WorldWideScience

Sample records for v-notch rail shear

  1. Effects of Notch Misalignment and Tip Radius on Displacement Field in V-Notch Rail Shear Test as Determined by Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles S.; Oliveras, Ovidio M.

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the 3D strain field during ASTM-D-7078 v-notch rail shear tests on 8-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fiber/epoxy laminates was determined by optical photogrammetry using an ARAMIS system. Specimens having non-optimal geometry and minor discrepancies in dimensional tolerances were shown to display non-symmetry and/or stress concentration in the vicinity of the notch relative to a specimen meeting the requirements of the standard, but resulting shear strength and modulus values remained within acceptable bounds of standard deviation. Based on these results, and reported difficulty machining specimens to the required tolerances using available methods, it is suggested that a parametric study combining analytical methods and experiment may provide rationale to increase the tolerances on some specimen dimensions, reducing machining costs, increasing the proportion of acceptable results, and enabling a wider adoption of the test method.

  2. Rail Shear and Short Beam Shear Properties of Various 3-Dimensional (3-D) Woven Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ARL-TR-7576 ● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Rail Shear and Short Beam Shear Properties of Various 3 - Dimensional ( 3 -D...2016 US Army Research Laboratory Rail Shear and Short Beam Shear Properties of Various 3 - Dimensional ( 3 -D) Woven Composites by Mark...Properties of Various 3 - Dimensional Woven Composites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark Pankow

  3. An experimental and analytical investigation of the rail shear-test method as applied to composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R.; Mcwithey, R. R.; Weisshaar, T. A.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents the results from an experimental and analytical investigation of the stress distributions occurring in a rail shear test. The effects of non-uniform stresses induced by differential thermal expansion, rail flexibility and specimen aspect ratio on measured shear modulus and ultimate strength of composite laminates are shown. A two-dimensional linearly elastic finite element model was used to analytically determine how various geometric parameters influenced the magnitude and distribution of inplane normal and shear stresses in a tensile rail shear specimen. Rail shear tests were conducted at room temperature and 589 K (600 F) on selected graphite-polyimide composite laminates using two titanium rail configurations. The analysis and test methods are discussed, and the results of the effects of the various parameters on shear modulus and ultimate strength are presented.

  4. Evaluation of in-plane shear test methods for composite material laminates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-lei; HAO Qing-duo; OU Jin-ping

    2007-01-01

    In-plane shear properties of composite material laminates are very important in structural design of composite material. Four commonly used in-plane shear test methods were introduced in this paper. In order to study the differences of various shear test methods, two ASTM standard in-plane shear test methods for composite material laminates were experimentally investigated. They are ±45℃ tensile shear test (ASTM D3518) and V-notched rail shear test (ASTM D7078). Five types of composite material laminates composed of E-glass fiber fabric and vinyl ester resin were utilized, whose stacking sequences are [0]3s, [0/90]3s, [CSM/0/90]2s, [±45]3s and [(0/90)2/(±45)2/(0/90)2]s, respectively. The test results indicate that the±45℃ tensile shear test can predict shear moduli of composite material laminates accurately. However, the predictions of shear strength using±45℃ tensile shear test are significantly lower than those of V-notched rail shear test.

  5. Fracture Mechanics Models for Brittle Failure of Bottom Rails due to Uplift in Timber Frame Shear Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joergen L. Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In partially anchored timber frame shear walls, hold-down devices are not provided; hence the uplift forces are transferred by the fasteners of the sheathing-to-framing joints into the bottom rail and via anchor bolts from the bottom rail into the foundation. Since the force in the anchor bolts and the sheathing-to-framing joints do not act in the same vertical plane, the bottom rail is subjected to tensile stresses perpendicular to the grain and splitting of the bottom rail may occur. This paper presents simple analytical models based on fracture mechanics for the analysis of such bottom rails. An existing model is reviewed and several alternative models are derived and compared qualitatively and with experimental data. It is concluded that several of the fracture mechanics models lead to failure load predictions which seem in sufficiently good agreement with the experimental results to justify their application in practical design.

  6. Bed profile downstream compound sharp crested V-notch weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahmoud Ibrahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Triangular weirs are commonly used to measure discharge in open channel flow. They represent an inexpensive, reliable methodology to monitor water allocation. A compound sharp-crested weir consisting of two triangular parts with different notch angles was used. The lower triangular part of the weir handles the normal range of discharges while the upper part measures the higher peak flows. This paper evaluates experimentally the local scour downstream compound sharp crested V-notch weir. Forty-eight (48 experimental runs were conducted. Three models of weirs with different geometries (combination of notch angles, four upstream water levels, three water levels at the tailgate, and two bed materials were used. Multiple regression equations based on energy principal and dimensional analysis theory were deduced to estimate the local scour downstream of the weir models. The developed equations were compared with the experimental data. The comparison between the local scour downstream classical V-notch weir and a compound sharp-crested weir consisting of two triangular parts with different notch angles was found to be unnoticed. The study recommended using the compound V-notch weir to pass high discharges instead of the classical V-notch weir.

  7. Measurements of Young's and shear moduli of rail steel at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuanye; Zhang, Haifeng; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Karim, Md Afzalul; Felix Wu, H

    2014-03-01

    The design and modelling of the buckling effect of Continuous Welded Rail (CWR) requires accurate material constants, especially at elevated temperatures. However, such material constants have rarely been found in literature. In this article, the Young's moduli and shear moduli of rail steel at elevated temperatures are determined by a new sonic resonance method developed in our group. A network analyser is used to excite a sample hanged inside a furnace through a simple tweeter type speaker. The vibration signal is picked up by a Polytec OFV-5000 Laser Vibrometer and then transferred back to the network analyser. Resonance frequencies in both the flexural and torsional modes are measured, and the Young's moduli and shear moduli are determined through the measured resonant frequencies. To validate the measured elastic constants, the measurements have been repeated by using the classic sonic resonance method. The comparisons of obtained moduli from the two methods show an excellent consistency of the results. In addition, the material elastic constants measured are validated by an ultrasound test based on a pulse-echo method and compared with previous published results at room temperature. The measured material data provides an invaluable reference for the design of CWR to avoid detrimental buckling failure.

  8. STRESS FIELD AT A TIP OF A PREFABRICATED SPIRAL V-NOTCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑周练; 陈山林; 叶晓明

    2004-01-01

    Based on the tranditional V-notched blasting,a technique of spirally V-notched blasting to loosen earth and rock was presented.Fracture mechanics and Westergaard stress function were adopted to build a complex stress function to derive the plane stress and strain fields at one tip of the crack under a quasi-static pressure.An expression was formulated to define the stress intensity factor of spiral V-notch loosen blasting.Factors that have effects on the stress intensity factor were studied.It is demonstrated that spiral V-notch loosen blasting is an extension of vertical V-notch blasting,straight cracking,and alike theories.

  9. METHOD TO CALCULATE STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR OF V-NOTCH IN BI-MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youtang Li; Ming Song

    2008-01-01

    Based on Zak's stress function,the eigen-equation of stress singularity of bi-materials with a Ⅴ-notch was obtained.A new definition of stress intensity factor for a perpendicular inter facial Ⅴ-notch of bi-material was put forward.The effects of shear modulus and Poisson's ratio of the matrix material and attaching material on eigen-values were analyzed.A generalized ex pression for calculating KI of the perpendicular V-notch of bi-materials was obtained by means of stress extrapolation.Effects of notch depth,notch angle and Poisson's ratio of materials on the singular stress field near the tip of the Ⅴ-notch were analyzed systematically with numerical simulations.As an example,a finite plate with double edge notches under uniaxial uniform ten sion was calculated by the method presented and the influence of the notch angle and Poisson's ratio on the stress singularity near the tip of notch was obtained.

  10. Critical applied stresses for a crack initiation from a sharp V-notch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Náhlík

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to estimate a value of the critical applied stress for a crack initiation from a sharp V-notch tip. The classical approach of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LELM was generalized, because the stress singularity exponent differs from 0.5 in the studied case. The value of the stress singularity exponent depends on the V-notch opening angle. The finite element method was used for a determination of stress distribution in the vicinity of the sharp V-notch tip and for the estimation of the generalized stress intensity factor depending on the V-notch opening angle. Critical value of the generalized stress intensity factor was obtained using stability criteria based on the opening stress component averaged over a critical distance d from the V-notch tip and generalized strain energy density factor. Calculated values of the critical applied stresses were compared with experimental data from the literature and applicability of the LEFM concept is discussed.

  11. Material inertia and size effects in the Charpy V-notch test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desandre, D. A.; Benzerga, A. A.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2004-01-01

    The effect of material inertia on the size dependence of the absorbed energy in the Charpy V-notch test is investigated. The material response is characterized by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, with adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation and the re......The effect of material inertia on the size dependence of the absorbed energy in the Charpy V-notch test is investigated. The material response is characterized by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, with adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation...... and the resulting thermal softening accounted for. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when a critical value of the maximum principal stress is attained over a critical volume. Plane strain dynamic analyses are carried out for geometrically similar specimens of various sizes with all parameters adjusted so...

  12. Weld investigations by 3D analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Allan

    2005-01-01

    The Charpy impact test is a standard procedure for determining the ductile-brittle transition in welds. The predictions of such tests have been investigated by full three dimensional transient analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens. The material response is characterised by an elastic-viscoplastic ......The Charpy impact test is a standard procedure for determining the ductile-brittle transition in welds. The predictions of such tests have been investigated by full three dimensional transient analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens. The material response is characterised by an elastic...... parameters in the weld material differ from those in the base material, and the heat a®ected zone (HAZ) tends to be more brittle than the other material regions. The effect of weld strength undermatch or overmatch is an important issue. Some specimens, for which the notched surface is rotated relative...

  13. Holding time effect of pack carburizing on fatigue characteristic of v-notch shaft steel specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyono, Jamasri

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this research is to study the effect of the holding times of pack carburizing process on fatigue characteristic of v-notch shaft steel specimens. The carbon source was taken from charcoal of unused mahogany. The holding times were 2, 3 and 4 hours. The fatigue tests were conducted on rotary bending machine. The specimens were made of low carbon steel of 0.17% carbon content. Pack carburizing was conducted to the specimens at 930°C. V-notch was made to present the stress concentration on the specimens. To see the effects of the carburizing in changing the material properties, the micro-structures and hardness tests along the cross sectional area of the specimens were carried out. The results showed that the holding time of the carburizing process influences the fatigue strength of the material. The longer the holding time will be the higher the fatigue strength. The increase of the fatigue strength is due to the carbon content on the surface. It was confirmed by the micro-structures and the hardness tests results. The cross sectional area of carburized material is divided into two zones i.e. surface zone and core zone. The surface zone consists of hypereutectoid, eutectoid, and hypo eutectoid sub-zone. The core zone is the same as raw material. The longer the holding time will be the deeper the surface zone.

  14. Effect of V Notch Shape on Fatigue Life in Steel Beam Made of AISI 1037

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Bader

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work encompasses effect of V notch shape with various geometries and dimensions on fatigue life behavior in steel beam made of Medium Carbon Steel AISI 1037 which has a wide application in industry. Fatigue life of notched specimens is calculated using the fatigue life obtained from the experiments for smooth specimens (reference and by use Numerical method (FEA.The fatigue experiments were carried out at room temperature, applying a fully reversed cyclic load with the frequency of (50Hz and mean stress equal to zero (R= -1, on a cantilever rotating-bending fatigue testing machine. The stress ratio was kept constant throughout the experiment. Different instruments have been used in this investigation like Chemical composition analyzer type (Spectromax ,Tensile universal testing machine type (WDW-100E ,Hardness tester type (HSV- 1000 , Fatigue testing machine model Gunt WP 140, Optical Light Microscope (OLM and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM were employed to examine the fracture features . The results show that there is acceptable error between experimental and numerical works .

  15. The evaluation of tempered martensite embrittlement in 4130 steel by instrumented charpy V-notch testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ebrahimi, F.; Krauss, G.

    1983-06-01

    Tempered martensite embrittlement (TME) was studied in vacuum-melted 4130 steel with either 0.002 or 0.02 wt pct P. TME was observed as a severe decrease in Charpy V-notch impact energy, from 46 ft-lb. at 200 °C to 35 ft-lb. at 300 °C in the low P alloy. The impact energy of the high P alloy was consistently lower than that of the low P alloy in all tempered conditions. Fracture was transgranular for all specimens; therefore, segregation of P to the prior austenitic grain boundaries was not a factor in the o°Currence of TME. Analysis of load-time curves obtained by instrumented Charpy testing revealed that the embrittlement is associated with a drop in the pre-maximum-load and post-unstable-fracture energies. In specimens tempered at 400 °C the deleterious effect of phosphorus on impact energy became pronounced, a result more consistent with classical temper embrittlement rather than TME. A constant decrease in pre-maximum-load energy due to phosphorus content was observed. The pre-maximum-load energy decreases with increasing tempering temperature in the range of 200 °C to 400 °C, a result explained by the change in work hardening rate. Carbon extraction replicas of polished and etched as-quenched specimens revealed the presence of Fe2MoC and/or Fe3C carbides retained after austenitizing. Ductile crack extension close to the notch root was related to the formation of fine micro voids at the retained carbides.

  16. The effects of pack carburizing using charcoal of unused mahogany on fatigue characteristic of v-notch shaft steel specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyono, Jamasri

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this research is to study the fatigue characteristic of v-notch shaft steel specimens before and after pack carburizing. The carbon source is taken from charcoal of unused mahogany. The fatigue test is conducted on rotary bending machine. The specimens are made of low carbon steel of 0.17% carbon content. Pack carburizing is conducted to the specimens at 930°C. V-notch is made to present the stress concentration factor on the specimens. To see the effects of the carburizing in changing the material properties, micro-structures before and after carburizingare looked and micro hardness measurements along the cross sectional area are carried out. The results show that the carburizing process increases fatigue strength of the material. The micro-structures of the raw material are ferrite and pearlite. The carburized material is divided into two zones i.e. surface zone and core zone. The surface zone consists of hypereutectoid, eutectoid, and hypoeutectoid sub-zone. The core zone is the same as raw material

  17. Evaluation of fracture toughness in dental ceramics using indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)-method; Avaliacao da tenacidade a fratura de ceramicas dentarias atraves do metodo de entalhe - SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L.A.; Santos, C.; Souza, R.C.; Ribeiro, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Polo Urbo-Industrial; Strecker, K. [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei (DME/UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais Eletricos; Oberacker, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the fracture toughness of different ceramics based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} were evaluated using, comparatively two methods, Vickers indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam) method. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) micro-particled and ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanometric, ZrO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} composites were sintered at different temperatures. Samples were characterized by relative density, X-ray diffraction, SEM, and mechanical evaluation by hardness, bending strength and fracture toughness obtained by ickers indentation and SEVNB-method. The results were presented comparing the densification and microstructural results. Furthermore, the advantages and limitations of each method were discussed. (author)

  18. Enterprise Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Chak, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Enterprise Rails introduces time-tested software engineering principles to help you build a high-performance, scalable website with global reach. You'll learn how to design a solid architecture that ties the many parts of an enterprise website together, including the database, your servers and clients, and other services as well. Throughout this book, you'll work on an example enterprise project to learn first-hand what's involved in architecting serious web applications.

  19. Effects of annealing time on the recovery of Charpy V-notch properties of irradiated high-copper weld metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.; Nanstad, R.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1994-12-31

    One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. An important issue to be resolved is the effect on the toughness properties of reirradiating a vessel that has been annealed. This paper describes the annealing response of irradiated high-copper submerged-arc weld HSSI 73W. For this study, the weld has been annealed at 454 C (850 F) for lengths of time varying between 1 and 14 days. The Charpy V-notch 41-J (30-ft-lb) transition temperature (TT{sub 41J}) almost fully recovered for the longest period studied, but recovered to a lesser degree for the shorter periods. No significant recovery of the TT{sub 41J} was observed for a 7-day anneal at 343 C (650 F). At 454 C for the durations studied, the values of the upper-shelf impact energy of irradiated and annealed weld metal exceeded the values in the unirradiated condition. Similar behavior was observed after aging the unirradiated weld metal at 460 and 490 C for 1 week.

  20. Certification of Charpy V-notch Reference Test Pieces of 80 J Nominal Absorbed Energy (ERM®-FA015x and ERM®-FA015y)

    OpenAIRE

    LAMBERTY MARIE ANDREE; Dean, Alan; Roebben, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This certification report describes the processing and characterisation of ERM®-FA015x and ERM®-FA015y, two batches of Charpy V-notch certified reference test pieces. Sets of five of these test pieces are used for the verification of pendulum impact test machines according to EN 10045-2 (Charpy impact test on metallic materials, Part 2. Method for the verification of impact testing machines) or according to ISO 148-2 (Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test – Part 2: Verification of ...

  1. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  2. Beginning Rails 3

    CERN Document Server

    Barazi, Rida Al

    2010-01-01

    Beginning Rails 3 is the practical starting point for anyone wanting to learn how to build dynamic web applications using the latest release of the Rails framework for Ruby. You'll learn how all of the components of Rails fit together and how you can leverage them to create sophisticated web applications with less code and more joy. This book is particularly well suited to those with little or no experience with web application development, or who have some experience but are new to Rails. Beginning Rails 3 assumes basic familiarity with web terms and technologies, but doesn't require you to b

  3. Framing Light Rail Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process....... The article draws on the socio-technical approach to mobilities studies in order to reassemble the decision-making process in three European cases: Bergen, Angers, and Bern. This article provides insights into the political, discursive and material production of light rail mobilities in a European context....... It identifies the planning rationales behind the systems and the policies that have been supportive of this light rail vision. Finally, the article identifies the practical challenges and potentials that have been connected to the different local frames of light rail mobility which can be used in future...

  4. Confocal microscopy-fracture reconstruction and finite element modeling characterization of local cleavage toughness in a ferritic/martensitic steel in subsized Charpy V-notch impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T. E-mail: yamataku@fusion.imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.; Matsui, H

    2000-12-01

    The confocal microscopy (CM)-fracture reconstruction (FR) method, coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fractography, was used to measure the critical notch deformation conditions at cleavage initiation for two subsized Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimen geometries of Japan ferritic/martensitic steel (JFMS). A new method was developed to permit FR of notched specimens. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the notch and specimen deformation were used to estimate values of critical micro-cleavage fracture stress, {sigma}{sup *}, and critical stressed area, A{sup *}. Since {sigma}{sup *}-A{sup *} is independent of size and geometry, it provides a fundamental local measure of cleavage toughness.

  5. Learning Devise for Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Sakti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    A hands-on, step-by-step guide to using Devise for authentication in Rails.If you are a web developer who is getting started with Rails and you are looking for authentication solutions, then this is the book for you. If you are a current Rails developer who is looking to extend your authentication implementation with capabilities such as authorization and remote authentication, this book will also be great for you.

  6. Rails Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Rails 2.1 brings a new level of stability and power to this acclaimed web development framework, but keeping track of its numerous moving parts is still a chore. Rails Pocket Reference offers you a painless alternative to hunting for resources online, with brief yet thorough explanations of the most frequently used methods and structures supported by Rails 2.1, along with key concepts you need to work through the framework's most tangled corners. Organized to help you quickly find what you need, this book will not only get you up to speed on how Rails works, it also provides a handy referenc

  7. Fence Posts and Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Roger

    2016-01-01

    "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." Recently while dismantling an old wooden post-and-rail fence, Roger Turton noticed something very interesting when he piled up the posts and rails together in the shape of a prism. The total number…

  8. The Rail Gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gay B.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a rail gun demonstration that addresses a broad group of educational goals in introductory electricity and magnetism. Uses a battery-powered circuit consisting of a movable conductor placed across two conducting rails in a magnetic field to review mechanics, foster approximate reasoning and lateral class discussion, and demonstrate the…

  9. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  10. RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing is DLR’s rail simulation and testing laboratory (see Figure 1. It is the implementation of a fully modular concept for the simulation of on-board and trackside control and safety technology. The RailSiTe® laboratory additionally comprises the RailSET (Railway Simulation Environment for Train Drivers and Operators human-factors laboratory, a realistic environment containing a realistic train mockup including 3D simulation.

  11. A comparative evaluation of in-plane shear test methods for laminated graphite-epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, John; Ho, Henjen

    1992-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate popular shear test methods for various forms of graphite-epoxy composite materials and to determine the shear response of graphite-epoxy composites with various forms of fiber architecture. Numerical and full-field experimental stress analyses were performed on four shear test configurations for unidirectional and bidirectional graphite-epoxy laminates to assess the uniformity and purity of the shear stress (strain) fields produced in the specimen test section and to determine the material in-plane shear modulus and shear response. The test methods were the 10 deg off-axis, the +/- 45 deg tension, the Iosipescu V-notch, and a compact U-notch specimen. Specimens were prepared from AS4/3501-6 graphite-epoxy panels, instrumented with conventional strain gage rosettes and with a cross-line moire grating, and loaded in a convenient testing machine. The shear responses obtained for each test method and the two methods of specimen instrumentation were compared. In a second phase of the program the shear responses obtained from Iosipescu V-notch beam specimens were determined for woven fabric geometries of different weave and fiber architectures. Again the responses of specimens obtained from strain gage rosettes and moire interferometry were compared. Additional experiments were performed on a bidirectional cruciform specimen which was also instrumented with strain gages and a moire grating.

  12. Global Rail Tech Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China becomes a world leader in high-speed railway innovation after absorbing foreign technologies and making breakthroughs of its ow Most everyday train passengers don’t have time, or reason, to ponder the technicalities of the rails

  13. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  14. Clapper Rail Report 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report discussing the current population status of the California Clapper Rail in the San Francisco Bay and a comparison of habitat suitability in various marshes...

  15. Black Rail Pilot Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aural surveys using tape recorded calls proved to be an efficient and effective way to survey large expanses of shallow marsh for black rails (Laterallus...

  16. Electromagnetic configurations of rail guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Ostashev, V. E.; Lopyrev, A. N.; Ul'Yanov, A. V.

    1993-06-01

    Some problems associated with the electromagnetic acceleration of macrobodies in a rail gun are examined. An approach to the design of rail gun configurations is proposed, and some basic rail gun schemes are synthesized. The alternative rail gun schemes are compared in terms of electrode potential and stability of the electrode gap with respect to parasitic current shunting. The effect of the ohmic resistance of the electrodes and of the additional magnetization field on the spatial structure of the discharge in the rail gun channel is discussed. A classification of rail gun modifications is presented.

  17. A Rails / Django Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruby on Rails (“Rails” is the dominant web programming framework for Ruby and, even outside the Ruby community, is considered the epitome of the latest generation of high-productivity, open source web development tools. Django is one of many competing web development frameworks for Python. It is notable, first, for being highly regarded amongst Python programmers, and second, for being one of the few of the new generation of framework that does not ape Ruby on Rails. Both Rails and Django claim greatly enhanced productivity, compared with more traditional web development frameworks. In this paper, we compare the two frameworks from the point of view of a developer attempting to choose one of the two frameworks for a new project.

  18. Bootstrap for rails

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Syed Fazle

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer who has a basic understanding of Ruby on Rails, this is the book for you. You should definitely have previous knowledge about HTML and how it works. However, CSS and JavaScript knowledge is optional for this book.

  19. Certification of Charpy V-Notch Reference Test Pieces of 30 J Nominal Absorbed Energy - Certified Reference Materials ERM®-FA013bg and ERM®-FA013bh

    OpenAIRE

    LAMBERTY MARIE ANDREE; Dean, Alan; Roebben, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This certification report describes the processing and characterisation of ERM®-FA013bg and ERM®-FA013bh, two batches of Charpy V-notch certified reference test pieces. Sets of five of these test pieces are used for the verification of pendulum impact test machines according to EN 10045-2 (Charpy impact test on metallic materials, Part 2. Method for the verification of impact testing machines [1]) or according to ISO 148-2 (Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test - Part 2: Verificati...

  20. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  1. Light rail project in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    The need for high class public transport service of the increasing travel across the radial urban structure of the greater Copenhagen region was examined through planning of a light rail. The exact corridor (defined as the Ring 2½ corridor) and alignment of the light rail were documented...... and the locations of stops were examined through analyses of catchment areas. The timetable of the light rail was determined through travel time and correspondences with other high class public transport lines/corridors. The justification of the light rail was examined through factors like traffic impacts......, operation economy, socioeconomics and strategic impacts. The light rail shows a good result on most factors. But it displays socioeconomic non-viability. However, this was expected when using the standard procedures. But the Ring 2½ light rail shows a better socioeconomic result than many other examined...

  2. Friction in rail guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  3. Light Rails at Kennedy Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The Port Authority in New Jersey, New York opened a new light rail on December 18, 2003 to link Kennedy Airport to New York city. The rail with an investment of US$1.5 billion runs along the airport’s terminals, taxi stop, shuttle station and parking area to connect with the city’s downtown rail network, subways, railways and coach stations.The light rail is convenient, safe, reliable and fast to free passengers of the worries about traffic jam and the pressure

  4. 78 FR 30828 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). See 78 FR 10581... will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume,...

  5. Web Services on Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This PDF will show you how your small business or enterprise can publish its APIs (application programming interface) to a developer community just like the behemoths of the Internet--Google, Yahoo!, eBay, and Amazon. These giants already offer their APIs to other programmers and allow for add-on services and mash-ups to develop from them--but until recently, the capability for most enterprises to do the same was limited by a myriad of competing standards and a lack of easy-to-use tools to accomplish the task. Ruby on Rails levels the playing field for companies by simplifying the process

  6. Head first rails a learner's companion to ruby on rails

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David

    2009-01-01

    Ready to transport your web applications into the Web 2.0 era? Head First Rails takes your programming -- and productivity -- to the max. You'll learn everything from the fundamentals of Rails scaffolding to building customized interactive web apps using Rails' rich set of tools and the MVC framework. By the time you're finished, you'll have learned more than just another web framework. You'll master database interactions, integration with Ajax and XML, rich content, and even dynamic graphing of your data -- all in a fraction of the time it takes to build the same apps with Java, PHP, ASP.NE

  7. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  8. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the following...

  9. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and at...

  10. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  11. Ruby on Rails for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burd

    2007-01-01

    Quickly create Web sites with this poweful tool Use this free and easy programming language for e-commerce sites and blogs If you need to build Web and database applications quickly but you don''t dream in computer code, take heart! Ruby on Rails was created for you, and this book will have you up and running in no time. The Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework let you create full-featured Web applications fast. It''s even fun! Discover how toInstall and run Ruby and RailsUse the RadRails IDECreate a blog with RubyConnect your Web site to a databaseBuild a shopping cartExplore Ruby'

  12. Light Rails to Sustainable Mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    Taking its point of departure in the mobilities paradigm, this paper applies a theoretical framework of narratives and storytelling to analyse and describe the rationales behind implementation of light rail in the case of Bergen light rail in Norway. Through the analysis it is demonstrated...... infrastructure projects and urban interventions through the political process and secure the outcome of these projects are recognisable in proportion to the visionary concept....

  13. 75 FR 53734 - Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.-Continuance in Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Exemption--Piedmont & Northern Railway, Inc. Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL) and its subsidiaries, Patriot Rail... carrier.\\1\\ \\1\\ PRL is a noncarrier limited liability company that owns not less than 51% of the...

  14. Welding technology for rails. Rail no setsugo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, M.; Karimine, K. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Uchino, K.; Sugino, K. (Nippon Steel Corp., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). Technical Research Inst. of Yawata Works); Ueyama, K. (JR Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    The rail joining technology is indispensable for making long welded rails. Flush butt welding, gas welding, enclosed arc welding, and thermit welding are used properly as the welding methods. A method for improving the joint reliability by controlling the residual stress distribution of welded joint is investigated to prepare high carbon component weld metal similar to the rail. Problems with each of the welding methods and the newly developed technology to solve the problems are outlined. Composition of the coating is improved also, and a high C system welding rod is developed which has satisfactory weldability. High performance and high efficient new enclosed arc welding technology not available by now is developed which utilizes high carbon welding metal as a new EA welding work technology, and put to practical use. As a result of this study, useful guides are obtained for the establishment of satisfactory thermit welding technology. 17 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Molodova, M.

    2011-01-01

    A method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects, in a railway-track by measuring an axle box acceleration signal of a rail vehicle, wherein a longitudinal axle box acceleration signal is used as a measure to detect the occurrence of said rail defects, in pa

  16. Some design aspects of a two-stage rail-to-rail CMOS op amp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierkink, S.L.J.; Holzmann, Peter J.; Wiegerink, R.J.; Wassenaar, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    A two-stage low-voltage CMOS op amp with rail-to-rail input and output voltage ranges is presented. The circuit uses complementary differential input pairs to achieve the rail-to-rail common-mode input voltage range. The differential pairs operate in strong inversion, and the constant transconductan

  17. Modelling the effect of rail dampers on wheel-rail interaction forces and rail roughness growth rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, B. E.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.

    2009-06-01

    Trains generate rolling noise because of the roughness of the wheel and rail running surfaces. Special acoustic grinding programmes have been introduced on some railways specifically to control rolling noise. Rail dampers are also used to reduce rolling noise; this paper studies rail damping as a possible mechanism to slow the rate of development of roughness on the surface of rails. This would reduce noise further over time or reduce the required frequency of grinding. High roughness growth on the rail occurs in situations with stiff vertical structural dynamics of the track. In particular the antiresonance above a sleeper at the pinned-pinned frequency has been identified as a wavelength fixing mechanism for short pitch corrugation. Rail dampers change the dynamic response of the rail, shifting the pinned-pinned frequency and smoothing the track receptance. Here, a simple time-stepping model is applied to calculate the interaction forces between wheel and rail for a track with and without rail dampers. The calculations show that rail dampers reduce dynamic interaction forces and shift the force spectrum to longer wavelengths. The interaction forces are used as input to an abrasive wear model to predict the roughness growth rate and the change in roughness after many wheel passages. Track without rail dampers is predicted to develop corrugation at the wavelength corresponding to the pinned-pinned frequency. With rail dampers the corrugation growth is reduced and shifted to a longer wavelength where its significance is diminished.

  18. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  19. 78 FR 71724 - Rail Depreciation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rail Depreciation Studies AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION... Surface Transportation Board has obtained OMB approval for its information collection, Rail...

  20. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...

  1. Ruby on Rails: Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    This compact guide from O'Reilly teaches you the basics of Ruby on Rails, the super-productive new way to develop full-featured web applications. Discover how to install and use both the Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework. More advanced material shows you just how fast Ruby on Rails can go.

  2. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where necessary...

  3. Roughness on Dutch railway wheels and rails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dings, P.C.; Dittrich, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Surface roughness on 150 railway wheels and on the rails of 30 sites in the Netherlands have been measured. Block braked wheels were found to show higher roughnesses than the rail at any site. The smoothest rail is 8 dB smoother than the smoothest wheel. It was concluded that in reducing railway

  4. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...

  5. A study on high-speed rolling contact between a wheel and a contaminated rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wen, Zefeng; Zhu, Minhao; Jin, Xuesong

    2014-10-01

    A 3-D explicit finite element model is developed to investigate the transient wheel-rail rolling contact in the presence of rail contamination or short low adhesion zones (LAZs). A transient analysis is required because the wheel passes by a short LAZ very quickly, especially at high speeds. A surface-to-surface contact algorithm (by the penalty method) is employed to solve the frictional rolling contact between the wheel and the rail meshed by solid elements. The LAZ is simulated by a varying coefficient of friction along the rail. Different traction efforts and action of the traction control system triggered by the LAZ are simulated by applying a time-dependent driving torque to the wheel axle. Structural flexibilities of the vehicle-track system are considered properly. Analysis focuses on the contact forces, creepage, contact stresses and the derived frictional work and plastic deformation. It is found that the longitudinal contact force and the maximum surface shear stress in the contact patch become obviously lower in the LAZ and much higher as the wheel re-enters the dry rail section. Consequently, a higher wear rate and larger plastic flow are expected at the location where the dry contact starts to be rebuilt. In other words, contact surface damages such as wheel flats and rail burns may come into being because of the LAZ. Length of the LAZ, the traction level, etc. are varied. The results also show that local contact surface damages may still occur as the traction control system acts.

  6. THE BAINITIC STEELS FOR RAILS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Hlavatý

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Actual trends of worldwide railway transport development are characterized by increasing speed and growth of railway’s axels load. Increasing load together with transverse, longitudinal wheel displacement and braking on the rails results into heavy surface tension. One of many applications for bainitic steel is in railway transport for highly strength and wear resistant rails. Rail steel must be designed to be able to resist plastic deformation, wear, rolling contact fatigue, bending stress and thermal stress during rail welding process and rails resurfacing.

  7. Assessment of Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Behavior of Localized Microstructural Regions in a Friction-Stir Welded X80 Pipeline Steel with Miniaturized Charpy V-Notch Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Julian A.; Lucon, Enrico; Sowards, Jeffrey; Mei, Paulo Roberto; Ramirez, Antonio J.

    2016-06-01

    Friction-stir welding (FSW) is an alternative welding process for pipelines. This technology offers sound welds, good repeatability, and excellent mechanical properties. However, it is of paramount importance to determine the toughness of the welds at low temperatures in order to establish the limits of this technology. Ductile-to-brittle transition curves were generated in the present study by using a small-scale instrumented Charpy machine and miniaturized V-notch specimens (Kleinstprobe, KLST); notches were located in base metal, heat-affected, stirred, and hard zones within a FSW joint of API-5L X80 Pipeline Steel. Specimens were tested at temperatures between 77 K (-196 °C) and 298 K (25 °C). Based on the results obtained, the transition temperatures for the base material and heat-affected zone were below 173 K (-100 °C); conversely, for the stirred and hard zones, it was located around 213 K (-60 °C). Fracture surfaces were characterized and showed a ductile fracture mechanism at high impact energies and a mixture of ductile and brittle mechanisms at low impact energies.

  8. Personal interests hinder Rail Baltica

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Läti seimi liige Janis Reirs leiab, et Rail Baltica ehitus on Moskva ja Riia vahelise raudtee ehitusest prioriteetsem, kuna esimest võib potentsiaalselt finantseerida Euroopa Liit. Transpordiminister Uldis Augulis kohtub oma Venemaa kolleegi Igor Levitiniga 7. aprillil. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskise sõnul vajavad mõlemad projektid majandusanalüüsi

  9. Rationalities and materialities of light rail scapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Light rail is a modernisation of old tram systems and a popular tool in urban development strategies throughout many European cities. Light rails continue to be built despite often having poor socio-economic returns — other similar modes could provide the same transport function at a lower cost....... Through a case study, this article explores the main vision and rationalities behind light rail projects in two mid-sized European cities — Bergen and Angers — and considers how this vision has materialised in various ‘light rail scapes’. The article argues that the city shapes the light rail project......, but also that the light rail re-configures and shapes the urban structures, design and planning practices within the city based on its materiality and spatial interaction with it. This means that light rail projects need to be rethought as complex urban development projects instead of just simple ‘pieces...

  10. Rationalities and materialities of light rail scapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    , but also that the light rail re-configures and shapes the urban structures, design and planning practices within the city based on its materiality and spatial interaction with it. This means that light rail projects need to be rethought as complex urban development projects instead of just simple ‘pieces......Light rail is a modernisation of old tram systems and a popular tool in urban development strategies throughout many European cities. Light rails continue to be built despite often having poor socio-economic returns — other similar modes could provide the same transport function at a lower cost....... Through a case study, this article ex- plores the main vision and rationalities behind light rail projects in two mid-sized European cities — Bergen and Angers — and considers how this vision has materialised in various ‘light rail scapes’. The article argues that the city shapes the light rail project...

  11. Plasma treatment of crane rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Олександрович Мазур

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crane operation results in wear and tear of rails and crane wheels. Renovation and efficiency of these details is therefore relevant. Modern technologies of wheels and rails restoration use surfacing or high-frequency currents treatment. Surface treatment with highly concentrated streams of energy- with a laser beam, plasma jet- is a promising direction.. It is proposed to increase the efficiency of crane rails by means of surface plasma treatment. The modes of treatment have been chosen.. Modelling of plasma jet thermal impact on a solid body of complex shape has been made. Plasma hardening regimes that meet the requirements of production have been defined. Structural transformation of the material in the crane rails on plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been concluded that for carbon and low alloy crane steels the plasma exposure zone is characterized by a high degree of hardened structure dispersion and higher hardness as compared to the hardness after high-frequency quenching. As this takes place phase transformations are both shift (in the upper zone of plasma influence and fluctuation (in the lower zone of the plasma. With high-speed plasma heating granular or lamellar pearlite mainly transforms into austenite. The level of service characteristics of hardened steel, which is achieved in this case is determined by the kinetics and completeness of pearlite → austenite transformation. For carbon and low alloy rail steels plasma hardening can replace bulk hardening, hardening by high-frequency currents, or surfacing. The modes for plasma treatment which make it possible to obtain a surface layer with a certain service characteristics have been defined

  12. Rail-to-rail differential input amplification stage with main and surrogate differential pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Jr., Charles Lanier; Smith, Stephen Fulton

    2007-03-06

    An operational amplifier input stage provides a symmetrical rail-to-rail input common-mode voltage without turning off either pair of complementary differential input transistors. Secondary, or surrogate, transistor pairs assume the function of the complementary differential transistors. The circuit also maintains essentially constant transconductance, constant slew rate, and constant signal-path supply current as it provides rail-to-rail operation.

