirect effect of vaccination, via herd immunity, is also estimated. Methods A 12-health-state 1-year-cycle Markov model was developed to estimate lifetime HPV related events for a cohort of 12-year old females. Annual transition probabilities between health-states were derived from published literature and Canadian population statistics. The model was calibrated using Canadian cancer statistics. From a healthcare perspective, the cost-effectiveness of introducing a vaccine with efficacy against HPV-16/18 and evidence of cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types was evaluated in a population undergoing current screening practices. The base-case analysis included 70% screening coverage, 75% vaccination coverage, $135/dose for vaccine, and 3% discount rate on future costs and health effects. Conservative herd immunity effects were taken into account by estimated HPV incidence using a mathematical model parameterized by reported age-stratified sexual mixing data. Sensitivity analyses were performed to address parameter uncertainties. Results Vaccinating 12-year old females (n = 100,000 was estimated to prevent between 390-633 undiscounted cervical cancer cases (reduction of 47%-77% and 168-275 undiscounted deaths (48%-78% over their lifetime, depending on whether or not herd immunity and cross-protection against other oncogenic HPV types were included. Vaccination was estimated to cost $18,672-$31,687 per QALY-gained, the lower range representing inclusion of cross-protective efficacy and herd immunity. The cost per QALY-gained was most

  6. Seasonal Influenza Vaccination amongst Medical Students: A Social Network Analysis Based on a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon Edge

    Full Text Available The Chief Medical Officer for England recommends that healthcare workers have a seasonal influenza vaccination in an attempt to protect both patients and NHS staff. Despite this, many healthcare workers do not have a seasonal influenza vaccination. Social network analysis is a well-established research approach that looks at individuals in the context of their social connections. We examine the effects of social networks on influenza vaccination decision and disease dynamics.We used a social network analysis approach to look at vaccination distribution within the network of the Lancaster Medical School students and combined these data with the students' beliefs about vaccination behaviours. We then developed a model which simulated influenza outbreaks to study the effects of preferentially vaccinating individuals within this network.Of the 253 eligible students, 217 (86% provided relational data, and 65% of responders had received a seasonal influenza vaccination. Students who were vaccinated were more likely to think other medical students were vaccinated. However, there was no clustering of vaccinated individuals within the medical student social network. The influenza simulation model demonstrated that vaccination of well-connected individuals may have a disproportional effect on disease dynamics.This medical student population exhibited vaccination coverage levels similar to those seen in other healthcare groups but below recommendations. However, in this population, a lack of vaccination clustering might provide natural protection from influenza outbreaks. An individual student's perception of the vaccination coverage amongst their peers appears to correlate with their own decision to vaccinate, but the directionality of this relationship is not clear. When looking at the spread of disease within a population it is important to include social structures alongside vaccination data. Social networks influence disease epidemiology and

  7. Economic Evaluation and Budget Impact Analysis of Vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae Type b Infection in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surachai Kotirum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current study aimed to estimate clinical and economic outcomes of providing the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccination as a national vaccine immunization program in Thailand. A decision tree combined with Markov model was developed to simulate relevant costs and health outcomes covering lifetime horizon in societal and health care payer perspectives. This analysis considered children aged under 5 years old whom preventive vaccine of Hib infection are indicated. Two combined Hib vaccination schedules were considered: three-dose series (3 + 0 and three-dose series plus a booster does (3 + 1 compared with no vaccination. Budget impact analysis was also performed under Thai government perspective. The outcomes were reported as Hib-infected cases averted and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs in 2014 Thai baht (THB ($ per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained. In base-case scenario, the model estimates that 3,960 infected cases, 59 disability cases, and 97 deaths can be prevented by national Hib vaccination program. The ICER for 3 + 0 schedule was THB 1,099 ($34 per QALY gained under societal perspective. The model was sensitive to pneumonia incidence among aged under 5 years old and direct non-medical care cost per episode of Hib pneumonia. Hib vaccination is very cost-effective in the Thai context. The budget impact analysis showed that Thai government needed to invest an additional budget of 110 ($3.4 million to implement Hib vaccination program. Policy makers should consider our findings for adopting this vaccine into national immunization program.

  8. A meta-analysis of experimental studies of attenuated Schistosoma mansoni vaccines in the mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuho eFukushige

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a water-borne, parasitic disease of major public health importance. There has been considerable effort for several decades towards the development of a vaccine against the disease. Numerous mouse experimental studies using attenuated Schistosoma mansoni parasites for vaccination have been published since the 1960s. However, to date, there has been no systematic review or meta-analysis of these data. The aim of this study is to identify measurable experimental conditions that affect the level of protection against re-infection with S. mansoni in mice vaccinated with radiation attenuated cercariae. Following a systematic review, a total of 755 observations were extracted from 105 articles (published 1963-2007 meeting the searching criteria. Random effects meta-regression models were used to identify the influential predictors.Three predictors were found to have statistically significant effects on the level of protection from vaccination: increasing numbers of immunizing parasites had a positive effect on fraction of protection whereas increasing radiation dose and time to challenge infection had negative effects. Models showed that the irradiated cercariae vaccine has the potential to achieve protection as high as 78% with a single dose vaccination. This declines slowly over time but remains high for at least 8 months after the last immunization. These findings provide insights into the optimal delivery of attenuated parasite vaccination and into the nature and development of protective vaccine induced immunity against schistosomiasis which may inform the formulation of human vaccines and the predicted duration of protection and thus frequency of booster vaccines.

  9. A Multiple Streams analysis of the decisions to fund gender-neutral HPV vaccination in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Gilla K; Guichon, Juliet; Prue, Gillian; Perez, Samara; Rosberger, Zeev

    2017-07-01

    In Canada, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is licensed and recommended for females and males. Although all Canadian jurisdictions fund school-based HPV vaccine programs for girls, only six jurisdictions fund school-based HPV vaccination for boys. The research aimed to analyze the factors that underpin government decisions to fund HPV vaccine for boys using a theoretical policy model, Kingdon's Multiple Streams framework. This approach assesses policy development by examining three concurrent, but independent, streams that guide analysis: Problem Stream, Policy Stream, and Politics Stream. Analysis from the Problem Stream highlights that males are affected by HPV-related diseases and are involved in transmitting HPV infection to their sexual partners. Policy Stream analysis makes clear that while the inclusion of males in HPV vaccine programs is suitable, equitable, and acceptable; there is debate regarding cost-effectiveness. Politics Stream analysis identifies the perspectives of six different stakeholder groups and highlights the contribution of government officials at the provincial and territorial level. Kingdon's Multiple Streams framework helps clarify the opportunities and barriers for HPV vaccine policy change. This analysis identified that the interpretation of cost-effectiveness models and advocacy of stakeholders such as citizen-advocates and HPV-affected politicians have been particularly important in galvanizing policy change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. BWR stability analysis at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1991-01-01

    Following the unexpected, but safely terminated, power and flow oscillations in the LaSalle-2 Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) on March 9, 1988, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) and of Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) requested that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) carry out BWR stability analyses, centered around fourteen specific questions. Ten of the fourteen questions address BWR stability issues in general and are dealt with in this paper. The other four questions address local, out-of-phase oscillations and matters of instrumentation; they fall outside the scope of the work reported here. It was the purpose of the work documented in this report to answer ten of the fourteen NRC-stipulated questions. Nine questions are answered by analyzing the LaSalle-2 instability and related BWR transients with the BNL Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA) and by performing an uncertainty assessment of the EPA predictions. The tenth question is answered on the basis of first principles. The ten answers are summarized

  11. Laboratory Computerization: The Case for a Prospective Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hurdle, John F.; Schwamm, Harry A.

    1982-01-01

    The argument is made that computerization of a laboratory should be preceeded by a thorough prospective analysis of laboratory operations. Points to be pondered include complementation of retrospective data, system cost justification, system performance justification, post-installation personnel adjustments, improved system utilization, improved manual performance, and insight into “how much” system to buy. A brief, general outline is offered describing how to approach such a study.

  12. Clinical laboratory as an economic model for business performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljanović, Vikica; Patajac, Hrvoje; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2011-08-15

    To perform SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a clinical laboratory as an economic model that may be used to improve business performance of laboratories by removing weaknesses, minimizing threats, and using external opportunities and internal strengths. Impact of possible threats to and weaknesses of the Clinical Laboratory at Našice General County Hospital business performance and use of strengths and opportunities to improve operating profit were simulated using models created on the basis of SWOT analysis results. The operating profit as a measure of profitability of the clinical laboratory was defined as total revenue minus total expenses and presented using a profit and loss account. Changes in the input parameters in the profit and loss account for 2008 were determined using opportunities and potential threats, and economic sensitivity analysis was made by using changes in the key parameters. The profit and loss account and economic sensitivity analysis were tools for quantifying the impact of changes in the revenues and expenses on the business operations of clinical laboratory. Results of simulation models showed that operational profit of €470 723 in 2008 could be reduced to only €21 542 if all possible threats became a reality and current weaknesses remained the same. Also, operational gain could be increased to €535 804 if laboratory strengths and opportunities were utilized. If both the opportunities and threats became a reality, the operational profit would decrease by €384 465. The operational profit of the clinical laboratory could be significantly reduced if all threats became a reality and the current weaknesses remained the same. The operational profit could be increased by utilizing strengths and opportunities as much as possible. This type of modeling may be used to monitor business operations of any clinical laboratory and improve its financial situation by implementing changes in the next fiscal

  13. Clinical laboratory as an economic model for business performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljanović, Vikica; Patajac, Hrvoje; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a clinical laboratory as an economic model that may be used to improve business performance of laboratories by removing weaknesses, minimizing threats, and using external opportunities and internal strengths. Methods Impact of possible threats to and weaknesses of the Clinical Laboratory at Našice General County Hospital business performance and use of strengths and opportunities to improve operating profit were simulated using models created on the basis of SWOT analysis results. The operating profit as a measure of profitability of the clinical laboratory was defined as total revenue minus total expenses and presented using a profit and loss account. Changes in the input parameters in the profit and loss account for 2008 were determined using opportunities and potential threats, and economic sensitivity analysis was made by using changes in the key parameters. The profit and loss account and economic sensitivity analysis were tools for quantifying the impact of changes in the revenues and expenses on the business operations of clinical laboratory. Results Results of simulation models showed that operational profit of €470 723 in 2008 could be reduced to only €21 542 if all possible threats became a reality and current weaknesses remained the same. Also, operational gain could be increased to €535 804 if laboratory strengths and opportunities were utilized. If both the opportunities and threats became a reality, the operational profit would decrease by €384 465. Conclusion The operational profit of the clinical laboratory could be significantly reduced if all threats became a reality and the current weaknesses remained the same. The operational profit could be increased by utilizing strengths and opportunities as much as possible. This type of modeling may be used to monitor business operations of any clinical laboratory and improve its financial situation by

  14. A cost-benefit analysis of varicella vaccination in Aragón.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Blasco, Guillermo; Blasco Pérez-Aramendía, M Jesús

    2017-10-01

    Varicella, a contagious and infectious disease that is usually benign in children, may become complicated among adults and vulnerable children and may even be life-threatening. There are effective vaccines. A retrospective study was conducted about costs and resulting hospitalizations related to this disease in the population of Aragón in the 2004-2014 period. Costs were compared to the expenses that would have been incurred if those people had received the vaccine and also to the expenses of vaccinating the 1-year-old population over the entire period. A cost-benefit analysis was done to assess the economic impact of varicella vaccination. Data for the 11-year period were provided by the Autonomous Community of Aragón (Spain) and included annual varicella incidence, hospital discharges of varicella cases, costs of primary health care visits and hospitalizations for each year, costs of each workday as per the minimum annual salary and of drugs used). Capitalized costs were estimated and compared to capitalized expenses of vaccination, and a sensitivity analysis was performed. A benefit-cost ratio of 1.6 was obtained considering that all children who had varicella had been vaccinated and had received a booster dose. A benefit-cost ratio of 1.24 was obtained considering that the vaccine had been administered to every 1-year-old individual at a price of EUR 28.59 per vaccine. Over the 11-year period, 53% of hospitalizations corresponded to children younger than 5 years old. Public campaigns for the immunization of children younger than 4 years old with 2 doses lead to cost savings and are cost-effective because the vaccine price results in a benefit-cost ratio greater than 1. A major reduction is expected in the number of hospitalizations among children aged 3-4 years. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría

  15. [Adverse reaction caused by rabies vaccine in China: a Meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X R; Wu, Z G; Zhang, W S

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To conduct a Meta-analysis on the rate of adverse reaction related to rabies vaccine, so as to provide reference for rabies vaccine immunization in China. Methods: We electronically searched databases including CNKI, VIP information resource integration service platform, WanFang Data, CBM, PubMed and The Cochrane Library, to collect studies on Chinese people who had received full rabies vaccination and recording all the adverse reactions, from January 2000 to July 2016. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were strictly followed. Meta-analysis for the adverse reaction rate was performed using the R software. Results: A total of 29 related papers had met the inclusion criteria, with no publication bias noticed. A total number of 11 020 cases had adverse reactions, among all the 94 222 respondents, with an incidence of adverse reactions as 1.04 % -47.78 % . The overall incidence rate of adverse reaction was 9.82 % (95 %CI : 7.58 % -12.72 % ). A combined local adverse reaction rate appeared as 12.05 % (95 % CI : 9.26 % -15.69 % ). The systemic adverse reaction rate was 9.06 % (95 %CI : 7.07 % -11.61 % ). The overall adverse reaction rate on aqueous vaccine was 32.39 % (95 %CI : 21.88 % -47.94 % ). Combined adverse reaction rate of freeze dried vaccine appeared as 8.65 % (95 %CI : 4.54 % -16.51 % ). Significant differences were seen between both groups ( P rabies vaccination was higher than the systemic adverse reaction rate. The adverse reaction rate of aqueous rabies vaccine was higher than that of freeze dried rabies vaccine. Our results suggested that the aqueous vaccine should gradually be eliminated.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the safety of newly adjuvanted vaccines among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassijns, Jorgen; Bollaerts, Kaatje; Baay, Marc; Verstraeten, Thomas

    2016-02-03

    New adjuvants such as the AS- or the MF59-adjuvants improve vaccine efficacy and facilitate dose-sparing. Their use in influenza and malaria vaccines has resulted in a large body of evidence on their clinical safety in children. We carried out a systematic search for safety data from published clinical trials on newly adjuvanted vaccines in children ≤10 years of age. Serious adverse events (SAEs), solicited AEs, unsolicited AEs and AEs of special interest were evaluated for four new adjuvants: the immuno-stimulants containing adjuvant systems AS01 and AS02, and the squalene containing oil-in-water emulsions AS03 and MF59. Relative risks (RR) were calculated, comparing children receiving newly adjuvanted vaccines to children receiving other vaccines with a variety of antigens, both adjuvanted and unadjuvanted. Twenty-nine trials were included in the meta-analysis, encompassing 25,056 children who received at least one dose of the newly adjuvanted vaccines. SAEs did not occur more frequently in adjuvanted groups (RR 0.85, 95%CI 0.75-0.96). Our meta-analyses showed higher reactogenicity following administration of newly adjuvanted vaccines, however, no consistent pattern of solicited AEs was observed across adjuvant systems. Pain was the most prevalent AE, but often mild and of short duration. No increased risks were found for unsolicited AEs, febrile convulsions, potential immune mediated diseases and new onset of chronic diseases. Our meta-analysis did not show any safety concerns in clinical trials of the newly adjuvanted vaccines in children ≤10 years of age. An unexplained increase of meningitis in one Phase III AS01-adjuvanted malaria trial and the link between narcolepsy and the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine illustrate that continued safety monitoring is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comprehensive sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlefsen, Paul T; Rolland, Morgane; Hertz, Tomer; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Gartland, Andrew J; deCamp, Allan C; Magaret, Craig A; Ahmed, Hasan; Gottardo, Raphael; Juraska, Michal; McCoy, Connor; Larsen, Brendan B; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Carrico, Chris; Menis, Sergey; Kijak, Gustavo H; Bose, Meera; Arroyo, Miguel A; O'Connell, Robert J; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Robb, Merlin L; Kirys, Tatsiana; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Kwong, Peter D; Scheffler, Konrad; Pond, Sergei L Kosakovsky; Carlson, Jonathan M; Michael, Nelson L; Schief, William R; Mullins, James I; Kim, Jerome H; Gilbert, Peter B

    2015-02-01

    The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients). A V1/V2-targeted comparison of the genomes of HIV-1 breakthrough viruses identified two V2 amino acid sites that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Here we extended the V1/V2 analysis to the entire HIV-1 genome using an array of methods based on individual sites, k-mers and genes/proteins. We identified 56 amino acid sites or "signatures" and 119 k-mers that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Of those, 19 sites and 38 k-mers were located in the regions comprising the RV144 vaccine (Env-gp120, Gag, and Pro). The nine signature sites in Env-gp120 were significantly enriched for known antibody-associated sites (p = 0.0021). In particular, site 317 in the third variable loop (V3) overlapped with a hotspot of antibody recognition, and sites 369 and 424 were linked to CD4 binding site neutralization. The identified signature sites significantly covaried with other sites across the genome (mean = 32.1) more than did non-signature sites (mean = 0.9) (p analysis of the breakthrough infections in the RV144 trial, this work describes a set of statistical methods and tools applicable to analysis of breakthrough infection genomes in general vaccine efficacy trials for diverse pathogens.

  18. Prevalence of influenza vaccination among nurses and ancillary workers in Italy: systematic review and meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, Giuseppe; Mannocci, Alice; Ursillo, Paolo; Bontempi, Claudio; Firenze, Alberto; Panico, Maria Grazia; Sferrazza, Antonella; Ronga, Chiara; D'Anna, Adele; Amodio, Emanuele; Romano, Nino; Boccia, Antonio

    2011-07-01

    Italian Ministry of Health, recommends vaccination for seasonal influenza to all healthcare workers (HCW), particularly to nurses who have an important interaction with patients. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review in order to estimate the pooled prevalence of influenza vaccinations among nurses and ancillary workers in Italy and analyse the enhancing and hindering factors. The review was performed using 15 articles, six containing the prevalence of vaccination for nurses and ancillary workers, while the others qualitative analysis. In all the selected articles the score calculation has been carried out by using a protocol for observational studies. The nurses and ancillary workers pooled proportion of influenza vaccination was respectively 13.47% (95%CI 9.58-17.90%) and 12.52% (95%CI 9.97-15.31%). The Italian mean of influenza vaccination prevalence appear low if compared to other European countries, ranging from 15% to 29% in Countries such as UK, Germany, France. This situation of weakness should be seen as an opportunity to improve the vaccination rate for seasonal influenza significantly This should be done by intervening on the category which affirms caring less. In fact, this category has a priority to receive vaccination, due to their numbers and closer contact to patients. Research was conducted using medical database Scopus, PubMed, the search engine Google Scholar and ISI web of knowledge, and was concluded February 1st 2011.

  19. A fuzzy MICMAC analysis for improving supply chain performance of basic vaccines in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Dheeraj; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, demand to improve child immunization coverage globally, and the development of the latest vaccines and technology has made the vaccine market very complex. The rise in such complexities often gives birth to numerous issues in the vaccine supply chain, which are the primary cause of its poor performance. Figuring out the cause of the performance problem can help you decide how to address it. The goal of the present study is to identify and analyze important issues in the supply chain of basic vaccines required for child immunization in the developing countries. Twenty-five key issues as various factors of the vaccine supply chain have been presented in this paper. Fuzzy MICMAC analysis has been carried out to classify the factors based on their driving and dependence power and to develop a hierarchy based model. Further, the findings have been discussed with the field experts to identify the critical factors. Three factors: better demand forecast, communication between the supply chain members, and proper planning and scheduling have been identified as the critical factors of vaccine supply chain. These factors should be given special care to improve vaccine supply chain performance.

  20. A bibliometric analysis of systematic reviews on vaccines and immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Silke; Jit, Mark; Bozzani, Fiammetta; Griffiths, Ulla K; Scott, J Anthony G; Burchett, Helen E D

    2018-04-19

    SYSVAC is an online bibliographic database of systematic reviews and systematic review protocols on vaccines and immunisation compiled by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and hosted by the World Health Organization (WHO) through their National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAG) resource centre (www.nitag-resource.org). Here the development of the database and a bibliometric review of its content is presented, describing trends in the publication of policy-relevant systematic reviews on vaccines and immunisation from 2008 to 2016. Searches were conducted in seven scientific databases according to a standardized search protocol, initially in 2014 with the most recent update in January 2017. Abstracts and titles were screened according to specific inclusion criteria. All included publications were coded into relevant categories based on a standardized protocol and subsequently analysed to look at trends in time, topic, area of focus, population and geographic location. After screening for inclusion criteria, 1285 systematic reviews were included in the database. While in 2008 there were only 34 systematic reviews on a vaccine-related topic, this increased to 322 in 2016. The most frequent pathogens/diseases studied were influenza, human papillomavirus and pneumococcus. There were several areas of duplication and overlap. As more systematic reviews are published it becomes increasingly time-consuming for decision-makers to identify relevant information among the ever-increasing volume available. The risk of duplication also increases, particularly given the current lack of coordination of systematic reviews on vaccine-related questions, both in terms of their commissioning and their execution. The SYSVAC database offers an accessible catalogue of vaccine-relevant systematic reviews with, where possible access or a link to the full-text. SYSVAC provides a freely searchable platform to identify existing vaccine-policy-relevant systematic

  1. Web-Based Virtual Laboratory for Food Analysis Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, M. N.; Khoerunnisa, I.; Sugiarti, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Implementation of learning on food analysis course in Program Study of Agro-industrial Technology Education faced problems. These problems include the availability of space and tools in the laboratory that is not comparable with the number of students also lack of interactive learning tools. On the other hand, the information technology literacy of students is quite high as well the internet network is quite easily accessible on campus. This is a challenge as well as opportunities in the development of learning media that can help optimize learning in the laboratory. This study aims to develop web-based virtual laboratory as one of the alternative learning media in food analysis course. This research is R & D (research and development) which refers to Borg & Gall model. The results showed that assessment’s expert of web-based virtual labs developed, in terms of software engineering aspects; visual communication; material relevance; usefulness and language used, is feasible as learning media. The results of the scaled test and wide-scale test show that students strongly agree with the development of web based virtual laboratory. The response of student to this virtual laboratory was positive. Suggestions from students provided further opportunities for improvement web based virtual laboratory and should be considered for further research.

  2. Applications of neutrons for laboratory and industrial activation analysis problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Elek; Bakos, Laszlo

    1986-01-01

    This chapter presents some particular applications and case studies of neutrons in activation analysis for research and industrial development purposes. The reactor neutrons have been applied in Hungarian laboratories for semiconductor research, for analysis of geological (lunar) samples, and for a special comparator measurement of samples. Some industrial applications of neutron generator and sealed sources for analytical problems are presented. Finally, prompt neutron activation analysis is outlined briefly. (R.P.)

  3. Accelerating policy decisions to adopt haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine: a global, multivariable analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C; Stack, Meghan L; Richmond, Marcie R; Bear, Allyson P; Hajjeh, Rana A; Bishai, David M

    2010-03-16

    Adoption of new and underutilized vaccines by national immunization programs is an essential step towards reducing child mortality. Policy decisions to adopt new vaccines in high mortality countries often lag behind decisions in high-income countries. Using the case of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, this paper endeavors to explain these delays through the analysis of country-level economic, epidemiological, programmatic and policy-related factors, as well as the role of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI Alliance). Data for 147 countries from 1990 to 2007 were analyzed in accelerated failure time models to identify factors that are associated with the time to decision to adopt Hib vaccine. In multivariable models that control for Gross National Income, region, and burden of Hib disease, the receipt of GAVI support speeded the time to decision by a factor of 0.37 (95% CI 0.18-0.76), or 63%. The presence of two or more neighboring country adopters accelerated decisions to adopt by a factor of 0.50 (95% CI 0.33-0.75). For each 1% increase in vaccine price, decisions to adopt are delayed by a factor of 1.02 (95% CI 1.00-1.04). Global recommendations and local studies were not associated with time to decision. This study substantiates previous findings related to vaccine price and presents new evidence to suggest that GAVI eligibility is associated with accelerated decisions to adopt Hib vaccine. The influence of neighboring country decisions was also highly significant, suggesting that approaches to support the adoption of new vaccines should consider supply- and demand-side factors.

  4. Analysis of laboratory intercomparison data: a matter of independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro F. Rebelo

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available When laboratory intercomparison exercises are conducted, there is no a priori dependence of the concentration of a certain compound determined in one laboratory to that determined by another(s. The same applies when comparing different methodologies. A existing data set of total mercury readings in fish muscle samples involved in a Brazilian intercomparison exercise was used to show that correlation analysis is the most effective statistical tool in this kind of experiments. Problems associated with alternative analytical tools such as mean or paired 't'-test comparison and regression analysis are discussed.

  5. A cost benefit analysis of outsourced laboratory services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J A

    1995-11-01

    As healthcare moves toward increased capitation, hospital administrators must be aware of all costs associated with patient services. This article describes the cost benefit analysis process used by northern Indiana hospital consumers during 1994-1995 to evaluate a local laboratory service outsource provider, South Bend Medical Foundation (SBMF). In an effort to meet the best interests of the community at large, three competing hospitals, medical leadership, and the local outsource provider joined forces to ensure that cost effective quality services would be provided. Laboratory utilization patterns for common DRGs were also analyzed. The team created a reconfiguration analysis to help develop benchmark figures for consideration in future contract negotiations.

  6. Meta-analysis of vaccine effectiveness of mumps-containing vaccine under different immunization strategies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaqing; Hu, Yongmei; Zhang, Guomin; Zheng, Jingshan; Li, Li; An, Zhijie

    2014-08-20

    To evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) of mumps-containing vaccine (MuV) under different immunization strategies. We conducted Medline, Embase, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), and Wan Fang Database (WF) searches for Chinese and English language articles describing studies of mumps VE in a Chinese population. Evaluated articles were scored on quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis was conducted using random effects models. Sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and meta-regression were conducted to explore heterogeneity. A total of 32 studies in 19 papers were included; 14 were case-control studies, and 18 were cohort studies. Half of the studies were of high quality; 41% were of moderate quality. The overall VE for mumps containing vaccine (either one dose or two doses) was 85% (95% CI 76-90%) for cohort studies and 88% (95% CI 82-92%) for case-control studies. Using random effects meta-regression we found significant differences in some study covariates; for instance, VE varied by population (VE=88% in day care versus 69% in pupil, p=0.008) and emergency versus routine immunization (VE=80% for routine immunization versus 95% for emergency immunization, p=0.041). However, these results must be interpreted with caution due to the low number of studies in subgroups, with the permutation test giving non-significant results that indicated that the results may be due to chance. MuV provides good protection from mumps infection. Further studies of mumps VE with larger sample sizes enabling subgroup analyses will be needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CYD-TDV dengue vaccine: systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy, immunogenicity and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godói, Isabella Piassi; Lemos, Livia Lovato Pires; de Araújo, Vânia Eloisa; Bonoto, Braúlio Cesar; Godman, Brian; Guerra Júnior, Augusto Afonso

    2017-03-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a serious global health problem. CYD-TDC (Dengvaxia ® ) was the first vaccine to gain regulatory approval to try and address this problem. Summarize all available evidence on the immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of the CYD-TDV dengue vaccine. Meta-analysis and systematic review. The best and worst immunogenicity results were for DENV4 and DENV1, respectively. Vaccine efficacy of 60% was derived from studies with participants aged 2-16 years old, with DENV4 and DENV2 presenting the best and worst results, respectively. Erythema and swelling were more frequent with CYD-TDV. No differences were detected for systemic adverse events. CYD-TDV showed moderate efficacy in children and adolescents. From the immunogenicity results in adults, we can expect satisfactory efficacy from vaccination in this population.

  8. Intervention analysis of introduction of rotavirus vaccine on hospital admissions rates due to acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Teixeira Masukawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of rotavirus vaccine on hospitalization rates for acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years old after the introduction of the vaccine in 2006. A descriptive analytical observational study was carried out of the hospitalization rates occurred between 2000 and 2011 in 22 Regional Health Centers of Paraná State, Brazil. The effect of the vaccine was assessed by applying the SARIMA/Box-Jenkins time series methodology of intervention analysis, which allows verifying the slopes of the series are different after the introduction of the vaccine and estimating the magnitude of these effects for children younger than five years of age, by age group, for each region center. It was verified a statistically significant reduction by center/month on hospitalization rates for children 1 year old and younger, with averages of 47% and 58%, respectively, in December 2011.

  9. Genotypic characterization by multi locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis international Bordetella pertussis vaccine strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fatah Moghadam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 1930's first whole cell pertussis vaccines became available to the public heralding a dramatic success in overcoming the global burden of the disease. To date only a handful of B. pertussis strains have been used by international/local pertussis vaccine manufacturers. Inevitable well-documented genetic changes in the world population of this pathogen have prompted serious questions on suitability of traditional vaccine strains protect human against currently circulating wild isolates of Bordetella pertussis. Objective: Analyzing the genetic diversity within the most frequently-used vaccine strains of B. pertussis in the world Methods: A recently developed multi locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA genotyping system along with a bioinforamtic piece of analysis was conducted on 11 strain / substrains of B137, B203 (10536, C393, Cs, E476, Tohama I, J445 (134, B202 and J446 (509 plus 2 sub-strains of 134 and 509 that are used at Razi institute for preparation of pertussis vaccine. In this study have used 6 individual loci of VNTR1, VNTR3a, VNTR3b, VNTR4, VNTR5 and VNTR6. Findings: Six distinct genotypes were recognized among the examined strains by comparing our data with the Dutch MLVA databank. These were all new and not reported before in the database. Conclusion: This observation reiterates on necessity for detection of predominant native strains to include in vaccine preparations suitable for different countries.

  10. Molecular analysis of yellow fever virus 17DD vaccine strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo R. Post

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation produces most of the yellow fever (YF vaccine prepared world wide. As part of a broader approach to determine the genetic variability in YF l7D seeds and vaccines and its relevance to viral attenuation the 17DD virus was purifed directly from chick embryo homogenates which is the source of virus used for vaccination of millions of people in Brazil and other countries for half a century. Neutralization and hemagglutination tests showed that the purified virus is similar to the original stock. Furthermore, radioimmune precipitation of 35S-methionine-labeled viral proteins using mouse hyperimmune ascitic fluid revealed identical patterns for the purified 17DD virus and the YF l7D-204 strain except for the 17DD E protein which migrated slower on SDS-PAGE. This difference is likely to be due to N-linked glycosylation. Finally, comparison by northern blot nybridization of virion RNAs of purified 17DD with two other strains of YF virus only fenome-sized molecules for all three viruses. These observations suggest that vaccine phenotype is primarily associated with the accumulation of mutations.

  11. Quantitative microbiological data analysis of a Campylobacter vaccination trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Bahrndorff, Simon; Hald, Birthe

    Campylobacter jejuni is considered the main pathogen causing human campylobacteriosis and poultry has been identified as one of the main risk factors. Strategies that aim to control Campylobacter in poultry such as vaccination strategies could reduce the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. The...

  12. Characteristics of Articles About Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Japanese Newspapers: Time-Series Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Nao; Yokouchi, Ryoki; Onoda, Taro; Ogihara, Atsushi

    2017-12-19

    Media coverage and reports have a major influence on individual vaccination and other health-related activities. People use the media to seek information and knowledge on health-related behaviors. They obtain health-related information from media such as television and newspapers, and they trust such information. While several studies have examined the relation between media coverage and individual health, there is a lack of studies that have analyzed media reports of health information. In particular, we have found no analyses related to cervical cancer (human papillomavirus [HPV]) vaccine. This study aimed to identify mentions of cervical cancer vaccine in Japan's printed news media and to determine their characteristics. We used the archival databases of 2 Japanese newspapers, Yomiuri Shimbun (Yomidasu Rekishikan) and Asahi Shimbun (Kikuzo II Visual), for text mining. First, we created a database by extracting articles published between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2014, that matched the terms "cervical cancer" AND "vaccination" in a keyword search. Then, we tallied the extracted articles based on the month of publication and number of characters in order to conduct a time-series analysis. We extracted a total of 219 articles. Of these, 154 (70.3%) were positive and 51 (23.3%) were negative toward HPV vaccination. Of the 51 negative articles, 4 (7.8%) were published before June 2013, when routine vaccination was temporarily discontinued due to concerns regarding side effects, and 47 (92.2%) were published since then. The negative reports commonly cited side effects, although prior to June 2013, these issues were hardly mentioned. Although foreign media reports mentioned side effects before routine vaccination was temporarily discontinued, fewer articles mentioned side effects than recommendations for vaccination. Furthermore, on June 13, 2013, the World Health Organization's advisory body Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety issued a statement

  13. Global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 to 2016: an adjusted retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Freya M; Moyes, Catherine L; Pigott, David M; Brady, Oliver J; Marinho, Fatima; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Longbottom, Joshua; Browne, Annie J; Kraemer, Moritz U G; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Hombach, Joachim; Yactayo, Sergio; de Araújo, Valdelaine E M; da Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Mosser, Jonathan F; Stanaway, Jeffrey D; Lim, Stephen S; Hay, Simon I; Golding, Nick; Reiner, Robert C

    2017-11-01

    Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola and Brazil in the past 2 years, combined with global shortages in vaccine stockpiles, highlight a pressing need to assess present control strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 through to 2016 at high spatial resolution and to calculate the number of individuals still requiring vaccination to reach population coverage thresholds for outbreak prevention. For this adjusted retrospective analysis, we compiled data from a range of sources (eg, WHO reports and health-service-provider registeries) reporting on yellow fever vaccination activities between May 1, 1939, and Oct 29, 2016. To account for uncertainty in how vaccine campaigns were targeted, we calculated three population coverage values to encompass alternative scenarios. We combined these data with demographic information and tracked vaccination coverage through time to estimate the proportion of the population who had ever received a yellow fever vaccine for each second level administrative division across countries at risk of yellow fever virus transmission from 1970 to 2016. Overall, substantial increases in vaccine coverage have occurred since 1970, but notable gaps still exist in contemporary coverage within yellow fever risk zones. We estimate that between 393·7 million and 472·9 million people still require vaccination in areas at risk of yellow fever virus transmission to achieve the 80% population coverage threshold recommended by WHO; this represents between 43% and 52% of the population within yellow fever risk zones, compared with between 66% and 76% of the population who would have required vaccination in 1970. Our results highlight important gaps in yellow fever vaccination coverage, can contribute to improved quantification of outbreak risk, and help to guide planning of future vaccination efforts and emergency stockpiling. The Rhodes Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the

  14. Incorporating Basic Optical Microscopy in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    A simple and versatile approach to incorporating basic optical microscopy in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory is described. Attaching a miniature CCD spectrometer to the video port of a standard compound microscope yields a visible microspectrophotometer suitable for student investigations of fundamental spectrometry concepts,…

  15. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  16. Comprehensive sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Edlefsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients. A V1/V2-targeted comparison of the genomes of HIV-1 breakthrough viruses identified two V2 amino acid sites that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Here we extended the V1/V2 analysis to the entire HIV-1 genome using an array of methods based on individual sites, k-mers and genes/proteins. We identified 56 amino acid sites or "signatures" and 119 k-mers that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Of those, 19 sites and 38 k-mers were located in the regions comprising the RV144 vaccine (Env-gp120, Gag, and Pro. The nine signature sites in Env-gp120 were significantly enriched for known antibody-associated sites (p = 0.0021. In particular, site 317 in the third variable loop (V3 overlapped with a hotspot of antibody recognition, and sites 369 and 424 were linked to CD4 binding site neutralization. The identified signature sites significantly covaried with other sites across the genome (mean = 32.1 more than did non-signature sites (mean = 0.9 (p < 0.0001, suggesting functional and/or structural relevance of the signature sites. Since signature sites were not preferentially restricted to the vaccine immunogens and because most of the associations were insignificant following correction for multiple testing, we predict that few of the genetic differences are strongly linked to the RV144 vaccine-induced immune pressure. In addition to presenting results of the first complete-genome analysis of the breakthrough infections in the RV144 trial, this work describes a set of statistical methods and tools applicable to analysis of breakthrough infection genomes in general vaccine

  17. Age- and risk-related appropriateness of the use of available influenza vaccines in the Italian elderly population is advantageous: results from a budget impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, M; Capri, S; Waure, C DE; Boccalini, S; Panatto, D

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, four different types of influenza vaccines are available in Italy: trivalent (TIV), quadrivalent (QIV), MF59-adjuvanted (aTIV) and intradermal TIV (idTIV) inactivated vaccines. Recently, a concept of the appropriateness (i.e. according to the age and risk factors) of the use of different vaccines has been established in Italy. We conducted a budget impact analysis of switching to a policy, in which the Italian elderly (who carry the major disease burden) received the available vaccines according to their age and risk profile. A novel budget impact model was constructed with a time horizon of one influenza season. In the reference scenario the cohort of Italian elderly individuals could receive either available vaccine according to 2017/18 season market share. The alternative scenario envisaged the administration of TIV/QIV to people aged 65-74 years and at low risk of developing influenza-related complications, while aTIV/idTIV were allocated to high-risk 65-74-year-olds and all subjects aged ≥ 75 years. Switching to the alternative scenario would result in both significant health benefits and net budget savings. Particularly, it would be possible to prevent an additional 8201 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza, 988 complications, 355 hospitalizations and 14 deaths. Despite the alternative strategy being associated with slightly higher vaccination costs, the total savings derived from fewer influenza events completely resets this increase with net budget savings of € 0.13 million. An immunization policy in which influenza vaccines are administered according to the age and risk profile of Italian elderly individuals is advisable.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of the human papillomavirus vaccine in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Ida Berenice Molina; Mendoza, Lourdes Otilia; García, Odalys; Díaz, Iris; Figueroa, Jacqueline; Duarte, Rosa María; Perdomo, Gabriel; Garcia, Ana Gabriela Felix; Janusz, Cara Bess

    2015-05-07

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Honduras. With the availability of a vaccine to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV), the causative agent for cervical cancer, the Honduran Secretary of Health undertook a cost-effectiveness analysis of introducing the HPV vaccine to support their national decision-making process. A national multidisciplinary team conducted this analysis with the CERVIVAC model, developed by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in collaboration with the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative. The cumulative costs and health benefits of introducing the HPV vaccine were assessed over the lifetime of one single cohort of 11-year-old girls. We assumed a three-dose series with 95% vaccination coverage of the cohort using a mixture of school-based and facility-based delivery. To estimate national cervical cancer cases and deaths, we used United Nations demographic projections and GLOBOCAN estimates based on registry data from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua. Based on estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Division of Intensified Cooperation with Countries (ICO), we assumed that 70% of cervical cancer would be due to vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18. We used a vaccine dose price of US$ 13.45 and evidence from the scientific literature to estimate vaccine effectiveness. National information was used to estimate health service utilization and costs of cervical cancer treatment. All costs and health benefits were discounted at 3%. Upon fully vaccinating 86,906 11-year old girls, 2250 (undiscounted) cervical cancer cases and 1336 (undiscounted) deaths would be prevented over the lifetime of the cohort. After discounting future health benefits at 3% per year, the equivalent cases and deaths prevented were 421 and 170. HPV vaccination is estimated to cost around US$ 5 million per vaccinated cohort, but this would be offset by around US$ 1 million in avoided costs borne by the government to

  19. Effectiveness of reactive oral cholera vaccination in rural Haiti: a case-control study and bias-indicator analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Louise C; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Teng, Jessica E; Almazor, Charles P; Jerome, J Gregory; Ternier, Ralph; Boncy, Jacques; Buteau, Josiane; Murray, Megan B; Harris, Jason B; Franke, Molly F

    2015-03-01

    Between April and June, 2012, a reactive cholera vaccination campaign was done in Haiti with an oral inactivated bivalent whole-cell vaccine. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the vaccine in a case-control study and to assess the likelihood of bias in that study in a bias-indicator study. Residents of Bocozel or Grand Saline who were eligible for the vaccination campaign (ie, age ≥12 months, not pregnant, and living in the region at the time of the vaccine campaign) were included. In the primary case-control study, cases had acute watery diarrhoea, sought treatment at one of three participating cholera treatment units, and had a stool sample positive for cholera by culture. For each case, four control individuals who did not seek treatment for acute watery diarrhoea were matched by location of residence, enrolment time (within 2 weeks of the case), and age (1-4 years, 5-15 years, and >15 years). Cases in the bias-indicator study were individuals with acute watery diarrhoea with a negative stool sample for cholera. Controls were selected in the same manner as in the primary case-control study. Trained staff used standard laboratory procedures to do rapid tests and stool cultures from study cases. Participants were interviewed to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors for cholera, and self-reported vaccination. Data were analysed by conditional logistic regression, adjusting for matching factors. From Oct 24, 2012, to March 9, 2014, 114 eligible individuals presented with acute watery diarrhoea and were enrolled, 25 of whom were subsequently excluded. 47 participants were analysed as cases in the vaccine effectiveness case-control study and 42 as cases in the bias-indicator study. 33 (70%) of 47 cholera cases self-reported vaccination versus 167 (89%) of 188 controls (vaccine effectiveness 63%, 95% CI 8-85). 27 (57%) of 47 cases had certified vaccination versus 147 (78%) of 188 controls (vaccine effectiveness 58%, 13-80). Neither self

  20. Treatment systems for liquid wastes generated in chemical analysis laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linda Berrio; Oscar Beltran; Edison Agudelo; Santiago Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, handling of liquid wastes from chemical analysis laboratories is posing problems to different public and private organizations because of its requirements of an integrated management. This article reviews various treatment technologies and its removal efficiencies in order to establish criteria for selecting the system and the appropriate variables to achieve research objectives as well as environmental sustainability. Review begins with a description of the problem and continues with the study of treatments for laboratory wastes. These technologies are segregated into physicochemical and biological treatments that comprise a variety of processes, some of which are considered in this review.

