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Sample records for v-notch cvn specimens

  1. Weld investigations by 3D analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Allan

    2005-01-01

    The Charpy impact test is a standard procedure for determining the ductile-brittle transition in welds. The predictions of such tests have been investigated by full three dimensional transient analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens. The material response is characterised by an elastic-viscoplastic ......The Charpy impact test is a standard procedure for determining the ductile-brittle transition in welds. The predictions of such tests have been investigated by full three dimensional transient analyses of Charpy V-notch specimens. The material response is characterised by an elastic...... parameters in the weld material differ from those in the base material, and the heat a®ected zone (HAZ) tends to be more brittle than the other material regions. The effect of weld strength undermatch or overmatch is an important issue. Some specimens, for which the notched surface is rotated relative...

  2. Holding time effect of pack carburizing on fatigue characteristic of v-notch shaft steel specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyono, Jamasri

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this research is to study the effect of the holding times of pack carburizing process on fatigue characteristic of v-notch shaft steel specimens. The carbon source was taken from charcoal of unused mahogany. The holding times were 2, 3 and 4 hours. The fatigue tests were conducted on rotary bending machine. The specimens were made of low carbon steel of 0.17% carbon content. Pack carburizing was conducted to the specimens at 930°C. V-notch was made to present the stress concentration on the specimens. To see the effects of the carburizing in changing the material properties, the micro-structures and hardness tests along the cross sectional area of the specimens were carried out. The results showed that the holding time of the carburizing process influences the fatigue strength of the material. The longer the holding time will be the higher the fatigue strength. The increase of the fatigue strength is due to the carbon content on the surface. It was confirmed by the micro-structures and the hardness tests results. The cross sectional area of carburized material is divided into two zones i.e. surface zone and core zone. The surface zone consists of hypereutectoid, eutectoid, and hypo eutectoid sub-zone. The core zone is the same as raw material. The longer the holding time will be the deeper the surface zone.

  3. The effects of pack carburizing using charcoal of unused mahogany on fatigue characteristic of v-notch shaft steel specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyono, Jamasri

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this research is to study the fatigue characteristic of v-notch shaft steel specimens before and after pack carburizing. The carbon source is taken from charcoal of unused mahogany. The fatigue test is conducted on rotary bending machine. The specimens are made of low carbon steel of 0.17% carbon content. Pack carburizing is conducted to the specimens at 930°C. V-notch is made to present the stress concentration factor on the specimens. To see the effects of the carburizing in changing the material properties, micro-structures before and after carburizingare looked and micro hardness measurements along the cross sectional area are carried out. The results show that the carburizing process increases fatigue strength of the material. The micro-structures of the raw material are ferrite and pearlite. The carburized material is divided into two zones i.e. surface zone and core zone. The surface zone consists of hypereutectoid, eutectoid, and hypoeutectoid sub-zone. The core zone is the same as raw material

  4. Dynamic Toughness Testing of Pre-Cracked Charpy V-Notch Specimens. Convention ELECTRABEL - SCK-CEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E

    1999-04-01

    This document describes the experimental and analytical procedures which have been adopted at the laboratories of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for performing dynamic toughness tests on pre-cracked Charpy-V specimens. Such procedures were chosen on the basis of the existing literature on the subject, with several updates in the data analysis stages which reflect more recent developments in fracture toughness testing. Qualification tests have been carried out on PCCv specimens of JRQ steel, in order to assess the reliability of the results obtained; straightforward comparisons with reference data have been performed, as well as more advanced analyses using the Master Curve approach. Aspects related to machine compliance and dynamic tup calibration have also been addressed.

  5. Confocal microscopy-fracture reconstruction and finite element modeling characterization of local cleavage toughness in a ferritic/martensitic steel in subsized Charpy V-notch impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T. E-mail: yamataku@fusion.imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.; Matsui, H

    2000-12-01

    The confocal microscopy (CM)-fracture reconstruction (FR) method, coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fractography, was used to measure the critical notch deformation conditions at cleavage initiation for two subsized Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimen geometries of Japan ferritic/martensitic steel (JFMS). A new method was developed to permit FR of notched specimens. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) simulations of the notch and specimen deformation were used to estimate values of critical micro-cleavage fracture stress, {sigma}{sup *}, and critical stressed area, A{sup *}. Since {sigma}{sup *}-A{sup *} is independent of size and geometry, it provides a fundamental local measure of cleavage toughness.

  6. Material inertia and size effects in the Charpy V-notch test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desandre, D. A.; Benzerga, A. A.; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2004-01-01

    The effect of material inertia on the size dependence of the absorbed energy in the Charpy V-notch test is investigated. The material response is characterized by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, with adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation and the re......The effect of material inertia on the size dependence of the absorbed energy in the Charpy V-notch test is investigated. The material response is characterized by an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a porous plastic solid, with adiabatic heating due to plastic dissipation...... and the resulting thermal softening accounted for. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when a critical value of the maximum principal stress is attained over a critical volume. Plane strain dynamic analyses are carried out for geometrically similar specimens of various sizes with all parameters adjusted so...

  7. Bed profile downstream compound sharp crested V-notch weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahmoud Ibrahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Triangular weirs are commonly used to measure discharge in open channel flow. They represent an inexpensive, reliable methodology to monitor water allocation. A compound sharp-crested weir consisting of two triangular parts with different notch angles was used. The lower triangular part of the weir handles the normal range of discharges while the upper part measures the higher peak flows. This paper evaluates experimentally the local scour downstream compound sharp crested V-notch weir. Forty-eight (48 experimental runs were conducted. Three models of weirs with different geometries (combination of notch angles, four upstream water levels, three water levels at the tailgate, and two bed materials were used. Multiple regression equations based on energy principal and dimensional analysis theory were deduced to estimate the local scour downstream of the weir models. The developed equations were compared with the experimental data. The comparison between the local scour downstream classical V-notch weir and a compound sharp-crested weir consisting of two triangular parts with different notch angles was found to be unnoticed. The study recommended using the compound V-notch weir to pass high discharges instead of the classical V-notch weir.

  8. STRESS FIELD AT A TIP OF A PREFABRICATED SPIRAL V-NOTCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑周练; 陈山林; 叶晓明

    2004-01-01

    Based on the tranditional V-notched blasting,a technique of spirally V-notched blasting to loosen earth and rock was presented.Fracture mechanics and Westergaard stress function were adopted to build a complex stress function to derive the plane stress and strain fields at one tip of the crack under a quasi-static pressure.An expression was formulated to define the stress intensity factor of spiral V-notch loosen blasting.Factors that have effects on the stress intensity factor were studied.It is demonstrated that spiral V-notch loosen blasting is an extension of vertical V-notch blasting,straight cracking,and alike theories.

  9. Effect of V Notch Shape on Fatigue Life in Steel Beam Made of AISI 1037

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Bader

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work encompasses effect of V notch shape with various geometries and dimensions on fatigue life behavior in steel beam made of Medium Carbon Steel AISI 1037 which has a wide application in industry. Fatigue life of notched specimens is calculated using the fatigue life obtained from the experiments for smooth specimens (reference and by use Numerical method (FEA.The fatigue experiments were carried out at room temperature, applying a fully reversed cyclic load with the frequency of (50Hz and mean stress equal to zero (R= -1, on a cantilever rotating-bending fatigue testing machine. The stress ratio was kept constant throughout the experiment. Different instruments have been used in this investigation like Chemical composition analyzer type (Spectromax ,Tensile universal testing machine type (WDW-100E ,Hardness tester type (HSV- 1000 , Fatigue testing machine model Gunt WP 140, Optical Light Microscope (OLM and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM were employed to examine the fracture features . The results show that there is acceptable error between experimental and numerical works .

  10. The evaluation of tempered martensite embrittlement in 4130 steel by instrumented charpy V-notch testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ebrahimi, F.; Krauss, G.

    1983-06-01

    Tempered martensite embrittlement (TME) was studied in vacuum-melted 4130 steel with either 0.002 or 0.02 wt pct P. TME was observed as a severe decrease in Charpy V-notch impact energy, from 46 ft-lb. at 200 °C to 35 ft-lb. at 300 °C in the low P alloy. The impact energy of the high P alloy was consistently lower than that of the low P alloy in all tempered conditions. Fracture was transgranular for all specimens; therefore, segregation of P to the prior austenitic grain boundaries was not a factor in the o°Currence of TME. Analysis of load-time curves obtained by instrumented Charpy testing revealed that the embrittlement is associated with a drop in the pre-maximum-load and post-unstable-fracture energies. In specimens tempered at 400 °C the deleterious effect of phosphorus on impact energy became pronounced, a result more consistent with classical temper embrittlement rather than TME. A constant decrease in pre-maximum-load energy due to phosphorus content was observed. The pre-maximum-load energy decreases with increasing tempering temperature in the range of 200 °C to 400 °C, a result explained by the change in work hardening rate. Carbon extraction replicas of polished and etched as-quenched specimens revealed the presence of Fe2MoC and/or Fe3C carbides retained after austenitizing. Ductile crack extension close to the notch root was related to the formation of fine micro voids at the retained carbides.

  11. Critical applied stresses for a crack initiation from a sharp V-notch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Náhlík

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to estimate a value of the critical applied stress for a crack initiation from a sharp V-notch tip. The classical approach of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LELM was generalized, because the stress singularity exponent differs from 0.5 in the studied case. The value of the stress singularity exponent depends on the V-notch opening angle. The finite element method was used for a determination of stress distribution in the vicinity of the sharp V-notch tip and for the estimation of the generalized stress intensity factor depending on the V-notch opening angle. Critical value of the generalized stress intensity factor was obtained using stability criteria based on the opening stress component averaged over a critical distance d from the V-notch tip and generalized strain energy density factor. Calculated values of the critical applied stresses were compared with experimental data from the literature and applicability of the LEFM concept is discussed.

  12. Application of subsize specimens in nuclear plant life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kumar, A.S. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States); Cannon, S.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring a research effort through Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Missour-Rolla to test a correlation for the upper shelf energy (USE) values obtained from the impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch specimens to those obtained from the testing of full size samples. The program involves the impact testing of unirradiated and irradiated full, half, and third size Charpy V-notch specimens. To verify the applicability of the correlation on LWR materials unirradiated and irradiated full, half, and third size Charpy V-notch specimens of a commercial pressure vessel steel (ASTM A533 Grade B) will be tested. This paper will provide details of the program and present results obtained from the application of the developed correlation methodology to the impact testing of the unirradiated full, half, and third size A533 Grade B Charpy V-notch specimens.

  13. Application of subsize specimens in nuclear plant life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Kumar, A.S. (Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States)); Cannon, S.C. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Hamilton, M.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is sponsoring a research effort through Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Missour-Rolla to test a correlation for the upper shelf energy (USE) values obtained from the impact testing of subsize Charpy V-notch specimens to those obtained from the testing of full size samples. The program involves the impact testing of unirradiated and irradiated full, half, and third size Charpy V-notch specimens. To verify the applicability of the correlation on LWR materials unirradiated and irradiated full, half, and third size Charpy V-notch specimens of a commercial pressure vessel steel (ASTM A533 Grade B) will be tested. This paper will provide details of the program and present results obtained from the application of the developed correlation methodology to the impact testing of the unirradiated full, half, and third size A533 Grade B Charpy V-notch specimens.

  14. Effects of Notch Misalignment and Tip Radius on Displacement Field in V-Notch Rail Shear Test as Determined by Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles S.; Oliveras, Ovidio M.

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the 3D strain field during ASTM-D-7078 v-notch rail shear tests on 8-ply quasi-isotropic carbon fiber/epoxy laminates was determined by optical photogrammetry using an ARAMIS system. Specimens having non-optimal geometry and minor discrepancies in dimensional tolerances were shown to display non-symmetry and/or stress concentration in the vicinity of the notch relative to a specimen meeting the requirements of the standard, but resulting shear strength and modulus values remained within acceptable bounds of standard deviation. Based on these results, and reported difficulty machining specimens to the required tolerances using available methods, it is suggested that a parametric study combining analytical methods and experiment may provide rationale to increase the tolerances on some specimen dimensions, reducing machining costs, increasing the proportion of acceptable results, and enabling a wider adoption of the test method.

  15. On the Light Curves of AM CVn

    CERN Document Server

    Smak, J

    2016-01-01

    Light curves of AM CVn are analyzed by decomposing them into their Fourier components. The amplitudes of the fundamental mode and overtones of the three components: the superhumps, the negative superhumps and the orbital variations, are found to be variable. This implies that variations in the shape of the observed light curve of AM CVn are not only due to the interference between those components, but also due to the variability of their parameters.

  16. METHOD TO CALCULATE STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR OF V-NOTCH IN BI-MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youtang Li; Ming Song

    2008-01-01

    Based on Zak's stress function,the eigen-equation of stress singularity of bi-materials with a Ⅴ-notch was obtained.A new definition of stress intensity factor for a perpendicular inter facial Ⅴ-notch of bi-material was put forward.The effects of shear modulus and Poisson's ratio of the matrix material and attaching material on eigen-values were analyzed.A generalized ex pression for calculating KI of the perpendicular V-notch of bi-materials was obtained by means of stress extrapolation.Effects of notch depth,notch angle and Poisson's ratio of materials on the singular stress field near the tip of the Ⅴ-notch were analyzed systematically with numerical simulations.As an example,a finite plate with double edge notches under uniaxial uniform ten sion was calculated by the method presented and the influence of the notch angle and Poisson's ratio on the stress singularity near the tip of notch was obtained.

  17. A study of the fracture process and factors that control toughness variability in Charpy V-notch specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Real

    La presente etude a ete initiee pour developper une comprehension quantitative du processus de rupture avec les facteurs qui controlent la dispersion des mesures de tenacite lorsque des eprouvettes Charpy entaillees en V sont utilisees. Un grand nombre d'essais ont ete realises pour un acier C-Mn: eprouvettes Charpy testees sous impact, eprouvettes Charpy testees en flexion lente, eprouvettes axisymetriques entaillees et sollicitees en traction et essais de tenacite sur eprouvettes prefissurees. Base sur le concept de la statistique de Weibull, l'approche locale developpee par le groupe Beremin a ete utilisee pour decrire la probabilite de rupture par clivage en fonction de la contrainte appliquee aussi bien qu'en fonction de l'energie Charpy obtenue. Le calcul par elements finis a ete realise pour determiner la distribution de la deformation et des contraintes en pointe d'entaille et de fissure. La nouvelle approche introduite decrit bien les resultats experimentaux. Les points d'initiation du clivage ont ete identifies au MEB et par la suite, avec la technique de faisceau d'ions focalise, sectionnes, polis et examines. L'examen de la microstructure sous le point d'initiation revele clairement que le clivage s'initie par un mecanisme d'empilement de dislocations ou les dislocations sont arretees aux joints de grain, aux interfaces de perlite/ferrite ou de perlite qui agissent comme barrieres physiques.

  18. Instrumented impact testing machine with reduced specimen oscillation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintamaa, R.; Ranka, K.; Wallin, K.; Ikonen, K.; Talja, H.; Kotilainen, H.; Sirkkola, E.

    1984-07-01

    A pendulum-type instrumented Charpy test apparatus based on inverted test geometry was developed. Geometry inversion reduces inertia load and specimen oscillation effects. Initial impact energy is double that of standard (300 J) impact testers, allowing the use of larger (10 x 20 x 110 mm) bend specimens than normal Charpy specimens. The rotation axis in the three point bending is nearly stationary, making COD-measurements possible. Inertia effects and specimen oscillations are compared with the conventional tester, and using an analytical finite element model for Charpy V-notch specimens. Better performance for the inverted geometry is reported.

  19. Radio emission from RS CVn binary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doiron, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The RS CVn binary stellar systems UX Ari, HR 1099, AR Lac, HR 5110, II Peg, lambda And, and SZ Psc were investigated by use of radio interferometry during the period from July 1982 through August 1983. Interferometry took two forms: Very Large Array (VLA) observations and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). The VLA observations determined the characteristic polarization and flux behavior of the centimeter wavelength radio emission. The observed spectral index was near zero during quiescent periods, rising to between 0.5 and 1.0 during active periods. No net linear polarization is observed to a limit of 1.7%. This is expected since the Faraday depth of thermal electrons deduced from x-ray observations is approx. 10/sup 5/. Circular polarization is observed to be less than 20% at all frequencies often with a helicity reversal between 1.6 GHz and 5 GHz. The VLBI observations have shown that the brightness temperatures are often T/sub B/ approx.> 10/sup 10/ /sup 0/K and size sources smaller than or comparable to the overall size of the binary system. These data are consistent with incoherent gyrosynchrotron emission from mildly relativistic electrons which are optically thick to their own radiation at 1.6 GHz and optically thin at 5 GHz and above. The spectral behavior suggests that the radio emission is due to a power-law distribution of electrons.

  20. The Formation of EL CVn-type Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Xuefei, Chen; Jiao, Li; Zhanwen, Han

    2016-01-01

    EL CVn-type binaries contain an A-type dwarf star and a very low mass ($\\sim 0.2M_\\odot$) helium white dwarf precursor (pre-He WD). Recent surveys and observations have discovered dozens of them, and showed that some pre-He WDs have multi-periodic pulsations, opening up the possibility of using asteroseismology to study the interior structure of these stars. We have studied the formation of EL CVn-type binaries to understand the physics of their formation and give the properties and the space density of this population of stars in the Galaxy. We use a simple analysis to show that EL CVn binaries cannot be produced by rapid common envelope evolution because this process leads to merging of the components when a giant has such a low-mass core. We find that EL CVn-type binaries can be produced by long-term stable mass transfer between low-mass stars in close binary systems. We have comprehensively studied this formation channel and the characteristics of the resulting population of EL CVn-type binaries from more...

  1. Evaluation of fracture toughness in dental ceramics using indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)-method; Avaliacao da tenacidade a fratura de ceramicas dentarias atraves do metodo de entalhe - SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L.A.; Santos, C.; Souza, R.C.; Ribeiro, S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia de Lorena. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Polo Urbo-Industrial; Strecker, K. [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao del-Rei (DME/UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais Eletricos; Oberacker, R. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the fracture toughness of different ceramics based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} were evaluated using, comparatively two methods, Vickers indentation and SEVNB (Single Edge V-Notched Beam) method. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) micro-particled and ZrO{sub 2}(3%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanometric, ZrO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} composites were sintered at different temperatures. Samples were characterized by relative density, X-ray diffraction, SEM, and mechanical evaluation by hardness, bending strength and fracture toughness obtained by ickers indentation and SEVNB-method. The results were presented comparing the densification and microstructural results. Furthermore, the advantages and limitations of each method were discussed. (author)

  2. Optical and UV spectra of RS CVn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1990-01-01

    The observed phenomenology in RS CVn and related binary systems is considered in terms of its modeling according to solar activity by examining UV and optical spectroscopy. Current data are examined to validate the existence of cool starspots, plage, prominences, and flares, as well as to determine the consistency of spatial correlations given by these data. RS CVn stars show spots at or near the poles, contrasting the low latitudes of solar spots; plage appears to be associated with cool spots on BY Draconis-like systems; plage and prominences, although identified as distinct phenomena, are theorized to be the same event in some cases. More spectroscopic and photometric observations are proposed to identify the detailed structure and locations of spots. UV and visible data are also required to distinguish plage regions from flare variations as well as determine the relation of extended structures to starspot and plage phenomena in RS CVn systems.

  3. MOA-2010-BLG-523: "Failed Planet" = RS CVn Star

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, A; Bond, I A; Udalski, A; Han, C; Jorgensen, U G; Greenhill, J; Tsapras, Y; Pinsonneault, M H; Bensby, T; uFUN, the; MOA,; OGLE,; MiNDSTEp,; RoboNet,

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic bulge source MOA-2010-BLG-523S exhibited short-term deviations from a standard microlensing lightcurve near the peak of an Amax ~ 265 high-magnification microlensing event. The deviations originally seemed consistent with expectations for a planetary companion to the principal lens. We combine long-term photometric monitoring with a previously published high-resolution spectrum taken near peak to demonstrate that this is an RS CVn variable, so that planetary microlensing is not required to explain the lightcurve deviations. This is the first spectroscopically confirmed RS CVn star discovered in the Galactic bulge.

  4. Effects of annealing time on the recovery of Charpy V-notch properties of irradiated high-copper weld metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskander, S.K.; Sokolov, M.A.; Nanstad, R.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1994-12-31

    One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. An important issue to be resolved is the effect on the toughness properties of reirradiating a vessel that has been annealed. This paper describes the annealing response of irradiated high-copper submerged-arc weld HSSI 73W. For this study, the weld has been annealed at 454 C (850 F) for lengths of time varying between 1 and 14 days. The Charpy V-notch 41-J (30-ft-lb) transition temperature (TT{sub 41J}) almost fully recovered for the longest period studied, but recovered to a lesser degree for the shorter periods. No significant recovery of the TT{sub 41J} was observed for a 7-day anneal at 343 C (650 F). At 454 C for the durations studied, the values of the upper-shelf impact energy of irradiated and annealed weld metal exceeded the values in the unirradiated condition. Similar behavior was observed after aging the unirradiated weld metal at 460 and 490 C for 1 week.

  5. Assessment of Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Behavior of Localized Microstructural Regions in a Friction-Stir Welded X80 Pipeline Steel with Miniaturized Charpy V-Notch Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Julian A.; Lucon, Enrico; Sowards, Jeffrey; Mei, Paulo Roberto; Ramirez, Antonio J.

    2016-06-01

    Friction-stir welding (FSW) is an alternative welding process for pipelines. This technology offers sound welds, good repeatability, and excellent mechanical properties. However, it is of paramount importance to determine the toughness of the welds at low temperatures in order to establish the limits of this technology. Ductile-to-brittle transition curves were generated in the present study by using a small-scale instrumented Charpy machine and miniaturized V-notch specimens (Kleinstprobe, KLST); notches were located in base metal, heat-affected, stirred, and hard zones within a FSW joint of API-5L X80 Pipeline Steel. Specimens were tested at temperatures between 77 K (-196 °C) and 298 K (25 °C). Based on the results obtained, the transition temperatures for the base material and heat-affected zone were below 173 K (-100 °C); conversely, for the stirred and hard zones, it was located around 213 K (-60 °C). Fracture surfaces were characterized and showed a ductile fracture mechanism at high impact energies and a mixture of ductile and brittle mechanisms at low impact energies.

  6. Progress Report on Alloy 617 Notched Specimen Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurtrey, Michael David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Richard Neil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Creep behavior of Alloy 617 has been extensively characterized to support the development of a draft Code Case to qualify Alloy 617 in Section III division 5 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will allow use of Alloy 617 in construction of nuclear reactor components at elevated temperatures and longer periods of time (up to 950°C and 100,000 hours). Prior to actual use, additional concerns not considered in the ASME code need to be addressed. Code Cases are based largely on uniaxial testing of smooth gage specimens. In service conditions, components will generally be under multi axial loading. There is also the concern of the behavior at discontinuities, such as threaded components. To address the concerns of multi axial creep behavior and at geometric discontinuities, notched specimens have been designed to create conditions representative of the states that service components experience. Two general notch geometries have been used for these series of tests: U notch and V notch specimens. The notches produce a tri axial stress state, though not uniform across the specimen. Characterization of the creep behavior of the U notch specimens and the creep rupture behavior of the V notch specimens provides a good approximation of the behavior expected of actual components. Preliminary testing and analysis have been completed and are reported in this document. This includes results from V notch specimens tested at 900°C and 800°C. Failure occurred in the smooth gage section of the specimen rather than at the root of the notch, though some damage was present at the root of the notch, where initial stress was highest. This indicates notch strengthening behavior in this material at these temperatures.

  7. WASP light curve of the eclipsing binary VZ CVn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latković O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The WASP light curve of the eclipsing binary VZ CVn, consisting of more than 14000 individual observations, is analyzed for photometric elements using the modeling code of Đurašević (1992. The spectroscopic parameters are adopted from the recent radial velocity work by Pribulla et al. (2009. The results of the study include new times of minimum light, an improved ephemeris, and the updated physical and orbital parameters of the system.

  8. Massive double white dwarfs and the AM CVn birthrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Heinke, Craig O.; Gianninas, A.; Benni, P.; Agüeros, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present Chandra and Swift X-ray observations of four extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarfs with massive companions. We place stringent limits on X-ray emission from all four systems, indicating that neutron star companions are extremely unlikely and that the companions are almost certainly white dwarfs. Given the observed orbital periods and radial velocity amplitudes, the total masses of these binaries are greater than 1.02-1.39 M⊙. The extreme mass ratios between the two components make it unlikely that these binary white dwarfs will merge and explode as Type Ia or underluminous supernovae. Instead, they will likely go through stable mass transfer through an accretion disc and turn into interacting AM CVn. Along with three previously known systems, we identify two of our targets, J0811 and J2132, as systems that will definitely undergo stable mass transfer. In addition, we use the binary white dwarf sample from the ELM Survey to constrain the inspiral rate of systems with extreme mass ratios. This rate, 1.7 × 10-4 yr-1, is consistent with the AM CVn space density estimated from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Hence, stable mass transfer double white dwarf progenitors can account for the entire AM CVn population in the Galaxy.

  9. Long-term Photometric Behavior of Outbursting AM CVn Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, David; Prince, Thomas A; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Laher, Russ; Ofek, Eran O; Sesar, Branimir; Surace, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The AM CVn systems are a class of He-rich, post-period minimum, semi-detached, ultra-compact binaries. Their long-term light curves have been poorly understood due to the few systems known and the long (hundreds of days) recurrence times between outbursts. We present combined photometric light curves from the LINEAR, CRTS, and PTF synoptic surveys to study the photometric variability of these systems over an almost 10 yr period. These light curves provide a much clearer picture of the outburst phenomena that these systems undergo. We characterize the photometric behavior of most known outbursting AM CVn systems and establish a relation between their outburst properties and the systems' orbital periods. We also explore why some systems have only shown a single outburst so far and expand the previously accepted phenomenological states of AM CVn systems. We conclude that the outbursts of these systems show evolution with respect to the orbital period, which can likely be attributed to the decreasing mass transfe...

  10. Found: The Progenitors of AM CVn and Supernovae .Ia

    CERN Document Server

    Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A; Brown, Warren R; Heinke, Craig O; Agueros, M A; Chote, Paul; Sullivan, Denis J; Bell, Keaton J; Harrold, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    We present optical and X-ray observations of two tidally distorted, extremely low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) with massive companions. There is no evidence of neutron stars in our Chandra and XMM observations of these objects. SDSS J075141.18$-$014120.9 (J0751) is an eclipsing double WD binary containing a 0.19 Msol WD with a 0.97 Msol companion in a 1.9 h orbit. J0751 becomes the fifth eclipsing double WD system currently known. SDSS J174140.49+652638.7 (J1741) is another binary containing a 0.17 Msol WD with an unseen M > 1.11 Msol WD companion in a 1.5 h orbit. With a mass ratio of ~0.1, J1741 will have stable mass transfer through an accretion disk and turn into an interacting AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) system in the next ~160 Myr. With a mass ratio of 0.2, J0751 is likely to follow a similar evolutionary path. These are the first known AM CVn progenitor binary systems and they provide important constraints on the initial conditions for AM CVn. Theoretical studies suggest that both J0751 and J1741 may crea...

  11. Certification of Charpy V-notch Reference Test Pieces of 80 J Nominal Absorbed Energy (ERM®-FA015x and ERM®-FA015y)

    OpenAIRE

    LAMBERTY MARIE ANDREE; Dean, Alan; Roebben, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This certification report describes the processing and characterisation of ERM®-FA015x and ERM®-FA015y, two batches of Charpy V-notch certified reference test pieces. Sets of five of these test pieces are used for the verification of pendulum impact test machines according to EN 10045-2 (Charpy impact test on metallic materials, Part 2. Method for the verification of impact testing machines) or according to ISO 148-2 (Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test – Part 2: Verification of ...

  12. V-Notched Bar Creep Life Prediction: GH3536 Ni-Based Superalloy Under Multiaxial Stress State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D. X.; Wang, J. P.; Wen, Z. X.; Liu, D. S.; Yue, Z. F.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, creep experiments on smooth and circumferential V-type notched round bars were conducted in GH3536 Ni-based superalloy at 750 °C to identify notch strengthening effect in notched specimens. FE analysis was carried out, coupled with continuum damage mechanics (CDM), to analyze stress distribution and damage evolution under multiaxial stress state. The creep deformation of smooth specimens and the rupture life of both smooth and notched specimens showed good agreement between experimental results and FE analysis predictions; the creep rupture life for the notched specimen was successfully predicted via the "skeletal point" concept. Both creep damage analysis and the observed fracture morphology suggest that creep rupture started first at the root in the V-type notched specimens, and shifted to the region close to the notch root when the notch was relatively shallow compared to U-type notched specimens.

  13. RS CVn binaries: Testing the solar-stellar dynamo connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, R.

    1995-01-01

    We have used the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite to study the coronal emission from the EUV-bright RS CVn binaries Sigma2 CrB, observed February 10-21, 1994, and II Peg, observed October 1-5, 1993. We present time-resolved and integrated EUV short-, medium-, and long-wavelength spectra for these binaries. Sigma2 CrB shows significant first-order emission features in the long-wavelength region. The coronal emission distributions and electron densities are estimated for those active coronae dominated by high temperature plasma.

  14. Radio polarization characteristics of two RS CVn binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutel, R. L.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Doiron, D. J.

    1985-07-01

    The authors report the results of multifrequency epoch VLA observations of polarized radio emission from the nearby active RS CVn binaries UX Arietis and HR 1099. For both systems, there is an excellent correlation between handedness of circular polarization and frequency. Helicity reversal is almost always seen between 1.4 and 5.0 GHz, possibly due to optical depth effects. There may also be an anticorrelation between total intensity and fractional circular polarization, especially at 5 GHz. This is consistent with models in which intense flares are associated with compact self-absorbed synchrotron sources, while the quiescent emission arises from larger gyrosynchrotron-emitting plasma.

  15. Reconstituted Charpy impact specimens. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, J.S.; Wullaert, R.A.; McConnell, P.; Server, W.L.; Fromm, E.O.

    1982-12-01

    The arc stud welding process was used to produce new, full size Charpy V-notch impact specimens from halves of Charpy specimens which had been previously tested. The apparatus was developed such that it could be used not only for unirradiated specimens, but also so that it could be adapted for in-cell use to produce new reconstituted specimens of irradiated material. The materials studied are of interest in nuclear applications. They include A533B, A36, A516-80, submerged arc weld metal (A508 base metal), HY80, cast duplex stainless steel, irradiated A533B, and irradiated submerged arc weld metal (A508 base metal). Both unirradiated and irradiated specimens were successfully produced and subsequently impact tested. In general, there was excellent agreement when comparing the original curves to the subsequent curves generated with reconstituted specimens. This program has shown that the arc stud welding process is well suited for producing reconstituted specimens at a reasonable cost using either unirradiated or irradiated material.

  16. Gaia14aae: the First Fully-Eclipsing AM CVn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. J.; Marsh, T. R.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Breedt, E.; Campbell, H. C.; Dhillon, V. S.; Hardy, L. K.; Littlefair, S. P.

    2017-03-01

    AM CVns are a class of cataclysmic variables consisting of a white dwarf accreting H-deficient matter from a donor star. With periods of 5 to 65 minutes, AM CVns include the shortest period binaries containing white dwarfs. AM CVns are believed to form by one of three formation channels which can in principle be distinguished by the nature of the donor star, but are difficult to constrain observationally. Gaia14aae was one of the first transients discovered by the Gaia Science Alerts project. It eclipses on a period of 50 minutes, and is the only known AM CVn in which the white dwarf is fully eclipsed. This makes it an attractive system for parameter studies. We present an update on our attempts to measure these properties, using high-speed multi-colour photometry. Preliminary results suggest that the donor star is not as degenerate as predicted by models of white dwarf donors.

  17. Failure Behaviors Depending on the Notch Location of the Impact Test Specimens on the HAZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yun Chan; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Young Suk [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jae Keun; Park, Ji Hong [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Numerical studies were performed to examine the effects of notch location of impact specimens on the failure behavior of HAZ (Heat Affected Zone) when Charpy V-notch impact test were made at a low temperature (1 .deg. C). Carbon steel plate (SA-516 Gr. 70) with thickness of 25mm for pressure vessel was welded by SMAW (Shielded Metal-Arc Welding) and specimens were fabricated from the welded plate. Charpy tests were then performed with specimens having different notch positions of specimens varying from the fusion line through HAZ to base metal. A series of finite element analysis which simulates the Charpy test and crack propagation initiating at the tip of V-notch was carried out as well. The finite element analysis takes into account the irregular fusion line and non-homogenous material properties due to the notch location of the specimen in HAZ. Results reveals that the energies absorbed during impact test depend significantly on the notch location and direction of specimen. Finite element analysis also demonstrates that the notch location of specimens, to a great extent, influences the reliability and consistency of the test.

  18. The population of AM CVn stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, G.H.A.; Nelemans, G.; Groot, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    The AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) stars are rare interacting white dwarf binaries, whose formation and evolution are still poorly known. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey provides, for the first time, a sample of six

  19. Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    Names Next Aircraft Carrier USS John F. Kennedy,” Navy News Service, May 29, 2011, accessed online on June 1, 2011 at http://www.navy.mil/search...and USS John F. Kennedy (CVN 79) come online ? A: The proposed plan matches the number of complete carrier air wings to the number of operationally...efficiently be performed. The CVN 79 build sequence installs 20 percent more parts in shop , and 30 percent more parts on the final assembly platen, as

  20. He-Accreting WDs: AM CVn stars with WD Donors

    CERN Document Server

    Piersanti, Luciano; Tornambe', Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    We study the physical and evolutionary properties of the "WD family" of AM CVn stars by computing realistic models of IDD systems. We evaluate self-consistently both the mass transfer rate from the donor, as determined by GW emission and interaction with the binary companion, and the thermal response of the accretor to mass deposition. We find that, after the onset of mass transfer, all the considered systems undergo a strong non-dynamical He-flash. However, due to the compactness of these systems, the expanding accretors fill their Roche lobe very soon, thus preventing the efficient heating of the external layers of the accreted CO WDs. Moreover, due to the loss of matter from the systems, the orbital separations enlarge and mass transfer comes to a halt. The further evolution depends on the value of \\mdot\\, after the donors fill again their lobe. On one hand, if the accretion rate, as determined by the actual value of (M_don,M_acc), is high enough, the accretors experience several He-flashes of decreasing s...

  1. Massive Double White Dwarfs and the AM CVn Birthrate

    CERN Document Server

    Kilic, Mukremin; Heinke, Craig O; Gianninas, A; Benni, P; Agueros, M A

    2016-01-01

    We present Chandra and Swift X-ray observations of four extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarfs with massive companions. We place stringent limits on X-ray emission from all four systems, indicating that neutron star companions are extremely unlikely and that the companions are almost certainly white dwarfs. Given the observed orbital periods and radial velocity amplitudes, the total masses of these binaries are greater than 1.02 to 1.39 Msun. The extreme mass ratios between the two components make it unlikely that these binary white dwarfs will merge and explode as Type Ia or underluminous supernovae. Instead, they will likely go through stable mass transfer through an accretion disk and turn into interacting AM CVn. Along with three previously known systems, we identify two of our targets, J0811 and J2132, as systems that will definitely undergo stable mass transfer. In addition, we use the binary white dwarf sample from the ELM Survey to constrain the inspiral rate of systems with extreme mass ratios. This r...

  2. Correction of constraint loss in fracture toughness measurement of PCVN specimens based on fracture toughness diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Shin Beom; Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon-Suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Reserch Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to suggest an approach to generate master curves by using miniature specimens, especially pre-cracked Charpy V-notched (PCVN) specimen, made of SA508 carbon steel. Firstly, fracture toughness diagram is derived from comparing finite element analyses results with the fixed mesh size at crack tip between standard compact tension and PCVN specimens. To compensate the constraint effects from different geometry, further examination based on the fracture toughness diagram was performed. In this context, a scale factor to deal with specimen size effects is proposed by statistically manipulating the numerical analysis data. Finally, the proposed scale factor is applied to calculate reference temperature which affects on the master curve. We expect that the approach can be applicable to compensate the geometrical constraint effects on fracture toughness of SA508 carbon steel when the PCVN specimen is used

  3. Permanent active longitudes and activity cycles on RS CVn stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1998-08-01

    A new analysis of the published long-term photometric observations has revealed permanent active-longitude structures in four RS CVn stars: EI Eri, II Peg, sigma Gem, and HR 7275. Two active longitudes separated by half of the period are found to dominate on the surface during all available seasons. The positions of the longitudes on three stars (EI Eri, II Peg, HR 7275) are migrating in the orbital reference frame, and there is no preferred orientation with respect to the line of centres in the binaries. The rate of migration is approximately constant. In case of sigma Gem the active longitude migration is synchronized with the orbital motion in the direction of the line of centres in the binary. The active region lifetimes can be longer than the time span of the observations (>=15 yr). The periods of the active longitude rotation are determined: for EI Eri 1fd 9510, for II Peg 6fd 7066, for sigma Gem 19fd 604, for HR 7275 28fd 263. Long-term activity cycles of the stars are discovered from the analysis of the relative contribution of the two longitudes to the photometric variability. One longitude is found to be usually more active than the other at a given moment, and the change of the activity level between the longitudes is cyclic with periods of years. The switch of the activity takes a much shorter time, about a few months, similar to the ``flip-flop'' phenomenon found for FK Com stars. Moments of switching are regarded as new tracers of the activity, and total cycles, which return activity to the same longitude, are found to be for EI Eri 9.0 yr, for II Peg 9.3 yr, for sigma Gem 14.9 yr, for HR 7275 17.5 yr.

  4. Discovery of binarity, spectroscopic frequency analysis, and mode identification of the delta Sct star 4CVn

    CERN Document Server

    Schmid, V S; Breger, M; Degroote, P; Aerts, C; Beck, P G; Tkachenko, A; Van Reeth, T; Bloemen, S; Debosscher, J; Castanheira, B G; McArthur, B E; Pápics, P I; Fritz, V; Falcon, R E

    2014-01-01

    More than 40 years of ground-based photometric observations of the delta Sct star 4CVn revealed 18 independent oscillation frequencies, including radial as well as non-radial p-modes of low spherical degree l= 33%. This relatively high rotation rate hampers unique mode identification, since higher-order effects of rotation are not included in the current methodology. We conclude that, in order to achieve unambiguous mode identification for 4CVn, a complete description of rotation and the use of blended lines have to be included in mode-identification techniques.

  5. MOA-2010-BLG-523: 'FAILED PLANET' = RS CVn STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, A.; Yee, J. C.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Dong, Subo; Gaudi, B. S.; Hung, L.-W. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bond, I. A. [Institute for Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, Auckland 1330 (New Zealand); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Jorgensen, U. G. [Niels Bohr Institutet, Kobenhavns Universitet, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Greenhill, J. [University of Tasmania, School of Mathematics and Physics, Private Bag 37, Hobart, TAS 7001 (Australia); Tsapras, Y. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Dr, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Bensby, T. [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Box 43, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Allen, W. [Vintage Lane Observatory, Blenheim (New Zealand); Almeida, L. A.; Jablonski, F. [Divisao de Astrofisica, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Avenida dos Astronautas, 1758 Sao Jose dos Campos, 12227-010 SP (Brazil); Bos, M. [Molehill Astronomical Observatory, North Shore (New Zealand); Christie, G. W. [Auckland Observatory, Auckland (New Zealand); DePoy, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Lee, C.-U. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedukdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Collaboration: muFUN Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; RoboNet Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; and others

    2013-02-15

    The Galactic bulge source MOA-2010-BLG-523S exhibited short-term deviations from a standard microlensing light curve near the peak of an A {sub max} {approx} 265 high-magnification microlensing event. The deviations originally seemed consistent with expectations for a planetary companion to the principal lens. We combine long-term photometric monitoring with a previously published high-resolution spectrum taken near peak to demonstrate that this is an RS CVn variable, so that planetary microlensing is not required to explain the light-curve deviations. This is the first spectroscopically confirmed RS CVn star discovered in the Galactic bulge.

  6. Virtual Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paor, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual Field Trips have been around almost as long as the Worldwide Web itself yet virtual explorers do not generally return to their desktops with folders full of virtual hand specimens. Collection of real specimens on fields trips for later analysis in the lab (or at least in the pub) has been an important part of classical field geoscience education and research for generations but concern for the landscape and for preservation of key outcrops from wanton destruction has lead to many restrictions. One of the author’s favorite outcrops was recently vandalized presumably by a geologist who felt the need to bash some of the world’s most spectacular buckle folds with a rock sledge. It is not surprising, therefore, that geologists sometimes leave fragile localities out of field trip itineraries. Once analyzed, most specimens repose in drawers or bins, never to be seen again. Some end up in teaching collections but recent pedagogical research shows that undergraduate students have difficulty relating specimens both to their collection location and ultimate provenance in the lithosphere. Virtual specimens can be created using 3D modeling software and imported into virtual globes such as Google Earth (GE) where, they may be linked to virtual field trip stops or restored to their source localities on the paleo-globe. Sensitive localities may be protected by placemark approximation. The GE application program interface (API) has a distinct advantage over the stand-alone GE application when it comes to viewing and manipulating virtual specimens. When instances of the virtual globe are embedded in web pages using the GE plug-in, Collada models of specimens can be manipulated with javascript controls residing in the enclosing HTML, permitting specimens to be magnified, rotated in 3D, and sliced. Associated analytical data may be linked into javascript and localities for comparison at various points on the globe referenced by ‘fetching’ KML. Virtual specimens open up

  7. The AM CVn binary SDSS J173047.59+554518.5

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, P J; Marsh, T R; Kupfer, T; Copperwheat, C M; Groot, P J; Nelemans, G

    2013-01-01

    The AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) binaries are a rare group of hydrogen-deficient, ultra-short period, mass-transferring white dwarf binaries, and are possible progenitors of type Ia supernovae. We present time-resolved spectroscopy of the recently-discovered AM CVn binary SDSS J173047.59+554518.5. The average spectrum shows strong double-peaked helium emission lines, as well as a variety of metal lines, including neon; this is the second detection of neon in an AM CVn binary, after the much brighter system GP Com. We detect no calcium in the accretion disc, a puzzling feature that has been noted in many of the longer-period AM CVn binaries. We measure an orbital period, from the radial velocities of the emission lines, of 35.2 +/- 0.2 minutes, confirming the ultra-compact binary nature of the system. The emission lines seen in SDSS J1730 are very narrow, although double-peaked, implying a low inclination, face-on accretion disc; using the measured velocities of the line peaks, we estimate i < 11 degrees. ...

  8. Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    provides berthing for visitors and Service members temporarily assigned to the ship. JPALS • As the Navy reformulates the JPALS Test and Evaluation Master... language —subsection (f) of Section 122 of P.L. 109-364, as amended by Section 121 of P.L. 113-66—states: (f) Requirements for CVN-79.-- (1) Quarterly

  9. Discovery of a New AM CVn System with the Kepler Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Green, Elizabeth M.;

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new AM CVn system on the basis of broadband photometry obtained with the Kepler satellite supplemented by ground-based optical spectroscopy. Initially retained on Kepler target lists as a potential compact pulsator, the blue object SDSS J190817.07+394036.4 (KIC...

  10. Magnetic field and element surface distribution of the CP2 star $\\alpha^2$ CVn

    CERN Document Server

    Glagolevskij, Y V; Hildebrandt, G; Lehmann, H; Scholz, G; Glagolevskij, Yu.V.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the radial velocity and the magnetic field of the CP star alpha^2 CVn. The observed variation of the magnetic field is compared with that of our model. We search for a relation between the magnetic field and the distribution of the chemical elements. The period in the radial velocities is constant over a time interval of about 100 years.

  11. Certification of Charpy V-Notch Reference Test Pieces of 30 J Nominal Absorbed Energy - Certified Reference Materials ERM®-FA013bg and ERM®-FA013bh

    OpenAIRE

    LAMBERTY MARIE ANDREE; Dean, Alan; Roebben, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This certification report describes the processing and characterisation of ERM®-FA013bg and ERM®-FA013bh, two batches of Charpy V-notch certified reference test pieces. Sets of five of these test pieces are used for the verification of pendulum impact test machines according to EN 10045-2 (Charpy impact test on metallic materials, Part 2. Method for the verification of impact testing machines [1]) or according to ISO 148-2 (Metallic materials - Charpy pendulum impact test - Part 2: Verificati...