  13. Rail-to-rail differential input amplification stage with main and surrogate differential pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Jr., Charles Lanier; Smith, Stephen Fulton

    2007-03-06

    An operational amplifier input stage provides a symmetrical rail-to-rail input common-mode voltage without turning off either pair of complementary differential input transistors. Secondary, or surrogate, transistor pairs assume the function of the complementary differential transistors. The circuit also maintains essentially constant transconductance, constant slew rate, and constant signal-path supply current as it provides rail-to-rail operation.

  14. Top-of-Rail lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.

    2000-07-14

    Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

  15. Outcome of rail fixator system in reconstructing bone gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lakhani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.

  16. 78 FR 18676 - Information Collection Activities; Rail Depreciation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Information Collection Activities; Rail Depreciation Studies ACTION: 30-day...) approval of the information collection--Rail Depreciation Studies-- further described below. The Board... notice the Board is requesting comments on the following information collection: Title: Rail...

  17. Light rail implementation: Success and failure aspects of Dutch light rail projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.; Van der Bijl, R.; Roeske, R.

    2015-01-01

    Light rail has been successfully implemented in many urban regions worldwide. Although light rail has been a proven transport concept in many cities, there is much debate on the (societal) cost-benefit ratio of these systems. In addition to the success stories, several light rail projects were not t

  18. 77 FR 27856 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Tennessee Southern Railroad Company (TSRR), Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL), and its subsidiaries Patriot Rail... days after the notice of exemption was filed). TSRR is a rail carrier. PRL, PRH, and Patriot are... TSRR, PRL, PRH, and Patriot; (2) the continuance in control of KTRR is not intended to connect with...

  19. An alternative to FASTSIM for tangential solution of the wheel-rail contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichani, Matin Sh.; Enblom, Roger; Berg, Mats

    2016-06-01

    In most rail vehicle dynamics simulation packages, tangential solution of the wheel-rail contact is gained by means of Kalker's FASTSIM algorithm. While 5-25% error is expected for creep force estimation, the errors of shear stress distribution, needed for wheel-rail damage analysis, may rise above 30% due to the parabolic traction bound. Therefore, a novel algorithm named FaStrip is proposed as an alternative to FASTSIM. It is based on the strip theory which extends the two-dimensional rolling contact solution to three-dimensional contacts. To form FaStrip, the original strip theory is amended to obtain accurate estimations for any contact ellipse size and it is combined by a numerical algorithm to handle spin. The comparison between the two algorithms shows that using FaStrip improves the accuracy of the estimated shear stress distribution and the creep force estimation in all studied cases. In combined lateral creepage and spin cases, for instance, the error in force estimation reduces from 18% to less than 2%. The estimation of the slip velocities in the slip zone, needed for wear analysis, is also studied. Since FaStrip is as fast as FASTSIM, it can be an alternative for tangential solution of the wheel-rail contact in simulation packages.

  20. A projectile for a rectangular barreled rail gun

    OpenAIRE

    Juanche, Francisco M.

    1999-01-01

    The Physics Department at the Naval Postgraduate School is developing a concept to overcome the problems that keep present rail guns from being practical weapons. The rails must be replaced often if the rail gun operation is to be continuous. Replacing the rails in present rail gun configurations is time consuming. The Physics Department's design concept uses a rectangular barrel as part of the solution to the problem of replacing the rails. The projectile will require flat surfaces to mainta...

  1. EFFECT OF DISCRETE SUPPORTS OF RAIL ON INITIATION AND EVOLUTION OF RAIL CORRUGATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Xuesong; Wang Kaiyun; Wen Zefeng; Zhang Weihua

    2005-01-01

    The effect of discrete support of rail on the formation and evolution of rail corrugation is primarily investigated with numerical method in the situation of wheelset curving steadily and repeatedly. In the numerical analysis of corrugation it is considered that a combination of Kalker's rolling contact theory with non-Hertzian to be modified, a linear frictional work model and a vertical dynamics model of railway vehicle coupled with a curved track. And the uneven support stiffness of rail in the vertical direction due to discrete sleeper support and the different running speed of the wheelset are taken into consideration. The damage on the running surface of rail, concerning rail corrugation formation, is restricted to wear mechanism of rail material. The numerical results obtained indicate that the discrete supports of rail by sleepers have a great influence on the formation of the corrugation under the condition of non-zero and stable creepages of wheelset and track.

  2. Implementasi Rails Pada Pengembangan Aplikasi Web: Universociety

    OpenAIRE

    Fenti, Des Erita

    2010-01-01

    Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan aplikasi web berdasarkan gaya arsitektur Representational State Transfer (REST) dengan mempergunakan framework Rails 2. Aplikasi ini dikembangkan menggunakan teknik Model-View-Controller (MVC) yang terdapat pada framework Rails. Pengembangan aplikasi tersebut meliputi pemodelan data dan pengembangan antarmuka publik berbentuk web service untuk mengakses resource yang dikandung aplikasi. Objektif utama aplikasi web adalah untuk melihat sejauh mana REST ...

  3. A low-voltage CMOS Op Amp with rail-to-rail constant-gm input stage and a class AB rail-to-rail output stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, J.H.; Wassenaar, R.F.; Wiegerink, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper a low-voltage two-stage Op Amp is presented. The Op Amp features rail-to-rail operation and has an @put stage with a constant transconductance (%) over the entire common-mode input range. The input stage consists of an n- and a PMOS differential pair connected in parallel. The constant

  4. Effect of round particles on shear strength properties of railway ballast

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, GM

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available particles on shear strength properties of railway ballast G.M. Mvelase¹, J.K. Anochie-Boateng² and L.L. Msibi³ ¹,³Transnet Freight Rail, Technical Rail Network, South Africa. ²CSIR Built Environment / Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa... from the Vryheid depot of Transnet Freight Rail (TFR), which noted repetitive ballast tamping, track geometry (cant loss on curves) and ballast roundness. Sieve analysis (grading) tests were conducted on all samples to determine particle size...

  5. Estimation of the Temperature Distribution in the Rails of a High-Performance Electromagnetic Rail Gun

    CERN Document Server

    McCorkle, William C

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the temperature distribution in the rails of an electromagnetic rail gun at the time that the armature leaves the rails. In order to obtain analytic results, we assume a simple geometry for the rails and an electromagnetic skin effect with a current-carrying channel boundary that propagates with the accelerating armature. We use three different approaches to obtain expressions for the temperature rise in the rails: a constant gun current, a quadratic time-dependent current, and a channel with current density controlled by magnetic field diffusion into the rails. We look at a range of exit velocities, from 1500 m/s to 5000 m/s. In all three approaches, the model predicts the highest temperatures near the gun breech. We find that after a single gun firing the temperature reaches the melting temperature of the metal rails in a layer of finite thickness near the surface of the rails, for rails made of copper or tantalum. We plot the thickness of the melt layer as a function of position along the rails...

  6. 46 CFR 92.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 92.25-10 Section 92.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 92.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on board...

  7. 46 CFR 190.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 190.25-10 Section 190.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 190.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on board...

  8. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall be...

  9. Sectional Rail System as Base for a Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention concerns a sectional rail system which is constructed with the known outer rails with U-shaped cross-section and intermediate rails with C-shaped cross-section, and which is peculiar in that each of the retention means of the outer rail includes at least one stop pin which i...

  10. Capistrano and the Rails Application Lifecycle

    CERN Document Server

    Mornini, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Learn how to make your Rails deployments pain-free with Capistrano! This Short Cut shows you how to use Capistrano to automate the deployment of your Rails applications. It teaches you the basics, but also goes far beyond. It shows you realistic deployment scenarios, including some with complex server farms. It includes a quick reference to Capistrano. As your Rails applications grow, it becomes increasingly important to automate deployment and to keep your development environment well organized. Capistrano is the right tool for the job, and this PDF shows you how to use it effectively.

  11. Electromagnetic acceleration studies with augmented rails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruo, T.; Fujioka, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Okamoto, A.; Ikuta, K.; Nemoto, K. (Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study of electromagnetic acceleration in the rail-type accelerators with two kinds of rail geometry was carried out experimentally. The accelerators were energized by 200kJ capacitor bank and the weight of loaded projectiles was about 1.3 grams with 10mm {times} 10mm square bore. The attained velocity was 4.3km/s in the augmented accelerator, while it was 3.8km/s in the classical device. In this paper these differences in attained velocity are briefly discussed. A theoretical understanding of the rail erosion is also described.

  12. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  13. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    A fully differential rail-to-rail Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) with improved DC-gain and reduced power consumption is proposed in this paper. By using the adaptive biasing circuit and two differential inputs, a low stand-by current can be obtained together with reduced power...... consumption. The DC-gain of the proposed OTA is improved by adding a partial feedback loop. A Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) circuit is required for fully differential rail-to-rail operation. Simulations show that the OTA topology has a low stand-by power consumption of 96μW and a high FoM of 3.84 [(V...

  14. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HORIZONTAL LATERAL STIFFNESS OF RAILS UNDER DIFFERENT DESIGNS OF RAIL FASTENERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Velinets

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation of a railway track on the strength is one of the sections of the overall complex research problems of interaction track and rolling stock. This paper describes the experimental study of horizontal transverse stiffness of railway rails with various strands of rail fasteners. Materials of this article should be relevant and will make it possible to calculate the strength of railway track using the correct and corrected performance of horizontal transverse stiffness of rail threads. Methodology. Determination of horizontal transverse rigidity of rail yarns with different designs of rail fasteners was conducted by measuring the quantities of transverse displacement of rails calculation points – namely the head and sole. For research the specialist equipment was created, made up of lineside jack DC-20, equipped with a hydraulic pressure gauge to measure pressure and rigid rod for horizontal rail stop in the thread, the opposite of the jack. Lateral movement of the head and sole of the track were recorded, and measured with indicators of clock type within a few hundredths of a millimeter. The horizontal lateral load on the rail jack was created by the injection pressure in the cylinder which was fixed with manometer into the jack. Load of rails was conducted over 2 tons of degrees ranging from 0 to 8 tons. To obtain reliable measurement results of lateral movement of the head and the base rails, its movement was conducted for each type fasteners not less than in 3 sections. Measurements were carried out without the creation of vertical load. Findings. With the developed method was found transverse displacement magnitude of rails calculation points at different designs of rail fasteners. Originality. The experimental studies were first found the mentioned horizontal transverse stiffness of rail threads in the head and sole of modern designs for different rail fasteners. Practical value. The values of horizontal transverse

  15. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  16. 75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... the development of a comprehensive NRP. Only through participation of all levels of government... competitiveness of the United States; better understanding and integrating the unique economics of the rail...

  17. Erastaja varjas osalusi Rail Estonias / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Päevalehe andmeil on Eesti Raudtee erastamiskonkursi võitnud Rail Estonia suurim aktsionär John Orrison. Vt. samas "Töötasid koos Bushi kabinetis". Väidetavalt salgab J. Orrison Tony Massei tundmise maha

  18. California Clapper Rail Survey 1978-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of the California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) was conducted from December 1978 through July 1979 in the San Francisco, Monterey and Morro...

  19. California Black Rail - Central Delta [ds17

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Results of taped-call black rail surveys of in-stream habitat within certain waterways in the central Sacramento / San Joaquin Delta during 1992 and 1993. TIME...

  20. The electric rail gun for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, D. P.; Barber, J. P.; Vahlberg, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    An analytic feasibility investigation of an electric propulsion concept for space application is described. In this concept, quasistatic thrust due to inertial reaction to repetitively accelerated pellets by an electric rail gun is used to propel a spacecraft. The study encompasses the major subsystems required in an electric rail gun propulsion system. The mass, performance, and configuration of each subsystem are described. Based on an analytic model of the system mass and performance, the electric rail gun mission performance as a reusable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) is analyzed and compared to a 30 cm ion thruster system (BIMOD) and a chemical propulsion system (IUS) for payloads with masses of 1150 kg and 2300 kg. For system power levels in the range from 25 kW(e) to 100 kW(e) an electric rail gun OTV is more attractive than a BIMOD system for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit transfer durations in the range from 20 to 120 days.

  1. Arc-driven rail gun research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The equations describing the performance of an inductively-driven rail gun are analyzed numerically. Friction between the projectile and rails is included through an empirical formulation. The equations are applied to the experiment of Rashleigh and Marshall to obtain an estimate of energy distribution in rail guns as a function of time. The effect of frictional heat dissipation on the bore of the gun is calculated. The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a dc rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  2. Automatic Broken Rail Crack Detection Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal B. Dandge

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In India, as the fuel cost continues to rise, railway transport plays an important role. Although there are, so many options of transportation are available like flights, trains, buses etc but most of the people prefer trains only as it is cost effective and comfortable way of travelling and hence in today’s world railway becomes the lifeline of India. When anybody goes through the daily news, they come across many accidents which are related to railroad. So there must be good railway safety for the people as the rail accidents are often dangerous in terms of the severity and death etc, when compared with the other transportation. There are several reasons present for railroad related accidents but the major reason is cracks in rails. It is the main cause of railway derailments and has the capacity to induce major damage to economy of the world. Therefore more efforts are necessary for achieving the good rail safety. This system introduced a method for rail crack detection. The proposed system is LED-LDR and Arduino based rail track detection scheme. It is cost effective and simple way of monitoring the condition of the rails on a continual basis for the improving the railway safety which consists of GSM module and Encoder.

  3. Rail profile control using laser triangulation scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronahin, Ð. ńlexandr M.; Larionov, Daniil Yu.; Podgornaya, Liudmila N.; Shalymov, Roman V.; Filatov, Yuri V.; Bokhman, Evgueny D.

    2016-11-01

    Rail track geometric parameters measurement requires knowledge of left and right rail head location in each section. First of all displacement in transverse plane of rail head point located at a distance of 14 mm below the running surface, must be controlled [1]. It is carried out by detecting of each rail profile using triangulation laser scanners. Optical image recognition is carried out successfully in the laboratory, approaches used for this purpose are widely known. However, laser scanners operation has several features on railways leading to necessity of traditional approaches adaptation for solving these particular problems. The most significant problem is images noisiness due to the solar flashes and the effect of "Moon path" on the smooth rail surface. Using of optical filters gives inadequate result, because scanner laser diodes radiation frequency varies with temperature changes that forbid the use of narrow-band filters. Consideration of these features requires additional constructive and algorithmic solutions, including involvement of information from other sensors of the system. The specific usage of optical scanners for rail profiles control is the subject of the paper.

  4. Analyzing and evaluating the three-line rail traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to simulate the three-line rail traffic. The aim is to evaluate the carrying capacity of the three-line rail traffic by studying the rail traffic flow when the passenger flow is unsymmetrical. The simulation results demonstrate that under the unsymmetrical condition, the three-line rail traffic system has almost the same carrying capacity as that of a four-line rail traffic system. Compared with the four-line rail traffic system, the three-line rail traffic system has better utilization of rail line. As a result, building the three-line rail traffic system is a more economical and rational selection.

  5. Analyzing and evaluating the three-line rail traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO ZiYou; ZHOU HuaLiang; LI KePing; NING Bing; TANG Tao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a method to simulate the three-line rail traffic.The aim is to evaluate the carrying capacity of the three-line rail traffic by studying the rail traffic flow when the passenger flow is unsymmetrical.The simulation results demonstrate that under the unsymmetrical condition,the three-line rail traffic sys-tem has almost the same carrying capacity as that of a four-line rail traffic system.Compared with the four-line rail traffic system,the three-line rail traffic system has better utilization of rail line.As a result,building the three-line rail traffic system is a more economical and rational selection.

  6. Lateral shear interferometry with holo shear lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joenathan, C.; Mohanty, R. K.; Sirohi, R. S.

    1984-12-01

    A simple method for obtaining lateral shear using holo shear lenses (HSL) has been discussed. This simple device which produces lateral shears in the orthogonal directions has been used for lens testing. The holo shear lens is placed at or near the focus of the lens to be tested. It has also been shown that HSL can be used in speckle shear interferometry as it performs both the functions of shearing and imaging.

  7. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    A fully differential rail-to-rail Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) with improved DC-gain and reduced power consumption is proposed in this paper. By using the adaptive biasing circuit and two differential inputs, a low stand-by current can be obtained together with reduced power consu...

  8. 75 FR 76520 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... (PRL) and its subsidiaries, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC (PRH) and Patriot Rail Corp. (Patriot... within a corporate family. PRL proposes to restructure its corporate family by converting two of its...) will become Piedmont & Northern Railway, LLC (PNRLLC). PRL directly controls noncarrier PRH, which...

  9. 75 FR 70076 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... Company (TSRR), Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL), and its subsidiaries Patriot Rail Holdings LLC (PRH), and Patriot... after December 21, 2010. PRL and its subsidiaries, including CLC, DQE, GTRA, MSV, PAW, and TOE, entered... subsidiary of PRL, PRH, and Patriot and does not control any other railroad subsidiaries. PRL is a...

  10. Theoretical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Rail Damper to Minimize Short-Pitch Rail Corrugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cologne-egg fastening systems applied in metro lines, which can be subjected to rail corrugation, are considered in this paper. To understand the mechanism of the formation and development of rail corrugation, dynamic models of the wheel and the track with Cologne-egg fastening system in the frequency domain are developed to analyse the wheel and track vibration behaviour. A field test is also analysed to verify the validity of the mechanism. Using these experimental and theoretical results, the vibration mode of the rail that is responsible for rail corrugation is determined. Based on the results, a novel rail damper that can suppress the track pinned-pinned resonance and smooth the track receptance is presented to minimize short-pitch rail corrugation. It is ultimately found from theoretical simulation and experimental investigation that the application of the rail damper is a long-term and effective method of controlling short-pitch rail corrugation in metro lines.

  11. Rail-guided robotic end-effector position error due to rail compliance and ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgerink, Dian; Stegenga, J.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Woertche, H.J.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    A rail-guided robotic system is currently being designed for the inspection of ballast water tanks in ships. This robotic system will manipulate sensors toward the interior walls of the tank. In this paper, the influence of rail compliance on the end-effector position error due to ship movement is

  12. Hybrid stop schedule of urban rail train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmin Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to better serve the transport demand of urban area by rail, target at the Ur-ban Rail Train Stop Schedule problem.Design/methodology/approach: Bi-level mathematical programming model and game relation was used.Findings: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed when game relation between train Stop Schedule and passenger transfer choice is considered.Research limitations/implications: The research is still in progress. Practical implications: ChongQing urban rail line 2 was taken as an example, the practical application of the model has proved its feasibility and efficiency.Originality/value: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed. The upper level model is Stop Schedule targeting at the optimal profit from the operators side. The lower level model is passenger routing aims to minimize total travel time. According to its features, the bi-level model is integrated in order to be directly solvable by optimizing software.

  13. 78 FR 59316 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ..., intercity rail, and high speed rail). See 78 FR 30828 (May 23, 2013). The Committee will hold its first... refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  14. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to renew charter. SUMMARY: In accordance with... the Surface Transportation Board (Board) intends to renew the charter of the Rail...

  15. Measuring wheel/rail contact stresses using ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Marhsall, M.B.; Lewis, R.; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.; Olofsson, O.; Bjorklund, S

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of contact area and pressure distribution in a wheel/rail contact is essential information required in fatigue and wear calculations to determine design life, regrinding requirements, and maintenance schedules. The aim of this work was to use ultrasound to non-destructively determine wheel/rail contact pressures. Three different contacts were investigated those resulting from; un-used, sand damaged, and worn wheel/rail specimens. \\ud \\ud A wheel/rail interface behaves like a...

  16. 77 FR 58624 - Progressive Rail Incorporated-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rail Lines of Crab Orchard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Lines of Crab Orchard & Egyptian Railroad Company Progressive Rail Incorporated (PGR), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to acquire from Crab Orchard...

  17. Research on the Matching of Fastener Stiffness Based on Wheel-Rail Contact Mechanism for Prevention of Rail Corrugation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caiyou Zhao; Ping Wang; Mengting Xing

    2017-01-01

    .... However, this kind of fasteners could cause severe rail corrugation. Based on the "wheel-rail dynamic flexibility difference" mechanism, the optimization and further research of fastener stiffness were performed...

  18. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Light rail is a popular tool in urban development strategies in many European cities. One argument for choosing a rail-based solution is that it signals stability to investors and will attract development and investments in the corridor. The choice of corridor in the various light rail cities...

  19. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... any of this information changes. (e) Each passenger railroad carrier and rail transit system required... SECURITY Passenger Rail Including Passenger Railroad Carriers, Rail Transit Systems, Tourist, Scenic.... This section applies to: (1) Each passenger railroad carrier, including each carrier operating light...

  20. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 269 RIN 2130-AC19 Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot... proceeding to develop a pilot program that permits a rail carrier or rail carriers that own infrastructure... develops this pilot program in conformance with the statutory directive. DATES: This final rule is...

  1. High Speed Rail (HSR) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-08

    passenger rail service, while trying to help rail 25 Available at http://www.fomento.es/MFOMWeb/ paginas ...Offers Guideposts for U.S.,” The New York Times On the Web , May 30, 2009. High Speed Rail (HSR) in the United States Congressional Research

  2. 49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rail frogs. 213.139 Section 213.139..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.139 Spring rail frogs. (a) The... wing rail shall be solidly tamped and fully and tightly bolted. (c) Each frog with a bolt hole defect...

  3. 49 CFR 229.79 - Third rail shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Third rail shoes. 229.79 Section 229.79..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Electrical System § 229.79 Third rail shoes. When locomotives are equipped with both third rail and overhead...

  4. An investigation of sliding electrical contact in rail guns and the development of grooved-rail liquid-metal interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Adamy, Mark T.

    2001-01-01

    The barrel life of a solid armature rail gun is a critical issue. Arcing along the barrel pathway at the interfaces between the armature and the rails produces severe damage. The ability to protect the rails and yet provide sufficient electrical contact to sustain arc-free high-current flow is desirable. This thesis investigates the use of liquid metal as an interface material between the sliding electrical contact surfaces of the armature and the barrel rails. Experiments were conducted with...

  5. Practical reporting with Ruby and Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Berube, David

    2008-01-01

    Business intelligence and real time reporting mechanisms play a major role in any of today s forward looking business plans. With many of these solutions being moved to the Web, the popular Rails framework and its underlying Ruby language are playing a major role alongside web services in building the reporting solutions of tomorrow. Practical Reporting with Ruby and Rails is the first book to comprehensively introduce this popular framework, guiding readers through a wide ranging array of features. Note this isn t a staid guide to generating traditional reports, but rather it shows you how th

  6. Influence of Rare Earths on Contact Fatigue of Rail Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Rail/wheel contact fatigue of NbRE rail, Nb rail and U74 rail was investigated using contact fatigue tester. Microstructure and morphology as well as microhardness in the fatigue profiles were analyzed by scanning electron microscope and Vickers hardness respectively. The experimental results show that rare earths are able to delay the initiation and the propagation of fatigue cracks and postpone the surface shelling or spalling, even more, to reduce the crack propagation angle and the crack propagation depth in steady state as well as the plastic deformation area, and to improve work-hardening of the rail steel.

  7. Barrel wear reduction in rail guns: the effects of known and controlled rail spacing on low voltage electrical contact and the hard chrome plating of copper-tungsten rail and pure copper rails

    OpenAIRE

    McNeal, Cedric J.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited 100 m/s). Low voltage electrical contact was not maintained for some experimental shots and non-parallel rails were the suspected cause. In this thesis, we used a non-contact capacitive sensor to determine rail spacing to within 2/kAcm10mael, so that the rails will be parallel within small tolerances. Several rails were used in these experiments: 75-25 copper-tungsten, chromium-plated 75-25 Cu-W, and chromium-plated pure copper rails. ...

  8. Investigation into rail corrugation in high-speed railway tracks from the viewpoint of the frictional self-excited vibration of a wheel–rail system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, G X; Cui, X L; Qian, W J

    2016-01-01

    A finite element vibration model of a multiple wheel–rail system which consists of four wheels, one rail, and a series of sleepers is established to address the problem of rail corrugation in high-speed tracks...

  9. Low Voltage CMOS op-amp with Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalaiah, SV; Shivaprasad, AP

    2004-01-01

    As the supply voltage to a standard CMOS op-amp is reduced, the input common mode range and the output swing get reduced drastically. Special biasing circuits have to be used to raise them up to rail-to-rail supply voltage. Three low voltage op-amps with new biasing circuits have been proposed in this paper and their performance evaluated. The op-amp design is focused on dynamic range and high drive capability.

  10. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of a ferry or a vessel engaged in excursion trips, including but not limited to sightseeing trips... significantly reduce safety. A rail complying with the requirements of paragraphs (d)(1), (2), or (3) of this... exists that is more than 305 millimeters (12 inches) high except: (1) On passenger decks of a ferry or of...

  11. Big data supports light rail in Utrecht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.

    2014-01-01

    Transport planners are starting to consider how "big data" retrieved from passenger smart cards, computers and mobile phones could improve the design of urban rail networks and timetables, and improve operations by predicting ridership. Niels van Oort, assistant professor at Delft University of Tech

  12. High-Speed Rail & Air Transport Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adler, Nicole; Nash, Chris; Pels, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess transport infrastructure investments and their effects on a Nash equilibria taking into account competition between multiple privatized transport operator types. The operators, including high-speed rail, hub and spoke legacy airlines and low cost carriers,

  13. National Standards for Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanshen; Qin Guodong; Zhang Suyan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we suggest the creation of passenger service standards for urban rail transit.We put forward standards suited for China's actual conditions,aimed at meeting an international level of service based on customer-oriented principles.

  14. Crew Management in Passenger Rail Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ Crew management in passenger rail transport is an important factor that contributes to both the quality of service to the railway passengers and to the operational costs of the train operating company. This thesis describes how the (railway) Crew Management process can be i

  15. Analysis of Rail Vehicle Suspension Spring with Special Emphasis on Curving, Tracking and Tractive Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhalkar, M. A.; Bhope, D. V.; Vanalkar, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of the rail vehicle represents a balance between the forces acting between wheel and rail, the inertia forces and the forces exerted by suspension and articulation. Axial loading on helical spring causes vertical deflection at straight track but failures calls to investigate for lateral and longitudinal loading at horizontal and vertical curves respectively. Goods carrying vehicle has the frequent failures of middle axle inner suspension spring calls for investigation. The springs are analyzed for effect of stress concentration due to centripetal force and due to tractive and breaking effort. This paper also discusses shear failure analysis of spring at curvature and at uphill at various speeds for different loading condition analytically and by finite element analysis. Two mass rail vehicle suspension systems have been analyzed for vibration responses analytically using mathematical tool Matlab Simulink and the same will be evaluated using FFT vibration analyzer to find peak resonance in vertical, lateral and longitudinal direction. The results prove that the suspension acquires high repeated load in vertical and lateral direction due to tracking and curving causes maximum stress concentration on middle axle suspension spring as height of this spring is larger than end axle spring in primary suspension system and responsible for failure of middle axle suspension spring due to high stress acquisition.

  16. Simply rails 2 the ultimate beginner's guide to Ruby on rails

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Want to learn all about Ruby on Rails 2.0, the web application framework that is inspiring developers around the world? The second edition of this practical, hands on book will: show you how to install Ruby on Rails on Windows, Mac, or Linux walk you, step by step, through the development of a Web 2.0 social news application, just like digg.com show you how to test, debug, benchmark, and deploy your Rails application Unlike other Rails books, this book doesn't assume that you are an experienced web developer, or that you've used Ruby before. An entire chapter is devoted to learning Ruby in a fun way, using the interactive Ruby console, so you can follow along at home. You'll be an accomplished Ruby programmer in no time! The example application that the book builds - a user-generated news web site - is built upon with each following chapter, and concepts such as sessions, cookies and basic AJAX usage are gradually introduced. Different aspects of Rails, such as user authentication, session cookies, and automa...

  17. Analysis of rail welding methods for mine rail access with the use of modern technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoltsev, A. A.; Shevchenko, R. A.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Kriukov, R. E.; Shishkin, P. E.

    2017-09-01

    Welded joint zones are weak sections of the railway track for all traffic cases (in the case of high-speed traffic and heavy traffic). In the paper advantages and disadvantages of the basic ways of rails welding, which are widely used today, are considered: electrocontact and aluminothermic. Carefully selected mode of differentially thermally strengthened rails string will allow the process of correction after heat treatment to be minimized and internal residual compressive stresses to be kept. Particular attention should be paid to the method of rails welding, in which after rails welding during their cooling it is offered to perform quasi-isothermal exposure in the temperature range of fine structure formation by passing pulses of alternating electric current through the welded joint maintaining this temperature until the end of the transformation. The use of quasi-isothermal exposure at a temperature of 600 – 650 °C makes it possible to obtain a finely dispersed structure of the welded seam of rails without additional heat treatment.

  18. Analysis and modeling of rail maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Railroad maintenance engineering plays an important role on availability of roads and reducing the cost of railroad incidents. Rail is of the most important parts of railroad industry, which needs regular maintenance since it covers a significant part of total maintenance cost. Any attempt on optimizing total cost of maintenance could substantially reduce the cost of railroad system and it can reduce total cost of the industry. The paper presents a new method to estimate the cost of rail failure using different cost components such as cost of inspection and cost of risk associated with possible accidents. The proposed model of this paper is used for a real-world case study of railroad transportation of Tehran region and the results have been analyzed.

  19. The Analysis of Rail Traffic Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Gaidelis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The systems used for rail traffic control are compared. Their advantages and disadvantages are analysed. The present and future development of rail traffic control systems in various countries is considered. The possibility of adapting these microprocessor-based traffic control systems to the conditions of Lithuania is analysed. For this purpose, the analysis of goods transported by Lithuanian railways is made, and the non-uniform amount of goods transported on different road sections is evaluated. The number of the delayed trains due to the failure of traffic control systems in recent years is determined, the cost of installing a new microprocessor-based traffic control system at the railway station, as well as its repay time and the demand for employees are calculated. Article in Lithuanian

  20. DIAGNOSTICS AND REGENERATION OF COMMON RAIL INJECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodology of Common Rail injector diagnostic, regeneration and regulation with use of professional test stands. The EPS 815 machine can be used to test and repair all BOSCH injectors fully satisfying the producer requirements and standards. The article describes an example injector diagnosis with use of such test stand and additionally presents appropriate injector regeneration and encoding techniques

  1. Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor by Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang ARL-TR-6308 January 2013...TR-6308 January 2013 Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang Sensors...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  2. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  3. Grinding induced martensite on the surface of rails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, C.J.; Zhang, Xiaodan; Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2014-01-01

    determined. Two different rail types R260 and R350HT that both had been ground by a grinding train were investigated. The rail sections, studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy, showed that the surface of both types of rails is covered with WELs. The hardness of the WEL is increased compared...... to the base material and the microstructural investigations reveal that a martensitic structure is present at the surface....

  4. CAF, a generalised conicity criteria for the wheel rail contact

    OpenAIRE

    AYASSE, JB; Chollet, H; FLEURET, JS; Leveque, E.

    2002-01-01

    With several examples, this paper will show why the most significant parameter to be considered at the wheel rail contact is the angle of the tangent plane, function of the transversal relative displacement between wheel and rail (contact angle function, CAF). This parameter is the key point of INRETS methodology for static and dynamic studies of the wheel rail contact in non linear conditions. A practical example is given with switch blades.

  5. Experimental characterization of wheel-rail contact patch evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, M.B.; Lewis, R.; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.; Olofsson, U.; Björklund, S.

    2006-01-01

    The contact area and pressure distribution in a wheel/rail contact is essential information required in any fatigue or wear calculations to determine design life, re-grinding, and maintenance schedules. As wheel or rail wear or surface damage takes place the contact patch size and shape will change. This leads to a redistribution of the contact stresses. The aim of this work was to use ultrasound to nondestructively quantify the stress distribution in new, worn, and damaged wheel-rail contact...

  6. 49 CFR 213.119 - Continuous welded rail (CWR); plan contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following items: (i) Loose, bent, or missing joint bolts; (ii) Rail end batter or mismatch that contributes... amount and length of rail end batter or ramp on each rail end; the amount of tread mismatch; the...

  7. NASTRAN buckling study of a linear induction motor reaction rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    NASTRAN was used to study problems associated with the installation of a linear induction motor reaction rail test track. Specific problems studied include determination of the critical axial compressive buckling stress and establishment of the lateral stiffness of the reaction rail under combined loads. NASTRAN results were compared with experimentally obtained values and satisfactory agreement was obtained. The reaction rail was found to buckle at an axial compressive stress of 11,400 pounds per square inch. The results of this investigation were used to select procedures for installation of the reaction rail.

  8. Development Status and Countermeasures of China's Urban Rail Transit Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ning; Qian Jun

    2008-01-01

    Urban rail transit has been a new emerging industry growing up since China's reform and opening-up. As the city's public service facility, the construction and operation of urban rail transit will surely face a series of impact and reform on management and concept under the condition of market economy system. By analyzing the development status of China's urban rail transit, the paper identifies the problems existing in the development and puts fin-ward the countermeasures for securing sound develolopment of the China's urban rail transit industry.

  9. System for Measuring Elevator Guide Rail Quality and Its Calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A system for measuring the quality parameters of elevator guide rails is developed. The quality parameters the system can measure include straightness, flatness, squareness, width and height of the rail. The system consists of six parts:main guideway, auxiliary guideway, reference rail, saddle, control casing and measured rail. The guide rail to be measured is mounted on a bed.The straightness errors of surfaces are checked by five linear displacement sensors mounted on the saddle. The deviation of readings from the sensor, which is in contact with top guiding surface,gives the straightness error of the surface and height of the rail. The other four sensors are used to measure side guiding surfaces respectively and give other parameters including flatness on the surfaces, squareness, width and height of the rail. A novel calibration method is also developed to calibrate the straightness motion error of the system in horizontal and vertical directions. The deflection deformation of the measured rail is fitted by using a fourth-order polynomial. Experimental results show that the uncertainty of the system on the side surfaces after compensating the straightness motion error is less than 0.01 mm, and the uncertainty of the system on the top surface after compensating the straightness motion error and the deflection deformation of the rail is less than 0.03 mm.

  10. Operations Research Approaches to Asset Management in Freight Rail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Michael F.; Harrod, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail.......This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail....

  11. Electric rail gun projectile acceleration to high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, D. P.; Mccormick, T. J.; Barber, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Electric rail accelerators are being investigated for application in electric propulsion systems. Several electric propulsion applications require that the rail accelerator be capable of launching projectiles at velocities above 10 km/s. An experimental program was conducted to develop rail accelerator technology for high velocity projectile launch. Several 6 mm bore, 3 m long rail accelerators were fabricated. Projectiles with a mass of 0.2 g were accelerated by plasmas, carrying currents up to 150 kA. Experimental design and results are described. Results indicate that the accelerator performed as predicted for a fraction of the total projectile acceleration. The disparity between predicted and measured results are discussed.

  12. Energy partitioning in an inductively driven rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, K. K.; Ray, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail are analyzed numerically. Friction between the projectile and rails is included through an empirical formulation. The equations are applied to the experiment of Rashleigh and Marshall to obtain an estimate of energy distribution in rail guns as a function of time. It is found that only 15 percent of energy delivered by the inductor to the gun is transformed into the kinetic energy of the projectile. This study provides an insight into the nature of nonlinear coupling involved in the electromechanical interactions in a rail gun.

  13. Adhesion-creepage characteristics of wheel/rail system under dry and contaminated rail surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Mohammed F.

    1998-11-01

    This thesis presents an experimental and theoretical study of adhesion and creepage characteristics of wheel and rail under both dry and contaminated rail surfaces. The experimental work was conducted largely on the IIT 1/4.5 Scale Wheel/Rail Simulation Facility. Based on the experimental data in the laboratory, a theoretical model of adhesion and creepage relationship with different degrees of contamination was developed. Non-dimensional analysis of parameters yielded four important non-dimensional groups, which include the adhesion, creepage coefficients, the elastic properties of the materials, the load on the wheel surface roughness of wheel and rail, train speed and the contaminant density, viscosity and minimum film thickness. Rail contaminants were gathered from several U.S. passenger rail systems and tested on the laboratory facility. It was found that presence of moisture reduce the adhesion levels with these contaminants. Under hot air jet applications, normal adhesion could be achieved. A series of tests were conducted with water contamination on clean rail. Maximum adhesion for different tests was nearly constant and approximately 0.2. Maximum adhesion produced under water contamination is significantly affected by the average roughness of the wheel and the rail. As the roughness decreases, maximum adhesion drops sharply. Maximum adhesion also decreases with speed in the presence of moisture even at relatively low speeds (4--8 mph). An empirical relation of maximum adhesion with axle load, speed and roughness has been derived. An analytical expression for the adhesion-creepage curves under (TOR) lubrication has been derived. The maximum adhesion coefficient achieved for different (TOR) lubricant formulations was found to be approximately proportional to kinematic viscosity. A theoretical approach for estimating potential energy savings with the (TOR) lubricant was developed using the laboratory data of the 1/12.5 scale simulator and 1/4.5 scale test

  14. An Research on Abrasion Resistance of Muzzle Shunt Rail Gun Rail Boronized with Self-protecting B4C Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUJin-suo; CHENGShu-kang; ZHENGZhen-zhong; MAYuan; LIZhi-yuan

    2004-01-01

    Based on large numbers of experiments, together with some theoretic support such as equations related to the experiment, thermodynamic principles and so on, one useful and reasonable self-protecting boron formulation is got to reintorce the muzzle shunt rail gun rail. The preliminary friction and abrasion test results show that the formulation is acceptable and the abrasion resistance of the steel rail enhances to some extent after the surface reinforcement.