  1. Public finance of rotavirus vaccination in India and Ethiopia: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Murphy, Shane; Anderson, Benjamin; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Glass, Roger; Rheingans, Richard

    2013-10-01

    An estimated 4% of global child deaths (approximately 300,000 deaths) were attributed to rotavirus in 2010. About a third of these deaths occurred in India and Ethiopia. Public finance of rotavirus vaccination in these two countries could substantially decrease child mortality and also reduce rotavirus-related hospitalizations, prevent health-related impoverishment and bring significant cost savings to households. We use a methodology of 'extended cost-effectiveness analysis' (ECEA) to evaluate a hypothetical publicly financed program for rotavirus vaccination in India and Ethiopia. We measure program impact along four dimensions: 1) rotavirus deaths averted; 2) household expenditures averted; 3) financial risk protection afforded; 4) distributional consequences across the wealth strata of the country populations. In India and Ethiopia, the program would lead to a substantial decrease in rotavirus deaths, mainly among the poorer; it would reduce household expenditures across all income groups and it would effectively provide financial risk protection, mostly concentrated among the poorest. Potential indirect benefits of vaccination (herd immunity) would increase program benefits among all income groups, whereas potentially decreased vaccine efficacy among poorer households would reduce the equity benefits of the program. Our approach incorporates financial risk protection and distributional consequences into the systematic economic evaluation of vaccine policy, illustrated here with the case study of public finance for rotavirus vaccination. This enables selection of vaccine packages based on the quantitative inclusion of information on equity and on how much financial risk protection is being bought per dollar expenditure on vaccine policy, in addition to how much health is being bought. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the prevention of child mortality: an international economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Anushua; Levine, Orin; Knoll, Maria D; Muhib, Farzana; Lieu, Tracy A

    2007-02-03

    Routine vaccination of infants against Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) needs substantial investment by governments and charitable organisations. Policymakers need information about the projected health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of vaccination when considering these investments. Our aim was to incorporate these data into an economic analysis of pneumococcal vaccination of infants in countries eligible for financial support from the Global Alliance for Vaccines & Immunization (GAVI). We constructed a decision analysis model to compare pneumococcal vaccination of infants aged 6, 10, and 14 weeks with no vaccination in the 72 countries that were eligible as of 2005. We used published and unpublished data to estimate child mortality, effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and immunisation rates. Pneumococcal vaccination at the rate of diptheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine coverage was projected to prevent 262,000 deaths per year (7%) in children aged 3-29 months in the 72 developing countries studied, thus averting 8.34 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) yearly. If every child could be reached, up to 407,000 deaths per year would be prevented. At a vaccine cost of International 5 dollars per dose, vaccination would have a net cost of 838 million dollars, a cost of 100 dollars per DALY averted. Vaccination at this price was projected to be highly cost-effective in 68 of 72 countries when each country's per head gross domestic product per DALY averted was used as a benchmark. At a vaccine cost of between 1 dollar and 5 dollars per dose, purchase and accelerated uptake of pneumococcal vaccine in the world's poorest countries is projected to substantially reduce childhood mortality and to be highly cost-effective.

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Mehdi; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Yaghoubi, Mohsen; Esteghamati, Abdoulreza; Mansour Ghanaie, Roxana; Mahmoudi, Sussan; Shamshiri, Ahmad-Reza; Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Baxter, Louise; Shakerian, Sareh; Chaudhri, Irtaza; Fleming, Jessica A; Munier, Aline; Baradaran, Hamid R

    2015-05-07

    Although the mortality from diarrheal diseases has been decreasing dramatically in Iran, it still represents an important proportion of disease burden in children Rotavirus vaccines are among the most effective strategies against diarrheal diseases in specific epidemiological conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the introduction of rotavirus vaccine (3 doses of pentavalent RotaTeq (RV5)) in Iran, from the viewpoints of Iran's health system and society. The TRIVAC decision support model was used to calculate total incremental costs, life years (LYs) gained, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted due to the vaccination program. Necessary input data were collected from the most valid accessible sources as well as a systematic review and meta-analysis on epidemiological studies. We used WHO guidelines to estimate vaccination cost. An annual discount rate of 3% was considered for both health gain and costs. A deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed for testing the robustness of the models results. Our results indicated that total DALYs potentially lost due to rotavirus diarrhea within 10 years would be 138,161, of which 76,591 could be prevented by rotavirus vaccine. The total vaccination cost for 10 cohorts was estimated to be US$ 499.91 million. Also, US$ 470.61 million would be saved because of preventing outpatient visits and inpatient admissions (cost-saving from the society perspective). We estimated a cost per DALY averted of US$ 2868 for RV5 vaccination, which corresponds to a highly cost-effective strategy from the government perspective. In the sensitivity analysis, all scenarios tested were still cost-saving or highly cost-effective from the society perspective, except in the least favorable scenario and low vaccine efficacy and disease incidence scenario. Based on the findings, introduction of rotavirus vaccine is a highly cost-effective strategy from the government perspective. Introducing the vaccine to

  4. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of emergency vaccination. The clinical protection was estimated based on the appearance...... publication bias tests. In total, 31 studies were included in the analyses, of which 26 were peer-reviewed studies, 1 was a symposium study and 4 were unpublished studies. Cattle, swine and sheep were well protected against clinical disease and foot and mouth disease infection following the use of emergency...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis can be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  5. The impact of rotavirus vaccination on discounted net tax revenue in Egypt: a government perspective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Mark P; Topachevskyi, Oleksandr; Standaert, Baudouin; Ortega, Omayra; Postma, Maarten

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated national rotavirus (RV) immunization programme costs to estimate how resulting changes in morbidity and mortality will influence government fiscal accounts over time. The assumption was that increased childhood survival in vaccinated cohorts leads to increased numbers of children consuming government resource, and an increased number of future tax payers. Our objective was to evaluate the difference in lifetime discounted net tax revenue generated by RV vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts from the Egyptian government perspective. The model framework adopts the Egyptian government perspective for RV immunization costs (year 2009 values) and all government transfers (e.g. education costs, health costs, pensions). To reflect the government tax revenue, we applied a fixed income tax burden to earnings over the lifetime of vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts. At each year of the model, we derive net taxes (gross taxes less transfers) discounted to the immunization year to reflect the present value of RV vaccination investment costs. Projected incremental net present values of the vaccinated cohort versus the unvaccinated cohort are $US6.1 million, $US58.1 million and $US55.7 million at 25-, 50- and 72-year time horizons, respectively. The internal rate of return for the government based on RV vaccination at years 25, 50 and 72 was 10.8%, 15.1% and 14.9, respectively. Within the first 5 years of vaccination, 76% of vaccine acquisition costs were offset due to direct and indirect cost savings attributed to a reduction in RV-related disease burden. Investments in RV vaccination in a single year are entirely offset when the vaccinated cohort of newborns reach 22 years of age. The government perspective is useful for evaluating investments in RV vaccination because of ongoing government transfers and tax receipts attributed to changes in RV-attributed morbidity and mortality. The analysis described here illustrates that investing in RV offers tangible long

  6. Acceptability of microneedle-patch vaccines: A qualitative analysis of the opinions of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S; Fleming, A; Moore, A C; Sahm, L J

    2017-09-05

    Vaccines incorporated into microneedle-based patch platforms offer advantages over conventional hypodermic injections. However, the success and clinical utility of these platforms will depend on its acceptance among stakeholders. Minimal focus has been placed on determining parents' acceptability of microneedle-patch vaccines intended for paediatric use. This qualitative study probes the perceived acceptability of microneedle technology for paediatric vaccination in a parent population. Focus groups (n=6) were convened through purposive sampling of Cork city primary schools. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, anonymised, independently verified and analysed by thematic analysis, with constant comparison method applied throughout. The opinions of 32 parents were included. All participants declared that their children were fully vaccinated. Five core themes were identified and defined as: (i) concern, (ii) suitability for paediatric use, (iii) potential for parental administration, (iv) the role of the healthcare professional and (v) special populations. Drivers for acceptance include; concerns with current vaccines and vaccination programmes; attributes of microneedle-patch (reduced pain, bleeding, fear and increased convenience) and endorsement by a healthcare professional. Barriers to acceptance include; lack of familiarity, concerns regarding feasibility and suitability in paediatrics, allergic potential, inability to confirm delivery and potential reduction in vaccine coverage. This is the first study to explore parental acceptance of microneedle-patch vaccines. Capturing the opinions of parents, the ultimate decision makers in paediatric vaccination, is crucial in the understanding of the eventual uptake of microneedle technology and therefore adds to literature currently available. This study has revealed that even "vaccine-acceptors"; parents who agree with, or do not question vaccination, will question the safety and efficacy of this novel

  7. FNL Scientists Introduce Concept That Could Help the Immune System Respond to Vaccines | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have discovered an efficient and straightforward model to manipulate RNA nanoparticles, a new concept that could help trigger desirable activation of the immune system with vaccines and therapies. A multi-institutional team of researchers

  8. A benefit-risk analysis of rotavirus vaccination, France, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamrani, Adnane; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Hill, Catherine; Escolano, Sylvie

    2017-12-01

    IntroductionTwo vaccines available for protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE), Rotarix and RotaTeq, have contributed to a large decrease in the incidence of paediatric diarrhoea in countries where they have been used. However, they have also led to a small increase in the risk of intussusception. Methods: We compare the number of prevented hospitalisations for RVGE to the number of vaccine-induced hospitalised intussusceptions in France. Results: With 9.5% coverage (French 2015 estimation), vaccination was estimated to prevent, annually, a median of 1,074 hospitalisations (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles (2.5th-97.5th): 810-1,378) and 1.4 deaths (2.5th-97.5th: 1.2-1.6) from RVGE. It was also estimated to cause, annually, 5.0 hospitalisations (2.5th-97.5th: 3.2-7.7) and 0.005 deaths (2.5th-97.5th: 0.001-0.015) from intussusception. The benefit-risk ratio is therefore 214 (2.5th-97.5th: 128-362) for hospitalisations and 273 (2.5th-97.5th: 89-1,228) for deaths. Under a hypothetical 92% coverage, rotavirus vaccination with Rotarix would avoid 10,459 (2.5th-97.5th: 7,702-13,498) hospitalisations for RVGE and induce 47.0 (2.5th-97.5th: 25.1-81.4) hospitalisations for intussusception annually, thereby preventing 13.7 (2.5th-97.5th: 11.1-15.2) deaths and inducing 0.05 (2.5th-97.5th: 0.01-0.15) deaths. Conclusion: The benefit-risk ratio in France is similar to that of other European countries.

  9. Analysis of graphical representation among freshmen in undergraduate physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, A. S.; Anggrayni, S.; Kholiq, A.; Putri, N. P.; Suprapto, N.

    2018-03-01

    Physics concept understanding is the importance of the physics laboratory among freshmen in the undergraduate program. These include the ability to interpret the meaning of the graph to make an appropriate conclusion. This particular study analyses the graphical representation among freshmen in an undergraduate physics laboratory. This study uses empirical study with quantitative approach. The graphical representation covers 3 physics topics: velocity of sound, simple pendulum and spring system. The result of this study shows most of the freshmen (90% of the sample) make a graph based on the data from physics laboratory. It means the transferring process of raw data which illustrated in the table to physics graph can be categorised. Most of the Freshmen use the proportional principle of the variable in graph analysis. However, Freshmen can't make the graph in an appropriate variable to gain more information and can't analyse the graph to obtain the useful information from the slope.

  10. Early estimation of pandemic influenza Antiviral and Vaccine Effectiveness (EAVE): use of a unique community and laboratory national data-linked cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Colin R; Lone, Nazir; McMenamin, Jim; Gunson, Rory; Robertson, Chris; Ritchie, Lewis D; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    After the introduction of any new pandemic influenza, population-level surveillance and rapid assessment of the effectiveness of a new vaccination will be required to ensure that it is targeted to those at increased risk of serious illness or death from influenza. We aimed to build a pandemic influenza reporting platform that will determine, once a new pandemic is under way: the uptake and effectiveness of any new pandemic vaccine or any protective effect conferred by antiviral drugs once available; the clinical attack rate of pandemic influenza; and the existence of protection provided by previous exposure to, and vaccination from, A/H1N1 pandemic or seasonal influenza/identification of susceptible groups. An observational cohort and test-negative study design will be used (post pandemic). A national linkage of patient-level general practice data from 41 Practice Team Information general practices, hospitalisation and death certification, virological swab and serology-linked data. We will study a nationally representative sample of the Scottish population comprising 300,000 patients. Confirmation of influenza using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and, in a subset of the population, serology. Future available pandemic influenza vaccination and antivirals will be evaluated. To build a reporting platform tailored towards the evaluation of pandemic influenza vaccination. This system will rapidly measure vaccine effectiveness (VE), adjusting for confounders, estimated by determining laboratory-confirmed influenza; influenza-related morbidity and mortality, including general practice influenza-like illnesses (ILIs); and hospitalisation and death from influenza and pneumonia. Once a validated haemagglutination inhibition assay has been developed (and prior to the introduction of any vaccination), cross-reactivity with previous exposure to A/H1N1 or A/H1N1 vaccination, other pandemic influenza or other seasonal influenza vaccination or exposure will be

  11. VIOLIN: vaccine investigation and online information network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zuoshuang; Todd, Thomas; Ku, Kim P; Kovacic, Bethany L; Larson, Charles B; Chen, Fang; Hodges, Andrew P; Tian, Yuying; Olenzek, Elizabeth A; Zhao, Boyang; Colby, Lesley A; Rush, Howard G; Gilsdorf, Janet R; Jourdian, George W; He, Yongqun

    2008-01-01

    Vaccines are among the most efficacious and cost-effective tools for reducing morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases. The vaccine investigation and online information network (VIOLIN) is a web-based central resource, allowing easy curation, comparison and analysis of vaccine-related research data across various human pathogens (e.g. Haemophilus influenzae, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Plasmodium falciparum) of medical importance and across humans, other natural hosts and laboratory animals. Vaccine-related peer-reviewed literature data have been downloaded into the database from PubMed and are searchable through various literature search programs. Vaccine data are also annotated, edited and submitted to the database through a web-based interactive system that integrates efficient computational literature mining and accurate manual curation. Curated information includes general microbial pathogenesis and host protective immunity, vaccine preparation and characteristics, stimulated host responses after vaccination and protection efficacy after challenge. Vaccine-related pathogen and host genes are also annotated and available for searching through customized BLAST programs. All VIOLIN data are available for download in an eXtensible Markup Language (XML)-based data exchange format. VIOLIN is expected to become a centralized source of vaccine information and to provide investigators in basic and clinical sciences with curated data and bioinformatics tools for vaccine research and development. VIOLIN is publicly available at http://www.violinet.org.

  12. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; and others

    2003-02-01

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  13. Girls' explanations for being unvaccinated or under vaccinated against human papillomavirus: a content analysis of survey responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Alice S; Waller, Jo; Bowyer, Harriet L; Marlow, Laura A V

    2015-12-22

    In England HPV vaccination is offered to all girls age 12-13 years, free-at-the-point-of-receipt, mostly in schools. Coverage is good, but around 20% of girls remain unvaccinated. This research sought to explore reasons for being un-/under vaccinated. An ethnically diverse sample of girls aged 15-16 years attending one of twelve London schools completed a survey three years after being offered HPV vaccination. Girls reported their HPV vaccine status and those who were unvaccinated (had not received any doses of the vaccine) or under vaccinated (had not completed the recommended 3-dose course) recorded reasons for their un-/under vaccinated status. Reasons were reported using free-text and content analysis was used to analyse responses. Around 74% of un-/under vaccinated girls provided a reason for their vaccination status (n = 259). Among unvaccinated girls, the most common reasons related to lack of perceived need for vaccination, concerns about safety and lack of parental consent. Girls who were under vaccinated gave practical reasons, including the need for more information (e.g. not knowing that multiple doses were needed), administrative issues (e.g. school absence), health and procedural concerns (e.g. fear of needles). Descriptively, there were few differences in the reasons given between girls from different ethnic backgrounds. Girls from Black and Asian backgrounds more commonly thought that the vaccine was not needed. Lack of parental consent without providing further explanation was most often cited by girls from Black backgrounds. Safety concerns and lack of perceived need should be addressed to encourage informed uptake of HPV vaccination. Immunisation programme coordinators may be able to increase series completion by tackling practical problems facing under vaccinated girls.

  14. Experience of Brazilian safeguards analytical laboratory in DA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, J.H.B.; Araujo, R.M.S.; Pereira, J.C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Brazilian Safeguards Analytical Laboratory, inaugurated in September 1983, performs uranium analysis in samples of nuclear materials taken during national safeguards inspections as well as in samples taken during ABACC's inspections performed in Argentina. The Laboratory analyzes Intercomparison samples provided by IAEA, NBL, ABACC, CEN and EQRAIN. The method used to perform uranium analysis is the Davies and Gray/NBL. All the steps of the analytical procedures, such as chemical kinetics of the reactions and instrumental parameters, are rigorously controlled. An internal Quality Control of the measurements is made by means of analysis of Certified Reference Materials and the performance of the results meets the ESARDA's Target Values for Random and Systematic Components both in Intercomparison Samples and in samples taken during inspections. The typical precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, and accuracy obtained in a routine basis for nuclear grade materials is 0.1% and 0.14% respectively. The performance of the results obtained are comparable to the best international laboratories which perform uranium analysis in nuclear materials for safeguards purposes. (author)

  15. Removing the age restrictions for rotavirus vaccination: a benefit-risk modeling analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish M Patel

    additional 47,200 rotavirus deaths (18,700-63,700 and cause an additional 294 (161-471 intussusception deaths, for an incremental benefit-risk ratio of 154 deaths averted for every death caused by vaccine. These extra deaths prevented under an unrestricted schedule reflect vaccination of an additional 21%-25% children, beyond the 63%-73% of the children who would be vaccinated under the restricted schedule. Importantly, these estimates err on the side of safety in that they assume high vaccine-associated risk of intussusception and do not account for potential herd immunity or non-fatal outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that in low- and middle-income countries the additional lives saved by removing age restrictions for rotavirus vaccination would far outnumber the potential excess vaccine-associated intussusception deaths. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  16. Biopower, Normalization, and HPV: A Foucauldian Analysis of the HPV Vaccine Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Kimberly S

    2016-09-01

    This article utilizes the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization to give an analysis of the debate surrounding the controversial administration of the HPV vaccine to adolescents. My intention is not to solve the problem, rather to utilize a Foucauldian framework to bring various facets of the issue to light, specifically the way the vaccine contributes to strategies of power in reference to how young adults develop within relationships of power. To begin, the article provides an overview of the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization, including how these two strategies of power were present in the administration of the smallpox vaccine in the 19th century. Next, information about HPV and the history of the current controversy in the United States is presented. Lastly, the article presents an analysis of the strategies of biopower and normalization present in the debate on HPV, including an emphasis on how the vaccination is similar to, and different from, 19th century smallpox vaccination. It also explores the way that mechanisms of disease control affect and are affected by individual subjects, in this case, adolescents.

  17. The proposed Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize Mississippi State University (MSU) to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL). DOE grant funds are available to the University for the limited purpose of performing preliminary studies, including analysis necessary to conduct this environmental assessment. The proposed facility would be located in the Mississippi Research and Technology Park, adjacent to the Mississippi Agriculture and Forestry Experiment Station campus in Starkville, Mississippi. Total project cost is estimated at $7,953,600. This proposed laboratory would be designed to conduct research into combustion devices related to waste management and environmental restoration that is of importance to industry and government. The proposed facility`s role would be to develop diagnostic instrumentation capabilities in the area of combustion and related processes.

  18. A cost-utility analysis of adding a bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine to the Irish cervical screening programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dee, Anne

    2010-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, and in Ireland it is the ninth most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Almost 100% of these cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Two newly developed vaccines against HPV infection have become available. This study is a cost-utility analysis of the HPV vaccine in Ireland, and it compares the cost-effectiveness profiles of the two vaccines.

  19. Needs analysis and project schedule for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Health Physics Analysis Laboratory (HPAL) upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhea, T.A.; Rucker, T.L.; Stafford, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    This report is a needs assessment and project schedule for the Health Physics Analysis Laboratory (HPAL) upgrade project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). After reviewing current and projected HPAL operations, two custom-developed laboratory information management systems (LIMS) for similar facilities were reviewed; four commercially available LIMS products were also evaluated. This project is motivated by new regulations for radiation protection and training and by increased emphasis on quality assurance (QA). HPAL data are used to: protect the health of radiation workers; document contamination levels for transportation of radioactive materials and for release of materials to the public for uncontrolled use; and verify compliance with environmental emission regulations. Phase 1 of the HPAL upgrade project concentrates on four types of counting instruments which support in excess of 90% of the sample workload at the existing central laboratories. Phase 2 is a refinement phase and also integrates summary-level databases on the central Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) VAX. Phase 3 incorporates additional instrument types and integrates satellite laboratories into the HPAL LIMS. Phase 1 will be a multi-year, multimillion dollar project. The temptation to approach the upgrade of the HPAL program in a piece meal fashion should be avoided. This is a major project, with clearly-defined goals and priorities, and should be approached as such. Major programmatic and operational impacts will be felt throughout HSE as a result of this upgrade, so effective coordination with key customer contacts will be critical

  20. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical devices that are intended for use on samples of blood, urine, or other tissues ...

  1. Source Code Analysis Laboratory (SCALe) for Energy Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    technical competence for the type of tests and calibrations SCALe undertakes. Testing and calibration laboratories that comply with ISO / IEC 17025 ...and exec t [ ISO / IEC 2005]. f a software system indicates that the SCALe analysis di by a CERT secure coding standard. Successful conforma antees that...to be more secure than non- systems. However, no study has yet been performed to p t ssment in accordance with ISO / IEC 17000: “a demonstr g to a

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of catch-up hepatitis A vaccination among unvaccinated/partially-vaccinated children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin-Wei, Abigail; Rein, David B.; Hernandez-Romieu, Alfonso; Kennedy, Mallory J.; Bulkow, Lisa; Rosenberg, Eli; Trigg, Monica; Nelson, Noele P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Since 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended hepatitis A (HepA) vaccination routinely for children aged 12–23 months to prevent hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. However, a substantial proportion of US children are unvaccinated and susceptible to infection. We present results of economic modeling to assess whether a one-time catch-up HepA vaccination recommendation would be cost-effective. Methods We developed a Markov model of HAV infection that followed a single cohort from birth through death (birth to age 95 years). The model compared the health and economic outcomes from catch-up vaccination interventions for children at target ages from two through 17 years vs. outcomes resulting from maintaining the current recommendation of routine vaccination at age one year with no catch-up intervention. Results Over the lifetime of the cohort, catch-up vaccination would reduce the total number of infections relative to the baseline by 741 while increasing doses of vaccine by 556,989. Catch-up vaccination would increase net costs by $10.2 million, or $2.38 per person. The incremental cost of HepA vaccine catch-up intervention at age 10 years, the midpoint of the ages modeled, was $452,239 per QALY gained. Across age-cohorts, the cost-effectiveness of catch-up vaccination is most favorable at age 12 years, resulting in an Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio of $189,000 per QALY gained. Conclusions Given the low baseline of HAV disease incidence achieved by current vaccination recommendations, our economic model suggests that a catch-up vaccination recommendation would be less cost-effective than many other vaccine interventions, and that HepA catch-up vaccination would become cost effective at a threshold of $50,000 per QALY only when incidence of HAV rises about 5.0 cases per 100,000 population. PMID:27317459

  3. Utilization of Multimedia Laboratory: An Acceptance Analysis using TAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modeong, M.; Palilingan, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    Multimedia is often utilized by teachers to present a learning materials. Learning that delivered by multimedia enables people to understand the information of up to 60% of the learning in general. To applying the creative learning to the classroom, multimedia presentation needs a laboratory as a space that provides multimedia needs. This study aims to reveal the level of student acceptance on the multimedia laboratories, by explaining the direct and indirect effect of internal support and technology infrastructure. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is used as the basis of measurement on this research, through the perception of usefulness, ease of use, and the intention, it’s recognized capable of predicting user acceptance about technology. This study used the quantitative method. The data analysis using path analysis that focuses on trimming models, it’s performed to improve the model of path analysis structure by removing exogenous variables that have insignificant path coefficients. The result stated that Internal Support and Technology Infrastructure are well mediated by TAM variables to measure the level of technology acceptance. The implications suggest that TAM can measure the success of multimedia laboratory utilization in Faculty of Engineering UNIMA.

  4. Vaccinations and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Eileen; Halliday, Sophia R; Campbell, Gemma R; Cardwell, Chris R; Patterson, Chris C

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between routine vaccinations and the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus by systematically reviewing the published literature and performing meta-analyses where possible. A comprehensive literature search was performed of MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify all studies that compared vaccination rates in children who subsequently developed type 1 diabetes mellitus and in control children. ORs and 95% CIs were obtained from published reports or derived from individual patient data and then combined using a random effects meta-analysis. In total, 23 studies investigating 16 vaccinations met the inclusion criteria. Eleven of these contributed to meta-analyses which included data from between 359 and 11,828 childhood diabetes cases. Overall, there was no evidence to suggest an association between any of the childhood vaccinations investigated and type 1 diabetes mellitus. The pooled ORs ranged from 0.58 (95% CI 0.24, 1.40) for the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination in five studies up to 1.04 (95% CI 0.94, 1.14) for the haemophilus influenza B (HiB) vaccination in 11 studies. Significant heterogeneity was present in most of the pooled analyses, but was markedly reduced when analyses were restricted to study reports with high methodology quality scores. Neither this restriction by quality nor the original authors' adjustments for potential confounding made a substantial difference to the pooled ORs. This study provides no evidence of an association between routine vaccinations and childhood type 1 diabetes.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal vaccination for infants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Kristin A; Chen, Huey-Fen; Wagner, Abram L; Hegde, Sonia T; Patel, Tejasi; Boulton, Matthew L; Hutton, David W

    2016-12-07

    Although China has a high burden of pneumococcal disease among young children, the government does not administer publicly-funded pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) through its Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of publicly-funded PCV-7, PCV-10, and PCV-13 vaccination programs for infants in China. Using a Markov model, we simulated a cohort of 16 million Chinese infants to estimate the impact of PCV-7, PCV-10, and PCV-13 vaccination programs from a societal perspective. We extrapolated health states to estimate the effects of the programs over the course of a lifetime of 75years. Parameters in the model were derived from a review of the literature. We found that PCV-7, PCV-10, and PCV-13 vaccination programs would be cost-effective compared to no vaccination. However, PCV-13 had the lowest incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ($11,464/QALY vs $16,664/QALY for PCV-10 and $18,224/QALY for PCV-7) due to a reduction in overall costs. Our sensitivity analysis revealed that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were most sensitive to the utility of acute otitis media, the cost of PCV-13, and the incidence of pneumonia and acute otitis media. The Chinese government should take steps to reduce the burden of pneumococcal diseases among young children through the inclusion of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in its EPI. Although all vaccinations would be cost-effective, PCV-13 would save more costs to the healthcare system and would be the preferred strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Christine; Largeron, Nathalie; McAllister, Ruth; Mathevet, Patrice; Remy, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    A vaccine to prevent diseases due to human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 is now available in France. The objective of this study was to assess the health and economic impact in France of implementing a quadrivalent HPV vaccine alongside existing screening practices versus screening alone. A Markov model of the natural history of HPV infection incorporating screening and vaccination, was adapted to the French context. A vaccine that would prevent 100 percent of HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18-associated diseases, with lifetime duration and 80 percent coverage, given to girls at age 14 in conjunction with current screening was compared with screening alone. Results were analyzed from both a direct healthcare cost perspective (DCP) and a third-party payer perspective (TPP). Indirect costs such as productivity loss were not taken into account in this analysis. The incremental cost per life-year gained from vaccination was euro12,429 (TPP) and euro20,455 (DCP). The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for the introduction of HPV vaccination alongside the French cervical cancer screening program was euro8,408 (TPP) and euro13,809 (DCP). Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that cost-effectiveness was stable, but was most sensitive to the discount rate used for costs and benefits. Considering the commonly accepted threshold of euro50,000 per QALY, these analyses support the fact that adding a quadrivalent HPV vaccine to the current screening program in France is a cost-effective strategy for reducing the burden of cervical cancer, precancerous lesions, and genital warts caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18.

  7. Critical Analysis of Compositions and Protective Efficacies of Oral Killed Cholera Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Two cholera vaccines, sold as Shanchol and Dukoral, are currently available. This review presents a critical analysis of the protective efficacies of these vaccines. Children under 5 years of age are very vulnerable to cholera and account for the highest incidence of cholera cases and more than half of the resulting deaths. Both Shanchol and Dukoral are two-spaced-dose oral vaccines comprising large numbers of killed cholera bacteria. The former contains Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 cells, and the latter contains V. cholerae O1 cells with the recombinant B subunit of cholera toxin. In a field trial in Kolkata (India), Shanchol, the preferred vaccine, protected 45% of the test subjects in all of the age groups and only 17% of the children under 5 years of age during the first year of surveillance. In a field trial in Peru, two spaced doses of Dukoral offered negative protection in children under 5 years of age and little protection (15%) in vaccinees over 6 years of age during the first year of surveillance. Little is known about Dukoral's long-term protective efficacy. Both of these vaccines have questionable compositions, using V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in 1947 that have been inactivated by heat and formalin treatments that may denature protein. Immunological studies revealed Dukoral's reduced and short-lived efficacy, as measured by several immunological endpoints. Various factors, such as the necessity for multiple doses, poor protection of children under 5 years of age, the requirement of a cold supply chain, production costs, and complex logistics of vaccine delivery, greatly reduce the suitability of either of these vaccines for endemic or epidemic cholera control in resource-poor settings. PMID:25056361

  8. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygen, Frank; Verschueren, Kristin; McCabe, Candida; Stegmann, Jens-Ulrich; Zima, Julia; Mahaux, Olivia; Van Holle, Lionel; Angelo, Maria-Genalin

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain disorder that typically follows trauma or surgery. Suspected CRPS reported after vaccination with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines led to temporary suspension of proactive recommendation of HPV vaccination in Japan. We investigated the potential CRPS signal in relation to HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix®) by database review of CRPS cases with independent expert confirmation; a disproportionality analysis and analyses of temporality; an observed versus expected analysis using published background incidence rates; systematic reviews of aggregate safety data, and a literature review. The analysis included 17 case reports of CRPS: 10 from Japan (0.14/100,000 doses distributed) and seven from the United Kingdom (0.08/100,000). Five cases were considered by independent experts to be confirmed CRPS. Quantitative analyses did not suggest an association between CRPS and HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Observed CRPS incidence after HPV-16/18 vaccination was statistically significantly below expected rates. Systematic database reviews using search terms varying in specificity and sensitivity did not identify new cases. No CRPS was reported during clinical development and no unexpected results found in the literature. There is not sufficient evidence to suggest an increased risk of developing CRPS following vaccination with HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Post-licensure safety surveillance confirms the acceptable benefit-risk of HPV-16/18 vaccination. PMID:26501109

  9. Hatchery Spray Cabinet Administration Does Not Damage Avian Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus Vaccine Based on Analysis by Electron Microscopy and Virus Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Ha-Jung; Jordan, Brian J; Hilt, Deborah A; Ard, Mary B; Jackwood, Mark W

    2015-03-01

    studies in our laboratory showed that the Arkansas-Delmarva Poultry Industry (Ark-DPI) vaccine given to 1-day-old chickens by hatchery spray cabinet replicated poorly and failed to adequately protect broilers against homologous virus challenge, whereas the same vaccine given by eye-drop did replicate and the birds were protected following homologous virus challenge. To determine if mechanical damage following spray application plays a role in failure of the Ark-DPI vaccine, we examined the morphology of three Ark-DPI vaccines from different manufacturers using an electron microscope and included a Massachusetts (Mass) vaccine as control. One of the Ark-DPI vaccines (vaccine A) and the Mass vaccine had significantly (P vaccines. We also found that the Ark-DPI and Mass vaccines had significantly (P vaccine titer before and after spray in embryonated eggs and found that both Ark-DPI and Mass vaccines had a similar drop in titer, 0.40 logi and 0.310 logi, respec10ively. Based on these data, it appears that mechanical damage to the Ark-DPI vaccine is not occurring when delivered by a hatchery spray cabinet, suggesting that some other factor is contributing to the failure of that vaccine when given by that method.

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal maternal immunization with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; de Soárez, Patrícia Coelho; Fernandes, Eder Gatti; Gryninger, Ligia Castellon Figueiredo; Viscondi, Juliana Yukari Kodaira; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2016-03-18

    Pertussis incidence has increased significantly in Brazil since 2011, despite high coverage of whole-cell pertussis containing vaccines in childhood. Infants cost-effectiveness of introducing universal maternal vaccination with tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) into the National Immunization Program in Brazil. Economic evaluation using a decision tree model comparing two strategies: (1) universal vaccination with one dose of Tdap in the third trimester of pregnancy and (2) current practice (no pertussis maternal vaccination), from the perspective of the health system and society. An annual cohort of newborns representing the number of vaccinated pregnant women were followed for one year. Vaccine efficacy were based on literature review. Epidemiological, healthcare resource utilization and cost estimates were based on local data retrieved from Brazilian Health Information Systems. Costs of epidemiological investigation and treatment of contacts of cases were included in the analysis. No discount rate was applied to costs and benefits, as the temporal horizon was one year. Primary outcome was cost per life year saved (LYS). Univariate and best- and worst-case scenarios sensitivity analysis were performed. Maternal vaccination of one annual cohort, with vaccine effectiveness of 78%, and vaccine cost of USD$12.39 per dose, would avoid 661 cases and 24 infant deaths of pertussis, save 1800 years of life and cost USD$28,942,808 and USD$29,002,947, respectively, from the health system and societal perspective. The universal immunization would result in ICERs of USD$15,608 and USD$15,590 per LYS, from the health system and societal perspective, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the ICER was most sensitive to discounting of life years saved, variation in case-fatality, disease incidence, vaccine cost, and vaccine effectiveness. The results indicate that universal maternal immunization with Tdap is a cost-effective intervention for preventing

  11. The dynamic analysis facility at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argue, D.S.; Howatt, W.T.

    1979-10-01

    The Dynamic Analysis Facility at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) comprises a Hybrid Computer, consisting of two Applied Dynamic International AD/FIVE analog computers and a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/55 digital computer, and a Program Development System based on a DEC PDP-11/45 digital computer. This report describes the functions of the various hardware components of the Dynamic Analysis Facility and the interactions between them. A brief description of the software available to the user is also given. (auth)

  12. Analysis of a delayed epidemic model with pulse vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, G.P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have considered a dynamical model of infectious disease that spread by asymptomatic carriers and symptomatically infectious individuals with varying total population size, saturation incidence rate and discrete time delay to become infectious. It is assumed that there is a time lag (τ) to account for the fact that an individual infected with bacteria or virus is not infectious until after some time after exposure. The probability that an individual remains in the latency period (exposed class) at least t time units before becoming infectious is given by a step function with value 1 for 0⩽t⩽τ and value zero for t>τ. The probability that an individual in the latency period has survived is given by e -μτ , where μ denotes the natural mortality rate in all epidemiological classes. Pulse vaccination is an effective and important strategy for the elimination of infectious diseases and so we have analyzed this model with pulse vaccination. We have defined two positive numbers R 1 and R 2 . It is proved that there exists an infection-free periodic solution which is globally attractive if R 1 <1 and the disease is permanent if R 2 >1. The important mathematical findings for the dynamical behaviour of the infectious disease model are also numerically verified using MATLAB. Finally epidemiological implications of our analytical findings are addressed critically

  13. Protection level of AI H5N1 vaccine clade 2.1.3 commercial against AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 virus from Ducks to SPF chicken in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriani R

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI subtype H5N1 clade 2.3.2 has infected chickens in farms, causing mortality and a decrease in egg production. Vaccination is one of the strategies to control disease of AI subtype H5N1. AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 vaccine is available commercially. The effectiveness of two vaccines of AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product A and B, and AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (Sukoharjo against AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 (Sukoharjo virus SPF chickens was tested in laboratory. Four groups of SPF chickens were used in this study, there were (1 vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product A, (2 vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (product B, (3 vaccinated with AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 and (4 unvaccinated (as a control. Each vaccinated group consisted of 10 chicken except 8 chicken for control group. SPF chicken were vaccinated with 1 dose of vaccine at 3 weeks olds, and then after 3 weeks post vaccination (at 6 weeks olds. All group of chicken were challenged with 106 EID50 per 0.1 ml via intranasal. The results showed, chicken vaccinated with H5N1 clade 2.1.3 product A and B gave 100 and 80% protection respectively, but showed challenged virus shedding, whereas vaccine of H5N1 clade 2.3.2 gave 100% protection from mortality and without virus shedding. Vaccines of AI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 product A was better than vaccine product B, and when chicken vaccinated against H5N1 clade 2.3.2, H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine was the best to be used. In order to protect chicken from AI subtype H5N1 clade 2.1.3 and 2.3.2 in the field, a bivalent vaccine of H5N1 clade 2.1.3 and 2.3.2 subtypes should be developed.

  14. Adverse events following 12 and 18 month vaccinations: a population-based, self-controlled case series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumanan Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Live vaccines have distinct safety profiles, potentially causing systemic reactions one to 2 weeks after administration. In the province of Ontario, Canada, live MMR vaccine is currently recommended at age 12 months and 18 months. METHODS: Using the self-controlled case series design we examined 271,495 12 month vaccinations and 184,312 18 month vaccinations to examine the relative incidence of the composite endpoint of emergency room visits or hospital admissions in consecutive one day intervals following vaccination. These were compared to a control period 20 to 28 days later. In a post-hoc analysis we examined the reasons for emergency room visits and the average acuity score at presentation for children during the at-risk period following the 12 month vaccine. RESULTS: Four to 12 days post 12 month vaccination, children had a 1.33 (1.29-1.38 increased relative incidence of the combined endpoint compared to the control period, or at least one event during the risk interval for every 168 children vaccinated. Ten to 12 days post 18 month vaccination, the relative incidence was 1.25 (95%, 1.17-1.33 which represented at least one excess event for every 730 children vaccinated. The primary reason for increased events was statistically significant elevations in emergency room visits following all vaccinations. There were non-significant increases in hospital admissions. There were an additional 20 febrile seizures for every 100,000 vaccinated at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: There are significantly elevated risks of primarily emergency room visits approximately one to two weeks following 12 and 18 month vaccination. Future studies should examine whether these events could be predicted or prevented.

  15. Sorting through search results: a content analysis of HPV vaccine information online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Kelly; Nan, Xiaoli; Briones, Rowena; Waks, Leah

    2012-05-28

    Surveys have shown that many people now turn to the Internet for health information when making health-related decisions. This study systematically analyzed the HPV vaccine information returned by online search engines. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease and is the leading cause of cervical cancers. We conducted a content analysis of 89 top search results from Google, Yahoo, Bing, and Ask.com. The websites were analyzed with respect to source, tone, information related to specific content analyzed through the lens of the Health Belief Model, and in terms of two content themes (i.e., conspiracy theories and civil liberties). The relations among these aspects of the websites were also explored. Most websites were published by nonprofit or academic sources (34.8%) and governmental agencies (27.4%) and were neutral in tone (57.3%), neither promoting nor opposing the HPV vaccine. Overall, the websites presented suboptimal or inaccurate information related to the five behavioral predictors stipulated in the Health Belief Model. Questions related to civil liberties were present on some websites. Health professionals designing online communication with the intent of increasing HPV vaccine uptake should take care to include information about the risks of HPV, including susceptibility and severity. Additionally, websites should include information about the benefits of the vaccine (i.e., effective against HPV), low side effects as a barrier that can be overcome, and ways in which to receive the vaccine to raise individual self-efficacy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 3 - vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. In this paper, we report updated findings in the field of FMD vaccine research. This paper consists of the following four sections: 1) Research priorities identified in the 2010 GFRA gap ana...