  12. Early optical follow-up of the nearby active star DG CVn during its 2014 superflare

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Garcia, M D; Jelinek, M; Castro-Tirado, A J; Cwiek, A; Claret, A; Opiela, R; Zarnecki, A F; Gorosabel, J; Oates, S R; Cunniffe, R; Jeong, S; Hudec, R; Sokolov, V V; Makarov, D I; Tello, J C; Lara-Gil, O; Kubanek, P; Guziy, S; Bai, J; Fan, Y; Wang, C; Park, I H

    2015-01-01

    DG CVn is a binary system in which one of the components is an M type dwarf ultra fast rotator, only three of which are known in the solar neighborhood. Observations of DG CVn by the Swift satellite and several ground-based observatories during its super-flare event on 2014 allowed us to perform a complete hard X-ray - optical follow-up of a super-flare from the red-dwarf star. The observations support the fact that the super-flare can be explained by the presence of (a) large active region(s) on the surface of the star. Such activity is similar to the most extreme solar flaring events. This points towards a plausible extrapolation between the behaviour from the most active red-dwarf stars and the processes occurring in the Sun.

  13. Five New Outbursting AM CVn Systems Discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, David; Groot, Paul J; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Prince, Thomas A; Simonian, Gregory V; Arcavi, Iair; Bloom, Joshua S; Laher, Russ; Nugent, Peter E; Ofek, Eran O; Sesar, Branimir; Surace, Jason

    2012-01-01

    We present five new outbursting AM CVn systems and one candidate discovered as part of an ongoing search for such systems using the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). This is the first large-area, systematic search for AM CVn systems using only large-amplitude photometric variability to select candidates. Three of the confirmed systems and the candidate system were discovered as part of the PTF transient search. Two systems were found as part of a search for outbursts through the PTF photometric database. We discuss the observed characteristics of each of these systems, including the orbital periods of two systems. We also consider the position of these systems, selected in a colour-independent survey, in colour-colour space and compare to systems selected solely by their colours. We find that the colours of our newly discovered systems do not differ significantly from those of previously known systems, but significant errors preclude a definitive answer.

  14. On the evolution of the magnetic field of Ap star $\\alpha^2$ CVn

    CERN Document Server

    Bychkov, V D; Madej, J; Topilskaya, G P

    2016-01-01

    New high-precision measurements of the longitudinal magnetic field of Ap stars suggest the existence of secular intrinsic variations of the global magnetic field in some stars. We argue that such changes are apparent in the Ap star $\\alpha^2$ CVn in the time scale of $\\sim$ 10 years, which results from the analysis of literature data. Therefore, such an observation implies, that the rate of magnetic field evolution of Ap stars is much higher than was previously thought.

  15. Navy Ford (CVN 78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    procurement cost cap for CVN-78 of $10.5 billion, plus adjustments for inflation and other factors, and a procurement cost cap for subsequent Ford...follow-on ship in the program, plus adjustments for inflation and other factors (including an additional factor not included in original cost cap...key PAR findings was converting the EMALS and AAG production contracts to firm, fixed price contracts to cap cost growth and imposed negative

  16. AM CVn systems as optical, X-ray and GWR sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yungelson, L.; Nelemans, G.; Portegies Zwart, S.F.; Tovmassian, G.; Sion, E.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the model for the Galactic sample of the AM CVn systems with P[orb] ≤ 1500 s that can be detected in the optical and/or X-ray bands and may be resolved by the gravitational waves detector LISA. At 3 ≲P ≲ 10 min all detectable systems are X-ray sources. At P ≳ 10 min most systems are only

  17. What Simulations Tell Us About White Dwarf Evolution in AM CVn Close Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we review the three most likely evolutionary channels that may result in AM CVn close binaries leading to white dwarf supernovae as evolutionary endpoints. To determine the likely evolutionary path for an AM CVn system, masses are needed. To find the secondary-to-primary mass ratio, a recent hypothesis suggests using the positive superhump period from Stage A of the superoutburst light curve rather than Stage B. To determine the most likely evolutionary track for this system, we compare observational data with values from three 3D SPH numerical simulations, one simulation for each of the potential evolutionary channels for AM CVn system SDSS J090221.35+38941.9. In this work, we explain why the white dwarf channel may be eliminated for this system. As for the other two channels, we find that the simulated parameters for the CV channel looks most promising for the primary white dwarf J0902 to reach supernova type Ia. However, a comparison of simulated and observed positive superhump period excess values suggests that the helium star channel is more likely, although the results do not support a supernova as the white dwarf primary's endpoint.

  18. HST/FGS Parallaxes of AM CVn Stars and Astrophysical Consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Roelofs, G H A; Benedict, G F; McArthur, B E; Steeghs, D; Morales-Rueda, L; Marsh, T R; Nelemans, G

    2007-01-01

    We present absolute parallaxes and relative proper motions for five AM CVn stars, which we obtained using the Fine Guidance Sensors on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Our parallax measurements translate into distances d(AM CVn)=606+135-93 pc, d(HP Lib)=197+14-12 pc, d(CR Boo)=337+44-35 pc, d(V803 Cen)=347+32-27 pc, and d(GP Com)=75+2-2 pc. From these distances we estimate the space density of AM CVn stars and suggest that previous estimates have been too high by about an order of magnitude. We also infer the mass accretion rates which allows us to constrain the masses of the donor stars, and we show that relatively massive, semi-degenerate donor stars are favored in all systems except GP Com. Finally, we give updated estimates for their gravitational-wave signals, relevant for future space missions such as the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), based on their distances and the inferred masses of the binary components. We show that all systems but GP Com are excellent candidates for detectio...

  19. CHANDRA Detection of the AM CVn binary ES Cet (KUV 01584-0939)

    CERN Document Server

    Strohmayer, T E

    2004-01-01

    We report on CHANDRA ACIS observations of the ultracompact AM CVn binary ES Cet. This object has a 10.3 minute binary period and is the most compact of the confirmed AM CVn systems. We have, for the first time, unambiguously detected the X-ray counterpart to ES Cet. In a 20 ksec ACIS-S image a point-like X-ray source is found within 1'' of the catalogued optical position. The mean countrate in ACIS-S is 0.013 cts/s, and there is no strong evidence for variability. We extract the first X-ray spectrum from ES Cet, and find that it is not well described by simple continuum models. We find suggestive evidence for discrete spectral components at about 470 and 890 eV, that can be modelled as gaussian emission lines. In comparison with recent X-ray detections of nitrogen and neon in another AM CVn system (GP Com), it appears possible that these features may represent emission lines from these same elements; however, deeper spectroscopy will be required to confirm this.

  20. The New RS CVn Binary V1034 Her Revisited and the orbital period - Activity relation of Short-period RS CVn binaries using photometric distortion amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    liyun, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents new CCD BVRI light curves of the newly discovered RS CVn eclipsing binary V1034 Her in 2009 and 2010, which shapes are different from the previous published results. They show asymmetric outside eclipse and we try to use a spot model to explain the phenomena. Using the Wilson-Devinney program with one-spot or two-spots model, photometric solutions of the system and starspot parameters were derived. Comparing the two results, it shows that the case of two spots is better successful in reproducing the light-curve distortions. For all the spot longitudes, it suggests that the trend towards active longitude belts and each active longitude belts might be switch. Comparing the light curves of 2009 and 2010, it indicates that the light curve changes on a long time scale of one year, especially in phase 0.25. In addition, we also collected the values of the maximum amplitudes of photometric distortion of the short-period RS CVn binary. We found for the first time that there is a trend of increasin...

  1. An Investigation on the Wear Resistance and Fatigue Behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V Notched Members Coated with Hydroxyapatite Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza H Oskouei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy coated with hydroxyapatite coatings were investigated. Wear resistance and fatigue behaviour of samples with coating thicknesses of 10 and 50 µm as well as uncoated samples were examined. Wear experiments demonstrated that the friction factor of the uncoated titanium decreased from 0.31 to 0.06, through a fluctuating trend, after 50 cycles of wear tests. However, the friction factor of both the coated samples (10 and 50 µm gradually decreased from 0.20 to 0.12 after 50 cycles. At the end of the 50th cycle, the penetration depth of the 10 and 50 µm coated samples were 7.69 and 6.06 µm, respectively. Fatigue tests showed that hydroxyapatite coatings could improve fatigue life of a notched Ti-6Al-4V member in both low and high cycle fatigue zones. It was understood, from fractography of the fracture surfaces, that the fatigue zone of the uncoated specimens was generally smaller in comparison with that of the coated specimens. No significant difference was observed between the fatigue life of coated specimens with 10 and 50 µm thicknesses.

  2. PTF1 J191905.19+481506.2 - A Partially Eclipsing AM CVn System Discovered in the Palomar Transient Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, David; Groot, Paul J; Margon, Bruce; Prince, Thomas A; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Hallinan, Gregg; Harding, Leon K; Kyne, Gillian; Laher, Russ; Ofek, Eran O; Rutten, René G M; Sesar, Branimir; Surace, Jason

    2014-01-01

    We report on PTF1 J191905.19+481506.2, a newly discovered, partially eclipsing, outbursting AM CVn system found in the Palomar Transient Factory synoptic survey. This is only the second known eclipsing AM CVn system. We use high-speed photometric observations and phase-resolved spectroscopy to establish an orbital period of 22.4559(3) min. We also present a long-term light curve and report on the normal and super-outbursts regularly seen in this system, including a super-outburst recurrence time of 36.8(4) d. We use the presence of the eclipse to place upper and lower limits on the inclination of the system and discuss the number of known eclipsing AM CVn systems versus what would be expected.

  3. An improved correlation procedure for subsize and full-size Charpy impact specimen data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, M.A.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The possibility of using subsize specimens to monitor the properties of reactor pressure vessel steels is receiving increasing attention for light-water reactor plant life extension. This potential results from the possibility of cutting samples of small volume form the internal surface of the pressure vessel for determination of the actual properties of the operating pressure vessel. In addition, plant life extension will require supplemental data that cannot be provided by existing surveillance programs. Testing of subsize specimens manufactured from broken halves of previously tested surveillance Charpy specimens offers an attractive means of extending existing surveillance programs. Using subsize Charpy V-notch-type specimens requires the establishment of a specimen geometry that is adequate to obtain a ductile-to-brittle transition curve similar to that obtained from full-size specimens, and the development of correlations for transition temperature and upper-shelf energy (USE) level between subsize and full-size specimens. Five different geometries of subsize specimens were selected for testing and evaluation. The specimens were made from several types of pressure vessel steels with a wide range of yield strengths, transition temperatures, and USEs. The effects of specimen dimensions, including notch depth, angle, and radius, have been studied. The correlations of transition temperatures determined from different types of subsize specimens and the full-size specimens are presented. A new procedure for transforming data from subsize specimens is developed. The transformed data are in good agreement with data from full-size specimens for materials that have USE levels less than 200 J.

  4. Very Short-Duration UV-B Optical Flares in RS CVn-type Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Haagen, G. A.

    2013-06-01

    Very short duration UV-B optical flares were observed during a high-cadence search for conventional flares on three RS CVn type stars: AR Lac, II Peg, and UX Ari. A statistical criterion was developed for isolating these short-duration optical flares from random photon events. Five flares, ranging in duration from 30 to 85 ms with peaks 0.29-0.51 mag. above the mean, were detected within the 132 hours of monitoring time. The time resolution of the observations was 5 ms for AR Lac and 10 ms for II Peg and UX Ari.

  5. Long-term chromospheric activity of non-eclipsing RS CVn-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    2009-02-01

    Context: The IUE database provides several UV high and low-resolution spectra of RS CVn-type stars from 1978 to 1996. In particular, many of these stars were monitored continuously during several seasons by IUE. Aims: Our main purpose is to study the short and long-term chromospheric activity of the RS CVn systems most observed by IUE: HD 22 468 (V711 Tau, HR 1099, K1IV+G5V), HD 21 242 (UX Ari, K0IV+G5V), and HD 224 085 (II Peg, K2IV). Methods: We first obtained the Mount Wilson index S from the IUE high and low-resolution spectra. Secondly, we used the Lomb-Scargle periodogram to analyse the mean annual index and the amplitude of the rotational modulation of the index S. Results: For HD 22 468 (V711 Tau, HR 1099), we find a possible chromospheric cycle with a period of ~18 years and a shorter cycle with a period of ~3 years, which could be associated to a chromospheric “flip-flop” cycle. The data of HD 224 085 (II Peg) also suggest a chromospheric cycle of ~21 years and a flip-flop cycle of ~9 years. Finally, we obtained a possible chromospheric cycle of ~7 years for HD 21 242 (UX Ari).

  6. Total eclipse of the heart: The AM CVn Gaia14aae / ASSASN-14cn

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, H C; Fraser, M; Hodgkin, S T; de Miguel, E; Gänsicke, B T; Steeghs, D; Hourihane, A; Breedt, E; Littlefair, S P; Koposov, S E; Wyrzykowski, L; Altavilla, G; Blagorodnova, N; Clementini, G; Damljanovic, G; Delgado, A; Dennefeld, M; Drake, A J; Fernández-Hernández, J; Gilmore, G; Gualandi, R; Hamanowicz, A; Handzlik, B; Hardy, L K; Harrison, D L; Ilkiewicz, K; Jonker, P G; Kochanek, C S; Kolaczkowski, Z; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Kotak, R; van Leeuwen, G; Leto, G; Ochner, P; Pawlak, M; Palaversa, L; Rixon, G; Rybicki, K; Shappee, B J; Smartt, S J; Torres, M A P; Tomasella, L; Turatto, M; Ulaczyk, K; van Velzen, S; Vince, O; Walton, N A; Wielgórski, P; Wevers, T; Whitelock, P; Yoldas, A; De Angeli, F; Burgess, P; Busso, G; Busuttil, R; Butterley, T; Chambers, K C; Copperwheat, C; Danilet, A B; Dhillon, V S; Evans, D W; Eyer, L; Froebrich, D; Gomboc, A; Holland, G; Holoien, T W -S; Jarvis, J F; Kaiser, N; Kann, D A; Koester, D; Kolb, U; Komossa, S; Magnier, E A; Mahabal, A; Polshaw, J; Prieto, J L; Prusti, T; Riello, M; Scholz, A; Simonian, G; Stanek, K Z; Szabados, L; Waters, C; Wilson, R W

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery and characterisation of a deeply eclipsing AM CVn-system, Gaia14aae (= ASSASN-14cn). Gaia14aae was identified independently by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN; Shappee et al. 2014) and by the Gaia Science Alerts project, during two separate outbursts. A third outburst is seen in archival Pan-STARRS-1 (PS1; Schlafly et al. 2012; Tonry et al. 2012; Magnier et al. 2013) and ASAS-SN data. Spectroscopy reveals a hot, hydrogen-deficient spectrum with clear double-peaked emission lines, consistent with an accreting double degenerate classification. We use follow-up photometry to constrain the orbital parameters of the system. We find an orbital period of 49.71 min, which places Gaia14aae at the long period extremum of the outbursting AM CVn period distribution. Gaia14aae is dominated by the light from its accreting white dwarf. Assuming an orbital inclination of 90 degrees for the binary system, the contact phases of the white dwarf lead to lower limits of 0.78 M solar an...

  7. An investigation of GSC 02038-00293, a suspected RS CVn star, using CCD photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodda, Tony; Cruickshank, Stewart; Salisbury, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of differential, time series photometry for GSC 02038-00293, a suspected RS CVn binary, using data collected with the Open University's PIRATE robotic telescope located at the Observatori Astronomic de Mallorca between 10 May and 13 June 2010. A full orbital period cycle in the V band and partial cycle of B and R bands were obtained for GSC 02038-00293 showing an orbital period of 0.4955 +/- 0.0001 days. This period is in close agreement with that of previously published values but significantly different to that found by the All Sky Automated Survey of 0.330973 days. We suggest GSC 02038-00293 is a short period eclipsing RS CVn star and from our data alone we calculate an ephemeris of JD 2455327.614 + 0.4955(1) x E. We also find that the previously observed six to eight year cycle of star spot activity which accounts for the behaviour of the secondary minimum is closer to six years and that there is detectable reddening at both minima.

  8. Effects of Microstructure on CVN Impact Toughness in Thermomechanically Processed High Strength Microalloyed Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tao; Zhou, Yanlei; Jia, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Zhaodong

    2017-02-01

    Investigation on the correlation between microstructure and CVN impact toughness is of practical importance for the microstructure design of high strength microalloyed steels. In this work, three steels with characteristic microstructures were produced by cooling path control, i.e., steel A with granular bainite (GB), steel B with polygonal ferrite (PF) and martensite-austenite (M-A) constituent, and steel C with the mixture of bainitic ferrite (BF), acicular ferrite (AF), and M-A constituent. Under the same alloy composition and controlled rolling, similar ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures were obtained for the three steels. Steel A achieved the highest upper shelf energy (USE), while large variation of impact absorbed energy has been observed in the ductile-to-brittle transition region. With apparently large-sized PF and M-A constituent, steel B shows the lowest USE and delamination phenomenon in the ductile-to-brittle transition region. Steel C exhibits an extended upper shelf region, intermediate USE, and the fastest decrease of impact absorbed energy in the ductile-to-brittle transition region. The detailed CVN impact behavior is studied and then linked to the microstructural features.

  9. Long-term chromospheric activity of non-eclipsing RS CVn-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, Andrea P

    2008-01-01

    Context. The IUE database provides a large number of UV high and low-resolution spectra of RS CVn-type stars from 1978 to 1996. In particular, many of these stars were monitored continuously during several seasons by IUE. Aims. Our main purpose is to study the short and long-term chromospheric activity of the RS CVn systems most observed by IUE: HD 22468 (V711 Tau, HR 1099, K1IV+G5V), HD 21242 (UX Ari, K0IV+G5V) and HD 224085 (II Peg, K2IV). Methods. We first obtain the Mount Wilson index S from the IUE high and low-resolution spectra. Secondly, we analyse with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram the mean annual index S and the amplitude of its rotational modulation. Results. For HD 22468 (V711 Tau, HR 1099), we found a possible chromospheric cycle with a period of 18 years and a shorter cycle with a period of 3 years, which could be associated to a chromospheric "flip-flop" cycle. The data of HD 224085 (II Peg) also suggest a chromospheric cycle of 21 years and a flip-flop cycle of 9 years. Finally, we obtained a p...

  10. Test Technique Development on the Irradiated Reconstituted PCVN Specimen in Hot Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sangbok; Oh, Wanho; Choo, Yongsun; Kim, Minchul; Lee, Bongsang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The degradation of fracture toughness is the important factor to restrict the life of nuclear pressure vessel in PWR reactors. A pressure vessel is operated in conformity with the fracture analysis based on ASME codes to ensure safety margins from the unstable fracture. A fracture analysis is performed based on the result from the Charpy impact tests in PWR reactor, but it has the questions to be exact solutions because the test results give indirect and excessively conservative values. Therefore the research to find an exact toughness parameter is undergoing to use the pre-cracked Charpy v-notch (PCVN). As results the master curve method is proposed in ASTM E1921 to be supposed an appropriate tool to evaluate the fracture toughness for the irradiated, or the operated pressure vessel materials. The surveillance test program to evaluate toughness degradation on existing commercial PWR reactor is performed through the impact test on Charpy specimens. It gives the lack of the specimen to evaluate the safety in toughness for on-going operation beyond design life. To overcome the shortage of specimen, the test method to use a reconstituted PCVN specimen fabricated from the broken half of Charpy specimen is proposed and adopted in foreign reactors. In this paper techniques developed for the reconstituted specimen from the domestic commercial PWR reactor in hot cell are described.

  11. MAXI/GSC detection of a possible X-ray flare from an RS CVn star AR Psc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y.; Tsuboi, Y.; Sasaki, R.; Serino, M.; Nakahira, S.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Ishikawa, M.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Sugawara, Y.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Iwakiri, W.; Shidatsu, M.; Sugimoto, J.; Takagi, T.; Matsuoka, M.; Kawai, N.; Isobe, N.; Sugita, S.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Ono, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kawakubo, Y.; Kitaoka, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Shomura, R.; Negoro, H.; Nakajima, M.; Tanaka, K.; Masumitsu, T.; Kawase, T.; Ueda, Y.; Kawamuro, T.; Hori, T.; Tanimoto, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Furuya, K.; Yamaoka, K.

    2016-07-01

    On July 30th 2016, the MAXI/GSC nova-alert system triggered on a possible X-ray flare from an RS CVn star AR Psc. The intense X-ray emission was detected from a transit starting at 21:52 UT on July 29th 2016 to the next transit starting at 23:25 UT on 29th.

  12. Superoutburst of CR Bootis: Estimation of Mass Ratio of a typical AM CVn star by Stage A Superhumps

    CERN Document Server

    Isogai, Keisuke; Ohshima, Tomohito; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Oksanen, Arto; Masumoto, Kazunari; Fukushima, Daiki; Maeda, Kazuki; Kawabata, Miho; Matsuda, Risa; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Sugiura, Yuki; Takeda, Nao; Matsumoto, Katsura; Itoh, Hiroshi; Pavlenko, Elena P; Antonyuk, Kirill; Antonyuk, Oksana; Pit, Nikolai; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Baklanov, Alex; Babina, Julia; Sklyanov, Aleksandr; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Hambsch, Franz-josef; Littlefield, Colin; Maeda, Yutaka; Cook, Lewis M; Masi, Gianluca; Dubovsky, Pavol A; Novak, Rudolf; Dvorak, Shawn; Imada, Akira; Nogami, Daisaku

    2016-01-01

    We report on two superoutbursts of the AM CVn-type object CR Boo in 2014 April--March and 2015 May--June. A precursor outburst acompanied both of these superoutbursts. During the rising branch of the main superoutburst in 2014, we detected growing superhumps (stage A superhumps) whose period was $0.017669(24)$ d. Assuming that this period reflects the dynamical precession rate at the radius of the 3:1 resonance, we could estimate the mass ratio ($q=M_2/M_1$) of 0.101(4) by using the stage A superhump period and the orbital one of 0.0170290(6) d. This mass ratio is consistent with that expected by the theoretical evolutionary model of AM CVn-type objects. The detection of precursor outbursts and stage A superhumps is the second case in AM CVn-type objects. There are two interpretations of the outbursts of AM CVn-type objects. One is a dwarf nova (DN) outbursts analogy, which is caused by thermal and tidal instabilities. Another is the VY Scl-type variation, which is caused by the variation of the mass-transfer...

  13. Ultracompact AM CVn Binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey: Three Candidates Plus the First Confirmed Eclipsing System

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, S F; Homer, L; Joshi, N R; Margon, B; Silvestri, N M; Szkody, P; Wolfe, M A; Agol, E; Becker, A C; Henden, A; Hall, P B; Knapp, G R; Richmond, M W; Schneider, D P; Stinson, G; Barentine, J C; Brewington, H J; Brinkmann, J; Harvanek, M; Kleinman, S J; Krzesínski, J; Long, D; Neilsen, E H; Nitta, A; Snedden, S A; Anderson, Scott F.; Haggard, Daryl; Homer, Lee; Joshi, Nikhil R.; Margon, Bruce; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Szkody, Paula; Wolfe, Michael A.; Agol, Eric; Becker, Andrew C.; Henden, Arne; Hall, Patrick B.; Knapp, Gillian R.; Richmond, Michael W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Stinson, Gregory; Brewington, Howard J.; Harvanek, Michael; Krzesinski, Jurek; Long, Dan; Neilsen, Eric H.; Nitta, Atsuko; Snedden, Stephanie A.

    2005-01-01

    AM CVn systems are a rare (about a dozen previously known) class of cataclysmic variables, arguably encompassing the shortest orbital periods (down to about 10 minutes) of any known binaries. Both binary components are thought to be degenerate (or partially so), likely with mass-transfer from a helium-rich donor onto a white dwarf, driven by gravitational radiation. Although rare, AM CVn systems are of high interest as possible SN Ia progenitors, and because they are predicted to be common sources of gravity waves in upcoming experiments such as LISA. We have identified four new AM CVn candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectral database. All four show hallmark spectroscopic characteristics of the AM CVn class: each is devoid of hydrogen features, and instead shows a spectrum dominated by helium. All four show double-peaked emission, indicative of helium-dominated accretion disks. Limited time-series CCD photometric follow-on data have been obtained for three of the new candidates from the AR...

  14. SDSS J080449.49+161624.8: A peculiar AM CVn star from a colour-selected sample of candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Roelofs, G H A; Steeghs, D; Rau, A; de Groot, E; Marsh, T R; Nelemans, G; Liebert, J; Woudt, P

    2008-01-01

    We describe a spectroscopic survey designed to uncover an estimated ~40 AM CVn stars hiding in the photometric database of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We have constructed a relatively small sample of about 1500 candidates based on a colour selection, which should contain the majority of all AM CVn binaries while remaining small enough that spectroscopic identification of the full sample is feasible. We present the first new AM CVn star discovered using this strategy, SDSS J080449.49+161624.8, the ultracompact binary nature of which is demonstrated using high-time-resolution spectroscopy obtained at the Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. A kinematic 'S-wave' feature is observed on a period 44.5+/-0.1min, which we propose is the orbital period, although the present data cannot yet exclude its nearest daily aliases. The new AM CVn star shows a peculiar spectrum of broad, single-peaked helium emission lines with unusually strong series of ionised helium, reminiscent of the (intermedi...

  15. Miniaturized Charpy test for reactor pressure vessel embrittlement characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, M.P. Sr. [MPM Research and Consulting, Lemont, PA (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Modifications were made to a conventional Charpy machine to accommodate the miniaturized Charpy V-Notch (MCVN) specimens which were fabricated from an archived reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel. Over 100 dynamic MCVN tests were performed and compared to the results from conventional Charpy V-Notch (CVN) tests to demonstrate the efficacy of the miniature specimen test. The optimized sidegrooved MCVN specimens exhibit transitional fracture behavior over essentially the same temperature range as the CVN specimens which indicates that the stress fields in the MCVN specimens reasonably simulate those of the CVN specimens and this fact has been observed in finite element calculations. This result demonstrates a significant breakthrough since it is now possible to measure the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) using miniature specimens with only small correction factors, and for some materials as in the present study, without the need for any correction factor at all. This development simplifies data interpretation and will facilitate future regulatory acceptance. The non-sidegrooved specimens yield energy-temperature data which is significantly shifted downward in temperature (non-conservative) as a result of the loss of constraint which accompanies size reduction.

  16. Numerical study of the Notch Location of the Impact Test Specimens on the HAZ of SA516 Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yun Chan; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Young Seog [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jae Keun; Park, Ji Hong [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Experimental and numerical studies were performed to examine the effects of notch position on the failure behavior and energy absorption when the Charpy V-notch impact test is made at 1 .deg. C. For this purpose, carbon steel plate (SA-516 Gr. 70) with thickness of 25mm usually used for pressure vessel was welded by SMAW (Shielded Metal-Arc Welding) method and specimens were fabricated from the welded plate. The Charpy impact tests were then performed with specimens having different notch positions varying within HAZ. A series of three-dimensional FE analysis which simulates the Charpy test and crack propagation are carried out as well to examine the reproducibility of test results. The FE analysis takes into account the heterogeneous mechanical properties with complex microstructures in HAZ. Results reveal that the absorbed energies during impact test depend significantly on the notch position.

  17. Chemical Composition of the RS CVn-type Star 33 Piscium

    CERN Document Server

    Barisevi\\vcius, G; Berdyugina, S; Chorniy, Y; Ilyin, I

    2011-01-01

    Abundances of 22 chemical elements, including the key elements and isotopes such as 12C/13C, N and O, are investigated in the spectrum of 33 Psc, a single-lined RS CVn-type binary of low magnetic activity. The high resolution spectra were observed on the Nordic Optical Telescope and analyzed with the MARCS model atmospheres. The following main parameters have been determined: T_eff = 4750 K, log g = 2.8, [Fe/H] = -0.09, [C/Fe] = -0.04, [N/Fe] = 0.23, [O/Fe] = 0.05, C/N = 2.14, 12C/13C = 30, which show the first-dredge-up mixing signatures and no extra-mixing.

  18. Detecting the Companions and Ellipsoidal Variations of RS CVn Primaries: I. sigma Geminorum

    CERN Document Server

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M; Henry, Gregory W; Fekel, Francis C; Williamson, Michael H; Pourbaix, Dimitri; Latham, David W; Latham, Christian A; Torres, Guillermo; Baron, Fabien; Che, Xiao; Kraus, Stefan; Schaefer, Gail H; Aarnio, Alicia N; Korhonen, Heidi; Harmon, Robert O; Brummelaar, Theo A ten; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Turner, Nils H

    2015-01-01

    To measure the properties of both components of the RS CVn binary sigma Geminorum (sigma Gem), we directly detect the faint companion, measure the orbit, obtain model-independent masses and evolutionary histories, detect ellipsoidal variations of the primary caused by the gravity of the companion, and measure gravity darkening. We detect the companion with interferometric observations obtained with the Michigan InfraRed Combiner (MIRC) at Georgia State University's Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array with a primary-to-secondary H-band flux ratio of 270+/-70. A radial velocity curve of the companion was obtained with spectra from the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5-m Tillinghast Reflector at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO). We additionally use new observations from the Tennessee State University Automated Spectroscopic and Photometric Telescopes (AST and APT, respectively). From our orbit, we determine model-independent masses of the components (M_1 ...

  19. Radio emission from RS CVn binaries. II. Polarization and spectral properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutel, R.L.; Morris, D.H.; Doiron, D.J.; Lestrade, J.F.

    1987-05-01

    Multiepoch radio observations of circular polarization and spectral characteristics of several close, late-type stellar binaries are reported. The median luminosity of four well-studied systems ranged from 16.2 to 17.1 ergs/s/Hz. For individual systems, the fractional circular polarization decreases with increasing luminosity, particularly at frequencies above 5 GHz. Eclipsing binaries have significantly lower average circular polarization compared with noneclipsing systems. Helicity reversal is almost always observed between 1.4 and 4.9 GHz for systems with high orbital inclination. Comparison with ten years of previously published polarization observations for two RS CVn stellar systems show that the same helicity occurs at a given frequency for a given source, indicating a very stable, large-scale magnetic field geometry. These spectral and polarization characteristics strongly support a model of inhomogeneous gyrosynchrotron emission arising from electrons with power law energy spectra interacting with inhomogeneous magnetic fields. 35 references.

  20. SDSS J0926+3624, the first eclipsing AM CVn star, as seen by ULTRACAM

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, T R; Littlefair, S; Groot, P; Hakala, P; Nelemans, G; Ramsay, G; Roelofs, G; Steeghs, D

    2006-01-01

    We present light curves of SDSS J0926+3624, the first eclipsing AM CVn star, observed with the high-speed CCD camera ULTRACAM on the WHT. We find unusually that the accreting white dwarf is only partially eclipsed by its companion. Apart from this, the system shows the classic eclipse morphology displayed by eclipsing dwarf novae, namely the eclipse of a white dwarf and accretion disc followed by that of the bright spot where the mass transfer stream hits the disc. We are able to fit this well to find masses of the accretor and donor to be M1 = 0.84 +/- 0.05 Msun and M2 = 0.029 +/- 0.02 Msun respectively. The mass of the donor is significantly above its zero temperature value and it must possess significant thermal content.

  1. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  2. TYC 8380-1953-1: Discovery of an RS CVn Binary Through the XMM-Newton Slew Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Santiago, J.; Stelzer, B.; Saxton, R.

    2012-07-01

    In this article we report the discovery of the chromospherically active (RS CVn type) binary TYC 8380-1953-1 through the XMM-Newton slew survey and present results of our optical and X-ray follow-up. With a flux limit of 6 × 10-13 ergs cm-2 s-1 in the soft band (0.2–2 keV), the XMM-Newton slew has a similar sensitivity to the ROSAT All Sky Survey, allowing interesting sources to be identified by their long-term variability. Two different types of stellar sources are detected in shallow X-ray surveys: young stars (both pre–main- and main-sequence stars) and chromospherically active binaries (BY Dra and RS CVn-type systems). The discovery of stars in such surveys and the study of their nature through optical follow-ups is valuable to determine their spatial distribution and scale height in the Galaxy. Our analysis shows that TYC 8380-1953-1 is a double-lined spectroscopic binary, with both components having similar spectral type (likely K0/2 + K3/5) and luminosity. With a typical coronal temperature for an RS CVn system (kT ∼ 1.15 keV) and an X-ray luminosity in the 0.3–10 keV energy band higher than 4 × 1031 erg s-1, TYC 8380-1953-1 lies among the most X-ray luminous RS CVn binaries.

  3. PTF1 J071912.13+485834.0: An outbursting AM CVn system discovered by a synoptic survey

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, David; Groot, Paul J; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Ofek, Eran O; Prince, Thomas A; Shporer, Avi; Bloom, Joshua S; Cenko, S Bradley; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Law, Nicholas M; Nugent, Peter E; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M; Horesh, Assaf; Sesar, Branimir; Sternberg, Assaf

    2011-01-01

    We present extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations of PTF1 J071912.13+485834.0, an outbursting AM CVn system discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). AM CVn systems are stellar binaries with some of the smallest separations known and orbital periods ranging from 5 to 65 minutes. They are believed to be composed of a white dwarf accretor and a (semi)-degenerate He-rich donor and are considered to be the helium equivalents of Cataclysmic Variables. We have spectroscopically and photometrically identified an orbital period of 26.77 \\pm 0.02 minutes for PTF1 J071912.13+485834.0 and found a super-outburst recurrence time of greater than 65 days along with the presence of "normal" outbursts - rarely seen in AM CVn systems but well known in super-outbursting Cataclysmic Variables. We present a long-term light curve over two super-cycles as well as high cadence photometry of both outburst and quiescent stages, both of which show clear variability. We also compare both the outburst and quiescent...

  4. SPH Simulations of Direct Impact Accretion in the Ultracompact AM CVn Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dolence, Joshua; Silver, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    The ultracompact binary systems V407 Vul (RX J1914.4+2456) and HM Cnc (RX J0806.3+1527) - a two-member subclass of the AM CVn stars - continue to pique interest because they defy unambiguous classification. Three proposed models remain viable at this time, but none of the three is significantly more compelling than the remaining two, and all three can satisfy the observational constraints if parameters in the models are tuned. One of the three proposed models is the direct impact model of Marsh & Steeghs (2002), in which the accretion stream impacts the surface of a rapidly-rotating primary white dwarf directly but at a near-glancing angle. One requirement of this model is that the accretion stream have a high enough density to advect its specific kinetic energy below the photosphere for progressively more-thermalized emission downstream, a constraint that requires an accretion spot size of roughly 1.2x10^5 km^2 or smaller. Having at hand a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code optimized for cataclysmic va...

  5. Discovery of a high state AM CVn binary in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, T.; Torres, M. A. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Wetuski, J. D.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.; Maccarone, T. J.; Heinke, C.; Hynes, R. I.; Udalski, A.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Groot, P. J.; Gazer, R.; Szymański, M. K.; Britt, C. T.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Poleski, R.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the discovery of a hydrogen-deficient compact binary (CXOGBS J175107.6-294037) belonging to the AM CVn class in the Galactic Bulge Survey. Deep archival X-ray observations constrain the X-ray positional uncertainty of the source to 0.57 arcsec, and allow us to uniquely identify the optical and UV counterpart. Optical spectroscopic observations reveal the presence of broad, shallow He I absorption lines while no sign of hydrogen is present, consistent with a high state system. We present the optical light curve from Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment monitoring, spanning 15 yr. It shows no evidence for outbursts; variability is present at the 0.2 mag level on time-scales ranging from hours to weeks. A modulation on a time-scale of years is also observed. A Lomb-Scargle analysis of the optical light curves shows two significant periodicities at 22.90 and 23.22 min. Although the physical interpretation is uncertain, such time-scales are in line with expectations for the orbital and superhump periods. We estimate the distance to the source to be between 0.5 and 1.1 kpc. Spectroscopic follow-up observations are required to establish the orbital period, and to determine whether this source can serve as a verification binary for the eLISA gravitational wave mission.

  6. Three X-ray Flares Near Primary Eclipse of the RS CVn Binary XY UMa

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Hang; Maccarone, Thomas; Reale, Fabio; Liu, Jifeng; Heckert, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    We report on an archival X-ray observation of the eclipsing RS CVn binary XY UMa ($\\rm P_{orb}\\approx$ 0.48d). In two $\\emph{Chandra}$ ACIS observations spanning 200 ks and almost five orbital periods, three flares occurred. We find no evidence for eclipses in the X-ray flux. The flares took place around times of primary eclipse, with one flare occurring shortly ($<0.125\\rm P_{orb}$) after a primary eclipse, and the other two happening shortly ($<0.05\\rm P_{orb}$) before a primary eclipse. Two flares occurred within roughly one orbital period ($\\Delta \\phi\\approx1.024\\rm P_{orb}$) of each other. We analyze the light curve and spectra of the system, and investigate coronal length scales both during quiescence and during flares, as well as the timing of the flares. We explore the possibility that the flares are orbit-induced by introducing a small orbital eccentricity, which is quite challenging for this close binary.

  7. Orbital periods and Accretion disc structure of four AM CVn systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, T; Levitan, D; Steeghs, D; Marsh, T R; Rutten, R G M; Nelemans, G

    2013-01-01

    Phase-resolved spectroscopy of four AM CVn systems obtained with the William Herschel Telescope and the Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) is presented. SDSS\\,J120841.96+355025.2 was found to have an orbital period of 52.96$\\pm$0.40\\,min and shows the presence of a second bright spot in the accretion disc. The average spectrum contains strong Mg\\,{\\sc i} and Si\\,{\\sc i/ii} absorption lines most likely originating in the atmosphere of the accreting white dwarf. SDSS\\,J012940.05+384210.4 has an orbital period of 37.555$\\pm$0.003 min. The average spectrum shows the Stark broadened absorption lines of the DB white dwarf accretor. The orbital period is close to the previously reported superhump period of 37.9\\,min. Combined, this results in a period excess $\\epsilon$=0.0092$\\pm$0.0054 and a mass ratio $q=0.031\\pm$0.018. SDSS\\,J164228.06+193410.0 displays an orbital period of 54.20$\\pm$1.60\\,min with an alias at 56.35\\,min. The average spectrum also shows strong Mg\\,{\\sc i} absorption lines, similar to SDSS\\,J120841...

  8. KOI-1003: A new spotted, eclipsing RS CVn binary in the Kepler field

    CERN Document Server

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M; Monnier, John D; Harmon, Robert O

    2016-01-01

    Using the high-precision photometry from the Kepler space telescope, thousands of stars with stellar and planetary companions have been observed. The characterization of stars with companions is not always straightforward and can be contaminated by systematic and stellar influences on the light curves. Here, through a detailed analysis of starspots and eclipses, we identify KOI-1003 as a new, active RS CVn star---the first identified with data from Kepler. The Kepler light curve of this close binary system exhibits the system's primary transit, secondary eclipse, and starspot evolution of two persistent active longitudes. The near equality of the system's orbital and rotation periods indicates the orbit and primary star's rotation are nearly synchronized ($P_\\mathrm{orb} = 8.360613\\pm0.000003$ days; $P_\\mathrm{rot} \\sim 8.23$ days). By assuming the secondary star is on the main sequence, we suggest the system consists of a $1.45^{+0.11}_{-0.19} \\ M_\\odot$ subgiant primary and a $0.59^{+0.03}_{-0.04} \\ M_\\odot...

  9. Optical and UV spectroscopy of the peculiar RS CVn system, RT Lacertae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenemoerder, D. P.; Barden, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Spectra in the H-alpha and H-beta regions of the peculiar double-lined RS CVn binary, RT Lacertae, were obtained in the fall of 1984. Limited International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) long wavelength low and high resolution spectra were obtained concurrently. The ground based spectra have shown an asymmetry with orbital phase in the H-alpha profile. The H-beta profiles were consistent with the same effect. One hemisphere showed excess emission and the other excess absorption, with a broad Gaussian emission component superposed upon the excess H-alpha line. An improved radial velocity curve, giving a better determined mass ratio and geometry was derived. This combined with the radii implied by the rotational broadening of the spectra, showed one component to be 80 to 90% filling the equilibrium Roche surface. The two-faced nature is, therfore, very likely due to mass transfer from the contact component impacting upon its companion. Low resolution ultraviolet data showed that the supposed cooler component is bluer than its companion. High resolution ultraviolet data taken during secondary eclipse showed Mg II emission strength which decreased more slowly than the area visible. The phase behavior of the low resolution data support the former situation, indicating traditional chromospheric activity.

  10. Discovery of a high state AM CVn binary in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Wevers, T; Jonker, P G; Wetuski, J D; Nelemans, G; Steeghs, D; Maccarone, T J; Heinke, C; Hynes, R I; Udalski, A; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Groot, P J; Gazer, R; Szymanski, M K; Britt, C T; Wyrzykowski, L; Poleski, R

    2016-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a hydrogen-deficient compact binary (CXOGBS J175107.6-294037) belonging to the AM CVn class in the Galactic Bulge Survey. Deep archival X-ray observations constrain the X-ray positional uncertainty of the source to 0.57 arcsec, and allow us to uniquely identify the optical and UV counterpart. Optical spectroscopic observations reveal the presence of broad, shallow He i absorption lines while no sign of hydrogen is present, consistent with a high state system. We present the optical lightcurve from Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment monitoring, spanning 15 years. It shows no evidence for outbursts; variability is present at the 0.2 mag level on timescales ranging from hours to weeks. A modulation on a timescale of years is also observed. A Lomb-Scargle analysis of the optical lightcurves shows two significant periodicities at 22.90 and 23.22 min. Although the physical interpretation is uncertain, such timescales are in line with expectations for the orbital and superhump per...

  11. Radio emission from RS CVn binaries. II - Polarization and spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutel, R. L.; Morris, D. H.; Doiron, D. J.; Lestrade, J. F.

    1987-05-01

    Multi-epoch radio observations of circular polarization and spectral characteristics of several close, late-type stellar binaries (mainly of the RS CVn class) are reported. The median luminosity of four well-studied systems ranged from 16.2 ≤ log(LR) ≤ 17.1 erg s-1Hz-1. For individual systems, the fractional circular polarization decreases with increasing luminosity, particularly at frequencies f ≥ 5 GHz. Eclipsing binaries have significantly lower average circular polarization compared with non-eclipsing systems. Helicity reversal is almost always observed between 1.4 and 4.9 GHz for systems with high orbital inclination. These spectral and polarization characteristics, combined with direct measurements of the brightness temperature using previously published VLBI observations, strongly support a model of inhomogeneous gyrosynchrotron emission arising from electrons with power law energy spectra interacting with inhomogeneous magnetic fields. The source emission region is probably cospatial with the large coronal loops deduced from X-ray observations.

  12. On the orbital periods of the AM CVn stars HP Librae and V803 Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Roelofs, G H A; Nelemans, G; Marsh, T R; Steeghs, D

    2007-01-01

    We analyse high-time-resolution spectroscopy of the AM CVn stars HP Librae and V803 Centauri, taken with the New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory, Chile. We present evidence that the literature value for V803 Cen's orbital period is incorrect, based on an observed `S-wave' in the binary's spectrogram. We measure a spectroscopic period P=1596.4+/-1.2s of the S-wave feature, which is significantly shorter than the 1611-second periods found in previous photometric studies. We conclude that the latter period likely represents a `superhump'. If one assumes that our S-wave period is the orbital period, V803 Cen's mass ratio can be expected to be much less extreme than previously thought, at q~0.07 rather than q~0.016. This relaxes the constraints on the masses of the components considerably: the donor star does then not need to be fully degenerate, and the mass of the accreting white dwarf no longer has to be very close to the Chandrasekhar limit. Fo...

  13. Doppler images of the RS CVn binary II Pegasi during the years 1994-2002

    CERN Document Server

    Lindborg,; Korpi,; J., M; Hackman,; T.,; Tuominen,; I.,; Ilyin,; I.,; Piskunov,; N,

    2010-01-01

    We publish 16 Doppler imaging temperature maps for the years 1994-2002 of the active RS CVn star II Peg. The six maps from 1999-2002 are based on previously unpublished observations. Through Doppler imaging we want to study the spot evolution of the star and in particular compare this with previous results showing a cyclic spot behaviour and persistent active longitudes. The observations were collected with the SOFIN spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. The temperature maps were calculated using a Doppler imaging code based on Tikhonov regularization. During 1994-2001, our results show a consistent trend in the derived longitudes of the principal and secondary temperature minima over time such that the magnetic structure appears to rotate somewhat more rapidly than the orbital period of this close binary. A sudden phase jump of the active region occured between the observing seasons of 2001 and 2002. No clear trend over time is detected in the derived latitudes of the spots, indicating that the syste...