  15. An Research on Abrasion Resistance of Muzzle Shunt Rail Gun Rail Boronized with Self-protecting B4C Paste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Jin-suo; CHENG Shu-kang; ZHENG Zhen-zhong; MA Yuan; LI Zhi-yuan

    2004-01-01

    Based on large numbers of experiments, together with some theoretic support such as equations related to the experiment, thermodynamic principles and so on, one useful and reasonable self-protecting boron formulation is got to reinforce the muzzle shunt rail gun rail. The preliminary friction and abrasion test results show that the formulation is acceptable and the abrasion resistance of the steel rail enhances to some extent after the surface reinforcement.

  16. Rail transportation of biofuels; Jaernvaegstransport av biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frosch, Martin; Thoren, Peter

    2010-05-15

    The project has had the task of describing how the rail transportation of biofuels can be increased. This has been made by analyzing the current conditions of five transmission terminals and five different CHP plants, henceforth called reference cases, and the prevailing conditions at their reception terminals. For each of the five reference cases several transport solutions have been created that take in consideration how these conditions affect the efficiency of the transport solutions for 23 different relations. The study will also show to what extent reduction of environmental impacts can be achieved with the rail transportation of biofuels as alternative to road transport. Three of the reference cases are in operation, one under construction and one in the development phase. To develop transportation solutions and identify potential catchment areas for biofuels a slightly higher resolution than what normally is analyzed in existing literature is required. Therefore, these analysis have been made for each of the relevant catchment areas with the help of forest assessment data, kNN-data, from the Swedish agricultural university (SLU), statistics of peat production from the Swedish geological survey (SGU) and the Forestry boards (Skogsstyrelsen) statistical yearbook of 2008. The calculations underlying the transport solutions are relating to the sustainability of each catchment area, constraints and opportunities at both the reception and transmission terminals, and the practical solutions for wagons, containers and number of possible weekly circulations. The target audience is the heating and CHP plants in Sweden, wishing to use rail transport of biofuels, regardless of available infrastructure since remote receiving terminals also can be used if needed. The results of the economical analysis for all possible relations are based on calculations with 20 wagons in each circulation. Due to topographic limitations and limited traction capacity all relations

  17. Analysis of wheel motion on corrugated rail; Corrugation ga hasseishita rail wo sokosuru sharin no undo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, A. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ikuta, S.; Suda, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science] Terumichi, Y. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Ono, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    An analysis is conducted into the compound vibration of a wheel/rail system which is a two-axle truck travelling on rails with corrugation type wear generated thereon. Each wheel is analyzed using an analysis model in which the travelling mass, contact spring (concentrated mass system of one degree of freedom), and rails provide a system of distributed constants. Calculation is then made about the variation in the contact force that occurs between the wheels and rails when the truck travels at a prescribed speed in a sector with corrugation (assumed to be sinusoidal) generated on the rails therein. It is then found that there is interaction between the front wheels and rear wheels, that the lateral vibration generated by the excitation of rails due to the traveling of the front wheels is transmitted through the rails to reach the rear wheels for their excitation for an increase in the variation in the contact force between the rear wheels and rails and that, vice versa, the travel of the rear wheels increases the variation in the contact force between the front wheels and rails. It is also found, concerning both front wheels and rear wheels, that there are periodic fluctuations, dependent on the wheelbase, in the amplitude of the contact force variation at the steady state and that the period, as compared with the wavelength of corrugation, is shorter in the front wheels and longer in the rear wheels. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Shear System Debugging and Shear Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Dong-xue; JIAO; Hai-yang

    2015-01-01

    Shear system is the essential equipment of head-end processing in the spent fuel reprocessing process,with the aim of cutting spent fuels into appropriate lengths for dissolve,separatingspent fuel core from jacket.Shear system of CRARL is mainly set in 01Bhot cell,element rods will be cut into short lengths of 10-30mm

  19. Developments in Rail Transit:History and Future of Rail Transportation in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>In the past ten years, the increase in the number of automobiles in Beijing, es-pecially private cars, has led to serious traffic congestion and environmental pollution. Given that urban rail transit is expedient, punctual, high in passenger

  20. Green's functions for analysis of dynamic response of wheel/rail to vertical excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazilu, Traian

    2007-09-01

    An analytical model to simulate wheel/rail interaction using the Green's functions method is proposed in this paper. The model consists of a moving wheel on a discretely supported rail. Particularly for this model of rail, the bending and the longitudinal displacement are coupled due to the rail pad and a complex model of the rail pad is adopted. An efficient method for solving a time-domain analysis for wheel/rail interaction is presented. The method is based on the properties of the rail's Green functions and starting to these functions, a track's Green matrix is assembled for the numerical simulations of wheel/rail response due to three kinds of vertical excitations: the steady-state interaction, the rail corrugation and the wheel flat. The study points to influence of the worn rail—rigid contact—on variation in the wheel/rail contact force. The concept of pinned-pinned inhibitive rail pad is also presented.

  1. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR...

  2. 49 CFR 1580.101 - Rail security coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... least one alternate Rail Security Coordinator (RSC). (c) The RSC and alternate(s) must be appointed at... hazardous materials receiver required to have an RSC must provide to TSA the names, title, phone number(s..., and rail hazardous materials receiver required to have an RSC must ensure that at least one RSC:...

  3. 77 FR 64249 - Track Safety Standards; Improving Rail Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Integrity AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice... Supplementary Information I. Executive Summary II. Rail Integrity Overview A. Derailment in 2001 near Nodaway.... General Factual Background on Rail Integrity E. Statutory Mandate To Conduct this Rulemaking III. Overview...

  4. 46 CFR 32.02-10 - Rails-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rails-TB/ALL. 32.02-10 Section 32.02-10 Shipping COAST... Safety Requirements § 32.02-10 Rails—TB/ALL. (a) All tank vessels, except unmanned tank barges... be in at least two courses, including the top, approximately evenly spaced. All rails shall consist...

  5. Towards automated model calibration and validation in rail transit simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Seck, M.D.; Verbraeck, A.

    2012-01-01

    The benefit of modeling and simulation in rail transit operations has been demonstrated in various studies. However, the complex dynamics involved and the ever-changing environment in which rail systems evolve expose the limits of classical simulation. Changing environmental conditions and second or

  6. 49 CFR 236.562 - Minimum rail current required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.562 Minimum rail current required. The minimum rail current required to restore the locomotive equipment...

  7. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  8. 77 FR 69769 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... hazardous waste regulated under subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6921 et seq.), mining... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1155 Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities AGENCY: Surface... solid waste rail transfer facilities. The Clean Railroads Act of 2008 amended the U.S. Code to restrict...

  9. Groningen Seaports : An Examination of Public Rail Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, Gert

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the value of the public rail infrastructure of Groningen Seaports, the port authority of Delfzijl and Eemshaven. There is substantial strategic value of public rail infrastructure due to the public good character, the mission of Groningen Seaports, the image of full port service

  10. The Homogeneity Research of Urban Rail Transit Network Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban Rail Transit is an important part of the public transit, it is necessary to carry out the corresponding network function analysis. Previous studies mainly about network performance analysis of a single city rail transit, lacking of horizontal comparison between the multi-city, it is difficult to find inner unity of different Urban Rail Transit network functions. Taking into account the Urban Rail Transit network is a typical complex networks, so this paper proposes the application of complex network theory to research the homogeneity of Urban Rail Transit network performance. This paper selects rail networks of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou as calculation case, gave them a complex network mapping through the L, P Space method and had a static topological analysis using complex network theory, Network characteristics in three cities were calculated and analyzed form node degree distribution and node connection preference. Finally, this paper studied the network efficiency changes of Urban Rail Transit system under different attack mode. The results showed that, although rail transport network size, model construction and construction planning of the three cities are different, but their network performance in many aspects showed high homogeneity.

  11. 49 CFR 214.523 - Hi-rail vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail... designated by the employer. (c) A new hi-rail vehicle shall be equipped with: (1) An automatic change-of... change-of-direction alarms, backup alarms, and 360-degree intermittent warning lights or beacons shall be...

  12. Unistuste Rail Baltic - ilus ja kallis / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Rail Balticu puhul on tähtsaim küsimus, kas uut raudteeühendust on üldse vaja, mitte aga see, kas tee läheb läbi Tartu või Pärnu. Konsutatsioonifirma AECOM koostatud raportist Rail Balticu tasuvuse kohta

  13. Tartu ihkab Rail Baltica kiirraudteed endale / Madis Aesma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aesma, Madis

    2005-01-01

    2005. aasta sügisel alustatakse uuringuid, et välja selgitada, millisest Eesti linnast - Tartust, Pärnust või Viljandist - peaks tulevikus läbi minema kiirraudtee Rail Baltica, mis viib kuue tunniga Tallinnast Varssavisse. Kaart: Kiirraudtee Rail Baltica kolm võimalikku suunda. Kommenteerib Andrus Ansip

  14. Groningen Seaports : An Examination of Public Rail Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, Gert

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the value of the public rail infrastructure of Groningen Seaports, the port authority of Delfzijl and Eemshaven. There is substantial strategic value of public rail infrastructure due to the public good character, the mission of Groningen Seaports, the image of full port

  15. Tartu ihkab Rail Baltica kiirraudteed endale / Madis Aesma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aesma, Madis

    2005-01-01

    2005. aasta sügisel alustatakse uuringuid, et välja selgitada, millisest Eesti linnast - Tartust, Pärnust või Viljandist - peaks tulevikus läbi minema kiirraudtee Rail Baltica, mis viib kuue tunniga Tallinnast Varssavisse. Kaart: Kiirraudtee Rail Baltica kolm võimalikku suunda. Kommenteerib Andrus Ansip

  16. Unistuste Rail Baltic - ilus ja kallis / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Rail Balticu puhul on tähtsaim küsimus, kas uut raudteeühendust on üldse vaja, mitte aga see, kas tee läheb läbi Tartu või Pärnu. Konsutatsioonifirma AECOM koostatud raportist Rail Balticu tasuvuse kohta

  17. Two-Dimensional Impact Reconstruction Method for Rail Defect Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of train operating is seriously menaced by the rail defects, so it is of great significance to inspect rail defects dynamically while the train is operating. This paper presents a two-dimensional impact reconstruction method to realize the on-line inspection of rail defects. The proposed method utilizes preprocessing technology to convert time domain vertical vibration signals acquired by wireless sensor network to space signals. The modern time-frequency analysis method is improved to reconstruct the obtained multisensor information. Then, the image fusion processing technology based on spectrum threshold processing and node color labeling is proposed to reduce the noise, and blank the periodic impact signal caused by rail joints and locomotive running gear. This method can convert the aperiodic impact signals caused by rail defects to partial periodic impact signals, and locate the rail defects. An application indicates that the two-dimensional impact reconstruction method could display the impact caused by rail defects obviously, and is an effective on-line rail defects inspection method.

  18. Optimal Placement Method of RFID Readers in Industrial Rail Transport for Uneven Rail Traflc Volume Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr; Muravev, Dmitri; Mishkurov, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    The issue of operative data reception on location and movement of railcars is significant the constantly growing requirements of the provision of timely and safe transportation. The technical solution for efficiency improvement of data collection on rail rolling stock is the implementation of an identification system. Nowadays, there are several such systems, distinguished in working principle. In the authors' opinion, the most promising for rail transportation is the RFID technology, proposing the equipping of the railway tracks by the stationary points of data reading (RFID readers) from the onboard sensors on the railcars. However, regardless of a specific type and manufacturer of these systems, their implementation is affiliated with the significant financing costs for large, industrial, rail transport systems, owning the extensive network of special railway tracks with a large number of stations and loading areas. To reduce the investment costs for creation, the identification system of rolling stock on the special railway tracks of industrial enterprises has developed the method based on the idea of priority installation of the RFID readers on railway hauls, where rail traffic volumes are uneven in structure and power, parameters of which is difficult or impossible to predict on the basis of existing data in an information system. To select the optimal locations of RFID readers, the mathematical model of the staged installation of such readers has developed depending on the non-uniformity value of rail traffic volumes, passing through the specific railway hauls. As a result of that approach, installation of the numerous RFID readers at all station tracks and loading areas of industrial railway stations might be not necessary,which reduces the total cost of the rolling stock identification and the implementation of the method for optimal management of transportation process.

  19. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  20. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  1. Dynamic analysis of rail vehicle axle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ferhat Dikmen; Meral Bayraktar; Rahmi Guclu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, in order to obtain the dynamic forces on the passenger coach axle, a full rail vehicle model with 19-dof (degrees of freedom) has been considered. For a specific example, the variations of these dynamic forces with velocity of the passenger coach, suspension characteristics and way conditions have been examined. Dynamic forces found in the resonance regions at the range of 2–5 m/s (7.2–18 km/h) has been discussed. Theoretical results obtained for the dynamic forces have been successfully compared with the experimental results of German Railways (Deutsche Bahn-DB).

  2. RIDING THE HIGH-SPEED RAILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Travel between Wuhan,capital of central China's Hubei Province,and Guangzhou,capital of Guangdong Province in south China,used to take 10 hours.But now,the 1,000-km journey can be made in three hours.When factoring in time spent getting to the airport and then waiting to board the aircraft,travel time between the two cities by air or rail is roughly the same.But the cost effectiveness of train travel trumps air utansportation,luring a considerable number of people to stay grounded when traveling.

  3. Characterisation of plasma in a rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a DC rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor, indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated in the experiment of Bauer et. al., as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipatated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  4. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Light rail is a popular tool in urban development strategies in many European cities. One argument for choosing a rail-based solution is that it signals stability to investors and will attract development and investments in the corridor. The choice of corridor in the various light rail cities...... are based on different rationalities: generating urban growth by investments in new housing and businesses, regeneration of urban space, facilitation for a car-free urban lifestyle etc. The main argument of this paper is that light rail corridors are not only providing access, but also gentrifies...... and redistributes urban space. Furthermore light rail is not only a physical infrastructure but also an infrastructure of power that is carefully planned and designed creating both mental and physical patterns of mobilities and immobilities. Hence it is important to underline that mobility systems, such as light...

  5. Analysis of Urban Rail Transit Seamless Transfer Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Li Fen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the improvement of urban rail transit network and traveler requirement of travel , the concept of rail seamless integration has been proposed. This paper analyzes the meaning of integration and seamless integration and the connotation and characteristics of urban rail transport were seamlessly transfer analysis. On this basis, the organization of urban rail transit traffic in different ways are discussed. According to Brighton G (Bou ladon G hypothesis, tranfer distance is devided into ideal, desirable, acceptable, tolerable, intolerable five levels and their corresponding standard values are quantized, getting the standard of transfer time and distance to evaluate the quality of rail integration and Seamless Transfer of proposeing the standards of integration time and distance.

  6. Simulations of roughness initiation and growth on railway rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, X.; Thompson, D. J.; Jones, C. J. C.; Xie, G.; Iwnicki, S. D.; Allen, P.; Hsu, S. S.

    2006-06-01

    A model for the prediction of the initiation and growth of roughness on the rail is presented. The vertical interaction between a train and the track is calculated as a time history for single or multiple wheels moving on periodically supported rails, using a wavenumber-based approach. This vertical dynamic wheel/rail force arises from the varying stiffness due to discrete supports (i.e. parametric excitation) and the roughness excitation on the railhead. The tangential contact problem between the wheel and rail is modelled using an unsteady two-dimensional approach and also using the three-dimensional contact model, FASTSIM. This enables the slip and stick regions in the contact patch to be identified from the input geometry and creepage between the wheel and rail. The long-term wear growth is then predicted by applying repeated passages of the vehicle wheelsets, as part of an iterative solution.

  7. The latest technical solutions in rail vehicles drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the latest trends and solutions used in the offers of rail vehicles manufacturers. The study is mainly concerned with the technical solutions used in hybrid rail vehicles, whose development has become one of the priorities for the development of rail vehicles in the European Union in recent years. Stricter emissions standards for harmful compounds in the European Union have forced manufacturers to use increasingly sophisticated technology, including hybrid drives and alternative fuels. The products and solutions offered by the major manufacturers on the market, along with their capabilities and future applications are described. The predicted trends in the development of propulsion technology for rail and road-rail vehicles are also indicated in view of the current legislative aspirations among the EU Member States.

  8. About the certification of railway rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Iorio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When the compliance with the European Code of some rail steel has to be verified, the need of carrying out the experimental activities in accordance with several testing Standards forces the operator both to solve the problems related to the choice of a suitable testing practice and often to interpret subjectively Standards guidelines. This does not facilitate the comparability and/or the quality of the results produced by several laboratories. With reference to a series of fatigue, fracture toughness and fatigue crack growth tests carried out by the authors on specimens extracted from rails, the main lacks in the current standards, related to both the choice of the control parameters and the testing procedures, are pointed out. Regarding the crack growth testing, several procedures to compute the crack growth rates to be compared with the limits prescribed by the Code are proposed. These procedures have been applied to a data set produced during the aforementioned testing activity, in order to highlight, by comparison of the results obtained by them, the significant differences in the crack growth rate estimates and the magnitude of the errors that can be done due to the lacks in the standard practices currently adopted.

  9. The Influence of Wheel/Rail Contact Conditions on the Microstructure and Hardness of Railway Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Molyneux-Berry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an “in-service” wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing. The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets.

  10. The influence of wheel/rail contact conditions on the microstructure and hardness of railway wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux-Berry, Paul; Davis, Claire; Bevan, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations) and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an "in-service" wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing). The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets.

  11. The Influence of Wheel/Rail Contact Conditions on the Microstructure and Hardness of Railway Wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Claire

    2014-01-01

    The susceptibility of railway wheels to wear and rolling contact fatigue damage is influenced by the properties of the wheel material. These are influenced by the steel composition, wheel manufacturing process, and thermal and mechanical loading during operation. The in-service properties therefore vary with depth below the surface and with position across the wheel tread. This paper discusses the stress history at the wheel/rail contact (derived from dynamic simulations) and observed variations in hardness and microstructure. It is shown that the hardness of an “in-service” wheel rim varies significantly, with three distinct effects. The underlying hardness trend with depth can be related to microstructural changes during manufacturing (proeutectoid ferrite fraction and pearlite lamellae spacing). The near-surface layer exhibits plastic flow and microstructural shear, especially in regions which experience high tangential forces when curving, with consequentially higher hardness values. Between 1 mm and 7 mm depth, the wheel/rail contacts cause stresses exceeding the material yield stress, leading to work hardening, without a macroscopic change in microstructure. These changes in material properties through the depth of the wheel rim would tend to increase the likelihood of crack initiation on wheels toward the end of their life. This correlates with observations from several train fleets. PMID:24526883

  12. Rail Vehicle Vibrations Control Using Parameters Adaptive PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Metin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vertical rail vehicle vibrations are controlled by the use of conventional PID and parameters which are adaptive to PID controllers. A parameters adaptive PID controller is designed to improve the passenger comfort by intuitional usage of this method that renews the parameters online and sensitively under variable track inputs. Sinusoidal vertical rail misalignment and measured real rail irregularity are considered as two different disruptive effects of the system. Active vibration control is applied to the system through the secondary suspension. The active suspension application of rail vehicle is examined by using 5-DOF quarter-rail vehicle model by using Manchester benchmark dynamic parameters. The new parameters of adaptive controller are optimized by means of genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB. Simulations are performed at maximum urban transportation speed (90 km/h of the rail vehicle with ±5% load changes of rail vehicle body to test the robustness of controllers. As a result, superior performance of parameters of adaptive controller is determined in time and frequency domain.

  13. Revisiting the reasons for contact fatigue defects in rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darenskiy Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As it is known rail is one of the most significant elements of the whole railway construction. Operation under alternating loads from wheels of the rolling stock and different ambient temperatures lead to appearance and development of rail defects and damages. A great variety of operational factors (freight traffic density, axial loads, traffic speeds, track layout and profile as well as special features of manufacturing and thermal treatment of rails create certain difficulties while identifying reasons for defects and damages. The article deals with an attempt to estimate influence of track layout and lateral forces on appearance of defects and damages in rails on the base of long-term observations of rail operation in Kharkiv Metro. On the basis of the vehicle/track mathematical model which considers structural features of both rolling stock and permanent way in underground systems, the level of lateral forces in curves was calculated. The coefficients of correlation between the track curvature, the level of forces and the amount of defected rails removed were later obtained, that made it possible to determine the dominant factor which may lead to appearance and development of contact fatigue defects in rails laid in curves.

  14. Track dynamic behavior at rail welds at high speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guangwen; Xiao, Xinbiao; Guo, Jun; Wen, Zefeng; Jin, Xuesong

    2010-06-01

    As a vehicle passing through a track with different weld irregularities, the dynamic performance of track components is investigated in detail by using a coupled vehicle-track model. In the model, the vehicle is modeled as a multi-body system with 35 degrees of freedom, and a Timoshenko beam is used to model the rails which are discretely supported by sleepers. In the track model, the sleepers are modeled as rigid bodies accounting for their vertical, lateral and rolling motions and assumed to move backward at a constant speed to simulate the vehicle running along the track at the same speed. In the study of the coupled vehicle and track dynamics, the Hertizian contact theory and the theory proposed by Shen-Hedrick-Elkins are, respectively, used to calculate normal and creep forces between the wheel and the rails. In the calculation of the normal forces, the coefficient of the normal contact stiffness is determined by transient contact condition of the wheel and rail surface. In the calculation of the creepages, the lateral, roll-over motions of the rail and the fact that the relative velocity between the wheel and rail in their common normal direction is equal to zero are simultaneously taken into account. The motion equations of the vehicle and track are solved by means of an explicit integration method, in which the rail weld irregularities are modeled as local track vertical deviations described by some ideal cosine functions. The effects of the train speed, the axle load, the wavelength and depth of the irregularities, and the weld center position in a sleeper span on the wheel-rail impact loading are analyzed. The numerical results obtained are greatly useful in the tolerance design of welded rail profile irregularity caused by hand-grinding after rail welding and track maintenances.

  15. Failure analysis of edge flat-slab column connections with shear reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Flat-slab column connections are susceptible to brittle failure, which lead to the necessity of improving ductility and ultimate strength. In case of edge connections, the behaviour at ultimate state is highly influenced by nonsymmetrical distribution of stresses originated by a moment transfer between the slab and the column. The paper presents the test results of three full-scale reinforced concrete flat-slab edge connections with stud-rail shear reinforcement subjected to concentrated load...

  16. Laser vibrometer measurement of guided wave modes in rail track

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available in 19 rails [11]. Development of transducers or transducer arrays to effectively excite or 20 sense specific modes of propagation may also be based on SAFE models of the rail. 21 Three – dimensional finite elements were used to model piezoelectric... piezoelectric sandwich transducer comprising a back mass, four 12 piezoelectric ceramic rings, a front mass and a centre bolt was used to excite the rail. 13 The transducer, which resembles an ultrasonic cleaning transducer, was attached 14 under the head...

  17. Development of field welding technology for rails; Tetsudo rail no genchi yoyu yosetsu gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, M.; Karimine, K.; Uchino, K.; Yurioka, N. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-02-28

    A new element technology is outlined which is for welding regular rails in the field and making a long rail. A new EAW (Enclosed Arc Welding) has been developed for the purpose of improving vibration and noise due to the local abrasion of the existing EAW and improving the deterioration of resistibility against rolling fatigue breakage and the generation of transverse fissure due to the high temperature liquefaction crack. It has been verified that a highly carbonized metal improves the local abrasion and the generation of crack. Problems were brought up, in the case of welding rails by thermit welding (TW) utilizing the reaction of Al powder and brown iron oxide, such that strength was rather small against the bending fatigue of a joint and that the soundness of internal property of a welded part was likely to fluctuate. A test was carried out concerning the latter problem, and it was revealed that the temperature to pour molten steel dropped, whether the Al compound was insufficient or excessive, possibly causing reaction defects. As a technology to replace EAW and TW techniques, an automatic welding was developed which combinedly used narrow groove electro-slag welding and gas sealed arc welding. Further, as an after-treatment of this technology, a method was developed to remove a weld overlay. 19 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Robotics virtual rail system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J.; Few, Douglas A.; Walton, Miles C.

    2011-07-05

    A virtual track or rail system and method is described for execution by a robot. A user, through a user interface, generates a desired path comprised of at least one segment representative of the virtual track for the robot. Start and end points are assigned to the desired path and velocities are also associated with each of the at least one segment of the desired path. A waypoint file is generated including positions along the virtual track representing the desired path with the positions beginning from the start point to the end point including the velocities of each of the at least one segment. The waypoint file is sent to the robot for traversing along the virtual track.

  19. Dual-rail optical gradient echo memory

    CERN Document Server

    Higginbottom, Daniel B; Campbell, Geoff T; Hosseini, Mahdi; Cao, Ming Tao; Sparkes, Ben M; Bernu, Julian; Robins, Nick P; Lam, Ping Koy; Buchler, Ben C

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a scheme for the parallel storage of frequency separated signals in an optical memory and demonstrate that this dual-rail storage is a suitable memory for high fidelity frequency qubits. The two signals are stored simultaneously in the Zeeman-split Raman absorption lines of a cold atom ensemble using gradient echo memory techniques. Analysis of the split-Zeeman storage shows that the memory can be configured to preserve the relative amplitude and phase of the frequency separated signals. In an experimental demonstration dual-frequency pulses are recalled with 35% efficiency, 82% interference fringe visibility, and 6 degrees phase stability. The fidelity of the frequency-qubit memory is limited by frequency-dependent polarisation rotation and ambient magnetic field fluctuations, our analysis describes how these can be addressed in an alternative configuration.

  20. Direct launch using the electric rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The concept explored involves using a large single stage electric rail gun to achieve orbital velocities. Exit aerodynamics, launch package design and size, interior ballistics, system and component sizing and design concepts are treated. Technology development status and development requirements are identified and described. The expense of placing payloads in Earth orbit using conventional chemical rockets is considerable. Chemical rockets are very inefficient in converting chemical energy into payload kinetic energy. A rocket motor is relatively expensive and is usually expended on each launch. In addition specialized and expensive forms of fuel are required. Gun launching payloads directly to orbit from the Earth's surface is a possible alternative. Guns are much more energy efficient than rockets. The high capital cost of the gun installation can be recovered by reusing it over and over again. Finally, relatively inexpensive fuel and large quantities of energy are readily available to a fixed installation on the Earth's surface.

  1. Hall effect degradation of rail gun performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witalis, E. A.; Gunnarsson, Patrik

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the Hall effect and shows it to be significant in the low-density and high-field trailing part of a plasma armature. Without the Hall effect a simple armature model is derived. It exhibits properties expected from classical MHD theory and shows that the purely relativistic electric charge buildup on the rails is a fundamental gun property, leading to V(breech) = 1.5 V(muzzle). The mathematics involved in accounting for Hall effect phenomena is described. These are of two types: the Hall-skewing of the armature current and the superimposed plasma flow rotation. For decreasing gun current the two effects efficiently combine to eject armature plasma rearwards, thus creating conditions for arc separation and parasitic arcs.

  2. Hazard Management with DOORS: Rail Infrastructure Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Dave; Saeed, Amer

    LOI is a major rail infrastructure project that will contribute to a modernised transport system in time for the 2012 Olympic Games. A review of the procedures and tool infrastructure was conducted in early 2006, coinciding with a planned move to main works. A hazard log support tool was needed to provide: an automatic audit trial, version control and support collaborative working. A DOORS based Hazard Log (DHL) was selected as the Tool Strategy. A systematic approach was followed for the development of DHL, after a series of tests and acceptance gateways, DHL was handed over to the project in autumn 2006. The first few months were used for operational trials and he Hazard Management rocedure was modified to be a hybrid approach that used the strengths of DHL and Excel. The user experience in the deployment of DHL is summarised and directions for future improvement identified.

  3. Shearing stability of lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Y.; Gijyutsu, G.

    1984-01-01

    Shearing stabilities of lubricating oils containing a high mol. wt. polymer as a viscosity index improver were studied by use of ultrasound. The oils were degraded by cavitation and the degradation generally followed first order kinetics with the rate of degradation increasing with the intensity of the ultrasonic irradiation and the cumulative energy applied. The shear stability was mainly affected by the mol. wt. of the polymer additive and could be determined in a short time by mechanical shearing with ultrasound.

  4. Shearing stability of lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Y.; Gijyutsu, G.

    1984-03-01

    Shearing stabilities of lubricating oils containing a high mol. wt. polymer as a viscosity index improver were studied by use of ultrasound. The oils were degraded by cavitation and the degradation generally followed first order kinetics with the rate of degradation increasing with the intensity of the ultrasonic irradiation and the cumulative energy applied. The shear stability was mainly affected by the mol. wt. of the polymer additive and could be determined in a short time by mechanical shearing with ultrasound.

  5. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  6. Should Czech Republic and Slovakia Have Rail Baltica Strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli-Pekka Hilmola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Export led economies of Slovakia and Czech Republic have shown impressive performance on activity regarding to Rail Baltica corridor countries (trade vol. incr. by 200-300 % in decade time. However, long-term plans in transportation logistics are tied upon corridors (road and rail ending to Polish sea port, Gdansk. Road transport is also favoured in large-scale in both countries in export activity. However, new environmental demands (sign. lower emissions and scarcity of oil are on the way of changing the current modus operandi. As trade of Rail Baltica countries accounts for one third of these two countries, and is constantly growing with surplus (except for Russia, Slovakia and Czech Republic are clearly in need of developing own strategy for Rail Baltica.

  7. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    The instability of the vibration system was sensitive to the stiffness of rail support. In lateral creepage ... squeal could be controlled by an active control. .... Here, basic concepts and analysis procedure are described. The equation of motion is.

  8. Balti riigid asutavad Rail Balticu raudteefirma / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Baltimaade peaministrite kohtumisel Tallinnas jõuti üksmeelele Euroopa rööpalaiusega Rail Balticu ehitamises. Projekti elluviimiseks luuakse ühisettevõte. Veeldatud maagaasi terminali asukohas üksmeel puudub

  9. Assessing Rail Yard Impact on Local Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a technical presentation at the Air and Waste Management Association Measurements Symposium occurring in Durham, NC in April, 2012. The presentation describes preliminary results from air pollution measurements collected surrounding a rail yard in Chicago, IL.

  10. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels,...

  11. 78 FR 47486 - Joint Failure on Continuous Welded Rail Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... welded rail (CWR), plan contents. The plan must include procedures that prescribe the scheduling and... failure for which railroad personnel must inspect, including, at a minimum, (i) loose, bent, or...

  12. Population dynamics of the king rails, Rallus elegans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes the findings of research conducted by a team of biologists from East Carolina University. The project ‘Population Dynamics of the King Rail,...

  13. Rail Inductance Calculations for Some Simple Current Distributions,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Kowalenko ABSTRACT In this study, an expression for the inductance per unit length of the rails for a railgun -type electromagnetic launcher (EML) is...this report is unlimited. ,EYWORDS Electric guns, Electromagnetic launchers Railgun accelerators Current distribution Equations of motion ’ :.A1M... capacitor bank of an electromagnetic launcher, F d separation of the rails, m dt differential vector length element E(O) total initial energy stored by

  14. The status of the light-footed clapper rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, S.R.

    1974-01-01

    Only 12 California marsh areas are presently believed to be inhabited by the Light-footed Clapper Rail, and eight of these appear to support only 5-15 birds apiece. Tentative estimates for the other four are: Anaheim Bay 200, Upper Newport 30-35, Los Penasquitos 30, and Tijuana Estuary 150. These estimates, admittedly very rough, indicate a total Light-footed Rail population on only about 500 birds. Recognizing that rails are secretive and hard to inventory, the actual count could be somewhat higher, but I feel it is most unlikely that the number could be more than 750 birds altogether. Reductions in Light-footed Clapper Rail populations can be attributed almost entirely to loss of habitat. An estimated 26,000 acres of saltmarsh once existed between Santa Barbara and the Mexican border. At present there are approximately 8500 acres, much of which has been degraded by pollution, water diversion, and restriction of tidal flow. Of those areas currently occupied by Clapper Rails, few can be considered to have a very secure future. Of the four major areas only Anaheim Bay appears to be relatively safe from future habitat destruction. Tijuana Estuary, Los Penasquitos Lagoon, and Upper Newport Bay are all threatened by commercial developments that could reduce or destroy local rail populations. I have not visited Baja California, but I believe there is still a substantial population of Clapper Rails in the marshes around San Quintin Bay. Taxonomists do not agree on the subspecific identity of these birds, but some feel they are representatives of the Light-footed race. If so, it is fortunate to have a relatively secure (for now) reservoir of these birds, but whether the Light-footed Clapper Rail survives within the United States may well be decided within the next few years.

  15. Analysis of Setups of the Control of Rail Microprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Kornaszewski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article will have been introduced possibilities following from the application of the microprocessor technology in rail systems of the control of traffic will remain for example of modern signalling on railway crossings. Introduction to microcomputer and microprocessor systems of rail devices will permit to eliminate and to replace disusedrelay devices with them and raising safety on railway and increasing reliability of used devices.

  16. Rail freight transportation concerns of developing economies: A Namibian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Saruchera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rail transport appears to be well established and outperforming other transport modes in Europe and beyond, in the majority of developing economies it was observed that firms and travellers were, on the contrary, shunning from the rail. Despite considerable infrastructural investments in the African rail systems, the sector has been deteriorating over the years.Objectives: This study identifies the freight rail transportation problems faced by African developing economies, focusing on Namibia, and examines the potential actions and factors for minimising such problems, drawing lessons from some of the developed world’s success stories.Method: The objectives of this study are achieved through a survey of Windhoek-based industrial and logistics firms operating in Namibia. Self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed through the aid of trained research assistants.Results: The study’s results show that some of the reasons of shunning rail transport are a matter of attitude, whereas some are related to operational challenges. The study confirms that the transport mode used and ownership of the freight transport services used can affect the degree of satisfaction for the transportation of goods in Namibia.Conclusion: Namibian industrial and logistics firms avoid using rail, owing to its low level of satisfaction obtained from its use. Besides engaging in Public Private Partnerships (PPPs in rail transport operations, the study contends that rail transport should receive attention similar to that given to other transport modes for African economies such as Namibia to overcome the costs associated with the increasing road congestion.

  17. Analysis of pressure wave dynamics in fuel rail system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Alzahabi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A model of an amplified common rail fuel system is simulated in Matlab toanalyze the wave mechanics in the rail. The injectors are modeled as asystem of linear and non-linear ODE’s consisting of masses, a helical spring,compressibility effects from fluid volumes, and hydraulic flow throughorifices. The injector simulation then predicts the rate of oil consumption,which is then input into the rail model.The rail is modeled in three sections which are coupled together. The pointswhere the coupling occurs are the locations where the current firinginjector and the pump supply are connected to the rail. This allows themodel to control the pressure and velocity (as boundary conditions atthese points. The rail model is based on the 1D, undamped wave equation,in a non-dimensional form [1] (in the position variable, x. The Reduction ofOrder method was used to solve the wave equation with the Matlabfunction PDEPE.The model was run with two different sets of initial conditions - nominal(constant pressure and zero velocity, and worst case using a simplifiedrepresentation of the pressure and velocity distribution at start of injection.This was done to determine the effect of rail waves at the start of injection,on the output of the model. The variation in fuel delivery, due to the variationin rail pressure, was then evaluated at three operating conditions - Idle,Peak Torque (PT and High Speed Light Load (HSLL. The simulation outputis then compared to analytical solutions of two forms of simplifiedgeometry, using the product method to solve the system [1.

  18. An investigation into the relation between wheel/rail contact and bolt tightness of rail joints using a dynamic finite element model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oregui, M.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rail joints have a shorter service life than most other railway track components. The discontinuity between rail ends turns the rail joint into a weak spot, and consequently, into a track component demanding more frequent maintenance measures, which result in high maintenance costs. Moreover, diffic

  19. 49 CFR 37.81 - Purchase or lease of used rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.81 Section 37.81 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating rapid or light rail systems. (a) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system which, after August 25, 1990, purchases or leases a used rapid...

  20. 49 CFR 37.79 - Purchase or lease of new rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.79 Section 37.79 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating rapid or light rail systems. Each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system making a... system shall ensure that the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with...

  1. Propagation characteristics of ultrasonic guided waves in continuously welded rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenqing; Sheng, Fuwei; Wei, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Yuan

    2017-07-01

    Rail defects cause numerous railway accidents. Trains are derailed and serious consequences often occur. Compared to traditional bulk wave testing, ultrasonic guided waves (UGWs) can provide larger monitoring ranges and complete coverage of the waveguide cross-section. These advantages are of significant importance for the non-destructive testing (NDT) of the continuously welded rail, and the technique is therefore widely used in high-speed railways. UGWs in continuous welded rail (CWR) and their propagation characteristics have been discussed in this paper. Finite element methods (FEMs) were used to accomplish a vibration modal analysis, which is extended by a subsequent dispersion analysis. Wave structure features were illustrated by displacement profiles. It was concluded that guided waves have the ability to detect defects in the rail via choice of proper mode and frequency. Additionally, thermal conduction that is caused by temperature variation in the rail is added into modeling and simulation. The results indicated that unbalanced thermal distribution may lead to the attenuation of UGWs in the rail.