  17. Oral Cholera Vaccination Delivery Cost in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Analysis Based on Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogasale, Vittal; Ramani, Enusa; Wee, Hyeseung; Kim, Jerome H

    2016-12-01

    Use of the oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is a vital short-term strategy to control cholera in endemic areas with poor water and sanitation infrastructure. Identifying, estimating, and categorizing the delivery costs of OCV campaigns are useful in analyzing cost-effectiveness, understanding vaccine affordability, and in planning and decision making by program managers and policy makers. To review and re-estimate oral cholera vaccination program costs and propose a new standardized categorization that can help in collation, analysis, and comparison of delivery costs across countries. Peer reviewed publications listed in PubMed database, Google Scholar and World Health Organization (WHO) websites and unpublished data from organizations involved in oral cholera vaccination. The publications and reports containing oral cholera vaccination delivery costs, conducted in low- and middle-income countries based on World Bank Classification. Limits are humans and publication date before December 31st, 2014. No participants are involved, only costs are collected. Oral cholera vaccination and cost estimation. A systematic review was conducted using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Cost items were categorized into four main cost groups: vaccination program preparation, vaccine administration, adverse events following immunization and vaccine procurement; the first three groups constituting the vaccine delivery costs. The costs were re-estimated in 2014 US dollars (US$) and in international dollar (I$). Ten studies were identified and included in the analysis. The vaccine delivery costs ranged from US$0.36 to US$ 6.32 (in US$2014) which was equivalent to I$ 0.99 to I$ 16.81 (in I$2014). The vaccine procurement costs ranged from US$ 0.29 to US$ 29.70 (in US$2014), which was equivalent to I$ 0.72 to I$ 78.96 (in I$2014). The delivery costs in routine immunization systems were lowest from US$ 0.36 (in US$2014) equivalent to I$ 0.99 (in I$2014). The reported cost categories

  18. Oral Cholera Vaccination Delivery Cost in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Analysis Based on Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Enusa; Wee, Hyeseung; Kim, Jerome H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of the oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is a vital short-term strategy to control cholera in endemic areas with poor water and sanitation infrastructure. Identifying, estimating, and categorizing the delivery costs of OCV campaigns are useful in analyzing cost-effectiveness, understanding vaccine affordability, and in planning and decision making by program managers and policy makers. Objectives To review and re-estimate oral cholera vaccination program costs and propose a new standardized categorization that can help in collation, analysis, and comparison of delivery costs across countries. Data sources Peer reviewed publications listed in PubMed database, Google Scholar and World Health Organization (WHO) websites and unpublished data from organizations involved in oral cholera vaccination. Study eligibility criteria The publications and reports containing oral cholera vaccination delivery costs, conducted in low- and middle-income countries based on World Bank Classification. Limits are humans and publication date before December 31st, 2014. Participants No participants are involved, only costs are collected. Intervention Oral cholera vaccination and cost estimation. Study appraisal and synthesis method A systematic review was conducted using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Cost items were categorized into four main cost groups: vaccination program preparation, vaccine administration, adverse events following immunization and vaccine procurement; the first three groups constituting the vaccine delivery costs. The costs were re-estimated in 2014 US dollars (US$) and in international dollar (I$). Results Ten studies were identified and included in the analysis. The vaccine delivery costs ranged from US$0.36 to US$ 6.32 (in US$2014) which was equivalent to I$ 0.99 to I$ 16.81 (in I$2014). The vaccine procurement costs ranged from US$ 0.29 to US$ 29.70 (in US$2014), which was equivalent to I$ 0.72 to I$ 78.96 (in I$2014). The delivery costs in

  19. Stability analysis on an economic epidemiological model with vaccination Pages : - , and.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avusuglo, Wisdom S; Abdella, Kenzu; Feng, Wenying

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, an economic epidemiological model with vaccination is studied. The stability of the endemic steady-state is analyzed and some bifurcation properties of the system are investigated. It is established that the system exhibits saddle-point and period-doubling bifurcations when adult susceptible individuals are vaccinated. Furthermore, it is shown that susceptible individuals also have the tendency of opting for more number of contacts even if the vaccine is inefficacious and thus causes the disease endemic to increase in the long run. Results from sensitivity analysis with specific disease parameters are also presented. Finally, it is shown that the qualitative behaviour of the system is affected by contact levels.

  20. The Medical Activation Analysis Research Programme of the IAEA Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, R. M. [Medical Applications Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1970-07-01

    Analyses carried out under the Agency's laboratory programme in medical activation analysis commended in 1967. This paper describes the laboratory facilities and experimental methods now in use, and reports briefly on results obtained to date. The analytical scheme places greatest emphasis on non-destructive methods (i.e. without radiochemistry), and by the use of a Ge(Li) detector and a 2-parameter Nal(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer, presently allows the determination of up to 12 elements in unprocessed tissue samples. Projects completed or underway include (i) an investigation into the uniformity of distribution of mineral elements in human liver, (ii) studies of tissue concentrations of trace elements in relation to malnutrition and cardiovascular diseases, and (iii) the determination of iodine in food, natural waters and other biological materials in relation to the epidemiology of endemic goitre. (author)

  1. Canadian inter-laboratory organically bound tritium (OBT) analysis exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Olfert, J; Baglan, N; St-Amant, N; Carter, B; Clark, I; Bucur, C

    2015-12-01

    Tritium emissions are one of the main concerns with regard to CANDU reactors and Canadian nuclear facilities. After the Fukushima accident, the Canadian Nuclear Regulatory Commission suggested that models used in risk assessment of Canadian nuclear facilities be firmly based on measured data. Procedures for measurement of tritium as HTO (tritiated water) are well established, but there are no standard methods and certified reference materials for measurement of organically bound tritium (OBT) in environmental samples. This paper describes and discusses an inter-laboratory comparison study in which OBT in three different dried environmental samples (fish, Swiss chard and potato) was measured to evaluate OBT analysis methods currently used by CANDU Owners Group (COG) members. The variations in the measured OBT activity concentrations between all laboratories were less than approximately 20%, with a total uncertainty between 11 and 17%. Based on the results using the dried samples, the current OBT analysis methods for combustion, distillation and counting are generally acceptable. However, a complete consensus OBT analysis methodology with respect to freeze-drying, rinsing, combustion, distillation and counting is required. Also, an exercise using low-level tritium samples (less than 100 Bq/L or 20 Bq/kg-fresh) would be useful in the near future to more fully evaluate the current OBT analysis methods. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attenuation of the goose parvovirus strain B. Laboratory and field trials of the attenuated mutant for vaccination against Derzsy's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisary, J; Derzsy, D; Meszaros, J

    1978-07-01

    Serial transfer of the goose parvovirus strain B, causal agent of Derzsy's gosling disease, in cultured goose-embryo fibroblast (GEF) resulted in a mutant (designated as Bav) apathogenic for both goose embryos and susceptible goslings. Goose embryos inoculated with the 38th or higher passages of strain B survived the infection, although the virus replicated in their organs. Susceptible goslings survived challenge with the Bav strain without showing symptoms, and developed normally. Only 4.2% of gosling progeny of parents vaccinated twice with strain Bav died after challenge with the virulent strain B goose parvovirus compared with 95% of gosling progeny of unvaccinated parents. Progeny of vaccinated and unvaccinated geese were placed on a farm on which Derzsy's disease was present. During the first month of life mortality was 7.7% in the progeny of vaccinated geese compared with 59.8% in the progeny of the unvaccinated geese. At 8 weeks of age the mean weight of the vaccinated goslings was 20% greater than for the unvaccinated goslings. These results indicate that the attenuated apathogenic Bav mutant is suitable for the immunisation of layers to protect their progeny by passive immunisation against Derzsy's disease.

  3. Development of standardized laboratory methods and quality processes for a phase III study of the RTS, S/AS01 candidate malaria vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Terrell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A pivotal phase III study of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine is ongoing in several research centres across Africa. The development and establishment of quality systems was a requirement for trial conduct to meet international regulatory standards, as well as providing an important capacity strengthening opportunity for study centres. Methods Standardized laboratory methods and quality assurance processes were implemented at each of the study centres, facilitated by funding partners. Results A robust protocol for determination of parasite density based on actual blood cell counts was set up in accordance with World Health Organization recommendations. Automated equipment including haematology and biochemistry analyzers were put in place with standard methods for bedside testing of glycaemia, base excess and lactacidaemia. Facilities for X-rays and basic microbiology testing were also provided or upgraded alongside health care infrastructure in some centres. External quality assurance assessment of all major laboratory methods was established and method qualification by each laboratory demonstrated. The resulting capacity strengthening has ensured laboratory evaluations are conducted locally to the high standards required in clinical trials. Conclusion Major efforts by study centres, together with support from collaborating parties, have allowed standardized methods and robust quality assurance processes to be put in place for the phase III evaluation of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria candidate vaccine. Extensive training programmes, coupled with continuous commitment from research centre staff, have been the key elements behind the successful implementation of quality processes. It is expected these activities will culminate in healthcare benefits for the subjects and communities participating in these trials. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00866619

  4. Analysis of B Cell Repertoire Dynamics Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Humans, and Enrichment of Vaccine-specific Antibody Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D. Galson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Generating a diverse B cell immunoglobulin repertoire is essential for protection against infection. The repertoire in humans can now be comprehensively measured by high-throughput sequencing. Using hepatitis B vaccination as a model, we determined how the total immunoglobulin sequence repertoire changes following antigen exposure in humans, and compared this to sequences from vaccine-specific sorted cells. Clonal sequence expansions were seen 7 days after vaccination, which correlated with vaccine-specific plasma cell numbers. These expansions caused an increase in mutation, and a decrease in diversity and complementarity-determining region 3 sequence length in the repertoire. We also saw an increase in sequence convergence between participants 14 and 21 days after vaccination, coinciding with an increase of vaccine-specific memory cells. These features allowed development of a model for in silico enrichment of vaccine-specific sequences from the total repertoire. Identifying antigen-specific sequences from total repertoire data could aid our understanding B cell driven immunity, and be used for disease diagnostics and vaccine evaluation.

  5. Analysis of B Cell Repertoire Dynamics Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Humans, and Enrichment of Vaccine-specific Antibody Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galson, Jacob D; Trück, Johannes; Fowler, Anna; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Münz, Márton; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Reinhard, Claudia; van der Most, Robbert; Pollard, Andrew J; Lunter, Gerton; Kelly, Dominic F

    2015-12-01

    Generating a diverse B cell immunoglobulin repertoire is essential for protection against infection. The repertoire in humans can now be comprehensively measured by high-throughput sequencing. Using hepatitis B vaccination as a model, we determined how the total immunoglobulin sequence repertoire changes following antigen exposure in humans, and compared this to sequences from vaccine-specific sorted cells. Clonal sequence expansions were seen 7 days after vaccination, which correlated with vaccine-specific plasma cell numbers. These expansions caused an increase in mutation, and a decrease in diversity and complementarity-determining region 3 sequence length in the repertoire. We also saw an increase in sequence convergence between participants 14 and 21 days after vaccination, coinciding with an increase of vaccine-specific memory cells. These features allowed development of a model for in silico enrichment of vaccine-specific sequences from the total repertoire. Identifying antigen-specific sequences from total repertoire data could aid our understanding B cell driven immunity, and be used for disease diagnostics and vaccine evaluation.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination against rotavirus with RIX4414 in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, Baudouin; Parez, Nathalie; Tehard, Bertrand; Colin, Xavier; Detournay, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that annually 300 000 cases of rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis (RVGE) occur in children aged up to 5 years in France. A two-dose vaccine against rotavirus infection (RIX4414; Rotarix, GlaxoSmithKline), has been shown to be highly effective against severe RVGE. This study evaluated the cost effectiveness of general vaccination against rotavirus using RIX4414 in France. A Markov model simulated RVGE events and the associated outcomes and costs relating to general vaccination of infants against rotavirus infection using RIX4414 (Rotarix) in a birth cohort of children aged up to 5 years in France with a combined adjustment for age distribution with the seasonality of the infection. Costs and outcomes were estimated from a limited societal perspective, including direct medical costs paid out of pocket or by third-party payers, as well as the proportion of direct medical costs reimbursed by the health authorities. Indirect costs were not included in the base-case analysis. The primary outcome measure was the incremental cost per QALY. Vaccination with RIX4414 incurred an incremental cost of 44 583 Euro per QALY at a public price of 57 Euro per vaccine dose. Univariate sensitivity analyses showed that the parameters with the largest influence on the results were the transition probabilities of severe diarrhoea, seeking medical advice and emergency visits, utility scores of diarrhoea (mild) in children and infants, and the discount rate for benefits. Probabilistic multivariate sensitivity analysis confirmed these results. The acceptability curve indicated that 94% of the results were under an informal threshold of 50 000 Euro per QALY. Comparing our results with those of a recently published study using pooled data for two rotavirus vaccine products in France, the main differences are explained by differences in model structure and in data input values. They include a different age distribution of the infection, shorter duration of the at-risk period (3

  7. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Intelligent Actinide Analysis System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.M.; Carlson, J.B.; Koenig, Z.M.

    1993-07-01

    The authors have developed an Intelligent Actinide Analysis System (IAAS) for Materials Management to use in the Plutonium Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The IAAS will measure isotopic ratios for plutonium and other actinides non-destructively by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. This system will measure samples in a variety of matrices and containers. It will provide automated control of many aspects of the instrument that previously required manual intervention and/or control. The IAAS is a second-generation instrument, based on the authors' experience in fielding gamma isotopic systems, that is intended to advance non-destructive actinide analysis for nuclear safeguards in performance, automation, ease of use, adaptability, systems integration and extensibility to robotics. It uses a client-server distributed monitoring and control architecture. The IAAS uses MGA 3 as the isotopic analysis code. The design of the IAAS reduces the need for operator intervention, operator training, and operator exposure

  8. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Intelligent Actinide Analysis System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, W.M.; Carlson, J.B.; Koenig, Z.M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed an Intelligent Actinide Analysis System (IAAS) for Materials Management to use in the Plutonium Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The IAAS will measure isotopic ratios for plutonium and other actinides non-destructively by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. This system will measure samples in a variety of matrices and containers. It will provide automated control of many aspects of the instrument that previously required manual intervention and/or control. The IAAS is a second-generation instrument, based on experience in fielding gamma isotopic systems, that is intended to advance non-destructive actinide analysis for nuclear safeguards in performance, automation, ease of use, adaptability, systems integration and extensibility to robotics. It uses a client-server distributed monitoring and control architecture. The IAAS uses MGA as the isotopic analysis code. The design of the IAAS reduces the need for operator intervention, operator training, and operator exposure

  9. Acute hepatitis B caused by a vaccine-escape HBV strain in vaccinated subject: sequence analysis and therapeutic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Monica; Critelli, Rosina; Grottola, Antonella; Gitto, Stefano; Bernabucci, Veronica; Bevini, Mirco; Vecchi, Chiara; Montagnani, Giuliano; Villa, Erica

    2015-01-01

    HBV vaccine contains the 'a' determinant region, the major immune-target of antibodies (anti-HBs). Failure of immunization may be caused by vaccine-induced or spontaneous 'a' determinant surface gene mutants. Here, we evaluate the possible lack of protection by HBV vaccine, describing the case of an acute hepatitis B diagnosed in a 55-year-old Caucasian male unpaid blood donor, vaccinated against HBV. Sequencing data for preS-S region revealed multiple point mutations. Of all the substitutions found, Q129H, located in the "a" determinant region of HBsAg, can alter antigenicity, leading to mutants. This mutant may cause vaccine failure especially when associated with high viremia of infecting source. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A qualitative analysis of factors influencing HPV vaccine uptake in Soweto, South Africa among adolescents and their caregivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid T Katz

    Full Text Available In South Africa, the prevalence of oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV may be as high as 64%, and cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women. The development of efficacious prophylactic vaccines has provided an opportunity for primary prevention. Given the importance of psycho-social forces in vaccine uptake, we sought to elucidate factors influencing HPV vaccination among a sample of low-income South African adolescents receiving the vaccine for the first time in Soweto.The HPV vaccine was introduced to adolescents in low-income townships throughout South Africa as part of a nationwide trial to understand adolescent involvement in future vaccine research targeting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. We performed in-depth semi-structured interviews with purposively-sampled adolescents and their care providers to understand what forces shaped HPV vaccine uptake. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and examined using thematic analysis.Of 224 adolescents recruited, 201 initiated the vaccine; 192 (95.5% received a second immunization; and 164 (81.6% completed three doses. In our qualitative study of 39 adolescent-caregiver dyads, we found that factors driving vaccine uptake reflected a socio-cultural backdrop of high HIV endemnicity, sexual violence, poverty, and an abundance of female-headed households. Adolescents exercised a high level of autonomy and often initiated decision-making. Healthcare providers and peers provided support and guidance that was absent at home. The impact of the HIV epidemic on decision-making was substantial, leading participants to mistakenly conflate HPV and HIV.In a setting of perceived rampant sexual violence and epidemic levels of HIV, adolescents and caregivers sought to decrease harm by seeking a vaccine targeting a sexually transmitted infection (STI. Despite careful consenting, there was confusion regarding the vaccine's target. Future interventions promoting STI

  11. Durability of Vaccine-Induced Immunity Against Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxins: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Erika; Thomas, Archana; Poore, Elizabeth A.; Amanna, Ian J.; Rynko, Abby E.; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Slifka, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many adult immunization schedules recommend that tetanus and diphtheria vaccination be performed every 10 years. In light of current epidemiological trends of disease incidence and rates of vaccine-associated adverse events, the 10-year revaccination schedule has come into question. Methods. We performed cross-sectional analysis of serum antibody titers in 546 adult subjects stratified by age or sex. All serological results were converted to international units after calibration with international serum standards. Results. Approximately 97% of the population was seropositive to tetanus and diphtheria as defined by a protective serum antibody titer of ≥0.01 IU/mL. Mean antibody titers were 3.6 and 0.35 IU/mL against tetanus and diphtheria, respectively. Antibody responses to tetanus declined with an estimated half-life of 14 years (95% confidence interval, 11–17 years), whereas antibody responses to diphtheria were more long-lived and declined with an estimated half-life of 27 years (18–51 years). Mathematical models combining antibody magnitude and duration predict that 95% of the population will remain protected against tetanus and diphtheria for ≥30 years without requiring further booster vaccination. Conclusions. These studies demonstrate that durable levels of protective antitoxin immunity exist in the majority of vaccinated individuals. Together, this suggests that it may no longer be necessary to administer booster vaccinations every 10 years and that the current adult vaccination schedule for tetanus and diphtheria should be revisited. PMID:27060790

  12. Mean-field analysis of an inductive reasoning game: application to influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breban, Romulus; Vardavas, Raffaele; Blower, Sally

    2007-09-01

    Recently we have introduced an inductive reasoning game of voluntary yearly vaccination to establish whether or not a population of individuals acting in their own self-interest would be able to prevent influenza epidemics. Here, we analyze our model to describe the dynamics of the collective yearly vaccination uptake. We discuss the mean-field equations of our model and first order effects of fluctuations. We explain why our model predicts that severe epidemics are periodically expected even without the introduction of pandemic strains. We find that fluctuations in the collective yearly vaccination uptake induce severe epidemics with an expected periodicity that depends on the number of independent decision makers in the population. The mean-field dynamics also reveal that there are conditions for which the dynamics become robust to the fluctuations. However, the transition between fluctuation-sensitive and fluctuation-robust dynamics occurs for biologically implausible parameters. We also analyze our model when incentive-based vaccination programs are offered. When a family-based incentive is offered, the expected periodicity of severe epidemics is increased. This results from the fact that the number of independent decision makers is reduced, increasing the effect of the fluctuations. However, incentives based on the number of years of prepayment of vaccination may yield fluctuation-robust dynamics where severe epidemics are prevented. In this case, depending on prepayment, the transition between fluctuation-sensitive and fluctuation-robust dynamics may occur for biologically plausible parameters. Our analysis provides a practical method for identifying how many years of free vaccination should be provided in order to successfully ameliorate influenza epidemics.

  13. Structural Analysis and Seismic Design for Cold Neutron Laboratory Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Sangik; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, H. R.

    2007-05-01

    This report describes all the major results of the dynamic structural analysis and seismic design for the Cold Neutron Laboratory Building which is classified in seismic class II. The results are summarized of the ground response spectrum as seismic input loads, mechanical properties of subsoil, the buoyancy stability due to ground water, the maximum displacement of the main frame under the seismic load and the member design. This report will be used as a basic design report to maintenance its structural integrity in future

  14. VKTA Rossendorf: Laboratory for Environmental and Radionuclide Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, M.; Knappik, R.; Fiola, K.

    2015-01-01

    The VKTA (Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc.) is charged by the Free State of Saxony with the decommissioning and waste management of the nuclear installations at the research site Dresden-Rossendorf. This task includes the safe management and disposal of fissile material and radioactive wastes. The acquired expertise and our solution-oriented way of working are the basis for a varied range of services especially the environmental and radionuclide analyzes. The Laboratory for Environmental and Radionuclide Analysis is accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 and provides a sound range of analytical and metrological services including their coordination and management. The personnel and the rooms, measuring and technical equipment are particularly designed for our special field, the measuring of radioactivity. We are focussed on measuring artificial and natural radionuclides in a wide range of activity and in different sample matrices (e.g., urine, faeces, metals, soil, concrete, food, liquids). With the flexible accreditation of the radionuclide analytics the Laboratory is able to react shortly to changing requirements in decommissioning, environmental monitoring and radiation protection. Essential chemical and radiochemical methods are e.g.: · Alpha particle spectrometry, · Liquid scintillation counting, · gamma ray spectrometry, including Ultra-Low-Level, · High-resolution ICP-MS, · Chromatographic methods such as ion chromatography, gas chromatography, HPLC, · Electrochemical measuring methods such as potentiometry, voltammetry. The Laboratory offers analytical services to the research site Dresden-Rossendorf and national and international customers adapting its analytical procedures to the special needs of customers. The presentation demonstrates on the basis of examples the work of Laboratory within the scope of decommissioning of nuclear facilities, especially at a research site, from radiological preliminary investigation to declaration of

  15. A longitudinal analysis of the effect of nonmedical exemption law and vaccine uptake on vaccine-targeted disease rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Debold, Vicky

    2014-02-01

    We assessed how nonmedical exemption (NME) laws and annual uptake of vaccines required for school or daycare entry affect annual incidence rates for 5 vaccine-targeted diseases: pertussis, measles, mumps, Haemophilus influenzae type B, and hepatitis B. We employed longitudinal mixed-effects models to examine 2001-2008 vaccine-targeted disease data obtained from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. Key explanatory variables were state-level vaccine-specific uptake rates from the National Immunization Survey and a state NME law restrictiveness level. NME law restrictiveness and vaccine uptake were not associated with disease incidence rate for hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type B, measles, or mumps. Pertussis incidence rate, however, was negatively associated with NME law restrictiveness (b = -0.20; P = .03) and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine uptake (b = -0.01; P = .05). State NME laws and vaccine uptake rates did not appear to influence lower-incidence diseases but may influence reported disease rates for higher-incidence diseases. If all states increased their NME law restrictiveness by 1 level and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus uptake by 1%, national annual pertussis cases could decrease by 1.14% (171 cases) and 0.04% (5 cases), respectively.

  16. Quality Assurance and Control in Laboratory using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Sun, G. M.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Lim, J. M.; Kim, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with the increment of international trade associated with the worldwide globalization, the importance of quality assurance and control for the commodity produced from one's own country has been stressed. ISO (International Organization for Standards) defines quality control as 'the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality'. Since 1996, the HANARO research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been operated thereafter initial critical operation on April 1995. Neutron activation analysis system and applied techniques which is one of a nuclear analytical technologies using reactor neutrons has been developed for user's supporting and the establishment of the quality system for a measurement and analysis, testing and inspection was implemented successfully. On the basis of the qualified NAA system, the test and measurement of more than 1500 samples which is requested from 30 organizations including industrial companies, universities and institutes carried out in NAA laboratory annually. Moreover, as the goal of mutual recognition agreement (MRA) which can be removed a technical barrier in international trade, the objectivity and the confidence of analytical quality in NAA laboratory became established through the installation of international accreditation system by implementing analytical quality system in accordance with international standards in 2001. The aim of the report was to summarize the technical management of introduction, methods and the results for a quality control and assurance which should be performed in NAA technique using the HANARO research reactor. The report will help building up effective quality control strategy in the future

  17. The effectiveness of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing laboratory confirmed influenza hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Bissielo, Ange; Huang, Q Sue; Baker, Michael G; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kelly, Heath

    2014-06-17

    Few studies report the effectiveness of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in preventing hospitalisation for influenza-confirmed respiratory infections. Using a prospective surveillance platform, this study reports the first such estimate from a well-defined ethnically diverse population in New Zealand (NZ). A case test-negative design was used to estimate propensity adjusted vaccine effectiveness. Patients with a severe acute respiratory infection (SARI), defined as a patient of any age requiring hospitalisation with a history of a fever or a measured temperature ≥38°C and cough and onset within the past 7 days, admitted to public hospitals in South and Central Auckland were eligible for inclusion in the study. Cases were SARI patients who tested positive for influenza, while non-cases (controls) were SARI patients who tested negative. Results were adjusted for the propensity to be vaccinated and the timing of the influenza season. The propensity and season adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated as 39% (95% CI 16;56). The VE point estimate against influenza A (H1N1) was lower than for influenza B or influenza A (H3N2) but confidence intervals were wide and overlapping. Estimated VE was 59% (95% CI 26;77) in patients aged 45-64 years but only 8% (-78;53) in those aged 65 years and above. Prospective surveillance for SARI has been successfully established in NZ. This study for the first year, the 2012 influenza season, has shown low to moderate protection by TIV against influenza positive hospitalisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of the evidence on the efficacy and safety of CYD-TDV dengue vaccine and its potential licensing and implementation through Mexico´s Universal Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Hernández-Ávila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a major global public health problem affecting Latin America and Mexico Prevention and control measures, focusing on epidemiological surveillance and vector control, have been partially effective and costly, thus, the development of a vaccine against dengue has created great expectations among health authorities and scientific communities worldwide. The CYD-TDV dengue vaccine produced by Sanofi-Pasteur is the only dengue vaccine evaluated in phase 3 controlled clinical trials. Notwithstanding the significant contribution to the development of a vaccine against dengue, the three phase 3 clinical studies of CYD-TDV and the meta-analysis of the long-term follow up of those studies, have provided evidence that this vaccine exhibited partial vaccine efficacy to protect against virologically confirmed dengue and lead to four considerations: a adequate vaccine efficacy against dengue virus (DENV infections 3 and 4, less vaccine efficacy against DENV 1 and no protection against infection by DENV 2; b decreased vaccine efficacy in dengue seronegative individuals at the beginning of the vaccination; c 83% and 90% protection against hospitalizations and severe forms of dengue, respectively, at 25 months follow-up; and d increased hospitalization for dengue in the vaccinated group, in children under nine years of age at the time of vaccination, detected since the third year of follow-up. The benefit of the CYD-TDV vaccine can be summarized in the protection against infection by DENV 3 and 4, as well as protection for hospitalizations and severe cases in people over nine years, who have had previous dengue infection, working mainly as a booster. In this review we identified elements on efficacy and safety of this vaccine that must be taken into account in the licensing process and potential inclusion in the national vaccination program of Mexico. The available scientific evidence on the CYD-TDV vaccine shows merits, but also leads to relevant

  19. LLIMAS: Revolutionizing integrating modeling and analysis at MIT Lincoln Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Keith B.; Stoeckel, Gerhard P.; Rey, Justin J.; Bury, Mark E.

    2017-08-01

    MIT Lincoln Laboratory's Integrated Modeling and Analysis Software (LLIMAS) enables the development of novel engineering solutions for advanced prototype systems through unique insights into engineering performance and interdisciplinary behavior to meet challenging size, weight, power, environmental, and performance requirements. LLIMAS is a multidisciplinary design optimization tool that wraps numerical optimization algorithms around an integrated framework of structural, thermal, optical, stray light, and computational fluid dynamics analysis capabilities. LLIMAS software is highly extensible and has developed organically across a variety of technologies including laser communications, directed energy, photometric detectors, chemical sensing, laser radar, and imaging systems. The custom software architecture leverages the capabilities of existing industry standard commercial software and supports the incorporation of internally developed tools. Recent advances in LLIMAS's Structural-Thermal-Optical Performance (STOP), aeromechanical, and aero-optical capabilities as applied to Lincoln prototypes are presented.

  20. Practical aspects of operating a neutron activation analysis laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This book is intended to advise in everyday practical problems related to operating a neutron activation analysis (NAA) laboratory. It gives answers to questions like ''what to use NAA for'', ''how to find relevant research problems'', ''how to find users for the technique'', ''how to estimate the cost of the analysis and how to finance the work'', ''how to organize the work in a rational way'' and ''how to perform the quality control''. It gives advice in choosing staff, equipment, and consumables and how to design facilities and procedures according to need and available resources. Potential applications of economic or environmental importance, reactor facilities, counting and measuring equipment of the lab, cooperation with other analytical groups and competitiveness of NAA are discussed by experienced analysts. The compiled 8 tables of data useful for neutron activation analysts are a valuable asset for research labs as well as industrial quality control units. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Public health impact and cost effectiveness of mass vaccination with live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) in India: model based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Johnie; Hawthorn, Rachael L; Watts, Brook; Singer, Mendel E

    2009-09-25

    To examine the public health impact of mass vaccination with live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) in a birth cohort in India, and to estimate the cost effectiveness and affordability of such a programme. Decision analytical Markov model encompassing all direct medical costs. Infection risk and severity depended on age, number of previous infections, and vaccination history; probabilities of use of inpatient and outpatient health services depended on symptom severity. Published clinical, epidemiological, and economic data. When possible, parameter estimates were based on data specific for India. Population Simulated Indian birth cohort followed for five years. Decrease in rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes (non-severe and severe), deaths, outpatient visits, and admission to hospital; incremental cost effectiveness ratio of vaccination expressed as net cost in 2007 rupees per life year saved. In the base case, vaccination prevented 28,943 (29.7%) symptomatic episodes, 6981 (38.2%) severe episodes, 164 deaths (41.0%), 7178 (33.3%) outpatient visits, and 812 (34.3%) admissions to hospital per 100,000 children. Vaccination cost 8023 rupees (about pound100, euro113, $165) per life year saved, less than India's per capita gross domestic product, a common criterion for cost effectiveness. The net programme cost would be equivalent to 11.6% of the 2006-7 budget of the Indian Department of Health and Family Welfare. Model results were most sensitive to variations in access to outpatient care for those with severe symptoms. If this parameter was increased to its upper limit, the incremental cost effectiveness ratio for vaccination still fell between one and three times the per capita gross domestic product, meeting the World Health Organization's criterion for "cost effective" interventions. Uncertainty analysis indicated a 94.7% probability that vaccination would be cost effective according to a criterion of one times per capita gross domestic product per life

  2. Phenotypic and genomic analysis of serotype 3 Sabin poliovirus vaccine produced in MRC-5 cell substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alirezaie, Behnam; Taqavian, Mohammad; Aghaiypour, Khosrow; Esna-Ashari, Fatemeh; Shafyi, Abbas

    2011-05-01

    The cell substrate has a pivotal role in live virus vaccines production. It is necessary to evaluate the effects of the cell substrate on the properties of the propagated viruses, especially in the case of viruses which are unstable genetically such as polioviruses, by monitoring the molecular and phenotypical characteristics of harvested viruses. To investigate the presence/absence of mutation(s), the near full-length genomic sequence of different harvests of the type 3 Sabin strain of poliovirus propagated in MRC-5 cells were determined. The sequences were compared with genomic sequences of different virus seeds, vaccines, and OPV-like isolates. Nearly complete genomic sequencing results, however, revealed no detectable mutations throughout the genome RNA-plaque purified (RSO)-derived monopool of type 3 OPVs manufactured in MRC-5. Thirty-six years of experience in OPV production, trend analysis, and vaccine surveillance also suggest that: (i) different monopools of serotype 3 OPV produced in MRC-5 retained their phenotypic characteristics (temperature sensitivity and neuroattenuation), (ii) MRC-5 cells support the production of acceptable virus yields, (iii) OPV replicated in the MRC-5 cell substrate is a highly efficient and safe vaccine. These results confirm previous reports that MRC-5 is a desirable cell substrate for the production of OPV. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Vaccinations and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dan; Xu, Donghua; Zhang, Jin-An

    2017-07-01

    In the past several years, more and more studies proposed some concerns on the possibly increased risk of autoimmune diseases in individuals receiving vaccinations, but published studies on the associations of vaccinations with risks of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reported conflicting findings. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to comprehensively evaluate the relationship between vaccinations and risk of SLE and RA. Pubmed, Web of Science and Embase were searched for observational studies assessing the associations of vaccinations with risks of RA and SLE. Two authors independently extracted data from those eligible studies. The quality of eligible studies was assessed by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was used to measure the risk of RA and SLE associated with vaccinations, and was calculated through random-effect meta-analysis. Sixteen observational studies were finally considered eligible, including 12 studies on the association between vaccinations and SLE risk and 13 studies on the association between vaccinations and RA risk. The pooled findings suggested that vaccinations significantly increased risk of SLE (RR=1.50; 95%CI 1.05-2.12, P=0.02). In addition, there was an obvious association between vaccinations and increased risk of RA (RR=1.32; 95%CI 1.09-1.60, P=0.004). Meta-analysis of studies reporting outcomes of short vaccinated time also suggested that vaccinations could significantly increase risk of SLE (RR=1.93; 95%CI 1.07-3.48, P=0.028) and RA (RR=1.48; 95%CI 1.08-2.03, P=0.015). Sensitivity analyses in studies with low risk of bias also found obvious associations of vaccinations with increased risk of RA and SLE. This study suggests that vaccinations are related to increased risks of SLE and RA. More and larger observational studies are needed to further verify the findings above and to assess the associations of

  4. Differential Adverse Event Profiles Associated with BCG as a Preventive Tuberculosis Vaccine or Therapeutic Bladder Cancer Vaccine Identified by Comparative Ontology-Based VAERS and Literature Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangan Xie

    Full Text Available M. bovis strain Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG has been the only licensed live attenuated vaccine against tuberculosis (TB for nearly one century and has also been approved as a therapeutic vaccine for bladder cancer treatment since 1990. During its long time usage, different adverse events (AEs have been reported. However, the AEs associated with the BCG preventive TB vaccine and therapeutic cancer vaccine have not been systematically compared. In this study, we systematically collected various BCG AE data mined from the US VAERS database and PubMed literature reports, identified statistically significant BCG-associated AEs, and ontologically classified and compared these AEs related to these two types of BCG vaccine. From 397 VAERS BCG AE case reports, we identified 64 AEs statistically significantly associated with the BCG TB vaccine and 14 AEs with the BCG cancer vaccine. Our meta-analysis of 41 peer-reviewed journal reports identified 48 AEs associated with the BCG TB vaccine and 43 AEs associated with the BCG cancer vaccine. Among all identified AEs from VAERS and literature reports, 25 AEs belong to serious AEs. The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE-based ontological hierarchical analysis indicated that the AEs associated with the BCG TB vaccine were enriched in immune system (e.g., lymphadenopathy and lymphadenitis, skin (e.g., skin ulceration and cyanosis, and respiratory system (e.g., cough and pneumonia; in contrast, the AEs associated with the BCG cancer vaccine mainly occurred in the urinary system (e.g., dysuria, pollakiuria, and hematuria. With these distinct AE profiles detected, this study also discovered three AEs (i.e., chills, pneumonia, and C-reactive protein increased shared by the BCG TB vaccine and bladder cancer vaccine. Furthermore, our deep investigation of 24 BCG-associated death cases from VAERS identified the important effects of age, vaccine co-administration, and immunosuppressive status on the final BCG

  5. A comparative analysis of the epidemiological impact and disease cost-savings of HPV vaccines in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresse, Xavier; Adam, Marjorie; Largeron, Nathalie; Roze, Stephane; Marty, Remi

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiological and economic impact of 16/18 bivalent and 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent HPV vaccination in France, considering differences in licensed outcomes, protection against non-vaccine HPV types and prevention of HPV-6/11-related diseases. The differential impact of the two vaccines was evaluated using a published model adapted to the French setting. The target population was females aged 14–23 y and the time horizon was 100 y. A total of eight different scenarios compared vaccination impact in terms of reduction in HPV-16/18-associated carcinomas (cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and head and neck), HPV-6/11-related genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and incremental reduction in cervical cancer due to potential cross-protection. Quadrivalent vaccine was associated with total discounted cost savings ranging from EUR 544–1,020 million vs. EUR 177–538 million with the bivalent vaccination (100-y time horizon). Genital wart prevention thanks to quadrivalent HPV vaccination accounted for EUR 306–380 million savings (37–56% of costs saved). In contrast, the maximal assumed cross-protection against cervical cancer resulted in EUR 13–33 million savings (4%). Prevention of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers accounted for additional EUR 71–89 million savings (13%). In France, the quadrivalent HPV vaccination would result in significant incremental epidemiological and economic benefits vs. the bivalent vaccination, driven primarily by prevention of genital. The present analysis is the first in the French setting to consider the impact of HPV vaccination on all HPV diseases and non-vaccine types. PMID:23563511

  6. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Indirect Protection Afforded by Vaccinating Children Against Seasonal Influenza: Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J Kevin; Heywood, Anita E; Georgousakis, Melina; King, Catherine; Chiu, Clayton; Isaacs, David; Macartney, Kristine K

    2017-09-01

    Universal childhood vaccination is a potential solution to reduce seasonal influenza burden. We reviewed systematically the literature on "herd"/indirect protection from vaccinating children aged 6 months to 17 years against influenza. Of 30 studies included, 14 (including 1 cluster randomized controlled trial [cRCT]) used live attenuated influenza vaccine, 11 (7 cRCTs) used inactivated influenza vaccine, and 5 (1 cRCT) compared both vaccine types. Twenty of 30 studies reported statistically significant indirect protection effectiveness (IPE) with point estimates ranging from 4% to 66%. Meta-regression suggests that studies with high quality and/or sufficiently large sample size are more likely to report significant IPE. In meta-analyses of 6 cRCTs with full randomization (rated as moderate quality overall), significant IPE was found in 1 cRCT in closely connected communities where school-aged children were vaccinated: 60% (95% confidence interval [CI], 41%-72%; I2 = 0%; N = 2326) against laboratory-confirmed influenza, and 3 household cRCTs in which preschool-aged children were vaccinated: 22% (95% CI, 1%-38%; I2 = 0%; N = 1903) against acute respiratory infections or influenza-like illness. Significant IPE was also reported in a large-scale cRCT (N = 8510) that was not fully randomized, and 3 ecological studies (N > 10000) of moderate quality including 36% reduction in influenza-related mortality among the elderly in a Japanese school-based program. Data on IPE in other settings are heterogeneous and lacked power to draw a firm conclusion. The available evidence suggests that influenza vaccination of children confers indirect protection in some but not all settings. Robust, large-scaled studies are required to better quantify the indirect protection from vaccinating children for different settings/endpoints. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e

  7. 9 CFR 590.960 - Small importations for consignee's personal use, display, or laboratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... personal use, display, or laboratory analysis. 590.960 Section 590.960 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... personal use, display, or laboratory analysis. Any egg products which are offered for importation, exclusively for the consignee's personal use, display, or laboratory analysis, and not for sale or...

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a universal vaccination programme with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Annika; Hjelmgren, Jonas; Ortqvist, Ake

    2008-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) has proved to be highly effective against invasive pneumococcal disease and has also provided some protection against all-cause pneumonia and acute otitis media. The objective of this study was to evaluate the projected health benefits, costs...... of pneumococcal septicaemia among adults. The incremental cost per QALY and LY gained was estimated to Euro 29,200 and Euro 51,400, respectively. When herd immunity was accounted for, the cost per QALYand LY gained was estimated to Euro 5500 and Euro 6600, respectively. Thus, the health benefits of a national...... and cost-effectiveness of vaccination with the 7-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine compared with no vaccination, in all infants in Sweden, taking herd immunity into account. A Markov model was used and a hypothetical birth cohort was simulated for a lifelong perspective. The results show...

  9. The contaminant analysis automation robot implementation for the automated laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younkin, J.R.; Igou, R.E.; Urenda, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) project defines the automated laboratory as a series of standard laboratory modules (SLM) serviced by a robotic standard support module (SSM). These SLMs are designed to allow plug-and-play integration into automated systems that perform standard analysis methods (SAM). While the SLMs are autonomous in the execution of their particular chemical processing task, the SAM concept relies on a high-level task sequence controller (TSC) to coordinate the robotic delivery of materials requisite for SLM operations, initiate an SLM operation with the chemical method dependent operating parameters, and coordinate the robotic removal of materials from the SLM when its commands and events has been established to allow ready them for transport operations as well as performing the Supervisor and Subsystems (GENISAS) software governs events from the SLMs and robot. The Intelligent System Operating Environment (ISOE) enables the inter-process communications used by GENISAS. CAA selected the Hewlett-Packard Optimized Robot for Chemical Analysis (ORCA) and its associated Windows based Methods Development Software (MDS) as the robot SSM. The MDS software is used to teach the robot each SLM position and required material port motions. To allow the TSC to command these SLM motions, a hardware and software implementation was required that allowed message passing between different operating systems. This implementation involved the use of a Virtual Memory Extended (VME) rack with a Force CPU-30 computer running VxWorks; a real-time multitasking operating system, and a Radiuses PC compatible VME computer running MDS. A GENISAS server on The Force computer accepts a transport command from the TSC, a GENISAS supervisor, over Ethernet and notifies software on the RadiSys PC of the pending command through VMEbus shared memory. The command is then delivered to the MDS robot control software using a Windows Dynamic Data Exchange conversation

  10. Meningococcal serogroup A, C, W₁₃₅ and Y conjugated vaccine: a cost-effectiveness analysis in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiltsje Hepkema

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2002, vaccination with a serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenC was introduced in the Netherlands for all children aged 14 months. Despite its success, herd immunity may wane over time. Recently, a serogroup A,C,W135,Y meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY was licensed for use in subjects of 12 months of age and above. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of meningococcal vaccination at 14 months and an additional vaccination at the age of 12 years, both with the MenACWY vaccine. METHODS: A decision analysis cohort model, with 185,000 Dutch newborns, was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different immunization strategies. For strategies including a vaccination at 12 years of age, an additional cohort with adolescents aged 12 years was followed. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was estimated for the current disease incidence and for a scenario when herd immunity is lost. RESULTS: Vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months is cost-saving. Vaccinating with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would prevent 7 additional cases of meningococcal serogroup A,C,W135,Y disease in the birth cohort and adolescent cohort followed for 99 years compared to the current vaccine schedule of a single vaccination with MenC at 14 months. With the current incidence, this strategy resulted in an ICER of €635,334 per quality adjusted life year. When serogroup C disease incidence returns to pre-vaccination levels due to a loss of vaccine-induced herd-immunity, vaccination with MenACWY at 14 months and at 12 years would be cost-saving. CONCLUSIONS: Routine vaccination with MenACWY is cost-saving. With the current epidemiology, a booster-dose with MenACWY is not likely cost-effective. When herd immunity is lost, a booster-dose has the potential of being cost-effective. A dynamic model should be developed for more precise estimation of the cost-effectiveness of the prevention of disappearance of herd immunity.