  14. Long-Term Starspot Activity of Some Chromospherically Active Rs CVn and BY Dra Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikova, Alla; Ilya, Alekseev

    2016-10-01

    We present results of our long-term photometric observations of a sample of 15 chromospherically active BY Dra and RS CVn-type stars. Observations were carried out at a 70-cm telescope and multichannel photometer of Kourovka Astronomical Observatory of Ural Federal University and at a 1.25-m telescope of Crimean Astrophysical Observatory from 2003 to 2015 in Johnson B, V, R, I bands. We also use the previously published photometric data for all these stars to find the meaning of historical star's brightness, that we assume as a brightness of unspotted photosphere. Using a renewed zonal spot model for spotted stellar photospheres we determined spot parameters for all observational seasons, as our as published ones, that were spanning almost over 45 years for some stars (e.g. CG Cyg, WY Cnc, EV Lac, V 1396 Cyg). It is shown that the spots were located at low and middle latitudes up to 58 deg., are cooler than the surrounding photosphere by 200 - 2000 K according to the spectral class. The spotted area varied from season to season, comprising 13%-47% of the surface area of the star. Almost half of the stars display drifts of their spots towards the equator and poles during certain time intervals; however, the speeds of the spots' latitude drifts are lower than the analogous speeds for sunspots, by factors of 1.5-4, on average. Activity cycles lasting from 5 to 40 years have been determined or confirmed for majority of the studied stars. As a rule, cycles are expressed in synchronous variations of spot areas, spot latitudes and average photometric star's brightness.

  15. Unravelling the Nature of HD 81032 – A New RS CVn Binary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. C. Pandey; K. P. Singh; S. A. Drake; R. Sagar

    2005-12-01

    BVR photometric and quasi-simultaneous optical spectroscopic observations of the star HD 81032 have been carried out during the years 2000–2004. A photometric period of 18.802 ± 0.07d has been detected for this star. A large group of spots with a migration period of 7.43 ± 0.07 years is inferred from the first three years of the data. H and CaII H and K emissions from the star indicate high chromospheric activity. The available photometry in the BVRIJHK bands is consistent with the spectral type of K0IV previously found for this star.We have also examined the spectral energy distribution of HD 81032 for the presence of an infrared colour excess using the 2MASS JHK and IRAS photometry, but found no significant excess in any band above the normal values expected for a star with this spectral type. We have also analyzed the X-ray emission properties of this star using data obtained by the ROSAT X-ray observatory during its All-Sky Survey phase. An X-ray flare of about 12 hours duration was detected during the two days of X-ray coverage obtained for this star. Its X-ray spectrum, while only containing 345 counts, is inconsistent with a single-temperature component solar-abundance coronal plasma model, but implies either the presence of two or more plasma components, non-solar abundances, or a combination of both of these properties. All of the above properties of HD 81032 suggest that it is a newly identified, evolved RS CVn binary.

  16. PTF1 J191905.19+481506.2—A partially eclipsing AM CVn system discovered in the Palomar transient factory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitan, David; Groot, Paul J.; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Hallinan, Gregg; Harding, Leon K.; Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kupfer, Thomas [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Margon, Bruce [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kyne, Gillian [Centre for Astronomy, School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, MS 314-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Rutten, René G. M. [GRANTECAN S.A. Cuesta de San José, s/n, E-38712 Breña Baja, La Palma (Spain)

    2014-04-20

    We report on PTF1 J191905.19+481506.2, a newly discovered, partially eclipsing, outbursting AM CVn system found in the Palomar Transient Factory synoptic survey. This is only the second known eclipsing AM CVn system. We use high-speed photometric observations and phase-resolved spectroscopy to establish an orbital period of 22.4559(3) minutes. We also present a long-term light curve and report on the normal and super-outbursts regularly seen in this system, including a super-outburst recurrence time of 36.8(4) days. We use the presence of the eclipse to place upper and lower limits on the inclination of the system and discuss the number of known eclipsing AM CVn systems versus what would be expected.

  17. The Assessment and Validation of Mini-Compact Tension Test Specimen Geometry and Progress in Establishing Technique for Fracture Toughness Master Curves for Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Mikhail A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nanstad, Randy K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Small specimens are playing the key role in evaluating properties of irradiated materials. The use of small specimens provides several advantages. Typically, only a small volume of material can be irradiated in a reactor at desirable conditions in terms of temperature, neutron flux, and neutron dose. A small volume of irradiated material may also allow for easier handling of specimens. Smaller specimens reduce the amount of radioactive material, minimizing personnel exposures and waste disposal. However, use of small specimens imposes a variety of challenges as well. These challenges are associated with proper accounting for size effects and transferability of small specimen data to the real structures of interest. Any fracture toughness specimen that can be made out of the broken halves of standard Charpy specimens may have exceptional utility for evaluation of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) since it would allow one to determine and monitor directly actual fracture toughness instead of requiring indirect predictions using correlations established with impact data. The Charpy V-notch specimen is the most commonly used specimen geometry in surveillance programs. Assessment and validation of mini-CT specimen geometry has been performed on previously well characterized HSST Plate 13B, an A533B class 1 steel. It was shown that the fracture toughness transition temperature measured by these Mini-CT specimens is within the range of To values that were derived from various large fracture toughness specimens. Moreover, the scatter of the fracture toughness values measured by Mini-CT specimens perfectly follows the Weibull distribution function providing additional proof for validation of this geometry for the Master Curve evaluation of rector pressure vessel steels. Moreover, the International collaborative program has been developed to extend the assessment and validation efforts to irradiated weld metal. The program is underway and involves ORNL, CRIEPI, and EPRI.

  18. Maximum mass ratio of AM CVn-type binary systems and maximum white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AM CVn-type stars and ultra-compact X-ray binaries are extremely interesting semi-detached close binary systems in which the Roche lobe filling component is a white dwarf transferring mass to another white dwarf, neutron star or a black hole. Earlier theoretical considerations show that there is a maximum mass ratio of AM CVn-type binary systems (qmax ≈ 2/3 below which the mass transfer is stable. In this paper we derive slightly different value for qmax and more interestingly, by applying the same procedure, we find the maximum expected white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries.

  19. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s). (a... specimen(s), the applicant must: (1) For an amendment to allege use under § 2.76, verify by affidavit...

  20. TYC 8380-1953-1: Discovery of an RS CVn binary through the XMM-Newton slew survey

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Santiago, J; Saxton, R

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the discovery of the chromospherically active (RS CVn type) binary TYC 8380-1953-1 through the XMM-Newton slew survey and present results of our optical and X-ray follow-up. With a flux limit of $6 \\times 10^{-13}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ in the soft band ($0.2 - 2$ keV), the XMM-Newton slew has a similar sensitivity to the ROSAT All Sky Survey allowing interesting sources to be identified by their long-term variability. Two different types of stellar sources are detected in shallow X-ray surveys: young stars (both pre-main and main sequence stars) and chromospherically active binaries (BY Dra and RS CVn type systems). The discovery of stars in such surveys and the study of their nature through optical follow-ups is valuable to determine their spatial distribution and scale height in the Galaxy. Our analysis shows that TYC 8380-1953-1 is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with both components having similar spectral type (likely K0/2+K3/5) and luminosity. With a typical coronal tempera...

  1. Controlled Environment Specimen Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    2014-01-01

    Specimen transfer under controlled environment conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and gas composition, is necessary to conduct successive complementary in situ characterization of materials sensitive to ambient conditions. The in situ transfer concept is introduced by linking an environme...

  2. Dynamic finite element analysis of third size charpy specimens of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansberry, M.R.; Kumar, A.S.; Mueller, G.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States); Kurtz, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A 2-D finite element analysis was performed on precracked, one third scale CVN specimens to investigate the sensitivity of model results to key material parameters such as yield strength, failure strain and work hardening characteristics. Calculations were carried out at temperatures of -196{degree}C and 50{degree}C. The dynamic finite element analyses were conducted using ABAQUS/Explicit V5.4. The finite element results were compared to experimental results for the production-scale heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (ANL Heat No. 832665) as a benchmark. Agreement between the finite element model and experimental data was very good at -196{degree}C, whereas at 50{degree}C the model predicted a slightly lower absorbed energy than actually measured.

  3. Genomics and museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, Allan Wilson and colleagues isolated DNA sequences from museum specimens of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys panamintinus) and compared these sequences with those from freshly collected animals (Thomas et al. 1990). The museum specimens had been collected up to 78 years earlier, so the two samples provided a direct temporal comparison of patterns of genetic variation. This was not the first time DNA sequences had been isolated from preserved material, but it was the first time it had been carried out with a population sample. Population geneticists often try to make inferences about the influence of historical processes such as selection, drift, mutation and migration on patterns of genetic variation in the present. The work of Wilson and colleagues was important in part because it suggested a way in which population geneticists could actually study genetic change in natural populations through time, much the same way that experimentalists can do with artificial populations in the laboratory. Indeed, the work of Thomas et al. (1990) spawned dozens of studies in which museum specimens were used to compare historical and present-day genetic diversity (reviewed in Wandeler et al. 2007). All of these studies, however, were limited by the same fundamental problem: old DNA is degraded into short fragments. As a consequence, these studies mostly involved PCR amplification of short templates, usually short stretches of mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites. In this issue, Bi et al. (2013) report a breakthrough that should open the door to studies of genomic variation in museum specimens. They used target enrichment (exon capture) and next-generation (Illumina) sequencing to compare patterns of genetic variation in historic and present-day population samples of alpine chipmunks (Tamias alpinus) (Fig. 1). The historic samples came from specimens collected in 1915, so the temporal span of this comparison is nearly 100 years.

  4. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  5. [Blood Count Specimen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takako

    2015-12-01

    The circulating blood volume accounts for 8% of the body weight, of which 45% comprises cellular components (blood cells) and 55% liquid components. We can measure the number and morphological features of blood cells (leukocytes, red blood cells, platelets), or count the amount of hemoglobin in a complete blood count: (CBC). Blood counts are often used to detect inflammatory diseases such as infection, anemia, a bleeding tendency, and abnormal cell screening of blood disease. This count is widely used as a basic data item of health examination. In recent years, clinical tests before consultation have become common among outpatient clinics, and the influence of laboratory values on consultation has grown. CBC, which is intended to count the number of raw cells and to check morphological features, is easily influenced by the environment, techniques, etc., during specimen collection procedures and transportation. Therefore, special attention is necessary to read laboratory data. Providing correct test values that accurately reflect a patient's condition from the laboratory to clinical side is crucial. Inappropriate medical treatment caused by erroneous values resulting from altered specimens should be avoided. In order to provide correct test values, the daily management of devices is a matter of course, and comprehending data variables and positively providing information to the clinical side are important. In this chapter, concerning sampling collection, blood collection tubes, dealing with specimens, transportation, and storage, I will discuss their effects on CBC, along with management or handling methods.

  6. Specimen Holder For Flammability Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Fixture holds sheet specimens for flammability tests. Frame and clamps designed to minimize local overstress on specimen. Heat capacity of fixture low, interfering less with interpretation of results of test by drawing less heat away from specimen. Accepts films, fabrics, foams, and other sheets, rigid or flexible. Specimens thin or thick, or of variable thickness. Bent to accommodate curved rigid specimens. Also used for such other tests as particle-impact tests.

  7. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  8. Modelling of Specimen Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    the plate center. An end load of 1.0 MPa was applied. 1 2 3 Modelling of Specimen Fracture – Final Report 11 TR-13-47 Figure 2.5: Crack Geometry Figure...Christopher Bayley DRDC Atlantic Dockyard Laboratory Pacific CFB Esquimalt, Building 199 PO Box 17000, Station Forces Victoria, British Columbia Canada...q The weighting function, q , can be any arbitrary function within the J-integral domain, and must be zero on the domain boundary . An easy function

  9. Labeling of Patient Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    noted during the event that the actu.al number of near miss incidmts reported monthly was low due to laboratory personnel performing rounds each...specimens never leaves label and if moved it is labeled), All orders in system and all near misses and errors reported to patient safety Purchase/Install...Meeting 14 Aug 09, 1400 in lab break room thru out Develop TICK sheet to track near misses .JDI Ms. Clark Clinics will provide toPS 1st working day of

  10. Superoutburst of SDSS J090221.35+381941.9: First Measurement of Mass Ratio in an AM CVn-Type Object using Growing Superhumps

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Taichi; Denisenko, Denis; Dubovsky, Pavol A; Kudzej, Igor; Stein, William; de Miguel, Enrique; Henden, Arne; Miller, Ian; Antonyuk, Kirill; Antonyuk, Oksana; Pit, Nikolaj; Sosnovskij, Aleksei; Baklanov, Alex; Babina, Julia; Pavlenko, Elena P; Matsumoto, Kazunari; Fukushima, Daiki; Takenaka, Megumi; Kawabata, Miho; Daisuke, Daisuke; Maeda, Kazuki; Matsuda, Risa; Matsumoto, Katsura; Littlefield, Colin; Oksanen, Arto; Itoh, Hiroshi; Masi, Gianluca; Nocentini, Francesca; Schmeer, Patrick; Pickard, Roger D; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Dvorak, Shawn; Ulowetz, Joseph; Maeda, Yutaka; Michel, Raul; Shugarov, Sergey Yu; Chochol, Drahomir; Novak, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We report on a superoutburst of the AM CVn-type object SDSS J090221.35+381941.9 [J0902; orbital period 0.03355(6) d] in 2014 March-April. The entire outburst consisted of a precursor outburst and the main superoutburst, followed by a short rebrightening. During the rising branch of the main superoutburst, we detected growing superhumps (stage A superhumps) with a period of 0.03409(1) d. During the plateau phase of the superoutburst, superhumps with a shorter period (stage B superhumps) were observed. Using the orbital period and the period of the stage A superhumps, we were able to measure the dynamical precession rate of the accretion disk at the 3:1 resonance, and obtained a mass ratio (q) of 0.041(7). This is the first successful measurement of the mass ratio in an AM CVn-type object using the recently developed stage A superhump method. The value is generally in good agreement with the theoretical evolutionary model. The orbital period of J0902 is the longest among the outbursting AM CVn-type objects, and...

  11. Type specimen studies in Pleurotus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Ronald H.; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard

    1999-01-01

    An epitype specimen is designated for Pleurotus cornucopiae. Morphological examination of Mexican material and the type specimen of P. opuntiae showed that the distribution of this species includes North Africa and the highlands of Mexico. The type specimen of Lentinus (Pleurotus) eugrammus reveals

  12. UVES and X-Shooter spectroscopy of the emission line AM CVn systems GP Com and V396 Hya

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, T; Groot, P J; Marsh, T R; Nelemans, G; Roelofs, G H A

    2016-01-01

    We present time-resolved spectroscopy of the AM CVn-type binaries GP Com and V396 Hya obtained with VLT/X-Shooter and VLT/UVES. We fully resolve the narrow central components of the dominant helium lines and determine radial velocity semi-amplitudes of $K_{\\rm spike} = 11.7\\pm0.3$ km s$^{-1}$ for GP Com and $K_{\\rm spike} = 5.8\\pm0.3$ km s$^{-1}$ for V396 Hya. The mean velocities of the narrow central components show variations from line to line. Compared to calculated line profiles that include Stark broadening we are able to explain the displacements, and the appearance of forbidden helium lines, by additional Stark broadening of emission in a helium plasma with an electron density $n_e\\simeq 5\\times 10^{15}$ cm$^{-3}$. More than $30$ nitrogen and more than $10$ neon lines emission lines were detected in both systems. Additionally, $20$ nitrogen absorption lines are only seen in GP Com. The radial velocity variations of these lines show the same phase and velocity amplitude as the central helium emission co...

  13. Phase resolved spectroscopy and Kepler photometry of the ultracompact AM CVn binary SDSS J190817.07+394036.4

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, T; Bloemen, S; Levitan, D; Steeghs, D; Marsh, T R; Rutten, R G M; Nelemans, G; Prince, T A; Fürst, F; Geier, S

    2015-01-01

    {\\it Kepler} satellite photometry and phase-resolved spectroscopy of the ultracompact AM CVn type binary SDSS J190817.07+394036.4 are presented. The average spectra reveal a variety of weak metal lines of different species, including silicon, sulphur and magnesium as well as many lines of nitrogen, beside the strong absorption lines of neutral helium. The phase-folded spectra and the Doppler tomograms reveal an S-wave in emission in the core of the He I 4471 \\AA\\,absorption line at a period of $P_{\\rm orb}=1085.7\\pm2.8$\\,sec identifying this as the orbital period of the system. The Si II, Mg II and the core of some He I lines show an S-wave in absorption with a phase offset of $170\\pm15^\\circ$ compared to the S-wave in emission. The N II, Si III and some helium lines do not show any phase variability at all. The spectroscopic orbital period is in excellent agreement with a period at $P_{\\rm orb}=1085.108(9)$\\,sec detected in the three year {\\it Kepler} lightcurve. A Fourier analysis of the Q6 to Q17 short cad...

  14. A Very Bright, Very Hot, and Very Long Flaring Event from the M Dwarf Binary System DG CVn

    CERN Document Server

    Osten, Rachel A; Drake, Stephen A; Krimm, Hans; Page, Kim; Gazeas, Kosmas; Kennea, Jamie; Oates, Samantha; Page, Mathew; de Miguel, Enrique; Novák, Rudolf; Apeltauer, Tomas; Gehrels, Neil

    2016-01-01

    On April 23, 2014, the Swift satellite responded to a hard X-ray transient detected by its Burst Alert Telescope, which turned out to be a stellar flare from a nearby, young M dwarf binary DG~CVn. We utilize observations at X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelengths to infer the properties of two large flares. The X-ray spectrum of the primary outburst can be described over the 0.3-100 keV bandpass by either a single very high temperature plasma or a nonthermal thick-target bremsstrahlung model, and we rule out the nonthermal model based on energetic grounds. The temperatures were the highest seen spectroscopically in a stellar flare, at T$_{X}$ of 290 MK. The first event was followed by a comparably energetic event almost a day later. We constrain the photospheric area involved in each of the two flares to be $>$10$^{20}$ cm$^{2}$, and find evidence from flux ratios in the second event of contributions to the white light flare emission in addition to the usual hot, T$\\sim$10$^{4}$K blackbody emission seen in ...

  15. Nonradial and radial period changes of the δ Scuti star 4 CVn. II. Systematic behavior over 40 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breger, M.; Montgomery, M. H.; Lenz, P.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: Radial and nonradial pulsators on and near the main sequence show period and amplitude changes that are too large to be the product of stellar evolution. The multiperiodic δ Sct stars are well suited to study this, as the period changes of different modes excited in the same star can be compared. This requires a very large amount of photometric data covering years and decades as well as mode identifications. Methods: We have examined over 800 nights of high-precision photometry of the multiperiodic pulsator 4 CVn obtained from 1966 through 2012. Because most of the data were obtained in adjacent observing seasons, it is possible to derive very accurate period values for a number of the excited pulsation modes and to study their systematic changes from 1974 to 2012. Results: Most pulsation modes show systematic significant period and amplitude changes on a timescale of decades. For the well-studied modes, around 1986 a general reversal of the directions of both the positive and negative period changes occurred. Furthermore, the period changes between the different modes are strongly correlated, although they differ in size and sign. For the modes with known values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order, we find a correlation between the direction of the period changes and the identified azimuthal order, m. The associated amplitude changes generally have similar timescales of years or decades, but show little systematic or correlated behavior from mode to mode. Conclusions: A natural explanation for the opposite behavior of the prograde and retrograde modes is that their period changes are driven by a changing rotation profile. The changes in the rotation profile could in turn be driven by processes, perhaps the pulsations themselves, that redistribute angular momentum within the star. In general, different modes have different rotation kernels, so this will produce period shifts of varying magnitude for different modes.

  16. UVES and X-Shooter spectroscopy of the emission line AM CVn systems GP Com and V396 Hya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, T.; Steeghs, D.; Groot, P. J.; Marsh, T. R.; Nelemans, G.; Roelofs, G. H. A.

    2016-04-01

    We present time-resolved spectroscopy of the AM CVn-type binaries GP Com and V396 Hya obtained with VLT/X-Shooter and VLT/UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). We fully resolve the narrow central components of the dominant helium lines and determine radial velocity semi-amplitudes of Kspike = 11.7 ± 0.3 km s-1 for GP Com and Kspike = 5.8 ± 0.3 km s-1 for V396 Hya. The mean velocities of the narrow central components show variations from line to line. Compared to calculated line profiles that include Stark broadening we are able to explain the displacements, and the appearance of forbidden helium lines, by additional Stark broadening of emission in a helium plasma with an electron density ne ≃ 5 × 1015 cm-3. More than 30 nitrogen and more than 10 neon lines emission lines were detected in both systems. Additionally, 20 nitrogen absorption lines are only seen in GP Com. The radial velocity variations of these lines show the same phase and velocity amplitude as the central helium emission components. The small semi-amplitude of the central helium emission component, the consistency of phase and amplitude with the absorption components in GP Com as well as the measured Stark effect shows that the central helium emission component, the so-called central-spike, is consistent with an origin on the accreting white dwarf. We use the dynamics of the bright spot and the central-spike to constrain the binary parameters for both systems and find a donor mass of 9.6-42.8 MJupiter for GP Com and 6.1-30.5 MJupiter for V396 Hya. We find an upper limit for the rotational velocity of the accretor of vrot < 46 km s-1 for GP Com and vrot < 59 km s-1 for V396 Hya which excludes a fast rotating accretor in both systems.

  17. Experimental study on the material dynamic fracture properties by Instrumented Charpy Impact test with single specimen method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, F.; Fulian, D.; Chengzhong, W.

    2003-09-01

    With the determination of load-time curve recorded by Amsler/Roell RKP 450 Instrumented Charpy Impact test and based on the Newton's Second Law, Impact character of a single standard V-notch specimen of X70 pipeline steel under the low temperature -70 ^{circ}C was investigated by studying the impact energy distribution. It was revealed that maximum load point (Fm point) was not exact the dynamic crack initiation, which was detected somewhere prior and very close to Fm point by using Compliance Changing Rate method. This fact was also confirmed by Dynamic CTOD method. That is to say, Impact energy related to the Fm point (i.e. Em) consists not only the crack initiation energy Ei, but a small part of crack extension energy as well. Ratio of Ei/Em was found to be 0.90 just applicable to the material used here. Dynamic fracture toughness JJd was then estimated by modified Rice equation. Crack extension behavior and dynamic crack growth resistance curve (J-Δa) during stable crack propagation period was carefully analyzed by Key Curve method. Finally, methods for evaluating tearing module Tmat, and CTOD curve under the impact test were also briefly introduced in the paper.

  18. Rotational modulation and flares on RS CVn and BY Draconis stars. XIII - IUE spectroscopy and photometry of II Pegasi during September 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, J. G.; Butler, C. J.; Byrne, P. B.; Rodono, M.; Swank, J.

    1989-01-01

    UV spectroscopy obtained for the RS CVn star II Pegasi in September, 1986, indicates the presence of a rotational modulation effect for the Mg II h and k and O I 1305 A lines; the largest flux is observed when the primary spot concentration is nearly on the opposite hemisphere, and the rotational modulation is noted to be of opposite sense to that observed in 1981. Optical photometry shows the largest concentration of spots on one hemisphere ever observed on II Peg, implying a spot group covering over 50 percent of the projected area of one hemisphere.

  19. The Merger Rate of Extremely Low Mass White Dwarf Binaries: Links to the Formation of AM CVn Stars and Underluminous Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Warren R; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Kenyon, Scott J

    2010-01-01

    We study a complete, colour-selected sample of double-degenerate binary systems containing extremely low mass (ELM) 3% of AM CVn stars. More importantly, the ELM WD systems that may detonate merge at a rate comparable to the estimated rate of underluminous SNe, rare explosions estimated to produce only ~0.2 Msol worth of ejecta. At least 25% of our ELM WD sample belong to the old thick disk and halo components of the Milky Way. Thus, if merging ELM WD systems are the progenitors of underluminous SNe, transient surveys must find them in both elliptical and spiral galaxies.

  20. Phase-resolved spectroscopy and Kepler photometry of the ultracompact AM CVn binary SDSS J190817.07+394036.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, T.; Groot, P. J.; Bloemen, S.; Levitan, D.; Steeghs, D.; Marsh, T. R.; Rutten, R. G. M.; Nelemans, G.; Prince, T. A.; Fürst, F.; Geier, S.

    2015-10-01

    Kepler satellite photometry and phase-resolved spectroscopy of the ultracompact AM CVn type binary SDSS J190817.07+394036.4 are presented. The average spectra reveal a variety of weak metal lines of different species, including silicon, sulphur and magnesium as well as many lines of nitrogen, beside the strong absorption lines of neutral helium. The phase-folded spectra and the Doppler tomograms reveal an S-wave in emission in the core of the He I 4471 Å absorption line at a period of Porb = 1085.7 ± 2.8 s identifying this as the orbital period of the system. The Si II, Mg II and the core of some He I lines show an S-wave in absorption with a phase offset of 170° ± 15° compared to the S-wave in emission. The N II, Si III and some helium lines do not show any phase variability at all. The spectroscopic orbital period is in excellent agreement with a period at Porb = 1085.108(9) s detected in the 3 yr Kepler light curve. A Fourier analysis of the Q6-Q17 short-cadence data obtained by Kepler revealed a large number of frequencies above the noise level where the majority shows a large variability in frequency and amplitude. In an Observed-minus-computed analysis, we measured a \\vert dot{P}\\vert ˜ 1.0 × 10-8 s s-1 for some of the strongest variations and set a limit for the orbital period to be \\vert dot{P}\\vert phase-folded light curve on the orbital period indicates the motion of the bright-spot. Models of the system were constructed to see whether the phases of the radial velocity curves and the light-curve variation can be combined to a coherent picture. However, from the measured phases neither the absorption nor the emission can be explained to originate in the bright-spot.

  1. 2003 Dead Bald Eagle Specimen

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The specimen report states the Bald Eagle was found along the side of the I-95 by a motorist who contacted Santee National Wildlife Refuge. The Bald Eagle was taken...

  2. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-01

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  3. Analysis of the Charpy V-notch test for welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

    2000-01-01

    softening accounted for. The onset of cleavage is taken to occur when a critical value of the maximum principal stress is attained. The effect of weld strength undermatch or overmatch is investigated for a comparison material, and analyses are also carried out based on experimentally determined flow...... temperature on stress triaxiality. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Specimen Collection and Submission Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    a validated test algorithm . If there is insufficient specimen volume for testing, there may be delays, and the request may be referred to management...Additional guidance on packing and shipping infectious substances can be found through American Society for Microbiology: http://www.asm.org...images/pdf/Clinical/ pack -ship-7-15-2011.pdf TR-16-161 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED

  5. Fungal contaminants in cytopathology specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A pseudo-epidemic of environmental fungi, most likely by Fusarium spp., leading to inappropriate investigations for disseminated systemic mycosis is described. Subtle diagnostic clues, including the specimens affected, the nature of the host response, and the type of fungal elements noted helped to determine the nature of contaminants. The potential pitfall can be avoided by the knowledge of pertinent disease biology, prompt consultation for infectious diseases, and investigations of the potential environmental sources followed by source control.

  6. Hydraulically Driven Grips For Hot Tensile Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Johnson, George W.

    1994-01-01

    Pair of grips for tensile and compressive test specimens operate at temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F. Grips include wedges holding specimen inside furnace, where heated to uniform temperature. Hydraulic pistons drive wedges, causing them to exert clamping force. Hydraulic pistons and hydraulic fluid remain outside furnace, at room temperature. Cooling water flows through parts of grips to reduce heat transferred to external components. Advantages over older devices for gripping specimens in high-temperature tests; no need to drill holes in specimens, maintains constant gripping force on specimens, and heated to same temperature as that of specimen without risk of heating hydraulic fluid and acuator components.

  7. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  8. Simultaneous Optical and X-ray Observations of Flares and Rotational Modulation on the RS CVn Binary HR 1099 (V711 Tau) from the MUSICOS 1998 Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    García-Álvarez, D; Montes, D; Oliveira, J M; Doyle, J G

    2003-01-01

    We present simultaneous and continuous observations of the H$\\alpha$, H$\\beta$, He {\\sc i} D$_{3}$, Na {\\sc i} D$_{1}$,D$_{2}$ doublet and the Ca {\\sc ii} H & K lines for the RS CVn system HR 1099. The spectroscopic observations were obtained during the MUSICOS 1998 campaign involving several observatories and instruments, both echelle and long-slit spectrographs. During this campaign, HR 1099 was observed almost continuously for more than 8 orbits of $2\\fd8$. Two large optical flares were observed, both showing an increase in the emission of H$\\alpha$, Ca {\\sc ii} H & K, H$\\beta$ and He {\\sc i} D$_{3}$ and a strong filling-in of the Na {\\sc i} D$_{1}$,D$_{2}$ doublet. {Contemporary photometric observations were carried out with the robotic telescopes APT-80 of Catania and Phoenix-25 of Fairborn Observatories. Maps of the distribution of the spotted regions on the photosphere of the binary components were derived using the Maximum Entropy and Tikhonov photometric regularization criteria}. Rotational m...

  9. Contribution \\`{a} l'etude des binaires des types F, G, K, M IX. HD 191588, nouvelle binaire spectroscopique \\`{a} raies simples de type RS Cvn, systeme triple

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, R R F; Carquillat, J M; Griffin, Roger R.F.; Ginestet, Nicole; Carquillat, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    An accident of misidentification has brought to light the interesting system HD 191588, a new RS CVn-type spectroscopic binary. A radial-velocity study of the primary star, the only seen component, carried out at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence with the Coravel instrument and subsequently at the Cambridge Observatories with a similar one, reveals two orbital motions: a short-period orbit (60 days) and a long-period one (about 4.5 years), so this star is a triple system. The following orbital elements are obtained: (1) for the long-period orbit P = 1667+/-17 days, T = 50901 +/-67 MJD, Gamma = +2.09 +/-0.07 km/s, K = 2.51 +/-0.13 km/s, e = 0.18 +/-0.04, omega = 228deg +/- 14 deg, a1 sin i = 56.7 +/- 3.0 Gm, f(m) = 0.0026 +/-0.0004 M_sun, and (2) for the short-period orbit P = 60.0269 +/-0.0016 days, T = 50482.6 +/-3.3 MJD, gamma is var., K = 24.03 +/- 0.09 km/s, e = 0.012 +/-0.004, omega = 233 deg +/-19deg, a1 sin i = 19.83 +/-0.07 Gm, f(m) = 0.0865 +/-0.0009 M_sun. From near-infrared observations we refine ...

  10. Clinicopathological study of hysterectomised specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hysterectomy is the commonest major surgical procedure performed in gynecology. It can be done by abdominal or vaginal route and with the help of laparoscopy. Hysterectomy is an effective treatment option for many conditions like fibroid, abnormal uterine bleeding, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine prolapse, pelvic inflammatory disease and cancer of reproductive organ when other treatment options are contraindicated or have failed, or if the woman no longer wishes to retain her menstrual and reproductive. The aim and objective of the study was to correlate indications of hysterectomy with histopathological findings in hysterectomised patients. Methods: A retrospective study was carried on 113 hysterectomised cases over a period of one year from June 2015 to May 2016. The data regarding the patient’s age, parity, clinical diagnosis, type of hysterectomy and histopathological diagnosis were reviewed by the records and analyzed. Results: A total of 113 cases of hysterectomies were studied. Hysterectomies were distributed over a wide age ranging from 20 years to 75 years. Most common age group was 41-50 years. Among hystectomies majority were done through vaginal route 86 (76.1% and 26 (23% cases were done through abdominal route. Most common clinical diagnosis was fibroid uterus in 44(38.9% cases. Most of the hysterectomies were done for benign conditions. In final histopathological report most common diagnosis was fibroid uterus in 45(39.8% hysterectomy specimens. It was correlated well with clinical diagnosis. Next most common histopathological diagnosis was Adenomyosis. Conclusions: Histopathological analysis correlated well with preoperative clinical diagnosis in majority of cases. The commonest indication and histopathological finding in our study was fibroid uterus. Next most common histopathological finding was Adenomyosis. Most commonly hysterectomies were done through vaginal route in our study.

  11. [The German Environmental Specimen Bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Gies, Andreas; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is the long-term storage of environmental and human samples under stable deep-freeze conditions for future research. The ESB is unique in providing a continuous historical record of environmental and human exposure to chemicals in Germany. ESB was started parallel to the development of the first German Chemicals Legislation in the late 1970s. In 1979, the ESB test operation began. After the Chemicals Law came into force in 1982, the ESB was established as a permanent facility in 1985. With the new European Chemicals Legislation, REACH, in 2007 responsibility for the safety of commercial chemicals and risk assessment was assigned to the industry. Since then, the ESB has become even more important in verifying the self-assessment of the industry, in evaluating the effectiveness of regulations, thus ensuring the protection of humans and the environment against adverse effects caused by exposure to chemicals. These objectives are pursued by the regular monitoring of contaminations and the assessment of temporal trends. Demonstrating the necessity of deriving exposure reduction measures, ESB results serve as key information for policy-makers. Information on preventing exposure to chemicals is available to the general public and to the public health services. The ESB is thus an important monitoring instrument of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety. The Federal Environment Agency operates the ESB based on its own concepts, heads the scientific data evaluation and transfers results into the environmental policy arena and to the general public.

  12. Dynamic fracture toughness and Charpy impact properties of an AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, P. R.; Ray, S. K.; Mannan, S. L.; Rodriguez, P.

    1996-04-01

    Dynamic fracture toughness and Charpy impact properties of a normalised and tempered AISI 403 martensitic stainless steel obtained from instrumented impact tests are presented. Procedures for estimating dynamic fracture toughness ( KId) from the load-time traces obtained in instrumented tests of unprecracked Charpy V-notch (CVN) specimens are considered. The estimated KId values show reasonable agreement with those obtained from instrumented drop-weight and precracked Charpy tests. Also, except in the upper transition and uppershelf regions, the ASME KIR curve is generally conservative (i.e. gives lower KId values) when compared to the above KId estimates. The conservatism of the ASME KIR at the upper transition and uppershelf temperatures needs verification/validation. The lowest KId values estimated at the lower shelf temperatures for the above steel, namely, 33-42 MPa√m are in good agreement with the reported values of 35-50 MPa√m for the same steel in the literature.

  13. Nondestructive DNA extraction from museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofreiter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Natural history museums around the world hold millions of animal and plant specimens that are potentially amenable to genetic analyses. With more and more populations and species becoming extinct, the importance of these specimens for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses is rapidly increasing. However, as most DNA extraction methods damage the specimens, nondestructive extraction methods are useful to balance the demands of molecular biologists, morphologists, and museum curators. Here, I describe a method for nondestructive DNA extraction from bony specimens (i.e., bones and teeth). In this method, the specimens are soaked in extraction buffer, and DNA is then purified from the soaking solution using adsorption to silica. The method reliably yields mitochondrial and often also nuclear DNA. The method has been adapted to DNA extraction from other types of specimens such as arthropods.

  14. Making Durable Specimens For Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doychak, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Consistent metal-oxide cross sections prepared quickly. New process makes TEM/STEM cross sections of metal/oxide interfaces. After specimen bars oxidized, placed in specially designed mold. Following encapsulation in zinc alloy, 3-mm-diameter specimen bar sliced into disks suitable for further preparation steps. Technique used to prepare 3-mm-diameter specimens of cross sections of oxides of alloys intended for use at temperatures greater than approximately 600 degree C.

  15. RSB: Research Specimen Banking across the Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Pense, Rick; Grose, Tim; Anderson, Lynn; Lee, H

    2001-01-01

    Research Specimen Banking (RSB) system is a component of the translational investigations infrastructure at Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute. It was implemented to provide specimen management functions to support basic science cancer research taking place in conjunction with caner clinical trials. RSB handles the receipt and distribution of clinical specimens to the research labs, with identifiers that both mask personal identity and enable linkage of clinical data to correlative re...

  16. STEM tomography for thick biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Kazuhiro [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan)], E-mail: kazuhiro.aoyama@fei.com; Takagi, Tomoko [FEI Company Japan Ltd., Application Laboratory, NSS-II Building, 2-13-34 Kohnan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0075 (Japan); Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Japan Women' s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan); Hirase, Ai; Miyazawa, Atsuo [Bio-multisome Research Team, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); CREST, JST (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography was applied to biological specimens such as yeast cells, HEK293 cells and primary culture neurons. These cells, which were embedded in a resin, were cut into 1-{mu}m-thick sections. STEM tomography offers several important advantages including: (1) it is effective even for thick specimens, (2) 'dynamic focusing', (3) ease of using an annular dark field (ADF) mode and (4) linear contrasts. It has become evident that STEM tomography offers significant advantages for the observation of thick specimens. By employing STEM tomography, even a 1-{mu}m-thick specimen (which is difficult to observe by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) was successfully analyzed in three dimensions. The specimen was tilted up to 73 deg. during data acquisition. At a large tilt angle, the specimen thicknesses increase dramatically. In order to observe such thick specimens, we introduced a special small condenser aperture that reduces the collection angle of the STEM probe. The specimen damage caused by the convergent electron beam was expected to be the most serious problem; however, the damage in STEM was actually smaller than that in TEM. In this study, the irradiation damage caused by TEM- and STEM-tomography in biological specimens was quantitatively compared.

  17. Detecting the Companions and Ellipsoidal Variations of RS CVn Primaries. II. o Draconis, a Candidate for Recent Low-mass Companion Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Monnier, John D.; Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Korhonen, Heidi; Latham, David W.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Williamson, Michael H.; Baron, Fabien; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Che, Xiao; Harmon, Robert O.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Scott, Nicholas J.; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Turner, Nils H.

    2015-08-01

    To measure the stellar and orbital properties of the metal-poor RS CVn binary o Draconis (o Dra), we directly detect the companion using interferometric observations obtained with the Michigan InfraRed Combiner at Georgia State University's Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array. The H-band flux ratio between the primary and secondary stars is the highest confirmed flux ratio (370 ± 40) observed with long-baseline optical interferometry. These detections are combined with radial velocity data of both the primary and secondary stars, including new data obtained with the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph on the Tillinghast Reflector at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory and the 2 m Tennessee State University Automated Spectroscopic Telescope at Fairborn Observatory. We determine an orbit from which we find model-independent masses and ages of the components ({M}A=1.35+/- 0.05 {M}⊙ , {M}B=0.99+/- 0.02 {M}⊙ , system age = 3.0\\mp 0.5 Gyr). An average of a 23-year light curve of o Dra from the Tennessee State University Automated Photometric Telescope folded over the orbital period newly reveals eclipses and the quasi-sinusoidal signature of ellipsoidal variations. The modeled light curve for our system's stellar and orbital parameters confirm these ellipsoidal variations due to the primary star partially filling its Roche lobe potential, suggesting most of the photometric variations are not due to stellar activity (starspots). Measuring gravity darkening from the average light curve gives a best-fit of β =0.07+/- 0.03, a value consistent with conventional theory for convective envelope stars. The primary star also exhibits an anomalously short rotation period, which, when taken with other system parameters, suggests the star likely engulfed a low-mass companion that had recently spun-up the star.

  18. BD Andromedae: A new short-period RS CVn eclipsing binary star with a distant tertiary body in a highly eccentric orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun-Hwey; Song, Mi-Hwa; Yoon, Jo-Na; Jeong, Min-Ji [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonyong, E-mail: kimch@chungbuk.ac.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-20

    A photometric study of BD And was made through the analysis of two sets of new BVR light curves. The light curves with migrating photometric waves outside eclipse show that BD And is a short-period RS CVn-type binary star. The analysis of all available timings reveals that the orbital period has varied in a strictly cyclical way with a period of 9.2 yr. The periodic variation most likely arises from the light-time effect due to a tertiary moving in a highly elliptical orbit (e {sub 3} = 0.76). The Applegate mechanism could not operate properly in the eclipsing pair. The light curves were modeled with two large spots on the hotter star and a large third light amounting to about 14% of the total systemic light. BD And is a triple system: a detached binary system consisting of two nearly equal solar-type stars with an active primary star and a G6-G7 tertiary dwarf. The absolute dimensions of the eclipsing pair and tertiary components were determined. The three components with a mean age of about 5.8 Gyr are located at midpositions in main-sequence bands. The radius of the secondary is about 17% larger than that deduced from stellar models. The orbital and radiometric characteristics of the tertiary are intensively investigated. One important feature is that the mutual inclination between two orbits is larger than 60°, implying that Kozai cycles had occurred very efficiently in the past. The possible past and future evolutions of the BD And system, driven by KCTF and MBTF, are also discussed.

  19. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1610 - Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Holder Supported in Specimen Rack 3 Figure 3 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT... Holder Supported in Specimen Rack ER25MR08.002...

  20. Mode-II-Fracture Specimen And Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzard, Robert J.; Ghosn, Louis; Succop, George

    1991-01-01

    Test specimen and loading frame developed for fatigue and fracture testing of materials under mode-II (sliding-mode) loading. Assembly placed in compression-testing machine. Loads directed oppositely along centerline cause self-similar crack to propagate. Enables consistently accurate alignment of specimens before insertion of specimen/frame assemblies into compression-testing machine. Makes design attractive for testing in hostile environments in which access to machine or furnace limited. Additional feature, with little or no modification, placed horizontally into impact testing machine and subjected to loading at high speeds.

  1. Structure of Wet Specimens in Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discussed are past work and recent advances in the use of electron microscopes for viewing structures immersed in gas and liquid. Improved environmental chambers make it possible to examine wet specimens easily. (Author/RH)

  2. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Diagnosis Exams and Tests for Cancer Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Waiting to hear ... who tell you whether the cells in your biopsy sample are cancer or not. How is cancer ...

  3. Structure of Wet Specimens in Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discussed are past work and recent advances in the use of electron microscopes for viewing structures immersed in gas and liquid. Improved environmental chambers make it possible to examine wet specimens easily. (Author/RH)

  4. Impact of specimen adequacy on the assessment of renal allograft biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, S; Geldenhuys, L; Guler, S; Imamoglu, A; Molinari, M

    2016-01-01

    The Banff classification was introduced to achieve uniformity in the assessment of renal allograft biopsies. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of specimen adequacy on the Banff classification. All renal allograft biopsies obtained between July 2010 and June 2012 for suspicion of acute rejection were included. Pre-biopsy clinical data on suspected diagnosis and time from renal transplantation were provided to a nephropathologist who was blinded to the original pathological report. Second pathological readings were compared with the original to assess agreement stratified by specimen adequacy. Cohen's kappa test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analyses. Forty-nine specimens were reviewed. Among these specimens, 81.6% were classified as adequate, 6.12% as minimal, and 12.24% as unsatisfactory. The agreement analysis among the first and second readings revealed a kappa value of 0.97. Full agreement between readings was found in 75% of the adequate specimens, 66.7 and 50% for minimal and unsatisfactory specimens, respectively. There was no agreement between readings in 5% of the adequate specimens and 16.7% of the unsatisfactory specimens. For the entire sample full agreement was found in 71.4%, partial agreement in 20.4% and no agreement in 8.2% of the specimens. Statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test yielded a P value above 0.25 showing that - probably due to small sample size - the results were not statistically significant. Specimen adequacy may be a determinant of a diagnostic agreement in renal allograft specimen assessment. While additional studies including larger case numbers are required to further delineate the impact of specimen adequacy on the reliability of histopathological assessments, specimen quality must be considered during clinical decision making while dealing with biopsy reports based on minimal or unsatisfactory specimens.

  5. Vickers Microhardness Testing with Miniaturized Disk Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Kurishita, Hiroaki; Kayano, Hideo

    1991-01-01

    The microhardness technique has been increasingly important for testing irradiated materials because of the necessity of small-scale specimen technology. In order to establish Vickers microhardness testing over a wide temperature range using miniaturized specimens such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) disks, an apparatus that permits the measurements in the temperature range of well below liquid nitrogen temperature to well above room temperature is developed. Effects of indentation ...

  6. Ultrasonic analysis of spherical composite test specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosey, W.D.

    1984-08-22

    Filament wound spherical test specimens have been examined ultrasonically as part of a program to determine the effectiveness of various nondestructive evaluation techniques for analysis of mechanical characteristics of a composite with enclosed geometry. The Kevlar-epoxy composite specimens contained simulated defect conditions which were located, and the extent of damage determined, using ultrasonic analysis. Effects of transducer frequency and signal parameters have been examined to determine optimum conditions for flaw detection. The data were displayed in rectangular and axonometric projection.

  7. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-10-31

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2.

  8. The Value of Agricultural Voucher Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Barkworth,Mary; Wolf, Paul; Kinosian,Sylvia; Dyreson, Curtis; Pearse, Will; Brandt, Ben; Cobb,Neil

    2017-01-01

    Voucher specimens are the ultimate raw data of biodiversity studies because they document the interpretation of the names used in papers and reports resulting from such studies. The value of voucher specimens is increased by making their records web-accessible but they can be further enhanced by linking them to other online resources, particularly if the links are birectional.  In this presentation, we discuss the potential benefits of such links for a group of agricultural significance, the ...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart A of... - Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dummy Specimen in Specimen Holder 6 Figure 6 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A...

  10. 37 CFR 2.56 - Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... indicate membership in the collective organization. (5) A certification mark specimen must show how a... of a union or other organization performed the work or labor on the goods or services. (c) A... be a digitized image in .jpg or .pdf format....