  2. Analysis of the Charpy V-notch test for welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

    2000-01-01

    softening accounted for. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when a critical value of the maximum principal stress is attained. The effect of weld strength undermatch or overmatch is investigated for a comparison material, and analyses are also carried out based on experimentally determined flow...... temperature on stress triaxiality. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liu; Yiqiang, Zhao; Shilin, Zhang; Hongliang, Zhao

    2011-04-01

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 × 183 μm2. Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 μW with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz.

  4. A low power and low distortion rail-to-rail input/output amplifier using constant current technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan; Zhao Yiqiang; Zhang Shilin [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao Hongliang, E-mail: zhaoyq@tju.edu.cn [School of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2011-04-15

    A rail-to-rail amplifier with constant transconductance, intended for audio processing, is presented. The constant transconductance is obtained by a constant current technique based on the input differential pairs operating in the weak inversion region. MOSFETs working in the weak inversion region have the advantages of low power and low distortion. The proposed rail-to-rail amplifier, fabricated in a standard 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process, occupies a core die area of 75 x 183 {mu}m{sup 2}. Measured results show that the maximum power consumption is 85.37 {mu}W with a supply voltage of 3.3 V and the total harmonic distortion level is 1.2% at 2 kHz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Real-time and accurate rail wear measurement method and experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Fengjiao; Huang, Bangkui; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-08-01

    When a train is running on uneven or curved rails, it generates violent vibrations on the rails. As a result, the light plane of the single-line structured light vision sensor is not vertical, causing errors in rail wear measurements (referred to as vibration errors in this paper). To avoid vibration errors, a novel rail wear measurement method is introduced in this paper, which involves three main steps. First, a multi-line structured light vision sensor (which has at least two linear laser projectors) projects a stripe-shaped light onto the inside of the rail. Second, the central points of the light stripes in the image are extracted quickly, and the three-dimensional profile of the rail is obtained based on the mathematical model of the structured light vision sensor. Then, the obtained rail profile is transformed from the measurement coordinate frame (MCF) to the standard rail coordinate frame (RCF) by taking the three-dimensional profile of the measured rail waist as the datum. Finally, rail wear constraint points are adopted to simplify the location of the rail wear points, and the profile composed of the rail wear points are compared with the standard rail profile in RCF to determine the rail wear. Both real data experiments and simulation experiments show that the vibration errors can be eliminated when the proposed method is used.

  6. 钢轨波磨处高速轮轨滚动接触行为与波磨发展的模拟研究%Modeling of high-speed wheel-rail rolling contact on a corrugated rail and corrugation development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin ZHAO; Ze-feng WEN; Heng-yu WANG; Xue-song JIN; Min-hao ZHU

    2014-01-01

    Short pitch rail corrugations were observed on a recently opened Chinese high-speed line. On the basis of field measurements and observations of corrugations occurred on the high-speed line, a 3D transient rolling contact model is developed using the explicit finite element (FE) method to investigate high-speed vehicle-track interactions in the presence of rail corruga-tions. The rotational and translational movements of the wheel are introduced as initial conditions in the model. The frictional rolling contact between the wheel and the corrugated rail is solved by a penalty method based surface-to-surface contact algorithm with Coulomb’s law of friction. The contact filter effect is considered automatically by the finite size of the contact patch. Through specifying a time-dependent driving torque applied to the wheel axle, the tangential vehicle-track interaction on the corrugated rail is analyzed in the time domain together with the normal one at different traction levels and at rolling speeds of up to 500 km/h. This analysis focuses on detailed contact solutions, such as distributions of the pressure, surface shear stress, Von Mises (V-M) stress, and frictional work. The corrugation dimensions, traction level, and rolling speed are varied to investigate their influences, building a solid basis for further studying the material damage mechanisms. A theory is proposed based on the simulations to explain the observed phenomenon that the corrugation gradually stabilizes. The traditional multi-body approach is found to overestimate the dynamic wheel-rail interaction on a corrugated rail.

  7. Design of a Sample and Hold Circuit using Rail to Rail Low Voltage Compact Operational Amplifier and bootstrap Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annu Saini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low power high performance and higher sampling speed sample and hold circuit. The proposed circuit is designed at 180 nm technology and has high linearity. The circuit can be used for the ADC frontend applications and supports double sampling architecture. The proposed sample and hold circuit has common mode range beyond rail to rail and uses two differential pairs transistor stages connected in parallel as its input stage.

  8. Research on the Matching of Fastener Stiffness Based on Wheel-Rail Contact Mechanism for Prevention of Rail Corrugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laying shock absorber fasteners is one of the effective countermeasures used to reduce the ground vibration induced from urban rail transit. However, this kind of fasteners could cause severe rail corrugation. Based on the “wheel-rail dynamic flexibility difference” mechanism, the optimization and further research of fastener stiffness were performed. With the finite element method, the simple beam and board model of the rail system is established to study the vertical and lateral dynamic flexibility characteristics of rails below 1,200 Hz. Within 5–40 kN/mm, a comparison is made between wheel-rail dynamic flexibility differences corresponding to the vertical stiffness and lateral stiffness of different fasteners. The results show that 20 kN/mm and 10 kN/mm are the least and most suitable vertical stiffness values of fasteners, respectively; 40 kN/mm and 5–10 kN/mm are, respectively, the least and most suitable lateral stiffness values of fasteners. The research and analysis results can be adopted as references for deciding the fastener stiffness of urban track.

  9. Fibre optic portable rail vehicle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepak, Stanislav; Cubik, Jakub; Zavodny, Petr; Hejduk, Stanislav; Nedoma, Jan; Davidson, Alan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    During track maintenance operations, the early detection of oncoming rail vehicles is critical for the safety of maintenance personnel. In addition, the detection system should be simple to install at the trackside by minimally qualified personnel. Fibre optic based sensor systems have the inherent advantages of being passive, unaffected by radio frequency interference (RFI) and suffering very low signal attenuation. Such a system therefore represents a good alternative to conventional approaches such as ultrasonic based sensor systems. The proposed system consists of one or more passive fibre trackside sensors and an x86 processing unit located at the work site. The solid fibre connection between sensors and processing unit eliminates the risk of RFI. In addition, the detection system sensors are easy to install with no requirement for electrical power at the sensor site. The system was tested on a tram line in Ostrava with the results obtained indicating the successful detection of all the trams in the monitoring windows using a single sensor. However, the platform allows flexibility in configuring multiple sensors where required by system users.

  10. Cross Shear Roll Bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Bjerregaard, Henrik; Petersen, Søren. B;

    1994-01-01

    The present paper describes an investigation of roll bonding an AlZn alloy to mild steel. Application of cross shear roll bonding, where the two equal sized rolls run with different peripheral speed, is shown to give better bond strength than conventional roll bonding. Improvements of up to 20......-23% in bond strength are found and full bond strength is obtained at a reduction of 50% whereas 65% is required in case of conventional roll bonding. Pseudo cross shear roll bonding, where the cross shear effect is obtained by running two equal sized rolls with different speed, gives the same results....

  11. Angular shear plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Mitchell C [Tucson, AZ; Greynolds, Alan W [Tucson, AZ; Stuhlinger, Tilman W [Tucson, AZ

    2009-07-14

    One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

  12. Study on the Steel Rail Rolling Contact Stress with Consideration of Initial Residual Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Hua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on ANSYS/LS-DYNA explicit analysis software, this paper established the three-dimensional finite element model of wheel/rail rolling contact in curve negotiation with consideration of the residual stress impact after rail straightening process. It used the dynain file method to apply the initial residual stress to the rails, and conducted numerical simulation to the process of dynamic wheel/rail rolling contact under the operation condition which is corresponding to the setting of taking velocity and axle load as the variables. The simulation results can show that with the increase of velocity, the equivalent stress on the outer rail railhead and at the rail web will increase accordingly; the equivalent stress on the inner rail railhead and at the rail web will decrease accordingly; and the equivalent stress on the rail flange will be basically the same. With the increase of axle load, all the equivalent stress on the railheads and rail web of the inner rail and the outer rail will increase accordingly while the equivalent stress on the rail flange will be basically the same.

  13. The Rail Alignment Environmental Impact Statement: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sweeney

    2005-01-20

    On July 23,2002, the President of the United States signed into law a joint resolution of the United States Congress designating the Yucca Mountain site in Nye County, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If the US. Nuclear Regulatory Commission authorizes construction of the repository and receipt and possession of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive at Yucca Mountain, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) would be responsible for transporting these materials to the Yucca Mountain repository as part of its obligation under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. Part of the site recommendation decision included the analysis of a nation-wide shipping campaign to the proposed repository site. The ''Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada'' (February 2002) (Repository EIS) evaluated the potential impacts of the transportation of 70,000 Metric Tons of Heavy Metal spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from 77 locations around the nation to the potential repository in Nevada over a 24 year shipping campaign. In the Repository EIS, DOE identified mostly rail as its preferred mode of transportation, both nationally and in the State of Nevada. In December 2003, based on public comments and the environmental analyses in the Repository EIS, DOE identified a preference for the Caliente rail corridor in Nevada. On April 8, 2004, DOE issued a Record of Decision (ROD) on the Mode of Transportation and Nevada Rail Corridor for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. In this ROD, the DOE announced that it had decided to select the mostly rail scenario analyzed in the Repository EIS as the transportation mode both on a national basis and in the State of Nevada. Under the

  14. High-gain, high-bandwidth, rail-to-rail, constant-gm CMOS operational amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hong-Yi; Wang, Bo-Ruei

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a high-gain, high-bandwidth, constant-gm , rail-to-rail operational amplifier (op-amp). The constant transconductance is improved with a source-to-bulk bias control of an input pair. A source degeneration scheme is also adapted to the output stage for receiving wide input range without degradation of the gain. Additionally, several compensation schemes are employed to enhance the stability. A test chip is fabricated in a 0.18 µm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process. The active area of the op-amp is 181 × 173 µm2 and it consumes a power of 2.41 mW at a supply voltage of 1.8 V. The op-amp achieves a dc gain of 94.3 dB and a bandwidth of 45 MHz when the output capacitive load is connected to an effective load of 42.5 pF. A class-AB output stage combining a slew rate (SR) boost circuit provides a sinking current of 6 mA and an SR of 17 V/µs.

  15. Rail-wheel interaction monitoring using Acoustic Emission: A laboratory study of normal rolling signals with natural rail defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, N. A.; Steel, J. A.; Reuben, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a laboratory study on the Acoustic Emission (AE) generated during railway wheel-rail track interaction, with a view to developing methods of in situ rail-wheel interaction monitoring using rail-mounted sensors. It is known that the physical processes of impact and wear generate AE and it was therefore expected that axle loads, speed and traction would influence the AE generated by an interaction and that the characteristics of "normal" interaction would be affected by wheel and/or track defects and/or any misalignment between rail and track. A set of laboratory experiments were carried out on a scaled test rig to characterise the continuous AE generated by a wheel rolling on a rail and, secondarily, to assess the effect on the AE characteristic of the natural defects present on the contact profile of the rail. The natural defects were of a relatively minor nature and their assessment serves as part of the calibration of background AE for experiments with more significant simulated defects. A simplified analytical model, devised for AE waves propagating from a moving source, based on "vehicle" speed and wave damping coefficients, has been developed for the test track and fitted to the measured results. As a wheel rolls towards a sensor and then away from the sensor the measured AE generally rises and falls in a predictable way. The effects of wheel and rail surface features were found to introduce deviations from this "background", and a method to identify the location of surface defects, based on identifying peaks above the background is also demonstrated.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic Shearing Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, B M

    2006-01-01

    I consider the nonaxisymmetric linear theory of an isothermal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear flow. The analysis is performed in the shearing box, a local model appropriate for a thin disk geometry. Linear perturbations in this model can be decomposed in terms of shearing waves (shwaves), which appear spatially as plane waves in a frame comoving with the shear. The time dependence of these waves cannot in general be expressed in terms of a frequency eigenvalue as in a normal mode decomposition, and numerical integration of a set of first-order amplitude equations is required for a complete characterization of their behavior. Their generic time dependence, however, is oscillatory with slowly-varying frequency and amplitude, and one can construct accurate analytic solutions by applying the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method to the full set of amplitude equations. For the bulk of wavenumber space, therefore, the shwaves are well-approximated as modes with time-dependent frequencies and amplitudes. The incompressiv...

  17. Dynamic model for the wheel-rail contact friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyunWook; Sandu, Corina; Holton, Carvel

    2012-02-01

    Accurately estimating the coefficient of friction (CoF) is essential in modelling railroad dynamics, reducing maintenance costs, and increasing safety in rail operations. The typical assumption of a constant CoF is widely used in theoretical studies; however, it has been noticed that the CoF is not constant, but rather depends on various dynamic parameters and instantaneous conditions. In this paper, we present a newly developed three-dimensional nonlinear CoF model for the dry rail condition and test the CoF variation using this model with estimated dynamic parameters. The wheel-rail is modelled as a mass-spring-damper system to simulate the basic wheel-rail dynamics. Although relatively simple, this model is considered sufficient for the purpose of this study. Simulations are performed at a train speed of 20 m/s using rail roughness as an excitation source. The model captures the CoF extremes and illustrates its nonlinear behaviour and instantaneous dependence on several structural and dynamic parameters.

  18. Large scale implementation of guided wave based broken rail monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Francois A.; Loveday, Philip W.; Long, Craig S.

    2015-03-01

    A guided wave ultrasound system has been developed over the past 17 years to detect breaks in continuously welded rail track. Installation of the version 4 system on an 840 km long heavy duty freight line was conducted between January 2013 and June 2014. The system operates in pitch - catch mode with alternate transmit and receive transducers spaced approximately 1km apart. If the acoustic signal is not received at the receive station an alarm is triggered to indicate a break in the rail between the transmit station and the receive station. The system is permanently installed, powered by solar panels and issues broken rail alarms using the GSM network where available, and digital radio technology in other areas. A total of 931 stations were installed and the entire length of rail is interrogated every fifteen minutes. The system operates reliably although some problems involving unreliable GSM communication and theft of solar panels have been experienced. In the first two months of operation four broken rails were detected and train operation was halted temporarily for repairs.

  19. Structural health condition monitoring of rails using acoustic emission techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazer, Pinar

    In-service rails can develop several types of structural defects due to fatigue and wear caused by rolling stock passing over them. Most rail defects will develop gradually over time thus permitting inspection engineers to detect them in time before final failure occurs. In the UK, certain types of severe rail defects such as tache ovales, require the fitting of emergency clamps and the imposing of an Emergency Speed Restriction (ESR) until the defects are removed. Acoustic emission (AE) techniques can be applied for the detection and continuous monitoring of defect growth therefore removing the need of imposing strict ESRs. The work reported herewith aims to develop a sound methodology for the application of AE in order to detect and subsequently monitor damage evolution in rails. To validate the potential of the AE technique, tests have been carried out under laboratory conditions on three and four-point bending samples manufactured from 260 grade rail steel. Further tests, simulating the background noise conditions caused by passing rolling stock have been carried out using special experimental setups. The crack growth events have been simulated using a pencil tip break..

  20. Accident prediction model for public highway-rail grade crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pan; Tolliver, Denver

    2016-05-01

    Considerable research has focused on roadway accident frequency analysis, but relatively little research has examined safety evaluation at highway-rail grade crossings. Highway-rail grade crossings are critical spatial locations of utmost importance for transportation safety because traffic crashes at highway-rail grade crossings are often catastrophic with serious consequences. The Poisson regression model has been employed to analyze vehicle accident frequency as a good starting point for many years. The most commonly applied variations of Poisson including negative binomial, and zero-inflated Poisson. These models are used to deal with common crash data issues such as over-dispersion (sample variance is larger than the sample mean) and preponderance of zeros (low sample mean and small sample size). On rare occasions traffic crash data have been shown to be under-dispersed (sample variance is smaller than the sample mean) and traditional distributions such as Poisson or negative binomial cannot handle under-dispersion well. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare various alternate highway-rail grade crossing accident frequency models that can handle the under-dispersion issue. The contributions of the paper are two-fold: (1) application of probability models to deal with under-dispersion issues and (2) obtain insights regarding to vehicle crashes at public highway-rail grade crossings.

  1. GMT azimuth bogie wheel-rail interface wear study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Jose; Lindh, Cory; Morgan, Chris; Manuel, Eric; Bigelow, Bruce C.; Burgett, William S.

    2016-07-01

    Performance of the GMT azimuth drive system is vital for the operation of the telescope and, as such, all components subject to wear at the drive interface merit a high level of scrutiny for achieving a proper balance between capital costs, maintenance costs, and the risk for downtime during planned and unplanned maintenance or replacement procedures. Of particular importance is the interface between the azimuth wheels and rail, as usage frequency is high, the full weight of the enclosure must be transferred through small patches of contact, and replacement of the rail would pose a greater logistical challenge than the replacement of smaller components such as bearings and gearmotors. This study investigates tradeoffs between various wheel-rail and roller-track interfaces, including performance, complexity, and anticipated wear considerations. First, a survey of railway and overhead crane industry literature is performed and general detailing recommendations are made to minimize wear and the risk of rolling contact fatigue. Second, Adams/VI-Rail is used to simulate lifetime wear of four specific configurations under consideration for the GMT azimuth wheel-rail interface; all studied configurations are shown to be viable, and their relative merits are discussed.

  2. Survey for the California Black Rail at Tolay Creek, San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus) is the smallest and most secretive member of the rail family and has been sparsely studied. It is a...

  3. 49 CFR 38.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... but not limited to those using “maglev” or high speed steel-wheel-on-steel rail technology, and monorail systems operating primarily on dedicated rail (i.e., not used by freight trains) or guideway,...

  4. Taanlased pidasid Pärnut läbivat Rail Balticat kalleimaks / Raavo Raadik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raadik, Raavo

    2007-01-01

    Taani konsultatsioonifirma COWI tutvustas uuringut, milles analüüsiti Balti riike Euroopaga ühendava raudtee Rail Baltica majanduslikku tasuvust ning selle loomiseks vajalike investeeringute mahtu. Kaart: Rail Baltica võimalik teekond Eestis

  5. Taanlased pidasid Pärnut läbivat Rail Balticat kalleimaks / Raavo Raadik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raadik, Raavo

    2007-01-01

    Taani konsultatsioonifirma COWI tutvustas uuringut, milles analüüsiti Balti riike Euroopaga ühendava raudtee Rail Baltica majanduslikku tasuvust ning selle loomiseks vajalike investeeringute mahtu. Kaart: Rail Baltica võimalik teekond Eestis

  6. Shear-resistant behavior of light composite shear wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李升才; 董毓利

    2015-01-01

    Shear test results for a composite wall panel in a light composite structure system are compared with test results for shear walls in Japan. The analysis results show that this kind of composite wall panel works very well, and can be regarded as a solid panel. The composite wall panel with a hidden frame is essential for bringing its effect on shear resistance into full play. Comprehensive analysis of the shear-resistant behavior of the composite wall panel suggests that the shear of the composite shear wall panel can be controlled by the cracking strength of the web shearing diagonal crack.

  7. Shear-Resistant Behavior Analysis of Light Composite Shear Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李升才; 江见鲸; 于庆荣

    2002-01-01

    Shear test results for a composite wall panel in a light composite structure system are compared with test results for shear walls in Japan in this paper. The analysis results show that this kind of composite wall panel works very well, and can be regarded as a solid panel. The composite wall panel with a hidden frame is essential for bringing its effect on shear resistance into full play. Comprehensive analysis of the shear-resistant behavior of the composite wall panel suggests that the shear of the composite shear wall panel can be controlled by the cracking strength of the web shearing diagonal crack.

  8. Direct Shear Tests with Evaluation of Variable Shearing Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarūnas Skuodis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of soil shear strength properties for Baltic Sea shore sand along Klaipėda city are presented. Investigated sand angle of internal friction (φ and cohesion (c is determined via two different direct shear tests procedures. First procedure is standard and ordinary in geotechnical practice, when direct shear test is provided using constant shearing area A0. Second test procedure is different because shearing area according to horizontal displacement each test second is recalculated. This recalculated shearing area author’s call corrected shearing area A. Obtained normal and tangential stresses’ difference via two different testing procedures was 10%.

  9. Link and Effect Model – Part II:Methods for Measuring Maintenance Performance of Rail Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Stenström, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Congestion of roads and sky, increasing energy costs and a demand to reduce emissions, have created a need to shift transportation from road and air to rail. Consequently, rail utilisation is increasing, adding stress to the rail infrastructure and time constraints to maintenance. At the same time, the performance and capacity of rail infrastructure are expected to be preserved or even improved. Railway performance and capacity can be enhanced by: expanding infrastructure; introducing better ...

  10. Improving Resource Allocation Decisions to Reduce the Risk of Terrorist Attacks on Passenger Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    cause changes to the threat landscape . Several methods are used to assess the risk to passenger rail systems. A short discussion of these methods...accessibility of passenger rail facilities are attractive to adversaries. This thesis reviews the current approach to risk assessment used by system...14. SUBJECT TERMS passenger rail security, decision making, risk assessment , rail systems, metro, mass transit, subway, risk management, game

  11. STRATEGY FOR DIESEL ROTARY ENGINE WITH COMMON RAIL INJECTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jinjun; HAI Jingtao; SHI Jianzhong; LI Xuesong; YANG Qing; WANG Shangyong

    2006-01-01

    A direct injection low compression ratios diesel rotary engine is designed and studied to find the appropriate application of the electronic controlled high pressure common rail injection system. Current development focuses on the applied fuel injection and ignition strategies, especially concerning the combustion configurations of injectors, ignition source, and combustion chamber. The prototype engine, equipped with Bosch common rail system and high performance electronic control unit (ECU), is designed correspondingly. Studies show that the integration of a common rail injection system and the main and pilot duel injectors configurations, assisted with glow plug ignition device and flexible ECU, represents a promising approach to improve the potential of the low compression ratios diesel rotary engine. Currently the engine can run at 6 kr · min-1 steadily and the power is about 68 kW/(4 kr · min-1).

  12. Planning, Investment, Construction and Operation of Rail Transit in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing, the rail transit firstly came into existence in the mid 1960s and was officially put into operation for civil use in the early 1980s. It has entered a period of rapid development since 2001, with thanks to the coming of the Olympic Games in 2008, and has been playing a more and more important role in the passenger transport of Beijing since then on, as a key part of the public transportation. Based on a resume on the evolution of rail transit development in Beijing, this paper analyzes the mechanism of policy-making, the mode of investment and financing, the procedure of construction, and the management of operation of rail transit, all of which ensure its rapid development and effective performance.

  13. Comparison of real-time relative workload measurements in rail signallers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, R. van; Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Noordzij, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory field study investigated the weak resilience signals of workload in a rail traffic control room. The goals of this research are to see whether real-time system information of a rail control post can be used to predict workload of a rail signaller in real-time, and to further improve

  14. 49 CFR 172.820 - Additional planning requirements for transportation by rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Rail transportation route analysis. For each calendar year, a rail carrier must analyze the safety and... paragraph (b) of this section. The route analysis must be in writing and include the factors contained in... economic harm. (d) Alternative route analysis. (1) For each calendar year, a rail carrier must identify...

  15. Light rail explained: Better public transport and more than public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Bijl, R.; Van Oort, N.

    2014-01-01

    Unfortunately characteristics and benefits of light rail are frequently underestimated in decision making. On the bases of our own research and state of the art related research this paper addresses the importance of light rail as efficient means of transport, particularly efficient since light rail

  16. Investigating the lubricity and electrical insulation caused by sanding in dry wheel–rail contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-Cuevas, O.; Li, Z.; Lewis, R.

    2009-01-01

    The adhesion (or available friction) in the wheel–rail contact is the most important parameter for the braking and traction operation of rail vehicles. Since the beginning of railway transportation, sanding from the locomotive has been a common practice to enhance the wheel–rail adhesion. In recent

  17. 49 CFR 37.87 - Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... commuter rail cars from any source. (e) Amtrak and commuter authorities purchasing or leasing used... rail cars. 37.87 Section 37.87 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION....87 Purchase or lease of used intercity and commuter rail cars. (a) Except as provided elsewhere...

  18. 77 FR 43657 - Progressive Rail, Incorporated-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Barron County, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... WCL and have been operated by PGR since 2004 under lease from WCL.\\1\\ WCL intends to resume operating...), and Rice Lake (MP 56.05). \\1\\ See Progressive Rail, Inc.--Lease & Operation Exemption-- Rail Lines of.... Any offer of financial assistance (OFA) under 49 CFR 1152.27(b)(2) to subsidize continued rail...

  19. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma City AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Transportation (TxDOT) to study potential new and/or improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along... Rail Study (Study) also includes preparation of a service development plan for the corridor for each...

  20. 49 CFR 213.355 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.355... Higher § 213.355 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs... distance between the gage line of a frog to the guard line 1 of its guard rail or guarding face,...

  1. 78 FR 33393 - Petition Requesting a Ban or Standard on Adult Portable Bed Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Petition Requesting a Ban or Standard on Adult Portable Bed Rails AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... Safety Act (CPSA) to determine that adult portable bed rails pose an unreasonable risk of injury and... (CPSA) to determine that adult portable bed rails pose an unreasonable risk of injury and...

  2. Near-rail yard air quality--assessment through field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compared to truck transport, goods movement by rail produces generally lower air pollutant emissions (e.g., particulate matter, carbon dioxide) per ton of freight transported. Emissions associated with rail transport are also confined to rail corridors which may lower the risk of...

  3. Passenger Rail Service Comfortability in Kuala Lumpur Urban Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Noor Hafiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit transportation system is among the public transportation network in Kuala Lumpur City. Some important elements in establishing this system are ticket price, operation cost, maintenance implications, service quality and passenger’s comfortability. The level of passenger’s comfortability in the coach is important to be considered by the relevant authorities and system operators in order to provide comfort and safety to passengers. The objective this research is to study some parameters that impact the comfortability of passengers and to obtain feedbacks from passengers for different rail transit system. Site observations were conducted to obtain data such as noise, vibration, speed and coach layouts which will be verified by using the passenger feedback outcomes. The research will be focused in and around the Kuala Lumpur City for the duration of 10 months. Four rail transit systems were being considered, i.e. Train Type A (LRA, Train Type B (LRB, Train Type C (MRL and Train Type D (CTR. Data parameters obtained from field observations were conducted in the rail coaches during actual operation using apparatus among others the sound level meter (SLM, vibration analyzer (VA and the global positioning system (GPS. Questionnaires were prepared as passenger feedback instrument, focusing on the level of comfortability in rail coaches. The outcomes of these analyses showed that CTR was the best and most comfortable coach, followed by LRA, LRB and MRL. Using the passenger feedbacks (MBP it was also found that the ranking values for the railway transit system using Rail Coach Comfortability (RCC is RCC (MBP were the same as the outcomes using the RCC (parameters. In conclusion, it was found that this research has successfully determined the level of comfortability as determined in its aim and objectives. From this research, it is hoped that the relevant authorities will continue to find ways to enhance the comfortability and safety of its

  4. Wetting a rail tanker behind a noise shield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmuller, Nils

    2009-05-30

    In the Netherlands, the Betuweline is a dedicated freight railway. It will, among other things, be used for transportation of all kinds of hazardous materials from the Port of Rotterdam to the German Hinterland and vice versa. The line is approximately 150 km long. Alongside the line, over more than 100 km noise shields are apparent. The question is to what extent this noise shield hinders the cooling of a rail tanker, carrying flammable liquid such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)? To answer this question, a full scale test was conducted on an already constructed part of the Betuweline [N. Rosmuller, D.W.G. Arentsen, (2005). Praktijkproeven Betuweroute: Instantane uitstroming en koeling 24 juni 2005, Nibra, Arnhem, The Netherlands]. Two railcars and a rail tanker were placed behind a 3m high noise shield. First, it was tested as to whether firemen or water canons should be used to deliver the water. Water canons were best next, four positions of the water canons to wet the rail tanker were tested. Three camera's and three observers recorded the locations and the extent of water that hit the rail tanker. The results indicate that the noise shield, to a large extent, prevents the water from hitting, and therefore cooling, the rail tanker. The upper parts of the rail tanker were minimally struck by the water canons and the small amount of water flowing down the rail tanker did not reach the lower parts of it because of the armatures at the rail tanker. Also, the amount of water in the ditches to be used for wetting was too small. The ditch nearby ran empty. These insights are both relevant to emergency responders for disaster abatement purposes and to water management organizations. The Ministry of Transport is examining the possible strategies to deal with these findings. The results are based upon one single full scale test near a 3m high noise shield. In addition, it would be valuable to determine what the influence would be of other heights of the noise shields.

  5. Operational modal analysis of road-rail bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso M.; Sampaio R. A. C.; de Souza R. M.; Silva E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) of the Bridge over the Tocantins River, a composite road-rail bridge located in the city of Marabá, state of Pará, northern Brazil. The bridge is part of the Carajás Railway, which is used by VALE Company to transport iron ore from “Serra dos Carajás”, the largest mineral reserve of the planet. The bridge has a length of 2310m, being the second longest road-rail bridge in Brazil. The study focused on the bridge central span (with ...

  6. Do road planners produce more 'honest numbers' than rail planners?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Buhl, Søren L.

    2006-01-01

    volumes in remote regions. The present data do not support this hypothesis. Since previous studies have shown a strong tendency to overestimated forecasts of the number of passengers on new rail projects, it could be speculated that road planners are more skilful and/or honest than rail planners. However......, during the period when the investigated projects were planned (up to the late 1980s), there were hardly any strong incentives for road planners to make biased forecasts in order to place their projects in a more flattering light. Future research might uncover whether the change from the ‘predict...

  7. Information and Telecommunications Technology – Factor of Sustainable Rail Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe-Stelian Balan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among today’s modes of transportation, rail remains of great interest because of its explicit advantages arising from the fact that it is the least polluting and most environmentally friendly. These are just some of the reasons why, in recent years, the European Union strategies seek to develop and implement programs to revive Community’s rail transport. The paper makes a brief analysis of the economic impact of the implementation of information and telecommunication technologies in railway transport, technologies that can contribute significantly to the achievement of sustainable, competitive and reliable transport

  8. USED FUEL RAIL SHOCK AND VIBRATION TESTING OPTIONS ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Jensen, Philip J.; Maheras, Steven J.

    2014-09-29

    The objective of the rail shock and vibration tests is to complete the framework needed to quantify loads of fuel assembly components that are necessary to guide materials research and establish a technical basis for review organizations such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A significant body of experimental and numerical modeling data exists to quantify loads and failure limits applicable to normal conditions of transport (NCT) rail transport, but the data are based on assumptions that can only be verified through experimental testing. The test options presented in this report represent possible paths for acquiring the data that are needed to confirm the assumptions of previous work, validate modeling methods that will be needed for evaluating transported fuel on a case-by-case basis, and inform material test campaigns on the anticipated range of fuel loading. The ultimate goal of this testing is to close all of the existing knowledge gaps related to the loading of used fuel under NCT conditions and inform the experiments and analysis program on specific endpoints for their research. The options include tests that would use an actual railcar, surrogate assemblies, and real or simulated rail transportation casks. The railcar carrying the cradle, cask, and surrogate fuel assembly payload would be moved in a train operating over rail track modified or selected to impart shock and vibration forces that occur during normal rail transportation. Computer modeling would be used to help design surrogates that may be needed for a rail cask, a cask’s internal basket, and a transport cradle. The objective of the design of surrogate components would be to provide a test platform that effectively simulates responses to rail shock and vibration loads that would be exhibited by state-of-the-art rail cask, basket, and/or cradle structures. The computer models would also be used to help determine the placement of instrumentation (accelerometers and strain gauges

  9. Rail accelerators for space transportation: An experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zana, L. M.; Kerslake, W. R.; Sturman, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted at the Lewis Research Center with the objective of investigating the technical feasibility of rail accelerators for propulsion applications. Single-stage, plasma driven rail accelerators of small (4 by 6 mm) and medium (12.5 by 12.5 mm) bores were tested at peak accelerating currents of 50 to 450 kA. Streak-camera photography was used to provide a qualitative description of plasma armature acceleration. The effects of plasma blowby and varying bore pressure on the behavior of plasma armatures were studied.

  10. Used fuel rail shock and vibration testing options analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Klymyshyn, Nicholas A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-25

    The objective of the rail shock and vibration tests is to complete the framework needed to quantify loads of fuel assembly components that are necessary to guide materials research and establish a technical basis for review organizations such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A significant body of experimental and numerical modeling data exists to quantify loads and failure limits applicable to normal conditions of transport (NCT) rail transport, but the data are based on assumptions that can only be verified through experimental testing. The test options presented in this report represent possible paths for acquiring the data that are needed to confirm the assumptions of previous work, validate modeling methods that will be needed for evaluating transported fuel on a case-by-case basis, and inform material test campaigns on the anticipated range of fuel loading. The ultimate goal of this testing is to close all of the existing knowledge gaps related to the loading of used fuel under NCT conditions and inform the experiments and analysis program on specific endpoints for their research. The options include tests that would use an actual railcar, surrogate assemblies, and real or simulated rail transportation casks. The railcar carrying the cradle, cask, and surrogate fuel assembly payload would be moved in a train operating over rail track modified or selected to impart shock and vibration forces that occur during normal rail transportation. Computer modeling would be used to help design surrogates that may be needed for a rail cask, a cask’s internal basket, and a transport cradle. The objective of the design of surrogate components would be to provide a test platform that effectively simulates responses to rail shock and vibration loads that would be exhibited by state-of-the-art rail cask, basket, and/or cradle structures. The computer models would also be used to help determine the placement of instrumentation (accelerometers and strain gauges

  11. Comparison of experimental and theoretical reaction rail currents, rail voltages, and airgap fields for the linear induction motor research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of reaction rail currents, reaction rail voltages, and airgap magnetic fields in tests of the Linear Induction Motor Research Vehicle (LIMRV) were compared with theoretical calculations from the mesh/matrix theory. It was found that the rail currents and magnetic fields predicted by the theory are within 20 percent of the measured currents and fields at most motor locations in most of the runs, but differ by as much as a factor of two in some cases. The most consistent difference is a higher experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the entrance of the motor and a lower experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the exit. The observed differences between the theoretical and experimental magnetic fields and currents do not account for the differences of as much as 26 percent between the theoretical and experimental thrusts.

  12. Improvement of rolling modes of long length rails on the universal rail and structural steel mill “EVRAZ ZSMK”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatenko, A. V.; Umansky, A. A.; Kadykov, V. N.

    2016-09-01

    Using the results of theoretical and experimental research a new rolling mode of long-length rails on the universal rail-and-structural steel mill JSC “EVRAZ Consolidated West Siberian Metallurgical Plant” (“EVRAZ ZSMK”) was developed with a reduced number of passes in the breakdown stands. Experimental and industrial testing and implementation of the new rolling mode showed a high technical and economic efficiency of its use - reduction in the specific energy consumption was registered, as well as decrease in rejection of rails due to their surface defects, consumption of mill rolls and increase in mill productivity. The cost- effectiveness after implementation was more than 98 million RUB per year.

  13. Free volume under shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  14. Review on Selection and Suitability of Rail Transit Station Design Pertaining to Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabal, Farah Mohd; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-08-01

    Railway has emerged as a fast, convenient, safe, clean, and low-cost alternative to air and road transportation. Many countries have invested in rail transportation. In America, Europe and Asia, large investments are planned for rail transportation. This is because congestion problems can be reduced with the introduction of rail transportation. Rail transportation involves several components which are important to ensure the smooth and safe delivery of services such as locomotives, rail stations and railway tracks. Rail transit stations are places where trains stop to pick-up and drop-off passengers. Stations are vital for many to enable them to engage in work and social commitments. This paper focuses only on the rail transit station as it is one of the important components in rail transportation. It is also considered as a key public meeting place and space for interactions in a community. The role of rail transit station and the requirements of a good rail transit station are also described in this paper. Steps in selecting the location of rail transit station include the function and facilities in rail transit station are discussed with reference to best practices and handbooks. Selection of the appropriate rail transit station locations may help users indirectly. In addition, this paper will also elucidate on the design considerations for an efficient and effective rail transit station. Design selections for the rail transit station must be balanced between aesthetic value and functional efficiency. The right design selection may help conserve energy, assure and facilitate consumers even thought a rail transit station plays a smaller role in attracting consumers compared to a shopping complex or a residential building. This will contribute towards better and greener building for a green transportation facility. Thus, with this paper it is expected to assist the relevant authority to identify important elements in the selection and determination of suitable

  15. Barrel wear reduction in rail guns : an investigation of silver paste liquid-metal interface

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael Willet, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis tests the effects a commercial silver paste has on the damage at the projectile-rail interface of a 4" long rail gun test section. Projectiles (0.635 x 0.635 x 0.953 cm) were pushed through the rail test section at 34 Å 19 m/s, while average current densities of 18-32 kA/cm2 was passed through the projectile - rail interface material. The specific objective is to examine rail and projectile damage at current densities nea...