  11. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, C M; Vijayaraghavan, M; Salazar-Bolaños, H M; Bolaños-Acuña, H M; Ruiz-González, A I; Barrantes-Solis, T; Fernández-Vargas, I; Panero, M S; de Oliveira, L H; Hyde, T B

    2013-07-02

    Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and investigation. Our findings will be valuable for

  12. Detection and differentiation of field and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus using reverse transcription followed by nested real time PCR (RT-nqPCR) and RFLP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Cristine Dossin Bastos; Ikuta, Nilo; Canal, Cláudio Wageck; Makiejczuk, Aline; Allgayer, Mariangela da Costa; Cardoso, Cristine Hoffmeister; Lehmann, Fernanda Kieling; Fonseca, André Salvador Kazantzi; Lunge, Vagner Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the cause of a severe and highly contagious disease in dogs. Practical diagnosis of canine distemper based on clinical signs and laboratory tests are required to confirm CDV infection. The present study aimed to develop a molecular assay to detect and differentiate field and vaccine CDV strains. Reverse transcription followed by nested real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-nqPCR) was developed, which exhibited analytical specificity (all the samples from healthy dogs and other canine infectious agents were not incorrectly detected) and sensitivity (all replicates of a vaccine strain were positive up to the 3125-fold dilution - 10(0.7) TCID50). RT-nqPCR was validated for CDV detection on different clinical samples (blood, urine, rectal and conjunctival swabs) of 103 animals suspected to have distemper. A total of 53 animals were found to be positive based on RT-nqPCR in at least one clinical sample. Blood resulted in more positive samples (50 out of 53, 94.3%), followed by urine (44/53, 83.0%), rectal (38/53, 71%) and conjunctival (27/53, 50.9%) swabs. A commercial immunochromatography (IC) assay had detected CDV in only 30 conjunctival samples of these positive dogs. Nucleoprotein (NC) gene sequencing of 25 samples demonstrated that 23 of them were closer to other Brazilian field strains and the remaining two to vaccine strains. A single nucleotide sequences difference, which creates an Msp I restriction enzyme digestion, was used to differentiate between field and vaccine CDV strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The complete assay was more sensitive than was IC for the detection of CDV. Blood was the more frequently positive specimen and the addition of a restriction enzyme step allowed the differentiation of vaccine and Brazilian field strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cervical cancer treatment costs and cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in Vietnam: a PRIME modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Minh, Hoang; My, Nguyen Thi Tuyet; Jit, Mark

    2017-05-15

    Cervical cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer mortality among women in South Vietnam and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in North Vietnam. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has the potential to substantially decrease this burden. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that a cost-effectiveness analysis of HPV vaccination is conducted before nationwide introduction. The Papillomavirus Rapid Interface for Modeling and Economics (PRIME) model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccine introduction. A costing study based on expert panel discussions, interviews and hospital case note reviews was conducted to explore the cost of cervical cancer care. The cost of cervical cancer treatment ranged from US$368 - 11400 depending on the type of hospital and treatment involved. Under Gavi-negotiated prices of US$4.55, HPV vaccination is likely to be very cost-effective with an incremental cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted in the range US$780 - 1120. However, under list prices for Cervarix and Gardasil in Vietnam, the incremental cost per DALY averted for HPV vaccination can exceed US$8000. HPV vaccine introduction appears to be economically attractive only if Vietnam is able to procure the vaccine at Gavi prices. This highlights the importance of initiating a nationwide vaccination programme while such prices are still available.

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Repertoire-Scale Immunoglobulin Properties in Vaccine-Induced B-Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilja V. Khavrutskii

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the next-generation sequencing of B-cell receptors (BCRs enable the characterization of humoral responses at a repertoire-wide scale and provide the capability for identifying unique features of immune repertoires in response to disease, vaccination, or infection. Immunosequencing now readily generates 103–105 sequences per sample; however, statistical analysis of these repertoires is challenging because of the high genetic diversity of BCRs and the elaborate clonal relationships among them. To date, most immunosequencing analyses have focused on reporting qualitative trends in immunoglobulin (Ig properties, such as usage or somatic hypermutation (SHM percentage of the Ig heavy chain variable (IGHV gene segment family, and on reducing complex Ig property distributions to simple summary statistics. However, because Ig properties are typically not normally distributed, any approach that fails to assess the distribution as a whole may be inadequate in (1 properly assessing the statistical significance of repertoire differences, (2 identifying how two repertoires differ, and (3 determining appropriate confidence intervals for assessing the size of the differences and their potential biological relevance. To address these issues, we have developed a technique that uses Wilcox’ robust statistics toolbox to identify statistically significant vaccine-specific differences between Ig repertoire properties. The advantage of this technique is that it can determine not only whether but also where the distributions differ, even when the Ig repertoire properties are non-normally distributed. We used this technique to characterize murine germinal center (GC B-cell repertoires in response to a complex Ebola virus-like particle (eVLP vaccine candidate with known protective efficacy. The eVLP-mediated GC B-cell responses were highly diverse, consisting of thousands of clonotypes. Despite this staggering diversity, we identified statistically

  15. [Analysis on willingness to receive human papillomavirus vaccination among risk males and related factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaojun; Jia, Tianjian; Zhang, Xuan; Zhu, Chen; Chen, Xin; Zou, Huachun

    2015-10-01

    To understand the willingness to receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of men who have sex with men (MSM) and the male clients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and related factors in China. MSM were enrolled from the community through snowball sampling and male clients of STD clinics were enrolled from a sexual health clinic through convenience sampling in Wuxi, China. A questionnaire survey on the subjects' socio-demographic characteristics and the awareness of HPV was conducted. A total of 186 MSM and 182 STD clients were recruited. The awareness rates of HPV were 18.4% and 23.1%, respectively and the awareness rates of HPV vaccination were 10.2% and 15.4%, respectively. STD clinic clients (70.9%) were more likely to receive HPV vaccination than MSM (34.9%) (χ² = 47.651, P<0.01). Only 26.2% of MSM and 20.2% of STD clinic clients were willing to receive free HPV vaccination before the age of 20 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that MSM who had passive anal sex (OR=2.831, 95% CI: 1.703-13.526) , MSM who never used condom in anal sex in the past 6 months (OR=3.435, 95% CI: 1.416-20.108) , MSM who had been diagnosed with STDs (OR=1.968, 95% CI: 1.201-8.312) and STD clinic clients who had commercial sex with females in the past 3 months (OR=1.748, 95% CI: 1.207-8.539) , STD clinic clients who never used condom in commercial sex in the past 3 months (OR=1.926, 95% CI: 1.343-5.819) and STD clinic clients who had been diagnosed with STDs in past 12 months (OR=2.017, 95% CI: 1.671-7.264) were more likely to receive free HPV vaccination. Sexually active MSM and male clients in STD clinics in China had lower awareness of the HPV related knowledge. Their willing to receive HPV vaccination were influenced by their behavior related factors. It is necessary to strengthen the health education about HPV and improve people's awareness of HPV vaccination.

  16. Absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heft, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The Environmental Science Division at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has in use a system of absolute Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Basically, absolute INAA is dependent upon the absolute measurement of the disintegration rates of the nuclides produced by neutron capture. From such disintegration rate data, the amount of the target element present in the irradiated sample is calculated by dividing the observed disintegration rate for each nuclide by the expected value for the disintegration rate per microgram of the target element that produced the nuclide. In absolute INAA, the expected value for disintegration rate per microgram is calculated from nuclear parameters and from measured values of both thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes which were present during irradiation. Absolute INAA does not depend on the concurrent irradiation of elemental standards but does depend on the values for thermal and epithermal neutron capture cross-sections for the target nuclides. A description of the analytical method is presented

  17. Quality Assurance and Control in Laboratory using Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. S.; Moon, J. H.; Sun, G. M.; Kim, S. H.; Baek, S. Y.; Lim, J. M.; Kim, H. R

    2007-01-15

    In accordance with the increment of international trade associated with the worldwide globalization, the importance of quality assurance and control for the commodity produced from one's own country has been stressed. ISO (International Organization for Standards) defines quality control as 'the operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements for quality'. Since 1996, the HANARO research reactor in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been operated thereafter initial critical operation on April 1995. Neutron activation analysis system and applied techniques which is one of a nuclear analytical technologies using reactor neutrons has been developed for user's supporting and the establishment of the quality system for a measurement and analysis, testing and inspection was implemented successfully. On the basis of the qualified NAA system, the test and measurement of more than 1500 samples which is requested from 30 organizations including industrial companies, universities and institutes carried out in NAA laboratory annually. Moreover, as the goal of mutual recognition agreement (MRA) which can be removed a technical barrier in international trade, the objectivity and the confidence of analytical quality in NAA laboratory became established through the installation of international accreditation system by implementing analytical quality system in accordance with international standards in 2001. The aim of the report was to summarize the technical management of introduction, methods and the results for a quality control and assurance which should be performed in NAA technique using the HANARO research reactor. The report will help building up effective quality control strategy in the future.

  18. Precision of Carbon-14 analysis in a single laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Misman Sumin; Holland, P.T.

    2009-01-01

    In a single laboratory, one operator has used a Biological Material Oxidizer (BMO) unit to prepare (combust) solid samples before analyzing (counting) the radioactivity by using various Liquid Scintillation Counters (LSCs). The different batches of commercially available solid Certified Reference Material (CRM, Amersham, UK) standards were analyzed depending on the time of analysis over a period of seven years. The certified radioactivity and accuracy of the C-14 standards as cellulose tabs, designated as the Certified Reference Material (CRM), was 5000 + 3% DPM. Each analysis was carried out using triplicate tabs. The medium of counting was commercially available cocktail containing the sorbent solution for the oxidizer gases, although of different batches were used depending on the date of analysis. The mean DPM of the solutions was measured after correction for quenching by the LSC internal standard procedure and subtracting the mean DPM of control. The precisions of the standard and control counts and of the recovery percentage for the CRM were measured as the coefficients of variation (CV), for the C-14 determination over the seven year period. The results from a recently acquired Sample Oxidizer unit were also included for comparison. (Author)

  19. Systematic review and meta-analysis of L1-VLP-based human papillomavirus vaccine efficacy against anogenital pre-cancer in women with evidence of prior HPV exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Miltz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether L1-VLP-based human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines are efficacious in reducing the likelihood of anogenital pre-cancer in women with evidence of prior vaccine-type HPV exposure. This study aims to determine whether the combined results of the vaccine trials published to date provide evidence of efficacy compared with control (hepatitis A vaccine/placebo. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs were identified from MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and references of identified studies. The bivalent vaccine containing HPV-16 and 18 VLPs from GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (Rixenstart, Belgium, the quadrivalent vaccine containing HPV-6, 11, 16, and 18 VLPs from Merck & Co., Inc., (Whitehouse Station, NJ USA, and the HPV-16 monovalent vaccine from Merck Research Laboratories (West Point, PA USA were evaluated. FINDINGS: Three RCT reports and two post-trial cohort studies were eligible, comprising data from 13,482 women who were included in the vaccine studies but had evidence of HPV infection at study entry. Data on efficacy was synthesized using the Mantel-Haenszel weighted fixed-effect approach, or where there was heterogeneity between studies, the DerSimonian and Laird weighted random-effect approach. The mean odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for the association between Cervarix, Gardasil and HPV-16 monovalent vaccine and HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse was 0·90 (95% CI: 0·56, 1·44. For the association between Gardasil and HPV-associated vulval/vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2-3, the overall OR and 95% CI was 2.25 (95% CI: 0·78, 6.50. Sample size and follow-up were limited. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that HPV vaccines are effective in preventing vaccine-type HPV associated pre-cancer in women with evidence of prior HPV exposure. Small

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of routine pneumococcal vaccination in the UK: a comparison of the PHiD-CV vaccine and the PCV-13 vaccine using a Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgleize, Emmanuelle; Leeuwenkamp, Oscar; Theodorou, Eleni; Van de Velde, Nicolas

    2016-11-30

    In 2010, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) replaced the 7-valent vaccine (introduced in 2006) for vaccination against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM) in the UK. Using recent evidence on the impact of PCVs and epidemiological changes in the UK, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to compare the pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) with PCV-13 in the ongoing national vaccination programme. CEA was based on a published Markov model. The base-case scenario accounted only for direct medical costs. Work days lost were considered in alternative scenarios. Calculations were based on serotype and disease-specific vaccine efficacies, serotype distributions and UK incidence rates and medical costs. Health benefits and costs related to IPD, pneumonia and AOM were accumulated over the lifetime of a UK birth cohort. Vaccination of infants at 2, 4 and 12 months with PHiD-CV or PCV-13, assuming complete coverage and adherence. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was computed by dividing the difference in costs between the programmes by the difference in quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Under our model assumptions, both vaccines had a similar impact on IPD and pneumonia, but PHiD-CV generated a greater reduction in AOM cases (161 918), AOM-related general practitioner consultations (31 070) and tympanostomy tube placements (2399). At price parity, PHiD-CV vaccination was dominant over PCV-13, saving 734 QALYs as well as £3.68 million to the National Health Service (NHS). At the lower list price of PHiD-CV, the cost-savings would increase to £45.77 million. This model projected that PHiD-CV would provide both incremental health benefits and cost-savings compared with PCV-13 at price parity. Using PHiD-CV could result in substantial budget savings to the NHS. These savings could be used to implement other life-saving interventions

  1. An analysis of laboratory activities found in "Applications In Biology/Chemistry: A Contextual Approach to Laboratory Science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Sandra Sue

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine whether the material found in ABC promotes scientific inquiry through the inclusion of science process skills, and to quantitatively determine the type (experimental, comparative, or descriptive) and character (wet-lab, paper and pencil, model, or computer) of laboratory activities. The research design allowed for an examination of the frequency and type of science process skills required of students in 79 laboratory activities sampled from all 12 units utilizing a modified 33-item laboratory analysis inventory (LAI) (Germane et al, 1996). Interrater reliability for the science process skills was completed on 19 of the laboratory activities with a mean score of 86.1%. Interrater reliability for the type and character of the laboratory, on the same 19 laboratory activities, was completed with mean scores of 79.0% and 96.5%, respectively. It was found that all laboratory activities provide a prelaboratory activity. In addition, the science process skill category of student performance is required most often of students with the skill of learning techniques or manipulating apparatus occurring 99% of the time. The science process skill category observed the least was student planning and design, occurring only 3% of the time. Students were rarely given the opportunity to practice science process skills such as developing and testing hypotheses through experiments they have designed. Chi-square tests, applied at the .05 level of significance, revealed that there was a significant difference in the type of laboratory activities; comparative laboratory activities appeared more often (59%). In addition the character of laboratory activities, "wet-lab" activities appeared more often (90%) than any of the others.

  2. Vaxvec: The first web-based recombinant vaccine vector database and its data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shunzhou; Martin, Carly; Patil, Rasika; Zhu, Felix; Zhao, Bin; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2015-01-01

    A recombinant vector vaccine uses an attenuated virus, bacterium, or parasite as the carrier to express a heterologous antigen(s). Many recombinant vaccine vectors and related vaccines have been developed and extensively investigated. To compare and better understand recombinant vectors and vaccines, we have generated Vaxvec (http://www.violinet.org/vaxvec), the first web-based database that stores various recombinant vaccine vectors and those experimentally verified vaccines that use these vectors. Vaxvec has now included 59 vaccine vectors that have been used in 196 recombinant vector vaccines against 66 pathogens and cancers. These vectors are classified to 41 viral vectors, 15 bacterial vectors, 1 parasitic vector, and 1 fungal vector. The most commonly used viral vaccine vectors are double-stranded DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, adenoviruses, and poxviruses. For example, Vaxvec includes 63 poxvirus-based recombinant vaccines for over 20 pathogens and cancers. Vaxvec collects 30 recombinant vector influenza vaccines that use 17 recombinant vectors and were experimentally tested in 7 animal models. In addition, over 60 protective antigens used in recombinant vector vaccines are annotated and analyzed. User-friendly web-interfaces are available for querying various data in Vaxvec. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine vectors, vaccines, and related information is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO). Vaxvec is a timely and vital source of vaccine vector database and facilitates efficient vaccine vector research and development. PMID:26403370

  3. CFD analysis of laboratory scale phase equilibrium cell operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Mohamed Ali; Nikiforow, Kaj; Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-10-01

    For the modeling of multiphase chemical reactors or separation processes, it is essential to predict accurately chemical equilibrium data, such as vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria [M. Šoóš et al., Chem. Eng. Process.: Process Intensif. 42(4), 273-284 (2003)]. The instruments used in these experiments are typically designed based on previous experiences, and their operation verified based on known equilibria of standard components. However, mass transfer limitations with different chemical systems may be very different, potentially falsifying the measured equilibrium compositions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics is utilized to design and analyze laboratory scale experimental gas-liquid equilibrium cell for the first time to augment the traditional analysis based on plug flow assumption. Two-phase dilutor cell, used for measuring limiting activity coefficients at infinite dilution, is used as a test case for the analysis. The Lagrangian discrete model is used to track each bubble and to study the residence time distribution of the carrier gas bubbles in the dilutor cell. This analysis is necessary to assess whether the gas leaving the cell is in equilibrium with the liquid, as required in traditional analysis of such apparatus. Mass transfer for six different bio-oil compounds is calculated to determine the approach equilibrium concentration. Also, residence times assuming plug flow and ideal mixing are used as reference cases to evaluate the influence of mixing on the approach to equilibrium in the dilutor. Results show that the model can be used to predict the dilutor operating conditions for which each of the studied gas-liquid systems reaches equilibrium.

  4. CFD analysis of laboratory scale phase equilibrium cell operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Mohamed Ali; Nikiforow, Kaj; Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-10-01

    For the modeling of multiphase chemical reactors or separation processes, it is essential to predict accurately chemical equilibrium data, such as vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria [M. Šoóš et al., Chem. Eng. Process Intensif. 42(4), 273-284 (2003)]. The instruments used in these experiments are typically designed based on previous experiences, and their operation verified based on known equilibria of standard components. However, mass transfer limitations with different chemical systems may be very different, potentially falsifying the measured equilibrium compositions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics is utilized to design and analyze laboratory scale experimental gas-liquid equilibrium cell for the first time to augment the traditional analysis based on plug flow assumption. Two-phase dilutor cell, used for measuring limiting activity coefficients at infinite dilution, is used as a test case for the analysis. The Lagrangian discrete model is used to track each bubble and to study the residence time distribution of the carrier gas bubbles in the dilutor cell. This analysis is necessary to assess whether the gas leaving the cell is in equilibrium with the liquid, as required in traditional analysis of such apparatus. Mass transfer for six different bio-oil compounds is calculated to determine the approach equilibrium concentration. Also, residence times assuming plug flow and ideal mixing are used as reference cases to evaluate the influence of mixing on the approach to equilibrium in the dilutor. Results show that the model can be used to predict the dilutor operating conditions for which each of the studied gas-liquid systems reaches equilibrium.

  5. Application of the Finite Elemental Analysis to Modeling Temperature Change of the Vaccine in an Insulated Packaging Container during Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Changfeng; Cheng, Yujie; Shen, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrated an attempt to predict temperatures of a perishable product such as vaccine inside an insulated packaging container during transport through finite element analysis (FEA) modeling. In order to use the standard FEA software for simulation, an equivalent heat conduction coefficient is proposed and calculated to describe the heat transfer of the air trapped inside the insulated packaging container. The three-dimensional, insulated packaging container is regarded as a combination of six panels, and the heat flow at each side panel is a one-dimension diffusion process. The transit-thermal analysis was applied to simulate the heat transition process from ambient environment to inside the container. Field measurements were carried out to collect the temperature during transport, and the collected data were compared to the FEA simulation results. Insulated packaging containers are used to transport temperature-sensitive products such as vaccine and other pharmaceutical products. The container is usually made of an extruded polystyrene foam filled with gel packs. World Health Organization guidelines recommend that all vaccines except oral polio vaccine be distributed in an environment where the temperature ranges between +2 to +8 °C. The primary areas of concern in designing the packaging for vaccine are how much of the foam thickness and gel packs should be used in order to keep the temperature in a desired range, and how to prevent the vaccine from exposure to freezing temperatures. This study uses numerical simulation to predict temperature change within an insulated packaging container in vaccine cold chain. It is our hope that this simulation will provide the vaccine industries with an alternative engineering tool to validate vaccine packaging and project thermal equilibrium within the insulated packaging container.

  6. Putative drug and vaccine target protein identification using comparative genomic analysis of KEGG annotated metabolic pathways of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damte, Dereje; Suh, Joo-Won; Lee, Seung-Jin; Yohannes, Sileshi Belew; Hossain, Md Akil; Park, Seung-Chun

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, a computational comparative and subtractive genomic/proteomic analysis aimed at the identification of putative therapeutic target and vaccine candidate proteins from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotated metabolic pathways of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was performed for drug design and vaccine production pipelines against M.hyopneumoniae. The employed comparative genomic and metabolic pathway analysis with a predefined computational systemic workflow extracted a total of 41 annotated metabolic pathways from KEGG among which five were unique to M. hyopneumoniae. A total of 234 proteins were identified to be involved in these metabolic pathways. Although 125 non homologous and predicted essential proteins were found from the total that could serve as potential drug targets and vaccine candidates, additional prioritizing parameters characterize 21 proteins as vaccine candidate while druggability of each of the identified proteins evaluated by the DrugBank database prioritized 42 proteins suitable for drug targets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Flow injection analysis: Emerging tool for laboratory automation in radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.; Ruzicka, J.; Grate, J.W.; Janata, J.

    1996-01-01

    Automation of routine and serial assays is a common practice of modern analytical laboratory, while it is virtually nonexistent in the field of radiochemistry. Flow injection analysis (FIA) is a general solution handling methodology that has been extensively used for automation of routine assays in many areas of analytical chemistry. Reproducible automated solution handling and on-line separation capabilities are among several distinctive features that make FI a very promising, yet under utilized tool for automation in analytical radiochemistry. The potential of the technique is demonstrated through the development of an automated 90 Sr analyzer and its application in the analysis of tank waste samples from the Hanford site. Sequential injection (SI), the latest generation of FIA, is used to rapidly separate 90 Sr from interfering radionuclides and deliver separated Sr zone to a flow-through liquid scintillation detector. The separation is performed on a mini column containing Sr-specific sorbent extraction material, which selectively retains Sr under acidic conditions. The 90 Sr is eluted with water, mixed with scintillation cocktail, and sent through the flow cell of a flow through counter, where 90 Sr radioactivity is detected as a transient signal. Both peak area and peak height can be used for quantification of sample radioactivity. Alternatively, stopped flow detection can be performed to improve detection precision for low activity samples. The authors current research activities are focused on expansion of radiochemical applications of FIA methodology, with an ultimate goal of creating a set of automated methods that will cover the basic needs of radiochemical analysis at the Hanford site. The results of preliminary experiments indicate that FIA is a highly suitable technique for the automation of chemically more challenging separations, such as separation of actinide elements

  8. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination among Libyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: We used a published decision tree model that has been adapted to the Libyan situation to analyze a birth cohort of 160,000 children. The evaluation of diarrhea events in three public hospitals helped to estimate the rotavirus burden. The economic analysis was done from two perspectives: health care provider and ...

  9. Ultra-Short-Pulse Laser Effects Research and Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables research into advanced laser countermeasure techniques.DESCRIPTION: This laser facility has a capability to produce very high peak power levels of...

  10. Neurologic complications of vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiological and Economic Impact of Monovalent and Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccines in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Cost-effectiveness Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternina-Caicedo, Angel; De la Hoz-Restrepo, Fernando; Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson

    2015-07-01

    The competing choices of vaccination with either RV1 or RV5, the potential budget impact of vaccines on the EPI with different prices and new evidence make important an updated analysis for health decision makers in each country. The objective of this study is to assess cost-effectiveness of the monovalent and pentavalent rotavirus vaccines and impact on children deaths, inpatient and outpatient visits in 116 low and middle income countries that represent approximately 99% of rotavirus mortality. A decision tree model followed hypothetical cohorts of children from birth up to 5 years of age for each country in 2010. Inputs were gathered from international databases and previous research on incidence and effectiveness of monovalent and pentavalent vaccines. Costs were expressed in 2010 international dollars. Outcomes were reported in terms of cost per disability-adjusted life-year averted, comparing no vaccination with either monovalent or pentavalent mass introduction. Vaccine price was assumed fixed for all world low-income and middle-income countries. Around 292,000 deaths, 3.34 million inpatient cases and 23.09 million outpatient cases would occur with no vaccination. In the base-case scenario, monovalent vaccination would prevent 54.7% of inpatient cases and 45.4% of deaths. Pentavalent vaccination would prevent 51.4% of inpatient cases and 41.1% of deaths. The vaccine was cost-effective in all world countries in the base-case scenario for both vaccines. Cost per disability-adjusted life-year averted in all selected countries was I$372 for monovalent, and I$453 for pentavalent vaccination. Rotavirus vaccine is cost-effective in most analyzed countries. Despite cost-effectiveness analysis is a useful tool for decision making in middle-income countries, for low-income countries health decision makers should also assess the impact of introducing either vaccine on local resources and budget impact analysis of vaccination.

  12. Infectious disease research investments: systematic analysis of immunology and vaccine research funding in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Joseph R; Head, Michael G; Atun, Rifat

    2013-12-05

    Financing for global health is a critical element of research and development. Innovations in new vaccines are critically dependent on research funding given the large sums required, however estimates of global research investments are lacking. We evaluate infectious disease research investments, focusing on immunology and vaccine research by UK research funding organisations. In 1997-2010, £2.6 billion were spent by public and philanthropic organisations, with £590 million allocated to immunology and vaccine research. Preclinical studies received the largest funding amount £505 million accounting for 85.6% of total investment. In terms of specific infection, "the big three" infections dominated funding: HIV received £127 million (21.5% of total), malaria received £59 million (10.0% of total) and tuberculosis received £36 million (6.0% of total). We excluded industry funding from our analysis, as open-access data were unavailable. A global investment surveillance system is needed to map and monitor funding and guide allocation of scarce resources. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Alternative method for intramuscular fat analysis using common laboratory equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, J; Calvo, L; Óvilo, C; González-Bulnes, A; Olivares, A; Cambero, M I; López-Bote, C J

    2015-05-01

    A procedure to quantify intramuscular fat was developed using common inexpensive laboratory equipment. Three homogenization methods of lyophilized muscle samples (Ball-mill, Grinder and Mortar) and two extraction methods (Ball-mill or Vortex) were used in turkey meat and pork. Two-hundred mg of lyophilized and homogenized samples were accurately weighed and mixed with 1.5 mL of dichloromethane-methanol (8:2) and shaken either in a Mixer Mill (MM400, Retsch Technology) or in a Vortex. The final mixture was separated by centrifugation. Solvent was evaporated under a nitrogen stream and lipid content was gravimetrically determined. Besides, it was checked that the fatty acid profile was not altered by the protocol used. Moreover, the analysis of 4 replicas from the same sample showed different variation coefficients (16-29%) for the new procedures proposed over a wide range of IMF content. The combination of Grinder and Vortex methodologies can be proposed as a simple and inexpensive alternative to previous ones. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The logic of surveillance guidelines: an analysis of vaccine adverse event reports from an ontological perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Courtot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When increased rates of adverse events following immunization are detected, regulatory action can be taken by public health agencies. However to be interpreted reports of adverse events must be encoded in a consistent way. Regulatory agencies rely on guidelines to help determine the diagnosis of the adverse events. Manual application of these guidelines is expensive, time consuming, and open to logical errors. Representing these guidelines in a format amenable to automated processing can make this process more efficient. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using the Brighton anaphylaxis case definition, we show that existing clinical guidelines used as standards in pharmacovigilance can be logically encoded using a formal representation such as the Adverse Event Reporting Ontology we developed. We validated the classification of vaccine adverse event reports using the ontology against existing rule-based systems and a manually curated subset of the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. However, we encountered a number of critical issues in the formulation and application of the clinical guidelines. We report these issues and the steps being taken to address them in current surveillance systems, and in the terminological standards in use. CONCLUSIONS: By standardizing and improving the reporting process, we were able to automate diagnosis confirmation. By allowing medical experts to prioritize reports such a system can accelerate the identification of adverse reactions to vaccines and the response of regulatory agencies. This approach of combining ontology and semantic technologies can be used to improve other areas of vaccine adverse event reports analysis and should inform both the design of clinical guidelines and how they are used in the future. AVAILABILITY: Sufficient material to reproduce our results is available, including documentation, ontology, code and datasets, at http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/aero.

  15. Quality of HIV laboratory testing in Tanzania: a situation analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    December 2004 to February 2005 in 12 laboratories which were conveniently selected to represent all the zones of Tanzania. The questionnaires comprised of questions on laboratory particulars, internal and external quality control for HIV testing and quality control of reagents. Source and level of customer satisfaction of ...

  16. Helminthiasis, bystander diseases and vaccines: analysis of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Miles B; Fincham, John E

    2007-11-01

    Helminthiasis has assumed a new medical and veterinary significance following the recognition of its immunomodulatory consequences for the severity of bystander conditions and the efficacy of immunization against non-helminthic diseases of humans and livestock. Recent papers by Jackson et al. and Turner et al. have an important bearing on research in these areas. One of the implications of their work is that the parasitological criterion of egg-positivity versus egg-negativity is too simplistic to use in co-infection and related studies unless accompanied by immunological analysis.

  17. Analysis of mumps vaccine failure by means of avidity testing for mumps virus-specific immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, M; Matsuzono, Y; Takekoshi, Y; Yamada, S; Itakura, O; Kubota, M; Kikuta, H; Togashi, T

    1998-11-01

    To characterize patients with mumps vaccine failure, avidity testing was performed with the Enzygnost Anti-Parotitis Virus/IgG kit using a single-dilution-6 M urea denaturation method. Five groups of patients were tested. Group 1 consisted of 29 patients with primary mumps infections; group 2 was 20 children and adults with a definite history of natural infection; group 3 was 7 patients with a recent mumps vaccination, 1 of whom developed parotid gland swelling and aseptic meningitis; group 4 was 14 patients with mumps vaccine failure; and group 5 was 6 patients with recurrent episodes of parotitis in addition to a history of vaccination. On the basis of the results of groups 1 and 2, an avidity of /=32% was determined to be high. Avidity maturation from low to high appears to occur around 180 days after the acute illness. The results of group 3 showed that the vaccine-induced immunoglobulin G (IgG) had very low avidity. Among the 14 patients in group 4, 12 patients, including 7 with a positive IgM response, were diagnosed as having secondary vaccine failures. The results of group 5 suggested the possibility that the avidity of the mumps vaccine-induced IgG remains low or borderline. These results showed that secondary mumps vaccine failure occurs not infrequently, even among school age children under condition in which the vaccine coverage is low (i.e., 33% in our study population), and therefore, vaccinees are prone to be exposed to wild-type viruses. Avidity testing should provide information useful for the analysis of mumps virus infections.

  18. Hazardous waste systems analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urioste, J.

    1997-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory produces routine and non-routine hazardous waste as a by-product of mission operations. Hazardous waste commonly generated at the Laboratory includes many types of laboratory research chemicals, solvents, acids, bases, carcinogens, compressed gases, metals, and other solid waste contaminated with hazardous waste. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Environmental Stewardship Office has established a Hazardous Waste Minimization Coordinator to specifically focus on routine and non-routine RCRA, TSCA, and other administratively controlled wastes. In this process, the Waste Minimization Coordinator has developed and implemented a systems approach to define waste streams, estimate waste management costs and develop plans to implement avoidance practices, and develop projects to reduce or eliminate the waste streams at the Laboratory. The paper describes this systems approach

  19. Benefit-Cost Analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination at the Farm-Level in South Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Dinh Bao; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Delabouglise, Alexis; Grosbois, Vladimir; Peyre, Marisa

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the financial impact of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in cattle at the farm-level and the benefit-cost ratio (BCR) of biannual vaccination strategy to prevent and eradicate FMD for cattle in South Vietnam. Production data were collected from 49 small-scale dairy farms, 15 large-scale dairy farms, and 249 beef farms of Long An and Tay Ninh province using a questionaire. Financial data of FMD impacts were collected using participatory tools in 37 villages of Long An province. The net present value, i.e., the difference between the benefits (additional revenue and saved costs) and costs (additional costs and revenue foregone), of FMD vaccination in large-scale dairy farms was 2.8 times higher than in small-scale dairy farms and 20 times higher than in beef farms. The BCR of FMD vaccination over 1 year in large-scale dairy farms, small-scale dairy farms, and beef farms were 11.6 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 6.42-16.45], 9.93 (95% CI 3.45-16.47), and 3.02 (95% CI 0.76-7.19), respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that varying the vaccination cost had more effect on the BCR of cattle vaccination than varying the market price. This benefit-cost analysis of biannual vaccination strategy showed that investment in FMD prevention can be financially profitable, and therefore sustainable, for dairy farmers. For beef cattle, it is less certain that vaccination is profitable. Additional benefit-cost analysis study of vaccination strategies at the national-level would be required to evaluate and adapt the national strategy to achieve eradication of this disease in Vietnam.

  20. Benefit–Cost Analysis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccination at the Farm-Level in South Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh Bao Truong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the financial impact of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD outbreaks in cattle at the farm-level and the benefit–cost ratio (BCR of biannual vaccination strategy to prevent and eradicate FMD for cattle in South Vietnam. Production data were collected from 49 small-scale dairy farms, 15 large-scale dairy farms, and 249 beef farms of Long An and Tay Ninh province using a questionaire. Financial data of FMD impacts were collected using participatory tools in 37 villages of Long An province. The net present value, i.e., the difference between the benefits (additional revenue and saved costs and costs (additional costs and revenue foregone, of FMD vaccination in large-scale dairy farms was 2.8 times higher than in small-scale dairy farms and 20 times higher than in beef farms. The BCR of FMD vaccination over 1 year in large-scale dairy farms, small-scale dairy farms, and beef farms were 11.6 [95% confidence interval (95% CI 6.42–16.45], 9.93 (95% CI 3.45–16.47, and 3.02 (95% CI 0.76–7.19, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that varying the vaccination cost had more effect on the BCR of cattle vaccination than varying the market price. This benefit-cost analysis of biannual vaccination strategy showed that investment in FMD prevention can be financially profitable, and therefore sustainable, for dairy farmers. For beef cattle, it is less certain that vaccination is profitable. Additional benefit-cost analysis study of vaccination strategies at the national-level would be required to evaluate and adapt the national strategy to achieve eradication of this disease in Vietnam.

  1. Sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in HVTN 505 identifies vaccine pressure targeting the CD4 binding site of Env-gp120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCamp, Allan C; Rolland, Morgane; Edlefsen, Paul T; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Hall, Breana; Magaret, Craig A; Fiore-Gartland, Andrew J; Juraska, Michal; Carpp, Lindsay N; Karuna, Shelly T; Bose, Meera; LePore, Steven; Miller, Shana; O'Sullivan, Annemarie; Poltavee, Kultida; Bai, Hongjun; Dommaraju, Kalpana; Zhao, Hong; Wong, Kim; Chen, Lennie; Ahmed, Hasan; Goodman, Derrick; Tay, Matthew Z; Gottardo, Raphael; Koup, Richard A; Bailer, Robert; Mascola, John R; Graham, Barney S; Roederer, Mario; O'Connell, Robert J; Michael, Nelson L; Robb, Merlin L; Adams, Elizabeth; D'Souza, Patricia; Kublin, James; Corey, Lawrence; Geraghty, Daniel E; Frahm, Nicole; Tomaras, Georgia D; McElrath, M Juliana; Frenkel, Lisa; Styrchak, Sheila; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Hammer, Scott M; Kim, Jerome H; Mullins, James I; Gilbert, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    Although the HVTN 505 DNA/recombinant adenovirus type 5 vector HIV-1 vaccine trial showed no overall efficacy, analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in participants can help determine whether vaccine-induced immune responses impacted viruses that caused infection. We analyzed 480 HIV-1 genomes sampled from 27 vaccine and 20 placebo recipients and found that intra-host HIV-1 diversity was significantly lower in vaccine recipients (P ≤ 0.04, Q-values ≤ 0.09) in Gag, Pol, Vif and envelope glycoprotein gp120 (Env-gp120). Furthermore, Env-gp120 sequences from vaccine recipients were significantly more distant from the subtype B vaccine insert than sequences from placebo recipients (P = 0.01, Q-value = 0.12). These vaccine effects were associated with signatures mapping to CD4 binding site and CD4-induced monoclonal antibody footprints. These results suggest either (i) no vaccine efficacy to block acquisition of any viral genotype but vaccine-accelerated Env evolution post-acquisition; or (ii) vaccine efficacy against HIV-1s with Env sequences closest to the vaccine insert combined with increased acquisition due to other factors, potentially including the vaccine vector.

  2. A simulation analysis to characterize the dynamics of vaccinating behaviour on contact networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perisic, Ana; Bauch, Chris T

    2009-05-28

    Human behavior influences infectious disease transmission, and numerous "prevalence-behavior" models have analyzed this interplay. These previous analyses assumed homogeneously mixing populations without spatial or social structure. However, spatial and social heterogeneity are known to significantly impact transmission dynamics and are particularly relevant for certain diseases. Previous work has demonstrated that social contact structure can change the individual incentive to vaccinate, thus enabling eradication of a disease under a voluntary vaccination policy when the corresponding homogeneous mixing model predicts that eradication is impossible due to free rider effects. Here, we extend this work and characterize the range of possible behavior-prevalence dynamics on a network. We simulate transmission of a vaccine-preventable infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether or not to vaccinate on any given day according to perceived risks of vaccination and infection. We find three possible outcomes for behavior-prevalence dynamics on this type of network: small final number vaccinated and final epidemic size (due to rapid control through voluntary ring vaccination); large final number vaccinated and significant final epidemic size (due to imperfect voluntary ring vaccination), and little or no vaccination and large final epidemic size (corresponding to little or no voluntary ring vaccination). We also show that the social contact structure enables eradication under a broad range of assumptions, except when vaccine risk is sufficiently high, the disease risk is sufficiently low, or individuals vaccinate too late for the vaccine to be effective. For populations where infection can spread only through social contact network, relatively small differences in parameter values relating to perceived risk or vaccination behavior at the individual level can translate into large differences in population-level outcomes such as final size

  3. Quantifying population preferences around vaccination against severe but rare diseases: A conjoint analysis among French university students, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seanehia, Joy; Treibich, Carole; Holmberg, Christine; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Casin, Valerie; Raude, Jocelyn; Mueller, Judith E

    2017-05-09

    Several concepts are available to explain vaccine decision making by individual and inter-individual factors, including risk perception, social conformism and altruism. However, only a few studies have quantified the weight of these determinants in vaccine acceptance. Using a conjoint analysis tool, we aimed at eliciting preferences in a student population regarding vaccination against a rare, severe and rapidly evolving hypothetical disease, similar to meningococcal serogroup C meningitis or measles. During March-May 2016, we conducted an emailing survey among university students aged 18-24years (N=775) in Rennes, France. Participants were asked to decide for or against immediate vaccination in 24 hypothetical scenarios, containing various levels of four attributes: epidemic situation, adverse events, information on vaccination coverage, and potential for indirect protection. Data were analysed using random effect estimator logit models. Participants accepted on average 52% of scenarios and all attributes significantly impacted vaccination acceptance. The highest positive effects were seen with an epidemic situation (OR 3.81, 95%-CI 3.46-4.19), 90% coverage in the community (3.64, 3.15-4.20) and potential for disease elimination from the community (2.87, 2.53-3.26). Information on "insufficient coverage" was dissuasive (vs. none of friends vaccinated: 0.65, 0.56-0.75). Controversy had a significantly greater negative effect than a confirmed risk of severe adverse events (OR 0.05 vs. 0.22). In models including participant characteristics, preference weights were unchanged, while trust in health authorities and vaccination perceptions strongly influenced acceptance themselves. The greatest significant variation of preference weights between subgroups was observed with controversy among students using alternative medicine daily (OR 0.28) and among students relying on scientific vaccine information (OR 0.02). Among young adults, potential for indirect protection and

  4. The global effect of maternal education on complete childhood vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Jennifer; Gerver, Sarah M; Gill, Moneet; Cooper, Emily; Manikam, Logan; Ward, Helen

    2017-12-28

    There is an established correlation between maternal education and reduction in childhood mortality. One proposed link is that an increase in maternal education will lead to an increase in health care access and vaccine uptake. Vaccinations are a central preventative child health tool, therefore demonstrating the importance of understanding factors that can improve coverage. This review aims to establish if there is a correlation between increasing maternal education and vaccine uptake and if this varies between continents, setting and time. An electronic database search was conducted using Medline Ovid, Embase and The Cochrane Library using a combination of keywords and appropriate MeSH terms for maternal education and child vaccination. Bibliographies were also hand searched. Data was extracted and entered onto a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analysed using STATA 13.0 software. The primary outcome of effect size of maternal education on completion of childhood vaccinations was analysed at different levels. Secondary outcomes were explored using subgroup analyses of differences between continents, rural or urban settings, and dates. The online search yielded 3430 papers, 37 were included in this study. The analysis showed increasing child vaccination uptake with increasing maternal education. Overall, analysis showed that the odds of full childhood vaccination were 2.3 times greater in children whose mother received secondary or higher education when compared to children whose mother had no education. There was large variability in the effect size between the studies included. Improving maternal education is important for increasing childhood vaccination uptake and coverage. Further research is needed in higher income countries. PROSPERO Registration No: CRD42016042409 .