  11. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  12. Breast specimen shrinkage following formalin fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horn CL

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Christopher L Horn, Christopher Naugler Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Calgary, and Calgary Laboratory Services, Calgary, AB, Canada Abstract: Accurate measurement of primary breast tumors and subsequent surgical margin assessment is critical for pathology reporting and resulting patient therapy. Anecdotal observations from pathology laboratory staff indicate possible shrinkage of breast cancer specimens due to the formalin fixation process. As a result, we conducted a prospective study to investigate the possible shrinkage effects of formalin fixation on breast cancer specimens. The results revealed no significant changes in tumor size, but there were significant changes in the distance to all surgical resection margins from the unfixed to fixed state. This shrinkage effect could interfere with the accuracy of determining distance to margin assessment and tumor-free margin assessment. Thus, changes in these measurements due to the formalin fixation process have the potential to alter treatment options for the patient. Keywords: breast margins, formalin, shrinkage, cancer

  13. Is routine histopathology of tonsil specimen necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agida S Adoga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tonsillar diseases are common in paediatric and adult otolaryngological practice. These diseases require tonsillectomy. Specimens are subjected to histopathology routinely in my institution for fear of infections and tumour without consideration for risk factors. The financial burden is on the patients and waste of histopathologist′s man hour because other specimens are left un-attended. This study aims to find out the necessity of routine histopathology of tonsil specimens. Materials and Methods : A 2 year retrospective review of the histopathological results of two (paediatric and adult groups of 61 patients managed for tonsillar diseases at the ENT UNIT of Jos University Teaching Hospital from July 2005 to June, 2007. Data extracted included biodata, clinical features and histopathological diagnosis. Result : The 61 patients comprise 35 children and 26 adults. The youngest and oldest paediatric patients were 1 year and 3 months and 16 years respectively, a range of 1 year 3 months to 16 years. The youngest and oldest adults were 17 and 50 years with a range of 17-50 years. Groups mean ages were 5.1 and 28.5 years. The gender ratios were 1:2.7 and 1:1.9 respectively. One adult was HIV positive. The histopathological diagnosis were chronic nonspecific tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, follicular tonsillitis in 23(38.3%, chronic suppurative tonsillitis in 10(16.6%, lymphoid hyperplasia in 18(30.0% and lymphoma in 1(1.0% respectively. Conclusion : Histopathologic request for tonsillectomy specimens should be based on certain risk factors with consideration of the cost to patients and to spare the histopathologist′s man hour.

  14. SQA specimen paper 2013, national 5, French

    CERN Document Server

    SQA

    2013-01-01

    Practise for your exam on the offical National 5 specimen paper from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. Plus each book includes additional model papers and extra revision guidance, making them an essential purchase for any student.; Discover how to get your best grade with answers checked by senior examiners.; Prepare for your exams with study skills guidance sections.; Gain vital extra marks and avoid common mistakes with examiner tips

  15. Damage modeling in Small Punch Test specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Pañeda, Emilio; Cuesta, I.I.; Peñuelas, I.

    2016-01-01

    Ductile damage modeling within the Small Punch Test (SPT) is extensively investigated. The capabilities ofthe SPT to reliably estimate fracture and damage properties are thoroughly discussed and emphasis isplaced on the use of notched specimens. First, different notch profiles are analyzed...... and constraint conditionsquantified. The role of the notch shape is comprehensively examined from both triaxiality and notchfabrication perspectives. Afterwards, a methodology is presented to extract the micromechanical-basedductile damage parameters from the load-displacement curve of notched SPT samples...

  16. Incidental prostate cancer in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Jin; Zhao-Dian Chen; Bo Wang; Song-Liang Cai; Xiao-Lin Yao; Bai-Ye Jin

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the rates of prostate cancer (Pca) in radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) specimens for bladder cancer in mainland China. To determine the follow-up outcome of patients with two concurrent cancers and identify whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a useful tool for the detection of Pca prior to surgery. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2007, 264 male patients with bladder cancer underwent RCP at our center. All patients underwent digital rectal examination (DRE) and B ultrasound. Serum PSA levels were tested in 168 patients. None of the patients had any evidence of Pca before RCP. Entire prostates were embedded and sectioned at 5 mm intervals. Results: Incidental Pca was observed in 37 of 264 (14.0%) RCP specimens. Of these, 12 (32.4%) were clinically significant according to an accepted definition. The PSA levels were not significantly different between patients with Pca and those without Pca, nor between patients with significant Pca and those with insignificant Pca. Thirty-four patients with incidental Pca were followed up. During a mean follow-up period of 26 months, two patients with PSA > 4 ng/mL underwent castration. None of the patients died of Pca. Conclusion: The incidence of Pca in RCP specimens in mainland China is lower than that in most developed countries. PSA cannot identify asymptomatic Pca prior to RCP. In line with published reports, incidental Pca does not impact the prognosis of bladder cancer patients undergoing RCP.

  17. 42 CFR 493.1232 - Standard: Specimen identification and integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Specimen identification and integrity... Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1232 Standard: Specimen identification and integrity. The... optimum integrity of a patient's specimen from the time of collection or receipt of the specimen through...

  18. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report.

  19. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  20. Numerical modelling of Charpy-V notch test by local approach to fracture. Application to an A508 steel in the ductile-brittle transition range; Modelisation de l'essai Charpy par l'approche locale de la rupture. Application au cas de l'acier 16MND5 dans le domaine de transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, B

    2001-07-15

    Ferritic steels present a transition of the rupture mode which goes progressively of a brittle rupture (cleavage) to a ductile rupture when the temperature increases. The following of the difference of the transition temperature of the PWR vessel steel by the establishment of toughness curves makes of the Charpy test an integrating part of the monitoring of the French PWR reactors. In spite of the advantages which are adapted to it in particular its cost, the Charpy test does not allow to obtain directly a variable which characterizes a crack propagation resistance as for instance the toughness used for qualifying the mechanical integrity of a structure. This work deals with the establishment of the through impact strength-toughness in the transition range of the vessel steel: 16MND5 from a non-empirical approach based on the local approach of the rupture. The brittle rupture is described by the Beremin model (1983), which allows to describe the dispersion inherent in this rupture mode. The description of the brittle fissure is carried out by the GTN model (1984) and by the Rousselier model (1986). This last model has been modified in order to obtain a realistic description of the brittle damage in the case of fast solicitations and of local heating. The method proposed to determine the parameters of the damage models depends only of tests on notched specimens and of the inclusion data of the material. The behaviour is described by an original formulation parametrized in temperature which allows to describe all the tests carried out in this study. Before using this methodology, an experimental study of the behaviour and of the rupture modes of the steel 16MND5 has been carried out. From the toughness tests carried out in quasi-static and dynamical conditions, it has been revealed that this steel does not present important unwedging of its toughness curve due to the velocity effect. In the transition range, local heating of about 150 C have been measured in the root

  1. Wildlife specimen collection, preservation, and shipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. LeAnn; Dusek, Robert J.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Specimens are used to provide supporting information leading to the determination of the cause of disease or death in wildlife and for disease monitoring or surveillance. Commonly used specimens for wildlife disease investigations include intact carcasses, tissues from carcasses, euthanized or moribund animals, parasites, ingested food, feces, or environmental samples. Samples from live animals or the environment (e.g., contaminated feed) in the same vicinity as a mortality event also may be helpful. The type of specimen collected is determined by availability of samples and biological objectives. Multiple fresh, intact carcasses from affected species are the most useful in establishing a cause for a mortality event. Submission of entire carcasses allows observation of gross lesions and abnormalities, as well as disease testing of multiple tissues. Samples from live animals may be more appropriate when sick animals cannot be euthanized (e.g., threatened or endangered species) or for research and monitoring projects examining disease or agents circulating in apparently healthy animals or those not exhibiting clinical signs. Samples from live animals may include collections of blood, hair, feathers, feces, or ectoparasites, or samples obtained by swabbing lesions or orifices. Photographs and videos are useful additions for recording field and clinical signs and conveying conditions at the site. Collection of environmental samples (e.g., feces, water, feed, or soil) may be appropriate when animals cannot be captured for sampling or the disease agent may persist in the environment. If lethal collection is considered necessary, biologists should refer to the policies, procedures, and permit requirements of their institution/facility and the agency responsible for species management (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or State natural resource agency) prior to use in the field. If threatened or endangered species are found dead, or there is evidence of illegal take, field

  2. Histological evaluation of 400 cholecystectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A majority of gallbladder specimens show changes associated with chronic cholecystitis; however few harbour a highly lethal carcinoma. This study was conducted to review the significant histopathological findings encountered in gallbladder specimens received in our laboratory.Materials and Methods: Four hundred cholecystectomy specimens were studied over a period of five years (May, 2002 to April, 2007 received at department of pathology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India. Results: Gallstones and associated diseases were more common in women in the 4th to 5th decade as compared to men with M: F ratio of 1:1.33. Maximum number of patients (28.25% being 41 to 50 years old. Histopathologically, the most common diagnosis was chronic cholecystitis (66.75%, followed by chronic active cholecystitis (20.25%, acute cholecystitis (6%, gangrenous cholecystitis (2.25%,xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (0.50%, empyema (1%, mucocele (0.25%, choledochal cyst (0.25%, adenocarcinoma gallbladder (1.25% and  normal  gallbladders (1%.Conclusion: All lesions were found more frequently in women except chronic active cholecystitis. Gallstones were present in (80.25% cases, and significantly associated with various lesions (P value 0.009. Pigment stones were most common, followed by cholesterol stones and mixed stones. Adequate  sectioning  is  mandatory  in  all  cases  to  assess  epithelial changes arising from cholelithiasis and chronic cholecystitis as it has been known to progress to malignancy in some cases.

  3. Isolation of Klebsiella terrigena from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podschun, R; Ullmann, U

    1992-04-01

    In a three-year survey conducted from 1988 to 1990 Klebsiella isolates from human clinical specimens were subjected to additional tests to identify any Klebsiella terrigena strains. Ten strains of Klebsiella terrigena (0.4%) were found among 2355 indole-negative Klebsiella isolates. Most of the isolates were recovered from the respiratory tract. In the API20EC system almost exclusively biotypes no. 1777771 and 1777671 were observed. Serotyping revealed capsule types K2, K5 and K18 in two strains each. In antibiotic susceptibility tests the strains were shown to be comparable in sensitivity to Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  4. Enzymatic detection of formalin-fixed museum specimens for DNA analysis and enzymatic maceration of formalin-fixed specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Margrethe; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2016-01-01

    % ethanol. The method was subsequently tested on wild-living preserved specimens and an archived specimen. The protease enzyme used was SavinaseH 16 L, Type EX from Novozymes A/S. The enzymatic screening test demands only simple laboratory equipment. The method is useful for natural history collections...... in museums where DNA analyses of archived specimens are performed. Wasted time and resources can be avoided through the detection of formalin-fixed specimens because these specimens yield low-quality, damaged DNA. In addition to the screening method, it is shown that formalin-preserved specimens can...

  5. Reheating of zinc-titanate sintered specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this work was observing dimensional and heat transfer changes in ZnTiO3 samples during heating in nitrogen and air atmosphere. Interactions of bulk specimens with gaseous surrounding induce microstructure changes during heating. Sintered ZnTiO3 nanopowder samples were submitted to subsequent heating. Dilatation curves and thermogravimetric with simultaneous differential thermal analysis TGA/DTA curves were recorded. Reheating was performed in air and nitrogen atmospheres. Reheated samples obtained at different characteristic temperatures in air were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD. Microstructures obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM of reheated sintered samples are presented and compared. Reheating in a different atmosphere induced different microstructures. The goal was indicating possible causes leading to the microstructure changes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI172057 i br. III45014

  6. Dissolution of bulk specimens of silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W. F.; Merkle, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    An accurate chemical characterization of silicon nitride has become important in connection with current efforts to incorporate components of this material into advanced heat engines. However, there are problems concerning a chemical analysis of bulk silicon nitride. Current analytical methods require the pulverization of bulk specimens. A pulverization procedure making use of grinding media, on the other hand, will introduce contaminants. A description is given of a dissolution procedure which overcomes these difficulties. It has been found that up to at least 0.6 g solid pieces of various samples of hot pressed and reaction bonded silicon nitride can be decomposed in a mixture of 3 mL hydrofluoric acid and 1 mL nitric acid overnight at 150 C in a Parr bomb. High-purity silicon nitride is completely soluble in nitric acid after treatment in the bomb. Following decomposition, silicon and hydrofluoric acid are volatilized and insoluble fluorides are converted to a soluble form.

  7. Tensile test of dumbbell-shaped specimen in thickness direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Sheet metal forming is widely used in manufacturing shops, and evaluation of forming limit for sheet metal is important. However, specimen shape influences on the fracture of the sheet metal. As one of methods to decrease these effects, an uniaxial tensile test using specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction had been examined using FEM analysis. In this study, actually specimen dumbbell-shaped in thickness direction was fabricated using a new incremental sheet forging method, and uniaxial tensile test was conducted. Load-stroke diagram, fracture morphologies, stress-strain curves and shape after fracture were investigated, and effects of specimen shape were considered. Elongation was larger as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. Stress-strain curves until necking occurred were less influenced by specimen shape. However, yield stress decreased and local elongation increased as using specimen dumbbell-shaped in the width direction. The reasons why these tendencies showed were considered in the view of specimen shapes.

  8. A new specimen management system using RFID technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hun; Uh, Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Yoon, Young Ro

    2011-12-01

    The specimen management system with barcode needs to be improved in order to solve inherent problems in work performance. This study describes the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) which is the solution for the problems associated with specimen labeling and management. A new specimen management system and architecture with RFID technology for clinical laboratory was designed. The suggested system was tested in various conditions such as durability to temperature and aspect of effective utilization of new work flow under a virtual hospital clinical laboratory environment. This system demonstrates its potential application in clinical laboratories for improving work flow and specimen management. The suggested specimen management system with RFID technology has advantages in comparison to the traditional specimen management system with barcode in the aspect of mass specimen processing, robust durability of temperature, humidity changes, and effective specimen tracking.

  9. A non-destructive DNA sampling technique for herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lara D

    2017-01-01

    Herbarium specimens are an important source of DNA for plant research but current sampling methods require the removal of material for DNA extraction. This is undesirable for irreplaceable specimens such as rare species or type material. Here I present the first non-destructive sampling method for extracting DNA from herbarium specimens. DNA was successfully retrieved from robust leaves and/or stems of herbarium specimens up to 73 years old.

  10. Drone Transport of Microbes in Blood and Sputum Laboratory Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Street, Jeff; Carroll, Karen; Miller, Heather; Zhang, Sean X

    2016-10-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) could potentially be used to transport microbiological specimens. To examine the impact of UAVs on microbiological specimens, blood and sputum culture specimens were seeded with usual pathogens and flown in a UAV for 30 ± 2 min. Times to recovery, colony counts, morphologies, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identifications of the flown and stationary specimens were similar for all microbes studied.

  11. The type specimen of Anoura geoffroyi lasiopyga (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquin; Gardner, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    In 1868, Wilhelm Peters described Glossonycteris lasiopyga, based on a specimen provided by Henri de Saussure and collected in Mexico. The type specimen was presumed to be among those housed in the collections of the Zoologisches Museum of the Humboldt Universitat in Berlin, Germany. Our study of one of Saussure?s specimens from Mexico, discovered in the collections of the Museum d?Histoire Naturelle, Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrates that it and not one of the Berlin specimens is the holotype.

  12. Elastic-plastic analysis of the SS-3 tensile specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Tensile tests of most irradiated specimens of vanadium alloys are conducted using the miniature SS-3 specimen which is not ASTM approved. Detailed elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the specimen was conducted to show that, as long as the ultimate to yield strength ratio is less than or equal to 1.25 (which is satisfied by many irradiated materials), the stress-plastic strain curve obtained by using such a specimen is representative of the true material behavior.

  13. Fixture For Hot Stress Tests Of Thin Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture designed to hold and heat thin, rectangular-cross-section specimen of composite material during hot lengthwise-stress test. Suitable for testing same specimen in either tension or compression. Clamps lightly onto specimen, providing both heat via thermal conduction and lateral support needed to prevent buckling during compression test.

  14. 49 CFR 219.205 - Specimen collection and handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specimen collection and handling. 219.205 Section... § 219.205 Specimen collection and handling. (a) General. Urine and blood specimens must be obtained, marked, preserved, handled, and made available to FRA consistent with the requirements of this subpart...

  15. The CAS Bio-specimen Centers in Sound Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liangqian; QIAO Gexia; YAO Yijian

    2010-01-01

    @@ Bio-specimen centers, including herbaria and zoological museums, are the most integrated places for the storage of specimens, which are real samples and the most important vouchers for taxonomic and biodiversity studies.The information carried by the specimens is of substantial reference for research on species distribution, history, status, phylogeny and evolution, etc.

  16. Adaptation of Museum Specimens for Use in Anatomical Teaching Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. F.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Color transparencies are prepared of a re-colored anatomical specimen after placing labels temporarily in position to indicate specific structures. The specimen is also radiographed to show skeletal and soft tissue structures. Cross-reference among the specimen, photographs, and radiographs is supplemented by examination and self-assessment…

  17. Reliability of 46,XX results on miscarriage specimens: a review of 1,222 first-trimester miscarriage specimens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lathi, Ruth B; Gustin, Stephanie L F; Keller, Jennifer; Maisenbacher, Melissa K; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Tao, Rosina; Demko, Zach

    2014-01-01

    To examine the rate of maternal contamination in miscarriage specimens. Retrospective review of 1,222 miscarriage specimens submitted for chromosome testing with detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC...

  18. New suoid specimens from Gebel Zelten, Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickford, M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A restricted collection of suoids from Gebel Zelten was made in the 1990’s by the Spanish-Libyan Palaeontology Expedition. Dr Dolores Soria filmed the specimens with a video camera and took measurements of the teeth with vernier calipers. This paper uses the images from the video, which, even though somewhat limited in terms of picture quality, are of interest because they represent the first known snout of the gigantic suid Megalochoerus khinzikebirus. The images reveal that it is basically an enlarged version of Libycochoerus massai, but with relatively small premolars. The sanithere specimens from the site were photographed with an Olympus 1.4 megapixel digital camera, and the image quality is better than from the video camera. These specimens throw light on the degree of sexual dimorphism exhibited by sanitheres, a feature that was previously inferred from isolated teeth, but which can now be confirmed on the basis of the two mandible fragments from Gebel Zelten. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr Soria. This paper takes into account a few undescribed suid post-cranial bones from Gebel Zelten housed in the Natural History Museum, London, collected during the 1960’s by R. Savage.Una limitada colección de suoideos procedentes de Gebel Zelten fue hecha a finales de los años 1990 por una expedición paleontológica internacional, con participación española y libia. La Dra. Dolores Soria filmó los ejemplares con una cámara de vídeo y tomó las medidas de los dientes con calibre. En este trabajo se utilizan las imágenes filmadas, que, aunque algo limitadas en términos de calidad fotográfica, son interesantes porque representan las primeras conocidas del rostro del suido gigante Megalochoerus khinzikebirus. Las imágenes revelan que básicamente es una versión agrandada de Libycochoerus massai, pero con premolares relativamente más pequeños. Los ejemplares de saniterios fueron fotografiados con una cámara digital Olympus

  19. Apparatus and method for magnetically processing a specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M; Ludtka, Gail M; Wilgen, John B; Kisner, Roger A; Jaramillo, Roger A

    2013-09-03

    An apparatus for magnetically processing a specimen that couples high field strength magnetic fields with the magnetocaloric effect includes a high field strength magnet capable of generating a magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla and a magnetocaloric insert disposed within a bore of the high field strength magnet. A method for magnetically processing a specimen includes positioning a specimen adjacent to a magnetocaloric insert within a bore of a magnet and applying a high field strength magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla to the specimen and to the magnetocaloric insert. The temperature of the specimen changes during the application of the high field strength magnetic field due to the magnetocaloric effect.

  20. Apparatus and method for magnetically processing a specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludtka, Gerard M; Ludtka, Gail M; Wilgen, John B; Kisner, Roger A; Jaramillo, Roger A

    2013-09-03

    An apparatus for magnetically processing a specimen that couples high field strength magnetic fields with the magnetocaloric effect includes a high field strength magnet capable of generating a magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla and a magnetocaloric insert disposed within a bore of the high field strength magnet. A method for magnetically processing a specimen includes positioning a specimen adjacent to a magnetocaloric insert within a bore of a magnet and applying a high field strength magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla to the specimen and to the magnetocaloric insert. The temperature of the specimen changes during the application of the high field strength magnetic field due to the magnetocaloric effect.

  1. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.;

    2004-01-01

    A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...

  2. Adequacy of urine cytology specimens: an assessment of collection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Andrew F; Maygarden, Susan; Wu, Jennifer M; Visco, Anthony G; Connolly, AnnaMarie

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the method of urine collection impacts the adequacy and cell counts of cytology specimens in a low-risk population. Voided, post-cystometrogram (CMG), and bladder irrigant specimens were collected and evaluated for cytologic adequacy and average cell count by a single cytopathologist masked to the source of each sample. Data were analyzed to detect differences in specimen adequacy and cell counts based on method of collection. Both the voided and post-CMG specimens (97.3%, 93.7% respectively) were significantly more likely to be adequate compared to the bladder irrigant specimen (11.7%, p urine dipstick (p = 0.03). No cytologic abnormalities were diagnosed. Whereas both spontaneously voided and post-CMG specimens were consistently adequate for interpretation, spontaneous voided specimens were optimal with regard to maximizing cell count/hpf.

  3. Evaluation of hybrid composite materials in cylindrical specimen geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liber, T.; Daniel, I. M.

    1976-01-01

    Static and fatigue properties of three composite materials and hybrids were examined. The materials investigated were graphite/epoxy, S-glass/epoxy, PRD-49 (Kevlar 49)/epoxy, and hybrids in angle-ply configurations. A new type of edgeless cylindrical specimen was developed. It is a flattened tube with two flat sides connected by curved sections and it is handled much like the standard flat coupon. Special specimen fabrication, tabbing, and tab region reinforcing techniques were developed. Axial modulus, Poisson's ratio, strength, and ultimate strain were obtained under static loading from flattened tube specimens of nine laminate configurations. In the case of graphite/epoxy the tubular specimens appeared to yield somewhat higher strength and ultimate strain values than flat specimens. Tensile fatigue tests were conducted with all nine types of specimens and S-N curves obtained. Specimens surviving 10 million cycles of tensile loading were subsequently tested statically to failure to determine residual properties.

  4. Recording and submitting specimen history data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenstein, Barbara L.; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2016-06-14

    SummaryIn wildlife disease investigations, determining the history or background of a problem is the first significant step toward establishing a diagnosis and aiding agencies with management considerations. The diagnostic process and overall investigation is often greatly expedited by a chronological record accompanying specimens submitted for laboratory evaluation. Knowing where and when the outbreak is taking place, what the environmental conditions and species involved are, and clinical signs in sick animals, along with necropsy findings and diagnostic test results are important for understanding the natural history or epizootiology of disease outbreaks. It becomes increasingly difficult to retrospectively obtain all of the pertinent history as time passes. The most helpful information is that which is obtained at the time of the die-off event by perceptive field biologists and other observers. Significant events preceding morbidity and/or mortality also provide valuable information on which to base corrective actions. In this chapter, readers will find information regarding what type of information should be recorded, how it should be recorded and why it is relevant to a disease investigation. A thoughtful approach in providing as much information as possible surrounding the situation including about host species and the biotic and abiotic environment, greatly aids in determining the most likely causative agent(s).

  5. Subsize specimen testing of nuclear reactor pressure vessel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.S. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Materials Research Center; Rosinski, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cannon, N.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A new methodology is proposed to correlate the upper shelf energy (USE) of full size and subsize Charpy specimens of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel plate material, A533B. The methodology appears to be more satisfactory than the methodologies proposed earlier. USE of a notched-only specimen is partitioned into macro-crack initiation and crack propagation energies. USE of a notched and precracked specimen provides the crack propagation energy. {Delta}USE, the difference between the USE`s of notched-only and precracked specimens, is an estimate of the crack initiation energy. {Delta}USE was normalized by a factor involving the dimensions of the Charpy specimen and the stress concentration factor at the notch root. The normalized values of the {Delta}USE were found to be invariant with specimen size.

  6. Subsize specimen testing of nuclear reactor pressure vessel material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.S. (Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Materials Research Center); Rosinski, S.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Cannon, N.S. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Hamilton, M.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    A new methodology is proposed to correlate the upper shelf energy (USE) of full size and subsize Charpy specimens of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel plate material, A533B. The methodology appears to be more satisfactory than the methodologies proposed earlier. USE of a notched-only specimen is partitioned into macro-crack initiation and crack propagation energies. USE of a notched and precracked specimen provides the crack propagation energy. [Delta]USE, the difference between the USE's of notched-only and precracked specimens, is an estimate of the crack initiation energy. [Delta]USE was normalized by a factor involving the dimensions of the Charpy specimen and the stress concentration factor at the notch root. The normalized values of the [Delta]USE were found to be invariant with specimen size.

  7. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres...

  8. Design Analysis of the Mixed Mode Bending Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    A design analysis of the mixed mode bending (MMB) sandwich specimen for face–core interface fracture characterization is presented. An analysis of the competing failure modes in the foam cored sandwich specimens is performed in order to achieve face–core debond fracture prior to other failure modes....... The analysis facilitates selection of the appropriate geometry for the MMB sandwich specimen to promote debond failure. An experimental study is performed using MMB sandwich specimens with a H100 PVC foam core and E-glass–polyester faces. The results reveal that debond propagation is successfully achieved...... for the chosen geometries and mixed mode loading conditions....

  9. A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Face/core interface crack propagation in sandwich specimens is analyzed. A thorough analysis of the typical failure modes in sandwich composites was performed in order to design the MMB specimen to promote face/core debond fracture. Displacement, compliance and energy release rate expressions...... for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...

  10. A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Face/core interface crack propagation in sandwich specimens is analyzed. A thorough analysis of the typical failure modes in sandwich composites was performed in order to design the MMB specimen to promote face/core debond fracture. Displacement, compliance and energy release rate expressions...... for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...

  11. High-frequency ultrasonic imaging of thickly sliced specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Chiaki; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Chandraratna, Premindra A. N.

    2003-07-01

    It has been reported that a mechanical scanning reflection acoustic microscope (hereinafter called simply "SAM"), using high frequency ultrasonic tone-burst waves, can form a horizontal cross-sectional image (i.e., c-scan image) showing a highly resolved cellular structure of biological tissue. However, the tissue prepared for the SAM has been mostly a thinly sectioned specimen. In this study, the SAM images of specimens thickly sectioned from the tissue were analyzed. Optical and scanning acoustic microscopies were used to evaluate tissues of human small intestine and esophagus. For preparing thin specimens, the tissue was embedded in paraffin, and substantially sectioned at 5-10μm by the microtome. For optical microscopy, the tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and affixed onto glass substrates. For scanning acoustic microscopy, two types of specimens were prepared: thinly sectioned specimens affixed on the glass substrate, wherein the specimens were deparaffinized in xylene, but not stained, and thickely sectioned specimens. Images of the thick specimens obtained with frequency at 200 MHz revealed cellular structures. The morphology was very similar to that seen in the thinly sectioned specimens with optical and scanning acoustic microscopy. In addition, scanning electron microscopy was used to compare the images of biological tissue. An acoustic lens with frequency at 200 MHz permitted the imaging of surface and/or subsurface of microstructures in the thick sections of small intestine and esophagus.

  12. Failed PCR of Ganoderma type specimens affects nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, R R M; Lima, N

    2015-06-01

    The nomenclature of Ganoderma used as a Chinese medicine is debated. A group of researchers could not amplify the DNA of type specimens and concluded the DNA was degraded irreparably. New topotypes were used as the type specimens which was premature. The use of internal amplification controls is recommended to determine if other factors were involved as alternative explanations.

  13. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... to Subpart A of Part 1209—Specimen Tray EC03OC91.037 ...

  14. 46 CFR 57.06-4 - Production testing specimen requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plates three-fourths inch or less in thickness one reduced section tensile specimen and two free-bend... saw into as many portions of the thickness as necessary, as shown in Figure 57.06-4(f)(1)(ii) each of..., the specimen may be cut with a thin saw into as many portions of the thickness as necessary as shown...

  15. A cylindrical specimen holder for electron cryo-tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Colin M., E-mail: cpalmer@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk; Löwe, Jan, E-mail: jyl@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk

    2014-02-01

    The use of slab-like flat specimens for electron cryo-tomography restricts the range of viewing angles that can be used. This leads to the “missing wedge” problem, which causes artefacts and anisotropic resolution in reconstructed tomograms. Cylindrical specimens provide a way to eliminate the problem, since they allow imaging from a full range of viewing angles around the tilt axis. Such specimens have been used before for tomography of radiation-insensitive samples at room temperature, but never for frozen-hydrated specimens. Here, we demonstrate the use of thin-walled carbon tubes as specimen holders, allowing the preparation of cylindrical frozen-hydrated samples of ribosomes, liposomes and whole bacterial cells. Images acquired from these cylinders have equal quality at all viewing angles, and the accessible tilt range is restricted only by the physical limits of the microscope. Tomographic reconstructions of these specimens demonstrate that the effects of the missing wedge are substantially reduced, and could be completely eliminated if a full tilt range was used. The overall quality of these tomograms is still lower than that obtained by existing methods, but improvements are likely in future. - Highlights: • The missing wedge is a serious problem for electron cryo-tomography. • Cylindrical specimens allow the missing wedge to be eliminated. • Carbon nanopipettes can be used as cylindrical holders for tomography of frozen-hydrated specimens. • Cryo-tomography of cylindrical biological samples demonstrates a reduction of deleterious effects associated with the missing wedge.

  16. Preparation of Articular Cartilage Specimens for Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupina, T A

    2016-08-01

    We developed and adapted a technology for preparation of articular cartilage specimens for scanning electron microscopy. The method includes prefixation processing, fixation, washing, and dehydration of articular cartilage specimens with subsequent treatment in camphene and air-drying. The technological result consists in prevention of deformation of the articular cartilage structures. The method is simpler and cheaper than the known technologies.

  17. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinheimer, F.D.

    2005-01-01

    The paper lists the whereabouts of surviving pre-nineteenth century bird collections containing altogether about 1500-3000 specimens. They are found in more than 50 institutions world-wide, with Berlin, Leiden, Paris, Stockholm, Tring and Vienna museums each holding more than 200 bird specimens from

  18. On a specimen of Lumbricus terrestris, L. with bifurcated tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1886-01-01

    In the last number of the »Annals and Magazine of Nat. History” (Dec. 1885), I find a notice of Prof. Jeffrey Bell about two Lumbrici with bifid hinder ends, one specimen belonging to L. terrestris, the other to L. foetidus; moreover he mentions a specimen, presenting a similar remarquable arrangeme

  19. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinheimer, F.D.

    2005-01-01

    The paper lists the whereabouts of surviving pre-nineteenth century bird collections containing altogether about 1500-3000 specimens. They are found in more than 50 institutions world-wide, with Berlin, Leiden, Paris, Stockholm, Tring and Vienna museums each holding more than 200 bird specimens from

  20. 40 CFR 792.51 - Specimen and data storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Specimen and data storage facilities. 792.51 Section 792.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Facilities § 792.51 Specimen and data...

  1. Effect of hydrogen sulfide emissions on cement mortar specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idriss, A. F. [Alberta Environment, Science and Technology Branch, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Negi, S. C.; Jofriet, J. C.; Haywoard, G. L. [Guelph Univ., Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Six different cement mortar specimens used in animal buildings, where they were exposed to hydrogen sulfide generated from anaerobic fermentation of manure during a period of one year, were investigated. Primary interest was on comparing the corrosion resistance of different cement mortar specimens under long term exposure to hydrogen sulfide. The impressed voltage technique was used to test the specimens in the laboratory. Results revealed that test specimens made with eight per cent silica fume cement replacement performed best and similar Portland cement mortar specimens with a water-cement ratio of 0.55 (PC55) the poorest. All other treatments, (Portland cement with a water to cement ratio of 045, Portland cement Type 50, Portland cement with fibre mesh and Portland cement Type 10 coated with linseed oil) all with water-cement ratios of 0.45, were less effective in preventing corrosion than silica fume replacement.

  2. Effect of specimen geometry on tensile strength of cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liang; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the effect of specimen geometry on the ultimate tensile strength of cortical bone measured by a tensile test. This article is motivated by the fact that there is no clear consensus in the literature on a suitable specimen shape for cortical bone testing. We consider three commonly used tensile test specimen shapes: strip, dumbbell with sharp junctions, and dumbbell with rounded junctions. We conduct this study computationally, using a finite element method, and experimentally by testing porcine femurs. Our results show that local stress concentration factors in the specimen lead to reduced values in the measured tensile strength. The higher the stress concentrations are, the lower is the measured strength. We find that the strip specimens are not a good choice due to high stress concentrations. For the same reason, dumbbell specimens with sharp junctions between the grip and gage sections should also be avoided. The dumbbell shaped tensile test specimens with an arc transition and a maximized radius of fillet are a better choice because such geometry lowers stress concentrations.

  3. Final Report: Posttest Analysis of Omega II Optical Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newlander, C D; Fisher, J H

    2007-01-30

    Preliminary posttest analyses have been completed on optical specimens exposed during the Omega II test series conducted on 14 July 2006. The Omega Facility, located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester was used to produce X-ray environments through the interaction of intense pulsed laser radiation upon germanium-loaded silica aerogels. The optical specimen testing was supported by GH Systems through experiment design, pre- and post-test analyses, specimen acquisition, and overall technical experience. The test specimens were fabricated and characterized by Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), San Diego, CA and were simple protected gold coatings on silica substrates. Six test specimens were exposed, five filtered with thin beryllium foil filters, and one unfiltered which was exposed directly to the raw environment. The experimental objectives were: (1) demonstrate that tests of optical specimens could be performed at the Omega facility; (2) evaluate the use and survivability of beryllium foil filters as a function of thickness; (3) obtain damage data on optical specimens which ranged from no damage to damage; (4) correlate existing thermal response models with the damage data; (5) evaluate the use of the direct raw environment upon the specimen response and the ability/desirability to conduct sensitive optical specimen tests using the raw environment; and (6) initiate the development of a protocol for performing optical coatings/mirror tests. This report documents the activities performed by GH Systems in evaluating and using the environments provided by LLNL, the PUFFTFT analyses performed using those environments, and the calculated results compared to the observed and measured posttest data.

  4. Friction Compensation in the Upsetting of Cylindrical Test Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents a combined numerical andexperimental methodology for determining the stress-straincurve of metallic materials from the measurements of forceand displacement obtained in the axial compression of cylindrical test specimens with friction between the specimens and the platens...... model or combined friction models are utilized .Experimental results obtained from cylindrical and Rastegaev test specimens with different lubricants combined with the experimental determination of friction by means of ring compression tests allows compensating the effect of friction...... Appendix is provided for those readers interested in utilizing the associated numerical algorithm for determining the stress straincurves of metallic materials....

  5. Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.

  6. Small Specimen Data from a High Temperature HFIR Irradiation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel Lee [ORNL; Thoms, Kenneth R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The HTV capsule is a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target-rod capsule designed to operate at very high temperatures. The graphite containing section of the capsule (in core) is approximately 18 inches (457.2 mm) long and is separated into eight temperature zones. The specimen diameters within each zone are set to achieve the desired gas gap and hence design temperature (900 C, 1200 C or 1500 C). The capsule has five zones containing 0.400 inch (10.16 mm) diameter specimens, two zones containing 0.350 inch (8.89 mm) diameter specimens and one zone containing 0.300 inch (7.62 mm) diameter specimens. The zones have been distributed within the experiment to optimize the gamma heating from the HFIR core as well as minimize the axial heat flow in the capsule. Consequently, there are two 900 C zones, three 1200 C zones, and three 1500 C zones within the HTV capsule. Each zone contains nine specimens 0.210 0.002 inches (5.334 mm) in length. The capsule will be irradiated to a peak dose of 3.17 displacements per atom. The HTV specimens include samples of the following graphite grades: SGL Carbon s NBG-17 and NBG-18, GrafTech s PCEA, Toyo Tanso s IG-110, Mersen s 2114 and the reference grade H-451 (SGL Carbon). As part of the pre-irradiation program the specimens were characterized using ASTM Standards C559 for bulk density, and ASTM C769 for approximate Young s modulus from the sonic velocity. The probe frequency used for the determination of time of flight of the ultrasonic signal was 2.25 MHz. Marked volume (specimen diameter) effects were noted for both bulk density (increased with increasing specimen volume or diameter) and Dynamic Young s modulus (decreased with increasing specimen volume or diameter). These trends are extended by adding the property vs. diameter data for unirradiated AGC-1 creep specimens (nominally 12.5 mm-diameter x 25.4 mm-length). The relatively large reduction in Dynamic Young s Modulus was surprising given the trend for increasing density

  7. ARCTOS: a relational database relating specimens, specimen-based science, and archival documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Gordon H.; Ramotnik, Cindy A.; McDonald, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    Data are preserved when they are perpetually discoverable, but even in the Information Age, discovery of legacy data appropriate to particular investigations is uncertain. Secure Internet storage is necessary but insufficient. Data can be discovered only when they are adequately described, and visibility increases markedly if the data are related to other data that are receiving usage. Such relationships can be built within (1) the framework of a relational database, or (1) they can be built among separate resources, within the framework of the Internet. Evolving primarily around biological collections, Arctos is a database that does both of these tasks. It includes data structures for a diversity of specimen attributes, essentially all collection-management tasks, plus literature citations, project descriptions, etc. As a centralized collaboration of several university museums, Arctos is an ideal environment for capitalizing on the many relationships that often exist between items in separate collections. Arctos is related to NIH’s DNA-sequence repository (GenBank) with record-to-record reciprocal linkages, and it serves data to several discipline-specific web portals, including the Global Biodiversity Information Network (GBIF). The University of Alaska Museum’s paleontological collection is Arctos’s recent extension beyond the constraints of neontology. With about 1.3 million cataloged items, additional collections are being added each year.

  8. Examination of the fatigue life under combined loading of specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtík F.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes experimental results under combined loading of specimens manufactured from common construction steel 11523. Specimens were gradually loaded by amplitude of the torque, then by combination of torque and tension prestress. The last set of specimens was loaded in combination of torque and inner overpressure. To obtain the required input values the stress-strain analysis of specimens by finite element method in software Ansys was performed within the last experiment. For evaluation of the results the Fuxa's criterion was applied. The performed experiments and their results embody a good agreement with bellow mentioned conjugated strength criterion. The experiments were performed on reconstructed testing machine equipped by pressure chamber.

  9. Simulation Analysis of Standard Metal Specimen Tension Experiment by Fem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Some standard metal rod-shaped, plate-shaped or pipe-shaped specimens usually are used to be tensioned to acquire the material properties such as tensional ductility, contractibility ratio on breaking section,

  10. North Mississippi Refuges Complex Dragonfly Vouchered Specimens 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report contains a list of dragonflies and photographs of them collected in 2005 from the refuge complex. These were verified by Steve Krotzer and specimens retained...

  11. Description of Specimens in the Marine Mammal Osteology Reference Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NMFS Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Marine Mammal Osteology Collection consists of approximately 2500 specimens (skulls...

  12. Pathologic diagnoses of appendectomy specimens: a 10-year review.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathologic diagnoses of appendectomy specimens: a 10-year review. ... Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... Materials and methods: Records of resected appendices with a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis submitted to histopathology ...

  13. Stress Analysis of a Secondary-Bending Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Control Office Ansett Airlines of Australia, Library 0 Qantas Airways Limited Hawker de Havilland Aust Pty Ltd, Victoria, Library Hawker de Havilland...MELBOURNE, VICTORIA Technical Note 58 STRESS ANALYSIS OF A SECONDARY-BENDING SPECIMEN 0 by R.L. EVANS M. HELLER Approved for public release C) COMMONWEALTH...AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY Technical Note 58 0 STRESS ANALYSIS OF A SECONDARY-BENDING SPECIMEN by R.L. EVANS 0 M

  14. Innovation for reducing blood culture contamination: initial specimen diversion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Richard G; Schmitt, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    We hypothesized that diversion of the first milliliter of venipuncture blood-the initial specimen diversion technique (ISDT)-would eliminate incompletely sterilized fragments of skin from the culture specimen and significantly reduce our blood culture contamination rate (R). We studied our hypothesis prospectively beginning with our control culture (C) definition: one venipuncture with two sequentially obtained specimens, 10 ml each, the first specimen (M1) for aerobic and the second (M2) for anaerobic media. The test ISDT culture (D) was identical, with the exception that each was preceded by diverting a 1-ml sample (DS) from the same venipuncture. During the first of two sequential 9-month periods, we captured D versus C data (n=3,733), where DMXR and CMXR are R for D and C specimens. Our hypothesis predicted DS would divert soiled skin fragments from DM1, and therefore, CM1R would be significantly greater than DM1R. This was confirmed by CM1R (30/1,061 [2.8%]) less DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]; P=0.005), which equals 1.4%. For the second 9-month follow-up period, data were compiled for all cultures (n=4,143), where ADMXR is R for all (A) diversion specimens, enabling comparison to test ISDT. Our hypothesis predicted no significant differences for test ISDT versus all ISDT. This was confirmed by DM1R (37/2,672 [1.4%]) versus ADM1R (42/4,143 [1.0%]; P=0.17) and DM2R (21/2,672 [0.80%]) versus ADM2R (39/4,143 [0.94%]; P=0.50). We conclude that our hypothesis is valid: venipuncture needles soil blood culture specimens with unsterilized skin fragments and increase R, and ISDT significantly reduces R from venipuncture-obtained blood culture specimens.

  15. Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

  16. The International Environmental Specimen Banks--let's get visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küster, Anette; Becker, Paul R; Kucklick, John R; Pugh, Rebecca S; Koschorreck, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Environmental specimen banks (ESBs) are facilities that archive samples from the environment for future research and monitoring purposes. In addition, the long-term preservation of representative specimens is an important complement to environmental research and monitoring. Today, environmental specimen banking is experiencing a renaissance due to an increase in regulatory interest in ESB biota standards and trend data. The International Environmental Specimen Bank Group (IESB) promotes the worldwide development of techniques and strategies of environmental specimen banking and the international cooperation and collaboration among national ESBs. In order to provide a current and comprehensive overview on international environmental specimen banking activities, a questionnaire was sent to the national ESBs and asked for detailed information on the respective ESBs. The results show the rich diversity of national sampling programs, including more detailed information on archived samples, sampling strategies, and studies that have already been performed in the respective countries. All ESBs completing the survey expressed a strong interest in cooperating with other ESBs on a collaborative project. The collected information of national ESBs is intended to be made publicly available.

  17. ROLE OF SCALE FACTOR DURING TENSILE TESTING OF SMALL SPECIMENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N [ORNL; Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL; Field, Kevin G [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; Gray, Mr. Sean [University of Michigan

    2014-01-01

    The influence of scale factor (tensile specimen geometry and dimensions) on mechanical test results was investigated for different widely used types of small specimens (SS-1, SS-2, SS-3, and SS-J3) and a set of materials. It was found that the effect of scale factor on the accurate determination of yield stress, ultimate tensile stress, and uniform elongation values was weak; however, clear systematic differences were observed and should be accounted for during interpretation of results. In contrast, total elongation values were strongly sensitive to variations in specimen geometry. Modern experimental methods like digital image correlation allow the impact of scale factor to be reduced. Using these techniques, it was shown that true stress true strain curves describing strain-hardening behavior were very close for different specimen types. The limits of miniaturization are discussed, and an ultra-miniature specimen concept was suggested and evaluated. This type of specimen, as expected, may be suitable for SEM and TEM in situ testing.