  16. Energy study of rail passenger transportation. Volume 2. Description of operating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C.; Ellis, H. T.; Wilhelm, J. P.

    1979-08-01

    The rail passenger systems of the US are described in terms of selected physical, operating, and economic characteristics, and relates services rendered to energy usage and costs. Rail passenger transportation exists in 4 distinct forms: intercity railroads, suburban railroads, heavy-rail transit, and light-rail transit. Each form varies in technical equipment, design of facilities, operating practices, size of systems. Specific data for the national rail passenger network and the Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco regions and the Washington Metropolitan area transit authority are presented.

  17. Mixing through shear instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Brüggen, M

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of numerical simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a stratified shear layer. This shear instability is believed to be responsible for extra mixing in differentially rotating stellar interiors and is the prime candidate to explain the abundance anomalies observed in many rotating stars. All mixing prescriptions currently in use are based on phenomenological and heuristic estimates whose validity is often unclear. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations, we study the mixing efficiency as a function of the Richardson number and compare our results with some semi-analytical formalisms of mixing.

  18. Some Problems of Rails For High-speed Railway of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouQingyue; ZhuangYinghua; ChenZhaoyang

    2004-01-01

    Acciording to running experience of high-speed railway abroad,a full attention must be paid to some requirements of specifica-tion of rails for high-speed railway,such as materil mechanical properties,rimension tolernces,straightness,surface flatness and so on.It is suggested that the long-length rails should be laid in high-speed railway,and the feasibility of producing,welding and transporting of long-length rails should be researched.On the basis of technical innovation of domestic manufacturers,it is practicable to lay 50-100mlong-length rails should be researched.On the basis of producing,welding and transporting of long-length homemade rails in high-speed railway of China.The following welding programme of rails for hiah-speed railway can be adiop-ted:50-100m long-lenath rails can be welded as 500m long rail string through flash butt welding in plant,then in field the reid string can be welded through a mobile flash butt welding or thermit welding.As the specification of rails or high-seed railway is rigorous.some related techniques to long-length rails should be researched and practised as soon as possible,including mobile flash butt welding tech-nique,transporting and reinforcing techniques of lon-length rails,etc…

  19. 78 FR 65244 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... assistive listening system, communication access real-time translation (CART), and sign language... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1192 RIN 3014-AA42 Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of advisory committee...

  20. BIM Interoperability Limitations: Australian and Malaysian Rail Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenley Russell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Building information modelling (BIM is defined as a process involving the generation and management of digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of a facility. The purpose of interoperability in integrated or “open” BIM is to facilitate the information exchange between different digital systems, models and tools. There has been effort towards data interoperability with development of open source standards and object-oriented models, such as industry foundation classes (IFC for vertical infrastructure. However, the lack of open data standards for the information exchange for horizontal infrastructure limits the adoption and effectiveness of integrated BIM. The paper outlines two interoperability issues for construction of rail infrastructure. The issues are presented in two case study reports, one from Australia and one from Malaysia. The each case study includes: a description of the project, the application of BIM in the project, a discussion of the promised BIM interoperability solution plus the identification of the unresolved lack of interoperability for horizontal infrastructure project management. The Moreton Bay Rail project in Australia introduces general software interoperability issues. The Light Rail Extension project in Kuala Lumpur outlines an example of the integration problems related to two different location data structures. The paper highlights how the continuing lack of data interoperability limits utilisation of integrated BIM for horizontal infrastructure rail projects.

  1. Stimulating European rail freight transport: towards a new governance approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Heijden, R.E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Developing rail freight sector in the EU is desirable from both a political-social point of view and from a market business point of view. Fragmentation in the national railway systems impedes, in many ways, social and economic benefits in the liberalised EU railway market. The need for innovative

  2. Securing America’s Passenger-Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Infraestructuras Ferroviarias (ADIF, Spain’s administrator of railway infrastructure), UK Department for Transport, UK Home Office, UK Network Rail, UK...the final manuscript. xix Abbreviations AAR American Association of Railroads ACS access-control system ADIF Administrador de Infraestructuras

  3. Wildlife conservation and rail track monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    n this paper we put forward an approach, first of its kind, to collectively address conservation of elephants by preventing their death being overrun by trains and monitoring the integrity of the rail track. It utilizes a unique method for deterring the elephants using infrasonic sound from...

  4. Application of HLA in the Optimization of Rail Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, R.E.J.; Middelkoop, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch rail infrastructure manager – Prorail – utilizes simulation to perform research in a number of areas of railtransport.One area that is of particular interest is that of the analysis of Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) of trains. The aim of DTM is to manage plan/timetable deviations from da

  5. Stimulating European rail freight transport: towards a new governance approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Heijden, R.E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Developing rail freight sector in the EU is desirable from both a political-social point of view and from a market business point of view. Fragmentation in the national railway systems impedes, in many ways, social and economic benefits in the liberalised EU railway market. The need for innovative g

  6. Rail Baltica keerab Raplale selja? / Toivo Räägel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räägel, Toivo, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Rapla juhte üllatas kiirraudtee Rail Baltica suunamine Rapla ja Pärnu suunalt Valga peale, majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium toob valiku põhjenduseks sealse parema infrastruktuuri, kuid kinnitab samas, et 10 aasta pärast peaks ka Pärnu suunal valmima kiirraudtee

  7. Burkhardt plaanib rajada Rail Balticat / Liis Kängsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kängsepp, Liis, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Raudteest loobuma pidanud Edward Burkhardt hakkab arendama Rail Balticat ning otsib võimalust panna Eesti ja Soome vahele käima vagunipraam. Vt. samas: Raudtee müüjad endiselt nördinud. Küsimustele vastab Eesti Raudtee uus juht Kaido Simmermann

  8. Siim Kallas tutvustas nelja riigi presidentidele Rail Balticu kava

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjoni transpordivolinik Siim Kallas tutvustas 2. detsembril 2011 Vihula mõisas president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele, Läti presidendile Andris Bērziņšile, Leedu presidendile Dalia Grybauskaitėle ja Poola presidendile Bronisław Komorowskile Baltimaid ülejäänud Euroopaga ühendava Rail Balticu projekti

  9. Simulation of Energy Consumption and Emissions from Rail Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    This report describes the methodology used in the ARTEMIS rail emissions model. The approached used is a matrix of operating conditions, speeds and accelerations, for which basic parameters are used to calculated the resistance to motion of trains. Four types of resistance are included: rolling...

  10. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  11. Energy stores and switches for rail-launcher systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, W. F.; Zowarka, R. C.; Marshall, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of existing switch and power supply technology applicable to space launch, a new candidate pulsed power supply for Earth-to-space rail launcher duty, the inverse railgun flux compressor, and a set of switching experiments to study further the feasibility of Earth-to-space launch are discussed.

  12. Rail renaissance based on strategic market segmentation principles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fundamentals, a market segmentation model was developed. A feasible ... a country level), the OECD cites “under-pricing” of especially the road mode as a major driver of ... significant capital investment) (Rennicke & Kaulbach 1998: 6). ..... Investment in rail results in assets with useful lives measured in decades; asset-.

  13. A new solution method for wheel/rail rolling contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Song, Hua; Fu, Lihua; Wang, Meng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To solve the problem of wheel/rail rolling contact of nonlinear steady-state curving, a three-dimensional transient finite element (FE) model is developed by the explicit software ANSYS/LS-DYNA. To improve the solving speed and efficiency, an explicit-explicit order solution method is put forward based on analysis of the features of implicit and explicit algorithm. The solution method was first applied to calculate the pre-loading of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm, and then the results became the initial conditions in solving the dynamic process of wheel/rail rolling contact with explicit algorithm as well. Simultaneously, the common implicit-explicit order solution method is used to solve the FE model. Results show that the explicit-explicit order solution method has faster operation speed and higher efficiency than the implicit-explicit order solution method while the solution accuracy is almost the same. Hence, the explicit-explicit order solution method is more suitable for the wheel/rail rolling contact model with large scale and high nonlinearity.

  14. Mechatronic modeling of real-time wheel-rail contact

    CERN Document Server

    Bosso, Nicola; Gugliotta, Antonio; Somà, Aurelio

    2013-01-01

    Real-time simulations of the behaviour of a rail vehicle require realistic solutions of the wheel-rail contact problem which can work in a real-time mode. Examples of such solutions for the online mode have been well known and are implemented within standard and commercial tools for the simulation codes for rail vehicle dynamics. This book is the result of the research activities carried out by the Railway Technology Lab of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Politecnico di Torino. This book presents work on the project for the development of a real-time wheel-rail contact model and provides the simulation results obtained with dSpace real-time hardware. Besides this, the implementation of the contact model for the development of a real-time model for the complex mechatronic system of a scaled test rig is presented in this book and may be useful for the further validation of the real-time contact model with experiments on a full scale test rig.

  15. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  16. Application of HLA in the Optimization of Rail Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, R.E.J.; Middelkoop, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch rail infrastructure manager – Prorail – utilizes simulation to perform research in a number of areas of railtransport.One area that is of particular interest is that of the analysis of Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) of trains. The aim of DTM is to manage plan/timetable deviations from da

  17. Rail Baltica keerab Raplale selja? / Toivo Räägel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räägel, Toivo, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Rapla juhte üllatas kiirraudtee Rail Baltica suunamine Rapla ja Pärnu suunalt Valga peale, majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeerium toob valiku põhjenduseks sealse parema infrastruktuuri, kuid kinnitab samas, et 10 aasta pärast peaks ka Pärnu suunal valmima kiirraudtee

  18. Wheel-rail interaction at short-wave irregularities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Short-wave irregularities in the wheel-rail interface are at the basis of track and vehicle damage and deterioration. On the short term, they result into high dynamic train-track interaction forces and a high energy input into the system that must be dissipated in the different system components or

  19. Application of HLA in the Optimization of Rail Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T.W. van den; Jansen, R.E.J.; Middelkoop, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch rail infrastructure manager – Prorail – utilizes simulation to perform research in a number of areas of railtransport.One area that is of particular interest is that of the analysis of Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) of trains. The aim of DTM is to manage plan/timetable deviations from

  20. Parking Space Occupancy at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.

  1. Effect of rail corrugation on vertical dynamics of railway vehicle coupled with a track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuesong Jin; Kaiyun Wang; Zefeng Wen; Weihua Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The effect of rail corrugation on the vertical dynamics of railway vehicle coupled with a curved track is investigated in detail with a numerical method when a wheelset is steadily curving. In the calculation of rail corrugation we consider the combination of Kalker's rolling contact theory modified, a model of material loss on rail running surface, and a dynamics model of railway vehicle coupled with a curved track. In the establishment of the dynamic model, for simplicity, one fourth of the freight car without lateral motions,namely a wheelset and the equivalent one fourth freight car body above it, is considered. The Euler beam is used to model the rails and the track structure under the rails is replaced with equivalent springs, dampers and mass bodies. The numerical results show the great influence of the rail corrugation on the vibration of the parts of the vehicle and the track, and the some characters of rail corrugation in development.

  2. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  3. Sheared solid materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akira Onuki; Akira Furukawa; Akihiko Minami

    2005-05-01

    We present a time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau model of nonlinear elasticity in solid materials. We assume that the elastic energy density is a periodic function of the shear and tetragonal strains owing to the underlying lattice structure. With this new ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic flow high-density dislocations emerge at large strains to accumulate and grow into shear bands where the strains are localized. In addition to the elastic displacement, we also introduce the local free volume . For very small the defect structures are metastable and long-lived where the dislocations are pinned by the Peierls potential barrier. However, if the shear modulus decreases with increasing , accumulation of around dislocation cores eventually breaks the Peierls potential leading to slow relaxations in the stress and the free energy (aging). As another application of our scheme, we also study dislocation formation in two-phase alloys (coherency loss) under shear strains, where dislocations glide preferentially in the softer regions and are trapped at the interfaces.

  4. Mathematical Models of Beam and Rails for the Simulation Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Trudonoshin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a mathematical model of the beam adapted for use in general-purpose software systems to analyze dynamic characteristics. The elastic properties of the beam tension, bending and torsion are taken into account. Such a model significantly expands the functional capabilities of the complexes. The mathematical model of the beam designed for the finite element method is taken as a basis. Then its adaptation is carried out taking into account the beam joint to the arbitrary points of a rigid solid, thereby having a model suitable to analyze objects with lumped parameters. Beam parameters are the material parameters, the geometric characteristics, and the coordinates of joint points to the solids.The paper describes in detail the algorithm of computations performed at each step of numerical integration of the systems of ordinary differential equations, and presents an equivalent diagram of the mathematical model of the beam. Mathematical models of elastic rail guides, cylindrical and prismatic, derived from the mathematical model of the beam are more functional compared to the models based on the kinematic equations.The prismatic rail guide (V-guide, unlike the beam, does not counteract the translational motion of solids along it, i.e. only works in torsion and bending, and a deforming part of the rail guide length is variable. The cylindrical rail guide works in bending only. These differences can be easily implemented by modifying the equations of the mathematical model of the beam. Using these models allows us to connect solids by two or more rail guides, and it does not lead to the degeneration of the Jacobi matrix (unlike models based on kinematic equations. The models are implemented in PA8 and PA9 software and methodological support complexes for analysis of dynamic objects developed at the Department of CAD in Bauman MSTU.

  5. Shear Thinning of Noncolloidal Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Quesada, Adolfo; Tanner, Roger I.; Ellero, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Shear thinning—a reduction in suspension viscosity with increasing shear rates—is understood to arise in colloidal systems from a decrease in the relative contribution of entropic forces. The shear-thinning phenomenon has also been often reported in experiments with noncolloidal systems at high volume fractions. However its origin is an open theoretical question and the behavior is difficult to reproduce in numerical simulations where shear thickening is typically observed instead. In this letter we propose a non-Newtonian model of interparticle lubrication forces to explain shear thinning in noncolloidal suspensions. We show that hidden shear-thinning effects of the suspending medium, which occur at shear rates orders of magnitude larger than the range investigated experimentally, lead to significant shear thinning of the overall suspension at much smaller shear rates. At high particle volume fractions the local shear rates experienced by the fluid situated in the narrow gaps between particles are much larger than the averaged shear rate of the whole suspension. This allows the suspending medium to probe its high-shear non-Newtonian regime and it means that the matrix fluid rheology must be considered over a wide range of shear rates.

  6. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the plastic shear strength of non shear reinforced T-beams.The influence of an un-reinforced flange on the shear capacity is investigated by considering a failure mechanism involving crack sliding in the web and a kind of membrane action over an effective width of the flange...

  7. Flex Cargo Rail. Developing new service, collection and distribution concepts for the transport of freight by rail.; Flex Cargo Rail. Wege zu neuen Bedien-, Sammel- und Verteilkonzepten im Schienengueterverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochsiek, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Materialfluss und Logistik (IML), Dortmund (Germany). Gruppe Multimodale Logistik

    2010-07-01

    FlexCargoRail is a concept for self propelled electric freight wagons. This will enhance rail operations on first and last mile. The concept can be integrated in the existing rail system, so migration is possible without any lost investments. Standard components from industry and rail are used to realise the FCR wagon. Motors, transmissions, control and batteries are available and approved. One of the effects is to enhance service for loading terminals. This can become independent from factory siding operation. From the economic point of view, FCR is realisable. This is shown by target costing. Efficiency of FCR is dependent from high frequent use of FCR rail cars and the use of the possibility to shunt also conventional freight wagons with FCR wagons. Migration should be carried out in logistical networks with frequent operations between plants and sidings with a closed wagon pool. (orig.)

  8. Shear Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Shear Reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Heecheul Kim; Min Sook Kim; Myung Joon Ko; Young Hak Lee

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the shear capacities of concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) plates as shear reinforcement. To examine the shear performance, we manufactured and tested a total of eight specimens. Test variables included the GFRP strip-width-to-spacing ratio and type of opening array. The specimen with a GFRP plate with a 3×2 opening array showed the highest shear strength. From the test results, the shear strength increased as the strip-width-to-strip-spac...

  9. High speed rails. Fatigue behaviour; Carriles para alta velocidad. Comportamiento en fatiga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duart, J. M.; Pero-Sanz, J. A.; Verdeja, J. I.

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, passenger train speed and freight train load have increased to enhance efficiency of rail road transportation. These trends have increased the severity of rail service conditions, calling for rails with greater wear resistance, strength and fatigue behaviour. In the United Stated and Europe, track site weld rails are made entirely by aluminothermic process. This work describes the results of experimental study conducted on bending fatigue strength of plain rails and aluminothermic welded rails with preheating procedures (oxipropane and air-induced propane) approved by railways authorities. Compliance with the required fatigue strength shall be ascertained by 4 point pulsating bending test in accordance with European standards by aluminothermic welding in rails. The locati method, based in the empirical Miner's law about the cumulative damage on a fatigue tested material, allows, once known the Wohler curve of the welding process in use to settle the fatigue tensile limit at 50% with only one test. The values obtained at 2.10''6 cycles for plain rails (S{sub f}=353 MPa), oxipropane preheated aluminothermic weld rails (S{sub f}=225 MPa), and propane-air induced aluminothermic weld rails (S{sub f}=210 MPa) are very similar to those resulting from test method stated in the European Standard. From our point of view and due to its ease, speediness and savings, this is the most suitable test to check the quality and compare the aluminothermic processes in use. (Author) 15 refs.

  10. Study on Rail Profile Optimization Based on the Nonlinear Relationship between Profile and Wear Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rail profile optimization method that takes account of wear rate within design cycle so as to minimize rail wear at the curve in heavy haul railway and extend the service life of rail. Taking rail wear rate as the object function, the vertical coordinate of rail profile at range optimization as independent variable, and the geometric characteristics and grinding depth of rail profile as constraint conditions, the support vector machine regression theory was used to fit the nonlinear relationship between rail profile and its wear rate. Then, the profile optimization model was built. Based on the optimization principle of genetic algorithm, the profile optimization model was solved to achieve the optimal rail profile. A multibody dynamics model was used to check the dynamic performance of carriage running on optimal rail profile. The result showed that the average relative error of support vector machine regression model remained less than 10% after a number of training processes. The dynamic performance of carriage running on optimized rail profile met the requirements on safety index and stability. The wear rate of optimized profile was lower than that of standard profile by 5.8%; the allowable carrying gross weight increased by 12.7%.

  11. A method for improved accuracy in three dimensions for determining wheel/rail contact points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinwen; Gu, Shaojie; Zhou, Shunhua; Zhou, Yu; Lian, Songliang

    2015-11-01

    Searching for the contact points between wheels and rails is important because these points represent the points of exerted contact forces. In order to obtain an accurate contact point and an in-depth description of the wheel/rail contact behaviours on a curved track or in a turnout, a method with improved accuracy in three dimensions is proposed to determine the contact points and the contact patches between the wheel and the rail when considering the effect of the yaw angle and the roll angle on the motion of the wheel set. The proposed method, with no need of the curve fitting of the wheel and rail profiles, can accurately, directly, and comprehensively determine the contact interface distances between the wheel and the rail. The range iteration algorithm is used to improve the computation efficiency and reduce the calculation required. The present computation method is applied for the analysis of the contact of rails of CHINA (CHN) 75 kg/m and wheel sets of wearing type tread of China's freight cars. In addition, it can be proved that the results of the proposed method are consistent with that of Kalker's program CONTACT, and the maximum deviation from the wheel/rail contact patch area of this two methods is approximately 5%. The proposed method, can also be used to investigate static wheel/rail contact. Some wheel/rail contact points and contact patch distributions are discussed and assessed, wheel and rail non-worn and worn profiles included.

  12. Shear Yielding and Shear Jamming of Dense Hard Sphere Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Pierfrancesco; Zamponi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the response of dense hard sphere glasses to a shear strain in a wide range of pressures ranging from the glass transition to the infinite-pressure jamming point. The phase diagram in the density-shear strain plane is calculated analytically using the mean-field infinite-dimensional solution. We find that just above the glass transition, the glass generically yields at a finite shear strain. The yielding transition in the mean-field picture is a spinodal point in presence of disorder. At higher densities, instead, we find that the glass generically jams at a finite shear strain: the jamming transition prevents yielding. The shear yielding and shear jamming lines merge in a critical point, close to which the system yields at extremely large shear stress. Around this point, highly nontrivial yielding dynamics, characterized by system-spanning disordered fractures, is expected.

  13. Shear Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Shear Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heecheul Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the shear capacities of concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP plates as shear reinforcement. To examine the shear performance, we manufactured and tested a total of eight specimens. Test variables included the GFRP strip-width-to-spacing ratio and type of opening array. The specimen with a GFRP plate with a 3×2 opening array showed the highest shear strength. From the test results, the shear strength increased as the strip-width-to-strip-spacing ratio increased. Also, we used the experimental results to evaluate whether the shear strength equations of ACI 318-14 and ACI 440.1R can be applied to the design of GFRP shear reinforcement. In the results, the ACI 440 equation underestimated the experimental results more than that of ACI 318.

  14. Status and habitat use of the California black rail in the Southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Sulzman, C.

    2007-01-01

    California black rails (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus) occur in two disjunct regions: the southwestern USA (western Arizona and southern California) and northern California (Sacramento Valley and the San Francisco Bay area). We examined current status of black rails in the southwestern USA by repeating survey efforts first conducted in 1973-1974 and again in 1989, and also examined wetland plant species associated with black rail distribution and abundance. We detected 136 black rails in Arizona and southern California. Black rail numbers detected during past survey efforts were much higher than the numbers detected during our more intensive survey effort, and hence, populations have obviously declined. Plants that were more common at points with black rails included common threesquare (Schoenoplectus pungens), arrowweed (Pluchea sericea), Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii), seepwillow (Baccharis salicifolia), and mixed shrubs, with common threesquare showing the strongest association with black rail presence. Plant species and non-vegetative communities that were less common at points with black rails included California bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus), southern cattail (Typha domingensis), upland vegetation, and open water. Black rails were often present at sites that had some saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima), but were rarely detected in areas dominated by saltcedar. We recommend that a standardized black rail survey effort be repeated annually to obtain estimates of black rail population trends. Management of existing emergent marshes with black rails is needed to maintain stands of common threesquare in early successional stages. Moreover, wetland restoration efforts that produce diverse wetland vegetation including common threesquare should be implemented to ensure that black rail populations persist in the southwestern USA. ?? 2007, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  15. Movements of radio-marked California Ridgway's rails during monitoring surveys: implications for population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Overton, Cory T.; Schultz, Emily R.; Hull, Joshua M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The California Ridgway's rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus (hereafter California rail) is a secretive marsh bird endemic to tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay (hereafter bay) of California. The California rail has undergone significant range contraction and population declines due to a variety of factors, including predation and the degradation and loss of habitat. Call-count surveys, which include call playbacks, based on the standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol have been conducted throughout the bay since 2005 to monitor population size and distribution of the California rail. However, call-count surveys are difficult to evaluate for efficacy or accuracy. To measure the accuracy of call-count surveys and investigate whether radio-marked California rails moved in response to call-count surveys, we compared locations of radio-marked California rails collected at frequent intervals (15 min) to California rail detections recorded during call-count surveys conducted over the same time periods. Overall, 60% of radio-marked California rails within 200 m of observers were not detected during call-count surveys. Movements of radio-marked California rails showed no directional bias (P = 0.92) irrespective of whether or not playbacks of five marsh bird species (including the California rail) were broadcast from listening stations. Our findings suggest that playbacks of rail vocalizations do not consistently influence California rail movements during surveys. However, call-count surveys may underestimate California rail presence; therefore, caution should be used when relating raw numbers of call-count detections to population abundance.

  16. 76 FR 1212 - Gabriel D. Hall-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption-U S Rail New York, LLC and U S Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Gabriel D. Hall--Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--U S Rail New York, LLC and U S Rail Corporation Gabriel D. Hall (Applicant), an individual, has filed a verified...

  17. Gelation under shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, B.D.; Hanley, H.J.M.; Straty, G.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States); Muzny, C.D. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An experimental small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of dense silica gels, prepared from suspensions of 24 nm colloidal silica particles at several volume fractions {theta} is discussed. Provided that {theta}{approx_lt}0.18, the scattered intensity at small wave vectors q increases as the gelation proceeds, and the structure factor S(q, t {yields} {infinity}) of the gel exhibits apparent power law behavior. Power law behavior is also observed, even for samples with {theta}>0.18, when the gel is formed under an applied shear. Shear also enhances the diffraction maximum corresponding to the inter-particle contact distance of the gel. Difficulties encountered when trying to interpret SANS data from these dense systems are outlined. Results of computer simulations intended to mimic gel formation, including computations of S(q, t), are discussed. Comments on a method to extract a fractal dimension characterizing the gel are included.

  18. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    accommodate a trial run of inert single base pellet feed for use in a twin screw extruder. 15. SUBJECT TERMS INIT248, Advanced Propellant Technology...Bldg. 4909-5 – Shear Roll Mill Pilot Plant at the Radford Army Ammunition Plant (RFAAP) in order to produce pellet feed for a twin screw extruder used...propellant to simulate feed for a twin screw extruder. Preventive maintenance procedures were in progress in final preparation for running with

  19. Micromechanics of shear banding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    Shear-banding is one of many instabilities observed during the plastic flow of solids. It is a consequence of the dislocation mechanism which makes plastic flow fundamentally inhomogeneous, and is exacerbated by local adiabatic heating. Dislocation lines tend to be clustered on sets of neighboring glide planes because they are heterogeneously generated; especially through the Koehler multiple-cross-glide mechanism. Factors that influence their mobilities also play a role. Strain-hardening decreases the mobilities within shear bands thereby tending to spread (delocalize) them. Strain-softening has the inverse effect. This paper reviews the micro-mechanisms of these phenomena. It will be shown that heat production is also a consequence of the heterogeneous nature of the microscopic flow, and that dislocation dipoles play an important role. They are often not directly observable, but their presence may be inferred from changes in thermal conductivity. It is argued that after deformation at low temperatures dipoles are distributed a la Pareto so there are many more small than large ones. Instability at upper yield point, the shapes of shear-band fronts, and mechanism of heat generation are also considered. It is shown that strain-rate acceleration plays a more important role than strain-rate itself in adiabatic instability.

  20. AN INNOVATIVE METHOD FOR FORMING BALLS FROM SCRAP RAIL HEADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pater

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new method for forming grinding media balls from scrap rail heads. This forming method involves the following operations: cutting the rail head to the desired length combined with lateral pressing of the produced workpiece; flashless die forging and sizing of balls in a helical impression. The proposed method was verified by numerical simulation which involved the modeling of a forming process for producing 80 mm diameter balls. As a result of the modeling, it was possible to examine the changes in the workpiece shape during each forming operation, the variations in loads and torques, as well as the distribution of temperatures enabling performing another forming operation, i.e. quenching. The results confirm that the designed method can be used to produce balls.

  1. MODELLING CHALLENGES TO FORECAST URBAN GOODS DEMAND FOR RAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio COMI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the new research challenges for forecasting urban goods demand by rail. In fact, the growing interest to find urban logistics solutions for improving city sustainability and liveability, mainly due to the reduction of urban road accessibility and environmental constraints, has pushed to explore solutions alternative to the road. Multimodal urban logistics, based on the use of railway, seem an interesting alternative solution, but it remained mainly at conceptual level. Few studies have explored the factors, that push actors to find competitive such a system with respect to the road, and modelling framework for forecasting the relative demand. Therefore, paper reviews the current literature, investigates the factors involved in choosing such a mode, and finally, recalls a recent modelling framework and hence proposes some advancements that allow to point out the rail transport alternative.

  2. Effectiveness of Rapid Rail Transit System in Beijing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hui-Min; Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, but there is still room to improve. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  3. High Speed Rail: Implications for carbon emissions and biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornet, Yannick; Dudley, Geoffrey; Banister, David

    2017-01-01

    Rail has traditionally been seen as ‘good’ for the environment, as it is fast and efficient with a low carbon footprint. With respect to HS2 in the UK, new environmental debates have arisen over the competing global objectives of reducing the carbon footprint of HSR and the need to maintain and e...... levels of carbon emissions and biodiversity loss.......Rail has traditionally been seen as ‘good’ for the environment, as it is fast and efficient with a low carbon footprint. With respect to HS2 in the UK, new environmental debates have arisen over the competing global objectives of reducing the carbon footprint of HSR and the need to maintain...

  4. Motion Simulation Analysis of Rail Weld CNC Fine Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huajie; Shu, Min; Li, Chao; Zhang, Baojun

    CNC fine milling machine is a new advanced equipment of rail weld precision machining with high precision, high efficiency, low environmental pollution and other technical advantages. The motion performance of this machine directly affects its machining accuracy and stability, which makes it an important consideration for its design. Based on the design drawings, this article completed 3D modeling of 60mm/kg rail weld CNC fine milling machine by using Solidworks. After that, the geometry was imported into Adams to finish the motion simulation analysis. The displacement, velocity, angular velocity and some other kinematical parameters curves of the main components were obtained in the post-processing and these are the scientific basis for the design and development for this machine.

  5. SOME MEASURES OF INCREASING RAIL TRANSITRIDERSHIPS: CASE STUDIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with how to increase rail transit ridership and how to coordinate with multiModity to optimize the entire public transportion systems. Three case cities, Montreal, Toronto and San Francisco, with metro systems are reviewed in different aspects, including urban planning, transport policy, flexible fare system, safety and security measure, special service, new technical application to improve the quality and value of its service for increasing revenues and profit, comtributing to the long-term development of public transit. Some conclusions can be drawn: 1)urban planning should be closely connected with urban transport planning; 2) the role of government is predominant to implement railtransit; 3) the facilifies of railtransit should be advanced, reliable and safe; 4) quality service should be match with rail facilities; 5) special service for the disabled, yound and senior should be advocated.

  6. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TWO-POINT CONTACT BETWEEN WHEEL AND RAIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Zhang; Shouguang Sun; Xuesong Jin

    2009-01-01

    The elastic-plastic contact problem with rolling friction of wheel-rail is solved using the FE parametric quadratic programming method. Thus, the complex elastic-plastic contact problem can be calculated with high accuracy and efficiency, while the Hertz's hypothesis and the elastic semi-space assumption are avoided. Based on the 'one-point' contact calculation of wheel-rail, the computational model of 'two-point' contact are established and calculated when the wheel flange is close to the rail. In the case of 'two-point' contact, the changing laws of wheelrail contact are introduced and contact forces in various load cases are carefully analyzed. The main reason of wheel flange wear and rail side wear is found. Lubrication computational model of the wheel flange is constructed. Comparing with the result without lubrication, the contact force between wheel flange and rail decreases, which is beneficial for reducing the wear of wheel-rail.

  7. Effect of Rare Earths on Properties of BNbRE Rail Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春龙; 智建国; 王荣

    2003-01-01

    The development and properties of BNbRE rail steel and the effect of RE on rail steel were studied. The results show that the properties of rail steel (σb≥980 MPa, δ5≥8%) can be improved by adding RE and niobium and adjusting the content of C, Si and Mn in steel. At the same time, the abrasion resistance, contact fatigue and fatigue property of BNbRE rail steel are excellent. It also shows that RE in rail steel has the functions of purifying steel, modifying inclusion and micro-alloy action effect. The improved steel-making process enhances the quality of molten steel. Although the content of RE is low, excellent properties of BNbRE rail steel are achieved.

  8. Analysis of the main trends in the development of rail production in Russia and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatenko, A. V.; Umansky, A. A.; Dorofeev, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The present analysis reveals the main directions in the development of rail production in the world: the transition to rolling of rail sections using continuous group of universal stands, increase of the rails length, application of differentiated hardening of rails in different media. It is shown that the technological gap between the Russian metallurgical industry and the world's leading rail manufactures of the last decades was closed in 2013 -2014 when the new universal rolling mills at JSC “EVRAZ Consolidated West Siberian Metallurgical Plant” (“EVRAZ ZSMK”) and OJSC “Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant” (company “Mechel”) were launched. Currently, these steel enterprises provide complete import substitution of long rails with increased wear resistance for the construction of high-speed networks.

  9. THE PROVISION OF RAIL SERVICE: THE IMPACT OF COMPETITION

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Murray E.; Gray, Richard S.

    1998-01-01

    Grain transportation is one of the most important economic issues for grain producers in the Northern Plains. The reliance on export markets and the long distances to port position means that transportation costs have a significant effect on the price received by farmers. In the prairie region of Canada, rail transportation is undergoing a major transformation that will affect the competitive positions of agriculture in both the United States and Canada and influence the direction of grain fl...

  10. Modern approaches to cargo protection of rail transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Викторович Ломотько

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study we have proposed a number of measures to improve the cargo protection during rail transportation. The economic impact of some of them is estimated. The legal relations of railways and cargo owners in terms of liability for failure to preserve are considered and proposed the management model of insurance risks of failure to preserve in transportation.

  11. An Early Evaluation of Italian High Speed Rail Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Beria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Italy has undergone, in the last 15 years, an exceptional public financial effort to build approximately 1,000 km of high speed rail lines. Further extensions are under construction or planned, especially in the most important international relations. This network is widely considered as fundamental to comply the European vision of a continental-wide transport system.The paper analyses the past and the future of such network, where possible from a quantitative point of view. The first part of the article reviews the history of the Alta Velocità scheme, particularly focusing on the issues related to the economic regulation of the investments and the financial troubles at first and then on the present issues related to the regulation of rail services.The analysis of the supply, the time gains, the demand and the costs allows to build a simple but independent evaluation of the past projects from an ex-post perspective, pointing out the successes, but also important critical issues.The second part of the paper analyses the future expansion plans looking at the costs, the existing and expected demand and derives some policy indications and cost reduction strategies capable both to control public expenditure in a period of crisis and not to abandon the idea of a modern and effective rail network.

  12. Calibration of robotic drilling systems with a moving rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial robots are widely used in aircraft assembly systems such as robotic drilling systems. It is necessary to expand a robot’s working range with a moving rail. A method for improving the position accuracy of an automated assembly system with an industrial robot mounted on a moving rail is proposed. A multi-station method is used to control the robot in this study. The robot only works at stations which are certain positions defined on the moving rail. The calibration of the robot system is composed by the calibration of the robot and the calibration of the stations. The calibration of the robot is based on error similarity and inverse distance weighted interpolation. The calibration of the stations is based on a magnetic strip and a magnetic sensor. Validation tests were performed in this study, which showed that the accuracy of the robot system gained significant improvement using the proposed method. The absolute position errors were reduced by about 85% to less than 0.3 mm compared with the maximum nearly 2 mm before calibration.

  13. Calibration of robotic drilling systems with a moving rail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Wei; Zeng Yuanfan; Zhou Wei; Liao Wenhe

    2014-01-01

    Industrial robots are widely used in aircraft assembly systems such as robotic drilling sys-tems. It is necessary to expand a robot’s working range with a moving rail. A method for improving the position accuracy of an automated assembly system with an industrial robot mounted on a mov-ing rail is proposed. A multi-station method is used to control the robot in this study. The robot only works at stations which are certain positions defined on the moving rail. The calibration of the robot system is composed by the calibration of the robot and the calibration of the stations. The calibration of the robot is based on error similarity and inverse distance weighted interpolation. The calibration of the stations is based on a magnetic strip and a magnetic sensor. Validation tests were performed in this study, which showed that the accuracy of the robot system gained significant improvement using the proposed method. The absolute position errors were reduced by about 85%to less than 0.3 mm compared with the maximum nearly 2 mm before calibration.

  14. Experiences of a rail yard community: life is hard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Montgomery, Susanne; Dougherty, Molly; Valladares, Johanny; Rangel, Sany; Gleason, Peter; Soret, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Community groups and local air pollution control agencies have identified the San Bernardino Railyard (SBR) as a significant public health and environmental justice issue. In response, the authors conducted a comprehensive study with community members living in close proximity to the rail yard. The purpose of this article is to share the community's perceptions about the rail yard and ideas on sustainable change. A qualitative study using key informant interviews and focus group discussions was conducted and resulted in four emerging themes. Themes emerged as follows: "health as an unattainable value," "air quality challenges," "rail yard pros and cons," and "violence and unemployment ripple effect." Community participants expressed concern for poor air quality, but other challenges took priority. The authors' findings suggest that future mitigation work to reduce air pollution exposure should not only focus on reducing risk from air pollution but address significant co-occurring community challenges. A "Health in All Policies" approach is warranted in addressing impacted communities in close proximity to the goods movement industry.

  15. Ballistics of space launch by a rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    The idea of using a big gun to launch objects to space has been around for years -- even Isaac Newton considered the concept. However the technology of accelerating a payload with a gun only recently began approaching orbital velocity (8 km/sec). NASA is currently experimenting with a rail gun which utilizes a magnetic field powered by electricity to accelerate a projectile along a set of rails, similar to train rails. Velocities up to 3 km/sec have been reported for small projectiles, and it seems that orbital velocities can soon become a reality too. We model a launch of various projectiles from Earth surface into the elevation corresponding to the low Earth orbit (about 200-250 km above Earth's surface). The goal of this modeling is to study feasibility of such launch (and accelerations induced), and the ballistics of the flight via Earth's atmosphere (the trajectory, air drag induced, pressure and temperature generated by air drag, etc) and thus the requirements for a mass, size, strength, heat shield, and general design of a payload capsule.