  5. An analysis of the Human Papilloma Virus vaccine debate on MySpace blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelan, Jennifer; Pavri, Vera; Balakrishnan, Ravin; Wilson, Kumanan

    2010-02-10

    The roll out of HPV immunization programs across the United States was hindered by controversy. We tracked the debate in the United States through MySpace, then the most popular social networking site, in order to better understand the public's reaction to the vaccine. We searched MySpace for all blog discourse related to HPV immunization. We analyzed each blog according to the overall portrayal of HPV immunization, identified the characteristics of the bloggers, and developed a content analysis to categorize the types of supporting arguments made. 303 blogs met our inclusion criteria. 157 (52%) of the blogs were classified as positive, 129 (43%) as negative, and 17 (6%) were ambivalent toward HPV immunization. Positive blogs generally argued that HPV infection was effective and there were no reasonable alternatives to immunizing. Negative blogs focused on the risks of immunizing and relied heavily on vaccine-critical publications to support their viewpoint. Of the blogs where gender could be identified, 75 (25%) were posted by men and 214 (71%) by women. 60% of blogs posted by men were explicitly critical about HPV immunization versus 36% of women's blogs. Male bloggers also had larger networks of friends. We describe a novel and promising approach to the surveillance of public opinions and attitudes toward immunization. In our analysis, men were far more likely to hold negative views about HPV immunization than women and disseminate negative messages through larger social networks. Blog analysis is a useful tool for Public health officials to profile vaccine criticism and to design appropriate educational information tailored to respond to alternative media/alternative information actively disseminated via social media tools. Public health officials should examine mechanisms by which to leverage this media to better communicate their message through existing networks and to engage in on-going dialogue with the public. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Research Update and Gap Analysis: 3 - Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L; Knight-Jones, T J D; Charleston, B; Rodriguez, L L; Gay, C G; Sumption, K J; Vosloo, W

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed research knowledge gaps in the field of FMDV (foot-and-mouth disease virus) vaccines. The study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. Findings were used to identify priority areas for future FMD vaccine research. Vaccines play a vital role in FMD control, used both to limit the spread of the virus during epidemics in FMD-free countries and as the mainstay of disease management in endemic regions, particularly where sanitary controls are difficult to apply. Improvements in the performance or cost-effectiveness of FMD vaccines will allow more widespread and efficient disease control. FMD vaccines have changed little in recent decades, typically produced by inactivation of whole virus, the quantity and stability of the intact viral capsids in the final preparation being key for immunogenicity. However, these are exciting times and several promising novel FMD vaccine candidates have recently been developed. This includes the first FMD vaccine licensed for manufacture and use in the USA; this adenovirus-vectored FMD vaccine causes in vivo expression of viral capsids in vaccinated animals. Another promising vaccine candidate comprises stabilized empty FMDV capsids produced in vitro in a baculovirus expression system. Recombinant technologies are also being developed to improve otherwise conventionally produced inactivated vaccines, for example, by creating a chimeric vaccine virus to increase capsid stability and by inserting sequences into the vaccine virus for desired antigen expression. Other important areas of ongoing research include enhanced adjuvants, vaccine quality control procedures and predicting vaccine protection from immune correlates, thus reducing dependency on animal challenge studies. Globally, the degree of independent vaccine evaluation is highly variable, and this is essential for vaccine quality. Previously neglected, the

  7. Wet chemical analysis with a laboratory robotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkett, S.D.; Dyches, G.M.; Spencer, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Emphasis on laboratory automation has increased in recent years. The desire to improve analytical reliability, increase productivity, and reduce exposure of personnel to hazardous materials has been fundamental to this increase. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) performs research and development on nuclear materials. Development of methods to increase efficiency and safety and to reduce exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is an ongoing process at our site. Robotic systems offer a potentially attractive way to achieve these goals

  8. Is there enough vaccine to eradicate measles? An integrated analysis of measles-containing vaccine supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graegar; Michelson, Joshua; Singh, Rohit; Dabbagh, Alya; Hoekstra, Edward; van den Ent, Maya; Mallya, Apoorva

    2011-07-01

    Responding to regional advancements in combating measles, the World Health Organization in May 2008 called for an assessment of the feasibility of measles eradication, including whether sufficient vaccine supply exists. Interviews with international health officials and vaccine-makers provided data for a detailed model of worldwide demand and supply for measles-containing vaccine (MCV). The study projected global MCV demand through 2025 with and without a global eradication goal. The study found that 5.2 billion MCV doses must be administered during 2010-2025 to maintain current measles programs, and 5.9 billion doses would likely be needed with a 2020 eradication goal; in the most intensive scenario, demand could increase to 7.5 billion doses. These volumes are within existing and planned MCV-manufacturing capacity, although there are risks. In some markets, capacity is concentrated: Supply-chain disruptions could reduce supply or increase prices. Mitigation strategies could include stockpiling, long-term contracts, and further coordination with manufacturers. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of results from intercomparison among Spanish laboratories involved of photon energy ''137 Cs for environmental dosimetry laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.M.; Brosed, A.; Salas, R.

    2003-01-01

    Any environmental thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) system must be periodically calibrated at a calibration laboratory. In this frame, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) has performed an intercomparison among Spanish laboratories involved in environmental monitoring, by means of TLD, in order to verify the traceability of the whole dosimeter and reader to the national standard for the protection quantities of interest for a given photon energy (''137Cs). To achieve this goal the CSN asked the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) to carry out the reference irradiations in the energy above mentioned at the lonising Radiations Metrology Unit headquarters. Nine laboratories have participated. All the dosemeters were irradiated with the same air kerma rate. The radiological quantity used was the ambient dose equivalent, H (10), and the values of this quantity assigned to each laboratory were between 210 and 360 μSv. All the dosemeters of the participating laboratories met the two analysis criteria used. All of them demonstrated a satisfactory fulfilment of the requirements established by so called trumpet curves and of the requirements established by the ANSI 1311. (Author) 7 refs

  10. Health economic analysis of human papillomavirus vaccines in women of Chile: perspective of the health care payer using a Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jorge Alberto; Lepetic, Alejandro; Demarteau, Nadia

    2014-11-26

    In Chile, significant reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality have been observed due to implementation of a well-organized screening program. However, it has been suggested that the inclusion of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for young adolescent women may be the best prospect to further reduce the burden of cervical cancer. This cost-effectiveness study comparing two available HPV vaccines in Chile was performed to support decision making on the implementation of universal HPV vaccination. The present analysis used an existing static Markov model to assess the effect of screening and vaccination. This analysis includes the epidemiology of low-risk HPV types allowing for the comparison between the two vaccines (HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine), latest cross-protection data on HPV vaccines, treatment costs for cervical cancer, vaccine costs and 6% discounting per the health economic guideline for Chile. Projected incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICERs) for the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was 116 United States (US) dollars per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained or 147 US dollars per life-years (LY) saved, while the projected ICUR/ICER for the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine was 541 US dollars per QALY gained or 726 US dollars per LY saved. Introduction of any HPV vaccine to the present cervical cancer prevention program of Chile is estimated to be highly cost-effective (below 1X gross domestic product [GDP] per capita, 14278 US dollars). In Chile, the addition of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine to the existing screening program dominated the addition of HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis results show that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine is expected to be dominant and cost-saving in 69.3% and 77.6% of the replicates respectively. The findings indicate that the addition of any HPV vaccine to the current cervical screening

  11. Analysis of students’ generated questions in laboratory learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Llorens-Molina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to attain a reliable laboratory work assessment, we argue taking the Learning Environment as a core concept and a research paradigm that considers the factors affecting the laboratory as a particularly complex educational context. With regard to Laboratory Learning Environments (LLEs, a well known approach is the SLEI (Science Laboratory Environment Inventory. The aim of this research is to design and apply an alternative and qualitative assessment tool to characterize Laboratory Learning Environments in an introductory course of organic chemistry. An alternative and qualitative assessment tool would be useful for providing feed-back for experimental learning improvement; serving as a complementary triangulation tool in educational research on LLEs; and generating meaningful categories in order to design quantitative research instruments. Toward this end, spontaneous questions by students have been chosen as a reliable source of information. To process these questions, a methodology based on the Grounded Theory has been developed to provide a framework for characterizing LLEs. This methodology has been applied in two case studies. The conclusions lead us to argue for using more holistic assessment tools in both everyday practice and research. Likewise, a greater attention should be paid to metacognition to achieve suitable self-perception concerning students’ previous knowledge and manipulative skills.

  12. Acellular pertussis vaccines--a question of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, P

    1995-06-01

    Whole cell pertussis vaccine is considered to offer at least 80% protection against typical whooping cough. The quest for an equally effective but less reactogenic vaccine is now drawing to a close. During the forthcoming year a number of efficacy trials of acellular pertussis vaccines will be terminated. A variety of vaccines containing one, two, three or five purified pertussis antigens are being tested in Germany, Italy, Senegal and Sweden. About 30,000 infants have been enrolled in placebo-controlled studies and more than 100,000 in whole cell vaccine-controlled trials. The final plans for analysis of a Swedish placebo-controlled trial of whole cell and acellular vaccines is presented. Due to the unexpected high incidence of pertussis in Sweden during 1993-1994, relative risk comparisons between vaccines will be attempted in that trial, in addition to estimating absolute efficacy. A crucial issue is to what extent data may be compared between trials, given differences in design, vaccination schedules, and chosen endpoints. A primary case definition of laboratory-confirmed pertussis with at least 21 days of paroxysmal cough have been adopted in most trials. Pre-planned meta-analysis using this single endpoint will facilitate comparisons between vaccines. Serological correlates to protection in individuals will be sought in the ongoing placebo-controlled trials. The concept of a serological correlate valid for a vaccinated population but not necessarily for the vaccinated individual, as is the case with Hib vaccines, may turn out to be the only alternative to performing large efficacy trials in the future.

  13. A retrospective analysis of oral cholera vaccine use, disease severity and deaths during an outbreak in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekolo, Cavin Epie; van Loenhout, Joris Adriaan Frank; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Rumunu, John; Ramadan, Otim Patrick; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether pre-emptive oral cholera vaccination reduces disease severity and mortality in people who develop cholera disease during an outbreak. The study involved a retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data from 41 cholera treatment facilities in South Sudan on patients who developed cholera disease between 23 April and 20 July 2014 during a large outbreak, a few months after a pre-emptive oral vaccination campaign. Patients who developed severe dehydration were regarded as having a severe cholera infection. Vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were compared and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with developing severe disease or death. In total, 4115 cholera patients were treated at the 41 facilities: 1946 (47.3%) had severe disease and 62 (1.5%) deaths occurred. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who received two doses of oral cholera vaccine were 4.5-fold less likely to develop severe disease than unvaccinated patients (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 0.22; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.11-0.44). Moreover, those with severe cholera were significantly more likely to die than those without (aOR: 4.76; 95% CI: 2.33-9.77). Pre-emptive vaccination with two doses of oral cholera vaccine was associated with a significant reduction in the likelihood of developing severe cholera disease during an outbreak in South Sudan. Moreover, severe disease was the strongest predictor of death. Two doses of oral cholera vaccine should be used in emergencies to reduce the disease burden.

  14. Human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) targets rotavirus from birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobari, Jarir At; Satria, Cahya Dewi; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Cowley, Daniel; Nirwati, Hera; Ackland, James; Standish, Jane; Justice, Frances; Byars, Gabrielle; Lee, Katherine J.; Barnes, Graeme L.; Bachtiar, Novilia S.; Icanervilia, Ajeng Viska; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Pavlic, Daniel; Bishop, Ruth F.; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Buttery, Jim P.; Soenarto, Yati

    2018-01-01

    Background A birth dose strategy using a neonatal rotavirus vaccine to target early prevention of rotavirus disease may address remaining barriers to global vaccine implementation. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) to prevent rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB administered in a neonatal schedule at 0-5 days, 8 and 14 weeks or infant schedule at 8, 14 and 18 weeks, or placebo. Laboratory-confirmed rotavirus gastroenteritis was graded using a modified Vesikari score. The primary analysis was efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis from two weeks after all doses to 18 months in the combined vaccine group (neonatal and infant schedule) compared with placebo. Results Vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis to 18 months was 63% in the combined vaccine group (95% CI 34, 80; p<0.001), 75% in the neonatal vaccine group (95% confidence interval [CI] 44, 91; p<0.001) and 51% in the infant vaccine group (95% CI 7, 76; p=0.03) in the per protocol analysis, with similar results in the intention-to-treat analysis. Vaccine efficacy to 12 months was 94% in the neonatal vaccine group (95%CI 56, 99; p=0.006). Vaccine take occurred in 78/83 (94%) in the neonatal vaccine group and 83/84 (99%) in the infant vaccine group. The vaccine was well tolerated, with similar incidence of adverse events in vaccine and placebo recipients. Conclusion RV3-BB was efficacious, immunogenic and well-tolerated when administered in a neonatal or infant schedule in Indonesia. PMID:29466164

  15. Biohazard Analysis of Select Biodefense Vaccine Candidates - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella Tularensis LVS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.

    2007-01-01

    Biohazard assessment of biodefense vaccine candidates forms the basis for a facility- and activity-specific risk assessment performed to determine the biosafety levels and general safety standards required for biological product development. As a part of our support to the US biodefense vaccine development program, we perform a systematic biohazard assessment of potential vaccine candidates with the primary objective to, (a) Identify and characterize hazard elements associated with the wild type and vaccine strains, (b) Provide biohazard information on the etiologic agent (vaccine candidate) to assess Phase 1 clinical trial facility sites, (c) Provide a baseline to conduct an agent and facility-specific risk assessment at clinical trial facilities interested in performing phase 1 clinical trial, (d) Provide comparative hazard profiles of the vaccine candidates wit MSDS for wild-type to identify and establish appropriate protective biosafety levels, and (e) Support determination of a hazard level to select personal protective equipment as required under the OSHA guidelines. This paper will describe the biohazard analysis of two vaccine candidates, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella tularensis LVS, a viral and bacterial agent, respectively. As part of the biohazard assessment we preformed a thorough review of published literature on medical pathology, epidemiology, pre-clinical investigational studies, and environmental data on the etiologic agent subtypes and the vaccine candidates. Using standard analytical procedures, the data were then analyzed relative to two intrinsic hazard parameters-health hazard and environmental hazard. Using a weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach, the potential hazards of etiologic agent wild subtypes and vaccine candidates were ranked under three main categories: Public Health Hazard, Environmental Hazard, and Overall Hazard. A WOE scoring system allows for both a determination of the intrinsic hazard of each

  16. Biohazard Analysis of Select Biodefense Vaccine Candidates - Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella Tularensis LVS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, V [National Security Programs, Computer Science Corporation, Alexandria (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Biohazard assessment of biodefense vaccine candidates forms the basis for a facility- and activity-specific risk assessment performed to determine the biosafety levels and general safety standards required for biological product development. As a part of our support to the US biodefense vaccine development program, we perform a systematic biohazard assessment of potential vaccine candidates with the primary objective to, (a) Identify and characterize hazard elements associated with the wild type and vaccine strains, (b) Provide biohazard information on the etiologic agent (vaccine candidate) to assess Phase 1 clinical trial facility sites, (c) Provide a baseline to conduct an agent and facility-specific risk assessment at clinical trial facilities interested in performing phase 1 clinical trial, (d) Provide comparative hazard profiles of the vaccine candidates wit MSDS for wild-type to identify and establish appropriate protective biosafety levels, and (e) Support determination of a hazard level to select personal protective equipment as required under the OSHA guidelines. This paper will describe the biohazard analysis of two vaccine candidates, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Strain 3526 and Francisella tularensis LVS, a viral and bacterial agent, respectively. As part of the biohazard assessment we preformed a thorough review of published literature on medical pathology, epidemiology, pre-clinical investigational studies, and environmental data on the etiologic agent subtypes and the vaccine candidates. Using standard analytical procedures, the data were then analyzed relative to two intrinsic hazard parameters-health hazard and environmental hazard. Using a weight-of-evidence (WOE) approach, the potential hazards of etiologic agent wild subtypes and vaccine candidates were ranked under three main categories: Public Health Hazard, Environmental Hazard, and Overall Hazard. A WOE scoring system allows for both a determination of the intrinsic hazard of each

  17. Laboratory and molecular surveillance of paediatric typhoidal Salmonella in Nepal: Antimicrobial resistance and implications for vaccine policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl D Britto

    2018-04-01

    vaccine is cause for concern, given its prevalence as a fluoroquinolone resistant enteric fever agent in this setting.

  18. Safety analysis report for packaging Lawrence Livermore Laboratories shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.H.

    1975-12-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratories shipping containers were designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in transporting weapons and nuclear components. The design for the containers was evaluated to show compliance with applicable regulations governing packages in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported. Computational procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the containers relative to the standards for the normal conditions of transport. A full-scale container test model was destructively tested to verify compliance with the standards for the accident conditions. The results of the analytical evaluations and the tests demonstrate that the design for the Lawrence Livermore Laboratories shipping containers is in compliance with the applicable regulations

  19. Intervention of hydrogen analysis laboratory for radioactive materials study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, N.; Vinces, H.; Figueroa, S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the practice was the measurement of the hydrogen concentration on structural material from the Central Nuclear Atucha I (CNA-I) cooling channels using a LECO gas analyser. Original samples were previously separated into fractions at the Laboratiorio para Ensayos de Post-Irradiacion (LAPEP), Centro Atomico Ezeiza. The practice and the preliminary conditions of the laboratory and equipment to reduce the occupational dose for personnel and the work area contamination are described in this paper. In addition to the training activity for workers, the radiological control performed during the intervention and procedure followed to decontaminate LECO and the laboratory are summarized here. (authors)

  20. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a) designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b) presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO) patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation. PMID:26372160

  1. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Liu, Yun; Cheng, Yijie; Liu, Long; Yan, Zhe; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Xiuhua; Luo, Yanxia; Yan, Aoshuang

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus vaccine (IVV) is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a) designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b) presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO) patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation.

  2. Technology Resource, Distribution, and Development Characteristics of Global Influenza Virus Vaccine: A Patent Bibliometric Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chen

    Full Text Available Influenza virus vaccine (IVV is a promising research domain that is closely related to global health matters, which has been acknowledged not only by scientists and technology developers, but also by policy-makers. Meanwhile, patents encompass valuable technological information and reflect the latest technological inventions as well as the innovative capability of a nation. However, little research has examined this up-and-coming research field using patent bibliometric method. Thus, this paper (a designs the technology classification system and search strategy for the identification of IVV; and (b presents a longitudinal analysis of the global IVV development based on the European Patent Office (EPO patents. Bibliometric analysis is used to rank countries, institutions, inventors and technology subfields contributing to IVV technical progress. The results show that the global trends of IVV are a multi-developing feature of variety but an uneven technical resource distribution. Although the synthetic peptide vaccine is a comparatively young field, it already demonstrates the powerful vitality and the enormous development space. With the worldwide competition increasing, all nations especially China should be looking to increase devotion, enhance capability and regard effectiveness of technological innovation.

  3. Controversial Ebola vaccine trials in Ghana: a thematic analysis of critiques and rebuttals in digital news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Egil Kummervold

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication is of paramount importance in responding to health crises. We studied the media messages put forth by different stakeholders in two Ebola vaccine trials that became controversial in Ghana. These interactions between health authorities, political actors, and public citizens can offer key lessons for future research. Through an analysis of online media, we analyse stakeholder concerns and incentives, and the phases of the dispute, to understand how the dispute evolved to the point of the trials being suspended, and analyse what steps might have been taken to avert this outcome. Methods A web-based system was developed to download and analyse news reports relevant to Ebola vaccine trials. This included monitoring major online newspapers in each country with planned clinical trials, including Ghana. All news articles were downloaded, selecting out those containing variants of the words “Ebola,” and “vaccine,” which were analysed thematically by a team of three coders. Two types of themes were defined: critiques of the trials and rebuttals in favour of the trials. After reconciling differences between coders’ results, the data were visualised and reviewed to describe and interpret the debate. Results A total of 27,460 articles, published between 1 May and 30 July 2015, were collected from nine different newspapers in Ghana, of which 139 articles contained the keywords and met the inclusion criteria. The final codebook included 27 themes, comprising 16 critiques and 11 rebuttals. After coding and reconciliation, the main critiques (and their associated rebuttals were selected for in-depth analysis, including statements about the trials being secret (mentioned in 21% of articles, claims that the vaccine trials would cause an Ebola outbreak in Ghana (33%, and the alleged impropriety of the incentives offered to participants (35%. Discussion Perceptions that the trials were “secret” arose from a combination

  4. Controversial Ebola vaccine trials in Ghana: a thematic analysis of critiques and rebuttals in digital news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummervold, Per Egil; Schulz, William S; Smout, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Larson, Heidi J

    2017-08-07

    Communication is of paramount importance in responding to health crises. We studied the media messages put forth by different stakeholders in two Ebola vaccine trials that became controversial in Ghana. These interactions between health authorities, political actors, and public citizens can offer key lessons for future research. Through an analysis of online media, we analyse stakeholder concerns and incentives, and the phases of the dispute, to understand how the dispute evolved to the point of the trials being suspended, and analyse what steps might have been taken to avert this outcome. A web-based system was developed to download and analyse news reports relevant to Ebola vaccine trials. This included monitoring major online newspapers in each country with planned clinical trials, including Ghana. All news articles were downloaded, selecting out those containing variants of the words "Ebola," and "vaccine," which were analysed thematically by a team of three coders. Two types of themes were defined: critiques of the trials and rebuttals in favour of the trials. After reconciling differences between coders' results, the data were visualised and reviewed to describe and interpret the debate. A total of 27,460 articles, published between 1 May and 30 July 2015, were collected from nine different newspapers in Ghana, of which 139 articles contained the keywords and met the inclusion criteria. The final codebook included 27 themes, comprising 16 critiques and 11 rebuttals. After coding and reconciliation, the main critiques (and their associated rebuttals) were selected for in-depth analysis, including statements about the trials being secret (mentioned in 21% of articles), claims that the vaccine trials would cause an Ebola outbreak in Ghana (33%), and the alleged impropriety of the incentives offered to participants (35%). Perceptions that the trials were "secret" arose from a combination of premature news reporting and the fact that the trials were prohibited

  5. The Case for Adolescent HIV Vaccination in South Africa: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Nishila; Gray, Glenda; Bertram, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Despite comprising 0.7% of the world population, South Africa is home to 18% of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence. Unyielding HIV subepidemics among adolescents threaten national attempts to curtail the disease burden. Should an HIV vaccine become available, establishing its point of entry into the health system becomes a priority. This study assesses the impact of school-based HIV vaccination and explores how variations in vaccine characteristics affect cost-effectiveness. The cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained associated with school-based adolescent HIV vaccination services was assessed using Markov modeling that simulated annual cycles based on national costing data. The estimation was based on a life expectancy of 70 years and employs the health care provider perspective. The simultaneous implementation of HIV vaccination services with current HIV management programs would be cost-effective, even at relatively higher vaccine cost. At base vaccine cost of US$ 12, the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was US$ 43 per QALY gained, with improved ICER values yielded at lower vaccine costs. The ICER was sensitive to duration of vaccine mediated protection and variations in vaccine efficacy. Data from this work demonstrate that vaccines offering longer duration of protection and at lower cost would result in improved ICER values. School-based HIV vaccine services of adolescents, in addition to current HIV prevention and treatment health services delivered, would be cost-effective.

  6. In vitro characterization of pertussis vaccines : Functional analysis as part of the Consistency Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonakker, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    The current paradigm in vaccine lot release testing is that each final lot of vaccine produced is unique, due to the considerable inherent variation in the preceding biological production process. Consequently, each individual vaccine lot needs to be tested for safety and potency, frequently

  7. Amchitka Island Environmental Analysis at Idaho National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracy Elias; W. F. Bauer; J.G. Eisenmenger; C.C. Jensen; B.K. Schuetz; T. C. Sorensen; B.M. White; A. L. Freeman; M. E. McIlwain

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provided support to Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) in their activities which is supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of past nuclear testing at Amchitka Island on the ecosystem of the island and surrounding ocean. INL participated in this project in three phases, Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3

  8. The Observatory as Laboratory: Spectral Analysis at Mount Wilson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashear, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    This paper will discuss the seminal changes in astronomical research practices made at the Mount Wilson Observatory in the early twentieth century by George Ellery Hale and his staff. Hale’s desire to set the agenda for solar and stellar astronomical research is often described in terms of his new telescopes, primarily the solar tower observatories and the 60- and 100-inch telescopes on Mount Wilson. This paper will focus more on the ancillary but no less critical parts of Hale’s research mission: the establishment of associated “physical” laboratories as part of the observatory complex where observational spectral data could be quickly compared with spectra obtained using specialized laboratory equipment. Hale built a spectroscopic laboratory on the mountain and a more elaborate physical laboratory in Pasadena and staffed it with highly trained physicists, not classically trained astronomers. The success of Hale’s vision for an astronomical observatory quickly made the Carnegie Institution’s Mount Wilson Observatory one of the most important astrophysical research centers in the world.

  9. The WEBSIM FISHBANKS Simulation Laboratory: Analysis of Its Ripple Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes do Amaral, João Alberto; Hess, Aurélio

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the ripple effects of the WEBSIM FISHBANKS Simulation Laboratory held at Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) in 2014, held as a result of a partnership between the Sloan School of Management of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the UNIFESP, and the Brazilian Chapter of the System Dynamics Society of…

  10. Parents’ uptake of human papillomavirus vaccines for their children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepjan, Suchon; Rubincam, Clara; Doukas, Nick; Asey, Farid

    2018-01-01

    Objective To examine factors associated with parents’ uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines for their children. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Cochrane Library, AIDSLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Abstracts, Ovid MEDLINE, Scholars Portal, Social Sciences Citation Index and Dissertation Abstracts International from inception through November 2017. Methods We included studies that sampled parents and assessed uptake of HPV vaccines for their children (≤18 years) and/or sociodemographics, knowledge, attitudes or other factors associated with uptake. Study risk of bias was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. We pooled data using random-effects meta-analysis and conducted moderation analyses to examine variance in uptake by sex of child and parent. Results Seventy-nine studies on 840 838 parents across 15 countries were included. The pooled proportion of parents’ uptake of HPV vaccines for their children was 41.5% (range: 0.7%–92.8%), twofold higher for girls (46.5%) than for boys (20.3%). In the meta-analysis of 62 studies, physician recommendation (r=0.46 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.56)) had the greatest influence on parents’ uptake, followed by HPV vaccine safety concerns (r=−0.31 (95% CI −0.41 to −0.16)), routine child preventive check-up, past 12 months (r=0.22 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.33)) and parents’ belief in vaccines (r=0.19 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.29)). Health insurance-covered HPV vaccination (r=0.16 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.29)) and lower out-of-pocket cost (r=−0.15 (95% CI −0.22 to −0.07)) had significant effects on uptake. We found significant moderator effects for sex of child. Conclusions Findings indicate suboptimal levels of HPV vaccine uptake, twofold lower among boys, that may be improved by increasing physician recommendations, addressing parental safety concerns and promoting parents’ positive beliefs about vaccines, in addition to expanding insurance coverage and

  11. Parents' uptake of human papillomavirus vaccines for their children: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A; Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Baiden, Philip; Tepjan, Suchon; Rubincam, Clara; Doukas, Nick; Asey, Farid

    2018-04-20

    To examine factors associated with parents' uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines for their children. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Cochrane Library, AIDSLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Abstracts, Ovid MEDLINE, Scholars Portal, Social Sciences Citation Index and Dissertation Abstracts International from inception through November 2017. We included studies that sampled parents and assessed uptake of HPV vaccines for their children (≤18 years) and/or sociodemographics, knowledge, attitudes or other factors associated with uptake. Study risk of bias was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project tool. We pooled data using random-effects meta-analysis and conducted moderation analyses to examine variance in uptake by sex of child and parent. Seventy-nine studies on 840 838 parents across 15 countries were included. The pooled proportion of parents' uptake of HPV vaccines for their children was 41.5% (range: 0.7%-92.8%), twofold higher for girls (46.5%) than for boys (20.3%). In the meta-analysis of 62 studies, physician recommendation (r=0.46 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.56)) had the greatest influence on parents' uptake, followed by HPV vaccine safety concerns (r=-0.31 (95% CI -0.41 to -0.16)), routine child preventive check-up, past 12 months (r=0.22 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.33)) and parents' belief in vaccines (r=0.19 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.29)). Health insurance-covered HPV vaccination (r=0.16 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.29)) and lower out-of-pocket cost (r=-0.15 (95% CI -0.22 to -0.07)) had significant effects on uptake. We found significant moderator effects for sex of child. Findings indicate suboptimal levels of HPV vaccine uptake, twofold lower among boys, that may be improved by increasing physician recommendations, addressing parental safety concerns and promoting parents' positive beliefs about vaccines, in addition to expanding insurance coverage and reducing out-of-pocket costs. Limitations of this meta-analysis include the lack of

  12. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  13. Supplement analysis for continued operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. Volume 2: Comment response document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), prepared a draft Supplement Analysis (SA) for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNL-L), in accordance with DOE`s requirements for implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 1021.314). It considers whether the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Environmental Impact Report for Continued Operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (1992 EIS/EIR) should be supplement3ed, whether a new environmental impact statement (EIS) should be prepared, or no further NEPA documentation is required. The SA examines the current project and program plans and proposals for LLNL and SNL-L, operations to identify new or modified projects or operations or new information for the period from 1998 to 2002 that was not considered in the 1992 EIS/EIR. When such changes, modifications, and information are identified, they are examined to determine whether they could be considered substantial or significant in reference to the 1992 proposed action and the 1993 Record of Decision (ROD). DOE released the draft SA to the public to obtain stakeholder comments and to consider those comments in the preparation of the final SA. DOE distributed copies of the draft SA to those who were known to have an interest in LLNL or SNL-L activities in addition to those who requested a copy. In response to comments received, DOE prepared this Comment Response Document.

  14. [Development of current smallpox vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksiutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Shchelkunov, S N

    2011-01-01

    The review gives data on the history of smallpox vaccination and shows the high topicality of designing the current safe vaccines against orthopoxviruses. Four generations of live smallpox, protein subunit, and DNA vaccines are considered. Analysis of the data published leads to the conclusion that it is promising to use the up-to-date generations of safe smallpox subunit or DNA vaccines for mass primary immunization with possible further revaccination with classical live vaccine.

  15. Using cost-effectiveness analysis to support research and development portfolio prioritization for product innovations in measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Bauch, Chris T; Bresnahan, Brian W; Hazlet, Tom K; Kadiyala, Srikanth; Veenstra, David L

    2011-07-01

    Several potential measles vaccine innovations are in development to address the shortcomings of the current vaccine. Funders need to prioritize their scarce research and development resources. This article demonstrates the usefulness of cost-effectiveness analysis to support these decisions. This study had 4 major components: (1) identifying potential innovations, (2) developing transmission models to assess mortality and morbidity impacts, (3) estimating the unit cost impacts, and (4) assessing aggregate cost-effectiveness in United Nations Children's Fund countries through 2049. Four promising technologies were evaluated: aerosol delivery, needle-free injection, inhalable dry powder, and early administration DNA vaccine. They are projected to have a small absolute impact in terms of reducing the number of measles cases in most scenarios because of already improving vaccine coverage. Three are projected to reduce unit cost per dose by $0.024 to $0.170 and would improve overall cost-effectiveness. Each will require additional investments to reach the market. Over the next 40 years, the aggregate cost savings could be substantial, ranging from $98.4 million to $689.4 million. Cost-effectiveness analysis can help to inform research and development portfolio prioritization decisions. Three new measles vaccination technologies under development hold promise to be cost-saving from a global perspective over the long-term, even after considering additional investment costs. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  16. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  17. Comparability of river suspended-sediment sampling and laboratory analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, Joel T.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2018-03-06

    Accurate measurements of suspended sediment, a leading water-quality impairment in many Minnesota rivers, are important for managing and protecting water resources; however, water-quality standards for suspended sediment in Minnesota are based on grab field sampling and total suspended solids (TSS) laboratory analysis methods that have underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment in rivers compared to U.S. Geological Survey equal-width-increment or equal-discharge-increment (EWDI) field sampling and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) laboratory analysis methods. Because of this underrepresentation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, collected concurrent grab and EWDI samples at eight sites to compare results obtained using different combinations of field sampling and laboratory analysis methods.Study results determined that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis results were biased substantially low compared to EWDI sampling and SSC laboratory analysis results, respectively. Differences in both field sampling and laboratory analysis methods caused grab and TSS methods to be biased substantially low. The difference in laboratory analysis methods was slightly greater than field sampling methods.Sand-sized particles had a strong effect on the comparability of the field sampling and laboratory analysis methods. These results indicated that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods fail to capture most of the sand being transported by the stream. The results indicate there is less of a difference among samples collected with grab field sampling and analyzed for TSS and concentration of fines in SSC. Even though differences are present, the presence of strong correlations between SSC and TSS concentrations provides the opportunity to develop site specific relations to address transport processes not captured by grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods.

  18. Laboratory experience in the analysis of orphan waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, L.; Kharkar, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    Energy related low level radioactive waste mixed with inorganic and organic hazardous waste derive from all stages of the fuel cycle. In order to comply with EPA and NRC regulations, prior to disposal this waste must be analyzed. For the analytical laboratory, the samples comprise both a potential radiation and chemical hazard. Screening procedures for handling such samples are described. Sophisticated instrumentation is necessary to identify the contaminants with the sensitivity required by the EPA and NRC. Aliquotting and dilution techniques have been adequate to reduce the activity levels sufficiently to allow operations in an uncontrolled laboratory and meet the minimum detection levels. Higher level samples are analyzed in a controlled area employing dedicated instrumentation and health physics precautions

  19. Internal laboratory control in residue analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The thesis contains a chapter on gaschromatographic system in which gas current, temperatures, separation system, detector system, recorder, dosing system and integrator are described. The chapter on reagents deals with standards and solvents, absorbents and other reagents. The chapter on laboratory equipment deals with general recommendations for apparatus, purification and total numerical result of blank test. The chapter ''Methods'' contains general references, aptitude for a special problem, common investigations and control by standard reference materials. The chapter on the work up of samples treats extraction, purification, concentrating the solution, internal standard, multiple determination and control samples. The chapter on measurement presents calibration, internal standard, multiple determination, securing the result and control samples. The chapter on evaluation consists of qualitative and quantitave evaluation, decision criteria and communication of the result. The chapter of documentation described routine investigations, tests and controls of internal laboratory control, preliminary works, maintenance and service works.

  20. [Analysis of Koch phenomenon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected guinea pigs vaccinated with recombinant tuberculosis vaccine AEC/BC02].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J B; Cheng, B W; Deng, H Q; Su, C; Shen, X B; Du, W X; Yang, L; Wang, G Z; Xu, M

    2016-07-01

    To observe the Koch phenomenon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB)-infected guinea pigs after vaccinated with killed H37Ra bacteria or tuberculosis vaccine candidate AEC/BC02. Eighteen guinea pigs were challenged subcutaneously with 5.0×10(3) CFU MTB and after 40 days were divided into 3 groups (6 per group): NS group, AEC/BC02 group and H37Ra group, which were injected intramuscularly 3 times at 1 day interval with normal saline, AEC/BC02 vaccine and killed H37Ra bacteria respectively. Three weeks after the first vaccination, all guinea pigs were sacrificed to evaluate gross pathological scores for liver, spleen and lung, bacterial loads in lung and spleen, and lung inflammation. The gross pathological score in H37Ra group (48±26) was lower than that in NS group(62±15), but the difference was not significant (t=1.093, P=0.300). The AEC/BC02 group had a significantly lower gross pathological score (36±15) than NS group (t=2.980, P=0.014). No significant difference between H37Ra group and AEC/BC02 group was observed (t=1.009, P=0.337). The spleen bacterial load [(5.31±0.80) log10 CFU]in H37Ra group was slightly lower than that in NS group[(5.57±0.75) log10 CFU] but the difference was not significant (t=1.581, P=0.574). In AEC/BC02 group bacterial load in the spleen was (4.64±0.64) log10 CFU and significantly lower than NS group (t=2.306, P=0.044) and no significant difference between H37Ra group and AEC/BC02 group was observed (t=1.602, P=0.140). Meanwhile, the lung bacterial load in AEC/BC02 group was (3.71±1.01) log10 CFU and in H37Ra group was (3.82±1.25) log10 CFU. Compared to (4.15±0.69) log10 CFU in the NS group, no significant differences were found (t=0.881, P=0.399; t=0.566, P=0.584, respectively). For the lung inflammation, the inflamed areas in H37Ra group were significantly larger [(33.0±4.4%)] than those in both NS group [(14.8±8.4) %, t=4.719, P=0.001] and AEC/BC02 group [(14.8±8.4) %, t=3.616, P=0.005], and no significant differences were

  1. Awareness and knowledge about human papillomavirus vaccination and its acceptance in China: a meta-analysis of 58 observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanru Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines have been widely introduced in immunization programs worldwide, however, it is not accepted in mainland China. We aimed to investigate the awareness and knowledge about HPV vaccines and explore the acceptability of vaccination among the Chinese population. Methods A meta-analysis was conducted across two English (PubMed, EMBASE and three Chinese (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang Database and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals electronic databases in order to identify HPV vaccination studies conducted in mainland China. We conducted and reported the analysis in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines. Results Fifty-eight unique studies representing 19 provinces and municipalities in mainland China were assessed. The pooled awareness and knowledge rates about HPV vaccination were 15.95 % (95 % CI: 12.87–19.29, I 2  = 98.9 % and 17.55 % (95 % CI: 12.38–24.88, I 2  = 99.8 %, respectively. The female population (17.39 %; 95 % CI: 13.06–22.20, I 2 = 98.8 % and mixed population (18.55 %; 95 % CI: 14.14–23.42, I 2 = 98.8 % exhibited higher HPV vaccine awareness than the male population (1.82 %; 95 % CI: 0.50–11.20, I 2 = 98.5 %. Populations of mixed ethnicity had lower HPV vaccine awareness (9.61 %; 95 % CI: 5.95–14.03, I 2 = 99.0 % than the Han population (20.17 %; 95 % CI: 16.42–24.20, I 2 = 98.3 %. Among different regions, the HPV vaccine awareness was higher in EDA (17.57 %; 95 % CI: 13.36–22.21, I 2 = 98.0 % and CLDA (17.78 %; 95 % CI: 12.18–24.19, I 2 = 97.6 % than in WUDA (1.80 %; 95 % CI: 0.02–6.33, I 2 = 98.9 %. Furthermore, 67.25 % (95 % CI: 58.75–75.21, I 2  = 99.8 % of participants were willing to be vaccinated, while this number was lower for their daughters (60.32 %; 95 % CI: 51.25–69.04, I 2

  2. Analysis of laboratory compaction methods of roller compacted concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtík, Tomáš; Chylík, Roman; Bílý, Petr; Fládr, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) is an ordinary concrete poured and compacted with machines typically used for laying of asphalt road layers. One of the problems connected with this technology is preparation of representative samples in the laboratory. The aim of this work was to analyse two methods of preparation of RCC laboratory samples with bulk density as the comparative parameter. The first method used dynamic compaction by pneumatic hammer. The second method of compaction had a static character. The specimens were loaded by precisely defined force in laboratory loading machine to create the same conditions as during static rolling (in the Czech Republic, only static rolling is commonly used). Bulk densities obtained by the two compaction methods were compared with core drills extracted from real RCC structure. The results have shown that the samples produced by pneumatic hammer tend to overestimate the bulk density of the material. For both compaction methods, immediate bearing index test was performed to verify the quality of compaction. A fundamental difference between static and dynamic compaction was identified. In static compaction, initial resistance to penetration of the mandrel was higher, after exceeding certain limit the resistance was constant. This means that the samples were well compacted just on the surface. Specimens made by pneumatic hammer actively resisted throughout the test, the whole volume was uniformly compacted.

  3. Vaccination Perceptions of College Students: With and without Vaccination Waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Emmanuel D; Winkler, Danielle L; Anderson, Billie S

    2018-01-01

    The resurgence of vaccine preventable diseases occurs more often among intentionally unvaccinated individuals, placing at direct risk young adults not caught up on vaccinations. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of young adults with and without vaccination waivers and identify their perceived benefits, barriers, and influencers of vaccination. Young adults ( n  = 964) from a Midwestern rural university responded to a survey (fall 2015-spring 2016) designed to identify their perception toward vaccination. Instrument consistency was measured using the Cronbach α-scores. The Chi-square test was used to test any sociodemographic differences and Mann-Whitney U -tests results for differences between exempt and non-exempt students. Analysis occurred in spring 2017. A little over one-third of young adults with a vaccination waiver were not up to date on their vaccinations, and think that vaccinations can cause autism. The biggest identifiable benefit was effective control against disease. The surveyed young adults ranked the out of pocket cost associated with vaccination as the most important barrier and safe and easy to use vaccines as the most important influencer of vaccination. Young adults who have had a vaccination waiver appear to not be up to date on their vaccinations. Vaccine administration programs, such as university campus clinics, would benefit from addressing perceptions unique to young adults with and without a vaccine waiver. This would subsequently better provide young adults a second shot for getting appropriately caught up on vaccinations.