  18. Microwave applications to rock specimen drying in laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihwan; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    Microwave heating is the process in which electromagnetic wave with 300 MHz - 300 GHz heats dielectric material. Although in the beginning microwave was mainly used in food industry to cook or heat the food, it soon became clear that microwave had a large potential for other applications. It was thus introduced in geological fields of investigation like mineral processing, oil sand and oil shale extraction, soil remediation, waste treatment. However, the drying techniques using microwave was rarely treated in geology field. According to the ISRM suggested methods, experimental rock specimens in laboratory test were dried in 105°C oven for a period of at least 24 hours. In this method, hot air transmits heats to material by means of thermal conduction, and the heat was transferred from the surface to the inside of the rock specimens. The thermal gradient and moisture gradient can deteriorate the specimens, and energy can be wasted in bulk heating the specimens. The aim of our study was to compare physical property, microstructural property, and energy efficiency between microwave drying method and conventional oven drying method, and to suggest new method for rock drying. Granite, basalt, and sandstone were selected as specimens and were made in cylinder shape with 54 mm diameter. To compare two different methods, one set of saturated specimens were dried in 105°C conventional oven and the other set of saturated specimens were dried in microwave oven. After dried, the specimens were cooled and saturated in 20°C water 48 hours. The saturation-drying were repeated 50 cycles, and the physical property and microstructural property were measured every 10 cycles. Absorption and elastic wave velocity were measured to investigate the change of physical property, and microscope image and X-ray computed tomography image were obtained to investigate the change of microstructural property of rock specimens. The electricity consumption of conventional oven and microwave oven

  19. HER2 testing on core needle biopsy specimens from primary breast cancers: interobserver reproducibility and concordance with surgically resected specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Sohei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2 status based on core needle biopsy (CNB specimens is mandatory for identification of patients with primary breast cancer who will benefit from primary systemic therapy with trastuzumab. The aim of the present study was to validate the application of HER2 testing with CNB specimens from primary breast cancers in terms of interobserver reproducibility and comparison with surgically resected specimens. Methods A total of 100 pairs of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded CNB and surgically resected specimens of invasive breast carcinomas were cut into sections. All 100 paired sections were subjected to HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry (IHC and 27 paired sections were subjected to that by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, the results being evaluated by three and two observers, respectively. Interobserver agreement levels in terms of judgment and the concordance of consensus scores between CNB samples and the corresponding surgically resected specimens were estimated as the percentage agreement and κ statistic. Results In CNB specimens, the percentage interobserver agreement of HER2 scoring by IHC was 76% (κ = 0.71 for 3 × 3 categories (0-1+ versus 2+ versus 3+ and 90% (κ = 0.80 for 2 × 2 categories (0-2+ versus 3+. These levels were close to the corresponding ones for the surgically resected specimens: 80% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories and 92% (κ = 0.88 for 2 × 2 categories. Concordance of consensus for HER2 scores determined by IHC between CNB and the corresponding surgical specimens was 87% (κ = 0.77 for 3 × 3 categories, and 94% (κ = 0.83 for 2 × 2 categories. Among the 13 tumors showing discordance in the mean IHC scores between the CNB and surgical specimens, the results of consensus for FISH results were concordant in 11. The rate of successful FISH analysis and the FISH positivity rate in cases with a HER2 IHC score of

  20. AGC-2 Specimen Post Irradiation Data Package Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windes, William Enoch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rohrbaugh, David T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cottle, David L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report documents results of the post-irradiation examination material property testing of the creep, control, and piggyback specimens from the irradiation creep capsule Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC)-2 are reported. This is the second of a series of six irradiation test trains planned as part of the AGC experiment to fully characterize the neutron irradiation effects and radiation creep behavior of current nuclear graphite grades. The AGC-2 capsule was irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor at a nominal temperature of 600°C and to a peak dose of 5 dpa (displacements per atom). One-half of the creep specimens were subjected to mechanical stresses (an applied stress of either 13.8, 17.2, or 20.7 MPa) to induce irradiation creep. All post-irradiation testing and measurement results are reported with the exception of the irradiation mechanical strength testing, which is the last destructive testing stage of the irradiation testing program. Material property tests were conducted on specimens from 15 nuclear graphite grades using a similar loading configuration as the first AGC capsule (AGC-1) to provide easy comparison between the two capsules. However, AGC-2 contained an increased number of specimens (i.e., 487 total specimens irradiated) and replaced specimens of the minor grade 2020 with the newer grade 2114. The data reported include specimen dimensions for both stressed and unstressed specimens to establish the irradiation creep rates, mass and volume data necessary to derive density, elastic constants (Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s ratio) from ultrasonic time-of-flight velocity measurements, Young’s modulus from the fundamental frequency of vibration, electrical resistivity, and thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion data from 100–500°C. No data outliers were determined after all measurements were completed. A brief statistical analysis was performed on the irradiated data and a limited comparison between

  1. Documentation of surgical specimens using digital video technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melín-Aldana, Héctor; Carter, Barbara; Sciortino, Debra

    2006-09-01

    Digital technology is commonly used for documentation of specimens in anatomic pathology and has been mainly limited to still photographs. Technologic innovations, such as digital video, provide additional, in some cases better, options for documentation. To demonstrate the applicability of digital video to the documentation of surgical specimens. A Canon Elura MC40 digital camcorder was used, and the unedited movies were transferred to a Macintosh PowerBook G4 computer. Both the camcorder and specimens were hand-held during filming. The movies were edited using the software iMovie. Annotations and histologic photographs may be easily incorporated into movies when editing, if desired. The finished movies are best viewed in computers which contain the free program QuickTime Player. Movies may also be incorporated onto DVDs, for viewing in standard DVD players or appropriately equipped computers. The final movies are on average 2 minutes in duration, with a file size between 2 and 400 megabytes, depending on the intended use. Because of file size, distribution is more practical via CD or DVD, but movies may be compressed for distribution through the Internet (e-mail, Web sites) or through internal hospital networks. Digital video is a practical, easy, and affordable methodology for specimen documentation, permitting a better 3-dimensional understanding of the specimens. Discussions with colleagues, student education, presentation at conferences, and other educational activities can be enhanced with the implementation of digital video technology.

  2. Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis in interval appendectomy specimens of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hakan Çavuşoğlu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is common in interval appendectomy specimens in adults, but it is unusual in children. Histopathologic specimens of interval appendectomy, within an 8-year period, were reevaluated to assess the true incidence. A computer search of the hospital database of all appendectomies was performed between January 2008 and June 2015 to identify all interval appendectomy cases. A total of 2694 patients underwent appendectomies. Of these, 13 were interval appendectomies. After pathologic evaluation, 2 (15.4% of the specimens were reported as xanthogranulomatous appendicitis (XA. Histopathologic examination of these interval appendectomy specimens, granulomas (59%, xanthogranulomatous inflammation (36% and Crohn-like changes (50% were common in adults. However, XA is a particularly rare clinical entity among children. Two cases of XA were reported in children in the English literature. One was a 12-year old boy that underwent interval appendectomy 6 weeks after an episode of acute appendicitis. The other was an 11-year old boy with acute (non-interval appendicitis, but the complete blood count was suggestive of an acute suppurative inflammation. These two cases are the 3rd and 4th cases of XA reported in children in the English literature, and both were managed by interval appendectomy. Thus, XA may be encountered in interval appendectomy specimens and association with IBD has to be ruled out.

  3. Standard Guide for Reconstitution of Irradiated Charpy-Sized Specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers procedures for the reconstitution of ferritic pressure boundary steels used in nuclear power plant applications, Type A Charpy (Test Methods E 23) specimens and specimens suitable for testing in three point bending in accordance with Test Methods E 1921 or E 1820. Materials from irradiation programs (principally broken specimens) are reconstituted by welding end tabs of similar material onto remachined specimen sections that were unaffected by the initial test. Guidelines are given for the selection of suitable specimen halves and end tab materials, for dimensional control, and for avoidance of overheating the notch area. A comprehensive overview of the reconstitution methodologies can be found in Ref (1). 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard...

  4. Evaluation of specimen preservatives for DNA analyses of bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, M.; Droege, S.; Conrad, T.; Prager, S.; Richards, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Large-scale insect collecting efforts that are facilitated by the use of pan traps result in large numbers of specimens being collected. Storage of these specimens can be problematic if space and equipment are limited. In this study, we investigated the effects of various preservatives (alcohol solutions and DMSO) on the amount and quality of DNA extracted from bees (specifically Halictidae, Apidae, and Andrenidae). In addition, we examined the amount and quality of DNA obtained from bee specimens killed and stored at -80 degrees C and from specimens stored for up to 24 years in ethanol. DNA quality was measured in terms of how well it could be PCR-amplified using a set of mitochondrial primers that are commonly used in insect molecular systematics. Overall the best methods of preservation were ultra-cold freezing and dimethyl sulfoxide, but these are both expensive and in the case of ultra-cold freezing, somewhat impractical for field entomologists. Additionally, dimethyl sulfoxide was shown to have adverse effects on morphological characters that are typically used for identification to the level of species. We therefore recommend that the best alternative is 95% ethanol, as it preserves bee specimens well for both morphological and molecular studies.

  5. Study on Thickness Effect of Three-Point-Bend Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masanori; Ishihara, Takehito

    The thickness effect of a three-point-bend (3PB) specimen on dimple fracture behavior is studied experimentally and numerically. At first, fracture toughness tests were conducted using 3PB specimens of different thicknesses. Fracture toughness values and R-curves are obtained, and the thickness effect is discussed. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dimple fracture surfaces are observed precisely. It is found that the thickness effect appears clearly in the void growth process. Finite element (FEM) analyses are conducted based on these experimental data. Using Gurson’s constitutive equation, the nucleation and growth of voids during the dimple fracture process are simulated. The distribution patterns of stress triaxiality and the crack growth process are obtained. The results show a good agreement with experimental ones qualitatively. The effects of specimen thickness on R-curves are explained well on the basis of these numerical simulations.

  6. Extraction of ultrashort DNA molecules from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutaker, Rafal M; Reiter, Ella; Furtwängler, Anja; Schuenemann, Verena J; Burbano, Hernán A

    2017-02-01

    DNA extracted from herbarium specimens is highly fragmented; therefore, it is crucial to use extraction protocols that retrieve short DNA molecules. Improvements in extraction and DNA library preparation protocols for animal remains have allowed efficient retrieval of molecules shorter than 50 bp. Here, we applied these improvements to DNA extraction protocols for herbarium specimens and evaluated extraction performance by shotgun sequencing, which allows an accurate estimation of the distribution of DNA fragment lengths. Extraction with N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) buffer decreased median fragment length by 35% when compared with cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB); modifying the binding conditions of DNA to silica allowed for an additional decrease of 10%. We did not observe a further decrease in length for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) versus double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) library preparation methods. Our protocol enables the retrieval of ultrashort molecules from herbarium specimens, which will help to unlock the genetic information stored in herbaria.

  7. Curvature behaviour of multilayer specimens of thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandin, G.; Bruenings, S.E.; Steinbrech, R.W.; Singheiser, L. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe und Verfahren der Energietechnik

    2000-07-01

    The impact of residual stresses on the elastic and plastic deformation behavior of plasma sprayed and physical vapor deposited thermal barrier systems was studied. In particular, multilayer specimen strips composed of plasma sprayed partially stabilized zirconia, oxidation resistant NiCoCrAlY bond-coat and Ni-based superalloy substrate were tested. The experiments focused on the in-situ observation of specimen curvature during thermal cycling between room temperature and 1000 C. The mechanical response of specimens with different layer thickness was analyzed with a thermoelastic model to derive elastic modulus and thermal expansion of the ceramic top coat, both parameters as a function of temperature. With the thermoelastic data of all three layers, the residual stress distribution could be calculated analytically. The results of the two coating variants are compared. The deviation from thermoelastic behavior at higher temperature is discussed in terms of stress relaxation in the bond coat due to plastic deformation. (orig.)

  8. T*{sub {epsilon}} integral analysis of fracture specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, Y.; Ma, L.; Kobayashi, A.S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    T*{sub {epsilon}} integral values associated with stable crack growth in thin 2024-T3 aluminum compact (CT) specimens and A606 HSLA steel single edge notched (SEN) specimens were determined directly from the crack tip displacement field obtained by moire interferometry. Stable crack growth in the SEN specimen was also simulated by an elastic-plastic finite element (FE) model which was driven by the experimentally determined boundary conditions. T*{sub {epsilon}} obtained experimentally and by FE were in reasonable agreements with each other. Unlike the vanishing J integrals with crack extension, T*{sub {epsilon}} reached steady state values with stable crack growth. Thus, for a given integration contour, {Gamma}{sub {epsilon}}, near the crack tip, T*{sub {epsilon}} can be used as a stable crack growth as well as a ductile fracture criteria.

  9. The effect of specimen and flaw dimensions on fracture toughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, M.J. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-06-01

    The effect of the specimen size and geometry on fracture toughness has been investigated both by experimental tests and computational analyses. The methods for constraint description, namely T-stress, Q-parameter and Small-Scale Yielding Correction (SSYC) have been compared and applied for various geometries. A statistical treatment for the specimen thickness effect on cleavage fracture toughness has been investigated. Elliptical surface cracks were compared with straight-thickness cracks and a method for crack shape correction was presented. Based on the results, the differences in apparent fracture toughness values obtained from various specimen configurations can be better understood and taken into account. 64 refs. The thesis includes also four previous publications by author.

  10. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Dwight A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoegh, Kyle [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Khazanovich, Lev [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations. A preliminary report detailed some of the challenges associated with thick reinforced concrete sections and prioritized conceptual designs of specimens that could be fabricated to represent NPP concrete structures for using in NDE evaluation comparisons. This led to the construction of the concrete specimen presented in this report, which has sufficient reinforcement density and cross-sectional size to represent an NPP containment wall. Details on how a suitably thick concrete specimen was constructed are presented, including the construction materials, final nominal design schematic, as well as formwork and rigging required to safely meet the desired dimensions of the concrete structure. The report also details the type and methods of forming the concrete specimen as well as information on how the rebar and simulated defects were embedded. Details on how the resulting specimen was transported, safely anchored, and marked to allow access for systematic comparative NDE testing of defects in a representative NPP containment wall concrete specimen are also given. Data collection using the MIRA Ultrasonic NDE equipment and

  11. Friction Compensation in the Upsetting of Cylindrical Test Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents a combined numerical andexperimental methodology for determining the stress-straincurve of metallic materials from the measurements of forceand displacement obtained in the axial compression of cylindrical test specimens with friction between the specimens and the platens...... model or combined friction models are utilized .Experimental results obtained from cylindrical and Rastegaev test specimens with different lubricants combined with the experimental determination of friction by means of ring compression tests allows compensating the effect of friction...... in the determination of the material flow curve. Comparison with the flow curves determined without friction compensation shows the viability of the proposed methodology. The proposed methodology is a simple and effective alternative to other solutions available in the literature and the pseudo-code supplied inthe...

  12. Cerenkov and radioluminescence imaging of brain tumor specimens during neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello Enrico; Schiariti, Marco P.; Grana, Chiara M.; Ferrari, Mahila; Cremonesi, Marta; Boschi, Federico

    2016-05-01

    We presented the first example of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) and radioluminescence imaging (RLI) of human tumor specimens. A patient with a brain meningioma localized in the left parietal region was injected with 166 MBq of Y90-DOTATOC the day before neurosurgery. The specimens of the tumor removed during surgery were imaged using both CLI and RLI using an optical imager prototype developed in our laboratory. The system is based on a cooled electron multiplied charge coupled device coupled with an f/0.95 17-mm C-mount lens. We showed for the first time the possibility of obtaining CLI and RLI images of fresh human brain tumor specimens removed during neurosurgery.

  13. An analysis of forensic entomological specimens by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsa, R A; Ahmad, F M S; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Omar, B

    2010-09-01

    This study reviews forensic entomological specimens analysed by the Department of Parasitology & Medical Entomology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for the year 2004. A total of 10 cases (6 males and 4 females) were observed for the entomological specimens. Various types of death scenes were obtained including indoor and outdoor area such as bushes field, rubbish dumping site, and aquatic areas. Identified fly species collected from the death sites were blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina and unknown sarcophagid larvae, with Ch. megacephala being the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats. The post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation ranged from one to five days, based on the entomological specimens collected.

  14. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  15. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahia, Marcus V. [Universidade Federal do Reconcavo da Bahia, Amargosa, BA (Brazil). Centro de Formacao de Professores; David, Juceni P. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (FF/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia; David, Jorge M., E-mail: jmdavid@ufba.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determined by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A. (author)

  16. Report of the fourth specimen of Amphiorchis solus (Simha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck M.R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to describe the occurrence of the fourth specimen of Amphiorchis solus (Simha & Chattopadhyaya, 1970 Platt, 2002 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae in a green turtle (Chelonia mydas L.1758 found in northeastern Brazil. Amphiorchis solus is a parasite that has only been reported in green turtles in India, Costa Rica and Brazil. Although the original description was made in 1970, only four specimens (including the one described herein have been reported in the literature. In this note, we present the second occurrence of A. solus in Brazil, broadening information on the species and providing the first photographic record of this parasite.

  17. Comparison of gross anatomy test scores using traditional specimens vs. QuickTime Virtual Reality animated specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri

    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a cadaver. Anatomy educators debate over the advantages versus the disadvantages of computer based resources for gross anatomy instruction. Many studies, case reports, and editorials argue for the increased use of computer based anatomy educational tools, while others discuss the necessity of dissection for various reasons important in learning anatomy, such as a three-dimensional physical view of the specimen, physical handling of tissues, interactions with fellow students during dissection, and differences between specific specimens. While many articles deal with gross anatomy education using computers, there seems to be a lack of studies investigating the use of computer based resources as an assessment tool for gross anatomy, specifically using the Apple application QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR). This study investigated the use of QTVR movie modules to assess if using computer based QTVR movie module assessments were equal in quality to actual physical specimen examinations. A gross anatomy course in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University was used as a source of anatomy students and gross anatomy examinations. Two groups were compared, one group taking gross anatomy examinations in a traditional manner, by viewing actual physical specimens and answering questions based on those specimens. The other group took the same examinations using the same specimens, but the specimens were viewed as simulated three-dimensional objects in a QTVR movie module. Sample group means for the assessments were compared. A survey was also administered asking students' perceptions of quality and user-friendliness of the QTVR

  18. Dynamic triaxial compression experiments on Cor-Tuf specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Alex B.

    A set of dynamic triaxial compression experiments at 50 MPa, 100 MPa, and 200 MPa confinement have been conducted with a modified Kolsky bar on cylindrical ultra high strength concrete Cor-Tuf specimens of diameter 19 mm and length of 12.7 mm. The experiment is composed of a hydrostatic phase which occurs at a quasi-static strain rate followed by a dynamic shear phase which occurs at a high strain rate. A set of 28 experiments were conducted at strain rates of 100 s-1 and 200 s-1. The experiments show that the fracture strength of the material increases under the test conditions. The specimens showed higher strength in the dynamic confined experiments than both the quasi-static TXC tests and the unconfined dynamic tests. The strength increase was attributed to specimen size difference and not a strain rate or confinement effect. Although the trend towards brittle ductile transition is observed the specimens were not tested in a high enough confinement for the phase change to occur.

  19. Collection & Processing of Vertebrate Specimens for Arbovirus Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudia, W. Daniel; And Others

    Described are techniques used by the National Communicable Disease Center in obtaining blood and tissues from man and other vertebrates for arbovirus isolation and antibody studies. Also included are techniques for capturing and handling vertebrates; banding and marking; restraining and bleeding; storing of specimens to preserve antibody and…

  20. 50 CFR 31.12 - Sale of wildlife specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sale of wildlife specimens. 31.12 Section 31.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDLIFE SPECIES MANAGEMENT Terms and Conditions of...

  1. Effect of erodent particles on the erosion of metal specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, M. Mahbubur; Alam, M. Khorshed; Khan, M. Ishak

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the measurement of erosion rate of carbon steel specimens in sand water slurry system in a slurry pot tester. Sylhet sand has been sieved to get three sizes of erodent particles; namely, less than 250 micron, 250 to 590 micron and 590 to 1190 micron. Experiments are done with three sand concentrations (10%, 15% and 20%). The rate of erosion of the carbon steel specimens is measured as the loss of weight per unit surface area per unit time under the dynamic action of solid particles. The eroded surfaces of the specimens are examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to visualize the impact of the slurry of various conditions. It is seen that irrespective of the particle size the rate of erosion increases with the increase of slurry concentration. This increment of erosion rate at high concentration is high for large particles. High erosion rate is observed in case of large sand particles. In case of small and fine particles erosion rate is small because of low impact energy as well as the wastage of energy to overcome the hindrance of the finer particles before striking on the specimen surface.

  2. Anaerococcus nagyae sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A C M; Vries , de E. D.; Jean-Pierre, H; van Winkelhoff, A J

    We describe a new Anaerococcus species isolated from human clinical specimens. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences of three strains showed <98% similarity with its closest relative Anaerococcus octavius. Phylogenetically the isolated strains form a cluster and can be differentiated from other

  3. Microstructural changes of sandstone specimens during CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Son, J.; Oh, M.; Park, H. D.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a technology to isolate CO2 from atmosphere, by capturing it from sources, transporting it to injection area, and injecting it into suitable geological formation, ocean, or mineral carbonation plant. Geological storage of carbon dioxide is the most effective and economical method, and until now a lot of demonstration projects were carried out successfully such as Sleipner, Weyburn, and In Salah. In Republic of Korea, small-scale CO2 injection demonstration project is now under investigation in offshore Pohang Basin with sandstone reservoir and the mudstone caprock. When CO2 is injected in target site, the rock around injection well can be deteriorated because of extreme change of temperature and pressure. In this study supercritical CO2 was injected in sandstone specimen and the initiation and propagation of fracture inside the specimens were observed using X-ray computed tomography (CT). X-ray CT method is a computer technology to observe inner density of target object in three dimensional image. Because of its non-destructivity and high resolution, it is suitable for consistent observation of the same specimen. Porosity and permeability of the specimens were measured using X-ray CT images and both of them were increased after injection. P- and S-wave velocity were also measured to assess the change of mechanical property and both of them were decreased after injection because of growth of inner fractures. The data from this research can be used as input data of CCS site.

  4. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, R M; Ahearn, D G

    1983-11-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  5. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  6. Wide-range displacement expressions for standard fracture mechanics specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, J. A.; Gross, B.; Leger, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    Wide-range algebraic expressions for the displacement of cracked fracture mechanics specimens are developed. For each specimen two equations are given: one for the displacement as a function of crack length, the other for crack length as a function of displacement. All the specimens that appear in ASTM Test for Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials (E 399) are represented in addition to the crack mouth displacement for a pure bending specimen. For the compact tension sample and the disk-shaped compact tension sample, the displacement at the crack mouth and at the load line are both considered. Only the crack mouth displacements for the arc-shaped tension samples are presented. The agreement between the displacements or crack lengths predicted by the various equations and the corresponding numerical data from which they were developed are nominally about 3 percent or better. These expressions should be useful in all types of fracture testing including fracture toughness, K-resistance, and fatigue crack growth.

  7. US-Canada Great Lakes Regional Specimen Bank Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, A; Edmonds, C J; Landon, L; Yonker, T L

    1993-11-01

    A study to examine the feasibility of establishing a Regional Specimen Bank in the Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada has recently been initiated by the Michigan Audubon Society. There are several existing formal and informal specimen banking facilities active in the region but their combined adequacy has not been evaluated. This feasibility study will establish the need and use of a regional bank and the institution(s) necessary to satisfy this need will be recommended. The study will address the scope required to meet present and future needs including the types of specimens to be represented in the bank, geographic coverage and protocols for collection, shipping, processing, analysis and storage. A management policy of the bank will be developed encompassing business operation, costs, governing structure and personnel requirements. The legal requirements of the bank will be determined with regards to the acquisition of samples, transport across national boundaries, access to specimens and information, and liability during operation. An effective information dissemination network will be recommended that is compatible with national and international partners, will facilitate technology and information transfer and support the quality and status of the bank. Determination of secure, long-term funding sources will be one of the key elements to ensuring a safe repository. This feasibility study is funded by the Great Lakes Protection Fund.

  8. Biobanking metastases and biopsy specimens for personalized medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Angen; Collins,Charles; Diemer,Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Angen Liu, Charles C Collins, Stephanie M Diemer Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Metastasis often develops in cancer patients despite improvements in surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Biopsy specimens of metastatic lesions are extremely valuable materials for monitoring disease progression, assessing therapeutic outcome, and delivering personalized medicine. Biobanking high-quality human metastas...

  9. Detecting Rickettsia parkeri infection from eschar swab specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Todd; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Dent, Mike; Jiang, Ju; Daly, Patrick L; Maguire, Jason D; Richards, Allen L

    2013-05-01

    The typical clinical presentation of several spotted fever group Rickettsia infections includes eschars. Clinical diagnosis of the condition is usually made by analysis of blood samples. We describe a more sensitive, noninvasive means of obtaining a sample for diagnosis by using an eschar swab specimen from patients infected with Rickettsia parkeri.

  10. Polystyrene cryostat facilitates testing tensile specimens under liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogan, R. P.; Skalka, R. J.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight cryostat made of expanded polystyrene reduces eccentricity in a tensile system being tested under liquid nitrogen. The cryostat is attached directly to the tensile system by a special seal, reducing misalignment effects due to cryostat weight, and facilitates viewing and loading of the specimens.

  11. Pathology handling of pancreatoduodenectomy specimens: Approaches and controversies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    María; del; Carmen; Gómez-Mateo; Luis; Sabater-Ortí; Antonio; Ferrández-Izquierdo

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer, with a 5% 5-year survival rate, is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in Western countries. Unfortunately, only 20% of all patients benefit from surgical treatment. The need to prolong survival has prompted pathologists to develop improved protocols to evaluate pancreatic specimens and their surgical margins. Hopefully, the new protocols will provide clinicians with more powerful prognostic indicators and accurate information to guide their therapeutic decisions. Despite the availability of several guidelines for the handling and pathology reporting of duodenopancreatectomy specimens and their continual updating by expert pathologists, there is no consensus on basic issues such as surgical margins or the definition of incomplete excision(R1) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. This article reviews the problems and controversies that dealing with duodenopancreatectomy specimens pose to pathologists, the various terms used to define resection margins or infiltration, and reports. After reviewing the literature, including previous guidelines and based on our own experience, we present our protocol for the pathology handling of duodenopancreatectomy specimens.

  12. Natural selection: Finding specimens in a natural history collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, M. van; Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Hunt, S.; Meij, M. van der; Dekker, R.; Lendvai, P.

    2011-01-01

    The natural history domain is rich in information. For hundreds of years, biodiversity researchers have collected specimens and samples, and meticulously recorded the how, what, and where of these objects of research. To retrace this information, however, deep knowledge of the collection and

  13. New and improved molecular sexing methods for museum bird specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantock, Tristan M; Prys-Jones, Robert P; Lee, Patricia L M

    2008-05-01

    We present two new avian molecular sexing techniques for nonpasserine and passerine birds (Neognathae), which are more suitable for use with museum specimens than earlier methods. The technique for nonpasserines is based on a new primer (M5) which, in combination with the existing P8 primer, targets a smaller amplicon in the CHD1 sex-linked gene than previously. Primers targeting ATP5A1, an avian sex-linked gene not previously used for sex identification, were developed for passerines. Comprehensive testing across species demonstrated that both primer pairs sex a range of different species within their respective taxonomic groups. Rigorous evaluation of each method within species showed that these permitted sexing of specimens dating from the 1850s. For corn bunting museum specimens, the ATP5A1 method sexed 98% of 63 samples (1857-1966). The M5/P8 CHD1 method was similarly successful, sexing 90% of 384 moorhen specimens from six different museum collections (1855-2001). In contrast, the original P2/P8 CHD1 sexing method only identified the sex of less than half of 111 museum moorhen samples. In addition to dried skin samples, these methods may be useful for other types of material that yield degraded or damaged DNA, and are hence potential new sexing tools for avian conservation genetics, population management and wildlife forensics.

  14. Evaluation of MCM-2 expression in TMA cervical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Alcina F; Lapa e Silva, José R; Cunha, Cynthia B; Amaro-Filho, Sergio M; Oliveira, Nathalia; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Friedman, Ruth Khalili; Khalil, Ruth; Russomano, Fabio; Pires, Andrea; Golub, Jonathan E; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2012-01-01

    Minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) are highly expressed in actively replicating cells. The need for biological markers for cervical carcinoma and its precursor lesions is emerging. Our main aim was to determine the immunohistochemical expression of MCM-2 in HIV-positive and -negative dysplastic cervical specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis of MCM-2 was performed in a total of 352 cervical TMA specimens of normal control, low-grade CIN, high-grade CIN and invasive tumor. 38 specimens were from HIV-positive women. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to determine the best cutoff to diagnose high-grade CIN and invasive cervical cancer. In the progression from normal epithelium to high-grade CIN and invasive tumor we found significant differences in the MCM-2 expression (p<0.05). Based on the ROC curve of 80% with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78, expression of MCM-2 to diagnose high-grade CIN and invasive tumor resulted in sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 66%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 86% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 57%. HIV-positive cervices revealed a decreasing expression of MCM-2 in both LGCIN and HGCIN compared with HIV-negative specimens (p<0.0001). The present study suggests that immunohistochemical MCM-2 may not be a promising biomarker for diagnosing high-grade CIN and invasive cancer.

  15. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Two Dissimilar Metal Weld Overlay Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-06-30

    Two dissimilar metal weld (DMW) pipe-to-nozzle specimens were implanted with thermal fatigue cracks in the 13% to 90% through-wall depth range. The specimens were ultrasonically evaluated with phased-array probes having center frequencies of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 megahertz (MHz). An Alloy 82/182 weld overlay (WOL) was applied and the specimens were ultrasonically re-evaluated for flaw detection and characterization. The Post-WOL flaw depths were approximately 10% to 56% through-wall. This study has shown the effectiveness of ultrasonic examinations of Alloy 82/182 overlaid DMW specimens. Phased-array probes with center frequency in the 0.8- to 1.0-MHz range provide a strong coherent signal but the greater ultrasonic wavelength and larger beam spot size prevent the reliable detection of small flaws. These small flaws had nominal through-wall depths of less than 15% and length in the 50-60 mm (2-2.4 in.) range. Flaws in the 19% and greater through-wall depth range were readily detected with all four probes. At the higher frequencies, the reflected signals are less coherent but still provide adequate signal for flaw detection and characterization. A single inspection at 2.0 MHz could provide adequate detection and sizing information but a supplemental inspection at 1.0 or 1.5 MHz is recommended.

  16. Fracture Mechanics Analysis of a Modified TSD Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    The Tilted Sandwich Debond (TSD) specimen has been recognized as a viable candidate for characterization of the face/core fracture resistance. Analysis, however, shows that the range of phase angles that can be realized by altering the tilt angle is quite limited. A parametric study however shows...

  17. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices... microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for...

  18. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 1: specimen handling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samaratunga, H.; Montironi, R.; True, L.; Epstein, J.I.; Griffiths, D.F.; Humphrey, P.A.; Kwast, T. van der; Wheeler, T.M.; Srigley, J.R.; Delahunt, B.; Egevad, L.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to the handling and processing of radical prostatectomy specimens were coordinated by wo

  19. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 1: specimen handling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samaratunga, H.; Montironi, R.; True, L.; Epstein, J.I.; Griffiths, D.F.; Humphrey, P.A.; Kwast, T. van der; Wheeler, T.M.; Srigley, J.R.; Delahunt, B.; Egevad, L.; Hulsbergen- van de Kaa, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to the handling and processing of radical prostatectomy specimens were coordinated by wo

  20. Degenerative spine disease : pathologic findings in 985 surgical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Peter; Wollmann, Robert L; Fessler, Richard G; Krausz, Thomas N; Montag, Anthony G

    2006-02-01

    A number of pathologic changes have been reported in spinal surgery specimens. The frequency of many of these is not well defined. We retrospectively reviewed the histologic features of 985 extradural spinal surgery specimens. Of the cases, 1.6% were identified clinically as synovial cysts. In addition, synovial tissue was seen in another 5.3% of cases, often embedded within disk material. Neovascularization of disk tissue was present in 8.1% of cases, chondrocyte clusters in 18.3%, and calcium pyrophosphate crystals in 2.8%, predominantly within disk material. With the exception of crystal deposits, all of these changes were significantly more common in the lumbar spine. A better understanding of cell-based degenerative changes will become essential with increasing research into cell-based therapies for spinal disk disease. We report data on the frequency of different pathologic changes and describe synovial metaplasia as a reactive change not previously reported.

  1. Vacuum sealing and cooling as methods to preserve surgical specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Engvad, Birte; Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Recently, vacuum-based preservation of surgical specimens has been proposed as a safe alternative to formalin fixation at the surgical theater. The method seems feasible from a practical point of view, but no systematic study has examined the effect of vacuum sealing alone with respect to tissue...... preservation. In this study, we therefore subjected tissue samples from 5 different organs to treatments with and without vacuum sealing and cooling at 4°C to study the effect of vacuum sealing of surgical specimens with respect to tissue preservation and compare it with the effect of cooling. No preserving...... effect of vacuum sealing was observed with respect to cellular morphology, detection of immunohistochemical epitopes, or RNA integrity. In contrast, storage at 4°C was shown to preserve tissue to a higher degree than storage at room temperature for all included endpoints, independently of whether...

  2. Design and Realization of Geographic Information System for Plant Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenran Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The thesis research work is based on adopting the combination of theory and technology research. For the unique characteristics of bambusoideae in yunnan province, analyses the characteristics, value and the present situation of resources of bambusoideae plant resources in yunnan province. According to the system requirements of the specimen of bambusoideae in Yunnan province, by Microsoft. Net framework platform, a collection of Web services and ASP.NET technology, based on the data of Microsoft SQL Server2008 and ADO.NET technology support, selecting desktop GIS Arc GIS platform (Arc GIS Desktop and server (Arc GIS Server as a system of GIS secondary development of GIS, and using developed tools of Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Visual, Finally, the information system of plant specimen which based on GIS integration development of bambusoideae is finished .

  3. Impact resistance and fractography of low-alloy martensitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Frydman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper dynamic properties of HTK SOOH, HTK 900H. Hardox 400 and Hardox 500 steeZs in delivcrcd stalc (aftcr hardening andtempering are considered. Charpy V - notch (CVN test rcsults in connection with fractography in the ductilc - to - brittle transitionternpcrature region were analyzed. The impact transition curve obtained from CVN tcst not always predicts properly a behavior ofmaterials in conditions of dynamic loading, so the analyze of character of fracture helps to evalitate the rcal bchavior of ma~crials. Tcstcdsamples were cut out longitudinally and transversely in relation to cold work direction. The results of CVN test far investigated steels, inthe range of temperatures from 40t o 20 "C are presented. Regarding ductilc - to - bri~tlel ransition temperature, there is a significantdiffcrcnce taking into account vatues of Charpy V cncrgy absorbcd and a character of fracture.

  4. Innovations in macroscopic evaluation of pancreatic specimens and radiologic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Triantopoulou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel dissection technique of surgical specimens in different cases of pancreatic tumors and provide a radiologic pathologic correlation. In our hospital, that is a referral center for pancreatic diseases, the macroscopic evaluation of the pancreatectomy specimens is performed by the pathologists using the axial slicing technique (instead of the traditional procedure with longitudinal opening of the main pancreatic and/or common bile duct and slicing along the plane defined by both ducts. The specimen is sliced in an axial plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the descending duodenum. The procedure results in a large number of thin slices (3–4 mm. This plane is identical to that of CT or MRI and correlation between pathology and imaging is straightforward. We studied 70 cases of suspected different solid and cystic pancreatic tumors and we correlated the tumor size and location, the structure—consistency (areas of necrosis—hemorrhage—fibrosis—inflammation, the degree of vessels’ infiltration, the size of pancreatic and common bile duct and the distance from resection margins. Missed findings by imaging or pitfalls were recorded and we tried to explain all discrepancies between radiology evaluation and the histopathological findings. Radiologic-pathologic correlation is extremely important, adding crucial information on imaging limitations and enabling quality assessment of surgical specimens. The deep knowledge of different pancreatic tumors’ consistency and way of extension helps to improve radiologists’ diagnostic accuracy and minimize the radiological-surgical mismatching, preventing patients from unnecessary surgery.

  5. Anaerococcus nagyae sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, A C M; de Vries, E D; Jean-Pierre, H; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2016-04-01

    We describe a new Anaerococcus species isolated from human clinical specimens. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences of three strains showed octavius. Phylogenetically the isolated strains form a cluster and can be differentiated from other species of the genus Anaerococcus based on its phenotypic characteristics and its MALDI-TOF MS profile. We propose the name Anaerococcus nagyae, with A. nagyae DSM101193 (accession number KU043522) as the type strain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Circumpolar dataset of sequenced specimens of Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Echinodermata, Crinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenaïg G. Hemery

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This circumpolar dataset of the comatulid (Echinodermata: Crinoidea Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Carpenter, 1888 from the Southern Ocean, documents biodiversity associated with the specimens sequenced in Hemery et al. (2012. The aim of Hemery et al. (2012 paper was to use phylogeographic and phylogenetic tools to assess the genetic diversity, demographic history and evolutionary relationships of this very common and abundant comatulid, in the context of the glacial history of the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic shelves (Thatje et al. 2005, 2008. Over one thousand three hundred specimens (1307 used in this study were collected during seventeen cruises from 1996 to 2010, in eight regions of the Southern Ocean: Kerguelen Plateau, Davis Sea, Dumont d’Urville Sea, Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea, West Antarctic Peninsula, East Weddell Sea and Scotia Arc including the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and the Bransfield Strait. We give here the metadata of this dataset, which lists sampling sources (cruise ID, ship name, sampling date, sampling gear, sampling sites (station, geographic coordinates, depth and genetic data (phylogroup, haplotype, sequence ID for each of the 1307 specimens. The identification of the specimens was controlled by an expert taxonomist specialist of crinoids (Marc Eléaume, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris and all the COI sequences were matched against those available on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD: http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/IDS_OpenIdEngine. This dataset can be used by studies dealing with, among other interests, Antarctic and/or crinoid diversity (species richness, distribution patterns, biogeography or habitat / ecological niche modeling. This dataset is accessible through the GBIF network at http://ipt.biodiversity.aq/resource.do?r=proke.

  7. NEW TRIASSIC ASTEROIDEA (ECHINODERMATA SPECIMENS AND THEIR EVOLUTIONARY SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL B. BLAKE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition saw the disappearance of asteroid stem groups and the ascent of the crown group, but late Paleozoic and Triassic asteroids are rare and transition events are poorly documented. Three new Middle and Late Triassic specimens augment existing data; included are a specimen of Trichasteropsis weissmanni from Germany, a specimen of Trichasteropsis? sp. indet. from Italy, and a possible member of the extant Poraniidae from Slovenia. Presence of a small ossicle at the interbrachial midline and adjacent to the marginal series of the new T. weissmanni specimen is consistent with similar expressions not only of other trichasteropsids but also occurrence of two interbrachial ossicles in Paleozoic, stem-group asterozoans; presence is in turn consistent with a hypothesis of derivation of the axillary/odontophore coupling from two ossicles rather than direct derivation of the crown-group odontophore from a single stem-group axillary. Morphology of Trichasteropsis? sp. indet., including, for example, the evenly-tapering arms are reminiscent of those of diverse crown-group asteroids whereas the enlarged distal arms of T. weissmanni are unique, the morphology of T? sp. indet. thereby potentially indicative of a plesiomorphic, stemward positioning within the Trichasteropsiidae. The range of the Poraniidae is tentatively extended to the Carnian. Similarities shared by the Poraniidae and the Trichasteropsiidae suggest stemward positioning within crown-group diversification; however, known Triassic fossils do not appear closely related to extant taxa identified in recent molecular studies as basal within the crown-group. A temperate climate is suggested as preferred by the Triassic asteroids rather than a tropical, warmer one.

  8. SQA specimen paper 2013, national 5, computer science

    CERN Document Server

    SQA

    2013-01-01

    Practise for your exam on the offical National 5 specimen paper from the Scottish Qualifications Authority. Plus?each book includes additional model papers?and?extra revision guidance, making them an essential purchase for any student. - Discover how to get your best grade with answers checked by senior examiners. - Prepare for your exams with study skills guidance sections. - Gain vital extra marks and avoid common mistakes with examiner tips.

  9. SQA specimen papers 2013, national 5, physics and model papers

    CERN Document Server

    SQA

    2013-01-01

    Practise for your exam on the official National 5 specimen paper from the Scottish Qualifications Authority . This book also includes additional model papers and extra revision guidance, making it an essential purchase for any student. - Discover how to get your best grade with answers checked by senior examiners. - Prepare for your exams with study skills guidance sections. - Gain vital extra marks and avoid common mistakes with examiner tips

  10. Non-occurrence of Mycoplasma genitalium in clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Z; Borin, M; Bukowsky, Y; Lipshitz, Y; Sompolinsky, D

    1988-02-01

    Five hundred and thirteen clinical specimens, mainly from patients with urogenital inflammations, were examined for Ureaplasma urealyticum and mycoplasmas, including cultures for Mycoplasma genitalium. The study yielded 95 isolates of Ureaplasma urealyticum, 37 isolates of Mycoplasma hominis and two isolates of Mycoplasma fermentans, but no growth of Mycoplasma genitalium was obtained. It was concluded that Mycoplasma genitalium is a relatively rare inhabitant of the human urogenital tract in Israel.

  11. Finite strain analyses of deformations in polymer specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Analyses of the stress and strain state in test specimens or structural components made of polymer are discussed. This includes the Izod impact test, based on full 3D transient analyses. Also a long thin polymer tube under internal pressure has been studied, where instabilities develop...... viscoplastic flow on the indentation response. Also, the ability of the simpler expanding spherical cavity model to reproduce the trends from the 3D finite element solutions has been assessed....

  12. Processing and Quality Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing Monolayer Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Wendt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although its importance has increased significantly, Additive Manufacturing is not yet a fully accepted industrial manufacturing process for load-carrying parts. The future success of the process group depends on its standardization. This work proposes a methodology for the design, manufacturing, and quality evaluation of specimens manufactured by Fused Layer Modeling that are composed of only one layer (so-called monolayers. The processing methodology and properties of monolayers have not been studied systematically yet. A first systematic design of monolayers for mechanical testing is presented. Rectangular and circular monolayers adapted to the loads of tensile and compression testing are manufactured using different trajectory strategies. Frequently occurring macro- and microgeometrical defects are evaluated and categorized in order to optimize the part quality. This work also studies the effect of some manufacturing parameters such as the gap between print head and machine bed, trajectory strategy, bed leveling, and temperatures on part quality. The most suitable specimens are tested mechanically in tensile or compression tests. In the case of study, tensile strength values are only 8.6% lower than the values for reference tests on the unextruded filament. However, the properties deviate more strongly for compression tests which may be due to the selected specimen geometry.

  13. Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.

    2008-09-15

    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.

  14. Measurement of thermal expansion coefficient of nonuniform temperature specimen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingmin Dai; Chunsuo Kin; Xiaowa He

    2008-01-01

    A new technique is developed to measure the longitudinal thermal expansion coefficient of C/C composite material at high temperature. The measuring principle and components of the apparatus are described in detail. The calculation method is derived from the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient. The apparatus mainly consists of a high temperature environmental chamber, a power circuit of heating, two high-speed pyrometers, and a laser scanning system. A long solid specimen is resistively heated to a steady high-temperature state by a steady electrical current. The temperature profile of the specimen surface is not uniform because of the thermal conduction and radiation. The temperature profile and the total expansion are measured with a high-speed scanning pyrometer and a laser slit scanning measuring system, respectively. The thermal expansion coefficient in a wide temperature range (1000 - 3800 K) of the specimen can therefore be obtained. The perfect consistency between the present and previous results justifies the validity of this technique.

  15. Antarctic environmental specimen bank. A tool for chemical monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soggia, F.; Dalla Riva, S.; Abelmoschi, M.L.; Frache, R. [Genoa Univ., Genoa (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale

    2000-02-01

    The work illustrates the project on Antarctic Environmental Specimen Bank (BCAA), which is an integral part of the Italian project on the micropollutants chemistry (sector on chemical contamination of the Italian Antarctic Research program, PNRA), begun in 1994 when the BCAA was installed in the department of chemistry and industrial chemistry (Genoa University, Italy). Its objective underlines an emphasis on environmental chemistry and the establishment of baselines similar to the approaches followed by the other environmental specimen banks, begun at the end of Sixties with the aim of long-term storage of representative environmental specimens in order to study the presence and the evolution of dangerous substances, but focus on the chemical characterization of samples. [Italian] Il lavoro illustra le finalita' del Progetto su una Banca Campioni Ambientali Antartici (BCAA), che e' parte integrante del progetto Chmica dei microinquinannti del Settore Contaminazione chimica del Programma Nazionale di ricerche in Antartide (ONRA), nata nel 1994 presso il dipartimento di chimicia e chimica industriale dell'universita' di Genova. A differenza di altri progetti internazionali che enfatizzano gli aspetti biologici, ecologici e medici, il progetto BCAA enfatizza la chimica ambientale.

  16. Stress distribution in composite flatwise tension test specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Curtis A.; Pereira, J. Michael

    1993-01-01

    A finite element analysis was conducted to determine the stress distribution in typical graphite/epoxy composite flat wise tension (FWT) specimens under normal loading conditions. The purpose of the analysis was to determine the relationship between the applied load and the stress in the sample to evaluate the validity of the test as a means of measuring the out-of-plane strength of a composite laminate. Three different test geometries and three different material lay ups were modeled. In all cases, the out-of-plane component of stress in the test section was found to be uniform, with no stress concentrations, and very close to the nominal applied stress. The stress in the sample was found to be three-dimensional, and the magnitude of in-plane normal and shear stresses varied with the anisotropy of the test specimen. However, in the cases considered here, these components of stress were much smaller than the out-of-plane normal stress. The geometry of the test specimen had little influence on the results. It was concluded that the flat wise tension test provides a good measure of the out-of-plane strength for the representative materials that were studied.