  16. A rational fraction polynomials model to study vertical dynamic wheel-rail interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Correa García, Nekane; García Vadillo, Ernesto; Santamaría Manrique, Javier; Gómez López, Josu

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model designed to study vertical interactions between wheel and rail when the wheel moves over a rail welding. The model focuses on the spatial domain, and is drawn up in a simple fashion from track receptances. The paper obtains the receptances from a full track model in the frequency domain already developed by the authors, which includes deformation of the rail section and propagation of bending, elongation and torsional waves along an infinite track. Transformation b...

  17. Investigation into rail corrugation in high-speed railway tracks from the viewpoint of the frictional self-excited vibration of a wheel-raU system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G. X. Chen X. L. Cui W. J. Qian

    2016-01-01

    A finite element vibration model of a multiple wheel-rail system which consists of four wheels, one rail, and a series of sleepers is established to address the problem of rail corrugation in high-speed tracks...

  18. Low Voltage Power Efficient Tunable Shaper Circuit With Rail-To-Rail Output Range for the HYDE Detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, J.; López-Ahumada, R.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, T.; Torralba, A.; Carvajal, R. G.; Martel, I.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a low voltage, low power readout front-end system implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology. A conventional architecture that consists of charge sensitive amplifier, pole/zero cancellation and shaper has been used. The work focuses on the design of novel circuit topologies in low voltage environment minimizing the power consumption in modern deep submicron CMOS technologies. An operational amplifier with rail-to-rail output swing that uses a gain boosting technique and class-AB output stage without extra power consumption has been used for the shaper. The circuit combines excellent performances with simplicity of design and suitability for low voltage operation. The system is intended to work with silicon detectors for nuclear physics applications and is optimized to match an input capacitance of 10 pF. The system features a peaking time of 500 ns, a power dissipation of 1.57 mW/channel and an equivalent noise charge of 201 e-.

  19. Plasticity Approach to Shear Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents some plastic models for shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Distinction is made between two shear failure modes, namely web crushing and crack sliding. The first mentioned mode is met in beams with large shear reinforcement degrees. The mode of crack sliding is met in no...... in uncracked concrete. Good agree between theory and tests has been found.Keywords: dsign, plasticity, reinforced concrete, reinforcement, shear, web crushing.......The paper presents some plastic models for shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Distinction is made between two shear failure modes, namely web crushing and crack sliding. The first mentioned mode is met in beams with large shear reinforcement degrees. The mode of crack sliding is met in non......-shear reinforced beams as well as in lightly shear reinforced beams. For such beams the shear strength is determined by the recently developed crack sliding model. This model is based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed...

  20. Research of the Resistance of Contact Welding Joint of R65 Type Rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęstutis Dauskurdis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the R65 type rail joints that were welded by resistance welding are analysed. Survey methodology of the research consists of the following parts: visual inspection of welded joint, ultrasonic rail inspection, hardness test of upper part of the rail, fusion area research, the measurement hardness test of heat-softened area, the measurement microhardness test, microstructure research of the welded joint, impact strength experiments, chemical analysis of welded joint, wheel-rail interaction research using the finite element method (FEM. The results of the research are analysed and the quality of weld is evaluated. The conclusion is based on the results of this research.

  1. 3D Multi-Channel Networked Visualization System for National LambdaRail Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — National LambdaRail (NLR) offers unprecedented communication capabilities on the National and possibly International levels. Physical Optics Corporation (POC)...

  2. Rail temperature rise characteristics caused by linear eddy current brake of high-speed train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshan Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rail temperature rises when the linear eddy current brake of high-speed train is working, which may lead to a change of rail physical characteristics or an effect on train operations. Therefore, a study concerning the characteristics of rail temperature rise caused by eddy current has its practical necessity. In the research, the working principle of a linear eddy current brake is introduced and its FEA model is established. According to the generation mechanism of eddy current, the theoretical formula of the internal energy which is produced by the eddy current is deduced and the thermal load on the rail is obtained. ANSYS is used to simulate the rail temperature changes under different conditions of thermal loads. The research result shows the main factors which contribute to the rising of rail temperature are the train speed, brake gap and exciting current. The rail temperature rises non-linearly with the increase of train speed. The rail temperature rise curve is more sensitive to the exciting current than the air gap. Moreover, the difference stimulated by temperature rising between rails of 60 kg/m and 75 kg/m is presented as well.

  3. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    -plane loaded walls and disks is however not included in any guidelines, and only a small fraction of scientists have initiated research within this topic. Furthermore, studies of the principal behavior and response of a strengthened disk has not yet been investigated satisfactorily, and this is the principal...... be altered to fit the surrounding boundary conditions. The effective cohesive law will then become a function of the investigated structural geometry. A simplified approach for the latter topic was used to predict the load capacity of concrete beams in shear. Results obtained were acceptable, but the model...

  4. Wind shear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques for forecasting and detecting a type of wind shear called microbursts are being tested this month in an operational program at Denver's Stapleton International Airport as part of an effort to reduce hazards to airplanes and passengers.Wind shear, which can be spawned by convective storms, can occur as a microburst. These downbursts of cool air are usually recognizable as a visible rain shaft beneath a thundercloud. Sometimes, however, the rain shaft evaporates before reaching the ground, leaving the downdraft invisible. Although thunderstorms are traditionally avoided by airplane pilots, these invisible downdrafts also harbor hazards in what usually appear to be safe skies. When the downdraft reaches the earth's surface, the downdraft spreads out horizontally, much like a stream of water gushing from a garden hose on a concrete surface, explained John McCarthy, director of the operational program. Airplanes can encounter trouble when the downdraft from the microburst causes sudden shifts in wind direction, which may reduce lift on the wing, an especially dangerous situation during takeoff.

  5. Inductive shearing of drilling pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Wilgen, John; Kisner, Roger; Mcintyre, Timothy

    2016-04-19

    Induction shearing may be used to cut a drillpipe at an undersea well. Electromagnetic rings may be built into a blow-out preventer (BOP) at the seafloor. The electromagnetic rings create a magnetic field through the drillpipe and may transfer sufficient energy to change the state of the metal drillpipe to shear the drillpipe. After shearing the drillpipe, the drillpipe may be sealed to prevent further leakage of well contents.

  6. Inductive shearing of drilling pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Wilgen, John; Kisner, Roger; Mcintyre, Timothy

    2016-04-19

    Induction shearing may be used to cut a drillpipe at an undersea well. Electromagnetic rings may be built into a blow-out preventer (BOP) at the seafloor. The electromagnetic rings create a magnetic field through the drillpipe and may transfer sufficient energy to change the state of the metal drillpipe to shear the drillpipe. After shearing the drillpipe, the drillpipe may be sealed to prevent further leakage of well contents.

  7. Failure During Sheared Edge Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, B. S.; van Tyne, C. J.

    2008-12-01

    Failure during sheared edge stretching of sheet steels is a serious concern, especially in advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) grades. The shearing process produces a shear face and a zone of deformation behind the shear face, which is the shear-affected zone (SAZ). A failure during sheared edge stretching depends on prior deformation in the sheet, the shearing process, and the subsequent strain path in the SAZ during stretching. Data from laboratory hole expansion tests and hole extrusion tests for multiple lots of fourteen grades of steel were analyzed. The forming limit curve (FLC), regression equations, measurement uncertainty calculations, and difference calculations were used in the analyses. From these analyses, an assessment of the primary factors that contribute to the fracture during sheared edge stretching was made. It was found that the forming limit strain with consideration of strain path in the SAZ is a major factor that contributes to the failure of a sheared edge during stretching. Although metallurgical factors are important, they appear to play a somewhat lesser role.

  8. Barriers to and enablers for European rail freight transport for integrated door-to-door logistics service. Part 2: Enablers for multimodal rail freight transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine and identify barriers to and enablers for the European rail freight transport services as a transport chain partner along the supply chains in the changing market scenario. The changing market scenario includes, among others, requiring 'door-to-door' rather than 'terminal to terminal' and integrated service, competitive ability to attract non-rail cargo type, changes in the customer requirements (e.g. reliable service and changes in the operational requirements and practices. Using a literature review method, the paper is presented in two parts. The part 1 focuses on the identification of barriers to the European rail freight service by reviewing freight logistics services for global supply chains followed by the current performance of European rail freight transport followed by a discussion on the rail freight market liberalisation in Europe. Then rail freight transport in the Unites States (U.S. is discussed. The research notes that although the background, scope and necessity for reform measures in Europe differ from those of the U.S., some lessons can be learned and the main lesson is that an appropriate reform measure can enhance rail sector competitive ability in Europe. The part 2 of the paper is dedicated to recommend some concrete steps and actions as enablers to remove the barriers identified in the part 1 to develop multimodal rail freight transport. The enablers for multimodal rail freight transport include: •\tEuropean rail freight transport market needs full liberalisation so that incumbent and new entrants can compete freely. •\tThe rail operators need to acquire service (e.g. customer tailored services, door to door service quality offered by road freight operators. •\tThey need to conduct a combination of ‘terminal-to-terminal’ and door-to-door operations, as and when needed; •\tThey must build partnership with freight forwarder or 3PLs to include all types of customers

  9. Field monitoring of rail squats using 3D ultrasonic mapping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaewunruen, S., E-mail: sakdirat.kaewunruen@transport.nsw.gov.au [NSW, Transport, Sydney (Australia); Ishida, M., E-mail: ishida-mk@n-koei.jp [Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Railway Div., Railway Engineering Dept., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Rail squats and studs are typically classified as the propagation of any cracks .that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface. Some of the cracks could propagate to the bottom of rails transversely, which have branched from the initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The rail defects are commonly referred to as 'squats' when they were initiated from a damage layer caused by rolling contact fatigue, and as 'studs' when they were associated with a white etching layer caused by the transformation from pearlitic steel due to friction heat generated by wheel sliding or excessive traction. Such above-mentioned rail defects have been often observed in railway tracks catered for either light passenger or heavy freight traffics and for low, medium or high speed trains all over the world for over 60 years except some places such as sharp curves where large wear takes place under severe friction between the wheel flange and rail gauge face. It becomes a much-more significant issue when the crack grows and sometimes flakes off the rail (by itself or by insufficient rail grinding), resulting in a rail surface irregularity. Such rail surface defects induce wheel/rail impact and large amplitude vibration of track structure and poor ride quality. In Australia, Europe, and Japan, rail squats/studs have occasionally turned into broken rails. The root cause and preventive solution to this defect are still under investigation from the fracture mechanics and material sciences point of view. Some patterns of squat/stud development related to both curve and tangent track geometries have been observed and squat growth has been monitored for individual squats using ultrasonic mapping techniques. This paper highlights the field monitoring of squat/stud distribution and its growth. Squat/stud growth has been detected and scanned using the ultrasonic measurement device on a grid applied to the rail surface. The depths of crack paths at each

  10. Investigation into the vibration of metro bogies induced by rail corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Liang; Li, Wei; Foo, Elbert; Wu, Lei; Wen, Zefeng; Jin, Xuesong

    2017-01-01

    The current research of rail corrugation mainly focuses on the mechanisms of its formation and development. Compared with the root causes and development mechanisms, the wheel-rail impacts, the fatigue failure of vehicle-track parts, and the loss of ride comfort due to rail corrugation should also be taken into account. However, the influences of rail corrugation on vehicle and track vibration, and failure of vehicle and track structural parts are barely discussed in the literature. This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of the structural vibration of metro bogies caused by rail corrugation. Extensive experiments are conducted to investigate the effects of short-pitch rail corrugation on the vibration accelerations of metro bogies. A dynamic model of a metro vehicle coupled with a concrete track is established to study the influence of rail corrugation on the structural vibration of metro bogies. The field test results indicate that the short-pitch rail corrugation generates strong vibrations on the axle-boxes and the bogie frames, therefore, accelerates the fatigue failure of the bogie components. The numerical results show that short-pitch rail corrugation may largely reduce the fatigue life of the coil spring, and improving the damping value of the primary vertical dampers is likely to reduce the strong vibration induced by short-pitch rail corrugation. This research systematically studies the effect of rail corrugation on the vibration of metro bogies and proposes some remedies for mitigating strong vibrations of metro bogies and reducing the incidence of failure in primary coil springs, which would be helpful in developing new metro bogies and track maintenance procedures.

  11. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the shear strength of prestressed hollow-core slabs determined by the theory of plasticity. Two failure mechanisms are considered in order to derive the solutions.In the case of sliding failure in a diagonal crack, the shear strength is determined by means of the crack sliding...

  12. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with the shear strength of statically indeterminate reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement. Solutions for a number of beams with different load and support conditions have been derived by means of the crack sliding model developed by Jin- Ping Zhang.This model...

  13. 78 FR 73921 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-In Fresno, Kings, Tulare, and Kern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ...). See Cal. High-Speed Rail Auth.--Constr. Exemption--in Merced, Madera & Fresno Cntys., Cal., FD 35724....\\3\\ \\2\\ See Alaska R.R.--Constr. & Operation Exemption--Rail Line Between Eielson Air Force Base (N...

  14. 78 FR 78507 - California High-Speed Rail Authority-Construction Exemption-In Fresno, Kings, Tulare, and Kern...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... June 13, 2013, in California High-Speed Rail Authority--Construction Exemption--in Merced, Madera...-Speed Rail Auth.--Constr. Exemption--in Merced, Madera, & Fresno Cntys., Cal., FD 35724 (STB served May...

  15. Railroad Lines - RAIL_CROSSINGS_INDOT_IN: Railroad Crossings in Indiana (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_CROSSINGS_INDOT_IN is a point shapefile that contains locations of rail crossings in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of Transportation...

  16. Supporting policy analysis in the Dutch rail sector using System Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaerts, A.; Van Daalen, C.; Van Luipen, J.; Meijer, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    With a sizeable expected growth of demand for rail transport in the Netherlands in the coming decades, and limited resources for expansion of the rail network, intensified utilization of the infrastructure is to be expected. To adequately manage this growth, appropriate tools for policy analysis are

  17. 76 FR 13446 - Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail... is owned or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). JVRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of railroad it operates for SEDA- COG and that...

  18. 76 FR 13445 - Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Lycoming Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption--SEDA--COG Joint Rail... or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). LVRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of railroad it operates for SEDA- COG and that it will...

  19. 76 FR 13445 - North Shore Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board North Shore Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail..., extending between milepost 0.0 and milepost 2.0 in Berwick, Columbia County, Pa. The line is leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA- COG). NSRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an...

  20. Improving work load and comfort of operators on modified hydraulic excavators in rail road maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinten, M.P. van der; Houtman, I.I.D.

    2000-01-01

    In small-scale projects of mechanized maintenance of rail roads special equipped hydraulic excavators (HE) are used in several maintenance tasks. One task concerns the exchange of the old crossbars and ballast under the rails by new materials (MCE-task). This task requires high precision of the HE-o

  1. Five new extinct species of rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae) from the Macaronesian Islands (North Atlantic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcover, Josep Antoni; Pieper, Harald; Pereira, Fernando; Rando, Juan Carlos

    2015-12-10

    Five new species of recently extinct rails from two Macaronesian archipelagoes (Madeira and Azores) are described. All the species are smaller in size than their presumed ancestor, the European rail Rallus aquaticus. Two species inhabited the Madeira archipelago: (1) Rallus lowei n. sp., the stouter of the species described herein, was a flightless rail with a robust tarsometatarsus and reduced wings that lived on Madeira Island; (2) Rallus adolfocaesaris n. sp., a flightless and more gracile species than its Madeiran counterpart, inhabited Porto Santo. So far, six Azorean islands have been paleontologically explored, and the remains of fossil rails have been found on all of them. Here we formally describe the best-preserved remains from three islands (Pico, São Miguel and São Jorge): (1) Rallus montivagorum n. sp., a rail smaller than R. aquaticus with a somewhat reduced flying capability, inhabited Pico; (2) Rallus carvaoensis n. sp., a small flightless rail with short and stout legs and a bill apparently more curved than in R. aquaticus, was restricted to São Miguel; (3) Rallus minutus n. sp., a very small (approaching Atlantisia rogersi in size) flightless rail with a shortened robust tarsometatarsus, lived in São Jorge. We note also the presence of rail fossils on three other Azorean islands (Terceira, Graciosa and Santa Maria). In addition, we describe an extraordinarily complete fossil of an unnamed Rallus preserved in silica from the locality of Algar do Carvão on Terceira.

  2. 78 FR 25303 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Institution of... materially retarded, by reason of imports from prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from China, Mexico.... Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the Commission...

  3. 77 FR 23806 - Manning Rail, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Manning Grain Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... Surface Transportation Board Manning Rail, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Manning Grain... 1150.31 to acquire from Manning Grain Company (MGC) and operate a 7.1-mile rail line between its point... acquire the Line in Manning Grain Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Fillmore Western Railway...

  4. Decision-Oriented Project Ranking for Asset Management System: Rail Net Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld; Timm, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    The Danish rail net operator, Rail Net Denmark, has through the past years built up an Asset Management system, containing a certain percentile of all the company’s assets. This paper contains an elaborate overview on how to strengthen the system seen from a decision-support perspective. The focus...

  5. 49 CFR 236.557 - Receiver; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; location with respect to rail. (a) Receiver of intermittent inductive automatic train stop device of the... nearest rail, in accordance with specifications of the carrier. (b) Receiver of continuous inductive automatic cab signal, train stop, or train control device of locomotive equipped with onboard test...

  6. Rail-lex Slovenia--A Modern Railway Dictionary (Joint Venture Case Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakopin, Primoz

    Rail-lex Slovenia is a project to develop a dictionary of railway terminology in the Slovenian language, part of a larger undertaking of the International Union of Railways to develop a modern, multilingual communication infrastructure. Participating organizations represent 22 European languages. Two partners in the Rail-lex Slovenia venture are…

  7. 77 FR 71478 - Notice of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Surface Transportation Board Notice of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee Vacancies AGENCY... vacancies on the Board's Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee for (1) a representative from a state... those vacancies. DATES: Suggestions of candidates for membership on RETAC are due December 27,...

  8. 77 FR 19030 - Automated Commercial Environment Required for the Transmission of Advance Ocean and Rail Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    .... 12-06] Automated Commercial Environment Required for the Transmission of Advance Ocean and Rail Cargo... Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) for the transmission of advance ocean and rail cargo information... controlled environment.\\3\\ M1 test participants were chosen based on the specific type of software...

  9. 75 FR 16712 - Waybill Data Released in Three-Benchmark Rail Rate Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1244 Waybill Data Released in Three-Benchmark Rail Rate... Board proposes to amend its rules with respect to the Three-Benchmark methodology used to adjudicate... simplified stand-alone cost approach for medium-size rail rate disputes and revising its...

  10. 49 CFR 213.143 - Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. 213.143... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.143 Frog guard rails and guard faces; gage. The guard check and guard face gages in frogs shall be within the...

  11. 75 FR 2582 - YCR Corporation-Modified Rail Certificate-in Yakima County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... and milepost 20.56 near White Swan, and an additional 1.63 miles of industrial spur near White Swan,\\3... Rail Certificate, Finance Docket No. 32487 (ICC served Apr. 28, 1994). YCR states that YVR's lease with... Rail Certificate, STB Finance Docket No. 34804 (STB served Jan. 4, 2006). YCR states that CWA/ CBRC's...

  12. 78 FR 75545 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From the People's Republic of China... concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') is being, or... prestressed tendons in concrete railroad ties (``PC tie wire''). High carbon steel is defined as steel...

  13. 49 CFR 236.531 - Trip arm; height and distance from rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop device when in the stop position shall be...

  14. Electroosmotic shear flow in microchannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mampallil, Dileep; Ende, van den Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We generate and study electroosmotic shear flow in microchannels. By chemically or electrically modifying the surface potential of the channel walls a shear flow component with controllable velocity gradient can be added to the electroosmotic flow caused by double layer effects at the channel walls.

  15. Light Rail and Subway Stations, MTA's Metro and Light Rail Stations, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Light Rail and Subway Stations dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described...

  16. Light Rail and Subway Lines, MTA's Metro and Light Rail Lines, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Light Rail and Subway Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as...

  17. National Rail Network: 1:100,000 (line), Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [us_rail_network_100k_lin_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Rail Network is a comprehensive database of the nation's railway system at the 1:100,000 scale. The data set covers all 50 States plus the District of Columbia.

  18. National Rail Network 1:2,000,000 (node), Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [us_rail_network_100k_nd_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Rail Network is a comprehensive database of the nation's railway system at the 1:100,000 scale. The data set covers all 50 States plus the District of Columbia.

  19. A multimedia streaming system for urban rail environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José

    2017-01-01

    network connections by using the excessive Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) radio link bandwidth to deliver multimedia streams to a train, where it is subsequently distributed to the passengers using peer-to-peer based data distribution. Connections among the train passengers are implemented...... using the Wi-Fi Direct connectivity and data exchange is coordinated by using the Peer-to-Peer Streaming Peer Protocol. This work presents the solution and evaluates it in the scope of urban rail deployment. Network emulation tests are used to analyze the factors impacting the number of concurrent users...

  20. 78 FR 78508 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...-inclusive index of railroad input prices ] and the method for computing the rail cost adjustment factor... 208.7 5 DEPRECIATION 11.9 221.0 217.8 6 INTEREST 2.0 76.6 76.6 7 OTHER ITEMS \\2\\ 21.9 220.0 220.5 8... EQUIPMENT RENTS 5.6 208.0 207.6 5 DEPRECIATION 11.5 218.9 217.8 6 INTEREST 2.3 87.3 87.3 7 OTHER ITEMS...

  1. Passenger Flow Forecast Algorithm for Urban Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shao Wei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To exactly forecast the urban rail transit passenger flow, a multi-level model combining neural network and Kalman filter was proposed. Firstly, ELAN neural network model was introduced to implement a preliminary forecast of the passenger flow. Then the Kalman filter was used to correct the preliminary forecast results, so as to further improve the accuracy. Finally, in order to validate the proposed model, the passenger flow in Shanghai subway transport hub was observed and simulated. Experimental results showed that the proposed multi-level model reduced error by about 0.8% and had better actual effect compared with any single algorithm.

  2. Rails 2.0中的调试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘申

    2008-01-01

    过去,Rails中的debug都是依赖断点(breakpointer),而断点后来在Ruby 1.8.5中被破坏了。随着Rails 2.0的发布,现在我们可以用ruby-debug作为debug的首选工具。要安装ruby—debug(笔者使用的是Mac,所有的示例代码都是基于Mac),我们首先要做以下几步:

  3. Theoretical and experimental modeling of a rail gun accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleznyj, V. B.; Zagorskij, A. V.; Katsnel'Son, S. S.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Plekhanov, A. V.

    1993-04-01

    Results of a series of experiments in the acceleration of macrobodies are analyzed using an integral model of a current arc and a quasi-1D magnetic gasdynamic model. The integral model uses gasdynamic equations averaged by the size of a plasma pump and equations based on the second Kirchhoff's law for electrical current. The quasi-1D model is based on 1D magnetic gasdynamic equations for mean values of density, pressure, velocity, and internal power. Electromagnetic parameters are determined from Maxwell integral equations. It is concluded that the proposed models take into account the major mechanisms of momentum loss and are capable of adequately describing electromagnetic rail accelerators.

  4. SOFTWARE TESTING OF THE RAIL VEHICLE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjin Troha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The modern construction concept and the determination of the machine system characteristics anticipate CAD design. Creating model that will be tested using FEM and other methods for determining stress-strain is a very important part of rail vehicle construction. Applicative software package consists of linear and non–linear methods for the prediction of railway vehicle behavior and various methods of analysis have been assembled into a single coherent package in order to allow real problems in railway vehicle dynamics to be solved.

  5. 78 FR 1936 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-In Custer, Powder River and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... a proceeding known as Tongue River III.\\3\\ \\1\\ Tongue River R.R.--Rail Constr. and Operation--In....2d 758 (9th Cir.), cert. denied, 484 U.S. 976 (1987). \\2\\ Tongue River R.R.--Rail Constr. and..., 1996). \\3\\ Tongue River R.R.--Rail Constr. and Operation--Western Alignment, FD 30186 (Sub-No. 3) (STB...

  6. 49 CFR 1152.29 - Prospective use of rights-of-way for interim trail use and rail banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use and rail banking. 1152.29 Section 1152.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... Prospective use of rights-of-way for interim trail use and rail banking. (a) If any state, political... line proposed to be abandoned for interim trail use and rail banking pursuant to 16 U.S.C. 1247(d), it...

  7. 78 FR 29325 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic of China, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, the People's Republic...'') petitions concerning imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire (``PC tie wire'') from Mexico, the... Antidumping Duty Petitions on Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire from the PRC, Mexico, and Thailand...

  8. 49 CFR 214.521 - Flagging equipment for on-track roadway maintenance machines and hi-rail vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... maintenance machines and hi-rail vehicles. 214.521 Section 214.521 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... WORKPLACE SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.521 Flagging equipment for on-track roadway maintenance machines and hi-rail vehicles. Each on-track roadway maintenance...

  9. 49 CFR 214.525 - Towing with on-track roadway maintenance machines or hi-rail vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or hi-rail vehicles. 214.525 Section 214.525 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.525 Towing with on-track roadway maintenance machines or hi-rail vehicles. (a) When used to tow pushcars or other maintenance-of-way...

  10. A REVIEW OF HIGH-SPEED RAIL PLAN IN JAVA ISLAND: A COMPARISON WITH EXISTING MODES OF TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hartono

    2013-05-01

    It can be concluded that journey time and fare of the high-speed rail is very competitive to the air transport in Jakarta-Surabaya corridor. The journey time to travel from Jakarta to Surabaya is 4 hours and 19 minutes by high-speed train and 4 hours and 40 minutes by air. Based on the benchmarking analysis, the suitable fare for the high-speed rail should be 70% of the air transport. This study predicted that 61% of air passenger, 18% of conventional rail passenger and 12% of bus passenger will switch to the high-speed rail service in 2020. In total, the high-speed rail will have 24% of market share for the passenger transport and becomes the second largest market share after road transport (52%. The conventional rail and air transport have 14% and 9% of total market share to travel from Jakarta to Surabaya and vice versa. The high-speed rail development reduces carbon emissions caused by transportation systems in Java Island. It has been calculated that there are 2.542 million tonnages of CO2 per annum without introducing high-speed rail, however, the CO2 emissions decrease to 1.694 million tonnages per annum if the high-speed rail is developed in Java Island. Generalized cost of the high-speed rail is higher than road and conventional rail. However, it is lower than air transport. Keywords: Java high-speed rail, HSR Comparison, modal share, journey time

  11. Near-source air quality in rail yard environments – an overview of recent EPA measurement and modeling findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will providing a summary of field measurements conducted in areas surrounding two major rail yards as well as modeling simulations of rail yard emissions dispersion. The Cicero Rail Yard Study (CIRYS) was recently released to the public and includes mobile and ...

  12. 78 FR 42156 - Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District-Acquisition Exemption-In Marin County, Cal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District--Acquisition Exemption-- In Marin County, Cal. AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Exemption. SUMMARY: The Board.... 10902 for Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District (SMART), a Class III rail carrier, to acquire an...

  13. 78 FR 57619 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico, Thailand, and the... antidumping duty investigations of imports of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire from Mexico, Thailand, and the People's Republic of China. See Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From Mexico,...

  14. A Piezoelectric Shear Stress Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taeyang; Saini, Aditya; Kim, Jinwook; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Zhu, Yong; Palmieri, Frank L.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a piezoelectric sensor with a floating element was developed for shear stress measurement. The piezoelectric sensor was designed to detect the pure shear stress suppressing effects of normal stress generated from the vortex lift-up by applying opposite poling vectors to the: piezoelectric elements. The sensor was first calibrated in the lab by applying shear forces and it showed high sensitivity to shear stress (=91.3 +/- 2.1 pC/Pa) due to the high piezoelectric coefficients of PMN-33%PT (d31=-1330 pC/N). The sensor also showed almost no sensitivity to normal stress (less than 1.2 pC/Pa) because of the electromechanical symmetry of the device. The usable frequency range of the sensor is 0-800 Hz. Keywords: Piezoelectric sensor, shear stress, floating element, electromechanical symmetry

  15. Comprehensive automation of work on delivering and laying rail tracks in mine roadways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazin, S.P.; Volkov, V.Yu.; Ignatova, E.M.; Puleev, S.F.

    1988-07-01

    Presents the KD-1 and NPSh-900 sets of equipment for automation of track laying work in underground mine roadways. Analysis of track laying in mines in the USSR shows that about 200 km of track are laid annually, with energy at 1600 kJ/m expended in the form of manual labor. The KD-1 equipment, developed by VNIIOMShS, is based on a track delivery container holding 10-12 rails 8-12 m long. The NPSh-900 set is a set of tools and accessories for track laying - a rail cutting unit, a rail drilling unit, a rail bender, ballast cars, grips, jacks, etc. All this equipment is handed to the track laying site on a special rail/wheeled trolley. Both sets of equipment have been successfully tested in Donbass mines.

  16. Development and application of resilient wheels in urban rail transit vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan WEN

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit vehicles have been more and more attractive to people as a kind of fast, comfortable, energy-saving, environmental protection and safe transportation. But because of the vehicle noise and vibration, urban rail vehicles also face severe challenges. The research of resilient wheels has been continuously developed and improved. Based on the review of development background and structure sorts of resilient wheels, the advantages of resilient wheels are described, and the research status of noise and vibration reducing, infinite element strength analysis, vehicle dynamic analysis and the wheel-rail wear of resilient wheels are discussed. Taking the low-floor LRVs (light rail vehicles in domestic and overseas as example, the development and application of the resilient wheels in city rail transit is described, and the application prospects of the resilient wheels in LRVs in domestic and the future research direction of elastic wheel are discussed.

  17. Ultimate kinematic characteristics of rail electromagnetic launchers with metal armatures in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevich, S. V.; Shvetsov, G. A.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the results of numerical simulation of the Joule heating of the armature and rails in rail launchers of metal bodies with one or two augmenting rails generating an external magnetic field. The ultimate projectile velocity is calculated under the assumption that the Joule heating of the armature and rails during acceleration does not exceed the melting temperature of the materials of which they are made. It is shown that, with an appropriate choice of the position of the coils generating the augmenting magnetic field with respect to the launcher channel and the current magnitude in them, the heat load on the rails and armature in electromagnetic launchers of solids can be substantially reduced and the ultimate kinematic characteristics of these launchers in crisis-free regimes can be considerably increased.

  18. EFFECTS OF La ON STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF HEAVY RAIL STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.J. Liu; M.F. Jiang; Y.S. Wang; J.J. Chen; C.L. Li

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms of La in heavy rail steel were studied by means of experimental measurements,microstructure observation and theoretical analysis in the present work. For heavy rail steel, the state and the content of La were measured, and the mechanisms and the effects of La on sulfide inclusions, microstructure and properties of steel were determined. Strip-like sulfides disappear in heavy rail steel with La/( O+S)> 3.50, which is shown that the metallurgical function of modifying sulfide inclusions has been achieved by La. La can fine the grain size of the austenite in heavy rail steel. Under the experimental condition, the plasticity and the impacting toughness of heavy rail steel with 0.005wt% La can evidently be improved.

  19. Shear jamming in highly strained granular system without shear banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yiqiu; Barés, Jonathan; Zheng, Hu; Behringer, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Bi et al. have shown that, if sheared, a granular material can jam even if its packing fraction (ϕ) is lower than the critical isotropic jamming point ϕJ. They have introduced a new critical packing fraction value ϕS such that for ϕSjams if sheared. Nevertheless, the value of ϕS as a function of the shear profile or the strain necessary to observe jamming remain poorly understood because of the experimental complexity to access high strain without shear band. We present a novel 2D periodic shear apparatus made of 21 independent, aligned and mirrored glass rings. Each ring can be moved independently which permits us to impose any desired shear profile. The circular geometry allows access to any strain value. The forces between grains are measured using reflective photoelasticity. By performing different shear profiles for different packing fractions we explored the details of jamming diagram including the location of the yield surface. This work is supported by NSF No.DMR1206351, NASA No.NNX15AD38G and W. M. Keck Foundation.

  20. Effects of anchoring and arc structure on the control authority of a rail plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Gray, Miles; Sirohi, Jayant; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-09-01

    Experiments were conducted on a rail plasma actuator (RailPAc) with different electrode cross sections (rails or rods) to assess methods to improve the actuation authority, defined as the impulse generated for a given electrical input. The arc was characterized with electrical measurements and high-speed images, while impulse measurements quantified the actuation authority. A RailPAc power supply capable of delivering  ∼1 kA of current at  ∼100 V was connected to rod electrodes (free-floating with circular cross-section) and rail electrodes (flush-mounted in a flat plate with rectangular cross-section). High-speed images show that the rail electrodes cause the arc to anchor itself to the anode electrode and transit in discrete jumps, while rod electrodes permit the arc to transit smoothly without anchoring. The impulse measurements reveal that the anchoring reduces the actuation authority by  ∼21% compared to a smooth transit, and the effect of anchoring can be suppressed by reducing the gap between the rails to 2 mm. The study further demonstrates that if a smooth transit is achieved, the control authority can be increased with a larger gap and larger arc current. In conclusion, the actuation authority of a RailPAc can be maximized by carefully choosing a gap width that prevents anchoring. Further study is warranted to increase the RailPAc actuation authority by introducing multiple turns of wires beneath the RailPAc to augment the induced magnetic field.

  1. Coherent Network Optimizing of Rail-Based Urban Mass Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient public transport is more than ever a crucial factor when it comes to the quality of life and competitiveness of many cities and regions in Asia. In recent years, the rail-based urban mass transit has been regarded as one of the key means to overcoming the great challenges in Chinese megacities. The purpose of this study is going to develop a coherent network optimizing for rail-based urban mass transit to find the best alternatives for the user and to demonstrate how to meet sustainable development needs and to match the enormous capacity requirements simultaneously. This paper presents an introduction to the current situation of the important lines, and transfer points in the metro system Shanghai. The insufficient aspects are analyzed and evaluated; while the optimizing ideas and measurements are developed and concreted. A group of examples are used to illustrate the approach. The whole study could be used for the latest reference for other megacities which have to be confronted with the similar situations and processes with enormous dynamic travel and transport demands.

  2. The Behaviour of the Embedded Rail in Interaction with Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryjáček, P.; Howlader, Md M.; Vokáč, M.

    2015-11-01

    Since the introduction of the direct fastening system, Embedded Rail System (ERS) is probably one of the most spectacular and innovative developments in railway engineering. The development has become more rapid, especially in the last decade due to competitive advantages in comparison toother systems with respect to higher speed, cost effectiveness, environmental-material sustainability and others. But still there is a lack of specific interaction model, especially when it comes to bridges equipped with ERS system. Previous studies on ERS by Estzer Ludvigh2 found out some important coefficients (vertical and longitudinal bedding coefficient) and compared the longitudinal resistance of ERS with flexible fastening systems. Other studies on ERS do not specifically deal with the evaluation of longitudinal resistance of such a system. With a view to establish the typical behaviour pattern of ERS, this paper is dedicated to find out the interaction of a specific Embedded Rail System with bridges. A small scale test was conducted on a sample of ERS in the laboratory under different combinations of vertical and longitudinal track loads and subsequently a Finite Element Model (FEM) was developed to simulate the test. The paper presents the FEA result validation with test results, the interaction pattern, longitudinal resistance of ERS track for both loaded and unloaded conditions, design load distribution for such systems and some specific influences of ERS on simply supported bridge systems.

  3. Transradial coronary brachytherapy with the Novoste Beta-Rail system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Olivier F; De Larochellière, Robert; Gleeton, Onil; Plante, Sylvain; Tessier, Michel; Guimond, Jean

    2002-03-01

    We report our initial experience in 10 consecutive patients who underwent transradial coronary brachytherapy for in-stent restenosis using a 90Sr/Y source and the Novoste Beta-Rail system. In all patients, procedures were successfully completed using a right transradial approach. We performed the procedures with the Beta-Rail catheter using 7 Fr (Zuma II, Medtronic, MN; n = 5) or 8 Fr (Cordis, Miami, FL; n = 5) guiding catheters. All lesions were successfully dilated and no additional stent was inserted. We used a 40 mm source (n = 3) or a 60 mm source (n = 7) with manual stepping in four cases. In three cases, we did one stepping, and in one case, we did three steppings. The mean dwell time was 195 plus minus 44 sec. The mean delivered dose was 23 +/- 3 Gy at 2 mm distance from the source. No radiation treatment was interrupted. Mean fluoroscopy time was 26 +/- 13 min. Procedural success was achieved in all patients. Three patients had mild CK elevations (< 3 times upper normal limit). All patients were pretreated with clopidogrel (300 mg) and combined treatment with aspirin + clopidogrel is to be continued for at least 1 year. Clinical follow-up up to 3 months has not yielded any complication and all patients have remained free from angina.