  4. A simulation analysis to characterize the dynamics of vaccinating behaviour on contact networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauch Chris T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human behavior influences infectious disease transmission, and numerous "prevalence-behavior" models have analyzed this interplay. These previous analyses assumed homogeneously mixing populations without spatial or social structure. However, spatial and social heterogeneity are known to significantly impact transmission dynamics and are particularly relevant for certain diseases. Previous work has demonstrated that social contact structure can change the individual incentive to vaccinate, thus enabling eradication of a disease under a voluntary vaccination policy when the corresponding homogeneous mixing model predicts that eradication is impossible due to free rider effects. Here, we extend this work and characterize the range of possible behavior-prevalence dynamics on a network. Methods We simulate transmission of a vaccine-prevetable infection through a random, static contact network. Individuals choose whether or not to vaccinate on any given day according to perceived risks of vaccination and infection. Results We find three possible outcomes for behavior-prevalence dynamics on this type of network: small final number vaccinated and final epidemic size (due to rapid control through voluntary ring vaccination; large final number vaccinated and significant final epidemic size (due to imperfect voluntary ring vaccination, and little or no vaccination and large final epidemic size (corresponding to little or no voluntary ring vaccination. We also show that the social contact structure enables eradication under a broad range of assumptions, except when vaccine risk is sufficiently high, the disease risk is sufficiently low, or individuals vaccinate too late for the vaccine to be effective. Conclusion For populations where infection can spread only through social contact network, relatively small differences in parameter values relating to perceived risk or vaccination behavior at the individual level can translate into large

  5. Comparison of the analysis result between two laboratories using different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Agus Taftazani

    2017-01-01

    Comparison of the analysis result of volcano ash sample between two laboratories using different analysis methods. The research aims to improve the testing laboratory quality and cooperate with the testing laboratory from other country. Samples were tested at the Center for Accelerator of Science and Technology (CAST)-NAA laboratory using NAA, while at the University of Texas (UT) USA using ICP-MS and ENAA method. From 12 elements of target, CAST-NAA able to present 11 elements of data analysis. The comparison results shows that the analysis of the K, Mn, Ti and Fe elements from both laboratories have a very good comparison and close one to other. It is known from RSD values and correlation coefficients of the both laboratories analysis results. While observed of the results difference known that the analysis results of Al, Na, K, Fe, V, Mn, Ti, Cr and As elements from both laboratories is not significantly different. From 11 elements were reported, only Zn which have significantly different values for both laboratories. (author)

  6. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  7. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W. [and others

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  8. Optimized oral cholera vaccine distribution strategies to minimize disease incidence: A mixed integer programming model and analysis of a Bangladesh scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Hannah K; Keskinocak, Pinar; Swann, Julie; Hinman, Alan

    2015-11-17

    In addition to improved sanitation, hygiene, and better access to safe water, oral cholera vaccines can help to control the spread of cholera in the short term. However, there is currently no systematic method for determining the best allocation of oral cholera vaccines to minimize disease incidence in a population where the disease is endemic and resources are limited. We present a mathematical model for optimally allocating vaccines in a region under varying levels of demographic and incidence data availability. The model addresses the questions of where, when, and how many doses of vaccines to send. Considering vaccine efficacies (which may vary based on age and the number of years since vaccination), we analyze distribution strategies which allocate vaccines over multiple years. Results indicate that, given appropriate surveillance data, targeting age groups and regions with the highest disease incidence should be the first priority, followed by other groups primarily in order of disease incidence, as this approach is the most life-saving and cost-effective. A lack of detailed incidence data results in distribution strategies which are not cost-effective and can lead to thousands more deaths from the disease. The mathematical model allows for what-if analysis for various vaccine distribution strategies by providing the ability to easily vary parameters such as numbers and sizes of regions and age groups, risk levels, vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, production capacity and budget. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Los Alamos National Laboratory Economic Analysis Capability Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Systems and Modeling Group; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Systems and Modeling Group; Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Systems and Modeling Group; Rivera, Michael Kelly [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Information Systems and Modeling Group

    2016-04-19

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed two types of models to compute the economic impact of infrastructure disruptions. FastEcon is a fast running model that estimates first-­order economic impacts of large scale events such as hurricanes and floods and can be used to identify the amount of economic activity that occurs in a specific area. LANL’s Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model estimates more comprehensive static and dynamic economic impacts of a broader array of events and captures the interactions between sectors and industries when estimating economic impacts.

  10. Internal quality control of neutron activation analysis laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Mun, J. H.; BaeK, S. Y.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The importance for quality assurance and control in analytical laboratories has been emphasized, day by day. Internal quality control using certified reference materials(CRMs) can be one of effective methods for this purpose. In this study, 10 kinds of CRMs consisting of soil, sediment and biological matrix were analyzed. To evaluate the confidence of analytical results and the validation of testing method and procedure, the accuracy and the precision of the measured elements were treated statistically and the reproducibility was compared with those values produced before 2003.

  11. Standard reference materials analysis for MINT Radiocarbon Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraishah Othman; Kamisah Alias; Nasasni Nasrul

    2004-01-01

    As a follow-up to the setting up of the MINT Radiocarbon Dating facility. an exercise on the IAEA standard reference materials was carried out. Radiocarbon laboratories frequently used these 8 natural samples to verify their systems. The materials were either pretreated or analysed directly to determine the activity of 14 C isotopes of the five samples expressed in % Modern (pMC) terms and to make recommendations on further use of these materials. We present the results of the five materials and discuss the analyses that were undertaken. (Author)

  12. An analysis of factors associated with influenza, pneumoccocal, Tdap, and herpes zoster vaccine uptake in the US adult population and corresponding inter-state variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Elizabeth M; Trantham, Laurel; Kurosky, Samantha K; Odom, Dawn; Aris, Emmanuel; Hogea, Cosmina

    2018-02-01

    Despite longstanding recommendations for routine vaccination against influenza; pneumococcal; tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap); and herpes zoster (HZ) among the United States general adult population, vaccine uptake remains low. Understanding factors that influence adult vaccination and coverage variability beyond the national level are important steps toward developing targeted strategies for increasing vaccination coverage. A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2011-2014). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was employed to identify individual factors associated with vaccination (socio-demographics, health status, healthcare utilization, state of residence) and generate adjusted vaccination coverage and compliance estimates nationally and by state. Results indicated that multiple characteristics were consistently associated with a higher likelihood of vaccination across all four vaccines, including female sex, increased educational attainment, and annual household income. Model-adjusted vaccination coverage estimates varied widely by state, with inter-state variability for the most recent year of data as follows: influenza (aged ≥18 years) 30.2-49.5%; pneumococcal (aged ≥65 years) 64.0-74.7%; Tdap (aged ≥18 years) 18.7-46.6%; and HZ (aged ≥60 years) 21.3-42.9%. Model-adjusted compliance with age-appropriate recommendations across vaccines was low and also varied by state: influenza+Tdap (aged 18-59 years) 7.9-24.7%; influenza+Tdap+HZ (aged 60-64 years) 4.1-14.4%; and influenza+Tdap+HZ+pneumococcal (aged ≥65 years) 3.0-18.3%. In summary, after adjusting for individual characteristics associated with vaccination, substantial heterogeneity across states remained, suggesting that other local factors (e.g. state policies) may be impacting adult vaccines uptake. Further research is needed to understand such factors, focusing on differences between states with high versus

  13. Vaccine instability in the cold chain: mechanisms, analysis and formulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumru, Ozan S; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Smith, Dawn E; Middaugh, C Russell; Prusik, Ted; Volkin, David B

    2014-09-01

    Instability of vaccines often emerges as a key challenge during clinical development (lab to clinic) as well as commercial distribution (factory to patient). To yield stable, efficacious vaccine dosage forms for human use, successful formulation strategies must address a combination of interrelated topics including stabilization of antigens, selection of appropriate adjuvants, and development of stability-indicating analytical methods. This review covers key concepts in understanding the causes and mechanisms of vaccine instability including (1) the complex and delicate nature of antigen structures (e.g., viruses, proteins, carbohydrates, protein-carbohydrate conjugates, etc.), (2) use of adjuvants to further enhance immune responses, (3) development of physicochemical and biological assays to assess vaccine integrity and potency, and (4) stabilization strategies to protect vaccine antigens and adjuvants (and their interactions) during storage. Despite these challenges, vaccines can usually be sufficiently stabilized for use as medicines through a combination of formulation approaches combined with maintenance of an efficient cold chain (manufacturing, distribution, storage and administration). Several illustrative case studies are described regarding mechanisms of vaccine instability along with formulation approaches for stabilization within the vaccine cold chain. These include live, attenuated (measles, polio) and inactivated (influenza, polio) viral vaccines as well as recombinant protein (hepatitis B) vaccines. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. "Wait and see" vaccinating behaviour during a pandemic: a game theoretic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, Chris T

    2011-07-26

    During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, many individuals did not seek vaccination immediately but rather decided to "wait and see" until further information was available on vaccination costs. This behaviour implies two sources of strategic interaction: as more individuals become vaccinated, both the perceived vaccination cost and the probability that susceptible individuals become infected decline. Here we analyze the outcome of these two strategic interactions by combining game theory with a disease transmission model during an outbreak of a novel influenza strain. The model exhibits a "wait and see" Nash equilibrium strategy, with vaccine delayers relying on herd immunity and vaccine safety information generated by early vaccinators. This strategic behaviour causes the timing of the epidemic peak to be strongly conserved across a broad range of plausible transmission rates, in contrast to models without such adaptive behaviour. The model exhibits not only feedback mechanisms but also a feed-forward mechanism: a high initial perceived vaccination cost perpetuates high perceived vaccine costs (and lower vaccine coverage) throughout the remainder of the outbreak. This suggests that any effect of risk communication at the start of a pandemic outbreak will be amplified compared to the same amount of risk communication effort distributed throughout the outbreak. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic changes in cellular infiltrates with repeated cutaneous vaccination: a histologic and immunophenotypic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaefer Jochen T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma vaccines have not been optimized. Adjuvants are added to activate dendritic cells (DCs and to induce a favourable immunologic milieu, however, little is known about their cellular and molecular effects in human skin. We hypothesized that a vaccine in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA would increase dermal Th1 and Tc1-lymphocytes and mature DCs, but that repeated vaccination may increase regulatory cells. Methods During and after 6 weekly immunizations with a multipeptide vaccine, immunization sites were biopsied at weeks 0, 1, 3, 7, or 12. In 36 participants, we enumerated DCs and lymphocyte subsets by immunohistochemistry and characterized their location within skin compartments. Results Mature DCs aggregated with lymphocytes around superficial vessels, however, immature DCs were randomly distributed. Over time, there was no change in mature DCs. Increases in T and B-cells were noted. Th2 cells outnumbered Th1 lymphocytes after 1 vaccine 6.6:1. Eosinophils and FoxP3+ cells accumulated, especially after 3 vaccinations, the former cell population most abundantly in deeper layers. Conclusions A multipeptide/IFA vaccine may induce a Th2-dominant microenvironment, which is reversed with repeat vaccination. However, repeat vaccination may increase FoxP3+T-cells and eosinophils. These data suggest multiple opportunities to optimize vaccine regimens and potential endpoints for monitoring the effects of new adjuvants. Trail Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00705640

  16. A nested case-control study of influenza vaccination was a cost-effective alternative to a full cohort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Wei, F; Grobbee, D E; Nichol, K L

    OBJECTIVE: In the absence of trial results that are applicable to the target population, nested case-control studies might be an alternative to full-cohort analysis. We compared relative and absolute estimates of associations in an influenza vaccine study using both designs. STUDY DESIGN AND

  17. A retrospective analysis of oral cholera vaccine use, disease severity and deaths during an outbreak in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekolo, C.E.; Loenhout, J.A. van; Rodriguez-Llanes, J.M.; Rumunu, J.; Ramadan, O.P.; Guha-Sapir, D.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pre-emptive oral cholera vaccination reduces disease severity and mortality in people who develop cholera disease during an outbreak. METHODS: The study involved a retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data from 41 cholera treatment facilities in South

  18. Population-level impact and herd effects following human papillomavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Mélanie; Bénard, Élodie; Boily, Marie-Claude; Ali, Hammad; Baandrup, Louise; Bauer, Heidi; Beddows, Simon; Brisson, Jacques; Brotherton, Julia M L; Cummings, Teresa; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Flagg, Elaine W; Johnson, Anne M; Kahn, Jessica A; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kliewer, Erich V; Lemieux-Mellouki, Philippe; Markowitz, Lauri; Mboup, Aminata; Mesher, David; Niccolai, Linda; Oliphant, Jeannie; Pollock, Kevin G; Soldan, Kate; Sonnenberg, Pam; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Tanton, Clare; Brisson, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes were first implemented in several countries worldwide in 2007. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the population-level consequences and herd effects after female HPV vaccination programmes, to verify whether or not the high efficacy reported in randomised controlled clinical trials are materialising in real-world situations. Methods We searched the Medline and Embase databases (between Jan 1, 2007 and Feb 28, 2014) and conference abstracts for time-trend studies that analysed changes, between the pre-vaccination and post-vaccination periods, in the incidence or prevalence of at least one HPV-related endpoint: HPV infection, anogenital warts, and high-grade cervical lesions. We used random-effects models to derive pooled relative risk (RR) estimates. We stratified all analyses by age and sex. We did subgroup analyses by comparing studies according to vaccine type, vaccination coverage, and years since implementation of the vaccination programme. We assessed heterogeneity across studies using I2 and χ2 statistics and we did trends analysis to examine the dose–response association between HPV vaccination coverage and each study effect measure. Findings We identified 20 eligible studies, which were all undertaken in nine high-income countries and represent more than 140 million person-years of follow-up. In countries with female vaccination coverage of at least 50%, HPV type 16 and 18 infections decreased significantly between the pre-vaccination and post-vaccination periods by 68% (RR 0·32, 95% CI 0·19–0·52) and anogenital warts decreased significantly by 61% (0·39, 0·22–0·71) in girls 13–19 years of age. Significant reductions were also recorded in HPV types 31, 33, and 45 in this age group of girls (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·54–0·96), which suggests cross-protection. Additionally, significant reductions in anogenital warts were also reported in boys younger than 20

  19. Analysis of some laboratory tracer runs in natural fissures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    1984-01-01

    Tracer tests in natural fissures performed in the laboratory are analysed by means of fitting two different models. In the experiments, sorbing and non-sorbing tracers were injected into a natural fissure running parallel to the axis of a drill core. The models take into account advection, diffusion into the rock matrix, sorption onto the rock surface and dispersion. For the last mechanism, one of the models considers hydrodynamic dispersion while the other model assumes channeling dispersion. The models take into account time delays in the inlet and outlet channels. The dispersion characteristics and water residence time were determined from the experiments with non-sorbing tracers. Surface and volume sorption coefficients and data on diffusion into the rock matrix were determined for the sorbing tracers. The results are compared with values independently determined in the laboratory. Good agreement was obtained using either model. When these models are used for prediction of tracer transport over larger distances, the results will depend on the model. The model with channeling dispersion will show a greater dispersion than the model with hydrodynamic dispersion. (author)

  20. Neurological adverse events temporally associated to mass vaccination against yellow fever in Juiz de Fora, Brazil, 1999-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Guilherme Côrtes; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Batista, Maristela; de Almeida, Sonia Maria Rodrigues

    2007-04-20

    The identification of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and their prompt investigation are important to allow a timely and scientifically based response to the users of immunization services. This article presents an analysis of notified AEFI cases between 1999 and 2005 and their temporal association with 2001 yellow fever vaccination campaign, AEFI notification attributed to yellow fever vaccination rose from 0.06 to 1.32 per 100,000 vaccinees in Brazil, between 1998 and 2000. During the 2001 yellow fever mass vaccination campaign held in Juiz de Fora, Brazil, 12 cases of aseptic meningitis were temporally associated to yellow fever vaccination, but clinical and laboratory data were not available to confirm nor deny causality. Epidemiological studies associated to enhanced surveillance and standardized protocols should take advantage of public health interventions like mass vaccination campaigns and implementation of new vaccination strategies in order to assess and investigate vaccine safety.

  1. [Poliovirus vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    To avoid the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and polio outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) was introduced for routine immunization in a number of countries with a low risk of polio outbreaks. Currently, production and marketing of a standalone conventional IPV and two diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-IPV (Sabin-derived IPV; sIPV) products have been submitted, and it is expected that the IPV products will be introduced in Japan in the autumn of 2012. At the same time, a decline in the OPV immunization rate became apparent in Japan due to serious public concerns about a remaining risk of VAPP and introduction of IPV in the near future. Therefore, the recent development of polio immunity gaps should be carefully monitored, and surveillance of suspected polio cases and laboratory diagnosis of polioviruses have to be intensified for the transition period from OPV to IPV in Japan. The development of sIPV is one of the most realistic options to introduce affordable IPV to developing countries. In this regard, further clinical studies on its efficacy, safety, and interchangeability of sIPV will be needed after the introduction of the sIPV products, which will be licensed in Japan for the first time in the world.

  2. Longitudinal multiparameter single-cell analysis of macaques immunized with pneumococcal protein-conjugated or unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines reveals distinct antigen specific memory B cell repertoires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Jia

    Full Text Available The efficacy of protein-conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines has been well characterized for children. The level of protection conferred by unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines remains less clear, particularly for elderly individuals who have had prior antigenic experience through immunization with unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines or natural exposure to Streptococcus pneumoniae.We compared the magnitude, diversity and genetic biases of antigen-specific memory B cells in two groups of adult cynomolgus macaques that were immunized with a 7-valent conjugated vaccine and boosted after five years with either a 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (13vPnC or a 23-valent unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPS using microengraving (a single-cell analysis method and single-cell RT-PCR.Seven days after boosting, the mean frequency of antigen-specific memory B cells was significantly increased in macaques vaccinated with 13vPnC compared to those receiving 23vPS. The 13vPnC-vaccinated macaques also exhibited a more even distribution of antibody specificities to four polysaccharides in the vaccine (PS4, 6B, 14, 23F that were examined. However, single-cell analysis of the antibody variable region sequences from antigen-specific B cells elicited by unconjugated and conjugated vaccines indicated that both the germline gene segments forming the heavy chains and the average lengths of the Complementary Determining Region 3 (CDR3 were similar.Our results confirm that distinctive differences can manifest between antigen-specific memory B cell repertoires in nonhuman primates immunized with conjugated and unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines. The study also supports the notion that the conjugated vaccines have a favorable profile in terms of both the frequency and breadth of the anamnestic response among antigen-specific memory B cells.

  3. Analysis of peripheral blood immune cells after prophylactic immunization with HPV-16/18 ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Hus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV is a causal factor for more than 99% of cervical cancers. Recently, prophylactic vaccines have been developed to prevent infections with cancer-associated HPV types (HPV16 and HPV18. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the immune system that occur within four weeks of the first dose of HPV-16/18 ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine. Assessment of the percentages of selected cell populations in peripheral blood of 20 healthy volunteers vaccinated with Cervarix was performed using flow cytometry. The analysis revealed an increase in the proportion of activated B and CD4+ T helper cells and an absence of significant differences in cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes, indicating activation of the humoral response after vaccination, without a significant effect on cellular response. There were no significant changes in the NK cell population, and there was a reduction of the percentage of NKT-like cells, which may result from expiry of the primary response at the time of analysis. The presented results are preliminary, and in the context of the increasing use of the anti-HPV vaccine, it would be worth continuing the study in larger groups of patients and at earlier and later time points in combination with the measurement of specific anti-HPV16 and -HPV18 antibody levels. Such an assessment could therefore contribute not only to better understanding of the exact mechanism of action of the vaccine, but also to defining the immunological parameters that determine its effectiveness.

  4. Differences by sex in IgG levels following infant and childhood vaccinations: An individual participant data meta-analysis of vaccination studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boef, Anna G. C.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Kemmeren, Jeanet M.; van der Ende, Arie; de Melker, Hester E.; Rots, Nynke Y.; Knol, Mirjam J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: If immune responses to vaccination differ between males and females, sex-specific vaccination schedules may be indicated. We systematically reanalysed childhood vaccination studies conducted in The Netherlands for sex-differences in IgG-responses. To assess the impact of potential

  5. Differences by sex in IgG levels following infant and childhood vaccinations : An individual participant data meta-analysis of vaccination studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boef, Anna G. C.; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie; Sanders, Elisabeth A.M.; Kemmeren, Jeanet M.; van der Ende, Arie; de Melker, Hester E.; Rots, Nynke Y; Knol, Mirjam J.

    2018-01-01

    Background If immune responses to vaccination differ between males and females, sex-specific vaccination schedules may be indicated. We systematically reanalysed childhood vaccination studies conducted in The Netherlands for sex-differences in IgG-responses. To assess the impact of potential

  6. A Concept Analysis of Attitude toward Getting Vaccinated against Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.; Chai, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    In the research literature, the concept of attitude has been used and presented widely. However, attitude has been inconsistently defined and measured in various terms. This paper presents a concept analysis, using the Wilsonian methods modified by Walker and Avant (2004), to define and clarify the concept of attitude in order to provide an operationalized definition for a research study on attitudes toward a behavior: getting vaccinated against HPV. While the finding is not conclusive, three attributes of attitude: belief, affection, and evaluation are described. A theoretical definition and sample cases are constructed to illustrate the concept further. Antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents are discussed. Recommendations regarding the use of the concept of attitude in research, nursing practice, and nursing education are also made. PMID:23781335

  7. Identification and characterization of avian retroviruses in chicken embryo-derived yellow fever vaccines: investigation of transmission to vaccine recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Althaf I; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Da Silva Freire, Marcos; Heneine, Walid

    2003-01-01

    All currently licensed yellow fever (YF) vaccines are propagated in chicken embryos. Recent studies of chick cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines show evidence of two types of retrovirus particles, the endogenous avian retrovirus (EAV) and the endogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV-E), which originate from the chicken embryonic fibroblast substrates. In this study, we investigated substrate-derived avian retrovirus contamination in YF vaccines currently produced by three manufacturers (YF-vax [Connaught Laboratories], Stamaril [Aventis], and YF-FIOCRUZ [FIOCRUZ-Bio-Manguinhos]). Testing for reverse transcriptase (RT) activity was not possible because of assay inhibition. However, Western blot analysis of virus pellets with anti-ALV RT antiserum detected three distinct RT proteins in all vaccines, indicating that more than one source is responsible for the RTs present in the vaccines. PCR analysis of both chicken substrate DNA and particle-associated RNA from the YF vaccines showed no evidence of the long terminal repeat sequences of exogenous ALV subgroups A to D in any of the vaccines. In contrast, both ALV-E and EAV particle-associated RNA were detected at equivalent titers in each vaccine by RT-PCR. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed 61,600, 348,000, and 1,665,000 ALV-E RNA copies per dose of Stamaril, YF-FIOCRUZ, and YF-vax vaccines, respectively. ev locus-specific PCR testing of the vaccine-associated chicken substrate DNA was positive both for the nondefective ev-12 locus in two vaccines and for the defective ev-1 locus in all three vaccines. Both intact and ev-1 pol sequences were also identified in the particle-associated RNA. To investigate the risks of transmission, serum samples from 43 YF vaccine recipients were studied. None of the samples were seropositive by an ALV-E-based Western blot assay or had detectable EAV or ALV-E RNA sequences by RT-PCR. YF vaccines produced by the three manufacturers all have particles containing EAV genomes and

  8. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Kinetics Laboratory: Enhanced Data Analysis and Student-Designed Mini-Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd P.

    2016-01-01

    A highly instructive, wide-ranging laboratory project in which students study the effects of various parameters on the enzymatic activity of alcohol dehydrogenase has been adapted for the upper-division biochemistry and physical biochemistry laboratory. Our two main goals were to provide enhanced data analysis, featuring nonlinear regression, and…

  9. Summary of failure analysis activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, M.G.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Franz, E.M.

    1996-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has for many years conducted examinations related to the failures of nuclear materials and components. These examinations included the confirmation of root cause analyses, the determination of the causes of failure, identification of the species that accelerate corrosion, and comparison of the results of nondestructive examinations with those obtained by destructive examination. The results of those examinations, which had previously appeared in various formats (formal and informal reports, journal articles, etc.), have been collected together and summarized in the present report. The report is divided into sections according to the general subject matter (for example, corrosion, fatigue, etc.). Each section presents summaries of the information contained in specific reports and publications, all of which are fully identified as to title, authors, report number or journal reference, date of publication, and FIN number under which the work was performed

  10. Experimental analysis of nonlinear oscillations in the undergraduate physics laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, R; Page, A; Riera, J; Hueso, J L

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple experiment to introduce the nonlinear behaviour of oscillating systems in the undergraduate physics laboratory. The transverse oscillations of a spring allow reproduction of three totally different scenarios: linear oscillations, nonlinear oscillations reducible to linear for small displacements, and intrinsically nonlinear oscillations. The chosen approach consists of measuring the displacements using video photogrammetry and computing the velocities and the accelerations by means of a numerical differentiation algorithm. In this way, one can directly check the differential equation of the motion without having to integrate it, or perform an experimental study of the potential energy in each of the analysed scenarios. This experiment allows first year students to reflect on the consequences and the limits of the linearity assumption for small displacements that is so often made in technical studies. (paper)

  11. Health workers and vaccination coverage in developing countries: an econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sudhir; Bärnighausen, Till

    2007-04-14

    Vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than 1 million deaths among children in developing countries every year. Although health workers are needed to do vaccinations, the role of human resources for health as a determinant of vaccination coverage at the population level has not been investigated. Our aim was to test whether health worker density was positively associated with childhood vaccination coverage in developing countries. We did cross-country multiple regression analyses with coverage of three vaccinations--measles-containing vaccine (MCV); diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP3); and poliomyelitis (polio3)--as dependent variables. Aggregate health worker density was an independent variable in one set of regressions; doctor and nurse densities were used separately in another set. We controlled for national income per person, female adult literacy, and land area. Health worker density was significantly associated with coverage of all three vaccinations (MCV p=0.0024; DTP3 p=0.0004; polio3 p=0.0008). However, when the effects of doctors and nurses were assessed separately, we found that nurse density was significantly associated with coverage of all three vaccinations (MCV p=0.0097; DTP3 p=0.0083; polio3 p=0.0089), but doctor density was not (MCV p=0.7953; DTP3 p=0.7971; polio3 p=0.7885). Female adult literacy was positively associated, and land area negatively associated, with vaccination coverage. National income per person had no effect on coverage. A higher density of health workers (nurses) increases the availability of vaccination services over time and space, making it more likely that children will be vaccinated. After controlling for other determinants, the level of income does not contribute to improved immunisation coverage. Health workers can be a major constraining factor on vaccination coverage in developing countries.

  12. Global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 to 2016: an adjusted retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, FM; Moyes, CL; Pigott, DM; Marinho, F; Deshpande, A; Longbottom, J; Browne, AJ; Kraemer, MUG; O’Reilly, KM; Hombach, J; Yactayo, S; de Araújo, VEM; da Nόbrega, AA; Mosser, JF; Stanaway, JD

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background: Substantial outbreaks of yellow fever in Angola and Brazil in the past 2 years, combined with global shortages in vaccine stockpiles, highlight a pressing need to assess present control strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate global yellow fever vaccination coverage from 1970 through to 2016 at high spatial resolution and to calculate the number of individuals still requiring vaccination to reach population coverage thresholds for outbreak prevention. Methods: ...

  13. A New Method for the Evaluation of Vaccine Safety Based on Comprehensive Gene Expression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Momose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years, quality control and safety tests have been used to evaluate vaccine safety. However, conventional animal safety tests need to be improved in several aspects. For example, the number of test animals used needs to be reduced and the test period shortened. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a new vaccine evaluation system. In this review, we show that gene expression patterns are well correlated to biological responses in vaccinated rats. Our findings and methods using experimental biology and genome science provide an important means of assessment for vaccine toxicity.

  14. Geographic analysis of vaccine uptake in a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Hue, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Park, Jin-Kyung; Ochiai, Rion Leon; Canh, Do Gia; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Kaljee, Linda M; Clemens, John D; Acosta, Camilo J

    2007-09-01

    This paper identifies spatial patterns and predictors of vaccine uptake in a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Hue, Vietnam. Data for this study result from the integration of demographic surveillance, vaccine record, and geographic data of the study area. A multi-level cross-classified (non-hierarchical) model was used for analyzing the non-nested nature of individual's ecological data. Vaccine uptake was unevenly distributed in space and there was spatial variability among predictors of vaccine uptake. Vaccine uptake was higher among students with younger, male, or not literate family heads. Students from households with higher per-capita income were less likely to participate in the trial. Residency south of the river or further from a hospital/polyclinic was associated with higher vaccine uptake. Younger students were more likely to be vaccinated than older students in high- or low-risk areas, but not in the entire study area. The findings are important for the management of vaccine campaigns during a trial and for interpretation of disease patterns during vaccine-efficacy evaluation.

  15. Serogroup C Neisseria meningitidis invasive infection: analysis of the possible vaccination strategies for a mass campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Elena; Venturini, Elisabetta; Bonsignori, Francesca; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio

    2010-11-01

    The serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine is available since 1999. In the absence of randomized controlled trials that support a specific schedule, each country has adopted different vaccination programmes. Hereby, we analyse positive and negative aspects of the different vaccination strategies. While waiting for the introduction of other antimeningococcal vaccines, covering also for the Group B meningococci, further studies on effectiveness of an optimal schedule to be adopted in European countries are needed. © 2010 The Author(s)/Journal Compilation © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  16. Rotavirus vaccine impact and socioeconomic deprivation: an interrupted time-series analysis of gastrointestinal disease outcomes across primary and secondary care in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Daniel; Vivancos, Roberto; Read, Jonathan M; Iturriza-Gόmara, Miren; French, Neil; Cunliffe, Nigel A

    2018-01-29

    Rotavirus causes severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. The UK introduced the monovalent rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) in July 2013. Vaccination is free of charge to parents, with two doses delivered at 8 and 12 weeks of age. We evaluated vaccine impact across a health system in relation to socioeconomic deprivation. We used interrupted time-series analyses to assess changes in monthly health-care attendances in Merseyside, UK, for all ages, from July 2013 to June 2016, compared to predicted counterfactual attendances without vaccination spanning 3-11 years pre-vaccine. Outcome measures included laboratory-confirmed rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalisations, acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalisations, emergency department (ED) attendances for gastrointestinal conditions and consultations for infectious gastroenteritis at community walk-in centres (WIC) and general practices (GP). All analyses were stratified by age. Hospitalisations were additionally stratified by vaccine uptake and small-area-level socioeconomic deprivation. The uptake of the first and second doses of rotavirus vaccine was 91.4% (29,108/31,836) and 86.7% (27,594/31,836), respectively. Among children aged impact was greatest during the rotavirus season and for vaccine-eligible age groups. In adults aged 65+ years, AGE hospitalisations fell by 25% (95% CI 19-30%; p socioeconomically deprived communities (adjusted incident rate ratio 1.57; 95% CI 1.51-1.64; p impact was greatest among the most deprived populations, despite lower vaccine uptake. Prioritising vaccine uptake in socioeconomically deprived communities should give the greatest health benefit in terms of population disease burden.

  17. Optical Signature Analysis of Tumbling Rocket Bodies via Laboratory Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Liou, J.-C.; Ojakangas, G.; Mulrooney, M.

    2012-09-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has acquired telescopic lightcurve data on massive intact objects, specifically spent rocket bodies (R/Bs), to ascertain tumble rates in support of the Active Debris Removal (ADR) studies to help remediate the LEO environment. Tumble rates are needed to plan and develop proximity and docking operations for potential future ADR operations. To better characterize and model optical data acquired from ground-based telescopes, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC emulates illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. The OMC employs a 75-W Xenon arc lamp as a solar simulator, an SBIG CCD camera with standard Johnson/Bessel filters, and a robotic arm to simulate an object's position and rotation. The OMC does not attempt to replicate the rotation rates, but focuses on ascertaining how an object is rotating as seen from multiple phase angles. The two targets studied are scaled (1:48) SL-8 Cosmos 3M second stages. The first target is painted in the standard Russian government "gray" scheme and the second target is white/orange as used for commercial missions. This paper summarizes results of the two scaled rocket bodies, each observed in three independent rotation states: (a) spin-stabilized rotation (about the long axis), (b) end-over-end rotation, and (c) a 10 degree wobble about the center of mass. The first two cases represent simple spin about either primary axis. The third - what we call "wobble" - represents maximum principal axis rotation, with an inertia tensor that is offset from the symmetry axes. By comparing the resultant phase and orientation-dependent laboratory signatures with actual lightcurves derived from telescopic observations of orbiting R/Bs, we intend to assess the intrinsic R/B rotation states. In the simplest case, simulated R/B behavior coincides with principal axis spin states, while more complex R

  18. Laboratory testing and economic analysis of high RAP warm mixed asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-24

    This report contains laboratory testing, economic analysis, literature review, and information obtained from multiple producers throughout the state of Mississippi regarding the use of high RAP (50 % to 100%) mixtures containing warm mix additives. T...

  19. Using social network analysis to examine the decision-making process on new vaccine introduction in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonodi, C B; Privor-Dumm, L; Aina, M; Pate, A M; Reis, R; Gadhoke, P; Levine, O S

    2012-05-01

    The decision-making process to introduce new vaccines into national immunization programmes is often complex, involving many stakeholders who provide technical information, mobilize finance, implement programmes and garner political support. Stakeholders may have different levels of interest, knowledge and motivations to introduce new vaccines. Lack of consensus on the priority, public health value or feasibility of adding a new vaccine can delay policy decisions. Efforts to support country-level decision-making have largely focused on establishing global policies and equipping policy makers with the information to support decision-making on new vaccine introduction (NVI). Less attention has been given to understanding the interactions of policy actors and how the distribution of influence affects the policy process and decision-making. Social network analysis (SNA) is a social science technique concerned with explaining social phenomena using the structural and relational features of the network of actors involved. This approach can be used to identify how information is exchanged and who is included or excluded from the process. For this SNA of vaccine decision-making in Nigeria, we interviewed federal and state-level government officials, officers of bilateral and multilateral partner organizations, and other stakeholders such as health providers and the media. Using data culled from those interviews, we performed an SNA in order to map formal and informal relationships and the distribution of influence among vaccine decision-makers, as well as to explore linkages and pathways to stakeholders who can influence critical decisions in the policy process. Our findings indicate a relatively robust engagement of key stakeholders in Nigeria. We hypothesized that economic stakeholders and implementers would be important to ensure sustainable financing and strengthen programme implementation, but some economic and implementation stakeholders did not appear centrally on

  20. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmila Mallik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders

  1. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Sarmila; Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Pramit; Manna, Nirmalya; Chatterjee, Chitra; Chakrabarty, Debadatta; Bagchi, Saumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders, and developing a biomedical waste disposal system. PMID:23115416

  2. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Sarmila; Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Pramit; Manna, Nirmalya; Chatterjee, Chitra; Chakrabarty, Debadatta; Bagchi, Saumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir

    2011-12-01

    Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders, and developing a biomedical waste disposal system.

  3. Economic analysis of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis vaccines in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J; Tauer, L W; Schukken, Y H; Gómez, M I; Smith, R L; Lu, Z; Grohn, Y T

    2012-04-01

    Johne's disease, or paratuberculosis, is a chronic infectious enteric disease of ruminants, caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Given the absence of a fail-safe method of prevention or a cure, Johne's disease can inflict significant economic loss on the US dairy industry, with an estimated annual cost of over $200 million. Currently available MAP control strategies include management measures to improve hygiene, culling MAP serologic- or fecal-positive adult cows, and vaccination. Although the 2 first control strategies have been reported to be effective in reducing the incidence of MAP infection, the changes in herd management needed to conduct these control strategies require significant effort on the part of the dairy producer. On the other hand, vaccination is relatively simple to apply and requires minor changes in herd management. Despite these advantages, only 5% of US dairy operations use vaccination to control MAP. This low level of adoption of this technology is due to limited information on its cost-effectiveness and efficacy and some important inherent drawbacks associated with current MAP vaccines. This study investigates the epidemiological effect and economic values of MAP vaccines in various stages of development. We create scenarios for the potential epidemiological effects of MAP vaccines, and then estimate economically justifiable monetary values at which vaccines become economically beneficial to dairy producers such that a net present value (NPV) of a farm's net cash flow can be higher than the NPV of a farm using no control or alternative nonvaccine controls. Any vaccination with either low or high efficacy considered in this study yielded a higher NPV compared with a no MAP control. Moreover, high-efficacy vaccines generated an even higher NPV compared with alternative controls, making vaccination economically attractive. Two high-efficacy vaccines were particularly effective in MAP control and NPV

  4. What arguments on vaccinations run through YouTube videos in Italy? A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covolo, Loredana; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Passeri, Chiara; Boletti, Michela; Gelatti, Umberto

    2017-07-03

    The suspension of compulsory scheduling of some pediatric vaccines has been discussed for a long time by health authorities in Italy but the current decrease of vaccination rates is a matter of concern. YouTube is the most popular video-based social media website. Considering the demonstrated impact of internet on vaccination decision-making and the increasing use of social media to share and disseminate health information, the aim of this study was to explore the message available on YouTube videos about vaccination. An observational study was conducted searching for YouTube videos in September 2015 and updated in January 2016, by using the keyword "vaccinations." We included recently posted videos in Italian on child vaccination (2014-2015). Videos were classified according to the message tone. A total of 123 videos were selected. Pro-vaccination videos were 62 (50%), anti-vaccination 28 (23%), neutral or without a clear position in favor or against vaccination 33 (27%). Focusing on the first 2 groups, pro-vaccination videos had a higher number of views compared with those unfavorable (1602 ± 6544 vs 1482 ± 2735) (p < 0.001). However, anti-vaccination videos were liked more by viewers (17.8 ± 31.3) than positive ones (13.2 ± 44.7) (p < 0.001) in addition to being more shared (23 ± 22.6 vs 3.8 ± 5.5, p < 0.001). Most of the videos were positive in tone, but those that disapproved of immunization were the most liked and shared. Considering the growing number of viewers, it is important to monitor the web to understand audience characteristics and what influences public opinions to use communication strategies more effectively.

  5. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) seismic hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savy, J.

    1989-01-01

    New design and evaluation guidelines for department of energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazard, are being finalized. Although still in draft form at this time, the document describing those guidelines should be considered to be an update of previously available guidelines. The recommendations in the guidelines document mentioned above, and simply referred to as the ''guidelines'' thereafter, are based on the best information at the time of its development. In particular, the seismic hazard model for the Princeton site was based on a study performed in 1981 for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which relied heavily on the results of the NRC's Systematic Evaluation Program and was based on a methodology and data sets developed in 1977 and 1978. Considerable advances have been made in the last ten years in the domain of seismic hazard modeling. Thus, it is recommended to update the estimate of the seismic hazard at the DOE sites whenever possible. The major differences between previous estimates and the ones proposed in this study for the PPPL are in the modeling of the strong ground motion at the site, and the treatment of the total uncertainty in the estimates to include knowledge uncertainty, random uncertainty, and expert opinion diversity as well. 28 refs

  6. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) seismic hazard analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savy, J.

    1989-10-01

    New design and evaluation guidelines for department of energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazard, are being finalized. Although still in draft form at this time, the document describing those guidelines should be considered to be an update of previously available guidelines. The recommendations in the guidelines document mentioned above, and simply referred to as the guidelines'' thereafter, are based on the best information at the time of its development. In particular, the seismic hazard model for the Princeton site was based on a study performed in 1981 for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which relied heavily on the results of the NRC's Systematic Evaluation Program and was based on a methodology and data sets developed in 1977 and 1978. Considerable advances have been made in the last ten years in the domain of seismic hazard modeling. Thus, it is recommended to update the estimate of the seismic hazard at the DOE sites whenever possible. The major differences between previous estimates and the ones proposed in this study for the PPPL are in the modeling of the strong ground motion at the site, and the treatment of the total uncertainty in the estimates to include knowledge uncertainty, random uncertainty, and expert opinion diversity as well. 28 refs.

  7. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of development. Food vaccines may also help to suppress autoimmunity disorders such as Type-1. Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. INTRODUCTION. Vaccination involves the stimulation of the immune system to prepare it for the event of an invasion from a particular ...

  8. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  9. Pricing of new vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine targe...

  10. Human Transcriptome Response to Immunization with Live- Attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis Virus Vaccine (TC 83): Analysis of Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    natural killer cell 33 signaling, and B-cell development. Biomarkers were identified that differentiate between 34 vaccinees and control subjects...risk laboratory personnel.8 The first vaccine, 68 TC-83, is a live-attenuated virus developed in 1961 by serial passage of the virulent Trinidad 69...HSP90AA1), the ERK5 Signaling pathway 220 (e.g., IL6ST, NRAS, RRAS2, ATF2), the Natural Killer Cell Signaling pathway (e.g., KLRC2, 221 FYN, PRKC1

  11. Association of serum anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin A antibody seropositivity and protection against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis: analysis of clinical trials of human rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvart, Brigitte; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Steele, A Duncan; Cunliffe, Nigel; Madhi, Shabir A; Karkada, Naveen; Han, Htay Htay; Vinals, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials of the human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ (RV1) have demonstrated significant reductions in severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in children worldwide. However, no correlate of vaccine efficacy (VE) has yet been established. This paper presents 2 analyses which aimed to investigate whether serum anti-RV IgA measured by ELISA 1 or 2 mo post-vaccination can serve as a correlate of efficacy against RVGE: (1) In a large Phase III efficacy trial (Rota-037), the Prentice criteria for surrogate endpoints was applied to anti-RV IgA seropositivity 1 mo post-vaccination. These criteria determine whether a significant vaccine group effect can be predicted from the surrogate, namely seropositivity (anti-RV IgA concentration>20 U/mL); (2) Among other GSK-sponsored RV1 VE studies, 8 studies which assessed immunogenicity at 1 or 2 mo post-vaccination in all or a sub-cohort of enrolled subjects and had at least 10 RVGE episodes were included in a meta-analysis to measure the regression between clinical VE and VE predicted from immunogenicity (VE1). In Rota-037, anti-RV IgA seropositivity post-vaccination was associated with a lower incidence of any or severe RVGE, however, the proportion of vaccine group effect explained by seropositivity was only 43.6% and 32.7% respectively. This low proportion was due to the vaccine group effect observed in seronegative subjects. In the meta-analysis, the slope of the regression between clinical VE and VE1 was statistically significant. These two independent analyses support the hypothesis that post-vaccination anti-RV IgA seropositivity (antibody concentration ≥20 U/mL) may serve as a useful correlate of efficacy in clinical trials of RV1 vaccines.