  17. Potential and limitations of alternative specimens in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Detlef

    2012-07-01

    Alternative specimens (e.g., hair and saliva) are well established in forensic toxicology and provide significant benefits as noninvasive, inexpensive alternatives to blood with access to improved long-term retrospection. Based on these experiences, the question of potential applications and limitations of alternative specimens in doping control arose. Compounds prohibited at all times (e.g., clenbuterol, β(2) agonists, estrogen-receptor modulators) may be successfully tested and clearly interpreted in alternative specimens. In contrast, prohibition of certain compounds in sport are limited to time ranges (e.g., stimulants are only prohibited in-competition), dosages or administration routes (e.g., systemic uptake of glucocorticosteroids). This cannot be properly differentiated by semiquantitative tests (e.g., hair analyses), but may be distinguished in saliva. Similarly, proof of external administration of endogenous steroids (e.g., testosterone) only seems to be achievable by quantitative analysis of saliva. Moreover, the retrospective monitoring of the relevance of social drugs or upcoming (unapproved) substances represents promising applications of hair tests in doping control.

  18. Influence of impacts on static and low-cycle fatigue characteristics of composite specimens (Draft)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of impacts on the possible reduction of the structural characteristics and damage growth of graphite-epoxy specimens. The considered specimens are undamaged specimens and specimens impacted with two different energy levels. In particular, barely visible impact damage

  19. Results of crack-arrest tests on irradiated a 508 class 3 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iskander, S.K.; Milella, P.P.; Pini, M.A.

    1998-02-01

    Ten crack-arrest toughness values for irradiated specimens of A 508 class 3 forging steel have been obtained. The tests were performed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Method for Determining Plane-Strain Crack-Arrest Fracture Toughness, K{sub la} of Ferritic Steels, E 1221-88. None of these values are strictly valid in all five ASTM E 1221-88 validity criteria. However, they are useful when compared to unirradiated crack-arrest specimen toughness values since they show the small (averaging approximately 10{degrees}C) shifts in the mean and lower-bound crack-arrest toughness curves. This confirms that a low copper content in ASTM A 508 class 3 forging material can be expected to result in small shifts of the transition toughness curve. The shifts due to neutron irradiation of the lower bound and mean toughness curves are approximately the same as the Charpy V-notch (CVN) 41-J temperature shift. The nine crack-arrest specimens were irradiated at temperatures varying from 243 to 280{degrees}C, and to a fluence varying from 1.7 to 2.7 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV). The test results were normalized to reference values that correspond to those of CVN specimens irradiated at 284{degrees}C to a fluence of 3.2 x 10{sup 19} neutrons/cm{sup 2} (> 1 MeV) in the same capsule as the crack-arrest specimens. This adjustment resulted in a shift to lower temperatures of all the data, and in particular moved two data points that appeared to lie close to or lower than the American Society of Mechanical Engineers K{sub la} curve to positions that seemed more reasonable with respect to the remaining data. A special fixture was designed, fabricated, and successfully used in the testing. For reasons explained in the text, special blocks to receive the Oak Ridge National Laboratory clip gage were designed, and greater-than-standard crack-mouth opening displacements measured were accounted for. 24 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Application of the C18-Carboxypropylbetaine Specimen Processing Method to Recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from Ruminant Tissue Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Charles G.; MacLellan, Kerry M.; Judith R Stabel; Carothers, Christine; Whitlock, Robert H.; Passen, Selvin

    2002-01-01

    The causative agent of Johne's disease is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This is a chronic, debilitating gastrointestinal disorder that affects ruminants and is responsible for significant economic loss. The specimen processing method that combines C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18) treatment and lytic enzyme decontamination has been shown to improve the diagnosis of mycobacterioses. This processing method was applied to the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from rumin...

  1. Effects of crack depth and specimen size on ductile crack growth of SENT and SENB specimens for fracture mechanics evaluation of pipeline steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J. [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Richard Birkelands vei 1a, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), 100083 Beijing (China); Zhang, Z.L., E-mail: zhiliang.zhang@ntnu.n [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Richard Birkelands vei 1a, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Ostby, E.; Nyhus, B. [SINTEF, Materials and Chemistry, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Sun, D.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), 100083 Beijing (China)

    2009-12-15

    A strong geometry dependence of ductile crack growth resistance emerges under large scale yielding. The geometry dependence is associated with different levels of crack tip constraint conditions. However, in a recent attempt to identify appropriate fracture mechanics specimens for pipeline steels, an 'independent' relationship between the crack growth resistance curves and crack depths for SENT specimens has been observed experimentally. In this paper, we use the complete Gurson model to study the effects of crack depth and specimen size on ductile crack growth behavior. Crack growth resistance curves for plane strain, mode I crack growth under large scale yielding conditions have been computed. SENB and SENT specimens with three different specimen sizes, each specimen size with three different crack depths, have been selected. It has been found that crack tip constraint (Q-parameter) has a weak dependence on the crack depth for specimens in the low constraint regime.

  2. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required.

  3. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero Duch, Clara; Williams, Richard A J; Timm, Robert M; Perez-Tris, Javier; Benitez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts) were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8%) than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915), pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species specific, though

  4. Evaluation of Candida strains isolated from clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafize Sav

    2014-01-01

    [¤]METHODS[|]January 2011 to June 2012, Candida strains were isolated from 3905 clinical specimen. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, and the test of nitrate were studied.[¤]RESULTS[|]Finally 1122 Candida strains were isolated from 3905 various clinical specimens. The distribution of clinical specimens were as fallows: 556 from bronchoalveolar lavage (49.6%, 271 from sputum (24.2%, 114 from blood (10.2%, 51 vaginal swabs (4.6%, 50 from urine (4.4%, 30 from tissue (2.6%, 22 from endotracheal tracheal aspirate (ETA (1.9%, nine from pleural mai (0.80%, six from peritoneal fluid (0.53%, four from gastric fluid(0.35%,three from stool(0.28%,two from abscess (0.18%,three from nail (0.26%, one from cerebrospinal fluid (0.10%. From these clinical samples 848 C. albicans (75.6%, 143 C. glabrata (12.8%, 40 C. parapsilosis, (3.57%, 33 C. krusei (2.94%, 33 C. kefyr (2.94%, 19 C. tropicalis (1.7% were isolated. Other strains were identified as C. lusitania, C. lipolytica, C. norvegensis, C. pelliculosa ve C. zeylanoides.[¤]CONCLUSION[|] It was concluded that C.albicans has still been the most frequent species among Candida isolates of in our hospital; however, the incidence of non-albicans species have increased.[¤

  5. Helicobacter pylori in Cholecystectomy Specimens-Morphological and Immunohistochemical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Venkatarami; Jena, Amitabh; Gavini, Siva; Thota, Asha; Nandyala, Rukamangadha; Chowhan, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Current literature describes presence of H.pylori in various extra-gastric locations and its association with many diseases. Apart from the conventional location of gastric and duodenal mucosa, H.pylori have been isolated and cultured from gallbladder. Aim Analysis of cholecystectomy specimens to detect H.pylori by means of immunohistochemical staining. Materials and Methods There were a total of 118 cholecystectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology in three months duration. We have performed immunostaining for H.pylori in 45 consecutive cases of cholecystectomy specimen. Clinical and other investigational information were retrieved from the medical records department. For each case, routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stain was studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was done using purified polyclonal Helicobacter pylori antiserum. Results Majority of the patients had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the presenting complaint of right hypochondrial pain. Multiple pigmented stones were present in majority (27/45) of them. Immunostain for H.pylori was positive in ten cases. Six of these cases had pigmented gall stones, two had stones not specified and in two of the cases there were no stones. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori is present in gall bladder and is commonly seen in association with stones. A more detailed study of cholecystectomy cases (both neoplastic and non-neoplastic) with serological, culture and molecular data of H.pylori is desirable to study the pathogenesis of cholecystitis, its association with gall stones and other gall bladder disorders. PMID:27437221

  6. Condition For Strain-Hardening In Ecc Uniaxial Test Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Lars; Stang, Henrik; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    2006-01-01

    and infinite sheets under uniaxial tension. The crack is assumed to be cohesive and the cohesive law applied takes into account fiber as well as mortar properties. It is shown that the maximum crack opening observed during crack propagation in various test specimen geometries is small, 20 m and also small...... compared to typical deformations at peak bridging stress. The requirement of a minimum complementary energy for the fiber bridging curve is found not to be relevant in the aim of controlling the crack opening during crack propagation....

  7. Image reconstruction of simulated specimens using convolution back projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Farhan Manzoor

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about the reconstruction of cross-sections of composite structures. The convolution back projection (CBP algorithm has been used to capture the attenuation field over the specimen. Five different test cases have been taken up for evaluation. These cases represent varying degrees of complexity. In addition, the role of filters on the nature of the reconstruction errors has also been discussed. Numerical results obtained in the study reveal that CBP algorithm is a useful tool for qualitative as well as quantitative assessment of composite regions encountered in engineering applications.

  8. Effective electromagnetic forces in thin sheet metal specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langstädtler L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic forming is mainly investigated for the macro world as the body forces in this high speed process are decreasing with the volume of the specimen. For micro metal sheets different effects are observed which make an analysis of the acting forces more difficult. Hence, the validity of process simulations for electromagnetic forming is still limited. In this research the effective electromagnetic force on thin EN AW-1050A (Al99.5 sheet metals is investigated by varying the loading energy EC, the ration sR between sheet thickness and skin depth, the sheets width b and the distance dC between passive tool and sheet metal.

  9. Automatic Optical Crack Tracking for Double Cantilever Beam Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    and Member, R.G., ‘‘Path Planning For Machine Vision Assisted , Teleoperated Pavement Crack Sealer,’’ Journal of Transportation Engineering 124:137...TECHN ICAL ART IC LE Automatic Optical Crack Tracking for Double Cantilever Beam Specimens B. Krull1,2, J. Patrick2,3, K. Hart2,4, S. White2,4, and N...Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 3 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of

  10. Ductile fracture assessment using parameters from small specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talja, H. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The topic of this thesis is the computational aspects in the assessment of ductile failure in metals. The first part briefly describes the micromechanics of ductile crack growth and methods for assessing it. The `classic` approach to describe material behaviour using fracture mechanics is summarised. The limitations of the one parameter approach based on the stress intensity factor K or the J- integral are described. Attempts to extend the application field of fracture mechanics parameters by introducing triaxility or constraint parameters are also presented. Different local approach methodologies are summarised. Special attention is paid to the modified Gurson model, which is based on micro-mechanical studies of void initiation, growth and coalescence. The main part of the work consists of numerical analyses with the modified Gurson model. The parameters of the model are first determined by matching tensile test results by finite element analysis, and then applied to J-R curve prediction. This methodology is applied to several reactor pressure vessel materials: A533B, 20 MnMoNi 5 5 and austenitic VVER 440 cladding. As a result, the applicability of different specimen types for the parameter determination of the modified Gurson model has been evaluated. Because a combination of experimental and numerical work is needed, it proved to be most feasible to use specimens which can be simulated with two-dimensional or axisymmetric finite element models. Further, a practical way to treat anisotropic material behaviour using the modified Gurson model by using separate parameter sets for different orientations has been proposed and verified. The correspondence between the observed scatters in tensile and fracture mechanical test results has been examined. Best agreement was obtained fitting the scatter of tensile tests by varying the values of initial parameters. Reasons for apparently higher ductility measured from sub-sized than standard size tensile specimens were

  11. Fecal specimens preparation methods for PCR diagnosis of human taeniosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Cáris Maroni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sample preparation and DNA extraction protocols for DNA amplification by PCR, which can be applied in human fecal samples for taeniasis diagnosis, are described. DNA extracted from fecal specimens with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol and DNAzol® reagent had to be first purified to generate fragments of 170 pb and 600 pb by HDP2-PCR. This purification step was not necessary with the use of QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®. Best DNA extraction results were achieved after eggs disruption with glass beads, either with phenol/chloroform/isoamilic alcohol, DNAzol® reagent or QIAmp DNA stool mini kit®.

  12. [The direct tensile test of composite resins using the small specimen--effect of the preparation of specimen, the size of specimen and the testing condition on the tensile properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishima, A; Miyazaki, T; Kuneshita, H; Suzuki, E; Miyaji, T

    1990-09-01

    The direct tensile test of composite resins using the specimen with the gauge length 10 mm has been developed by authors. In this study smaller specimens with the gauge length 5 mm and 2 mm were also investigated. As the gauge length became smaller, tensile properties such as the proportional limit, the proof stress, and the tensile strength showed the tendency to become higher. The effect of strain rate on the tensile properties appeared clearly when using the specimen with the gauge length 2 mm. The small specimen was found to have many advantages for the preparation, the cost of material and the handling during the tensile test.

  13. Review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in Malaysia (2005-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2013-07-01

    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. CVN 78 Gerald R. Ford Class Nuclear Aircraft Carrier (CVN 78)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Preparation contract was awarded the same day. This modification included the remaining component and steel fabrication and selected construction unit...corrosion resistant steel piping, weld distortion, and the increased use of temporary structures and rigging). Additionally, increased supervision and...FY 2011 through FY 2014 efforts, a modification awarded on June 5, 2015 which includes the remaining component and steel fabrication and, multiple

  15. Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Frp Confined Concrete Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, Gopinath; Ramachandramurthy, Avadhanam; Nagesh, Ranganatha Iyer; Shahulhameed, Eduvammal Kunhimoideen

    2014-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are generally used for the seismic retrofit of concrete members to enhance their strength and ductility. In the present work, the confining effect of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite layers has been investigated by numerical simulation. The numerical simulation has been carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the response behaviour of CFRP-wrapped concrete cylinders. The nonlinear behaviour of concrete in compression and the linear elastic behaviour of CFRP has been modeled using an appropriate constitutive relationship. A cohesive model has been developed for modeling the interface between the concrete and CFRP. The interaction and damage failure criteria between the concrete to the cohesive element and the cohesive element to the CFRP has also been accounted for in the modeling. The response behaviour of the wrapped concrete specimen has been compared with the proposed interface model and with a perfectly bonded condition. The results obtained from the present study showed good agreement with the experimental load-displacement response and the failure pattern in the literature. Further, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the effect of the number of layers of CFRP on the concrete specimens. It has been observed that wrapping with two layers was found to be the optimum, beyond which the response becomes flexible but with a higher load-carrying capacity

  16. Immunohistochemistry of Programmed Cell Death in Archival Human Pathology Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takami Matsuyama

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry (IHC for detecting key signal molecules involved in programmed cell death (PCD in archival human pathology specimens is fairly well established. Detection of cleaved caspase-3 in lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and gastric surface foveolar glandular epithelia but not in synoviocytes in RA, gastric fundic glandular epithelia, or nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL cells suggests anti-apoptotic mechanisms in cell differentiation and in oncogenesis such as the induction of survivin. Enzymatically pretreated and ultra-super sensitive detection of beclin-1 in synoviocytes in RA and gastric fundic glandular epithelia suggests enhanced autophagy. The deposition of beclin-1 in fibrinoid necrosis in RA and expression of beclin-1 in detached gastric fundic glandular cells suggest that enhanced autophagy undergoes autophagic cell death (ACD. NKTCL exhibited enhanced autophagy through LC3 labeling and showed densely LC3 labeled cell-debris in regions of peculiar necrosis without deposition of beclin-1, indicating massive ACD in NKTCL and the alternative pathway enhancing autophagy following autophagic vesicle nucleation. Autophagy progression was monitored by labeling aggregated mitochondria and cathepsin D. The cell-debris in massive ACD in NKTCL were positive for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, suggesting DNA oxidation occurred in ACD. Immunohistochemical autophagy and PCD analysis in archival human pathology specimens may offer new insights into autophagy in humans.

  17. Correlations between Standard and Miniaturised Charpy-V Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; Van Walle, E.; Fabry, A.; Puzzolante, J.-L.; Verstrepen, A.; Vosch, R.; Van de Velde, L

    1998-12-01

    A total of 565 instrumented impact tests (232 performed on full-size and 333 on sub-size Charpy-V specimens) have been analysed in order to derive meaningful assumptions on the correlations existing between test results obtained on specimens of different size. Nine materials (pressure vessel steels) have been considered, in both as-received and irradiated state, for a total of 19 conditions examined. For the analysis of data, conventional as well novel approaches have been investigated; former ones, based on a review of the existing literature, include predictions of USE values by the use of normalization factors (NF), shifts of index temperatures related to energy/lateral expansion/shear fracture levels, and a combination of both approaches (scaling and shifting of energy curves). More original and recent proposals have also been verified, available in the literature but also proposed by SCK-CEN in the frame of enhanced surveillance of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Conclusions have been drawn regarding the applicability and reliability of these methodologies, and recommendations have been given for future developments of the activities on this topic.

  18. Characterization of some biological specimens using TEM and SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Smith, Don W.

    2009-05-01

    The advent of novel techniques using the Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes improved observation on various biological specimens to characterize them. We studied some biological specimens using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes. We followed negative staining technique with Phosphotungstic acid using bacterial culture of Bacillus subtilis. Negative staining is very convenient technique to view the structural morphology of different samples including bacteria, phage viruses and filaments in a cell. We could observe the bacterial cell wall and flagellum very well when trapped the negative stained biofilm from bacterial culture on a TEM grid. We cut ultra thin sections from the fixed root tips of Pisum sativum (Garden pea). Root tips were pre fixed with osmium tetroxide and post fixed with uranium acetate and placed in the BEEM capsule for block making. The ultrathin sections on the grid under TEM showed the granular chromatin in the nucleus. The protein bodies and large vacuoles with the storage materials were conspicuous. We followed fixation, critical point drying and sputter coating with gold to view the tissues with SEM after placing on stubs. SEM view of the leaf surface of a dangerous weed Tragia hispida showed the surface trichomes. These trichomes when break on touching releases poisonous content causing skin irritation. The cultured tissue from in vitro culture of Albizia lebbeck, a tree revealed the regenerative structures including leaf buds and stomata on the tissue surface. SEM and TEM allow investigating the minute details characteristic morphological features that can be used for classroom teaching.

  19. The management of incidental findings of reduction mammoplasty specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Jessica T; Decroff, Chantelle; Dauway, Emilia; Sybenga, Amelia; Mahabir, Raman C

    2013-01-01

    Reduction mammoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures in plastic surgery. Occasionally, there are findings reported by pathologists that are unfamiliar to the treating surgeon. The aim of the present study was to determine the types of pathologies encountered in reduction mammoplasty specimens. From this list of diagnoses, a best practice guideline for management will be organized to better assist plastic surgeons in the management of patients with incidental findings on pathology reports. A total of 441 pathology reports from patients who underwent bilateral or unilateral reduction mammoplasty in the past three years were identified. A list of 21 different pathologies was generated from the pathology reports, along with supplemental data from recent texts and articles. Occult carcinomas were encountered in two cases (0.45%) and high-risk lesions were found in three cases (0.68%) at the authors' institution. An algorithm was then constructed to organize the pathologies according to risk of malignancy and assign them to a management guideline. There are many different lesions encountered incidentally in reduction mammoplasty specimens that may or may not confer some cancer risk. It is important for plastic surgeons to know which lesions need closer follow-up to provide the best care for their patients.

  20. Clinicopathologic features of incidental prostatic adenocarcinoma in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuruskan Hakan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to review all features of incidentally discovered prostate adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer. Methods The medical charts of 300 male patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer between 1997 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 62 (range 51-75 years. Results Prostate adenocarcinoma was present in 60 (20% of 300 specimens. All were acinar adenocarcinoma. Of these, 40 (66.7% were located in peripheral zone, 20 (33.3% had pT2a tumor, 12 (20% had pT2b tumor, 22(36.7% had pT2c and, 6 (10% had pT3a tumor. Gleason score was 6 or less in 48 (80% patients. Surgical margins were negative in 54 (90% patients, and tumor volume was less than 0.5 cc in 23 (38.3% patients. Of the 60 incidentally detected cases of prostate adenocarcinoma 40 (66.7% were considered clinically significant. Conclusion Incidentally detected prostate adenocarcinoma is frequently observed in radical cystoprostatectomy specimens. The majority are clinically significant.

  1. Characterization of Two Historic Smallpox Specimens from a Czech Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Petr; Dresler, Jiri; Kabíckova, Hana; Písa, Libor; Aganov, Pavel; Fucik, Karel; Elleder, Daniel; Hron, Tomas; Kuzelka, Vitezslav; Velemínsky, Petr; Klimentova, Jana; Fucikova, Alena; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Hrabakova, Rita; Benes, Vladimir; Rausch, Tobias; Dundr, Pavel; Pilin, Alexander; Cabala, Radomir; Hubalek, Martin; Stríbrny, Jan; Antwerpen, Markus H; Meyer, Hermann

    2017-07-27

    Although smallpox has been known for centuries, the oldest available variola virus strains were isolated in the early 1940s. At that time, large regions of the world were already smallpox-free. Therefore, genetic information of these strains can represent only the very last fraction of a long evolutionary process. Based on the genomes of 48 strains, two clades are differentiated: Clade 1 includes variants of variola major, and clade 2 includes West African and variola minor (Alastrim) strains. Recently, the genome of an almost 400-year-old Lithuanian mummy was determined, which fell basal to all currently sequenced strains of variola virus on phylogenetic trees. Here, we determined two complete variola virus genomes from human tissues kept in a museum in Prague dating back 60 and 160 years, respectively. Moreover, mass spectrometry-based proteomic, chemical, and microscopic examinations were performed. The 60-year-old specimen was most likely an importation from India, a country with endemic smallpox at that time. The genome of the 160-year-old specimen is related to clade 2 West African and variola minor strains. This sequence likely represents a new endemic European variant of variola virus circulating in the midst of the 19th century in Europe.

  2. THYROID NEOPLASMS AND PERITUMORAL MORPHOLOGY IN THYROIDECTOMY SPECIMENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid neoplasms represent the most common malignancies of the endocrine system. They are known to occur in association with benign lesions of the thyroid, like multinodular goitre and Hashimoto thyroiditis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : To study the neoplasms of thyroid and their peritumoral morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS : All thyroidectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology, RRMCH over a period of three years from June 2011 to May 2014 were included in the study. Thyro idectomies for non - neoplastic lesions were also extensively sampled and morphologically studied, with focus on peritumoral morphology, in neoplasms. RESULTS : Of the one hundred and fifty four thyroidectomy specimens received over three years, one hundred a nd thirteen (73.4% were non - neoplastic, and forty one were neoplastic (26.6%. Colloid goitre and lymphocytic infiltrate were the most common features in the peritumoral thyroid tissue, followed by multinodular goitre . Hashimoto thyroiditis and Hurthle cell change were noted in 11.5% of cases. Tumors were multicentric in 11.5% of cases. Malignancy was detected in eight of the fifty nine thyroidectomies performed for multinodular goitre . Of the thirty four surgeries for Hashimoto thyroiditis, four were reported as malignant on histopathology. CONCLUSION : All thyroidectomies, including those operated for benign lesions, need to be extensively sampled and morphology studied due to the possibility of occult malignancy. Larger series need to be st udied to find a causal association between the two.

  3. Identities of Microbacterium spp. encountered in human clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneiding, Kathrina; Frodl, Reinhard; Funke, Guido

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, 50 strains of yellow-pigmented gram-positive rods that had been isolated from human clinical specimens and collected over a 5-year period were further characterized by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. All 50 strains belonged to the genus Microbacterium, and together they represented 18 different species. Microbacterium oxydans (n = 11), M. paraoxydans (n = 9), and M. foliorum (n = 7) represented more than half of the strains included in the present study. The isolation of strains belonging to M. hydrocarbonoxydans (n = 2), M. esteraromaticum (n = 1), M. oleivorans (n = 1), M. phyllosphaerae (n = 1), and M. thalassium (n = 1) from humans is reported for the first time. Microbacterium sp. strain VKM Ac-1389 (n = 1) and the previously uncultured Microbacterium sp. clone YJQ-29 (n = 1) probably represent new species. Comprehensive antimicrobial susceptibility data are given for the 50 Microbacterium isolates. This study is, so far, the largest on Microbacterium spp. encountered in human clinical specimens and outlines the heterogeneity of clinical Microbacterium strains.

  4. Improving ED specimen TAT using Lean Six Sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Janet H; Karr, Tedd

    2015-01-01

    Lean and Six Sigma are continuous improvement methodologies that have garnered international fame for improving manufacturing and service processes. Increasingly these methodologies are demonstrating their power to also improve healthcare processes. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a case study for the application of Lean and Six Sigma tools in the reduction of turnaround time (TAT) for Emergency Department (ED) specimens. This application of the scientific methodologies uncovered opportunities to improve the entire ED to lab system for the specimens. This case study provides details on the completion of a Lean Six Sigma project in a 1,000 bed tertiary care teaching hospital. Six Sigma's Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control methodology is very similar to good medical practice: first, relevant information is obtained and assembled; second, a careful and thorough diagnosis is completed; third, a treatment is proposed and implemented; and fourth, checks are made to determine if the treatment was effective. Lean's primary goal is to do more with less work and waste. The Lean methodology was used to identify and eliminate waste through rapid implementation of change. The initial focus of this project was the reduction of turn-around-times for ED specimens. However, the results led to better processes for both the internal and external customers of this and other processes. The project results included: a 50 percent decrease in vials used for testing, a 50 percent decrease in unused or extra specimens, a 90 percent decrease in ED specimens without orders, a 30 percent decrease in complete blood count analysis (CBCA) Median TAT, a 50 percent decrease in CBCA TAT Variation, a 10 percent decrease in Troponin TAT Variation, a 18.2 percent decrease in URPN TAT Variation, and a 2-5 minute decrease in ED registered nurses rainbow draw time. This case study demonstrated how the quantitative power of Six Sigma and the speed of Lean worked in harmony to improve

  5. The impact of intra-operative specimen radiographs on specimen weights for wide local excision of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, A R; Ninkovic, G; Boparai, R

    2004-08-01

    The ultimate goal of breast conserving surgery (BCS) is to achieve survival and local control rates similar to those for mastectomy while providing improved cosmetic and functional results. The volume of breast tissue removed is the most significant determinant of the final cosmetic outcome of BCS. We hypothesised that intra-operative specimen radiograph (IOSR) during BCS may guide the surgeon to achieve clear radiographic and histological margins with minimum normal breast tissue excision, thus preserving cosmetic appearance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of introducing the policy of IOSR on the weight of specimens of wide local excision of palpable invasive breast cancer. All consecutive patients who underwent therapeutic wide local excision for palpable invasive breast cancer from 01/01/02 to 31/03/03 were included in this study. A policy of IOSR was introduced in October 2002, thus all BCS done after 01/10/2002 underwent IOSR. The mean (S.D.) specimen weight for the no intra-operative specimen radiograph (NIOSR) group was 74 grams compared to 46 g in the IOSR group, (P = 0.0241, unpaired t-test with Welch's correction) and the mean tumour size for the NIOSR was 23(13)mm and for IOSR was 21(8)mm (P = ns, unpaired t-test with Welch's correction). A histologically clear circumferential margin rate in the IOSR group was 96% compared to 82% in the NIOSR group. Five patients in the IOSR group and 11 in NIOSR group had positive anterior or posterior margin. For these patients no further surgical excision was possible as BCS was performed from skin to pectoral fascia. Therefore a radiation boost was given to the site of excision. Only one patient in the IOSR group needed further breast surgery (mastectomy) for a positive inferior (toward nipple) margin for a mammographically occult tumour, while 11 patients in the NIOSR group required further breast surgery. In conclusion, IOSR is a simple, effective and economical way of assessing adequacy of

  6. Application of the C(18)-carboxypropylbetaine specimen processing method to recovery of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from ruminant tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Charles G; MacLellan, Kerry M; Stabel, Judith R; Carothers, Christine; Whitlock, Robert H; Passen, Selvin

    2002-05-01

    The causative agent of Johne's disease is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. This is a chronic, debilitating gastrointestinal disorder that affects ruminants and is responsible for significant economic loss. The specimen processing method that combines C(18)-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18) treatment and lytic enzyme decontamination has been shown to improve the diagnosis of mycobacterioses. This processing method was applied to the isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from ruminant tissue samples. The BACTEC 12B liquid culture system was used but was supplemented with 1% egg yolk emulsion, 4 microg of mycobactin J, and 0.5% pyruvate (12B/EMP) for use in conjunction with this method. The final concentration of antibiotics used was 10 microg of vancomycin, 30 microg of amphotericin B, and 20 microg of nalidixic acid (VAN) per ml. A 7H10-based solid medium was also used that included mycobactin J, pyruvate, and VAN but excluded the egg yolk emulsion (7H10/MPV). Several M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates were examined during the evaluation of this processing method. It was observed that treatment with lytic enzymes stimulated the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis; however, the growth of one isolate was markedly inhibited due to the presence of vancomycin. Subsequently, the vancomycin concentration in the VAN formulation was reduced to 2 microg/ml. A blinded panel of 60 previously characterized tissue samples from bovine and bison were then processed and analyzed by smear and culture. Historically, 31 and 37 specimens were classified as positive by histology and culture, respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity of smear relative to culture following CB-18 processing were 97.6 and 89.5%, respectively. The 12B/EMP/VAN liquid culture system recovered M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from 39 specimens, whereas 7H10/MPV and Herrold's egg yolk media recovered M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from 26 and 16 specimens, respectively

  7. Effect of specimen size on the fracture toughness of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Li, Huaxin

    1996-04-01

    J-R curves were generated using the single specimen unload-compliance technique on four specimens of V-4Cr-4Ti to determine the effect of specimen dimensions on the fracture behavior. Ductile crack initiation and growth was observed in the 6.35 mm thick specimens but not in the 12.70 mm thick specimens. The J-R curves determined from these tests were not valid per ASTM validity criteria so quantitative measures of the resistance to ductile crack initiation and growth were not obtained. These data suggests that standard fracture toughness tests were performed with small-scale DCT specimens may also not be valid.

  8. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Escudero Duch

    Full Text Available Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, and whether SfPV occurs throughout the host range, or just in the Midwest. Secondary aims were to detect distinct strains, and evidence for strain spatio-temporal specificity. We found 20 of 1395 rabbits in the KU collection SfPV symptomatic. Three of 17 lagomorph species (S. nuttallii, and the two known hosts were symptomatic, while Brachylagus, Lepus and eight additional Sylvilagus species were not. 13 symptomatic individuals were positive by molecular testing, including the first S. nuttallii detection. Prevalence of symptomatic individuals was significantly higher in Sylvilagus (1.8% than Lepus. Half of these specimens came from Kansas, though new molecular detections were obtained from Jalisco-Mexico's first-and Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas, USA. We document the oldest lab-confirmed case (Kansas, 1915, pre-dating Shope's first case. SfPV amplification was possible from 63.2% of symptomatic museum specimens. Using multiple methodologies, rolling circle amplification and, multiple isothermal displacement amplification in addition to PCR, greatly improved detection rates. Short sequences were obtained from six individuals for two genes. L1 gene sequences were identical to all previously detected sequences; E7 gene sequences, were more variable, yielding five distinct SfPV1 strains that differing by less than 2% from strains circulating in the Midwest and Mexico, between 1915 and 2005. Our results do not clarify whether strains are host species

  9. [Is it allowed to have a public open exhibition of human plastinated specimens in Japan?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Y; Yohro, T

    1997-02-01

    This survey was conducted to know what inhibits the public open exhibitions of human anatomical specimens. Questionnaires were handed to 1,035 visitors to the public open exhibition of plastinated specimens at the University of Tokyo between March 30 and April 4, 1995. Five hundred and twenty-two responses were analyzed. The survey revealed following responses of medial and non-medical visitors. 1) Over 90 percent of the visitors welcomed to the public open exhibition of human anatomical specimens. 2) Visitors concerned about the aim of the exhibition and hoped explanations of exhibited specimens. They thought it is necessary to pay attention to the privacy of the cadavers and their families. 3) The most impressive specimens to the visitors were whole body silicone specimens and a series of slices of a whole body for both medical and non-medical visitors. 4) Medical visitors evaluated specimens high for medical education to understand three dimensional structures. On the contrary, non-medical visitors are astonished to encounter the whole body specimens not the dissected ones, and found the identity and human beings in the specimens. 5) Some anatomists strongly stand against the public open exhibitions of anatomical specimens because the plastinated specimens are quite different from ordinary hormaline fixed specimens and they expect that non-medical people must get upset about the specimens.

  10. Metallographic analysis of irradiated RERTR-3 fuel test specimens.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M. K.; Hofman, G. L.; Strain, R. V.; Clark, C. R.; Stuart, J. R.

    2000-11-08

    The RERTR-3 irradiation test was designed to investigate the irradiation behavior of aluminum matrix U-MO alloy dispersion fuels under high-temperature, high-fission-rate conditions. Initial postirradiation examination of RERTR-3 fuel specimens has concentrated on binary U-MO atomized fuels. The rate of matrix aluminum depletion was found to be higher than predictions based on low temperature irradiation data. Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (WDS) indicates that aluminum is present in the interior of the fuel particles. WDS data is supported by a mass and volume balance calculation performed on the basis of image analysis results. The depletion of matrix aluminum seems to have no detrimental effects on fuel performance under the conditions tested to date.

  11. [Future of gynecological exfoliative cytology specimen, the Pap test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Pekka; Timonen, Tuomo

    2014-01-01

    Screenings of cervical cancer in Finland by using the Pap test have decreased the incidence of the disease by approx. 80%. Automation-assisted cytology and liquid-based Pap test have improved the technical quality of cytological examination. The HPV test allows the prevention of more cancers and its negative predictive value is crucially better than that of the Pap test. Its problem is the modest specificity in young age groups. When the HPV-vaccinated age groups reach the screening age, the HPV test should be adopted as the first-line screening test in all age groups. The Pap test will continue to have an important role as a further investigation and diagnostic specimen.

  12. Mechanical Analysis of Concrete Specimen under Restrained Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xinwei; NIU Changren; R D Hooton

    2005-01-01

    In order to quantify the development of the tensile stresses and obtain a reliable estimation of the cracking risk, the concrete was subjected to restrained conditions. The fully restrained condition was achieved by keeping the length constant of a concrete specimen. Comparing the free shrinkage with the restrained shrinkage,tensile creep could be discriminated from shrinkage. The testing method was introduced in details, and the mechanical behaviors under tensile load were analyzed. Results show that concrete exhibits a pronounced viscoelasticity. Under restrained condition, the self induced tensile stress increases with time. The lower the water to cement ratio, the larger the tensile stress at the same age. The tensile creep of hardening concrete is much larger than that of hardened concrete. The relationships among autogenous shrinkage under free condition, elastic strain and creep under restrained condition are described, and the mathematical model for the calculation of elastic strain and creep is proposed.

  13. Fracture properties of concrete specimens made from alkali activated binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimonová, Hana; Kucharczyková, Barbara; Topolář, Libor; Bílek, Vlastimil, Jr.; Keršner, Zbyněk

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to quantify crack initiation and other fracture properties – effective fracture toughness and specific fracture energy – of two types of concrete with an alkali activated binder. The beam specimens with a stress concentrator were tested in a three-point bending test after 28, 90, and 365 days of maturing. Records of fracture tests in the form of load versus deflection (P–d) diagrams were evaluated using effective crack model and work-of-fracture method and load versus mouth crack opening displacement (P–CMOD) diagrams were evaluated using the Double-K fracture model. The initiation of cracks during the fracture tests for all ages was also monitored by the acoustic emission method. The higher value of monitored mechanical fracture parameters of concrete with alkali activated blast furnace slag were achieved with substitution blast furnace slag by low calcium fly ash in comparison with substitution by cement kiln dust.

  14. Mini-tensile specimen application for sheets characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džugan, J.; Rund, M.; Prantl, A.; Konopík, P.

    2017-02-01

    There are many cases when there is a shortage of the experimental material for detailed analysis and then small size specimens techniques becomes essential. The current paper deals with investigations of mini-tensile tests (MTT) application to metal sheets characterization. In the case of metal sheets assessment the most common are tensile tests for Lankford parameters and strain hardening determination. As most of the processes are not quasi-static and constant strain rate processes, thus assessment of strain rate hardening is also crucial part of the characterization. Previously developed and verified testing procedure of M-TTs for bulk materials is applied here for steel sheet made of DC01 characterization. Tests under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions are carried out in order to describe above mentioned properties at room temperature. Accurate strain measurement is carried out with digital image correlation systems and results obtained with M-TTs are going to be confronted with standard size specimens’ results.

  15. Dual-Energy CT of Rectal Cancer Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Madsen, Gunvor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An accurate method to assess malignant lymph nodes in the mesorectum is needed. Dual-energy CT scans simultaneously with 2 levels of energy and thereby provides information about tissue composition based on the known effective Z value of different tissues. Each point investigated...... is represented by a certain effective Z value, which allows for information on its composition. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to standardize a method for dual-energy scanning of rectal specimens to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of benign versus malignant lymph node differentiation. Histopathological evaluation...... cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured accuracy of differentiating benign from malignant lymph nodes by investigating the following: 1) gadolinium, iodine, and water concentrations in lymph nodes; 2) dual-energy ratio; 3) dual-energy index; and 4) effective Z value. RESULTS: Optimal discriminations...

  16. Tracking plant, fungal, and bacterial DNA in honey specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Cristina; Marota, Isolina; Rollo, Franco; Luciani, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Consuming honey can result in adverse effects owing to poisoning by bacterial (botulism) or plant toxins. We have devised a method to extract polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifiable DNA of up to c. 400 bp in length based on dialysis of a 15-mL honey sample for 18 h against deionized water followed by sequential extraction using phenol, phenol/chloroform/isoamyl alcohol, chloroform/isoamyl alcohol, and ether. Sequence analysis of PCR products obtained using "universal" plant, fungal, and bacterial primers targeted to the ribosomal RNA genes has allowed us to identify six different orders of plants (Apiales, Fabales, Asterales, Solanales, Brassicales, and Sapindales), two orders of fungi (Entylomatales and Saccharomycetales), and six orders of bacteria (Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Pseudomonadales, Enterobacteriales, Actinomycetales, and Bifidobacteriales) in a single honey specimen.

  17. Spectrum of histological lesions in 185 consecutive prostatic specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty five consecutive prostate specimens were studied. The predominant lesion noted was benign prostatic hyperplasia (B.P.H. (92.97%. The incidence of carcinoma was low, (7.02%. Conditions which can mimic and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of carcinoma, like basal cell hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia and atrophy associated hyperplasia were noted in 10, 4 and 3 cases of B.P.H. respectively. None of these cases showed evidence of carcinoma. Corpora amylacea were noted in 38.91% of the cases of B.P.H. and were conspicuously absent in cases of carcinoma. Chronic prostatitis was frequently encountered (58% and metaplastic changes were seen in 11% of the cases.

  18. Salvia divinorum: toxicological aspects and analysis in human biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalho, Cláudia; Corte-Real, Francisco; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-07-01

    The identification and quantitation of the main psychoactive component of Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A) in biological specimens are crucial in forensic and clinical toxicology. Despite all the efforts made, its uncontrolled abuse has increased quickly, exposing its users' health to serious risks both in the short and long term. The use of alternative biological matrices in toxicological analyzes can be advantageous as complementary postmortem samples, or in situations when neither blood nor urine can be collected; they may be useful tools in those determinations, providing important information about prior exposure. The aim of this article is to present a brief summary of legal aspects of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A, including the methods used for the determination of the latter in biological matrices.

  19. Maternal screening for hypothyroidism and thyroiditis using filter paper specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, T P; Henry, J J; Hofman, L F; Thomas, R D; Sanfilippo, J S; Naylor, E W

    2013-11-01

    Hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis are more prevalent than previously considered in women during pregnancy and the postpartum, and are associated with adverse effects on the mother and her fetus. We determined the efficacy and accuracy of screening women for primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis by testing TSH and two thyroid antibodies (TAb): thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), in eluates of filter paper specimens collected during early pregnancy and the postpartum. We enrolled 494 first-trimester pregnant women with no exclusion criteria into a prospective study to detect primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis. Finger stick blood was applied to filter paper, dried in room air, eluted, and promptly tested for TSH and TAb. A total of 178 of the pregnant women (36%) were tested in the early postpartum. Women with abnormal results had confirmatory serum tests. It was found that 91 pregnant women (18.4%) and 43 postpartum women (24.2%) had abnormal TSH values (>4.0 mU/L) and/or positive TAb; 140 pregnant women (28.3%) had TSH values >2.5 mU/L. All subjects with TSH values >4.0 mU/L tested positive for TAb. Eighteen women (3.6%) who tested normal during pregnancy tested abnormal in the postpartum. This study confirms that TSH and TPOAb measured in eluates of blood-spotted filter paper specimens are excellent screening tests to detect primary hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis in pregnant and postpartum women. Results are very comparable to serum data in this population published in the literature.

  20. Accuracy analysis of point cloud modeling for evaluating concrete specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Nicolas; Yu, Tzuyang

    2017-04-01

    Photogrammetric methods such as structure from motion (SFM) have the capability to acquire accurate information about geometric features, surface cracks, and mechanical properties of specimens and structures in civil engineering. Conventional approaches to verify the accuracy in photogrammetric models usually require the use of other optical techniques such as LiDAR. In this paper, geometric accuracy of photogrammetric modeling is investigated by studying the effects of number of photos, radius of curvature, and point cloud density (PCD) on estimated lengths, areas, volumes, and different stress states of concrete cylinders and panels. Four plain concrete cylinders and two plain mortar panels were used for the study. A commercially available mobile phone camera was used in collecting all photographs. Agisoft PhotoScan software was applied in photogrammetric modeling of all concrete specimens. From our results, it was found that the increase of number of photos does not necessarily improve the geometric accuracy of point cloud models (PCM). It was also found that the effect of radius of curvature is not significant when compared with the ones of number of photos and PCD. A PCD threshold of 15.7194 pts/cm3 is proposed to construct reliable and accurate PCM for condition assessment. At this PCD threshold, all errors for estimating lengths, areas, and volumes were less than 5%. Finally, from the study of mechanical property of a plain concrete cylinder, we have found that the increase of stress level inside the concrete cylinder can be captured by the increase of radial strain in its PCM.

  1. Topographic mapping of biological specimens: flexure and curvature characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, William S.; Baron, Sandra F.

    2004-07-01

    Shape quantification of tissue and biomaterials can be central to many studies and applications in bioengineering and biomechanics. Often, shape is mapped with photogrammetry or projected light techniques that provide XYZ point cloud data, and shape is quantified using derived flexure and curvature calculations based on the point cloud data. Accordingly, the accuracy of the calculated curvature depends on the properties of the point cloud data set. In this study, we present a curvature variability prediction (CVP) software model that predicts the distribution, i.e., the standard deviation, of curvature measurements associated with surface topography point cloud data properties. The CVP model point cloud data input variables include XYZ noise, sampling density, and map extent. The CVP model outputs the curvature variability statistic in order to assess performance in the curvature domain. Representative point cloud data properties are obtained from an automated biological specimen video topographer, the BioSpecVT (ver. 1.02) (Vision Metrics, Inc.,). The BioSpecVT uses a calibrated, structured light pattern to support automated computer vision feature extraction software for precisely converting video images of biological specimens, within seconds, into three dimensional point cloud data. In representative sample point cloud data obtained with the BioSpecVT, sampling density is about 11 pts/mm2 for an XYZ mapping volume encompassing about 16 mm x 13.5 mm x 18.5 mm, average XY per point variability is about +/-2 μm, and Z axis variability is about +/-40 μm (50% level) with a Gaussian distribution. A theoretical study with the CVP model shows that for derived point cloud data properties, curvature mapping accuracy increases, i.e. measurement variability decreases, when curvature increases from about 30 m-1 to 137 m-1. This computed result is consistent with the Z axis noise becoming less significant as the measured depth increases across an approximately fixed XY

  2. Problems of laser vibrometry of temporal bone specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnert, Thomas; Vogel, Uwe; Hofmann, Gert; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    1996-08-01

    Laser vibrometry became a well-established method for vibration detection of solids. By the means of laser Doppler interferometry it is possible to obtain information about displacement and velocity of the system under test. This approach allows the non-contact measurement of small vibrations, and is therefore capable of investigating vibration response of the middle ear ossicles or tympanic membrane due to sound simulation. There have been investigated 20 fresh human temporal bone specimens. Various components related to the sound transmission due to acoustic or mechanic stimulation have been measured by a commercial laser vibrometer (OFV3000 + OFV302/Polytec). Data acquisition, signal processing and test signal generation have been provided by a signal analyzer B&K3550/Bruel&Kjaer or integrated into a Notebook PC. The samples became prepared to allow laser beam access to the regions of interest. Generally our experiments show the capability of laser vibration measurements of the temporal bone specimen for middle ear sound transmission investigations. But the complexity is limiting that method unfortunately. 1D detection could represent insufficient information about the acoustic transmission characteristics only. The request of possibly 3D scanning is limited by anatomic conditions, e.g., according to the narrowness of the tympanic cavity. Nevertheless, for specific problems, e.g., investigation of spatially resolved tympanic membrane vibration characteristics, laser vibrometry performs a unique and high-sensitive approach. After removing the external ear canal different, well-defined points of the tympanic membrane surface have been manually scanned by the open laser beam. Particular care has been taken of the problem of perpendicular beam incidence, in order to detect identical vector components of the vibration amplitude. Laser vibrometry becomes suitable for functional investigation of the vibrating system `ear' influenced by boundary condition changes too

  3. Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia in Core Needle Biopsies of Breast Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelten Talu, Canan; Boyaci, Ceren; Leblebici, Cem; Hacihasanoglu, Ezgi; Bozkurt, Erol Rustu

    2017-02-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) is a benign lesion of myofibroblasts that is composed of a network of slit-like channels that resemble vascular spaces. The aims of this study were to document the frequency of PASH in core needle biopsy specimens (CNBS) of the breast, to describe which histopathologic findings coexist with PASH and to examine any endothelial cell differentiation. We reevaluated hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of all CNBS that were obtained during a 1-year period. First, we performed CD34 and CD31 immunostainings to highlight the areas of PASH, then performed D2-40/podoplanin (lymphatic endothelial marker) and Fli-1 (vascular endothelial cell marker) immunostains. The total number of CNBS was 412. Areas of PASH were noted in 37 of the 412 cases (9%), with a mean age of 38.5 years. The lesions that were described in association with PASH were "benign breast parenchyma with stromal fibrosis" (17/37; 46%), "fibroepithelial tumors" (17/37; 46%), "columnar cell changes (CCC)" (2/37; 5%), and "invasive carcinoma" (1/37; 3%). There were 2 cases of CCC within the foci of PASH (direct contact with PASH), and 8 additional cases of CCC that coexisted in the same specimen but were not in direct contact. There was no staining for D2-40 or Fli-1 within PASH foci. PASH lesions occurred with a frequency of 9% in CNBS and were mostly in association with benign breast lesions in premenopausal women. CCC was determined as an accompanying epithelial lesion within or near PASH areas. No obvious immunopositivity compatible with endothelial cell differentiation was revealed.