  4. Operational modal analysis of road-rail bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe an Operational Modal Analysis (OMA of the Bridge over the Tocantins River, a composite road-rail bridge located in the city of Marabá, state of Pará, northern Brazil. The bridge is part of the Carajás Railway, which is used by VALE Company to transport iron ore from “Serra dos Carajás”, the largest mineral reserve of the planet. The bridge has a length of 2310m, being the second longest road-rail bridge in Brazil. The study focused on the bridge central span (with 77 m of length and two adjacent spans (with 44 m of length. We employed Piezo-electric accelerometers to measure the dynamic response of the bridge under ambient excitation, which consisted of the passage of loaded and unloaded trains, road traffic, wind and river current. For modal identification, to avoid the influence of the train mass over the bridge system, we only considered acceleration signals of road traffic and signals corresponding to intervals after the passage of loaded trains, i.e., the study disregarded the intervals during which the trains were over the monitored spans. We obtained modal parameters through two identification methods: one in the time domain and other in the frequency domain. We also performed a comparative analysis between the experimental modal parameters, and the numerical results obtained with a finite element model provided by a third-part company.

  5. Dynamic Soft Reduction for Continuously Cast Rail Bloom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong; LI Gui-jun; YANG Su-bo; ZHU Miao-yong

    2007-01-01

    Center porosity and centerline segregation in continuously cast bloom can be minimized by the well-known method of dynamic soft reduction. Metallurgical results of soft reduction previously employed in continuous bloom casting for heavy rail steel in Panzhihua Iron and Steel Group were not fully achieved because of the improper soft reduction process. Therefore, experiments for optimizing the process parameters of soft reduction for bloom were carried out. The results show that the proportion of the center porosity, which is less than 1.0, increases from 28.41% to 99.81%, while the proportion of the centerline segregation class increases from 40.91% to 100%, and the proportion of the central cavity increases from 92.05% to 100%, whereas the center carbon segregation index decreases from 1.17 to 1.05. The internal quality and the mechanical performance of the rails produced from continuously cast blooms meet the requirement of high-speed tracks of 350 km/h.

  6. Asynchronous Dual-Rail Transition Logic for Enhanced DPA Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajath Srivathsav N

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An Asynchronous Dual–Rail Transition Logic (ADTL is proposed in this paper. The new logic style can be used in the encryption circuit of cryptography to counter the differential power analysis (DPA attacks. The resistance to the DPA attacks is achieved by randomizing the power dissipated in the circuit through Manchester input signal coding and unpredictable initial state of the toggle flip-flops (TFF. The proposed logic uses two wires to transmit the signal, in the form of a single transition on either one of the two wires to indicate the input logic value. T-FFs are employed to randomize the power dissipated by the circuit. The randomizing is made possible by making the initial states of the flip-flops un-deterministic. Furthermore, the clock is completely eliminated in the conceived design, thus realizing increased power randomization and resistance to the DPA attacks. The design is demonstrated through the systematic simulations on a typical encryption circuit. The validation of the ADTL is made through extensive comparisons with the existing Dual-rail Transition Logic (DTL for power, delay and the DPA resistance. Industry standard EDA tools with 90nm technology libraries provided by the UMC foundry have been employed in the designs.

  7. Inferring ecological relationships from occupancy patterns for California Black Rails in the Sierra Nevada foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Orien Manu Wright

    The secretive California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus ) has a disjunct and poorly understood distribution. After a new population was discovered in Yuba County in 1994, we conducted call playback surveys from 1994--2006 in the Sierra foothills and Sacramento Valley region to determine the distribution and residency of Black Rails, estimate densities, and obtain estimates of site occupancy and detection probability. We found Black Rails at 164 small, widely scattered marshes distributed along the lower western slopes of the Sierra Nevada foothills, from just northeast of Chico (Butte County) to Rocklin (Placer County). Marshes were surrounded by a matrix of unsuitable habitat, creating a patchy or metapopulation structure. We observed Black Rails nesting and present evidence that they are year-round residents. Assuming perfect detectability we estimated a lower-bound mean Black Rail density of 1.78 rails ha-1, and assuming a detection probability of 0.5 we estimated a mean density of 3.55 rails ha-1. We test if the presence of the larger Virginia Rail (Laterallus limicola) affects probabilities of detection or occupancy of the smaller California Black Rail in small freshwater marshes that range in size from 0.013-13.99 ha. We hypothesized that Black Rail occupancy should be lower in small marshes when Virginia Rails are present than when they are absent, because resources are presumably more limited and interference competition should increase. We found that Black Rail detection probability was unaffected by the detection of Virginia Rails, while, surprisingly, Black and Virginia Rail occupancy were positively associated even in small marshes. The average probability of Black Rail occupancy was higher when Virginia Rails were present (0.74 +/- 0.053) than when they were absent (0.36 +/- 0.069), and for both species occupancy increased with marsh size. We assessed the impact of winter (November-May) cattle grazing on occupancy of California Black

  8. Shear Profiles and Velocity Distribution in Dense Shear Granular Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Deng-Ming; ZHOU You-He

    2009-01-01

    We perform DEM simulations to investigate the influence of the packing fraction γ on the,shape of mean tan-gential velocity profile in a 2D annular dense shear granular flow. There is a critical packing fraction γc. For γ < γc, the mean tangential velocity profile shows a roughly exponential decay from the shearing boundary and is almost invariant to the imposed shear rate. However, for γ γc, the tangential velocity profile exhibits a rate-dependence feature and changes from linear to nonlinear gradually with the increasing shear rate. Fhrther-more, the distributions of normalized tangential velocities at different positions along radial direction exhibit the Gaussian or the composite Gaussian distributing features.

  9. Fifty years of shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  10. Fluid-Assisted Shear Failure Within a Ductile Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Compton, K.; Holk, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Exhumed shear zones often contain folded and/or dynamically recrystallized structures such as veins and pseudotachylytes that record contemporaneous brittle and ductile deformation representing mixed bulk rheology. Here, we constrain the conditions that promote the transitions between ductile and brittle deformation by investigating quartz veins with shear offsets in the Saddlebag Lake shear zone in the central Sierra Nevada, California. Mesozoic metasedimentary rocks within the shear zone contain transposed bedding, strong cleavage, dextrally rotated porphyroclasts, and a steep mineral lineation, which together suggest an overall transpressive kinematic regime for the ductile deformation. Foliation sub-parallel veins are one subset of the veins in the shear zone. They have observed horizontal trace lengths of up to around 5 meters, though most are obscured by limited exposure, and displacements range from ~3-30 mm, with 1-5 mm of opening. Foliation sub-parallel veins are folded with the foliation and quartz microstructures and fluid inclusion thermobarometry measurements from vein samples indicate temperatures during vein formation by fracture were between 300-680°C. Quartz δ18O values (+5.9 to +16.5) suggest extended fluid-rock interaction that involved magmatic (δ18O ~ +8 to +10) and meteoric (δ18O down to -1) fluids. Foliation sub-parallel veins are most abundant in relatively massive, quartz-rich rocks where they are boudinaged, indicating they were rigid inclusions after formation. Based on the orientation and spatial distribution of the veins, we infer that they formed under high differential stress with pore pressures sufficiently high for the rocks to be critically stressed for shear failure along mechanically weak foliation planes. These observations suggest high pore pressures and mechanical heterogeneity at a variety of scales are necessary conditions for nucleation of shear fractures within ductile shear zones.

  11. A Rail-To-Rail Hign Speed Class-AB CMOS Buffer with Low Power and Enhanced Slew Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A rail-to-rail class-AB CMOS buffer is proposed in this paper to drive large capacitive loads. A new technique is used to reduce the leakage power of class-AB CMOS buffer circuits without affecting dynamic power dissipation .The name of applied technique is LECTOR, which gives the high speed buffer with the reduced low power dissipation (1.05% and reduced area (2.8%. The proposed buffer is simulated at 45nm CMOS technology and the circuit is operated at 3V supply with cadence software. This analog circuit is performed with extremely low leakage current as well as high current driving capability for the large input voltages. The proposed paper is achieved very high speed with very low propagation delay range i.e.(292×10-12. So the delay of the circuit is reduced to 10%. The settling time of this circuit is reduced by 24% (in ns at 3V square wave input. The measured quiescent current is 41µA.

  12. A Rail-To-Rail Hign Speed Class-AB CMOS Buffer with Low Power and Enhanced Slew Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Sharma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A rail-to-rail class-AB CMOS buffer is proposed in this paper to drive large capacitive loads. A newtechnique is used to reduce the leakage power of class-AB CMOS buffer circuits without affecting dynamicpower dissipation .The name of applied technique is LECTOR, which gives the high speed buffer with thereduced low power dissipation (1.05% and reduced area (2.8%. The proposed buffer is simulated at45nm CMOS technology and the circuit is operated at 3V supply with cadence software. This analog circuitis performed with extremely low leakage current as well as high current driving capability for the largeinput voltages. The proposed paper is achieved very high speed with very low propagation delay rangei.e.(292×10-12. So the delay of the circuit is reduced to 10%. The settling time of this circuit is reduced by24% (in ns at 3V square wave input. The measured quiescent current is 41μA.

  13. Prediction of the interaction between a simple moving vehicle and an infinite periodically supported rail - Green's functions approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazilu, Traian

    2010-09-01

    This paper herein describes the interaction between a simple moving vehicle and an infinite periodically supported rail, in order to signalise the basic features of the vehicle/track vibration behaviour in general, and wheel/rail vibration, in particular. The rail is modelled as an infinite Timoshenko beam resting on semi-sleepers via three-directional rail pads and ballast. The time-domain analysis was performed applying Green's matrix of the track method. This method allows taking into account the nonlinearities of the wheel/rail contact and the Doppler effect. The numerical analysis is dedicated to the wheel/rail response due to two types of excitation: the steady-state interaction and rail irregularities. The study points out to certain aspects regarding the parametric resonance, the amplitude-modulated vibration due to corrugation and the Doppler effect.

  14. Novel Analytical Model of Mean Temperature and Experimental Research on the Rail Universal Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yonggang; ZHANG Wenzhi; SONG Jianfeng

    2009-01-01

    For building the analytical model of mean temperature in rail universal rolling, the cross-section ofworkpieces and the profile of horizontal roll and vertical roll are simplified rationally. The mean temperature of the web of rail, the top of rail and the base of rail are considered individually. The temperature rises for plastic deformation and friction incorresponding deformation zone, the temperature drop for contact is calculated on the base of variation principle and energy conservation law. Then the mean temperature is obtained. For verifying the theoretical model, the 18 kg/m light rail universal rolling experiments are accomplished in Yanshan University Roiling Laboratory, China and the surface temperature is measured. The surface temperature is not exact enough to express the true temperature and the mean temperature can show the status of the true temperature basically. So the mean temperature can be used to express the true temperature and this theoretical model and its results can be applied as an important reference to control the temperature of rail universal rolling and the beat treatment of the rolled rail.

  15. Study on rail corrugation of a metro tangential track with Cologne-egg type fasteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X. L.; Chen, G. X.; Yang, H. G.; Zhang, Q.; Ouyang, H.; Zhu, M. H.

    2016-03-01

    In Chinese metro lines, rail corrugation on both tangential and tight curved tracks with Cologne-egg type fasteners is very severe. Based on the viewpoint of friction-induced vibration causing rail corrugation, the rail corrugation on a tangential track with Cologne-egg type fasteners is studied in this paper. A vibration model of an elastic multiple-wheelset-track system with Cologne-egg type fasteners is established. Both the complex eigenvalue analysis and the transient dynamic analysis are performed to study the stability and the dynamic performance of the wheelset-track system. The simulation results show that a low rail support stiffness value is responsible for rail corrugation on the tangential track. When the Cologne-egg fasteners characterised by a lower stiffness value are replaced with the DTVI2 fasteners characterised by a higher stiffness value, rail corrugation disappears. However, rail corrugation on tight curved tracks cannot be suppressed using the same replacement. The above conclusions are consistent with the corrugation occurrences in actual metro tracks.

  16. Range-wide wetland associations of the King Rail: A multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Wesley J.; Conway, Courtney J.; Nadeau, Christopher P.; Borgmann, Kathi L.; Laxson, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    King Rail populations have declined and identifying wetland features that influence King Rail occupancy can help prevent further population declines. We integrated continent-wide marsh bird survey data with spatial wetland data from the National Wetland Inventory (NWI) to examine wetland features that influenced King Rail occupancy throughout the species’ range. We analyzed wetland data at 7 spatial scales to examine the scale(s) at which 68 wetland features were most strongly related to King Rail occupancy. Occupancy was most strongly associated with estuarine features and brackish and tidal saltwater regimes. King Rail occupancy was positively associated with emergent and scrub-shrub wetlands and negatively associated with forested wetlands. The best spatial scale for assessing King Rail occupancy differed among wetland features; we could not identify one spatial scale (among all wetland features) that best explained variation in occupancy. Future research on King Rail habitat that includes multiple spatial scales is more likely to identify the suite of features that influence occupancy. Our results indicate that NWI data may be useful for predicting occupancy based on broad habitat features across the King Rail’s range, which may help inform management decisions for this and other wetland-dependent birds.

  17. Sulfur and manganese formation modelling during continuous casting of converter rail steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Д. Каліш

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rail steel production in oxygen converters is of particular interest nowadays. High requirements are imposed upon rail steel quality. The current work deals with one of the most important factors influencing the formation of manganese sulfide in converter rail steel. The thermodynamic calculations of rail steel crystallization at the cooling rate of 100 K/min. are given in the work. Computer simulation results are presented as graphs showing the separation of components, as well as curves showing the process of nonmetallic inclusions formation. It has been determined that chemical composition is the most important factor in the formation of non-metallic inclusions. Materials used for the rail steel production must meet the highest requirements as to the properties of materials, shape and durability. Non-metallic inclusions are one of the factors negatively influencing the strength of rail steel. The manganese sulfide precipitates during steel solidification as a result of segregation processes on the solidification front. One of the factors influencing the strength parameters of rail steel is sulphur, i.e. the main component of MnS. Sulphur is commonly considered to be a negative element in steel, except for the situation when it is purposefully added to improve its machinability. Computer simulation and theoretical analysis methods were used in this work. Computer simulation with the use of non-commercial software was used for the calculation of manganese and sulfur segregation in liquid steel during solidification

  18. Grafted polymer under shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Foster, Damien P.; Giri, Debaprasad; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    A self-attracting-self-avoiding walk model of polymer chain on a square lattice has been used to gain an insight into the behaviour of a polymer chain under shear flow in a slit of width L. Using exact enumeration technique, we show that at high temperature, the polymer acquires the extended state continuously increasing with shear stress. However, at low temperature the polymer exhibits two transitions: a transition from the coiled to the globule state and a transition to a stem-flower like state. For a chain of finite length, we obtained the exact monomer density distributions across the layers at different temperatures. The change in density profile with shear stress suggests that the polymer under shear flow can be used as a molecular gate with potential application as a sensor.

  19. SEDflume - High Shear Stress Flume

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers High Shear Stress flume (SEDflume) is designed for estimating erosion rates of fine-grained and mixed fine/coarse grained sediments...

  20. Review on Malaysian Rail Transit Operation and Management System: Issues and Solution in Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masirin, Mohd Idrus Mohd; Salin, Aminah Mohd; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Martin, David; Samsuddin, Norshakina

    2017-08-01

    In any context, operation and management of transportation systems are key issues which may affect both life quality and economic development. In large urban agglomerations, an efficient public transportation system may help abate the negative externalities of private car use such as congestion, air and noise pollution, accident and fuel consumption, without excessively penalizing user travel times or zone accessibility. Thus, this study is conducted to appraise the Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system, which are considered important as there are many issues and solution in integration of the services that need to be tackled more conscientiously. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the most important issues on integration of services and rail transit system in Malaysian and how to solve or reduce these problems and conflicts. In this paper, it consists of the historical development of rail transit construction in Malaysia. This paper also attempts to identify the important issues related to rail transit services and integration in Malaysian rural rail operation and management system. Comparison is also conducted with other countries such as UK, France, and Japan. Finally, a critical analysis is presented in this paper by looking at the possible application for future Malaysian rail transit operation system and management, especially focusing on enhancing the quality of Malaysian rural rail transit. In conclusion, this paper is expected to successfully review and appraise the existing Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system pertaining to issues & solution in integration. It is also hoped that reformation or transformation of present service delivery quality of the rail transit operation and management will enable Malaysia to succeed in transforming Malaysian transportation system to greater heights.

  1. A waveguide finite element and boundary element approach to calculating the sound radiated by railway and tram rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, C.-M.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Ryue, J.

    2009-04-01

    Engineering methods for modelling the generation of railway rolling noise are well established. However, these necessarily involve some simplifying assumptions to calculate the sound powers radiated by the wheel and the track. For the rail, this involves using an average vibration together with a radiation efficiency determined for a two-dimensional (2D) problem. In this paper, the sound radiation from a rail is calculated using a method based on a combination of waveguide finite elements and wavenumber boundary elements. This new method allows a number of the simplifying assumptions in the established methods to be avoided. It takes advantage of the 2D geometry of a rail to provide an efficient numerical approach but nevertheless takes into account the three-dimensional nature of the vibration and sound field and the infinite extent of the rail. The approach is used to study a conventional 'open' rail as well as an embedded tram rail of the type used for street running. In the former case it is shown that the conventional approach gives correct results and the complexity of the new method is mostly not necessary. However, for the embedded rail it is found that it is important to take into account the radiation from several wave types in the rail and embedding material. The damping effect of the embedding material on the rail vibration is directly taken into account and, for the example shown, causes the embedded rail to radiate less sound than the open rail above about 600 Hz. The free surface of the embedding material amplifies the sound radiation at some frequencies, while at other frequencies it moves out of phase with the rail and reduces the radiation efficiency. At low frequencies the radiation from the embedded rail resembles a line monopole source which produces greater power than the 'open' rail which forms a line dipole.

  2. Design of Rail Instrumentation for Wind Tunnel Sonic Boom Measurements and Computational-Experimental Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Elmiligui, A.; Aftosmis, M.; Morgenstern, J.; Durston, D.; Thomas, S.

    2012-01-01

    An innovative pressure rail concept for wind tunnel sonic boom testing of modern aircraft configurations with very low overpressures was designed with an adjoint-based solution-adapted Cartesian grid method. The computational method requires accurate free-air calculations of a test article as well as solutions modeling the influence of rail and tunnel walls. Specialized grids for accurate Euler and Navier-Stokes sonic boom computations were used on several test articles including complete aircraft models with flow-through nacelles. The computed pressure signatures are compared with recent results from the NASA 9- x 7-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel using the advanced rail design.

  3. Common Rail System for GDI Engines Modelling, Identification, and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Fiengo, Giovanni; Palladino, Angelo; Giglio, Veniero

    2013-01-01

    Progressive reductions in vehicle emission requirements have forced the automotive industry to invest in research and development of alternative control strategies. Continual control action exerted by a dedicated electronic control unit ensures that best performance in terms of pollutant emissions and power density is married with driveability and diagnostics. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology is a way to attain these goals. This brief describes the functioning of a GDI engine equipped with a common rail (CR) system, and the devices necessary to run test-bench experiments in detail. The text should prove instructive to researchers in engine control and students are recommended to this brief as their first approach to this technology. Later chapters of the brief relate an innovative strategy designed to assist with the engine management system; injection pressure regulation for fuel pressure stabilization in the CR fuel line is proposed and validated by experiment. The resulting control scheme ...

  4. Standard practice for determining rail-to-Earth resistance

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the procedures necessary to follow for measuring resistance-to-earth of the running rails which are used as the conductors for returning the train operating current to the substation in electric mass transit systems. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Implementations of newly developed wheel and rail profile design methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Shen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The developments of a series of wheel profile computer aided methods based on the RRDF or CADF contact functions are briefly described. Since 2001 the implementations of these methods are carried out according to different requirements for tramway vehicles, metro vehicles, and main line EMU vehicles etc. It is found that the main advantage of these new methods in wheel profile design is obtaining the proper wheel profiles to efficiently reduce the wears of wheel and rail and to improve the performances of both stability and curving performances. Moreover, post process of transfering a profile with discrete points to a profile with arc and line combinations is studied with a high precision.

  6. Tunnel pressure waves - A smartphone inquiry on rail travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Hirth, Michael; Kuhn, Jochen

    2016-02-01

    When traveling by rail, you might have experienced the following phenomenon: The train enters a tunnel, and after some seconds a noticeable pressure change occurs, as perceived by your ears or even by a rapid wobbling of the train windows. The basic physics is that pressure waves created by the train travel down the tunnel, are reflected at its other end, and travel back until they meet the train again. Here we will show (i) how this effect can be well understood as a kind of large-scale outdoor case of a textbook paradigm, and (ii) how, e.g., a prediction of the tunnel length from the inside of a moving train on the basis of this model can be validated by means of a mobile phone measurement.

  7. Current developments in rail crossing points; Aktuelle Entwicklungen bei Bahnkreuzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassmann, Andre [Open Grid Europe GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    More than a thousand intersections of gas or water pipelines operated by the supply utilities and the Deutsche Bahn AG railway operator are installed or modified every year. The legal and technical background to these crossing points are therefore of particular interest for these utilities. These conditions are defined in the ''Directive 2000'' (Gas and Water Crossing-Point Directive) published by DB AG and the BGW (Federal Association of the German Gas and Water Industries) [1]. Revision of the ''crossing-point rules'' had become urgently necessary, due to technical progress and amended reference standards and, in particular, to the introduction of European standards in this field. The following article examines the previous and new standards situation for gas and water pipeline intersections with rail and provides corresponding information. (orig.)

  8. Pressure versus current scaling in a blocked bore rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, B. D.; Eubank, Eric; Nunnally, W. C.

    1993-07-01

    The paper presents experimental results from a blocked bore plasma armature rail gun. A piezoelectric transducer mounted in the bore blocking structure recorded time-resolved pressures over a range of input currents from 50 to 150 kA. The bore block is located at four positions where peak current occurs for the four respective charging voltages to power the system. Problems associated with obtaining these measurements and the solutions employed are discussed. Average distances from the block face to the armature current centroid are estimated assuming a pressure balance between the magnetic and neutral pressures. The averages of the measured pressures were found to be proportional to the input current raised to the power of 1.655.

  9. Reported Design Processes for Accessibility in Rail Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard; Cook, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    ). The research found that the role of users in the design process of manufacturers was limited and that compliance with industry standards was the dominant means to achieving accessibility goals. Design consultancies were willing to apply more user-centred design if the client requested it. Where operators were......Accessibility is a fundamental requirement in public transport (PT) yet there exists little research on design for accessibility or inclusive design (ID) in this area. This paper sets out to discover what methods are used in the rail sector to achieve accessibility goals and to examine how far...... these methods deviate from user-centred and ID norms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine rolling stock producers, operators and design consultancies. The purpose was to determine if ID design methods are used explicitly and the extent to which the processes used conformed to ID (if at all...

  10. An evaluation of rail access routes to Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathisan, S.K.; Parentela, E.M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper provides a preliminary evaluation and characterization of potential rail routes for the transport of high level radioactive waste from their current storage locations (76 power plants and 4 federal facilities) to the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Individual routes were determined for shipments from each origin using the INTERLINE model. They were characterized in terms of shipment distance, number of transfers and states transversed. Additionally, specific routing constraints were imposed for a selected subset of the origins to address policy and operational alternatives such as minimizing shipment distance, number of transfers or number of states traversed. Results of the analysis indicate that the imposition of the routing constraint count result in reducing shipment distances, and the number of states traversed. But a tradeoff between these factors and the number of transfers exists.

  11. Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko

    2013-01-01

    We report experimental observations of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed...

  12. System diagnosis using finite memory observers: Common Rail application; Diagnostic des systemes a l'aide d'observateurs a memoire finie: application au Common Rail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graton, G.

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this work was to propose a fault detection method on the high pressure direct injection system (called Common Rail system) set up on Diesel vehicles. The importance of the fault detection procedure implementation was highlighted thanks to the description of the stakes (lowers consumption, reduction in the pollutant emissions and sound, increase of performances) and constraints dependent on Common Rail (high pressure, high frequency, gas oil lubrication, high precision machining, standards EURO respect,...) but also through a listing of failures which can occur on Common Rail. A synthesis on the different diagnosis methods of systems contributed to select a fault detection method with expected performances (detection of fault beginning, detection speed, isolation and characterization of detected fault and minimizing false alarm and bad detections). After a detailed study (properties, sequential formulations and sensitivity study) of the selected detection method (finite memory observers) and a modeling of the Common Rail various bodies behavior, the algorithm of detection was tested on three different models of the system Common Rail. Moreover, the comparison between the finite memory observer and a Luenberger observer and a Kalman filter allow to appreciate the residual robustness degree. Obtained results allow to conclude on good detection of actuator and sensor faults. (author)

  13. Shear elasticity of fluids at low-frequent shear influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmaev, Badma B; Budaev, Ochir R; Dembelova, Tuyana S; Damdinov, Bair B

    2006-12-22

    The visco-elastic properties of liquids have been investigated using acoustical resonance method. Piezoquatrz performed tangential oscillations on the main resonance frequency of 74 kHz contacts by the one end of horizontal surface with the studied liquid layer covered by quartz cover-plate. So the stagnant shear waves are installed in layer. The solution of interaction of piezoquartz-liquid layer-cover-plate gives three methods of determination of the real shear modulus (G) and the tangent of mechanical loss angle (tan theta) of liquid. The first method is realized at smaller thickness of liquid layer then the length of shear wave. Liquids of different classes have been studied using this method: polymer liquids, oils, glycols and alcohols. The second method is connected with the propagation of shear wave in liquid layer, parameters of which are determined the G and tan theta. And the third method is based on the determination of limit shift of resonance frequencies at completes damping of shear wave in thick layer of liquid. All these three methods give satisfactory agreement of results.

  14. Assessment of the risk of transporting liquid chlorine by rail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.B.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the risk of shipping liquid chlorine by rail. While chlorine is not an energy material, there are several benefits to studying chlorine transportation risks. First, chlorine, like energy materials, is widely used as a feedstock to industry. Second, it is the major purification agent in municipal water treatment systems and therefore, provides direct benefits to the public. Finally, other risk assessments have been completed for liquid chlorine shipments in the US and Europe, which provide a basis for comparison with this study. None of the previous PNL energy material risk assessments have had other studies for comparison. For these reasons, it was felt that a risk assessment of chlorine transportation by rail could provide information on chlorine risk levels, identify ways to reduce these risks and use previous studies on chlorine risks to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the PNL risk assessment methodology. The risk assessment methodology used in this study is summarized. The methodology is presented in the form of a risk assessment model which is constructed for ease of periodic updating of the data base so that the risk may be reevaluated as additional data become available. The report is sectioned to correspond to specific analysis steps identified in the model. The transport system and accident environment are described. The response of the transport system to accident environments is described. Release sequences are postulated and evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a direct comparison with other reports in this series.

  15. 75 FR 16564 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intercity passenger rail ridership growth. In the FY 2010 DOT Appropriations Act, Congress built upon the..., maintenance of equipment, transportation (train movement), passenger traffic and services (marketing... corridor program to promote economic development, including contributions to a sustainable...

  16. Cooled electronic system with thermal spreaders coupling electronics cards to cold rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

    2013-07-23

    Liquid-cooled electronic systems are provided which include an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket or removal of the card from the socket. A liquid-cooled cold rail is disposed at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader couples the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The thermally conductive extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

  17. Dombrovskis: toetus Rail Balticule sõltub Siim Kallasest / Valdis Dombrovskis ; intervjueerinud Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dombrovskis, Valdis, 1971-

    2011-01-01

    Intervjuu Läti peaministriga Swedbankiga seotud sularahapaanikast, LNG terminali asukohast, Läti ettepanekust peatada Baltimaade eletrkisüsteemide Euroopaga sünkroniseerimise projekt, Poola väljumisest kavandatavast Visaginase tuumajaama projektist, Rail Balticust

  18. Rail survey for the Bi-county area of Pike County in Missouri and Illinois

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes rail surveys conducted on Great River and Clarence Cannon NWRs. This project was undertaken to 1) contribute to a nationwide assessment of...

  19. Greater Paris Rail System%巴黎地区轨道交通系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylviane DELMAS

    2007-01-01

    @@ Greater Paris is famous for its extensive metro and RER (express rail) system. By the end of 2006, there were 14 metro lines in Paris as illustrated in Figure 1, and 5 RER lines as illustrated in Figure 2.

  20. Summary of California Clapper Rail Winter Populations in the San Francisco Bay, 1989 to 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The federal and state endangered California clapper rail, Rallus longirostris obsoletus. is a species that, until very recently, was on the verge of extinction. This...

  1. Breeding density, nesting habitat, and predators of the California Clapper Rail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We studied the breeding density and nesting activities of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in south San Francisco Bay between April and...

  2. Factors affecting reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We assessed the reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), an endangered species restricted to San Francisco Bay, and the...

  3. Indirect method for wheel-rail force measurement and derailment evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lai; Zeng, Jing; Wu, Pingbo; Gao, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Wheel set flange derailment criteria for railway vehicles are derived and the influence of wheel-rail contact parameters is studied. An indirect method for wheel-rail force measurement based on these derailment evaluation criteria is proposed. Laboratory tests for the calibration of strain-force devices on the bearing box are carried out to determine the relationship between the applied force and the measured strain. The simulation package, SIMPACK, is used to develop a passenger car model to generate wheel-rail forces and vibration signals. Different cases are considered in this model to provide an accurate validation of the identified wheel-rail forces. A feasibility test is conducted in the Beijing Loop test line using a passenger car equipped with a set of strain gauges on the wheel set. The comparison of the force time history applied to the instrumented wheel set and that obtained using the indirect method is presented.

  4. Simulation Analysis Module of High-speed Rail Bearings Based on Secondary Development in ADAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; YE Jun; XU Juan; LUO Yi-chao

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a strong secondary development based on ADAMS feature which creates high-speed rail bearings for simulation analysis module. This thesis is in the case of non-circular pattern instructions of how to achieve rapid roller modeling, with analysis of functions and parameters required for the design of the simulation module of the high-speed rail bearing , as well as the design of dialog boxes, the environment and file structure. The specific modules is based on the secondary development language provided by ADAMS/View. Through the menus, dialog boxes which input parameters, it can achieve high iron bearing automatic modeling, dynamic analysis and post-processing to simplify the analysis of high-speed rail bearing operations, as well as improving the high-speed rail bearing development efficiency.

  5. 75 FR 16562 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... councils and planning organizations, neighboring States, railroads, transportation modal partners... proposals for Federally-led multi- state passenger rail corridor planning demonstration projects. SUMMARY... used for planning activities. The appropriations act permits the Secretary of Transportation to...

  6. The Development of Rail Transportation and the Application of High Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QianQiangquan; HeZhengyou

    2004-01-01

    Many developed countries in the world have adopted high tec hnology to rebuild andimprove the rail transportation industry ae—tively.It has greatly increased the security and automation degree of railtransportation.Since“the ninth five year plan”.the veloeity andquality of rai transportation infrastructure construction have been improved quickly by applying high teehnology in China.However.there still exist many differences between China and the developed countries in the development of rail transportation.In this paper theauthor systematically introduced the application of high technology.in rail transportation suchasrailway,metro,light railway.railway nearbySU—burb,maglev railway,etc.and also the development road to high technology.industrialization in transportation field.on thebasis of view.ing the current development condition and the trend of rail transportation in the world and analyzing the development status andtrend of railtransoortation in China.

  7. 36 CFR 1192.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) All cars for high-speed rail systems, including but not limited to those using “maglev” or high speed...., not used by freight trains) or guideway, in which stations are constructed in accordance with...

  8. Breeding Season Study of the California Clapper Rail in San Francisco Bay, 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals of this study were to further investigate the suitability of brackish marshes in south San Francisco Bay to support breeding rails and to examine how the...

  9. Summary of California Clapper Rail winter populations in the San Francisco National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Clapper rail (Rallus lonqirostris obsoletus) is a seldom seen resident in some of the remaining tidal salt marshes in San Francisco Bay. The...

  10. Wheel-rail dynamic forces induced by random vertical track irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroiu, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper investigates the wheel-rail dynamic forces produced by railway vehicles in motion, which are an important issue especially for the high-speed rail transport from the point of view of traffic safety, ride quality and undesirable effects on vehicles, on track and on the land in the vicinity of railways. The research is carried out on a model which includes track system, vehicle unsprung mass, vehicle primary suspension and the bogie sprung mass. The wheel-rail dynamic overloads are evaluated assuming random vertical irregularities of the track. The estimation of wheel-rail dynamic forces is made for a range of vehicle speeds up to 300 km/h and the influence of track and vehicle various parameters is investigated.

  11. Toward a sectorwide design for environment support system for the rail industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulp, Wim; Duflou, Joost; Ander, Asa

    2004-08-01

    Rail has an important role to play in the development toward a sustainable transportation system. In this perspective, the European Brite Euram Project RAVEL (Rail Vehicle Eco-Efficient Design) has developed a rail sectorwide Design for Environment system to be used and standardized throughout the full supply chain. At the core of the system, quantitative environmental performance indicators for rail vehicles and components are used to incorporate environmental performance target levels in the product requirements and to measure and communicate achieved environmental performance. The concept of eco-efficiency is used to integrate both environmental and economical considerations. The methodology further builds on a standardized material list, standardized data formats, and proactive design guidance. To date, first steps are already taken to integrate the RAVEL project results into sector initiatives toward industrywide acceptance and standardization.

  12. Field investigation on effects of railway track geometric parameters on rail wear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SADEGHI J.; AKBARI B.

    2006-01-01

    Rail wear has dramatic impact on track performance, ride quality and maintenance costs. The amount of rail wear is influenced by various elements among which geometric parameters play an important role. The amount of wear in Iran's railway lines and its imposed maintenance costs oblige us to make modifications on the various geometrical parameters. In order to ensure the effectiveness of these changes, it is necessary to investigate these parameters and their effects on the wear. This research is aimed at studying the effects of different track geometrical parameters on the vertical and lateral wear by conducting a three phase field investigation. The first phase was carried out at the switches of a station, the second phase at a straight line, and the third at a curved line out of the station. The results obtained are analyzed and the role of each track geometrical parameter in the rail wear is discussed. Recommendations for prevention or reduction of rail wear are presented.

  13. Rail Baltic trügib Nabalasse / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2013-01-01

    Majandusministeeriumi plaanitava kiirrongiühenduse Rail Balticu võimalikud kulgemisteed läbivad keskkonnaministeeriumis kavandatavat Nabala karstiala maastikukaitseala, samuti pole trassivariantide koostamisel arvesse võetud metsloomade liikumist

  14. Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

  15. Honolulu Rail Transit: International Lessons in Linking Form, Design, and Transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Boeing, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The city of Honolulu, Hawaii is currently planning and developing a new rail transit system. While Honolulu has supportive density and topography for rail transit, questions remain about its ability to effectively integrate urban design and accessibility across the system. Every transit trip begins and ends with a walking trip from origins and to destinations: transportation planning must account for pedestrian safety, comfort, and access. Ildefons Cerda's 19th century utopian plan for Barcelona's Eixample district produced a renowned, livable urban form. The Eixample, with its well-integrated rail transit, serves as a model of urban design, land use, transportation planning, and pedestrian-scaled streets working in synergy to produce accessibility. This study discusses the urban form of Honolulu and the history and planning of its new rail transit system. Then it reviews the history of Cerda's plan for the Eixample and discusses its urban form and performance today. Finally it draws several lessons from Barc...

  16. Design and optimisation of wheel-rail profiles for adhesion improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Mei, T. X.; Bruni, S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes a study for the optimisation of the wheel profile in the wheel-rail system to increase the overall level of adhesion available at the contact interface, in particular to investigate how the wheel and rail profile combination may be designed to ensure the improved delivery of tractive/braking forces even in poor contact conditions. The research focuses on the geometric combination of both wheel and rail profiles to establish how the contact interface may be optimised to increase the adhesion level, but also to investigate how the change in the property of the contact mechanics at the wheel-rail interface may also lead to changes in the vehicle dynamic behaviour.

  17. Rail Baltic trügib Nabalasse / Ulvar Käärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käärt, Ulvar, 1982-

    2013-01-01

    Majandusministeeriumi plaanitava kiirrongiühenduse Rail Balticu võimalikud kulgemisteed läbivad keskkonnaministeeriumis kavandatavat Nabala karstiala maastikukaitseala, samuti pole trassivariantide koostamisel arvesse võetud metsloomade liikumist

  18. Universal asynchronous RSFQ gate for realization of Boolean functions of dual-rail binary variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimov, B [University of Technology Ilmenau, Institute for Information Technology, PO Box 100565, D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Khabipov, M [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Division 2.42, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Balashov, D [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Division 2.42, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Brandt, C M [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Division 2.42, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Ortlepp, Th [University of Technology Ilmenau, Institute for Information Technology, PO Box 100565, D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Hagedorn, D [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Division 2.42, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Buchholz, F-Im [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Division 2.42, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Niemeyer, J [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Division 2.42, Bundesallee 100, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Uhlmann, F H [University of Technology Ilmenau, Institute for Information Technology, PO Box 100565, D-98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2006-06-01

    We report on the design, optimization, fabrication, and successful testing of an universal asynchronous RSFQ logic gate based on the dual-rail data coding. Properly connecting its inputs and outputs, one can perform most of the basic Boolean functions over a pair of dual-rail input variables. Therefore, this gate is fundamental component for the development of high-speed complex asynchronous RSFQ digital devices.