  12. Predictors of seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers in hospitals : a descriptive meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riphagen-Dalhuisen, Josien; Gefenaite, Giedre; Hak, Eelko

    Objective Vaccinating healthcare workers (HCWs) against influenza is one of the most important methods of decreasing influenza transmission among at-risk patients in healthcare facilities. However, despite recommendations, the rate of uptake of influenza vaccine among HCWs remains low. The objective

  13. Analysis of variola and vaccinia virus neutralization assays for smallpox vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christine M; Newman, Frances K; Davidson, Whitni B; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Holman, Robert C; Yan, Lihan; Frey, Sharon E; Belshe, Robert B; Karem, Kevin L; Damon, Inger K

    2012-07-01

    Possible smallpox reemergence drives research for third-generation vaccines that effectively neutralize variola virus. A comparison of neutralization assays using different substrates, variola and vaccinia (Dryvax and modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA]), showed significantly different 90% neutralization titers; Dryvax underestimated while MVA overestimated variola neutralization. Third-generation vaccines may rely upon neutralization as a correlate of protection.

  14. Analysis of anthrax and plague biowarfare vaccine interactions with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skowera, Anna; de Jong, Esther C.; Schuitemaker, Joost H. N.; Allen, Jennifer S.; Wessely, Simon C.; Griffiths, Gareth; Kapsenberg, Martien; Peakman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The anti-biowarfare anthrax and plague vaccines require repeated dosing to achieve adequate protection. To test the hypothesis that this limited immunogenicity results from the nature of vaccine interactions with the host innate immune system, we investigated molecular and cellular interactions

  15. [Recommendations for making decisions when parents refuse to vaccinate their children: ethical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño Galán, I; Martínez González, C; Sánchez Jacob, M

    2013-07-01

    Vaccinating children is the most effective primary prevention activity and many lives have been saved due to vaccines. Anti-vaccine movements have spread doubts about the safety and effectiveness of childhood vaccines, leading to some parents refusing to vaccinate their children. This refusal raises a conflict of values between the right of parents to the upbringing of their children according to their beliefs and justice, putting the immunity of the group at risk. In Spain, the law protects this ability for parents to decide not to comply with the official vaccine program. Pediatricians play an essential role in a parent's decision, and must provide accurate information about vaccination. It is necessary to explore The values of the parents, their concerns need to be empathetically examined, in order to reach an agreement. Respect for freedom does not exempt us from using discussion and persuasion to achieve attitudes and healthy choices for children. Our commitment to responsability promotion is essential for maintaining high vaccination levels that protect the health of children. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Uptake among Children and Adolescents with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the seasonal influenza vaccination rate and to examine its determinants for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze the data on seasonal influenza vaccination rate among 1055 ID individuals between the ages…

  17. Vaccination strategies for future influenza pandemics: a severity-based cost effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Joel K; Halder, Nilimesh; Milne, George J

    2013-02-11

    A critical issue in planning pandemic influenza mitigation strategies is the delay between the arrival of the pandemic in a community and the availability of an effective vaccine. The likely scenario, born out in the 2009 pandemic, is that a newly emerged influenza pandemic will have spread to most parts of the world before a vaccine matched to the pandemic strain is produced. For a severe pandemic, additional rapidly activated intervention measures will be required if high mortality rates are to be avoided. A simulation modelling study was conducted to examine the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of plausible combinations of social distancing, antiviral and vaccination interventions, assuming a delay of 6-months between arrival of an influenza pandemic and first availability of a vaccine. Three different pandemic scenarios were examined; mild, moderate and extreme, based on estimates of transmissibility and pathogenicity of the 2009, 1957 and 1918 influenza pandemics respectively. A range of different durations of social distancing were examined, and the sensitivity of the results to variation in the vaccination delay, ranging from 2 to 6 months, was analysed. Vaccination-only strategies were not cost effective for any pandemic scenario, saving few lives and incurring substantial vaccination costs. Vaccination coupled with long duration social distancing, antiviral treatment and antiviral prophylaxis was cost effective for moderate pandemics and extreme pandemics, where it saved lives while simultaneously reducing the total pandemic cost. Combined social distancing and antiviral interventions without vaccination were significantly less effective, since without vaccination a resurgence in case numbers occurred as soon as social distancing interventions were relaxed. When social distancing interventions were continued until at least the start of the vaccination campaign, attack rates and total costs were significantly lower, and increased rates of vaccination

  18. Lipidomic analysis of immune activation in equine leptospirosis and Leptospira-vaccinated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Paul L; Steinman, Margaret; Erol, Erdal; Carter, Craig; Christmann, Undine; Verma, Ashutosh

    2018-01-01

    Currently available diagnostic assays for leptospirosis cannot differentiate vaccine from infection serum antibody. Several leptospiral proteins that are upregulated during infection have been described, but their utility as a diagnostic marker is still unclear. In this study, we undertook a lipidomics approach to determine if there are any differences in the serum lipid profiles of horses naturally infected with pathogenic Leptospira spp. and horses vaccinated against a commercially available bacterin. Utilizing a high-resolution mass spectrometry serum lipidomics analytical platform, we demonstrate that cyclic phosphatidic acids, diacylglycerols, and hydroperoxide oxidation products of choline plasmalogens are elevated in the serum of naturally infected as well as vaccinated horses. Other lipids of interest were triacylglycerols that were only elevated in the serum of infected horses and sphingomyelins that were increased only in the serum of vaccinated horses. This is the first report looking at the equine serum lipidome during leptospiral infection and vaccination.

  19. Lipidomic analysis of immune activation in equine leptospirosis and Leptospira-vaccinated horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L Wood

    Full Text Available Currently available diagnostic assays for leptospirosis cannot differentiate vaccine from infection serum antibody. Several leptospiral proteins that are upregulated during infection have been described, but their utility as a diagnostic marker is still unclear. In this study, we undertook a lipidomics approach to determine if there are any differences in the serum lipid profiles of horses naturally infected with pathogenic Leptospira spp. and horses vaccinated against a commercially available bacterin. Utilizing a high-resolution mass spectrometry serum lipidomics analytical platform, we demonstrate that cyclic phosphatidic acids, diacylglycerols, and hydroperoxide oxidation products of choline plasmalogens are elevated in the serum of naturally infected as well as vaccinated horses. Other lipids of interest were triacylglycerols that were only elevated in the serum of infected horses and sphingomyelins that were increased only in the serum of vaccinated horses. This is the first report looking at the equine serum lipidome during leptospiral infection and vaccination.

  20. Analysis of the Auckland 2014 measles outbreak indicates that adolescents and young adults could benefit from catch-up vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gary; Dias, Cassandra; Thornley, Simon; King, Ronald; Morrison, Anne; Matson, Angela; Hoskins, Richard

    2015-09-25

    To analyse the epidemiology, serology and vaccine effectiveness in a recent New Zealand measles outbreak that started in Auckland, from December, 2013 to June, 2014, to guide further preventive measures. Cases had a clinically compatible illness, which was either confirmed by PCR or serology, or were linked to a laboratory confirmed case. A total of 113 cases with 3,113 contacts were traced and managed in the Auckland region. Thirteen overseas acquired cases, produced a total of 98 locally acquired secondary cases, (plus two cases with unknown travel history). The majority of cases occurred in adolescents and young adults; 68/113 cases (60.1%) were aged 10 to 19 years. Among cases, 38.9% (44/113) were unimmunised, and 31.8% (36/113) had unknown immunisation status. A further 15.0% (17/113) of cases had received one or two doses of measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine. Of the contacts who underwent serological testing for immunity (n=735), the lowest levels of serological immunity were observed in people aged 10 to 24 years. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated for the 15-24 year age cohort at 92% (95%CI; 82-97). Results suggest that an adolescent catch-up immunisation programme would prevent further outbreaks of imported measles.

  1. A Content Analysis of General Chemistry Laboratory Manuals for Evidence of Higher-Order Cognitive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-01-01

    The science laboratory instructional environment is ideal for fostering the development of problem-solving, manipulative, and higher-order thinking skills: the skills needed by today's learner to compete in an ever increasing technology-based society. This paper reports the results of a content analysis of ten general chemistry laboratory manuals. Three experiments from each manual were examined for evidence of higher-order cognitive activities. Analysis was based upon the six major cognitive categories of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The results of this study show that the overwhelming majority of general chemistry laboratory manuals provide tasks that require the use of only the lower-order cognitive skills: knowledge, comprehension, and application. Two of the laboratory manuals were disparate in having activities that utilized higher-order cognition. I describe the instructional strategies used within these manuals to foster higher-order cognitive development.

  2. Oak Ridge National Laboratory site data for safety-analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, F.C.

    1982-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory site data contained herein were compiled in support of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office Order OR 5481.1. That order sets forth assignment of responsibilities for safety analysis and review responsibilities and provides guidance relative to the content and format of safety analysis reports. The information presented in this document is intended for use by reference in individual safety analysis reports where applicable to support accident analyses or the establishment of design bases of significance to safety, and it is applicable only to Oak Ridge National Laboratory facilities in Bethel and Melton Valleys. This information includes broad descriptions of the site characteristics, radioactive waste handling and monitoring practices, and the organization and operating policies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The historical background of the Laboratory is discussed briefly and the overall physical situation of the facilities is described in the following paragraphs

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory site data for safety-analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, F.C.

    1982-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory site data contained herein were compiled in support of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office Order OR 5481.1. That order sets forth assignment of responsibilities for safety analysis and review responsibilities and provides guidance relative to the content and format of safety analysis reports. The information presented in this document is intended for use by reference in individual safety analysis reports where applicable to support accident analyses or the establishment of design bases of significance to safety, and it is applicable only to Oak Ridge National Laboratory facilities in Bethel and Melton Valleys. This information includes broad descriptions of the site characteristics, radioactive waste handling and monitoring practices, and the organization and operating policies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The historical background of the Laboratory is discussed briefly and the overall physical situation of the facilities is described in the following paragraphs.

  4. Delivery cost analysis of a reactive mass cholera vaccination campaign: a case study of Shanchol™ vaccine use in Lake Chilwa, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilboudo, Patrick G; Le Gargasson, Jean-Bernard

    2017-12-19

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease that produces rapid dehydration. The infection is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) has been propagated for the prevention of cholera. Evidence on OCV delivery cost is insufficient in the African context. This study aims to analyze Shanchol vaccine delivery costs, focusing on the vaccination campaign in response of a cholera outbreak in Lake Chilwa, Malawi. The vaccination campaign was implemented in two rounds in February and March 2016. Structured questionnaires were used to collect costs incurred for each vaccination related activity, including vaccine procurement and shipment, training, microplanning, sensitization, social mobilization and vaccination rounds. Costs collected, including financial and economic costs were analyzed using Choltool, a standardized cholera cost calculator. In total, 67,240 persons received two complete doses of the vaccine. Vaccine coverage was higher in the first round than in the second. The two-dose coverage measured with the immunization card was estimated at 58%. The total financial cost incurred in implementing the campaign was US$480275 while the economic cost was US$588637. The total financial and economic costs per fully vaccinated person were US$7.14 and US$8.75, respectively, with delivery costs amounting to US$1.94 and US$3.55, respectively. Vaccine procurement and shipment accounted respectively for 73% and 59% of total financial and economic costs of the total vaccination campaign costs while the incurred personnel cost accounted for 13% and 29% of total financial and economic costs. Cost for delivering a single dose of Shanchol was estimated at US$0.97. This study provides new evidence on economic and financial costs of a reactive campaign implemented by international partners in collaboration with MoH. It shows that involvement of international partners' personnel may represent a substantial share of campaign's costs, affecting unit and vaccine

  5. Acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccination among Californian parents of daughters: a representative statewide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Norman A; Jerman, Petra

    2007-02-01

    To examine likelihood of parental acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for young adolescent girls, together with reasons for acceptance and nonacceptance. The ultimate goal of this research is to inform policy decisions and educational planning in this area. A random-digit-dial telephone survey of parents in California households was conducted, yielding 522 parents with an eligible daughter. Cross tabulations and odds ratios were employed to analyze likelihood of vaccination acceptability. Reasons provided for acceptance or nonacceptance were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 75% of the sample reported that they would be likely to vaccinate a daughter before age 13 years. Hispanic parents were more likely to accept vaccination than were non-Hispanic parents, whereas African-American and Asian-American parents were less likely. Other subgroups less likely to accept vaccination were identified. Five clusters of reasons by nonaccepting parents emerged: pragmatic concerns about effects on sexual behavior, specific HPV vaccine concerns, moral concerns about sexual behavior, general vaccine concerns, and denial of need. A sixth group of interest comprised those who would vaccinate before age 16 years, but not age 13. Consistent with previous studies on this topic, a large majority of California parents endorsed HPV vaccination for daughters by the recommended age. Although important subgroup disparities were found, majorities of all subgroups supported vaccination. This information, together with the identified clusters of cognitive decision factors for nonacceptance, has implications for policy decisions and educational planning in this area. Suggestions for further research on subgroup disparities and on cognitive factors involved in parents' decisions arise from these findings.

  6. Survival analysis for predictive factors of delay vaccination in Iranian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, beside immunization coverage the age appropriate vaccination is another helpful index in public health. Evidences have shown that high immunization coverage rates do not necessarily imply age-appropriate vaccination status. The current study aimed to show the predictive factors of delayed vaccination by survival models. Methods: A historical cohort study conducted on 3610 children aged between 24 and 47 months who was living in the suburbs of five big cities of Iran. Time of delay in vaccination of first dose of mumps-measles-rubella (MMR was calculated from date of vaccination minus age appropriate time according to vaccine card. Kaplan-Maier and Log rank tests were used for comparison the median of delay time. For controlling of confounding variables, multivariate cox model was used and hazard ratio with 95% confidence interval (95% was reported. Results: The mean ± standard deviation and median interquartile range of delay time was 38.34 ± 73.1 and 16 (11-31 days in delayed group. The Log rank test showed that city of living, nationality, parents′ education, and birth order are related with prolonged delay time in MMR vaccination (P 0.05. Cox regression showed that city of living, mother education, and nationality are the most predictive factors of delay time duration in MMR vaccination. Conclusions: Delay time duration of vaccination increased by faring from capital to the east south. Moreover, concentration of foreign immigrants in big cities and low level of mother education are the most predictors of delayed vaccination. Educational intervention should focus on immigrants and mothers with low education level.

  7. Proton activation analysis at the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisterson, J.M.; Koehler, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    High-energy proton activation analysis (PAA), a simple non-destructive technique, has been developed for use as an adjunct to neutron activation analysis. Potential advantages of protons include the ability to achieve very precise localization of the activation volume over a pre-determined depth in the target. To demonstrate the versatility of PAA, results are reported on the measurement of the whole body calcium content in animals and on the determination of the Ca/P molar ratio in small quantities (<50 mg) of chemical and biological samples. The animal experiments demonstrate the ability to achieve a uniform irradiation over a large volume and utilizes large NaI crystals with a special chamber for uniform combined detection efficiency, where the Ca/P molar ratio determination requires a Ge/Li detector and analysis of the resulting gamma ray spectrum. The feasibility is being assessed of using proton beam activation of the eye to measure blood flow in the rabbit choroid, based on earlier work where it was used to measure blood in mouse skeletal tissue. 6 references, 7 figures, 4 tables

  8. Heterogeneity in coverage for measles and varicella vaccination in toddlers - analysis of factors influencing parental acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Christine; Streng, Andrea; Kraemer, Alexander; Liese, Johannes G

    2017-09-19

    In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was introduced in Germany for children aged 11-14 months. Routine measles vaccination had already been introduced in 1973 for the same age group, but coverage is still too low (measles. The present study assessed varicella and measles vaccination coverage and determinants of parental acceptance in two study regions, situated in Northern and Southern Bavaria (Germany). From 2009 to 2011, annual cross-sectional parent surveys were performed on random samples of 600 children aged 18-36 months in the Bavarian regions of both Munich and Würzburg. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with varicella and measles vaccination. In 2009, 2010 and 2011, vaccination coverage was lower in Munich than in Würzburg, for both varicella (Munich 53%, 67%, 69% vs. Würzburg 72%, 81%, 83%) and for measles (Munich 88%, 89%, 91% vs. Würzburg 92%, 93%, 95%). Recommendation by the physician was the main independent factor associated with varicella vaccination in both regions (adjusted odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI): Munich OR 19.7, CI 13.6-28.6; Würzburg OR 34.7, CI 22.6-53.2). Attendance at a childcare unit was positively associated with a higher acceptance of varicella vaccination in Munich (OR 1.5, CI 1.1-2.2). Regarding measles vaccination, attendance at a childcare unit was positively associated in both regions (Munich OR 2.0; CI 1.3-3.0; Würzburg OR 1.8; CI 1.1-3.1), and a higher level of parental school education was negatively associated in Würzburg (OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9). Vaccination rates differed between regions, with rates constantly higher in Würzburg. Within each region, vaccination rates were lower for varicella than for measles. Measles vaccination status was mainly dependent upon socio-demographic factors (attendance at a childcare unit, parental school education), whereas for the more recently introduced varicella vaccination recommendation by the physician had the strongest

  9. Vaccines.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Vaccines Work Vaccine Types Vaccine Ingredients Vaccines by Disease Chickenpox ... Typhoid Fever Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yellow Fever Who and When Infants, Children, and Teens ...

  10. PCI fuel failure analysis: a report on a cooperative program undertaken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, C.L.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Wood, J.C.

    1979-12-01

    Reactor fuel failure data sets in the form of initial power (P/sub i/), final power (P/sub f/), transient increase in power (ΔP), and burnup (Bu) were obtained for pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), boiling water reactors (BWRs), and pressurized water reactors (PWRs). These data sets were evaluated and used as the basis for developing two predictive fuel failure models, a graphical concept called the PCI-OGRAM, and a nonlinear regression based model called PROFIT. The PCI-OGRAM is an extension of the FUELOGRAM developed by AECL. It is based on a critical threshold concept for stress dependent stress corrosion cracking. The PROFIT model, developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is the result of applying standard statistical regression methods to the available PCI fuel failure data and an analysis of the environmental and strain rate dependent stress-strain properties of the Zircaloy cladding

  11. Impact of Gender-Specific Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Recommendations on Uptake of Other Adolescent Vaccines: Analysis of the NIS-Teen (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Robert A; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B

    In the United States, human papillomavirus vaccination was routinely recommended for adolescent females in 2006 and provisionally recommended for adolescent males in 2009. We evaluated the hypothesis that gender-specific human papillomavirus vaccination recommendations would impact gender-specific uptake of other vaccines using National Immunization Survey-Teen public use data sets (2008-2012). Female adolescents had higher coverage than males of at least 1 other adolescent vaccine in 2008 (3.0% higher) and 2009 (4.3% higher). Gender differences abated in 2010, 2011, and 2012 (0.2%, 0.9%, and 0.4%, respectively). To evaluate unintended consequences of gender-based recommendations, countries with female-only human papillomavirus vaccination recommendations should evaluate gender-specific uptake of other adolescent vaccines.

  12. Design of a Clinical Information Management System to Support DNA Analysis Laboratory Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubay, Christopher J.; Zimmerman, David; Popovich, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    The LabDirector system has been developed at the Oregon Health Sciences University to support the operation of our clinical DNA analysis laboratory. Through an iterative design process which has spanned two years, we have produced a system that is both highly tailored to a clinical genetics production laboratory and flexible in its implementation, to support the rapid growth and change of protocols and methodologies in use in the field. The administrative aspects of the system are integrated with an enterprise schedule management system. The laboratory side of the system is driven by a protocol modeling and execution system. The close integration between these two aspects of the clinical laboratory facilitates smooth operations, and allows management to accurately measure costs and performance. The entire application has been designed and documented to provide utility to a wide range of clinical laboratory environments.

  13. Identification of Barriers to Influenza Vaccination in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Analysis of the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Douglas J; North, Crystal M; Brode, Sarah K; Celli, Bartolome R

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk for influenza-related morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccination is known to decrease influenza incidence, severity, hospitalizations, and mortality. Identification of barriers to influenza vaccination among patients with COPD may aid in efforts to increase vaccination rates. This study aims to identify predictors of influenza vaccination in COPD patients. This study used data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Participants with self-reported COPD and receiving an influenza vaccination in the prior 12 months were identified. Independent predictors of the exposure were identified by estimating a parsimonious logistic regression model of influenza vaccination. All analyses were performed using weighted data. The final study sample consisted of 36,811 COPD participants, with 48.5% of COPD patients reporting having been vaccinated and 51.5% reporting being unvaccinated. A total of 15 independent predictors of influenza vaccination in COPD patients were identified. Negative predictors included predisposing factors (younger age, male gender, household children, black or non-white/non-Hispanic/non-black race/ethnicity, lower education level, heavy alcohol use, current tobacco use) and enabling factors that reflect access to medical care (insurance status, ability to afford care, having a recent check-up). Positive predictors of influenza vaccination included need factors (chronic comorbidities), being a military veteran, or being a former smoker. This analysis identifies multiple predictors of influenza vaccination in persons with COPD. Identification of at risk-groups provides the foundation for development of focused efforts to improve influenza vaccination rates in patients with COPD.

  14. A cost-benefit analysis of programmatic use of CVD 103-HgR live oral cholera vaccine in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, S T; Stamboulian, D; Demonte, J; Quero, L; Martinez de Arquiza, C; Aleman, A; Lepetic, A; Levine, M M

    1997-02-01

    Cholera spread to Latin America in 1991; subsequently, cholera vaccination was considered as an interim intervention until long-term solutions involving improved water supplies and sanitation could be introduced. Three successive summer cholera outbreaks in northern Argentina and the licensing of the new single-dose oral cholera vaccine, CVD 103-HgR, raised questions of the cost and benefit of using this new vaccine. This study explored the potential benefits to the Argentine Ministry of Health of treatment costs averted, versus the costs of vaccination with CVD 103-HgR in the relatively confined population of northern Argentina affected by the cholera outbreaks. Water supplies and sanitation in this area are poor but a credible infrastructure for vaccine delivery exists. In our cost-benefit model of a 3-year period (1992-1994) with an annual incidence of 2.5 case-patients per 1000 population and assumptions of vaccine efficacy of 75% and coverage of 75%, vaccination of targeted high risk groups would prevent 1265 cases. Assuming a cost of US$602 per treated case and of US$1.50 per dose of vaccine, the total discounted savings from use of vaccine in the targeted groups would be US$132,100. The projected savings would be altered less by vaccine coverage (range 75-90%) or efficacy (60-85%) changes than by disease incidence changes. Our analysis underestimated the true costs of cholera in Argentina because we included only medical expenditures; Indirect losses to trade and tourism had the greatest economic impact. However, vaccination with CVD 103-HgR was still cost-beneficial in the base case.

  15. An inter-laboratory comparison of arsenic analysis in Bangladesh. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, P.K.; Dargie, M.; Groening, M.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Gibson, J.J.

    2001-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducted an evaluation of the quality of arsenic analysis in Bangladesh through an inter-laboratory comparison of the analysis of synthetic standards and field samples. A set of 8 synthetic standards with arsenic concentrations ranging from 0 to about 500 μg/kg, traceable to an internationally recognized standard solution of arsenic, were prepared by the IAEA and provided to the participating laboratories. In addition, two samples of drinking water were collected from near Dhaka by the local office of the World Health Organization (WHO) and provided to all participating laboratories and the IAEA for analysis. Out of the 25 laboratories who received the synthetic standards and field samples, 17 laboratories submitted results to the IAEA for comparison. The reported arsenic concentrations have a wide range with values much higher or much lower than the expected value. Analysis of field samples shows a range of values from 0 to 396 μg/kg. Less than one third of the participating laboratories obtained results that were within about 20% of the expected values (about 60 μg/kg) obtained by a laboratory cooperating with the IAEA (University of Rochester). Results of this inter-laboratory comparison point to a lack of consistency in the analytical results that have been and are being obtained in Bangladesh. More importantly, drinking water wells where elevated arsenic concentrations have been found may in fact have low concentrations. Similarly, wells that have been found to be free of arsenic may in fact have substantially higher arsenic concentrations. The quality and reliability of arsenic analysis needs to be established and continually evaluated in order to identify all affected areas and to provide appropriate mitigation

  16. Economic analysis of a herpes zoster vaccination program in 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Megan A; Kuehl, Peggy G; Liu, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    To examine the economic impact of providing herpes zoster vaccine (ZOS) in 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies in a midwestern metropolitan area from the perspective of the pharmacy and to identify factors associated with greater rates of vaccine delivery and profitability. 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Immunizations with ZOS were expanded from 2 pharmacies to all 19 affiliated pharmacies. Various methods to promote the vaccine were used, including personal selling, store signage, and circular ads. In addition to a broad perspective pharmacoeconomic model, a localized perspective model is proposed to determine profitability for the service. Factors associated with greater success in vaccine delivery and profitability were identified. Net financial gains or losses were calculated for each vaccine administered for each of the 19 pharmacies and for the entire supermarket chain. 662 vaccines were given during the study period, accounting for 6.7% of all eligible patients. The profit per vaccine averaged $9.60 (5.7%) and $28.37 (18.9%) using the broad and localized perspective models, respectively. Success of the ZOS program was demonstrated using both models. Certain factors correlated with greater profits when using the localized perspective model.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of prophylactic cervical cancer vaccination in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Ryo; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Takashi; Van Kriekinge, Georges; Demarteau, Nadia

    2010-04-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer (CC) is high in Japan and is further increasing among women younger than 30 years. This burden could be reduced by the implementation of a CC vaccine, but its cost-effectiveness is unknown. We quantified the clinical impact and assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding CC vaccination at age 12 to the current screening in place in Japan with a lifetime Markov model adapted to the Japanese setting. Transition probabilities and utility values were obtained from public databases. Direct costs for treatment and screening were estimated using Japanese medical fees. Annual costs and benefits were discounted at 3%. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on the age at vaccination, the vaccine characteristics, the discount rates, the proportion of human papillomavirus types 16/18 in cancer, and the screening coverage. Vaccinating a 12-year-old cohort was predicted to reduce CC incidence and deaths from CC by 73%. These clinical effects were associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of yen1.8 million per quality-adjusted life year gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of vaccinating all 10- to 45-year-old women was yen2.8 million per quality-adjusted life year, still below the threshold value. The implementation of a CC vaccination in Japan could reduce the CC burden in a very cost-effective manner for women up to 45 years.

  18. Utility of repeat testing of critical values: a Q-probes analysis of 86 clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Christopher M; Howanitz, Peter J; Souers, Rhona; Karcher, Donald S

    2014-06-01

    A common laboratory practice is to repeat critical values before reporting the test results to the clinical care provider. This may be an unnecessary step that delays the reporting of critical test results without adding value to the accuracy of the test result. To determine the proportions of repeated chemistry and hematology critical values that differ significantly from the original value as defined by the participating laboratory, to determine the threshold differences defined by the laboratory as clinically significant, and to determine the additional time required to analyze the repeat test. Participants prospectively reviewed critical test results for 4 laboratory tests: glucose, potassium, white blood cell count, and platelet count. Participants reported the following information: initial and repeated test result; time initial and repeat results were first known to laboratory staff; critical result notification time; if the repeat result was still a critical result; if the repeat result was significantly different from the initial result, as judged by the laboratory professional or policy; significant difference threshold, as defined by the laboratory; the make and model of the instrument used for primary and repeat testing. Routine, repeat analysis of critical values is a common practice. Most laboratories did not formally define a significant difference between repeat results. Repeated results were rarely considered significantly different. Median repeated times were at least 17 to 21 minutes for 10% of laboratories. Twenty percent of laboratories reported at least 1 incident in the last calendar year of delayed result reporting that clinicians indicated had adversely affected patient care. Routine repeat analysis of automated chemistry and hematology critical values is unlikely to be clinically useful and may adversely affect patient care.

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening in Partly HPV Vaccinated Cohorts - A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffie K Naber

    Full Text Available Vaccination against the oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV types 16 and 18 will reduce the prevalence of these types, thereby also reducing cervical cancer risk in unvaccinated women. This (measurable herd effect will be limited at first, but is expected to increase over time. At a certain herd immunity level, tailoring screening to vaccination status may no longer be worth the additional effort. Moreover, uniform screening may be the only viable option. We therefore investigated at what level of herd immunity it is cost-effective to also reduce screening intensity in unvaccinated women.We used the MISCAN-Cervix model to determine the optimal screening strategy for a pre-vaccination population and for vaccinated women (~80% decreased risk, assuming a willingness-to-pay of €50,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained. We considered HPV testing, cytology testing and co-testing and varied the start age of screening, the screening interval and the number of lifetime screens. We then calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of screening unvaccinated women with the strategy optimized to the pre-vaccination population as compared to with the strategy optimized to vaccinated women, assuming different herd immunity levels.Primary HPV screening with cytology triage was the optimal strategy, with 8 lifetime screens for the pre-vaccination population and 3 for vaccinated women. The ICER of screening unvaccinated women 8 times instead of 3 was €28,085 in the absence of herd immunity. At around 50% herd immunity, the ICER reached €50,000.From a herd immunity level of 50% onwards, screening intensity based on the pre-vaccination risk level becomes cost-ineffective for unvaccinated women. Reducing the screening intensity of uniform screening may then be considered.

  20. Inquiry-based Laboratory Activities on Drugs Analysis for High School Chemistry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, I.; Sholichin, H.; Arifin, M.

    2017-09-01

    Laboratory activity is an important part of chemistry learning, but cookbook instructions is still commonly used. However, the activity with that way do not improve students thinking skill, especially students creativity. This study aims to improve high school students creativity through inquiry-based laboratory on drugs analysis activity. Acid-base titration is used to be method for drugs analysis involving a color changing indicator. The following tools were used to assess the activity achievement: creative thinking test on acid base titration, creative attitude and action observation sheets, questionnaire of inquiry-based lab activities, and interviews. The results showed that the inquiry-based laboratory activity improving students creative thinking, creative attitude and creative action. The students reacted positively to this teaching strategy as demonstrated by results from questionnaire responses and interviews. This result is expected to help teachers to overcome the shortcomings in other laboratory learning.

  1. Issues in the economic evaluation of influenza vaccination by injection of healthy working adults in the US: a review and decision analysis of ten published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Thomas J

    2012-05-01

    The objective was to review recent economic evaluations of influenza vaccination by injection in the US, assess their evidence, and conclude on their collective findings. The literature was searched for economic evaluations of influenza vaccination injection in healthy working adults in the US published since 1995. Ten evaluations described in nine papers were identified. These were synopsized and their results evaluated, the basic structure of all evaluations was ascertained, and sensitivity of outcomes to changes in parameter values were explored using a decision model. Areas to improve economic evaluations were noted. Eight of nine evaluations with credible economic outcomes were favourable to vaccination, representing a statistically significant result compared with a proportion of 50% that would be expected if vaccination and no vaccination were economically equivalent. Evaluations shared a basic structure, but differed considerably with respect to cost components, assumptions, methods, and parameter estimates. Sensitivity analysis indicated that changes in parameter values within the feasible range, individually or simultaneously, could reverse economic outcomes. Given stated misgivings, the methods of estimating influenza reduction ascribed to vaccination must be researched to confirm that they produce accurate and reliable estimates. Research is also needed to improve estimates of the costs per case of influenza illness and the costs of vaccination. Based on their assumptions, the reviewed papers collectively appear to support the economic benefits of influenza vaccination of healthy adults. Yet the underlying assumptions, methods and parameter estimates themselves warrant further research to confirm they are accurate, reliable and appropriate to economic evaluation purposes.

  2. Analytical laboratory quality assurance guidance in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This document introduces QA guidance pertaining to design and implementation of laboratory procedures and processes for collecting DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) ESAA (environmental sampling and analysis activities) data. It addresses several goals: identifying key laboratory issues and program elements to EM HQ and field office managers; providing non-prescriptive guidance; and introducing environmental data collection program elements for EM-263 assessment documents and programs. The guidance describes the implementation of laboratory QA elements within a functional QA program (development of the QA program and data quality objectives are not covered here)

  3. Analysis of traces at ORNL's new high-flux neutron activation laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; Handley, T.H.; Dyer, F.F.

    1974-01-01

    The investigations are outlined, which are carried out in order to develop (preferably instrumental) methods for multielement analysis of various trace elements. For this reason a new High-Flux NAA Laboratory was constructed at ORNL's. A general review is given on the Laboratory, further some methods and applications are shown. In the field of comparator activation analysis comparative data are given on mercury determinations in various matrices, and on arsenic determination in grasshoppers. This later method was used to trace the transport of arsenic containing pesticides. Some data are given on absolute activation analysis of Na, Ci, Mn, Br, and Au, too. (K.A.)

  4. An analysis of microsystems development at Sandia National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gilbert V.; Myers, David R.

    2011-06-01

    While Sandia initially was motivated to investigate emergent microsystem technology to miniaturize existing macroscale structures, present designs embody innovative approaches that directly exploit the fundamentally different material properties of a new technology at the micro- and nano-scale. Direct, hands-on experience with the emerging technology gave Sandia engineers insights that not only guided the evolution of the technology but also enabled them to address new applications that enlarged the customer base for the new technology. Sandia's early commitment to develop complex microsystems demonstrated the advantages that early adopters gain by developing an extensive design and process tool kit and a shared awareness of multiple approaches to achieve the multiple goals. As with any emergent technology, Sandia's program benefited from interactions with the larger technical community. However, custom development followed a spiral path of direct trial-and-error experience, analysis, quantification of materials properties at the micro- and nano-scale, evolution of design tools and process recipes, and an understanding of reliability factors and failure mechanisms even in extreme environments. The microsystems capability at Sandia relied on three key elements. The first was people: a mix of mechanical and semiconductor engineers, chemists, physical scientists, designers, and numerical analysts. The second was a unique facility that enabled the development of custom technologies without contaminating mainline product deliveries. The third was the arrival of specialized equipment as part of a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) enabled by the National Competitiveness Technology Transfer Act of 1989. Underpinning all these, the program was guided and sustained through the research and development phases by accomplishing intermediate milestones addressing direct mission needs.

  5. Investigating Reports of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: An Analysis of HPV-16/18-Adjuvanted Vaccine Post-Licensure Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Huygen

    2015-09-01

    There is not sufficient evidence to suggest an increased risk of developing CRPS following vaccination with HPV-16/18-adjuvanted vaccine. Post-licensure safety surveillance confirms the acceptable benefit-risk of HPV-16/18 vaccination.

  6. Design of a Clinical Information Management System to Support DNA Analysis Laboratory Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Dubay, Christopher J.; Zimmerman, David; Popovich, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    The LabDirector system has been developed at the Oregon Health Sciences University to support the operation of our clinical DNA analysis laboratory. Through an iterative design process which has spanned two years, we have produced a system that is both highly tailored to a clinical genetics production laboratory and flexible in its implementation, to support the rapid growth and change of protocols and methodologies in use in the field. The administrative aspects of the system are integrated ...

  7. Reproduction of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome in an animal disease model as a tool for vaccine testing under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillen, John; McNair, Irene; Lagan, Paula; McKay, Karen; McClintock, Julie; Casement, Veronica; Charreyre, Catherine; Allan, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Snatch farrowed, colostrum deprived piglets were inoculated with different combinations of porcine circovirus 2, porcine parvovirus and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae candidate vaccines. 10 piglets were mock-vaccinated. Following virus challenge with a combined porcine circovirus 2/porcine parvovirus inoculum, all animals were monitored and samples taken for serology, immunohistochemistry and qPCR. At 24 dpc all non-vaccinated animals remaining were exhibiting signs of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Details of the study, analysis of samples and performance of the candidate vaccines are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of potential new protein vaccine candidates through pan-surfomic analysis of pneumococcal clinical isolates from adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Olaya-Abril

    Full Text Available Purified polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines are widely used for preventing infections in adults and in children against the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates, especially in developing countries. However, these polysaccharide-based vaccines have some important limitations, such as being serotype-dependent, being subjected to losing efficacy because of serotype replacement and high manufacturing complexity and cost. It is expected that protein-based vaccines will overcome these issues by conferring a broad coverage independent of serotype and lowering production costs. In this study, we have applied the "shaving" proteomic approach, consisting of the LC/MS/MS analysis of peptides generated by protease treatment of live cells, to a collection of 16 pneumococcal clinical isolates from adults, representing the most prevalent strains circulating in Spain during the last years. The set of unique proteins identified in all the isolates, called "pan-surfome", consisted of 254 proteins, which included most of the protective protein antigens reported so far. In search of new candidates with vaccine potential, we identified 32 that were present in at least 50% of the clinical isolates analyzed. We selected four of them (Spr0012, Spr0328, Spr0561 and SP670_2141, whose protection capacity has not yet been tested, for assaying immunogenicity in human sera. All of them induced the production of IgM antibodies in infected patients, thus indicating that they could enter the pipeline for vaccine studies. The pan-surfomic approach shows its utility in the discovery of new proteins that can elicit protection against infectious microorganisms.

  9. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant Lahariya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI (1978 and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP (1985 were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  10. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2014-04-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  11. Translational Behavior Analysis: From Laboratory Science in Stimulus Control to Intervention with Persons with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvane, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout its history, laboratory research in the experimental analysis of behavior has been successful in elucidating and clarifying basic learning principles and processes in both humans and nonhumans. In parallel, applied behavior analysis has shown how fundamental behavior-analytic principles and procedures can be employed to promote…

  12. Performance of laboratories in speciation analysis in seafood – Case of methylmercury and inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Ines; Baxter, Malcolm; Devesa, Vicenta

    2011-01-01

    arsenic analysis. Results for inorganic arsenic were spread, but not method dependant. The measurand seems to be difficult to analyse in this matrix and possible method issues were identified. Methylmercury results were satisfactory, but not many laboratories perform this type of analysis because...

  13. Effectiveness of 2010/2011 seasonal influenza vaccine in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a case-control study to estimate the 2010\\/2011 trivalent influenza vaccine effectiveness (TIVE) using the Irish general practitioners\\' influenza sentinel surveillance scheme. Cases were influenza-like illness (ILI) patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Controls were ILI patients who tested negative for influenza. Participating sentinel general practitioners (GP) collected swabs from patients presenting with ILI along with their vaccination history and other individual characteristics. The TIVE was computed as (1 - odds ratiofor vaccination) x100%. Of 60 sentinel GP practices, 22 expressed interest in participating in the study and 17 (28%) recruited at least one ILI patient. In the analysis, we included 106 cases and 85 controls. Seven controls (8.2%) and one influenza case (0.9%) had been vaccinated in 2010\\/2011. The estimated TIVE against any influenza subtype was 89.4% [95% CI: 13.8; 99.8%], suggesting a protective effect against GP-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. This study design could be used to monitor influenza vaccine effectiveness annually but sample size and vaccination coverage should be increased to obtain precise and adjusted estimates.

  14. Vaccine process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccinating children in Malawi with RTS,S vaccines in comparison with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Mikyung Kelly; Baker, Peter; Ngo, Karen Ngoc-Lan

    2014-02-24

    New RTS,S malaria vaccines may soon be licensed, yet its cost-effectiveness is unknown. Before the widespread introduction of RTS,S vaccines, cost-effectiveness studies are needed to help inform governments in resource-poor settings about how best to prioritize between the new vaccine and existing malaria interventions. A Markov model simulated malaria progression in a hypothetical Malawian birth cohort. Parameters were based on published data. Three strategies were compared: no intervention, vaccination at one year, and long-lasting, insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) at birth. Both health service and societal perspectives were explored. Health outcomes were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and costed in 2012 US$. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and extensive sensitivity analyses were conducted. Three times GDP per capita ($1,095) per DALY averted was used for a cost-effectiveness threshold, whilst one times GDP ($365) was considered 'very cost-effective'. From a societal perspective the vaccine strategy was dominant. It averted 0.11 more DALYs than LLINs and 0.372 more DALYs than the no intervention strategy per person, while costing $10.04 less than LLINs and $59.74 less than no intervention. From a health service perspective the vaccine's ICER was $145.03 per DALY averted, and thus can be considered very cost-effective. The results were robust to changes in all variables except the vaccine and LLINs' duration of efficacy. Vaccines remained cost-effective even at the lowest assumed efficacy levels of 49.6% (mild malaria) and 14.2% (severe malaria), and the highest price of $15. However, from a societal perspective, if the vaccine duration efficacy was set below 2.69 years or the LLIN duration of efficacy was greater than 4.24 years then LLINs became the more cost-effective strategy. The results showed that vaccinating Malawian children with RTS,S vaccines was very cost-effective from both a societal and a

  16. Rates of influenza vaccination in older adults and factors associated with vaccine use: A secondary analysis of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merry Heather

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza vaccination has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in the older adult population. In Canada, vaccination rates remain suboptimal. We identified factors predictive of influenza vaccination, in order to determine which segments of the older adult population might be targeted to increase coverage in influenza vaccination programs. Methods The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA is a population-based national cohort study of 10263 older adults (≥ 65 conducted in 1991. We used data from the 5007 community-dwelling participants in the CSHA without dementia for whom self-reported influenza vaccination status is known. Results Of 5007 respondents, 2763 (55.2% reported having received an influenza vaccination within the previous 2 years. The largest predictive factors for flu vaccination included: being married (57.4 vs. 52.6%, p = 0.0007, having attained a higher education (11.0 vs. 10.3 years, p While many other differences were statistically significant, most were small (e.g. mean age 75.1 vs. 74.6 years for immunized vs. unimmunized older adults, p = 0.006, higher Modified Mini Mental Status Examination score (89.9 vs. 89.1, p Residents of Ontario were more likely (64.6% to report vaccination (p Conclusions The vaccination rate in this sample, in whom influenza vaccination is indicated, was low (55.2%. Even in a publicly administered health care setting, influenza vaccination did not reach an important proportion of the elderly population. Whether these differences reflect patient preference or access remains to be determined.