  4. Study on Temperature Distribution of Specimens Tested on the Gleeble 3800 at Hot Forming Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Gao; Long Ma; Xiao-Guo Peng

    2014-01-01

    Taking Ti-6Al-4V specimens into consideration, the coupled thermal-electrical finite element model has been developed in Abaqus/Explicit to simulate the heating process in Gleeble 3800 and to study the temperature history and distribution in the specimen. In order to verify the finite element (FE) results, thermal tests are carried out on Gleeble 3800 for a Ti-6Al-4V specimen with a slot to in the centre of the specimen. The effects of the specimen size, heating rate, and air convection on the temperature distribution over the specimen have been investigated. The conclusions can be drawn as: the temperature gradient of the specimen decreases as the specimen size, heating rate, and vacuuming decrease.

  5. Detection of PCR inhibitors in cervical specimens by using the AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); A. Luijendijk (Ad); W.M. Huisman; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); J.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo determine that susceptibility of AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis PCR to inhibitory factors possibly present in cervical specimens, we obtained cervical specimens from 200 gynecology patients attending our outpatient clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis

  6. Study of two tantalum Taylor impact specimens using experiments and stochastic polycrystal plasticity simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonks, Michael R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We compare the experimentally obtained response of two cylindrical tantalum Taylor impact specimens. The first specimen is manufactured using a powder metallurgy (P/M) process with a random initial texture and relatively equiaxed crystals. The second is sectioned from a roundcorner square rolled (RCSR) rod with an asymmetric texture and elongated crystals. The deformed P/M specimen has an axisymmetric footprint while the deformed RCSR projectile has an eccentric footprint with distinct corners. Also, the two specimens experienced similar crystallographic texture evolution, though the RCSR specimen experienced greater plastic deformation. Our simulation predictions mimic the texture and deformation data measured from the P/M specimen. However, our RCSR specimen simulations over-predict the texture development and do not accurately predict the deformation, though the deformation prediction is improved when the texture is not allowed to evolve. We attribute this discrepancy to the elongated crystal morphology in the RCSR specimen which is not represented in our mean-field model.

  7. Disassembly of irradiated lithium-bonded capsules containing vanadium alloy specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Strain, R.V.

    1996-04-01

    Capsules containing vanadium alloy specimens from irradiation experiments in FFTF and EBR-II are being processed to remove the lithium bond and retrieve the specimens for testing. The work has progressed smoothly.

  8. Specimen Machining for the Study of the Effect of Swelling on CGR in PWR Environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teysseyre, Sebastien Paul [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report describes the preparation of ten specimens to be used for the study of the effect of swelling on the propagation of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking cracks. Four compact tension specimens, four microscopy plates and two tensile specimens were machined from a AISI 304 material that was irradiated up to 33 dpa. The specimens had been machined such as to represent the behavior of materials with 3.7%swelling and <2% swelling.

  9. Increasing the efficiency of digitization workflows for herbarium specimens

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium has been databasing and imaging its estimated 7.3 million plant specimens for the past 17 years. Due to the size of the collection, we have been selectively digitizing fundable subsets of specimens, making successive passes through the herbarium with each new grant. With this strategy, the average rate for databasing complete records has been 10 specimens per hour. With 1.3 million specimens databased, this effort has taken about 130,000 hours ...

  10. 3D analyses of the effect of weld orientation in Charpy specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, A.

    2004-01-01

    of failure in the weld material, base material and heat affected zone (HAZ). For these rotated specimens the location where the notch crosses the thin layer of HAZ, i.e. whether this location is near the center of the specimen or near the free specimen edge, makes a large difference in the response. (C) 2004...

  11. Diagnostic quality of biopsy specimens: comparison between a conventional biopsy forceps and multibite forceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin, A C; Neuweiler, J; Binek, J S; Suter, W R; Meyenberger, C

    2001-11-01

    The endoscopic biopsy is a prerequisite for histopathologic diagnosis. Various types of forceps are used to obtain tissue specimens. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the diagnostic quality of biopsy specimens obtained with a conventional forceps and a Multibite forceps. In a prospective, partially blinded, and randomized trial that included 250 patients referred for diagnostic upper and/or lower endoscopy, 510 biopsy specimens obtained with the Multibite forceps were compared with 520 specimens obtained with a conventional forceps. An experienced, blinded pathologist evaluated the specimens for diameter, depth of specimen, artifacts, anatomic orientation, vitality, general histologic quality, and diagnostic quality. Statistical analysis was performed by using the Fisher exact test. A p value of < 0.05 was regarded as significant. There were no statistically significant differences between the specimens obtained with the 2 forceps. The p values for the evaluated parameters were as follows: diameter 0.45, depth of specimen 0.56, artifacts 1.0, pathoanatomic orientation 0.40, vitality 0.45, and histologic diagnostic quality 0.53. The quality of biopsy specimens obtained with the Multibite forceps is comparable with that of specimens taken with a conventional forceps. Use of the Multibite forceps saves time in that 4 specimens can be obtained in 1 pass in situations in which a large number of specimens are needed or when the potential for transmission of infection is of concern.

  12. 9 CFR 314.9 - Specimens for educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimens for educational, research... educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required. (a) Specimens of condemned or other inedible materials, including embryos and specimens of animal parasites, may be released for...

  13. 10 CFR 26.117 - Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The donor shall initial the identification label(s) on the specimen bottle(s) for the purpose of... donor's specimen identification numbers and seals initialed by the donor. If the involved collector... Testing § 26.117 Preparing urine specimens for storage and shipping. (a) Both the donor and the...

  14. Two Australian Fetuses: Frederic Wood Jones and the Work of an Anatomical Specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lisa; Jones, Ross L

    2015-01-01

    A close analysis of two fetal specimens is used to explore of role of material specimens in anatomical practice of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the significance of Indigenous bodies in that era's quest for an understanding of human difference, and the postcolonial legacies of the global project of creating collections of human specimens.

  15. 10 CFR 26.115 - Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. 26... for Testing § 26.115 Collecting a urine specimen under direct observation. (a) Procedures for... specimen under direct observation, the collector shall obtain the agreement of the FFD program manager or...

  16. New impact specimen for adhesives: optimization of high-speed-loaded adhesive joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, A.A.; Guyt, C.B.; Vlot, A.

    1998-01-01

    A new kind of joint specimen has been developed to load the adhesive in pure shear on impact. The specimen is tested with three adhesives at five layer thicknesses, and at three test speeds. From these tests it can be concluded that the rod-ring specimen is suitable for use in impact tests at high s

  17. 10 CFR 26.159 - Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... use aliquots and laboratory internal custody-and-control forms when conducting initial and... technicians are responsible for each urine specimen or aliquot in their possession and shall sign and complete custody-and-control forms for those specimens or aliquots as they are received. (f) If a specimen is to...

  18. Catalog of insect type specimens preserved at the Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science with corrections of some specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai-Qin; Wang, Yun-Zhen; Dong, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Kun

    2015-09-18

    This article presents a list of insect types preserved in Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology (KNHMZ). As of March, 2015, 3 412 type specimens belonging to 266 species/subspecies of 37 families in 9 orders (Odonata, Isoptera, Mantodea, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera) are included. Information corrections of some specimens are provided in this article.

  19. Three-dimensional numerical simulation on plastic damage in small punch specimen of Zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Ruomei, E-mail: huruomei2008@sina.co [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ling Xiang, E-mail: xling@njut.edu.c [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2009-12-15

    Small punch test (SPT) technique was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of Zirconium in this paper. The dimension of the disc specimen is phi 10 x 0.5 mm. Plastic damage in small punch specimen of Zirconium was investigated both experimentally and numerically, because it has great influence on small punch specimen. In order to simulate the plastic damage in the small punch specimen of Zirconium, the 3D finite element model incorporated with Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) plastic damage constitutive equation was established. Void growth and initiation of ductile crack of the small punch specimen were predicted. Results show that damage occurs on the bottom side of the specimen and grows across the specimen until complete failure, which has good agreement with the observation in the experiment.

  20. Hepatitis C virus genotype testing in paraffin wax embedded liver biopsies for specimen identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikura, Y; Ohsawa, M; Hai, E; Jomura, H; Ueda, M

    2003-12-01

    Despite advances in medical technology, careful specimen identification is still a fundamental principle of laboratory testing. If pathological samples are mixed up, especially in the case of extremely small biopsy samples, large amounts of time and energy may be wasted in correctly identifying the specimens. Recently, two liver biopsy specimens were mixed up in this department, and a new pathological technology was used to resolve the issue. Liver biopsy was performed on two patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. During sample transfer or tissue processing, the biopsy specimens were mixed up. Because the ABO blood group of the two patients was identical (type AB), the specimens were subsequently identified by analysing the HCV genotypes. RNA extracted from the paraffin wax embedded liver specimens was examined by a polymerase chain reaction based HCV genotype assay. This enabled the correct identification of the specimens, and each patient received the appropriate treatment on the basis of the accurate diagnosis.

  1. Comparison between dog-bone and Gaussian specimens for size effect evaluation in gigacycle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tridello

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gigacycle fatigue properties of materials are strongly affected by the specimen risk volume (volume of material subjected to a stress amplitude larger than the 90% of the maximum stress. Gigacycle fatigue tests, performed with ultrasonic fatigue testing machines, are commonly carried out by using hourglass shaped specimens with a small risk volume. The adoption of traditional dog-bone specimens allows for increasing the risk volume, even if the increment is quite limited. In order to obtain larger risk volumes, a new specimen shape is proposed (Gaussian specimen. The dog-bone and the Gaussian specimens are compared through Finite Element Analyses and the numerical results are validated experimentally by means of strain gages measurements. The range of applicability of the two different specimens in terms of available risk volume and stress concentration effects due to the cross section variation is determined.

  2. Performance of genotype-MTBDR test directly on clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülden Yılmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Most important point for the control and effective treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TBis early diagnosis and rapid determination of the resistance. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of theGenotype-MTBDR assay applied directly on sputum samples and compare the results with those obtained by DNA sequencingand phenotypic susceptibility testing.Materials and methods: Between November 2005 and February 2006, 93 smear and culture positive sputum sampleswere included in the study. Drug susceptibility results for rifampin (RIF and isoniazid (INH, obtained by proportionmethod on L-J medium, Genotype-MTBDR and DNA sequencing were compared.Results: The rate of concordance between the results of the Genotype-MTBDR and DNA sequencing was 93.5% and96.7% for RIF and INH, respectively. Moreover, Genotype-MTBDR detected all the RIF (24 and INH (18 resistant strainsobtained by sequencing (100%. Compared to the DNA sequencing method; the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictiveand negative predictive value for RIF and INH were 100%, 91.3%, 80%, 100% and 100%, 96%, 85.7%, 100% respectively.Conclusion: Genotype-MTBDR, one of molecular assays, distinctly shortens the time for diagnosis and detection of resistanceto INH and RIF, essential for management of MDR-TB. The test appears to have good sensitivity and specificitywhen also used directly on sputum specimens. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012; 2(4: 135-141Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; drug resistance; genotype-MTBDR.

  3. Liquid nitrogen cooling in IR thermography applied to steel specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L.; Ferrarini, G.; Bortolin, A.; Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Maldague, X.

    2017-05-01

    Pulsed Thermography (PT) is one of the most common methods in Active Thermography procedures of the Thermography for NDT & E (Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation), due to the rapidity and convenience of this inspection technique. Flashes or lamps are often used to heat the samples in the traditional PT. This paper mainly explores exactly the opposite external stimulation in IR Thermography: cooling instead of heating. A steel sample with flat-bottom holes of different depths and sizes has been tested. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is sprinkled on the surface of the specimen and the whole process is captured by a thermal camera. To obtain a good comparison, two other classic NDT techniques, Pulsed Thermography and Lock-In Thermography, are also employed. In particular, the Lock-in method is implemented with three different frequencies. In the image processing procedure, the Principal Component Thermography (PCT) method has been performed on all thermal images. For Lock-In results, both Phase and Amplitude images are generated by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Results show that all techniques presented part of the defects while the LN2 technique displays the flaws only at the beginning of the test. Moreover, a binary threshold post-processing is applied to the thermal images, and by comparing these images to a binary map of the location of the defects, the corresponding Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves are established and discussed. A comparison of the results indicates that the better ROC curve is obtained using the Flash technique with PCT processing method.

  4. West Nile Virus lineage-2 in Culex specimens from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahhosseini, Nariman; Chinikar, Sadegh; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Lühken, Renke; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-10-01

    Screening of mosquitoes for viruses is an important forecasting tool for emerging and re-emerging arboviruses. Iran has been known to harbour medically important arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) based on seroepidemiological data. However, there are no data about the potential mosquito vectors for arboviruses in Iran. This study was performed to provide mosquito and arbovirus data from Iran. A total of 32 317 mosquitos were collected at 16 sites in five provinces of Iran in 2015 and 2016. RT-PCR for detection of flaviviruses was performed. The PCR amplicons were sequenced, and 109 WNV sequences, including one obtained in this study, were used for phylogenetic analyses. The 32 317 mosquito specimens belonging to 25 species were morphologically distinguished and distributed into 1222 pools. Culex pipiens s.l. comprised 56.429%. One mosquito pool (0.08%), containing 46 unfed Cx. pipiens pipiens form pipiens (Cpp) captured in August 2015, was positive for flavivirus RNA. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the detected Iranian WNV strain belongs to lineage 2 and clusters with a strain recently detected in humans. No flaviviruses other than WNV were detected in the mosquito pools. Cpp could be a vector for WNV in Iran. Our findings indicate recent circulation of WNV lineage-2 strain in Iran and provide a solid base for more targeted arbovirus surveillance programs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Embedding 3D models of biological specimens in PDF publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Hess, Martin

    2008-11-01

    By providing two examples, the option for embedding 3D models in electronic versions of life science publications is presented. These examples, presumably representing the first such models published, are developmental stages of an evertebrate (Patella caerulea, Mollusca) and a vertebrate species (Psetta maxima, Teleostei) obtained from histological section series reconstruction processed with the software package Amira. These surface rendering models are particularly suitable for a PDF file because they can easily be transformed to a file format required and components may be conveniently combined and hierarchically arranged. All methodological steps starting from specimen preparation until embedding of resulting models in PDF files with emphasis on conversion of Amira data to the appropriate 3D file format are explained. Usability of 3D models in PDF documents is exemplified and advantages over 2D illustrations are discussed, including better explanation capabilities for spatial arrangements, higher information contents, and limiting options for disguising results by authors. Possibilities for additional applications reaching far beyond the examples presented are suggested. Problems such as long-term compatibility of file format and hardware plus software, editing and embedding of files, file size and differences in information contents between printed and electronic version will likely be overcome by technical development and increasing tendency toward electronic at the cost of printed publications. Since 3D visualization plays an increasing role in manifold disciplines of science and appropriate tools for the popular PDF format are readily available, we propose routine application of this way of illustration in electronic life science papers.

  6. Three-Dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens

    KAUST Repository

    De Jonge, Niels

    2010-01-18

    A three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the cytoskeleton and a clathrin-coated pit in mammalian cells has been achieved from a focal-series of images recorded in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The specimen was a metallic replica of the biological structure comprising Pt nanoparticles 2-3 nm in diameter, with a high stability under electron beam radiation. The 3D dataset was processed by an automated deconvolution procedure. The lateral resolution was 1.1 nm, set by pixel size. Particles differing by only 10 nm in vertical position were identified as separate objects with greater than 20% dip in contrast between them. We refer to this value as the axial resolution of the deconvolution or reconstruction, the ability to recognize two objects, which were unresolved in the original dataset. The resolution of the reconstruction is comparable to that achieved by tilt-series transmission electron microscopy. However, the focal-series method does not require mechanical tilting and is therefore much faster. 3D STEM images were also recorded of the Golgi ribbon in conventional thin sections containing 3T3 cells with a comparable axial resolution in the deconvolved dataset. © 2010 Microscopy Society of America.

  7. MACHINING TEST SPECIMENS FROM HARVESTED ZION RPV SEGMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Rosseel, Thomas M [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The decommissioning of the Zion Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) in Zion, Illinois, presents a special and timely opportunity for developing a better understanding of materials degradation and other issues associated with extending the lifetime of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years of service. In support of extended service and current operations of the US nuclear reactor fleet, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy (DOE), Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating and contracting with Zion Solutions, LLC, a subsidiary of Energy Solutions, an international nuclear services company, the selective procurement of materials, structures, components, and other items of interest from the decommissioned reactors. In this paper, we will discuss the acquisition of segments of the Zion Unit 2 Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), cutting these segments into blocks from the beltline and upper vertical welds and plate material and machining those blocks into mechanical (Charpy, compact tension, and tensile) test specimens and coupons for microstructural (TEM, SEM, APT, SANS and nano indention) characterization. Access to service-irradiated RPV welds and plate sections will allow through wall attenuation studies to be performed, which will be used to assess current radiation damage models [1].

  8. Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2014-07-22

    Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change.

  9. Can museum egg specimens be used for proteomic analyses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portugal Steven J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometry and proteomic analyses have become powerful tools for the analysis of proteins and peptides. Investigation of proteins contained in the various layers of the avian eggshell has focused entirely on domesticated species. It has been widely assumed that this existing research can inform the study of wild bird species despite the fact that the vast majority of the diversity in avian species (~95% exists outside the Orders to which domestic and poultry species belong. Museum collections offer a potentially valuable source of material for studying composition of wild avian eggshell matrix proteins. We used museum and fresh eggshells of common quails Coturnix coturnix to compare the protein composition of their organic matrices. Four eggs of domestic chickens were analysed simultaneously as a control for comparison to the fresh and museum quail eggs. The determination of the proteins was carried out using enzymatic cleavage followed by high-performance mass spectrometry. Results We found that some of the expected key eggshell proteins (3 out of 11 were not present in the samples of museum quail egg. These proteins were either entirely absent from the museum eggs or the technique was unable to detect them. There was no pattern in the absent proteins in the sense of protein function or where they are located within the eggshell. Conclusion We conclude it is likely that such studies on museum specimens using a proteomic approach will be limited in coverage of proteins and may, therefore, be misleading.

  10. Classification of breast cancer cytological specimen using convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żejmo, Michał; Kowal, Marek; Korbicz, Józef; Monczak, Roman

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a deep learning approach for automatic classification of breast tumors based on fine needle cytology. The main aim of the system is to distinguish benign from malignant cases based on microscopic images. Experiment was carried out on cytological samples derived from 50 patients (25 benign cases + 25 malignant cases) diagnosed in Regional Hospital in Zielona Góra. To classify microscopic images, we used convolutional neural networks (CNN) of two types: GoogLeNet and AlexNet. Due to the very large size of images of cytological specimen (on average 200000 × 100000 pixels), they were divided into smaller patches of size 256 × 256 pixels. Breast cancer classification usually is based on morphometric features of nuclei. Therefore, training and validation patches were selected using Support Vector Machine (SVM) so that suitable amount of cell material was depicted. Neural classifiers were tuned using GPU accelerated implementation of gradient descent algorithm. Training error was defined as a cross-entropy classification loss. Classification accuracy was defined as the percentage ratio of successfully classified validation patches to the total number of validation patches. The best accuracy rate of 83% was obtained by GoogLeNet model. We observed that more misclassified patches belong to malignant cases.

  11. Standard test method for instrumented impact testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This standard establishes the requirements for performing instrumented Charpy V-Notch (CVN) and instrumented Miniaturized Charpy V-Notch (MCVN) impact tests on metallic materials. This method, which is based on experience developed testing steels, provides further information (in addition to the total absorbed energy) on the fracture behavior of the tested materials. Minimum requirements are given for measurement and recording equipment such that similar sensitivity and comparable total absorbed energy measurements to those obtained in Test Methods E 23 and E 2248 are achieved. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Giardiasis in North West England: faecal specimen requesting rates by GP practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, N F; Fanshawe, T R; Lamden, K; Diggle, P J; Cheesbrough, J; Keegan, T J

    2015-06-01

    Many cases of giardiasis in the UK are undiagnosed and among other things, diagnosis is dependent upon the readiness of GPs to request a specimen. The aim of this study is to assess the rate of specimens requested per GP practice in Central Lancashire, to examine the differences between GP practices and to estimate the pattern of unexplained spatial variation in the practice rate of specimens after adjustment for deprivation. To achieve this, we fitted a set of binomial and Poisson regression models, with random effects for GP practice. Our analysis suggests that there were differences in the rate of specimens by GP practices (P < 0·001) for a single year, but no difference in the proportion of positive tests per specimen submitted or in the rate of positive specimens per practice population. There was a difference in the cumulative rate of positive specimens per practice population over a 9-year period (P < 0·001). Neither the specimen rate per practice for a single year nor the cumulative rate of positive specimens over multiple years demonstrated significant spatial correlation. Hence, spatial variation in the incidence of giardiasis is unlikely to be confounded by variation in GP rate of specimens.

  13. Finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in thin semiconductor specimens for electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somodi, P.K.; Twitchett-Harrison, A.C.; Midgley, P.A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Kardynał, B.E. [Peter Grünberg Institute 9, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Barnes, C.H.W. [Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Dunin-Borkowski, R.E., E-mail: rafaldb@gmail.com [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute 5, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Two-dimensional finite element simulations of electrostatic dopant potentials in parallel-sided semiconductor specimens that contain p–n junctions are used to assess the effect of the electrical state of the surface of a thin specimen on projected potentials measured using off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. For a specimen that is constrained to have an equipotential surface, the simulations show that the step in the projected potential across a p–n junction is always lower than would be predicted from the properties of the bulk device, but is relatively insensitive to the value of the surface state energy, especially for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. The depletion width measured from the projected potential, however, has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness. The results of the simulations are of broader interest for understanding the influence of surfaces and interfaces on electrostatic potentials in nanoscale semiconductor devices. - Highlights: • Finite element simulations are performed to calculate electrostatic dopant potentials in TEM specimens that contain p–n junctions. • The effect of the electrical state of the specimen surface on the projected potential is assessed for equipotential specimen surfaces. • The step in projected potential is always found to be lower than the step in potential in the bulk device. • The step in projected potential is least sensitive to surface state energy for thicker specimens and higher dopant concentrations. • The depletion width measured from the projected potential has a complicated dependence on specimen thickness.

  14. On the analysis of a mixed mode bending sandwich specimen for debond fracture characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2009-01-01

    The mixed mode bending specimen originally developed for mixed mode delamination fracture characterization of unidirectional composites has been extended to the study of debond propagation in foam cored sandwich specimens. The compliance and strain energy release rate expressions for the mixed mode...... bending sandwich specimen are derived based on a superposition analysis of solutions for the double cantilever beam and cracked sandwich beam specimens by applying a proper kinematic relationship for the specimen deformation combined with the loading provided by the test rig. This analysis provides also...... expressions for the global mode mixities. An extensive parametric analysis to improve the understanding of the influence of loading conditions, specimen geometry and mechanical properties of the face and core materials has been performed using the derived expressions and finite element analysis. The mixed...

  15. Degradation and Stabilization of Peptide Hormones in Human Blood Specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizu Yi

    Full Text Available Plasma hormone peptides, including GLP-1, GIP, Glucagon, and OXM, possess multiple physiological roles and potential therapeutic and diagnostic utility as biomarkers in the research of metabolic disorders. These peptides are subject to proteolytic degradation causing preanalytical variations. Stabilization for accurate quantitation of these active peptides in ex vivo blood specimens is essential for drug and biomarker development. We investigated the protease-driven instability of these peptides in conventional serum, plasma, anticoagulated whole blood, as well as whole blood and plasma stabilized with protease inhibitors. The peptide was monitored by both time-course Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-to-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI -TOF MS and Ab-based assay (ELISA or RIA. MS enabled the identification of proteolytic fragments. In non-stabilized blood samples, the results clearly indicated that dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV removed the N-terminal two amino acid residues from GLP-1, GIP and OXM(1-37 and not-yet identified peptidase(s cleave(s the full-length OXM(1-37 and its fragments. DPP-IV also continued to remove two additional N-terminal residues of processed OXM(3-37 to yield OXM(5-37. Importantly, both DPP-IV and other peptidase(s activities were inhibited efficiently by the protease inhibitors included in the BD P800* tube. There was preservation of GLP-1, GIP, OXM and glucagon in the P800 plasma samples with half-lives > 96, 96, 72, and 45 hours at room temperature (RT, respectively. In the BD P700* plasma samples, the stabilization of GLP-1 was also achieved with half-life > 96 hours at RT. The stabilization of these variable peptides increased their utility in drug and/or biomarker development. While stability results of GLP-1 obtained with Ab-based assay were consistent with those obtained by MS analysis, the Ab-based results of GIP, Glucagon, and OXM did not reflect the time-dependent degradations revealed by MS

  16. Minimally invasive surgical technique integrating multiple procedures with large specimen extraction via inguinal hernia orifice

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Vishnu R.; Ahmed, Leaque

    2015-01-01

    While laparoscopic surgery can be performed using small skin incisions, any resected specimen must still be able to fit through these opening. For procedures, such as cholecystectomies and appendectomies, this is not usually a problem; however, for large specimens such as bowel or large tumors, this becomes problematic. Currently, the standard technique is to attempt piecemeal removal of the specimen or enlarge one of the laparoscopic incisions, effectively creating a mini laparotomy. Creatin...

  17. [International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on handling and staging of radical prostatectomy specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compérat, Eva; Camparo, Philippe; Srigley, John; Delahunt, Brett; Egevad, Lars

    2013-06-01

    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) consensus conference on handling and staging of radical prostatectomy specimens issued recommendations for standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. The conference addressed specimen handling, T2 substaging, prostate cancer volume, extraprostatic extension, lymphovascular invasion, seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node metastases and surgical margins. This review summarizes the conclusions and recommendations resulting from the consensus process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Specimen- and grain-size dependence of compression deformation behavior in nanocrystalline copper

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Norihiko L.; Kashioka, Daisuke; Hirato, Tetsuji; Inui, Haruyuki

    2014-01-01

    The compression deformation behavior of electrodeposited nanocrystalline copper pillars with average grain sizes (d) of 360, 100, and 34 nm has been investigated as a function of specimen size (D). The yield stress for nanocrystalline pillars with d = 360 and 100 nm does not depend on specimen size, exhibiting essentially the bulk yield stress until the specimen size is reduced down to the critical values ((D/d)∗ = 35 and 85), below which the yield stress decreases with the decrease in specim...

  19. Computer vision applied to herbarium specimens of German trees: testing the future utility of the millions of herbarium specimen images for automated identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jakob; Merhof, Dorit; Renner, Susanne

    2016-11-16

    Global Plants, a collaborative between JSTOR and some 300 herbaria, now contains about 2.48 million high-resolution images of plant specimens, a number that continues to grow, and collections that are digitizing their specimens at high resolution are allocating considerable recourses to the maintenance of computer hardware (e.g., servers) and to acquiring digital storage space. We here apply machine learning, specifically the training of a Support-Vector-Machine, to classify specimen images into categories, ideally at the species level, using the 26 most common tree species in Germany as a test case. We designed an analysis pipeline and classification system consisting of segmentation, normalization, feature extraction, and classification steps and evaluated the system in two test sets, one with 26 species, the other with 17, in each case using 10 images per species of plants collected between 1820 and 1995, which simulates the empirical situation that most named species are represented in herbaria and databases, such as JSTOR, by few specimens. We achieved 73.21% accuracy of species assignments in the larger test set, and 84.88% in the smaller test set. The results of this first application of a computer vision algorithm trained on images of herbarium specimens shows that despite the problem of overlapping leaves, leaf-architectural features can be used to categorize specimens to species with good accuracy. Computer vision is poised to play a significant role in future rapid identification at least for frequently collected genera or species in the European flora.

  20. Stress-deformed state of cylindrical specimens during indirect tensile strength testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Levan Japaridze

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the interaction between cylindrical specimen made of homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic material and loading jaws of any curvature is considered in the Brazilian test. It is assumed that the specimen is diametrically compressed by elliptic normal contact stresses. The frictional contact stresses between the specimen and platens are neglected. The analytical solution starts from the contact problem of the loading jaws of any curvature and cylindrical specimen. The contact width, corresponding loading angle (2q0), and elliptical stresses obtained through solution of the contact problems are used as boundary conditions for a cylindrical specimen. The problem of the theory of elasticity for a cylinder is solved using Muskhelishvili’s method. In this method, the displacements and stresses are represented in terms of two analytical functions of a complex variable. In the main approaches, the nonlinear inter-action between the loading bearing blocks and the specimen as well as the curvature of their surfaces and the elastic parameters of their materials are taken into account. Numerical examples are solved using MATLAB to demonstrate the influence of deformability, curvature of the specimen and platens on the distribution of the normal contact stresses as well as on the tensile and compressive stresses acting across the loaded diameter. Derived equations also allow calculating the modulus of elasticity, total deformation modulus and creep parameters of the specimen material based on the experimental data of radial contraction of the specimen.

  1. Investigation on the Relationship between Specimen Width and Breaking Strength of Geotextile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商欣萍; 储才元

    2004-01-01

    The tensile properties of geotextile are analyzed with the boundary element method, with special emphasis put on the influence of specimen width on geotextile breaking strength.The theoretical and experimental results showed that narrow specimen would underestimate the tensile strength of the geotextile. During testing procedure, the lateral contraction of the specimen is the main reason that causes the breaking strength to be on the lower side. The theoretical results also indicate that the breaking strength of the geotextile would arrive at a fixed value when the specimen width is increased to a certain extent.

  2. [A catalog of fish specimens preserved within Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li-Na; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2013-08-01

    As of 2013, some 178 fish type species and 2131 type specimens belonging to 4 orders and 11 families were currently being preserved at the Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology, located as art of the Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. These specimens were collected from across western China, includingYunnan, Sicuan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hunan, Chongqi, Gansu and Xinjiang. In general, most species are Cyprinidae (71 species and 1103 specimens), followed by Nemacheilidae (52 species and 556 specimens). For the convenience of research and communication, the present paper presents a detailed list of fish type species preserved in the Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology.

  3. Stress-deformed state of cylindrical specimens during indirect tensile strength testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan Japaridze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction between cylindrical specimen made of homogeneous, isotropic, and linearly elastic material and loading jaws of any curvature is considered in the Brazilian test. It is assumed that the specimen is diametrically compressed by elliptic normal contact stresses. The frictional contact stresses between the specimen and platens are neglected. The analytical solution starts from the contact problem of the loading jaws of any curvature and cylindrical specimen. The contact width, corresponding loading angle (2θ0, and elliptical stresses obtained through solution of the contact problems are used as boundary conditions for a cylindrical specimen. The problem of the theory of elasticity for a cylinder is solved using Muskhelishvili's method. In this method, the displacements and stresses are represented in terms of two analytical functions of a complex variable. In the main approaches, the nonlinear interaction between the loading bearing blocks and the specimen as well as the curvature of their surfaces and the elastic parameters of their materials are taken into account. Numerical examples are solved using MATLAB to demonstrate the influence of deformability, curvature of the specimen and platens on the distribution of the normal contact stresses as well as on the tensile and compressive stresses acting across the loaded diameter. Derived equations also allow calculating the modulus of elasticity, total deformation modulus and creep parameters of the specimen material based on the experimental data of radial contraction of the specimen.

  4. Specimen type and size effects on lithium hydride tensile strength distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, Jr, R E

    1991-12-01

    Weibull's two-parameter statistical-distribution function is used to account for the effects of specimen size and loading differences on strength distributions of lithium hydride. Three distinctly differing uniaxial specimen types (i.e., an elliptical-transition pure tensile specimen, an internally pressurized ring tensile, and two sizes of four-point-flexure specimens) are shown to provide different strength distributions as expected, because of their differing sizes and modes of loading. After separation of strengths into volumetric- and surface-initiated failure distributions, the Weibull characteristic strength parameters for the higher-strength tests associated with internal fracture initiations are shown to vary as predicted by the effective specimen volume Weibull relationship. Lower-strength results correlate with the effective area to much lesser degree, probably because of the limited number of surface-related failures and the different machining methods used to prepare the specimen. The strength distribution from the fourth specimen type, the predominantly equibiaxially stressed disk-flexure specimen, is well below that predicted by the two-parameter Weibull-derived effective volume or surface area relations. The two-parameter Weibull model cannot account for the increased failure probability associated with multiaxial stress fields. Derivations of effective volume and area relationships for those specimens for which none were found in the literature, the elliptical-transition tensile, the ring tensile, and the disk flexure (including the outer region), are also included.

  5. Prediction of multiaxial fatigue life for notched specimens of titanium alloy TC4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z. R.; Li, Z. X. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Hu, X. T.; Song, Y. D. [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China)

    2016-05-15

    Both the proportional and nonproportional multiaxial fatigue tests were conducted on two kinds of notched specimens of titanium alloy TC4. The multiaxial fatigue critical area of notched specimen is considered as the location experiencing the maximum damage. It is unsatisfactory to predict the multiaxial fatigue life with the local stress and strain in the fatigue critical area. The critical distance concepts are employed in the multiaxial life prediction method for notched specimens. The proposed method was checked by the test data of TC4 notched specimens. The prediction results are almost within a factor of three scatter band of the test results.

  6. New Technique for Successful Thermal Barrier Coating Specimen Preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickey; Lee

    2000-05-01

    Reliability of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) hinges on the adhesion of a thermally grown oxide scale to an insulative ceramic topcoat and an underlying metallic bondcoat. The width of the scale and its interfaces makes transmission electron microscopy (TEM) an appropriate tool for its analysis. However, specimen preparation has proven to be a challenging obstacle leading to a dearth of TEM research on TBCs. A new approach to cross-section TBC TEM specimen preparation is described. The principal advantages of this technique are reproducibility, reduced specimen damage, and time savings resulting from decreased ion milling. This technique has been successfully applied to numerous TBC specimens with various thermal histories.

  7. 10 CFR 707.12 - Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... drug testing. 707.12 Section 707.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES Procedures § 707.12 Specimen collection, handling and laboratory analysis for drug testing... collection to final disposition of specimens, and testing laboratories shall use appropriate cutoff levels in...

  8. 49 CFR 40.31 - Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Urine Collection Personnel § 40.31 Who may collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing? (a) Collectors meeting the requirements of this subpart are the only persons authorized to collect urine specimens for DOT drug testing. (b) A collector must meet...

  9. Effectiveness of Plastinated Anatomical Specimens Depicting Common Sports Injuries to Enhance Musculoskeletal Injury Evaluation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kaori; Stickley, Christopher D.; Labrash, Steven J.; Lozanoff, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Context: Plastination techniques have emerged as effective methods for preserving human tissue and enabling human specimens to be utilized in a fashion similar to anatomical models with much greater accuracy. Opportunities to observe and experience human specimens in classroom settings should be beneficial to undergraduate and graduate students in…

  10. Crack Propagation on ESE(T) Specimens Strengthened with CFRP Sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Jensen, Peter Holmstrøm; Dyrelund, Jens;

    2009-01-01

    In this paper fatigue tests on side notched steel test specimens strengthened with adhesive bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets are presented. The specimens are subject to crack growth both in the steel and bond line. Influence of the load ratio and initial crack length on the overall en...

  11. Identification of bacterial invasion in necrotizing enterocolitis specimens using fluorescent in situ hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, F H; Harmsen, H J M; Timmer, A; Kooi, E M W; Bos, A F; Hulscher, J B F

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigation of bacterial invasion into the intestinal wall in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) specimens. STUDY DESIGN: We compared 43 surgical NEC specimens with 43 age-matched controls. We used fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), a universal bacterial probe together with species-

  12. Detection of pathogenic protozoa in the diagnostic laboratory: result reproducibility, specimen pooling, and competency assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, M D; Gyorkos, T W; Kokoskin, E; Maclean, J D

    2008-07-01

    Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high.

  13. Detection of Pathogenic Protozoa in the Diagnostic Laboratory: Result Reproducibility, Specimen Pooling, and Competency Assessment▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, M. D.; Gyorkos, T. W.; Kokoskin, E.; MacLean, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high. PMID:18448690

  14. 49 CFR 40.183 - What information do laboratories report to MROs regarding split specimen results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What information do laboratories report to MROs regarding split specimen results? 40.183 Section 40.183 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... § 40.183 What information do laboratories report to MROs regarding split specimen results? (a) As...

  15. Type specimens of Maastrichtian fossils in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leloux, J.

    2002-01-01

    The type specimens of Maastrichtian invertebrate fossils from Limburg, The Netherlands, present in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, are listed. The Upper Cretaceous plant type specimens from Limburg of Miquel that were once part of the Staring collection present in the Palaeobotanical

  16. The utility of direct specimen detection by Sanger sequencing in hospitalized pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkolrattanothai, Kanokporn; Dien Bard, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    Direct microbial DNA detection from clinical specimens by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing has been developed to address the innate limitations of traditional culture-based work-up. We report our institution's experience with direct specimen sequencing, its clinical utility, and barriers to effective clinical implementation.

  17. 42 CFR 414.510 - Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and pathology specimens. 414.510 Section 414.510 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens. The date of service for either a clinical laboratory test or the technical component of physician pathology service is as follows:...

  18. Sem-observation of developing plant organs using deep-frozen specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1982-01-01

    The SEM-observation of plant material normally requires dehydrated, dry specimens coated with carbon or metal. Unfortunately, the standard drying methods (including the critical-point-drying-technique) often cause shrinking and deformation of the specimen surface; therefore, SEMstudies on plant onto

  19. Thawed human sperm quality is influenced by the volume of the cryopreserved specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abush, Ayelet; Hauser, Ron; Paz, Gedalia; Kleiman, Sandra E; Lehavi, Ofer; Yavetz, Haim; Yogev, Leah

    2014-03-01

    To test the effect of sperm specimen volume in the freezing-thawing process on specimen quality. Experimental prospective study. Tertiary academic medical center. Fifty high-quality sperm donors donated ∼3 times each. Sperm samples were split into two aliquots and frozen in volumes of 0.25 mL and 0.5 mL. Semen analyses. Eight sperm quality parameters of thawed specimens. Thawed 0.5-mL specimens had a higher percentage of motility and viability, progressive motility concentration, percentage of cells with high mitochondrial membrane potential, and intact chromatin compared with 0.25-mL specimens. Although there were fewer cells with intact acrosomes in the 0.5-mL thawed samples, they had a similar ability to respond to ionophore by acrosome reaction as the 0.25-mL specimens. Both groups had similar percentages of cells with oxidative stress and numbers of cells that bound to the zona pellucida. The remaining air volume in the straw and freezing medium composition had a minimal effect on tested parameters. Better quality thawed human sperm was achieved after cryopreservation of high volumes compared with low volumes of specimens. Air volume in the straw had no influence on specimen quality. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Strength characterization of tubular ceramic materials by flexure of semi-cylindrical specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai; Kiesel, Lutz; Frandsen, Henrik Lund;

    2014-01-01

    capable of loading multiple specimens in controlled environments. The stress field is analyzed in detail with finite element analyses. The validity of the test is found to depend on specimen dimensions and the valid range is established. The methodology is demonstrated by experimental measurements...

  1. Specimen charging on thin films with one conducting layer:Discussion of physical principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaeser, Robert M.; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2003-04-15

    While the most familiar consequences of specimen charging in transmission electron microscopy can be eliminated by evaporating a thin conducting film (such as a carbon film) onto an insulating specimen, or by preparing samples directly on such a conducting film to begin with, a more subtle charging effect still remains. We argue here that specimen charging is in this case likely to produce a dipole sheet rather than a layer of positive charge at the surface of the specimen. A simple model of the factors that control the kinetics of specimen charging, and its neutralization, is discussed as a guide for experiments that attempt to minimize the amount of specimen charging. Believable estimates of the electrostatic forces and the electron optical disturbances that are likely to occur suggest that specimen bending and warping may have the biggest impact on degrading the image quality at high resolution. Electron optical effects are likely to be negligible except in the case of a specimen that is tilted to high angle. A model is proposed to explain how both the mechanical and electron-optical effects of forming a dipole layer would have much greater impact on the image resolution in a direction perpendicular to the tilt axis, a well-known effect in electron microscopy of two-dimensional crystals.

  2. Specimen holder for an electron microscope, and method for reducing thermal drift in a microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, H.W.

    2004-01-01

    A specimen holder for an electron microscope, comprising a rod-shaped part, which is provided near one end with a tip, which tip is arranged to receive a specimen, the rod-shaped part, in use, extending with at least the tip into the electron microscope, held by clamping means present in the electro

  3. Impact energy analysis of HSLA specimens after simulated welding thermal cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarždić, I.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents impact energy results of specimens made from high strength fine grained steel TStE 420 after thermal cycle simulation. These results are obtained by examining Charpy specimens. Metallographic analysis is performed, hardness is measured and total impact energy is divided into ductile and brittle components.

  4. Kic size effect study on two high-strength steels using notched bend specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonesifer, F. R.

    1974-01-01

    Five methods are used to calculate plane strain fracture toughness (K sub Q) values for bend-specimens of various sizes from two high-strength steels. None of the methods appeared to satisfactorily predict valid stress intensity factor (K sub IC) values from specimens of sizes well below that required by E399 standard tests.

  5. Type specimens of amphibians in the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasso Miracle, M.E.; Hoek Ostende, van den L.W.; Arntzen, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The amphibian type specimens held in the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden are listed. A total of 775 type specimens representing 143 taxon names were encountered. The list provides the original name, the original publication date, pagination and illustrations, current name, type locality

  6. 10 CFR 26.129 - Assuring specimen security, chain of custody, and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... personnel shall use aliquots of the specimen and licensee testing facility chain-of-custody forms, or other appropriate methods of tracking aliquot custody and control, when conducting validity screening and initial... remain in secure storage. Licensee testing facility personnel may discard specimens and aliquots as...

  7. Residual stress state in pipe cut ring specimens for fracture toughness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damjanovic, Darko [J.J. Strossmayer Univ. of Osijek, Slavonski Brod (Croatia). Mechanical Engineering Faculty; Kozak, Drazan [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. for Mechanical Design; Marsoner, Stefan [Materials Center, Leoben (Austria).; Gubeljak, Nenad [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Chair of Mechanics

    2017-07-01

    Thin-walled pipes are not suitable for measuring fracture toughness parameters of vital importance because longitudinal crack failure is the most common failure mode in pipes. This is due to the impossibility to manufacture standard specimens for measuring fracture toughness, such as SENB or CT specimens, from the thin wall of the pipe. Previous works noticed this problem, but until now, a good and convenient solution has not been found or developed. To overcome this problem, very good alternative solution was proposed, the so-called pipe ring notched bend specimen (PRNB) [1-5]. Until now, only the idealized geometry PRNB specimen is analyzed, i. e., a specimen which is not cut out from an actual pipe but produced from steel plate. Based on that, residual stresses are neglected along with the imperfections in geometry (elliptical and eccentricity). The aim of this research is to estimate the residual stress state(s) in real pipes used in the boiler industry produced by hot rolling technique. These types of pipes are delivered only in normalized condition, but not stress relieved. Therefore, there are residual stresses present due to the manufacturing technique, but also due to uneven cooling after the production process. Within this paper, residual stresses are estimated by three methods: the incremental hole drilling method (IHMD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the splitting method (SM). Knowing the residual stress state in the ring specimen, it is possible to assess their impact on fracture toughness measured on the corresponding PRNB specimen(s).