  19. ANALYSIS OF LATERAL VIBRATION OF THE WHEEL RELATIVE TO THE RAIL WITH VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Melnychuk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article the videotape recordings of wheel motion on rail track, done during the dynamic tests of carriages, are analyzed. The treatment includes fixing of wheel rim positions in relation to a rail, construction of the spline function of displacement and its frequency description. The purpose of analysis is to determine the presence of harmonic components in the transversal wheel displacements.

  20. Relating Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) occupancy to habitat and landscape features in the context of fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jane E.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yellow Rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis) is a focal species of concern associated with shallowly flooded emergent wetlands, most commonly sedge (Carex spp.) meadows. Their populations are believed to be limited by loss or degradation of wetland habitat due to drainage, altered hydrology, and fire suppression, factors that have often resulted in encroachment of shrubs into sedge meadows and change in vegetative cover. Nocturnal call-playback surveys for Yellow Rails were conducted over 3 years at Seney National Wildlife Refuge in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Effects of habitat structure and landscape variables on the probability of use by Yellow Rails were assessed at two scales, representing a range of home range sizes, using generalized linear mixed models. At the 163-m (8-ha) scale, year with quadratic models of maximum and mean water depths best explained the data. At the 300-m (28-ha) scale, the best model contained year and time since last fire (≤ 1, 2–5, and > 10 years). The probability of use by Yellow Rails was 0.285 ± 0.132 (SE) for points burned 2-5 years ago, 0.253 ± 0.097 for points burned ≤ 1 year ago, and 0.028 ± 0.019 for points burned > 10 years ago. Habitat differences relative to fire history and comparisons between sites with and without Yellow Rails indicated that Yellow Rails used areas with the deepest litter and highest ground cover, and relatively low shrub cover and heights, as well as landscapes having greater sedge-grass cover and less lowland woody or upland cover types. Burning every 2-5 years appears to provide the litter, ground-level cover, and woody conditions attractive to Yellow Rails. Managers seeking to restore and sustain these wetland systems would benefit from further investigations into how flooding and fire create habitat conditions attractive to breeding Yellow Rails

  1. Microhabitat selection, demography, and correlates of home range size for the King Rail (Rallus elegans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Bradley A.; King, Sammy L.

    2013-01-01

    Animal movements and habitat selection within the home range, or microhabitat selection, can provide insights into habitat requirements, such as foraging and area requirements. The King Rail (Rallus elegans) is a wetland bird of high conservation concern in the United States, but little is known about its movements, habitats, or demography. King Rails (n = 34) were captured during the 2010–2011 breeding seasons in the coastal marshes of southwest Louisiana and southeast Texas. Radio telemetry and direct habitat surveys of King Rail locations were conducted to estimate home ranges and microhabitat selection. Within home ranges, King Rails selected for greater plant species richness and comparatively greater coverage of Phragmites australis, Typha spp., and Schoenoplectus robustus. King Rails were found closer to open water compared to random locations placed 50 m from King Rail locations. Home ranges (n = 22) varied from 0.8–32.8 ha and differed greatly among sites. Home range size did not vary by year or sex; however, increased open water, with a maximum of 29% observed in the study, was correlated with smaller home ranges. Breeding season cumulative survivorship was 89% ± 22% in 2010 and 61% ± 43% in 2011, which coincided with a drought. With an equal search effort, King Rail chicks and juveniles observed in May-June decreased from 110 in 2010 to only 16 in the drier year of 2011. The findings show King Rail used marsh with ≤ 29% open water and had smaller home ranges when open water was more abundant.

  2. To the question of modeling of wheels and rails wear processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Myamlin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a need of wear process modeling in the wheel-rail system. This is related to the fact that the wear processes in this system are absolutely different in the initial and final stages. The profile change of rail and, especially, of the wheels caused by the wear significantly affects the rolling stock dynamics, traffic safety and the resource of the wheels and rails. Wear modeling and the traffic safety evaluation requires the accounting of the low frequency component forces (including the modeling of transitional areas affecting the wheel on the side of the rail and carriage in motion of rolling stock, so the statistical analysis is not possible. Methodology. The method of mathematical modeling of the wheel set and the rail interaction was used during the research conducting. Findings. As a result of the modeling of the wheel set motion on the rail track, the mathematic model with 19 freedom degrees was obtained. This model takes into account the axle torque and studies wheels constructions as the components of the mechanical systems, consisting of a hub and tire. Originality. The mathematic model allows evaluating the wear degree of the wheels and rails when using on the rolling stock not only all-metal wheel sets, but also compound ones with the use of spring wheels and independent rotation of semi-axes with the wheels. Practical value. The development of the improved mathematical model of freight car wheel set motion with differential rotation of the wheels and compound axles allows studying the wear processes of wheels and rails.

  3. Lubricity Doser Evaluation Studies on High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    high-pressure common rail system found on John Deere 4.5L Powertech Engines. The completion of a modified test protocol based on the NATO test cycle...Pressure Common Rail (HPCR) fuel system found on a John Deere 4.5L PowetechPlus engine. The three fuels that were tested on the HPCR test rig with...for John Deere HPCR Pump Stand ............................................................................. 10 Table 3. Test Fuels and Summary of

  4. Quantitative calculation of local shear deformation in adiabatic shear band for Ti-6Al-4V

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    JOHNSON-COOK(J-C) model was used to calculate flow shear stress-shear strain curve for Ti-6Al-4V in dynamic torsion test. The predicted curve was compared with experimental result. Gradient-dependent plasticity(GDP) was introduced into J-C model and GDP was involved in the measured flow shear stress-shear strain curve, respectively, to calculate the distribution of local total shear deformation(LTSD) in adiabatic shear band(ASB). The predicted LTSDs at different flow shear stresses were compared with experimental measurements. J-C model can well predict the flow shear stress-shear strain curve in strain-hardening stage and in strain-softening stage where flow shear stress slowly decreases. Beyond the occurrence of ASB, with a decrease of flow shear stress, the increase of local plastic shear deformation in ASB is faster than the decrease of elastic shear deformation, leading to more and more apparent shear localization. According to the measured flow shear stress-shear strain curve and GDP, the calculated LTSDs in ASB are lower than experimental results. At earlier stage of ASB, though J-C model overestimates the flow shear stress at the same shear strain, the model can reasonably assess the LTSDs in ASB. According to the measured flow shear stress-shear strain curve and GDP, the calculated local plastic shear strains in ASB agree with experimental results except for the vicinity of shear fracture surface. In the strain-softening stage where flow shear stress sharply decreases, J-C model cannot be used. When flow shear stress decreases to a certain value, shear fracture takes place so that GDP cannot be used.

  5. Further investigations of plasma armature performance in the Culham Laboratory HTF rail launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, N.; Spikings, C. R.; Oxley, C. M.; Beacham, J. R.; Putley, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results from an experimental investigation of plasma armature behavior in the Culham Laboratory HTF rail launcher. The object of this work was to gain further insight into the conditions which lead to the formation of secondary plasma arcs in the rail launcher. The railgun was operated with a 1 cm square bore formed from glass reinforced epoxy insulators and either stainless steel or copper rails. A 1 MJ, 8 kV capacitor bank was used as the power supply; this was arranged in five 200 kJ modules. The modules were sequentially fired, to produce a current waveform approximating to a linear ramp in the railgun. B-dot probes were used to measure the behavior of the plasma armatures in the launcher. A number of calibration checks were performed to assess the quality of the B-dot probe measurements, with regard to both spatial resolution and rail current measurement. Experimental results were obtained with projectile muzzle velocities ranging from 1.5 km/s to 3.0 km/s, two free arc shots also occurred during the test series. The results show that the launcher performed much better with copper rails than with stainless steel rails. The results also show that the glass epoxy insulators performed much better than the acetyl copolymer material previously used in HTF.

  6. Sound radiation of a railway rail in close proximity to the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianying; Squicciarini, Giacomo; Thompson, David J.

    2016-02-01

    The sound radiation of a railway in close to proximity to a ground (both rigid and absorptive) is predicted by the boundary element method (BEM) in two dimensions (2D). Results are given in terms of the radiation ratio for both vertical and lateral motion of the rail, when the effects of the acoustic boundary conditions due to the sleepers and ballast are taken into account in the numerical models. Allowance is made for the effect of wave propagation along the rail by applying a correction in the 2D modelling. It is shown that the 2D correction is necessary at low frequency, for both vertical and lateral motion of an unsupported rail, especially in the vicinity of the corresponding critical frequency. However, this correction is not applicable for a supported rail; for vertical motion no correction is needed to the 2D result while for lateral motion the corresponding correction would depend on the pad stiffness. Finally, the corresponding numerical predictions of the sound radiation from a rail are verified by comparison with experimental results obtained using a 1/5 scale rail model in different configurations.

  7. Analysis of Benefits to Young Rail Enthusiasts of Participating in Extracurricular Academic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Fraszczyk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines a number of positive academic outcomes achieved by university students who, as young rail enthusiasts representing over 10 European institutions, took part in extracurricular rail-related academic activities. Analyses presented in the paper are based on the evaluation of the responses to the questionnaire distributed amongst participants of three consecutive editions of an intensive program in rail and logistics which took place in 2012, 2013, and 2014. Also, quotes from follow-up one-to-one interviews with participants are used to support the results presented. The sample for each year varies in terms of numbers, nationalities, academic backgrounds, and male:female ratio. Academic benefits are specifically looked into, which includes teaching and learning activities throughout the three weeks of the program. The analysis of results revealed that young rail enthusiasts who participated in the program benefited from lectures delivered in Week 1, especially those focused on multimodal transport and rail infrastructure in 2013, which received positive mean ratings of 4.45 and 4.53, respectively, on a five-point Likert scale. Moreover, academic benefits were strongly supported by non-technical skills improvements in areas such as English language and communication, both reaching the mean ratings of 4.35 or above in 2014. A number of recommendations for improvements of next editions of similar rail-related programs as well as areas for future research are identified in the paper

  8. Study of Key Factors Determinant Choice of Rail-Based Mass Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ircham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to regulations of the Ministry of Transportation in 2002 about the type of transport based on the city size, the metropolis with a population of more than 1 million inhabitants are required to have the urban mass transit. Nevertheless, until now not all city-scale population of more than 1 million have mass public transport, either bus or rail-based. Especially for rail-based mass transit, indicated the existing regulations have not been able to challenge the development of rail-based urban mass transit. Learning from the literature study and the experience of countries that already have rail-based urban mass transit it has acquired nine main factors to be taken into account in developing a rail-based urban public transportation. This study was conducted by using Analytical Hierarchy Process method which was further validated through the implementation of the On Focus Group Discussion in the Jakarta City Transportation Council (DTKJ as well as in the City Development Planning Board (Bappeko Surabaya. Finally, the initial result shown five sequences determining factor for the determinant choice of rail-based mass transit, namely: fiscal or economic capacity of the region and society, transport policy, integrated public transport, land use, fare and travel time. Furthermore, the acquisition results of this study can be applied to the selected cities to address the challenges to urban mass transit development.

  9. Mobile 3D laser scanning technology application in the surveying of urban underground rail transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Youmei; Yang, Bogang; Zhen, Yinan

    2016-11-01

    Mobile 3D laser scanning technology is one hot kind of digital earth technology. 3D completion surveying is relative new concept in surveying and mapping. A kind of mobile 3D laser scanning system was developed for the urban underground rail 3D completion surveying. According to the characteristics of underground rail environment and the characters of the mobile laser scanning system, it designed a suitable test scheme to improving the accuracy of this kind of mobile laser scanning system when it worked under no GPS signal environment. Then it completed the application of this technology in the No.15 rail 3D completion surveying. Meanwhile a set of production process was made for the 3D completion surveying based on this kind of mobile 3D laser scanning technology. These products were also proved the efficiency of the new technology in the rail 3D completion surveying. Using mobile 3D laser scanning technology to complete underground rail completion surveying has been the first time in China until now. It can provide a reference for 3D measurement of rail completion surveying or the 3D completion surveying of other areas.

  10. Leadership Talent: A Study of the Potential of People in the Australian Rail Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janene Piip

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the importance of leadership talent in the rail industry in Australia. Like many other countries around the world, rail is troubled by its ability to attract new talent as older leaders with specialized knowledge retire. This study sought to identify whether the sector is making the most of the talent already existing within, knowing the barriers faced in attracting new industry entrants, and questions what can be done to strengthen current approaches to developing leaders. In exploring the meaning of leadership talent, from a skills based perspective with three levels of leaders, blended methods using semi-structured interviews and a survey were utilized. The study is important because it focuses on the people aspects of the industry, a little researched area of rail that has major implications for how employees are engaged and retained. The findings identified a certain mindset, culture and approach about leadership talent in organizations that overlooked the heterogeneity of rail organization populations, precluding certain groups of people from becoming leaders. The project identified that leadership and other soft skills required in the rail industry are both under researched, and often undervalued, for the impact that they can have on performance and productivity of companies. There are key messages from this study for both organizations as well as inspiring rail industry leaders.

  11. Shear Acceleration in Expanding Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rieger, F M

    2016-01-01

    Shear flows are naturally expected to occur in astrophysical environments and potential sites of continuous non-thermal Fermi-type particle acceleration. Here we investigate the efficiency of expanding relativistic outflows to facilitate the acceleration of energetic charged particles to higher energies. To this end, the gradual shear acceleration coefficient is derived based on an analytical treatment. The results are applied to the context of the relativistic jets of active galactic nuclei. The inferred acceleration timescale is investigated for a variety of conical flow profiles (i.e., power law, Gaussian, Fermi-Dirac) and compared to the relevant radiative and non-radiative loss timescales. The results exemplify that relativistic shear flows are capable of boosting cosmic-rays to extreme energies. Efficient electron acceleration, on the other hand, requires weak magnetic fields and may thus be accompanied by a delayed onset of particle energization and affect the overall jet appearance (e.g., core, ridge ...

  12. Rail Baltica tuleb : reisiterminalide arhitektuurivõistlused Tallinnas ja Pärnus = Rail Baltic is coming : Arhitecture competitions for passenger rail terminals in Tallinn and Pärnu / Andres Lindemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindemann, Andres

    2015-01-01

    2014.a. lõpus lõppesid arhitektuurivõistlused Tallinnas Ülemistele ja Pärnus Papiniidu piirkonda plaanitavatele Rail Baltica reisiterminalidele. Artiklis on antud põgus ülevaade võitnud töödest

  13. Rail Baltica tuleb : reisiterminalide arhitektuurivõistlused Tallinnas ja Pärnus = Rail Baltic is coming : Arhitecture competitions for passenger rail terminals in Tallinn and Pärnu / Andres Lindemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lindemann, Andres

    2015-01-01

    2014.a. lõpus lõppesid arhitektuurivõistlused Tallinnas Ülemistele ja Pärnus Papiniidu piirkonda plaanitavatele Rail Baltica reisiterminalidele. Artiklis on antud põgus ülevaade võitnud töödest

  14. On poro-hyperelastic shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorov, A. P.; Selvadurai, A. P. S.

    2016-11-01

    The paper examines the problem of the shear of a porous hyperelastic material, the pore space of which is saturated with an incompressible fluid. Poro-hyperelasticity provides a suitable approach for modelling the mechanical behaviour of highly deformable materials in engineering applications and particularly soft tissues encountered in biomechanical applications. Unlike with the infinitesimal theory of poroelasticity, the application of pure shear generates pore fluid pressures that dissipate with time as fluid migrates either from or into the pore space due to the generated fluid pressure gradients. The analytical results provide benchmark problems that can be used to examine the accuracy of computational approaches.

  15. Shear loading of costal cartilage

    CERN Document Server

    Subit, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A series of tests were performed on a single post-mortem human subject at various length scales. First, tabletop tests were performed. Next, the ribs and intercostal muscles were tested with the view to characterize the load transfer between the ribs. Finally, the costal cartilage was tested under shear loading, as it plays an important in the transfer of the load between the ribs and the sternum. This paper reports the results of dynamic shear loading tests performed on three samples of costal cartilage harvested from a single post-mortem human subject, as well as the quantification of the effective Young's modulus estimated from the amount of cartilage calcification.

  16. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    . The position of the crack in which sliding takes place is determined by the crack sliding model developed by Jin-Ping Zhang. The theoretical calculations are compared with test results reported in the literature. A good agreement has been found.A simplified method to calculate the shear capacity of T...

  17. Shear resistance of beams based on the effective shear depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruijssers, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    Despite extensive experimental and theoretical studies the shear resistance of beams with longitudinal reinforcement is described by empirical expressions. A reliable empirical formula is derived by Rafla [10]. This formula is based on 442 experimental results. In this report no experiments are

  18. Cosmic Shear Bias and Calibration in Cosmic Shear Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, A N

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of large-scale weak lensing surveys there is a need to understand how realistic, scale-dependent systematics bias cosmic shear and dark energy measurements, and how they can be removed. Here we describe how spatial variations in the amplitude and orientation of realistic image distortions convolve with the measured shear field, mixing the even-parity convergence and odd-parity modes, and bias the shear power spectrum. Many of these biases can be removed by calibration to external data, the survey itself, or by modelling in simulations. The uncertainty in the calibration must be marginalised over and we calculate how this propagates into parameter estimation, degrading the dark energy Figure-of-Merit. We find that noise-like biases affect dark energy measurements the most, while spikes in the bias power have the least impact, reflecting their correlation with the effect of cosmological parameters. We argue that in order to remove systematic biases in cosmic shear surveys and maintain statistica...

  19. Active Control of Shear Thickening in Suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Neil Y C; Cates, Michael E; Sun, Jin; Cohen, Itai

    2016-01-01

    Shear thickening, an increase of viscosity with shear rate, is a ubiquitous phenomena in suspended materials that has implications for broad technological applications. Controlling this thickening behavior remains a major challenge and has led to empirical strategies ranging from altering the particle surfaces and shape to modifying the solvent properties. However, none of these methods allow for active control of flow properties during shear itself. Here, we demonstrate that by strategic imposition of a high-frequency and low-amplitude shear perturbation orthogonal to the primary shearing flow, we can largely eradicate shear thickening. The orthogonal shear effectively becomes a regulator for controlling thickening in the suspension, allowing the viscosity to be reduced by up to two decades on demand. In a separate setup, we show that such effects can be induced by simply agitating the sample transversely to the primary shear direction. Overall, the ability of in situ manipulation of shear thickening paves a...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED WITHDRAWAL OF PUBLIC LANDS WITHIN AND SURROUNDING THE CALIENTE RAIL CORRIDOR, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2005-12-01

    The purpose for agency action is to preclude surface entry and the location of new mining claims, subject to valid existing rights, within and surrounding the Caliente rail corridor as described in the Yucca Mountain FEIS (DOE 2002). This protective measure is needed to enhance the safe, efficient, and uninterrupted evaluation of land areas for potential rail alignments within the Caliente rail corridor. The evaluation will assist the DOE in determining, through the Rail Alignment environmental impact statement (EIS) process, whether to construct a branch rail line, and to provide support to the BLM in deciding whether or not to reserve a ROW for the rail line under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA). The BLM participated as a cooperating agency in preparing this EA because it is the responsible land manager and BLM staff could contribute resource specific expertise.

  1. Sora rail studies on the Patuxent River, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, M.; Kearns, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The freshwater marshes of the tidal Patuxent River are well known for their annual fall concentration of migrant soras (Porzana carolina) and were formerly the most famous rail hunting grounds in the Chesapeake Bay region. Because of concern over the apparent long-term decline in number of soras and the decline in the quality of the Patuxent marshes, especially the loss of wild rice (Zizania aquatica), the Maryland National-Capital Park and Planning Commission (MNCPPC), co-steward of the Jug Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, sponsored rail-related research beginning in 1987. Past efforts focused on developing efficient trapping techniques, age and sex criteria, and monitonng body mass dynamics. Noted progress was made in developing digital playback systems and trap improvements to enhance sora captures. These improvements increased capture success by over an order of magnitude and resulted in capture of 2,315 soras and 276 Virginia rails (Rallus limicola) in the 5 year period, 1993-97. Although these methods demonstrate the efficacy of banding large numbers of soras on migration and possibly winter concentration areas, captures at the Patuxent River site have been 70-90% hatching-year birds and recoveries and recaptures have been virtually nonexistent. With the present effort, this outcome precludes population parameter estimation using traditional capture-recapture or recovery model methodologies. In 1996, studies were initiated to employ radio telemetry methods to investigate length of stay, habitat use, survival, and migration characteristics of fall migrant soras. These studies are ongoing and will be continued through 1998 with a grant from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Webless Migratory Game Bird Research Program and support from the U.S. Geological Survey's Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Supplemental funding has also been provided by MNCPPC, FWS Region 5, the Maryland Ornithological Society, Quail Unlimited, and Prince Georges Community

  2. A 0.8V, 7μA, rail-to-rail input/output, constant Gm operational amplifier in standard digital 0.18μm CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citakovic, J; Nielsen, I. Riis; Nielsen, Jannik Hammel

    2005-01-01

    A two-stage amplifier, operational at 0.8V and drawing 7μA, has been integrated in a standard digital 0.18μm CMOS process. Rail-to-rail operations at the input are enabled by complementary transistor pairs with gm control. The efficient rail-to-rail output stage is biased in class AB. The measured...... DC gain of the amplifier is 75dB, and the unity-gain frequency is 870kHz with a 12pF, 100kΩload. Both input and output stage transistors are biased in weak inversion....

  3. Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    We report experimental observation of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. The shear thickening oscillation is caused by the interplay between the fluid dynamics and the shear thickening, and has been predicted theoretically by the present authors using a phenomenological fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid, but never been reported experimentally. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed strong vibrations of the frequency around 20 Hz, which is consistent with our theoretical prediction.

  4. Unexpected shear strength change in magnetorheological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Smart materials of magnetorheological (MR fluids could be turned from a liquid state into a solid state, which solidification extent or shear strength often increases monotonically with the applied magnetic field. In this study, the shear stress of a dilute MR fluid decreased with increasing applied magnetic field at a constant shear rate. The dynamic shear stress was significantly higher than the stable counterpart at medium magnetic fields. They are ascribed to the slow particle structure transformation. A higher shear rate and particle volume fraction could reduce the transient time and the shear strength difference.

  5. Shear-affected depletion interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    July, C.; Kleshchanok, D.; Lang, P.R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of flow fields on the strength of the depletion interaction caused by disc-shaped depletants. At low mass concentration of discs, it is possible to continuously decrease the depth of the depletion potential by increasing the applied shear rate until the depletion force i

  6. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so...

  7. Excitation Method of Linear-Motor-Type Rail Brake without Using Power Sources by Dynamic Braking with Zero Electrical Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    The eddy current rail brake is a type of braking system used in railway vehicles. Because of problems such as rail heating and problems associated with ensuring that power is supplied when the feeder malfunctions, this braking system has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of linear induction motor (LIM) technology in eddy current rail brake systems. The LIM rail brake driven by dynamic braking can reduce rail heating and generate the energy required for self-excitation. In this paper, we present an excitation system and control method for the LIM rail brake driven by “dynamic braking with zero electrical output”. The proposed system is based on the concept that the LIM rail brake can be energized without using excitation power sources such as a feeder circuit and that high reliability can be realized by providing an independent excitation system. We have studied this system and conducted verification tests using a prototype LIM rail brake on a roller rig. The results show that the system performance is adequate for commercializing the proposed system, in which the LIM rail brake is driven without using any excitation power source.

  8. Stationary Charging Station Design for Sustainable Urban Rail Systems: A Case Study at Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, more than 43 cities in China were racing to construct their urban rail systems (including metro and light rail systems, recognizing that an urban rail system will be a good solution to the tough problems that they are faced with, including traffic congestion and PM2.5 air pollution. On 22 August 2012, the first electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC energy storage-type rail vehicle in the world was unveiled at Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China. The EDLC rail system has been considered a promising sustainable urban rail system, which is expected to further improve the energy efficiency and to reduce environmental pollution. The first commercial EDLC tram produced by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co. has been applied at Guangzhou Metro Corp. recently. From the view point of scientific research, the system design and energy management of EDLC rail systems have been extensively studied in the literature, while the stationary charging station design for the EDLC energy storage-type urban rail vehicles has been rarely reported. Thus, the aim of this paper is to report a stationary charging station that has been successfully applied in the EDLC rail system produced by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China.

  9. A hybrid multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method for robust safety design of a rail vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejlaoui, Mohamed; Houidi, Ajmi; Affi, Zouhaier; Romdhane, Lotfi

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the robust safety design optimization of a rail vehicle system moving in short radius curved tracks. A combined multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method is developed and used for the robust multi-objective optimization of the rail vehicle system. This robust optimization of rail vehicle safety considers simultaneously the derailment angle and its standard deviation where the design parameters uncertainties are considered. The obtained results showed that the robust design reduces significantly the sensitivity of the rail vehicle safety to the design parameters uncertainties compared to the determinist one and to the literature results.

  10. Stainless steel rail, which is the first goods for JIS, is developed; Hatsu no JIS taiohin dearu sutenresureru wo kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-15

    Daido Steel Co., Ltd. developed `the pond bottom rail` of the sewage disposal place and which is suitable for the gate door rail and so on, and tied up with Osaka steel manufacturing, and merchandised what was based on JIS in Japan for the first time. As for Daido Steel Co., Ltd.`s merchandising it, 3 kinds that it is called with rail of the weight 9kg 15kg 22kg. Though SUS 304 is a basis, quality of the material accepts production with SUS 316 which increased corrosions, SUS 304 N 2 of the high strength, and so on corresponding to the use for the user, too. Though Nippon Steel Corp. is producing an extreme small quantity at present by the pushing out method of construction, big says that the rail of the form that it is based on the JIS standard from the restriction of acid equipment and so on was merchandised as the stainless steel rail for the first time. Though the adoption of No. The 1st has already been decided as the pond bottom rail for the precipitation pond of the sewage disposal facilities 22kg by the stainless steel rail, substitution needs from the iron are opened up in the same company in an attraction and a crane, the rail for the elevator, the gate door rail, and so on during the water of the theme park. (translated by NEDO)

  11. Study on detecting method of rail corrugation by using wavelet analysis; Wavelet kaiseki wo mochiita rail hajo mamo kenshutsu shuho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Y.; Okumura, M.; Komine, H.; Iwasa, T.; Terumichi, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science; Qian, B. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    This paper reports the development of a method that detects the corrugation of a rail. A measurement test in which the track inspection car provided with an axle box accelerometer and irregular rail top face measurement equipment runs over the range of a specific section at the setting rate was conducted. A wavelet analysis is applied to the obtained acceleration data of vertical axle box vibration. The position of the generated corrugation was detected in a time base as the high position of a wavelet coefficient. Moreover, the dominant frequency range of corrugation was detected for each frequency by adding the wavelet coefficients in the whole position. This result was verified using the measurement data of an irregular rail top face. The wave height of corrugation can be estimated from the amplitude of the vertical vibration acceleration measured during low-speed traveling when the calculation result of a frequency response using the vertical vibration model in simplified wheel and rail systems is compared with the test result described above. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Comparison of Urban and Suburban Rail Transport in Germany and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidenglanz Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is an environmentally friendly form of passenger transport which can be utilized effectively also in urban and suburban transport systems. The paper describes the urban and suburban rail transport system including comparison of selected Czech (Prague, Brno and Ostrava and German metropolitan regions (Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden. Its aim is to analyze the importance of various factors influencing the differences between the situation in Germany and in the Czech Republic. Therefore, the research question is whether these differences are primarily caused by a different liberalization stage, or whether they are a result of other factors such as available infrastructure, investment level, rail transport services budget, structure and activity of ordering bodies and coordinators or geographical context. The supply of city and suburban rail transport is quite good in Germany and in the Czech Republic, although trains in Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden run more frequently, faster and are better interconnected with car transport. German rail transport sector is at a higher stage of liberalization, and tendering procedures are the preferred selection method for contractor carriers. However, a degree of liberalization of the railway sector is not the key marker indicating a better standard of urban and suburban rail transport in Germany because it is the high standard which is achieved as the consequence of the professional activity of the ordering bodies and train service coordinators in combination with geographical conditions, available financial sources and effective transport infrastructure. On the other hand, the importance of liberalization cannot be totally overlooked as tenders are a tool for the ordering bodies to strongly affect the price and quality of transport services in their area. The supply of better quality and attractive transport to passengers could increase the usage of rail transport in metropolitan regions and could

  13. Appraisal on Rail Transit Development: A Review on Train Services and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noor Hafiza binti; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Ghazali, Mohd Imran bin; Azis, Mohd Isom bin

    2017-08-01

    The ever increasing problems faced by population around the world have made demands that transportation need to be improved as an effective and efficient communication means. It is considered as a necessity especially when rapid development and economic growth of a country is the agenda. Among the transportation modes being focused as critical facilities are the bus system, rail system, road network, shipping system and air transportation system. Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In Malaysia, the railway network has evolved tremendously since its inception in the early 19th century. It has grown proportionally with the national development. Railway network does not only mean for rural transportation, but it also considered as a solution to urban congestion challenges. Currently, urban rail transit is the most popular means of urban transportation system especially as big cities such as Kuala Lumpur. This paper presents the definition of rail transportation system and its role in urban or sub-urban operation. It also describes the brief history of world railway transportation including a discussion on Malaysian rail history perspective. As policy and standard are important in operating a railway system, this paper also illustrates and discusses some elements which have an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of train operation. Towards the end, this paper also shares the importance of railway safety based on real case studies around the world. Thus, it is hoped that this paper will enable the public to understand the rail transit development and appreciate its existence as a public transportation system.

  14. An ultrasonically levitated noncontact stage using traveling vibrations on precision ceramic guide rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Daisuke; Ide, Takeshi; Friend, James R; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents a noncontact sliding table design and measurements of its performance via ultrasonic levitation. A slider placed atop two vibrating guide rails is levitated by an acoustic radiation force emitted from the rails. A flexural traveling wave propagating along the guide rails allows noncontact transportation of the slider. Permitting a transport mechanism that reduces abrasion and dust generation with an inexpensive and simple structure. The profile of the sliding table was designed using the finite-element analysis (FEA) for high levitation and transportation efficiency. The prototype sliding table was made of alumina ceramic (Al2O3) to increase machining accuracy and rigidity using a structure composed of a pair of guide rails with a triangular cross section and piezoelectric transducers. Two types of transducers were used: bolt-clamped Langevin transducers and bimorph transducers. A 40-mm long slider was designed to fit atop the two rail guides. Flexural standing waves and torsional standing waves were observed along the guide rails at resonance, and the levitation of the slider was obtained using the flexural mode even while the levitation distance was less than 10 microm. The levitation distance of the slider was measured while increasing the slider's weight. The levitation pressure, rigidity, and vertical displacement amplitude of the levitating slider thus were measured to be 6.7 kN/m2, 3.0 kN/microm/m2, and less than 1 microm, respectively. Noncontact transport of the slider was achieved using phased drive of the two transducers at either end of the vibrating guide rail. By controlling the phase difference, the slider transportation direction could be switched, and a maximum thrust of 13 mN was obtained.

  15. Review of the Shearing Process for Sheet Steels and Its Effect on Sheared-Edge Stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, B. S.; Van Tyne, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    Failure in sheared-edge stretching often limits the use of advanced high-strength steel sheets in automotive applications. The present study analyzes data in the literature from laboratory experiments on both the shearing process and the characteristics of sheared edges. Shearing produces a surface with regions of rollover, burnish, fracture, and burr. The effect of clearance and tensile strength on the shear face characteristics is quantified. Higher strength, lower ductility steels exhibit an increase in percent fracture region. The shearing process also creates a zone of deformation adjacent to the shear face called the shear-affected zone (SAZ). From an analysis of data in the literature, it is concluded that deformation in the SAZ is the dominant factor in controlling failure during sheared-edge stretching. The characteristics of the shear face are generally important for failures during sheared-edge stretching only as there is a correlation between the characteristics of the shear face and the characteristics of the SAZ. The effect of the shear burr on shear-edge stretching is also related to a correlation with the characteristics of the SAZ. In reviewing the literature, many shearing variables that could affect sheared-edge stretching limits are not identified or if identified, not quantified. It is likely that some of these variables could affect subsequent sheared-edge stretching limits.

  16. Eocene diversification of crown group rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C García-R

    Full Text Available Central to our understanding of the timing of bird evolution is debate about an apparent conflict between fossil and molecular data. A deep age for higher level taxa within Neoaves is evident from molecular analyses but much remains to be learned about the age of diversification in modern bird families and their evolutionary ecology. In order to better understand the timing and pattern of diversification within the family Rallidae we used a relaxed molecular clock, fossil calibrations, and complete mitochondrial genomes from a range of rallid species analysed in a Bayesian framework. The estimated time of origin of Rallidae is Eocene, about 40.5 Mya, with evidence of intrafamiliar diversification from the Late Eocene to the Miocene. This timing is older than previously suggested for crown group Rallidae, but fossil calibrations, extent of taxon sampling and substantial sequence data give it credence. We note that fossils of Eocene age tentatively assigned to Rallidae are consistent with our findings. Compared to available studies of other bird lineages, the rail clade is old and supports an inference of deep ancestry of ground-dwelling habits among Neoaves.

  17. A vision-based approach for tramway rail extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwemer, Matthijs H.; van de Wouw, Dennis W. J. M.; Jaspers, Egbert; Zinger, Sveta; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-03-01

    The growing traffic density in cities fuels the desire for collision assessment systems on public transportation. For this application, video analysis is broadly accepted as a cornerstone. For trams, the localization of tramway tracks is an essential ingredient of such a system, in order to estimate a safety margin for crossing traffic participants. Tramway-track detection is a challenging task due to the urban environment with clutter, sharp curves and occlusions of the track. In this paper, we present a novel and generic system to detect the tramway track in advance of the tram position. The system incorporates an inverse perspective mapping and a-priori geometry knowledge of the rails to find possible track segments. The contribution of this paper involves the creation of a new track reconstruction algorithm which is based on graph theory. To this end, we define track segments as vertices in a graph, in which edges represent feasible connections. This graph is then converted to a max-cost arborescence graph, and the best path is selected according to its location and additional temporal information based on a maximum a-posteriori estimate. The proposed system clearly outperforms a railway-track detector. Furthermore, the system performance is validated on 3,600 manually annotated frames. The obtained results are promising, where straight tracks are found in more than 90% of the images and complete curves are still detected in 35% of the cases.

  18. Timetable Design for Urban Rail Line with Capacity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To design an efficient and economical timetable for a heavily congested urban rail corridor, a scheduling model is proposed in this paper. The objective of the proposed model is to find the departure time of trains at the start terminal to minimize the system cost, which includes passenger waiting cost and operating cost. To evaluate the performance of the timetable, a simulation model is developed to simulate the detailed movements of passengers and trains with strict constraints of station and train capacities. It assumes that passengers who arrive early will have more chances to access a station and board a train. The accessing and boarding processes of passengers are all based on a first-come-first-serve basis. When a station is full, passengers unable to access must wait outside until the number of waiting passengers at platform falls below a given value. When a train is full, passengers unable to board must wait at the platform for the next train to arrive. Then, based on the simulation results, a two-stage genetic algorithm is introduced to find the best timetable. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and solution method.

  19. Eocene diversification of crown group rails (Aves: Gruiformes: Rallidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-R, Juan C; Gibb, Gillian C; Trewick, Steve A

    2014-01-01

    Central to our understanding of the timing of bird evolution is debate about an apparent conflict between fossil and molecular data. A deep age for higher level taxa within Neoaves is evident from molecular analyses but much remains to be learned about the age of diversification in modern bird families and their evolutionary ecology. In order to better understand the timing and pattern of diversification within the family Rallidae we used a relaxed molecular clock, fossil calibrations, and complete mitochondrial genomes from a range of rallid species analysed in a Bayesian framework. The estimated time of origin of Rallidae is Eocene, about 40.5 Mya, with evidence of intrafamiliar diversification from the Late Eocene to the Miocene. This timing is older than previously suggested for crown group Rallidae, but fossil calibrations, extent of taxon sampling and substantial sequence data give it credence. We note that fossils of Eocene age tentatively assigned to Rallidae are consistent with our findings. Compared to available studies of other bird lineages, the rail clade is old and supports an inference of deep ancestry of ground-dwelling habits among Neoaves.

  20. Implementing the retrofitting plan for the European rail freight fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, P. H.; Bergendorff, M.; Brennan, M.; van der Zijpp, F.

    2006-06-01

    In 1998, the International Union of Railways (UIC) agreed on an Action Plan, proposing the retrofitting of the complete European rail freight fleet. Early 2003 the European Commission, Directorate General for Transport and Energy, commissioned the study reported here. The scope of the study was to supply an independent assessment of the conclusions of the UIC Action Plan and elaborate on implementation scenarios and funding options. The retrofitting of existing wagons, by an exchange of cast iron brake blocks with composition blocks, is the preferred option to achieve a substantial noise reduction. K-blocks have been homologated by UIC in 2003, but they require an expensive modification of the wagon. The opportunities for LL-blocks, an economically attractive alternative, are still being investigated to date. The retrofitting reflects some 600,000 wagons and, with an expected reduction of 10 dB(A), probably represents the largest single operation for traffic noise reduction ever. The process could best be combined with the maintenance cycle of freight wagons. In that case the process would require up to 10 years. Through a combination of funding options, the financial burden for wagons owners and freight operators could be softened.