  17. Antiviral immunity in fish – functional analysis using DNA vaccination as a tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; Lorenzen, Ellen; Einer-Jensen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    fingerlings. Vaccination of fish at an early stage appears advantageous, since larger fish require higher doses of vaccine to be protected. Even in fish with an average size of 0.5 g at the time of vaccination, good protection can be obtained. Interestingly, immunity is established already a few days after...... and cellular components both play a role in the long lasting protection. The similarity of the functional immune response profile to that induced by a natural virus infection is striking and is most likely one of the major reasons for the efficacy of the rhabdovirus DNA vaccines. Although other elements like...... protein gene suggest that the structural requirements for antigenicity are different from the requirements for immunogenicity....

  18. The Impact of Rotavirus Vaccination on Discounted Net Tax Revenue in Egypt A Government Perspective Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Topachevskyi, Oleksandr; Standaert, Baudouin; Ortega, Omayra; Postma, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Background: We evaluated national rotavirus (RV) immunization programme costs to estimate how resulting changes in morbidity and mortality will influence government fiscal accounts over time. The assumption was that increased childhood survival in vaccinated cohorts leads to increased numbers of

  19. Molecular characterisation and nucleotide sequence analysis of canine parvovirus strains in vaccines in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukdeb Nandi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV‑2 is one of the most important viruses that causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and myocarditis of dogs worldwide. The picture has been complicated further due to the emergence of new mutants of CPV, namely: CPV‑2a, CPV‑2b and CPV‑2c. In this study, the molecular characterisation of strains present in the CPV vaccines available on the Indian market was performed using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The VP1/VP2 genes of two vaccine strains and a field strain (Bhopal were sequenced and the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared. The results indicated that the isolate belonged to CPV type 2b and the strains in the vaccines belonged to type CPV‑2. From the study, it is inferred that the CPV strain used in commercially available vaccine preparation differed from the strains present in CPV infection in dogs in India

  20. Molecular characterisation and nucleotide sequence analysis of canine parvovirus strains in vaccines in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sukdeb; Anbazhagan, Rajendra; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) is one of the most important viruses that causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and myocarditis of dogs worldwide. The picture has been complicated further due to the emergence of new mutants of CPV, namely: CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. In this study, the molecular characterisation of strains present in the CPV vaccines available on the Indian market was performed using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The VP1/VP2 genes of two vaccine strains and a field strain (Bhopal) were sequenced and the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared. The results indicated that the isolate belonged to CPV type 2b and the strains in the vaccines belonged to type CPV-2. From the study, it is inferred that the CPV strain used in commercially available vaccine preparation differed from the strains present in CPV infection in dogs in India.

  1. Integrated Analysis of Genetic and Proteomic Data Identifies Biomarkers Associated with Adverse Events Following Smallpox Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complex clinical outcomes, such as adverse reaction to vaccination, arise from the concerted interactions among the myriad components of a biological system. Therefore, comprehensive etiological models can be developed only through the integrated study of multiple types of experi...

  2. Rotavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intussusception. Early vaccines were based on animal strains. More recently developed and licenced vaccines are either animal-human reassortants or are based on human strains. In India, two candidate vaccines are in the development process, but have not yet reached efficacy trials. Many challenges regarding vaccine efficacy and safety remain. In addition to completing clinical evaluations of vaccines in development in settings with the highest disease burden and virus diversity, there is also a need to consider alternative vaccine development strategies.

  3. The effects of total laboratory automation on the management of a clinical chemistry laboratory. Retrospective analysis of 36 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozi, Laszlo; Simson, Elkin; Ramanathan, Lakshmi

    2003-03-01

    Thirty-six years of data and history of laboratory practice at our institution has enabled us to follow the effects of analytical automation, then recently pre-analytical and post-analytical automation on productivity, cost reduction and enhanced quality of service. In 1998, we began the operation of a pre- and post-analytical automation system (robotics), together with an advanced laboratory information system to process specimens prior to analysis, deliver them to various automated analytical instruments, specimen outlet racks and finally to refrigerated stockyards. By the end of 3 years of continuous operation, we compared the chemistry part of the system with the prior 33 years and quantitated the financial impact of the various stages of automation. Between 1965 and 2000, the Consumer Price Index increased by a factor of 5.5 in the United States. During the same 36 years, at our institution's Chemistry Department the productivity (indicated as the number of reported test results/employee/year) increased from 10,600 to 104,558 (9.3-fold). When expressed in constant 1965 dollars, the total cost per test decreased from 0.79 dollars to 0.15 dollars. Turnaround time for availability of results on patient units decreased to the extent that Stat specimens requiring a turnaround time of productivity together with decreased operational cost. It enabled us to significantly increase our workload together with a reduction of personnel. In addition, stats are handled easily and there are benefits such as safer working conditions and improved sample identification, which are difficult to quantify at this stage.

  4. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  5. Analysis of a general age-dependent vaccination model for a vertically transmitted disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Doma, M.

    1995-05-01

    A SIR epidemic model of a general age-dependent vaccination for a vertically as well as horizontally transmitted disease is investigated when the total population is time dependent, and fertility, mortality and removal rates depend on age. We establish the existence and the uniqueness of the solution and obtain the asymptotic behaviour for the solution. For the steady state solution a critical vaccination coverage which will eventually eradicate the disease is determined. (author). 18 refs

  6. Stability analysis of multi-group deterministic and stochastic epidemic models with vaccination rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Gang; Gao Rui-Mei; Fan Xiao-Ming; Han Qi-Xing

    2014-01-01

    We discuss in this paper a deterministic multi-group MSIR epidemic model with a vaccination rate, the basic reproduction number ℛ 0 , a key parameter in epidemiology, is a threshold which determines the persistence or extinction of the disease. By using Lyapunov function techniques, we show if ℛ 0 is greater than 1 and the deterministic model obeys some conditions, then the disease will prevail, the infective persists and the endemic state is asymptotically stable in a feasible region. If ℛ 0 is less than or equal to 1, then the infective disappear so the disease dies out. In addition, stochastic noises around the endemic equilibrium will be added to the deterministic MSIR model in order that the deterministic model is extended to a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations. In the stochastic version, we carry out a detailed analysis on the asymptotic behavior of the stochastic model. In addition, regarding the value of ℛ 0 , when the stochastic system obeys some conditions and ℛ 0 is greater than 1, we deduce the stochastic system is stochastically asymptotically stable. Finally, the deterministic and stochastic model dynamics are illustrated through computer simulations. (general)

  7. Laboratory Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Joshua M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  8. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  9. HPV vaccine for teen boys: Dyadic analysis of parents' and sons' beliefs and willingness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L; Reiter, Paul L; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-09-01

    Parents and adolescents often decide together whether the child should receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. However, few studies have investigated the dyadic nature of beliefs that affect this process. Data came from the 2010 HPV Immunization in Sons (HIS) Study, a national sample of 412 parents and their adolescent sons. We conducted dyadic multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationships between parents' and sons' HPV vaccine beliefs and their willingness to have the son receive the vaccine. Less than half of parents and sons were willing to have the sons receive HPV vaccine (43% and 29%, respectively). Willing parents and sons anticipated greater regret if the son did not receive HPV vaccine but later contracted an HPV infection (parent odds ratio [OR]=1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.24-2.40; son OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.04-2.19) (both pCommunication campaigns may be able to target these beliefs to increase parents' and sons' willingness to seek HPV vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A public health and budget impact analysis of vaccinating the elderly and at-risk adults with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yiling; Gauthier, Aline; Keeping, Sam; Carroll, Stuart

    2014-12-01

    Since the introduction of the routine childhood immunization, a change in epidemiology of pneumococcal disease has been seen in both children and adults. This study aimed to quantify the public health and budget impact of pneumococcal vaccination of the elderly and those in at risk groups in the UK. The model was adapted from a previous population-based Markov model. At-risk adults and the elderly were assumed to receive PPV23 or PCV13 vaccination or no vaccination. Over the study period (2012-2016), PPV23 vaccination led to a reduction in the number of invasive pneumococcal disease cases in most scenarios. The net budget impact ranged between £15 and £39 million (vs no vaccination) or between -£116 and -£93 million (vs PCV13). PPV23 vaccination program remains the optimal strategy from public health and budgetary perspectives despite epidemiological changes. PCV13 is likely to impose a significant budget with limited health benefits.

  11. Effectiveness and economic analysis of the whole cell/recombinant B subunit (WC/rbs inactivated oral cholera vaccine in the prevention of traveller's diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diez-Diaz Rosa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays there is a debate about the indication of the oral whole-cell/recombinant B-subunit cholera vaccine (WC/rBS in traveller's diarrhoea. However, a cost-benefit analysis based on real data has not been published. Methods A cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit study of the oral cholera vaccine (WC/rBS, Dukoral® for the prevention of traveller's diarrhoea (TD was performed in subjects travelling to cholera risk areas. The effectiveness of WC/rBS vaccine in the prevention of TD was analyzed in 362 travellers attending two International Vaccination Centres in Spain between May and September 2005. Results The overall vaccine efficacy against TD was 42,6%. Direct healthcare-related costs as well as indirect costs (lost vacation days subsequent to the disease were considered. Preventive vaccination against TD resulted in a mean saving of 79.26 € per traveller. Conclusion According to the cost-benefit analysis performed, the recommendation for WC/rBS vaccination in subjects travelling to zones at risk of TD is beneficial for the traveller, regardless of trip duration and visited continent.

  12. UK parents' attitudes towards meningococcal group B (MenB) vaccination: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cath; Yarwood, Joanne; Saliba, Vanessa; Bedford, Helen

    2017-05-04

    (1) To explore existing knowledge of, and attitudes, to group B meningococcal disease and serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine among parents of young children. (2) To seek views on their information needs. Cross-sectional qualitative study using individual and group interviews conducted in February and March 2015, prior to the introduction of MenB vaccine (Bexsero) into the UK childhood immunisation schedule. Community centres, mother and toddler groups, parents' homes and workplaces in London and Yorkshire. 60 parents of children under 2 years of age recruited via mother and baby groups and via an advert posted to a midwife-led Facebook group. Although recognising the severity of meningitis and septicaemia, parents' knowledge of group B meningococcal disease and MenB vaccine was poor. While nervous about fever, most said they would take their child for MenB vaccination despite its link to fever. Most parents had liquid paracetamol at home. Many were willing to administer it after MenB vaccination as a preventive measure, although some had concerns. There were mixed views on the acceptability of four vaccinations at the 12-month booster visit; some preferred one visit, while others favoured spreading the vaccines over two visits. Parents were clear on the information they required before attending the immunisation appointment. The successful implementation of the MenB vaccination programme depends on its acceptance by parents. In view of parents' recognition of the severity of meningitis and septicaemia, and successful introduction of other vaccines to prevent bacterial meningitis and septicaemia, the MenB vaccination programme is likely to be successful. However, the need for additional injections, the likelihood of post-immunisation fever and its management are issues about which parents will need information and reassurance from healthcare professionals. Public Health England has developed written information for parents, informed by these findings.

  13. Preanalytical errors in medical laboratories: a review of the available methodologies of data collection and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jamie; Atherton, Jennifer; Costelloe, Seán J; Pourmahram, Ghazaleh; Stretton, Adam; Cornes, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Preanalytical errors have previously been shown to contribute a significant proportion of errors in laboratory processes and contribute to a number of patient safety risks. Accreditation against ISO 15189:2012 requires that laboratory Quality Management Systems consider the impact of preanalytical processes in areas such as the identification and control of non-conformances, continual improvement, internal audit and quality indicators. Previous studies have shown that there is a wide variation in the definition, repertoire and collection methods for preanalytical quality indicators. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Working Group on Laboratory Errors and Patient Safety has defined a number of quality indicators for the preanalytical stage, and the adoption of harmonized definitions will support interlaboratory comparisons and continual improvement. There are a variety of data collection methods, including audit, manual recording processes, incident reporting mechanisms and laboratory information systems. Quality management processes such as benchmarking, statistical process control, Pareto analysis and failure mode and effect analysis can be used to review data and should be incorporated into clinical governance mechanisms. In this paper, The Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine PreAnalytical Specialist Interest Group review the various data collection methods available. Our recommendation is the use of the laboratory information management systems as a recording mechanism for preanalytical errors as this provides the easiest and most standardized mechanism of data capture.

  14. Computational Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains a number of commercial off-the-shelf and in-house software packages allowing for both statistical analysis as well as mathematical modeling...

  15. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage and the determinants of vaccination among health care workers in selected health facilities in Lusaka district, Zambia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungandi, Namwaka; Makasa, Mpundu; Musonda, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a viral infection of the liver and causes both acute and chronic disease. It is transmitted through contact with an infected person's bodily fluids. It is an occupational hazard for healthcare workers and can be prevented by the administration of a vaccine. It is recommended that healthcare workers be vaccinated against vaccine preventable diseases including hepatitis B. The study objective was to determine the prevalence and determinants of hepatitis B vaccination among healthcare workers in selected health facilities in Lusaka. The study took place in seven health facilities across Lusaka district in Zambia. A total sample size of 331 healthcare workers was selected of which; 90 were nurses, 88 were doctors, 86 were laboratory personnel and 67 were general workers. A self-administered structured questionnaire was given to a total of 331 healthcare workers. Investigator led stepwise approach was used to select the best predictor variables in a multiple logistic regression model and all analyses were performed using STATA software, version 12.1 SE (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). Only 64(19.3%) of the healthcare workers were vaccinated against hepatitis B, with 35 (54.7%) of these being fully vaccinated and 29 (45.3%) partially vaccinated. Analysis showed that; age of the healthcare worker, sharp injuries per year and training in infection control were the variables that were statistically significant in predicting a healthcare worker's vaccination status. It is reassuring to learn that healthcare workers have knowledge regarding hepatitis B and the vaccine and are willing to be vaccinated against it. Health institutions should bear the cost for vaccinating staff and efforts should be made for appropriate health education regarding hepatitis B infection and its prevention. Establishment of policies on compulsory hepatitis B vaccination for healthcare workers in Zambia is recommended.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Event Performance Analysis FY 2013 4th Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2 “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable for the previous twelve months. This report is the analysis of occurrence reports and deficiency reports (including not reportable events) identified at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) during the period of October 2012 through September 2013.

  17. Population-level impact, herd immunity, and elimination after human papillomavirus vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis of predictions from transmission-dynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Marc; Bénard, Élodie; Drolet, Mélanie; Bogaards, Johannes A; Baussano, Iacopo; Vänskä, Simopekka; Jit, Mark; Boily, Marie-Claude; Smith, Megan A; Berkhof, Johannes; Canfell, Karen; Chesson, Harrell W; Burger, Emily A; Choi, Yoon H; De Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; De Vlas, Sake J; Guzzetta, Giorgio; Hontelez, Jan A C; Horn, Johannes; Jepsen, Martin R; Kim, Jane J; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Matthijsse, Suzette M; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Pavelyev, Andrew; Pillsbury, Matthew; Shafer, Leigh Anne; Tully, Stephen P; Turner, Hugo C; Usher, Cara; Walsh, Cathal

    2016-11-01

    Modelling studies have been widely used to inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policy decisions; however, many models exist and it is not known whether they produce consistent predictions of population-level effectiveness and herd effects. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of model predictions of the long-term population-level effectiveness of vaccination against HPV 16, 18, 6, and 11 infection in women and men, to examine the variability in predicted herd effects, incremental benefit of vaccinating boys, and potential for HPV-vaccine-type elimination. We searched MEDLINE and Embase for transmission-dynamic modelling studies published between Jan 1, 2009, and April 28, 2015, that predicted the population-level impact of vaccination on HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infections in high-income countries. We contacted authors to determine whether they were willing to produce new predictions for standardised scenarios. Strategies investigated were girls-only vaccination and girls and boys vaccination at age 12 years. Base-case vaccine characteristics were 100% efficacy and lifetime protection. We did sensitivity analyses by varying vaccination coverage, vaccine efficacy, and duration of protection. For all scenarios we pooled model predictions of relative reductions in HPV prevalence (RR prev ) over time after vaccination and summarised results using the median and 10th and 90th percentiles (80% uncertainty intervals [UI]). 16 of 19 eligible models from ten high-income countries provided predictions. Under base-case assumptions, 40% vaccination coverage and girls-only vaccination, the RR prev of HPV 16 among women and men was 0·53 (80% UI 0·46-0·68) and 0·36 (0·28-0·61), respectively, after 70 years. With 80% girls-only vaccination coverage, the RR prev of HPV 16 among women and men was 0·93 (0·90-1·00) and 0·83 (0·75-1·00), respectively. Vaccinating boys in addition to girls increased the RR prev of HPV 16 among women and men by 0·18 (0·13-0

  18. Life course vaccination and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmano, Michael K; Michel, Jean-Pierre

    2009-06-01

    The authors notice the low vaccine coverage rate among European citizens and inventory the multiple reasons leading to the non-use of preventable infectious diseases vaccines in adults whose mortality consequences represent an important and unexpected burden of diseases. These facts are in close relation with the disruption of vaccine recommendations after the childhood vaccine program, the poor literacy knowledge concerning vaccines among the general population, but also unfortunately among physicians and other health care workers. Popular beliefs, fear of side-effects, fear of needles facilitated the constitution of active non-vaccine groups which conduct to the reappearance in non-vaccinated adults and with dramatic consequences of preventable childhood infectious diseases. This careful analysis of the current preventable infectious disease vaccine coverage in old adults leads to propose a life course vaccine programme including adult vaccinations as part of healthy aging as well as old adults' vaccine guidelines integrated in health prevention programs.

  19. Analysis of vaccination campaign effectiveness and population immunity to support and sustain polio elimination in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upfill-Brown, Alexander M; Voorman, Arend; Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Shuaib, Faisal; Lyons, Hil M

    2016-03-30

    The world is closer than ever to a polio-free Africa. In this end-stage, it is important to ensure high levels of population immunity to prevent polio outbreaks. Here, we introduce a new method of assessing vaccination campaign effectiveness and estimating immunity at the district-level. We demonstrate how this approach can be used to plan the vaccination campaigns prospectively to better manage population immunity in Northern Nigeria. Using Nigerian acute flaccid paralysis surveillance data from 2004-2014, we developed a Bayesian hierarchical model of campaign effectiveness and compared it to lot-quality assurance sampling data. We then used reconstructed sero-specific population immunity based on campaign history and compared district estimates of immunity to the occurrence of confirmed poliovirus cases. Estimated campaign effectiveness has improved across northern Nigeria since 2004, with Kano state experiencing an increase of 40 % (95 % CI, 26-54 %) in effectiveness from 2013 to 2014. Immunity to type 1 poliovirus has increased steadily. On the other hand, type 2 immunity was low and variable until the recent use of trivalent oral polio vaccine. We find that immunity estimates are related to the occurrence of both wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus cases and that campaign effectiveness correlates with direct measurements using lot-quality assurance sampling. Future campaign schedules highlight the trade-offs involved with using different vaccine types. The model in this study provides a novel method for assessing vaccination campaign performance and epidemiologically-relevant estimates of population immunity. Small-area estimates of campaign effectiveness can then be used to evaluate prospective campaign plans. This modeling approach could be applied to other countries as well as other vaccine preventable diseases.

  20. Rotavirus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452

  1. Frederick National Lab Rallies to Meet Demand for Zika Vaccine | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research’s Vaccine Pilot Plant, part of the Vaccine Clinical Materials Program (VCMP), is helping researchers produce investigational Zika vaccines for a new round of clinical trials. The plant has been

  2. Quantifying inter-laboratory variability in stable isotope analysis of ancient skeletal remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Pestle

    Full Text Available Over the past forty years, stable isotope analysis of bone (and tooth collagen and hydroxyapatite has become a mainstay of archaeological and paleoanthropological reconstructions of paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Despite this method's frequent use across anthropological subdisciplines (and beyond, the present work represents the first attempt at gauging the effects of inter-laboratory variability engendered by differences in a sample preparation, and b analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration. Replicate analyses of a 14C-dated ancient human bone by twenty-one archaeological and paleoecological stable isotope laboratories revealed significant inter-laboratory isotopic variation for both collagen and carbonate. For bone collagen, we found a sizeable range of 1.8‰ for δ13Ccol and 1.9‰ for δ15Ncol among laboratories, but an interpretatively insignificant average pairwise difference of 0.2‰ and 0.4‰ for δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol respectively. For bone hydroxyapatite the observed range increased to a troublingly large 3.5‰ for δ13Cap and 6.7‰ for δ18Oap, with average pairwise differences of 0.6‰ for δ13Cap and a disquieting 2.0‰ for δ18Oap. In order to assess the effects of preparation versus analysis on isotopic variability among laboratories, a subset of the samples prepared by the participating laboratories were analyzed a second time on the same instrument. Based on this duplicate analysis, it was determined that roughly half of the isotopic variability among laboratories could be attributed to differences in sample preparation, with the other half resulting from differences in analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration. These findings have serious implications for choices made in the preparation and extraction of target biomolecules, the comparison of results obtained from different laboratories, and the interpretation of small differences in bone collagen and hydroxyapatite

  3. Quantifying inter-laboratory variability in stable isotope analysis of ancient skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, William J; Crowley, Brooke E; Weirauch, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    Over the past forty years, stable isotope analysis of bone (and tooth) collagen and hydroxyapatite has become a mainstay of archaeological and paleoanthropological reconstructions of paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Despite this method's frequent use across anthropological subdisciplines (and beyond), the present work represents the first attempt at gauging the effects of inter-laboratory variability engendered by differences in a) sample preparation, and b) analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration). Replicate analyses of a 14C-dated ancient human bone by twenty-one archaeological and paleoecological stable isotope laboratories revealed significant inter-laboratory isotopic variation for both collagen and carbonate. For bone collagen, we found a sizeable range of 1.8‰ for δ13Ccol and 1.9‰ for δ15Ncol among laboratories, but an interpretatively insignificant average pairwise difference of 0.2‰ and 0.4‰ for δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol respectively. For bone hydroxyapatite the observed range increased to a troublingly large 3.5‰ for δ13Cap and 6.7‰ for δ18Oap, with average pairwise differences of 0.6‰ for δ13Cap and a disquieting 2.0‰ for δ18Oap. In order to assess the effects of preparation versus analysis on isotopic variability among laboratories, a subset of the samples prepared by the participating laboratories were analyzed a second time on the same instrument. Based on this duplicate analysis, it was determined that roughly half of the isotopic variability among laboratories could be attributed to differences in sample preparation, with the other half resulting from differences in analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration). These findings have serious implications for choices made in the preparation and extraction of target biomolecules, the comparison of results obtained from different laboratories, and the interpretation of small differences in bone collagen and hydroxyapatite isotope values

  4. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of a Live Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine (CYD-TDV in Children: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moffat Malisheni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDengue hemorrhagic fever is the leading cause of hospitalization and death in children living in Asia and Latin America. There is an urgent need for an effective and safe dengue vaccine to reduce morbidity and mortality in this high-risk population given the lack of dengue specific treatment at present. This review aims to determine the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of CYD-TDV vaccine in children.MethodsThis is a systematic review including meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trial data from Embase, Medline, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Studies that assessed CYD-TDV vaccine efficacy [(1 − RR*100], safety (RR, and immunogenicity (weighted mean difference in children were included in this study. Random effects model was employed to analyze patient-level data extracted from primary studies.ResultsThe overall efficacy of CYD-TDV vaccine was 54% (40–64, while serotype-specific efficacy was 77% (66–85 for DENV4, 75% (65–82 for DENV3, 50% (36–61 for DENV1, and 34% (14–49 for DENV2. 15% (−174–74 vaccine efficacy was obtained for the unknown serotype. Meta-analysis of included studies with longer follow-up time (25 months revealed that CYD-TDV vaccine significantly increased the risk of injection site reactions (RR = 1.1: 1.04–1.17; p-value = 0.001. Immunogenicity (expressed as geometric mean titers in descending order was 439.7 (331.7–547.7, 323 (247 – 398.7, 144.1 (117.9–170.2, and 105 (88.7–122.8 for DENV3, DENV2, DENV1, and DENV4, respectively.ConclusionCYD-TDV vaccine is effective and immunogenic in children overall. Reduced efficacy of CYD-TDV vaccine against DENV2 notoriously known for causing severe dengue infection and dengue outbreaks cause for serious concern. Post hoc meta-analysis of long-term follow-up data (≥25 months from children previously vaccinated with CYD-TDV vaccine is needed to make a conclusion regarding CYD-TDV vaccine

  6. Ready or not: analysis of a no-notice mass vaccination field response in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caum, Jessica; Alles, Steven

    2013-12-01

    Local health departments typically rely on exercises to test preparedness capacity; however, pre-scripted drills often lack the sense of urgency that a real event would engender. No-notice, unscripted exercises that challenge staff to think critically under pressure may provide a mechanism for a more realistic assessment of preparedness capacity. The very active influenza season of 2012-13 presented the Public Health Preparedness Program at the Philadelphia Department of Public Health with the opportunity to conduct an influenza vaccination clinic at a local boarding school. Program leaders used this opportunity to design a no-notice exercise to test the ability of staff to effectively coordinate an emergency field response while simultaneously delivering a real public health intervention. On the day of the exercise, staff members were given 6 hours to plan and execute a vaccination clinic without any guidance from program leaders. Best practices observed during the exercise included: (1) early identification and mitigation of rate-limiting steps, and (2) successful implementation of a previously untested high-throughput vaccination model. Although the primary intent of the exercise was to assess the ability of staff to respond to a no-notice event, this vaccination clinic also functioned as a microcosm of a larger response, revealing several considerations related to vaccine ordering, staff resources, and throughput rates that have broader implications for public health responses to large-scale biological attacks or pandemics.

  7. Analysis of the effect of diluent for rehydration of PoulVac MycoF on vaccination seroconversion results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct eye drop vaccination of poultry using live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines provides the most efficient route of vaccination. The research reported in this study examines the effect of diluent used to rehydrate lyophilized M. gallisepticum vaccines on its ability to induce a measurable humo...

  8. Photovoltaic Calibrations at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Uncertainty Analysis Following the ISO 17025 Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The measurement of photovoltaic (PV) performance with respect to reference conditions requires measuring current versus voltage for a given tabular reference spectrum, junction temperature, and total irradiance. This report presents the procedures implemented by the PV Cell and Module Performance Characterization Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to achieve the lowest practical uncertainty. A rigorous uncertainty analysis of these procedures is presented, which follows the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. This uncertainty analysis is required for the team’s laboratory accreditation under ISO standard 17025, “General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories.” The report also discusses additional areas where the uncertainty can be reduced.

  9. Vaccination Perceptions of College Students: With and without Vaccination Waiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel D. Jadhav

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe resurgence of vaccine preventable diseases occurs more often among intentionally unvaccinated individuals, placing at direct risk young adults not caught up on vaccinations. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of young adults with and without vaccination waivers and identify their perceived benefits, barriers, and influencers of vaccination.MethodsYoung adults (n = 964 from a Midwestern rural university responded to a survey (fall 2015—spring 2016 designed to identify their perception toward vaccination. Instrument consistency was measured using the Cronbach α-scores. The Chi-square test was used to test any sociodemographic differences and Mann–Whitney U-tests results for differences between exempt and non-exempt students. Analysis occurred in spring 2017.ResultsA little over one-third of young adults with a vaccination waiver were not up to date on their vaccinations, and think that vaccinations can cause autism. The biggest identifiable benefit was effective control against disease. The surveyed young adults ranked the out of pocket cost associated with vaccination as the most important barrier and safe and easy to use vaccines as the most important influencer of vaccination.ConclusionYoung adults who have had a vaccination waiver appear to not be up to date on their vaccinations. Vaccine administration programs, such as university campus clinics, would benefit from addressing perceptions unique to young adults with and without a vaccine waiver. This would subsequently better provide young adults a second shot for getting appropriately caught up on vaccinations.

  10. 9 CFR 381.207 - Small importations for consignee's personal use, display, or laboratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small importations for consignee's personal use, display, or laboratory analysis. 381.207 Section 381.207 Animals and Animal Products FOOD...

  11. Summative Mass Analysis of Algal Biomass - Integration of Analytical Procedures: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure guides the integration of laboratory analytical procedures to measure algal biomass constituents in an unambiguous manner and ultimately achieve mass balance closure for algal biomass samples. Many of these methods build on years of research in algal biomass analysis.

  12. A Laboratory Exercise Illustrating the Sensitivity and Specificity of Western Blot Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Mei; Lovett, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Western blot analysis, commonly known as "Western blotting," is a standard tool in every laboratory where proteins are analyzed. It involves the separation of polypeptides in polyacrylamide gels followed by the electrophoretic transfer of the separated polypeptides onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride membrane. A replica of the…

  13. Data Analysis and Graphing in an Introductory Physics Laboratory: Spreadsheet versus Statistics Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterlin, Primoz

    2010-01-01

    Two methods of data analysis are compared: spreadsheet software and a statistics software suite. Their use is compared analysing data collected in three selected experiments taken from an introductory physics laboratory, which include a linear dependence, a nonlinear dependence and a histogram. The merits of each method are compared. (Contains 7…

  14. Coulometric Titration of Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) with Spectrophotometric Endpoint Detection: An Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Young, Vaneica Y.; Killian, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is commonly used as an anticoagulant in blood-collection procedures. In this experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory, students determine the quantity of EDTA in commercial collection tubes by coulometric titration with electrolytically generated Cu[superscript 2+]. The endpoint is detected…

  15. Microfluidic Gel Electrophoresis in the Undergraduate Laboratory Applied to Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tzu-Chiao; Bhattacharya, Sanchari; Ros, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    A microfluidics-based laboratory experiment for the analysis of DNA fragments in an analytical undergraduate course is presented. The experiment is set within the context of food species identification via amplified DNA fragments. The students are provided with berry samples from which they extract DNA and perform polymerase chain reaction (PCR)…

  16. Data analysis and graphing in an introductory physics laboratory: spreadsheet versus statistics suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterlin, Primoz

    2010-01-01

    Two methods of data analysis are compared: spreadsheet software and a statistics software suite. Their use is compared analysing data collected in three selected experiments taken from an introductory physics laboratory, which include a linear dependence, a nonlinear dependence and a histogram. The merits of each method are compared.

  17. Laboratory and exterior decay of wood plastic composite boards: voids analysis and computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace Sun; Rebecca E. Ibach; Meghan Faillace; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie A. Glaeser; John Haight

    2016-01-01

    After exposure in the field and laboratory soil block culture testing, the void content of wood–plastic composite (WPC) decking boards was compared to unexposed samples. A void volume analysis was conducted based on calculations of sample density and from micro-computed tomography (microCT) data. It was found that reference WPC contains voids of different sizes from...

  18. [SWOT analysis of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan-hong; Zheng, Bin

    2014-04-01

    This study analyzes the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat (SWOT) of laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases by SWOT analysis comprehensively, and it puts forward some development strategies specifically, in order to provide some indicative references for the further development.

  19. Analysis of Dextromethorphan in Cough Drops and Syrups: A Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Todd M.; Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the quantity of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) in over-the-counter (OTC) cough drops and syrups. This experiment is appropriate for an undergraduate medicinal chemistry laboratory course when studying OTC medicines and active ingredients. Students prepare the cough drops and syrups for analysis,…

  20. Analysis of a p53 Mutation Associated with Cancer Susceptibility for Biochemistry and Genetic Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Cruz, Isabel; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2009-01-01

    We have devised and implemented a module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of a p53 polymorphism associated with cancer susceptibility. First, students collected a drop of peripheral blood cells using a sterile sting and then used FTA cards to extract the genomic DNA. The p53 region is then PCR…

  1. How to Get Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Right? The Case of Vaccine Economics in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Amanda; Cañón, Oscar; Silverman, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    In middle-income countries, vaccines against pneumococcal disease, rotavirus, and human papilloma virus are in general more costly, not necessarily cost saving, and less consistently cost-effective than earlier generation vaccines against measles, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Budget impact is also substantial; public spending on vaccines in countries adopting new vaccines is, on average, double the amount of countries that have not adopted. Policymakers must weigh the costs and benefits of the adoption decision carefully, given the low coverage of other kinds of cost-effective health and nonhealth interventions in these same settings and relatively flat overall public spending on health as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) over time. This paper considers lessons learned from recent vaccine cost-effectiveness analyses and subsequent adoption decisions in Latin America a, largely under the auspices of the Pro Vac Initiative. The paper illustrates how small methodological choices and seemingly minor technical limitations of cost-effectiveness models can have major implications for the studies' conclusions, potentially influencing countries' subsequent vaccine adoption decisions. We evaluate the ProVac models and technical outputs against the standards and framework set out by the International Decision Support Initiative Reference Case for economic evaluation and consider the practical effects of deviations from those standards. Lessons learned are discussed, including issues of appropriate comparators, GDP-based thresholds, and use of average versus incremental cost-effectiveness ratios as a convention are assessed. The article ends with recommendations for the future. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. RILARA: Ibero-American laboratories network of radioactivity analysis in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M. Lourdes; Fernandez, Isis M.; Aguirre, Jaime; Melo, Ana C. de; Flores, Yasmine; Igliki, Amanda; Osores, Jose M.; Vasquez, L. Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    The Ibero-American Laboratories Network of Radioactivity Analysis in Food (RILARA), is a thematic network that was established in the year 2007 with the financial support of the Ibero-American Program of Science and Technology for Development (CYTED). The network brings together laboratories from Argentina, Brazil, Cuba, Ecuador, Spain, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. The main objective of thematic networks is the transfer of knowledge among the research groups and to foster the cooperation as a working method. Their mission is to create a collaboration framework that allows in the future developing new common actions. The main objective of RILARA is to guarantee the radioactive innocuousness in foodstuffs, to protect consumer's health. Besides, the network aims to facilitate the international trade among Ibero-American countries, by strengthening technical cooperation of radioactivity analysis laboratories in food and by maintaining a continuous exchange of information related to the topic. This paper presents how this network was conceived, its objectives and specific goals. Also actions taken to achieve a stable and continuous interaction among the Ibero-American laboratories controlling radioactivity in food are specified. The completion of these actions is expected to provide technological transfer among countries/Institutions and staff methodology training at developing laboratories. (author)

  3. Current status of flavivirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A D

    2001-12-01

    Although there are approximately 68 flaviviruses recognized, vaccines have been developed to control very few human flavivirus diseases. Licensed live attenuated vaccines have been developed for yellow fever (strain 17D) and Japanese encephalitis (strain SA14-14-2) viruses, and inactivated vaccines have been developed for Japanese encephalitis and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. The yellow fever live attenuated 17D vaccine is one of the most efficacious and safe vaccines developed to date and has been used to immunize more than 300 million people. A number of experimental vaccines are being developed, most notably for dengue. Candidate tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccines are undergoing clinical trials. Other vaccines are being developed using reverse genetics, DNA vaccines, and recombinant immunogens. In addition, the yellow fever 17D vaccine has been used as a backbone to generate chimeric viruses containing the premembrane and envelope protein genes from other flaviviruses. The "Chimerivax" platform has been used to construct chimeric Japanese encephalitis and dengue viruses that are in different phases of development. Similar strategies are being used by other laboratories.

  4. Pricing of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  5. Pricing of new vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis - 3rd Quarter FY2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisbeth A. Mitchell

    2014-09-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Performance Assurance Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of occurrence reports and other non-reportable issues identified at INL from July 2013 through June 2014.

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Performance Analysis for the 2nd Quarter FY 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of events for the 2nd Qtr FY-15.

  8. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  9. A tracking system for laboratory mice to support medical researchers in behavioral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, S; Mainetti, L; Patrono, L; Pieretti, S; Secco, A; Sergi, I

    2015-08-01

    The behavioral analysis of laboratory mice plays a key role in several medical and scientific research areas, such as biology, toxicology, pharmacology, and so on. Important information on mice behavior and their reaction to a particular stimulus is deduced from a careful analysis of their movements. Moreover, behavioral analysis of genetically modified mice allows obtaining important information about particular genes, phenotypes or drug effects. The techniques commonly adopted to support such analysis have many limitations, which make the related systems particularly ineffective. Currently, the engineering community is working to explore innovative identification and sensing technologies to develop new tracking systems able to guarantee benefits to animals' behavior analysis. This work presents a tracking solution based on passive Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID) in Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band. Much emphasis is given to the software component of the system, based on a Web-oriented solution, able to process the raw tracking data coming from a hardware system, and offer 2D and 3D tracking information as well as reports and dashboards about mice behavior. The system has been widely tested using laboratory mice and compared with an automated video-tracking software (i.e., EthoVision). The obtained results have demonstrated the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed solution, which is able to correctly detect the events occurring in the animals' cage, and to offer a complete and user-friendly tool to support researchers in behavioral analysis of laboratory mice.

  10. Viral booster vaccines improve Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced protection against bovine tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vordermeier, H Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Cockle, Paul J; McAulay, Martin; Rhodes, Shelley G; Thacker, Tyler; Gilbert, Sarah C; McShane, Helen; Hill, Adrian V S; Xing, Zhou; Hewinson, R Glyn

    2009-08-01

    Previous work with small-animal laboratory models of tuberculosis has shown that vaccination strategies based on heterologous prime-boost protocols using Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to prime and modified vaccinia virus Ankara strain (MVA85A) or recombinant attenuated adenoviruses (Ad85A) expressing the mycobacterial antigen Ag85A to boost may increase the protective efficacy of BCG. Here we report the first efficacy data on using these vaccines in cattle, a natural target species of tuberculous infection. Protection was determined by measuring development of disease as an end point after M. bovis challenge. Either Ad85A or MVA85A boosting resulted in protection superior to that given by BCG alone: boosting BCG with MVA85A or Ad85A induced significant reduction in pathology in four/eight parameters assessed, while BCG vaccination alone did so in only one parameter studied. Protection was particularly evident in the lungs of vaccinated animals (median lung scores for naïve and BCG-, BCG/MVA85A-, and BCG/Ad85A-vaccinated animals were 10.5, 5, 2.5, and 0, respectively). The bacterial loads in lymph node tissues were also reduced after viral boosting of BCG-vaccinated calves compared to those in BCG-only-vaccinated animals. Analysis of vaccine-induced immunity identified memory responses measured by cultured enzyme-linked immunospot assay as well as in vitro interleukin-17 production as predictors of vaccination success, as both responses, measured before challenge, correlated positively with the degree of protection. Therefore, this study provides evidence of improved protection against tuberculosis by viral booster vaccination in a natural target species and has prioritized potential correlates of vaccine efficacy for further evaluation. These findings also have implications for human tuberculosis vaccine development.

  11. Economic analysis for evidence-based policy-making on a national immunization program: a case of rotavirus vaccine in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangchana, Charung; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Jiamsiri, Suchada; Thamapornpilas, Piyanit; Warinsatian, Porpit

    2012-04-16

    Severe diarrhea caused by rotavirus is a health problem worldwide, including Thailand. The World Health Organization has recommended incorporating rotavirus vaccination into national immunization programs. This policy has been implemented in several countries, but not in Thailand where the mortality rate is not high. This leads to the question of whether it would be cost-effective to implement such a policy. The Thai National Vaccine Committee, through the Immunization Practice Subcommittee, has conducted an economic analysis. Their study aimed to estimate the costs of rotavirus diarrhea and of a rotavirus vaccination program, and the cost-effectiveness of such a program including budget impact analysis. The study was designed as an economic evaluation, employing modeling technique in both provider and societal perspectives. A birth cohort of Thai children in 2009 was used in the analysis, with a 5-year time horizon. Costs were composed of cost of the illness and the vaccination program. Outcomes were measured in the form of lives saved and DALYs averted. Both costs and outcomes were discounted at 3%. The study found the discounted number of deaths to be 7.02 and 20.52 for vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively (13.5 deaths averted). Discounted DALYs were 263.33 and 826.57 for vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively (563.24 DALYs averted). Costs of rotavirus diarrhea in a societal perspective were US$6.6 million and US$21.0 million for vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts, respectively. At base case, the costs per additional death averted were US$5.1 million and US$5.7 for 2-dose and 3-dose vaccines, respectively, in a societal perspective. Costs per additional DALYs averted were US$128,063 and US$142,144, respectively. In a societal perspective, with a cost-effectiveness threshold at 1 GDP per capita per DALYs averted, vaccine prices per dose were US$4.98 and US$3.32 for 2-dose and 3-dose vaccines, respectively; in a provider perspective, they

  12. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  13. DHEC: Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data, Maps - SC Public Health Diseases and Conditions Flu Tuberculosis STD/HIV and Viral Hepatitis Zika Illnesses E. coli Listeriosis Salmonella Hepatitis A Shellfish Monitoring and Regulation Certified Shippers Vaccines Teen and Preteen Vaccines Vaccines Needed for School Admission Related Topics Perinatal Hepatitis

  14. Cervical cancer screening in partly HPV vaccinated cohorts - A cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.K. Naber (Steffie); S.M. Matthijsse (Suzette); K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten); C. Penning (Corine); I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)