  8. Modeling and numerical analysis of granite rock specimen under mechanical loading and fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luc Leroy Ngueyep. Mambou; Joseph Ndop; Jean-Marie Bienvenu Ndjaka

    2015-01-01

    The effect of ISO 834 fire on the mechanical properties of granite rock specimen submitted to uniaxial loading is numerically investigated. Based on Newton’s second law, the rate-equation model of granite rock specimen under mechanical load and fire is established. The effect of heat treatment on the me-chanical performance of granite is analyzed at the center and the ends of specimen. At the free end of granite rock specimen, it is shown that from 20 ?C to 500 ?C, the internal stress and internal strain are weak; whereas above 500 ?C, they start to increase rapidly, announcing the imminent collapse. At the center of specimen, the analysis of the internal stress and internal strain reveals that the fire reduces the mechanical performance of granite significantly. Moreover, it is found that after 3 min of exposure to fire, the mechanical energy necessary to fragment the granite can be reduced up to 80%.

  9. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Thermal Conductivity of Small, Highly Insulating Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the measurement of thermal conductivity combines the following capabilities: 1) measurements of very small specimens; 2) measurements of specimens with thermal conductivity on the same order of that as air; and, 3) the ability to use air as a reference material. Care is taken to ensure that the heat flow through the test specimen is essentially one-dimensional. No attempt is made to use heated guards to minimize the flow of heat from the hot plate to the surroundings. Results indicate that since large correction factors must be applied to account for guard imperfections when specimen dimensions are small, simply measuring and correcting for heat from the heater disc that does not flow into the specimen is preferable.

  10. Polishing methods for metallic and ceramic transmission electron microscopy specimens: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kestel, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    In recent years, the increasing sophistication of transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies of materials has necessitated more exacting methods of specimen preparation. The present report describes improved equipment and techniques for electropolishing and chemically polishing a wide variety of specimens. Many of the specimens used in developing or improving the techniques to be described were irradiated with heavy ions such as nickel or vanadium to study radiation damage. The high cost of these specimens increased the need for reproducible methods of initial preparation postirradiation processing, and final thinning for TEM examination. A technique was also developed to salvage specimens that had previously been thinned but were unusable for various reasons. Jet polishing is, in general, the method of choice for surface polishing, sectioning, and thinning. The older beaker electropolishing method is included in this report because it is inexpensive and simple, and gives some insight into how the more recent methods were developed.

  11. Alfredo Dugès' type specimens of amphibians and reptiles revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Villela, Oscar; Ríos-Muñoz, César A; Magaña-Cota, Gloria E; Quezadas-Tapia, Néstor L

    2016-03-14

    The type specimens of amphibians and reptiles of the Museo de Historia Natural Alfredo Dugès, at the University of Guanajuato (MADUG) were reviewed following Smith & Necker's (1943) summary. Owing to this collection's eventful history and its historical importance as the oldest herpetological collection in Mexico, a review of its conservation status was needed. After many years, the collection has received proper recognition at the University of Guanajuato with a portion of the herpetological types considered "Precious Assets" of the university. We found 34 type specimens pertaining to 18 taxa; six are additional specimens to those previously reported; six herpetological types are missing, including the body of the type of Adelophis copei. All specimens are in good to reasonable condition except for the type of Rhinocheilus antonii, which has dried out completely. All specimens are illustrated to show their condition.

  12. Evaluations of the Irwin. beta. /sub Ic/ adjustment for small specimen fracture toughness data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    When small specimens are used to measure the cleavage fracture toughness of pressure vessel steels in the transition range of temperature, specimen thickness size effects and large amounts of data scatter are often observed. The size effects are manifested by an increase in the average value of fracture toughness with decreasing specimen thickness, eventually resulting in a change in fracture mode from cleavage to ductile tearing. It has been shown that a semiempirical adjustment for the interacting effects of specimen thickness, yield stress and toughness originally proposed by Irwin is capable of reducing the calculated values of toughness and data scatter to levels consistent with large specimen test data. This is true for dynamic as well as for static initiation toughness values. The nature of the size effect described by the Irwin ..beta../sub Ic/ equation is illustrated and specific cases are shown in which ..beta../sub Ic/ adjustment has eliminated size effects, for both static and dynamic fracture toughness data.

  13. A combined environmental straining specimen holder for high-voltage electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yoshimasa, E-mail: yoshim.takahashi@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaki; Higashida, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Matsumura, Syo [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Noguchi, Hiroshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    A novel specimen holder that enables in situ observation of crack-tip deformation and/or fracture under a controlled environment is developed for a high-voltage electron microscope (HVEM). A window-type environmental cell (EC) that incorporates a uniaxial straining apparatus is built into a side-entry-type single-tilt specimen holder. The gas control in EC, straining apparatus design, limited field of view for crack-tip observation, and specimen preparation for the specimen holder are presented in detail. Experimental results successfully demonstrate that the developed specimen holder is quite useful for the dynamic observation of crack-tip deformation and/or fracture subjected to a hostile environment, such as hydrogen gas.

  14. The mammal type specimens at the Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Oystein; Bachmann, Lutz

    2013-11-15

    A catalog of mammalian type specimens in the collections of Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway, is presented. All type specimens in the Museum's mammal collection were revisited and the respective label information was compared with the data provided in the original descriptions. Most taxa were described from type series with no specimen particularly assigned to holotype. The compiled catalog of the type specimens is not intended as a taxonomic revision of the respective taxa, which is why we have not designated lectotypes from the collection's type series. Specimens that were clearly marked as "the type" in the original description were considered holotypes. The catalog consists of 19 taxa, with the year of authority corrected for three taxa.

  15. Significant Individual Variation Between Pathologists in the Evaluation of Colon Cancer Specimens After Complete Mesocolic Excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkedal, Ditte Louise E; Laurberg, Søren; Hagemann-Madsen, Rikke; Stribolt, Katrine J; Krag, Søren R P; Quirke, Philip; West, Nicholas P

    2016-10-01

    After the introduction of complete mesocolic excision, a new pathological evaluation of the resected colon cancer specimen was introduced. This concept has quickly gained acceptance and is often used to compare surgical quality. The grading of colon cancer specimens is likely to depend on both surgical quality and the training of the pathologist. The purpose of this study was to validate the principles of the pathological evaluation of colon cancer specimens. This was an exploratory study. The study was conducted in Aarhus, Denmark, and Leeds, United Kingdom. Colon cancers specimens were used. The agreement of gradings between participants was of interest. Four specialist GI pathologists and 2 abdominal surgeons evaluated 2 rounds of colon cancer specimens, each at 2 separate time points. Each round contained 50 specimens. After the first round, a protocol of detailed principles for the grading procedure was agreed on. Results from an experienced pathologist were considered as the reference results. In the first round, the distribution of gradings between participants showed substantial variation. In the second round, the variation was reduced. Intraobserver agreement was mostly fair to good, whereas interobserver agreement was frequently poor. This did not significantly change from round 1 to round 2. The small sample size of 100 specimens provided a very small number of specimens resected in the muscularis propria plane, which renders the evaluation of this group potentially unreliable. The evaluations were made on photos and not on fresh specimens. This study demonstrates significant variation in the pathological evaluation of colon cancer specimens. It demonstrates that it cannot be used in clinical studies, and care should be taken when comparing results between different hospitals.

  16. Effect of out-of-plane specimen movement on the accuracy of the smallest specimen strain measurable using the digital image correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Joel; Desai, Niranjan

    2017-04-01

    This investigation determined the smallest strain accurately measurable by a state-of-the-art digital image correlation (DIC) - based tool used in structural health monitoring, in a specimen subjected to out-of-plane movement, building upon a study that concluded that out-of-plane specimen movement results in noise in DIC-based strain measurements. This study was motivated by initially undetected damage at low strains in connections of a real-world bridge, whose detection would have prevented its propagation, resulting in lower repair costs. The smallest strains accurately measurable using the state-of-the-art DIC tool, over a range of specimen out-of-plane displacement amplitudes, were determined.

  17. Micropapillary urothelial carcinoma: Cytologic features in a retrospective series of urine specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas John Heymann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The micropapillary variant of urothelial carcinoma (uPC is a rare variant of urothelial carcinoma that carries a poor prognosis. Definitive surgery may represent optimal management of low stage tumors. Urine cytology is indispensable in the screening and follow-up of urinary tract cancer. However, cytopathological criteria for diagnosis of uPC and its differentiation from conventional urothelial carcinoma (CUC are not well-defined. Materials and Methods : Twenty-five cases of histologically confirmed micropapillary uPC from 21 patients were compared to 25 cases of histologically confirmed high-grade CUC. Results : In uPC cases, cell clusters were identified in 13 of 25 specimens from 10 patients. Six of the 13 specimens containing cell clusters corresponded to surgical pathology specimens in which micropapillary carcinoma accounted for at least 50% of total carcinoma. In contrast, only 1 of the 12 urine specimens devoid of cell clusters corresponded to surgical specimens in which micropapillary carcinoma accounted for at least 50% of total carcinoma. Cytomorphologic features of urinary specimens from patients with histologically confirmed micropapillary carcinoma were generally similar to those from patients with high-grade CUC, making it difficult to distinguish these entities in exfoliative urine specimens. Conclusions and Summary : Further investigation of the core cytopathological characteristics of uPC is warranted to refine its diagnostic criteria by exfoliative urine cytology.

  18. A tensile test to facilitate identification of defects in dentine bonded specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, N; Watanabe, A; Arao, T

    1998-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of a miniaturized dumbbell test procedure designed to more easily identify defect(s) in bonded dentine test specimens. Extracted human dentine substrates were pre-conditioned with 10-3 solution for 10, 30 or 60 s prior to dentine bonding with 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Miniaturized dumbbell-shaped test specimens were prepared from the resin bonded samples. After 24 h storage in 37 degrees C water, the specimens were tensile-loaded to failure. Fractured surfaces and cross-sections were examined and compared under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cohesive failure within the bonding resin was observed in specimens pre-conditioned for 10 s. The tensile bond strength of these was excellent. Bond strengths of specimens that were pre-conditioned for 30 and 60 s were significantly lower, and defects in these specimens, formerly difficult or impossible to identify, were readily identified under SEM and TEM microscopy. The proposed method of tensile stressing to failure and microscopically examining fractured miniaturized dumbbell-shaped test specimens is a simple and reproducible test procedure. The protocol is capable of clearly elucidating defective resin infiltration of demineralized dentine in bonded interfaces. These defects are difficult to visualize by conventional and/or ISO recommended methods.

  19. 3-D distribution of tensile stress in rock specimens for the Brazilian test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Yu; Chunyan Meng

    2005-01-01

    It is claimed that the formula used for calculating the tensile strength of a disk-shaped rock specimen in the Brazilian test is not accurate, because the formula is based on the 2-dimensional elastic theory and only suitable for very long or very short cylinders. The Matlab software was used to obtain the 2-dimensional distribution of stress in the rock specimen for Brazilian test. Then the 2-dimensional stress distribution in Brazilian disk was analyzed by the Marc FEM software. It can be found that the results obtained by the two software packages can verify each other. Finally, the 3-dimensional elastic stress in the specimen was calculated. The results demonstrate that the distribution of stress on the cross section of the specimen is similar to that in 2-dimension. However, the value of the stress on the cross section varies along the thickness of the specimen and the stress is bigger when getting closer to the end of the specimen. For the specimen with a height-to-diameter ratio of 1 and a Poisson's ratio of 0.25, the tensile strength calculated with the classical 2-D formula is 23.3% smaller than the real strength. Therefore, the classical 2-D formula is too conservative.

  20. Changes in internal stress distributions during yielding of square prismatic gold nano-specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, R.C., E-mail: rbatra@vt.edu [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, M/C 0219, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Pacheco, A.A. [Universidad del Norte, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Barranquilla (Colombia)

    2010-05-15

    We use molecular statics simulations with the tight-binding potential to analyze stress evolution in nanosize square prismatic gold specimens of different aspect ratios (length/width) deformed in either simple tension/compression or tension/compression. In the former case atoms on end faces are displaced axially but are free to move laterally, and in the latter case atoms on end faces are restrained from moving laterally during their axial displacement. It is found that the stress distribution in the unloaded reference configuration is non-uniform, and it satisfies the local and the global equilibrium equations. Large values of the von Mises stress and the maximum shear stress occur on atoms located at the third layer beneath the traction free surfaces forming different patterns for specimens loaded in tension and compression. The specimen is assumed to yield when its total strain energy drops noticeably. Maximum values of the von Mises stress and the maximum shear stress at yielding are essentially independent of specimen's length for specimens deformed in tension. For specimens deformed in compression, wave-like patterns of stresses along the axial centroidal axis are observed when the specimen yields.

  1. Progress in the preparation of cross-sectional TEM specimens by ion-beam thinning

    CERN Document Server

    Strecker, A; Kelsch, M; Salzberger, U; Sycha, M; Gao, M; Richter, G; Benthem, K V

    2003-01-01

    In transmission electron microscopy (TEM), often the preparation of samples is the most critical part. Specimens have to have disk geometries of 3 mm diameter laterally, and they have to be transparent for the electron beam vertically. Therefore, a specimen thickness in the range of some 1-10 nm has to be achieved by the preparation process. While shrinking the specimen dimensions, care has to be taken to recover the materials properties in the nm-regime. We report and shortly discuss some TEM specimen preparation techniques mainly used in the Stuttgart TEM specimen preparation laboratory. Furthermore, we demonstrate how more advanced techniques lead to a more reliable preparation of weakly-bonded metal/SrTiO sub 3 interfaces. In addition, the advantage of low-voltage ion-milling is demonstrated by a case study for bulk SrTiO sub 3. As a result, low-voltage ion polishing as a final step in the TEM specimen preparation by conventional ion-thinning turns out to significantly increase the specimen quality. In tu...

  2. Analysis of selected specimens from the STS-46 Energetic Oxygen Interaction with Materials-3 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.; Bourassa, Roger J.; Dursch, Harry W.; Pippin, H. Gary

    1995-01-01

    The Energetic Oxygen Interaction with Materials 3 (EOIM-3) experiment was flown on the STS-46 mission, which was launched on 31 Jul. 1992 and returned 8 Aug. 1992. Boeing specimens were located on both the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) tray and the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) tray integrated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The EOIM-3 pallet was mounted in the Space Shuttle payload bay near the aft bulkhead. During the mission, the atomic oxygen (AO) exposure levels of specimens in these passive sample trays was about 2.3 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. The specimens also received an estimated 22 equivalent sun hours of solar exposure. In addition, it appears that the EOIM-3 pallet was exposed to a silicone contamination source and many specimens had a thin layer of silicon based deposit on their surfaces after the flight. The specimens on the MSFC tray included seven solid film lubricants, a selection of butyl rubber (B612) and silicone (S383) o-rings, three indirect scatter surfaces, and Silver/Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (Ag/FEP) and Chemglaze A276 specimens which had previously flown on trailing edge locations of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The specimens on the JPL tray included composites previously flown on LDEF and two indirect scattering surfaces.

  3. The use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR in the digitisation of herbarium specimen labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Drinkwater

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available At the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE the use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR to aid the digitisation process has been investigated. This was tested using a herbarium specimen digitisation process with two stages of data entry. Records were initially batch-processed to add data extracted from the OCR text prior to being sorted based on Collector and/or Country. Using images of the specimens, a team of six digitisers then added data to the specimen records. To investigate whether the data from OCR aid the digitisation process, they completed a series of trials which compared the efficiency of data entry between sorted and unsorted batches of specimens. A survey was carried out to explore the opinion of the digitisation staff to the different sorting options. In total 7,200 specimens were processed.When compared to an unsorted, random set of specimens, those which were sorted based on data added from the OCR were quicker to digitise. Of the methods tested here, the most successful in terms of efficiency used a protocol which required entering data into a limited set of fields and where the records were filtered by Collector and Country. The survey and subsequent discussions with the digitisation staff highlighted their preference for working with sorted specimens, in which label layout, locations and handwriting are likely to be similar, and so a familiarity with the Collector or Country is rapidly established.

  4. The use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) in the digitisation of herbarium specimen labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Robyn E; Cubey, Robert W N; Haston, Elspeth M

    2014-01-01

    At the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (RBGE) the use of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) to aid the digitisation process has been investigated. This was tested using a herbarium specimen digitisation process with two stages of data entry. Records were initially batch-processed to add data extracted from the OCR text prior to being sorted based on Collector and/or Country. Using images of the specimens, a team of six digitisers then added data to the specimen records. To investigate whether the data from OCR aid the digitisation process, they completed a series of trials which compared the efficiency of data entry between sorted and unsorted batches of specimens. A survey was carried out to explore the opinion of the digitisation staff to the different sorting options. In total 7,200 specimens were processed. When compared to an unsorted, random set of specimens, those which were sorted based on data added from the OCR were quicker to digitise. Of the methods tested here, the most successful in terms of efficiency used a protocol which required entering data into a limited set of fields and where the records were filtered by Collector and Country. The survey and subsequent discussions with the digitisation staff highlighted their preference for working with sorted specimens, in which label layout, locations and handwriting are likely to be similar, and so a familiarity with the Collector or Country is rapidly established.

  5. Detection, mapping, and quantification of single walled carbon nanotubes in histological specimens with photoacoustic microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod K Avti

    Full Text Available AIMS: In the present study, the efficacy of multi-scale photoacoustic microscopy (PAM was investigated to detect, map, and quantify trace amounts [nanograms (ng to micrograms (µg] of SWCNTs in a variety of histological tissue specimens consisting of cancer and benign tissue biopsies (histological specimens from implanted tissue engineering scaffolds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Optical-resolution (OR and acoustic-resolution (AR--Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM was employed to detect, map and quantify the SWCNTs in a variety of tissue histological specimens and compared with other optical techniques (bright-field optical microscopy, Raman microscopy, near infrared (NIR fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: Both optical-resolution and acoustic-resolution PAM, allow the detection and quantification of SWCNTs in histological specimens with scalable spatial resolution and depth penetration. The noise-equivalent detection sensitivity to SWCNTs in the specimens was calculated to be as low as ∼7 pg. Image processing analysis further allowed the mapping, distribution, and quantification of the SWCNTs in the histological sections. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the potential of PAM as a promising imaging technique to detect, map, and quantify SWCNTs in histological specimens, and could complement the capabilities of current optical and electron microscopy techniques in the analysis of histological specimens containing SWCNTs.

  6. Morphine-3-D glucuronide stability in postmortem specimens exposed to bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, F T; Marraccini, J V; Lewis, S; Wright, W

    2000-12-01

    Medical examiners frequently rely on the finding of free morphine present in postmortem specimens to assist in certifying deaths associated with narcotics. In vitro hydrolysis of morphine-3-D glucuronide (M3DG) to free morphine was studied using variable specimen pH, initial degree of specimen putrefaction, storage temperature and time, and the effectiveness of sodium fluoride (NaF) preservation. Reagent M3DG was added to opiate-free fresh blood and urine and to autopsy-derived blood specimens. Reagent bovine glucuronidase was also added to certain specimens. Freshly collected and refrigerated NaF-preserved blood produced minimal free morphine, whereas four of five autopsy blood specimens produced free morphine from M3DG. Increased storage time, temperature, and initial degree of putrefaction resulted in greater free morphine generation despite the absence of viable bacteria. Hydrolysis occurring during specimen storage can generate free morphine from M3DG and may result in erroneous conclusions in certifying narcotic deaths.

  7. Genomic treasure troves: complete genome sequencing of herbarium and insect museum specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Staats

    Full Text Available Unlocking the vast genomic diversity stored in natural history collections would create unprecedented opportunities for genome-scale evolutionary, phylogenetic, domestication and population genomic studies. Many researchers have been discouraged from using historical specimens in molecular studies because of both generally limited success of DNA extraction and the challenges associated with PCR-amplifying highly degraded DNA. In today's next-generation sequencing (NGS world, opportunities and prospects for historical DNA have changed dramatically, as most NGS methods are actually designed for taking short fragmented DNA molecules as templates. Here we show that using a standard multiplex and paired-end Illumina sequencing approach, genome-scale sequence data can be generated reliably from dry-preserved plant, fungal and insect specimens collected up to 115 years ago, and with minimal destructive sampling. Using a reference-based assembly approach, we were able to produce the entire nuclear genome of a 43-year-old Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae herbarium specimen with high and uniform sequence coverage. Nuclear genome sequences of three fungal specimens of 22-82 years of age (Agaricus bisporus, Laccaria bicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus were generated with 81.4-97.9% exome coverage. Complete organellar genome sequences were assembled for all specimens. Using de novo assembly we retrieved between 16.2-71.0% of coding sequence regions, and hence remain somewhat cautious about prospects for de novo genome assembly from historical specimens. Non-target sequence contaminations were observed in 2 of our insect museum specimens. We anticipate that future museum genomics projects will perhaps not generate entire genome sequences in all cases (our specimens contained relatively small and low-complexity genomes, but at least generating vital comparative genomic data for testing (phylogenetic, demographic and genetic hypotheses, that become increasingly more

  8. Evaluation of the VE1 Antibody in Thyroid Cytology Using Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yon Hee Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, VE1, a monoclonal antibody against the BRAFV600E mutant protein, has been investigated in terms of its detection of the BRAFV600E mutation. Although VE1 immunostaining and molecular methods used to assess papillary thyroid carcinoma in surgical specimens are in good agreement, evaluation of VE1 in thyroid cytology samples is rarely performed, and its diagnostic value in cytology has not been well established. In present study, we explored VE1 immunoexpression in cytology samples from ex vivo papillary thyroid carcinoma specimens in order to minimize limitations of low cellularity and sampling/targeting errors originated from thyroid fineneedle aspiration and compared our results with those obtained using the corresponding papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues. Methods: The VE1 antibody was evaluated in 21 cases of thyroid cytology obtained directly from ex vivo thyroid specimens. VE1 immunostaining was performed using liquid-based cytology, and the results were compared with those obtained using the corresponding tissues. Results: Of 21 cases, 19 classic papillary thyroid carcinomas had BRAFV600E mutations, whereas two follicular variants expressed wild-type BRAF. VE1 immunoexpression varied according to specimen type. In detection of the BRAFV600E mutation, VE1 immunostaining of the surgical specimen exhibited 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, whereas VE1 immunostaining of the cytology specimen exhibited only 94.7% sensitivity and 0% specificity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that VE1 immunostaining of a cytology specimen is less specific than that of a surgical specimen for detection of the BRAFV600E mutation, and that VE1 immunostaining of a cytology specimen should be further evaluated and optimized for clinical use.

  9. Genomic treasure troves: complete genome sequencing of herbarium and insect museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Martijn; Erkens, Roy H J; van de Vossenberg, Bart; Wieringa, Jan J; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Stielow, Benjamin; Geml, József; Richardson, James E; Bakker, Freek T

    2013-01-01

    Unlocking the vast genomic diversity stored in natural history collections would create unprecedented opportunities for genome-scale evolutionary, phylogenetic, domestication and population genomic studies. Many researchers have been discouraged from using historical specimens in molecular studies because of both generally limited success of DNA extraction and the challenges associated with PCR-amplifying highly degraded DNA. In today's next-generation sequencing (NGS) world, opportunities and prospects for historical DNA have changed dramatically, as most NGS methods are actually designed for taking short fragmented DNA molecules as templates. Here we show that using a standard multiplex and paired-end Illumina sequencing approach, genome-scale sequence data can be generated reliably from dry-preserved plant, fungal and insect specimens collected up to 115 years ago, and with minimal destructive sampling. Using a reference-based assembly approach, we were able to produce the entire nuclear genome of a 43-year-old Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) herbarium specimen with high and uniform sequence coverage. Nuclear genome sequences of three fungal specimens of 22-82 years of age (Agaricus bisporus, Laccaria bicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) were generated with 81.4-97.9% exome coverage. Complete organellar genome sequences were assembled for all specimens. Using de novo assembly we retrieved between 16.2-71.0% of coding sequence regions, and hence remain somewhat cautious about prospects for de novo genome assembly from historical specimens. Non-target sequence contaminations were observed in 2 of our insect museum specimens. We anticipate that future museum genomics projects will perhaps not generate entire genome sequences in all cases (our specimens contained relatively small and low-complexity genomes), but at least generating vital comparative genomic data for testing (phylo)genetic, demographic and genetic hypotheses, that become increasingly more horizontal

  10. Investigation into the effects of steel wire rope specimen length on breaking force

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Brien, TM

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available rope Table 2 summarizes the results of the tests conducted on ropes with no cut wires. Note that of the ten specimens tested, three results were discarded due to end cap failures. Similarly, certificate number 225888 was conducted in the 15 MN... the general trend in the data. It is interesting to note that the line through the specimens that failed at the end cap suggest a similar decrease in strength of the specimen with length to the acceptable tests. 19 BF = -2.143L + 1951.149 R2 = 0.791 BF...

  11. Residual Stress State in Single-Edge Notched Tension Specimen Caused by the Local Compression Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yifan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D finite element analyses (FEA are performed to simulate the local compression (LC technique on the clamped single-edge notched tension (SE(T specimens. The analysis includes three types of indenters, which are single pair of cylinder indenters (SPCI, double pairs of cylinder indenters (DPCI and single pair of ring indenters (SPRI. The distribution of the residual stress in the crack opening direction in the uncracked ligament of the specimen is evaluated. The outcome of this study can facilitate the use of LC technique on SE(T specimens.

  12. Shape memory characteristics of Ti-Ni alloys with several specimen sizes from micrometer to millimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kitamura, Kazuhiro; Nomura, Kuniaki; Fang, Dong; Tobushi, Hisaaki

    1996-02-01

    Ti-Ni shape memory alloys with nearly equiatomic compositions were made by three types of production methods, i.e., rolling, drawing and sputtering methods. These methods were used for making thin plates 0.1 mm thick, thick and thin wires 1.0 mm and 0.08 mm in diameter, and thin films 0.007 mm thick, respectively. These specimens were annealed at 673 K, 773 K, and 873 K in order to investigate the affect of annealing temperature on the shape memory characteristics in each specimen. The shape memory characteristics were compared among these specimens in order to investigate the effect of the production method.

  13. Modelling of the Residual Stress State in a new Type of Residual Stress Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Andreasen, Jens Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a study on a new type residual stress specimen which is proposed as a simple way to conduct experimental validation for model predictions. A specimen comprising of a steel plate with circular hole embedded into a stack of CSM glass fibre and further infused with an epoxy resin...... forms the experimental case which is analysed. A FE model of the specimen is used for analysing the curing history and the residual stress build up. The model is validated against experimental strain data which are recorded by a Fibre Brag Grating sensor and good agreement has been achieved....

  14. A specimen of Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue preservation, stomach contents and a putative coprolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite being known for nearly two centuries, new specimens of the derived non-pterodactyloid pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus continue to be discovered and reveal new information about their anatomy and palaeobiology. Here we describe a specimen held in the collections of the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, Alberta, Canada that shows both preservation and impressions of soft tissues, and also preserves material interpreted as stomach contents of vertebrate remains and, uniquely, a putative coprolite. The specimen also preserves additional evidence for fibers in the uropatagium.

  15. A specimen of Rhamphorhynchus with soft tissue preservation, stomach contents and a putative coprolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, David; Henderson, Donald M; Therrien, François; Habib, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Despite being known for nearly two centuries, new specimens of the derived non-pterodactyloid pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus continue to be discovered and reveal new information about their anatomy and palaeobiology. Here we describe a specimen held in the collections of the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, Alberta, Canada that shows both preservation and impressions of soft tissues, and also preserves material interpreted as stomach contents of vertebrate remains and, uniquely, a putative coprolite. The specimen also preserves additional evidence for fibers in the uropatagium.

  16. The Determination Of Diffusive Tortuosity In Concrete Specimens Using X-Ray Microtomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranachowski Z.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method of pore connectivity analysis applied to specimens of cement based composites differing in water to cement ratio. The method employed X-ray microtomography (micro-CT. Microtomography supplied digitized three-dimensional radiographs of small concrete specimens. The data derived from the radiographs were applied as an input into the application based on the algorithm called ‘random walk simulation’. As the result a parameter called diffusive tortuosity was established and compared with estimated porosity of examined specimens.

  17. System for vacuum pouring of epoxy tensile and impact specimens with a study of the behavior of these specimens at 77 K and 293 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, C.M.; Stoddart, W.C.T.

    1978-03-31

    The purpose of the investigation was to establish a suitable technique for vacuum pouring of epoxy test specimens and to study the behavior of these specimens at 77 K and 293 K. A series of tensile and impact tests was conducted using specimens made from the following resins: Epon 828, Epon 871, and Epon curing agent Z. These materials are of general interest to designers of magnets for cryogenic service. Tests of the specimens were carried out at 77 K and 293 K. The 77 K data indicate that tensile strength increases proportionally with the increase of Epon 871 relative to Epon 828. When the mixture includes more than 90% Epon 871, impact testing at 293 K becomes practically impossible due to the rubbery condition of the material. However, when tested at 77 K, this same mixture evinces high tensile strength. When optimum data are sought over a wide range of temperatures, 77 K to 293 K, it appears that a mixture of 70% Epon 871, 30% Epon 828 with 13 pph of curing agent Z or 50% Epon 871, 50% Epon 828 with 15 pph curing agent Z offers the best compromise in tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and impact resistance.

  18. The Study on Technique of Making Freeze - dried Specimen of Mongolia Horse%The Study on Technique of Making Freeze-dried Specimen of Mongolia Horse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨虹; 芒来

    2008-01-01

    冻干标本是在冷态条件下制作的,其方法为:迅速且完全地冷冻所选材料,待其干燥后进行加工.此方法比较简单且能真实的反应组织的位置、形状及它们的关系.以蒙古马为实验材料介绍了冻干标本工艺,以及如何保存维护冻干标本的方法.%The freeze - dried specimen is a kind of specimen made under cold conditions. The method is as follows: freeze the separated materials quickly and completely, then process the specimen after it has been dried. This kind of method is simple and can truly reflect the location and the shape of organs and also reflect their reciprocity. This study takes Mongolian home as the experimental animal to introduce the process. And then introduces the methods about how to preserve and protect freeze - dried specimen

  19. Optimization of glycol methacrylate embedding of large specimens in neurological research. Study of rat skull-brain specimens after implantation of polyester meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quester, Ralf; Knifka, Jutta; Schröder, Roland

    2002-01-15

    Advances in neuroscience require better anatomical knowledge of neuronal architecture and structural details. Optimal embedding techniques are the basis for precise morphometric studies in section series as well as for the evaluation of tissue specimens or implants of differing hardness. There are very few methods for preparing large specimens by resin embedding, although resins such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) are presently in use. However, these methods have proven to be laborious and sometimes unsatisfactory for serial sectioning. While glycol methacrylate embedding (GMA) is suitable for smaller specimens, it results in inadequate infiltration and polymerization in blocks larger than 1 x 1 x 0.2 cm. We present an improved technique using GMA, which permits both standardized embedding of 4 x 2 x 2 cm blocks and preparation of section series. This method was developed for preserving skull-brain specimens from rats with polyester-mesh implants. The excellent preservation of cellular details allowed the assessment of local tissue reaction to foreign-body material in situ. Advantages of this method are: (1) No toxic catalysts or solvents are used (as opposed to MMA and current GMA processes); (2) Laborious routines in stretching and mounting of sections are not necessary (in contrast to PEG and MMA); (3) No deplastination is required before staining (in contrast to PEG and MMA); (4) Excellent morphologic preservation of various tissue is achieved.

  20. Specimen and Genetic Information for Phylogeny of Blue-winged Ducks (Anas spp.), 2001-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data set containing specimen information and GenBank accession numbers for five nuclear DNA introns and mitochondrial DNA control region sequence information for the...

  1. Multi-Specimen Variable-G Facility for Life and Microgravity Sciences Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techshot, Inc. proposes to develop a Multi-specimen Variable-G Facility (MVF) for life and microgravity sciences research. The MVF incorporates a generic...

  2. INVESTIGATIONS TO IMPROVE THE TRANSFERABILITY OF SPECIMEN RESULTS BY REAL COMPONENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Riedler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the improvement of the lifetime calculation of components made of the titanium alloy Ti-6-4, a closed loop methodology from specimen to the component is presented. Based on forged pre-material specimens fatigue tests are done as a basic research, which are presented as S/N-curves. With the determined material data a lifetime calculation with the program FEMFAT is done on a typically fitting element. Finally the results of the lifetime calculation are compared to real component tests, which are done to evaluate the results of the lifetime calculation. The component tests are performed with constant and variable load. Therewith the transferability of specimen results to real components is shown. Additional fracture analysis by light microscope and scanning electron microscope is carried out to give further information of the influence factor of the lifetime and a further description between fracture behaviour of specimen and components.

  3. High Velocity Tensile Test for Thin Plate Specimen with One Bar Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Masaaki

    In order to design thin-walled impact-resistant structure, for example, an automotive body, dynamic behavior of thin plate is essential. So far, except for laminated composite materials, high velocity tensile test of thin plate specimen did not attract impact researchers' and engineers' attention very much. In this paper, the previous thin plate specimen assembly for the one bar method was improved. The one bar method has been utilized for cylindrical specimens of various solid materials and is known as an effective high velocity tensile testing technique. Unfortunately, the previous assembly introduced a tremendous initial peak on stress-strain curves, even for aluminum alloys. With a new specimen assembly, stress-strain curves for IF (Interstitial-atom Free) steel and 7075-T6 aluminum alloy obtained by the one bar method were almost equivalent to those obtained by the tensile version of the split Hopkinson pressure bar method.

  4. Analysis of histopathological examination of the hysterectomy specimens in a north Indian teaching institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Verma

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Justification of hysterectomy is proved when the HPE report is compatible with the preoperative diagnosis; hence HPE of all hysterectomy specimens should be done and analyzed. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(11.000: 4753-4758

  5. Mode Ⅱ fracture mechanism of direct shearing specimen with guiding grooves of rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶秋华; 孙宗颀; 王桂尧; 徐纪成; 张静宜

    2001-01-01

    Fracture mechanism of direct shear specimen with guiding grooves of rock was investigated experimentally and numerically in order to explore a favorable stress condition for creating Mode Ⅱ fracture and guide design of specimen configuration for determining Mode Ⅱ fracture toughness of rock, KⅡC. The experimental and numerical results demonstrate that Mode Ⅱ fracture can be successfully achieved in the direct shearing specimen with guiding groove because the guiding grooves added in the notch plane can generate a favorable stress condition for Mode Ⅱ fracture, i.e. tensile stress at the notch tip is completely depressed and shear stress at the notch tip is very high in the notch plane. The optimum design of the specimen configuration for KⅡC testing should aim to reduce tensile stress to be compressive stress or be lower than tensile strength and greatly increase shear stress at crack tip.

  6. Gage for Measuring Decrease in Dimension of Test Specimen in Tensile Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    respect to the frame member and provides an output signal proportional to displacement. Elastic bands are used to support the test gage on a tensile test machine which is used to apply a stress to the test specimen. (Author)

  7. Transmission electron microscopy of bulk specimens over 10µm in thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadamatsu, Sunao; Tanaka, Masaki; Higashida, Kenji; Matsumura, Syo

    2016-03-01

    We succeeded the observation of microstructures in bulk-sized specimens of over 10µm in thickness by employing a technique that combines transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-filtered imaging based on electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). This method is unique in that it incorporates the inelastically scattered electrons into the imaging process. Using this technique, bright and sharp images of dislocations in crystalline silicon specimens as thick as 10µm were obtained. A calibration curve to determine foil thickness of such a thick specimen was also derived. This method simply extends the observable thickness range in TEM. If combined with tilt series of observation over a significant range of angle, it will disclose three dimensional nanostructures in a µm-order block of a specimen, promoting our understanding of the controlling mechanisms behind various bulky material properties. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of Entamoeba histolytica in stool specimens by ELISA during a year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sinan Dal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate Entamoebahistolytica in the stool samples that have beensent to microbiology laboratory by ELISA method.Materials and methods: This study was performed on800 stool specimens belonging to different age groupsand different patients sent to Microbiology Laboratory ofa State Hospital between January 2009 and December2009.Results: In this study Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cystsand/or trophozoites were observed in 31 (3.9% out of atotal of 800 stool specimens which were examined bynative-lugol. Entamoeba histolytica specific antigen wasinvestigated by ELISA in all stool specimens. Entamoebahistolytica specific antigen was detected in 12 (1.5% ofthese stool specimens. The diagnosis of amoebiasis forthe patients whose ELISA tests were “positive” and appropriatetherapy was begun.Conclusion: Entamoeba histolytica in the stool samplesshould be investigated and unnecessary treatmentsshould not given to patients. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2(1:50-54

  9. Response of a PGNAA setup for pozzolan-based cement concrete specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Garwan, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-04-15

    Pozzolanic materials are added to Portland cement concrete to increase its durability, particularly corrosion-resistance. In this study the elemental composition of a pozzolanic cement concrete was measured non-destructively utilizing an accelerator-based Prompt Gamma Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. The optimum size of the pozzolanic cement concrete specimen was obtained through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results were experimentally verified through the {gamma}-ray yield measurement from the pozzolanic cement concrete specimens as a function of their radii. The concentration of the pozzolanic material in the cement concrete specimens was evaluated by measuring {gamma}-ray yield for calcium and iron from pozzolanic cement concrete specimens containing 5-80 wt% pozzolan. A good agreement was noted between the experimental values and the Monte Carlo simulation results, indicating an excellent response of the KFUPM accelerator-based PGNAA setup for pozzolan based concrete.

  10. Response of a PGNAA setup for pozzolan-based cement concrete specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Garwan, M A; Maslehuddin, M; Nagadi, M M; Al-Amoudi, O S B; Raashid, M

    2010-01-01

    Pozzolanic materials are added to Portland cement concrete to increase its durability, particularly corrosion-resistance. In this study the elemental composition of a pozzolanic cement concrete was measured non-destructively utilizing an accelerator-based Prompt Gamma Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. The optimum size of the pozzolanic cement concrete specimen was obtained through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results were experimentally verified through the gamma-ray yield measurement from the pozzolanic cement concrete specimens as a function of their radii. The concentration of the pozzolanic material in the cement concrete specimens was evaluated by measuring gamma-ray yield for calcium and iron from pozzolanic cement concrete specimens containing 5-80 wt% pozzolan. A good agreement was noted between the experimental values and the Monte Carlo simulation results, indicating an excellent response of the KFUPM accelerator-based PGNAA setup for pozzolan based concrete.

  11. Multi-Specimen Variable-G Facility for Life and Microgravity Sciences Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Multi-specimen Variable-G Facility (MVF) is a single locker sized centrifuge facility for life and microgravity sciences research on the International Space...

  12. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. P.; Meena, H. S.; Negi, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  13. The value of touch imprint cytology of prostate core needle biopsy specimens – Kuwait experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hussein

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The routine use of TIC complements CNB reports and helps to provide an immediate and reliable cytological diagnosis of prostate lesions. TIC and serial sectioning of CNB specimens significantly improve the diagnostic accuracy.

  14. Genomic Treasure Troves: Complet Genome Sequencing of Herbarium and Insect Museum Specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, M.; Erkens, R.H.J.; Vossenberg, van de B.; Wieringa, J.J.; Kraaijeveld, K.; Stielow, B.; Geml, J.; Richardson, J.E.; Bakker, F.T.

    2013-01-01

    Unlocking the vast genomic diversity stored in natural history collections would create unprecedented opportunities for genome-scale evolutionary, phylogenetic, domestication and population genomic studies. Many researchers have been discouraged from using historical specimens in molecular studies

  15. Histological assessment of cholecystectomy specimens performed for symptomatic cholelithiasis: routine or selective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, WMM

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, all cholecystectomy specimens resected for symptomatic cholelithiasis were sent for histological evaluation. The objectives of such evaluation are to confirm the clinicoradiological diagnosis, identification of unsuspected findings including incidental gallbladder malignancy, audit and research purposes, and quality control issues. Currently, there is a developing trend to consider selective histological evaluation of surgical specimens removed for clinically benign disease. This article discusses the need for routine or selective histopathological evaluation of gallbladder specimens following cholecystectomy. Although several retrospective studies have suggested selective histological evaluation of cholecystectomy specimens performed for symptomatic cholelithiasis, the evidence is not adequate at present to recommend selective histological evaluation globally. However, it may be appropriate to consider selective histological evaluation on a regional basis in areas of extremely low incidence of gallbladder cancer only after unanimous agreement between the governing bodies of surgical and histopathological expertise. PMID:23838492

  16. Protocols for the collection of fortuitous specimens : [Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol describes in detail every aspect of how fortuitous specimens from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) will be handled by the...

  17. Genomic Treasure Troves: Complet Genome Sequencing of Herbarium and Insect Museum Specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, M.; Erkens, R.H.J.; Vossenberg, van de B.; Wieringa, J.J.; Kraaijeveld, K.; Stielow, B.; Geml, J.; Richardson, J.E.; Bakker, F.T.

    2013-01-01

    Unlocking the vast genomic diversity stored in natural history collections would create unprecedented opportunities for genome-scale evolutionary, phylogenetic, domestication and population genomic studies. Many researchers have been discouraged from using historical specimens in molecular studies b

  18. Multifunctional TEM-specimen holder equipped with a piezodriving probe and an electron irradiation port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Suzuki, Satoshi; Sato, Kuniaki; Akase, Zentaro; Murakami, Yasukazu; Yamazaki, Kazuya; Ikeda, Yuuta; Fukuda, Tomohisa

    2013-08-01

    The charging effect due to electron irradiation in an electron microscope has been studied so far with incident electrons. Here we report on a new specimen holder to control the charging effect by using electrons emitted from an irradiation port in the holder while maintaining a constant intensity of the incident electron beam. Details of the charging effect, such as electric field variation, are expected to be investigated by electron holography. The new specimen holder was developed by modifying a double-probe piezodriving specimen holder to introduce an electron irradiation port in one of its two arms. As a result, the new modified specimen holder consists of a piezodriving probe and an electron irradiation port, both of which can be controlled in three dimensions, using piezoelectric elements and micrometers. We demonstrate that variations in the charging effect for epoxy resin and surface contamination can be observed by electron holography.

  19. Stress analysis of the cracked-lap-shear specimen - An ASTM round-robin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1987-01-01

    This ASTM Round Robin was conducted to evaluate the state of the art in stress analysis of adhesively bonded joint specimens. Specifically, the participants were asked to calculate the strain-energy-release rate for two different geometry cracked lap shear (CLS) specimens at four different debond lengths. The various analytical techniques consisted of 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis, beam theory, plate theory, and a combination of beam theory and finite element analysis. The results were examined in terms of the total strain-energy-release rate and the mode I to mode II ratio as a function of debond length for each specimen geometry. These results basically clustered into two groups: geometric linear or geometric nonlinear analysis. The geometric nonlinear analysis is required to properly analyze the CLS specimens. The 3-D finite element analysis gave indications of edge closure plus some mode III loading. Each participant described his analytical technique and results. Nine laboratories participated.

  20. Stress analysis of the cracked lap shear specimens: An ASTM round robin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1986-01-01

    This ASTM Round Robin was conducted to evaluate the state of the art in stress analysis of adhesively bonded joint specimens. Specifically, the participants were asked to calculate the strain-energy-release rate for two different geometry cracked lap shear (CLS) specimens at four different debond lengths. The various analytical techniques consisted of 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis, beam theory, plate theory, and a combination of beam theory and finite element analysis. The results were examined in terms of the total strain-energy-release rate and the mode I to mode II ratio as a function of debond length for each specimen geometry. These results basically clustered into two groups: geometric linear or geometric nonlinear analysis. The geometric nonlinear analysis is required to properly analyze the CLS specimens. The 3-D finite element analysis gave indications of edge closure plus some mode III loading. Each participant described his analytical technique and results. Nine laboratories participated.

  1. HAADF-STEM atom counting in atom probe tomography specimens: Towards quantitative correlative microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, W; Hernandez-Maldonado, D; Moyon, F; Cuvilly, F; Vaudolon, C; Shinde, D; Vurpillot, F

    2015-12-01

    The geometry of atom probe tomography tips strongly differs from standard scanning transmission electron microscopy foils. Whereas the later are rather flat and thin (atom probe tomography specimens. Based on simulations (electron probe propagation and image simulations), the possibility to apply quantitative high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy to of atom probe tomography specimens has been tested. The influence of electron probe convergence and the benefice of deconvolution of electron probe point spread function electron have been established. Atom counting in atom probe tomography specimens is for the first time reported in this present work. It is demonstrated that, based on single projections of high angle annular dark field imaging, significant quantitative information can be used as additional input for refining the data obtained by correlative analysis of the specimen in APT, therefore opening new perspectives in the field of atomic scale tomography.

  2. Minimally invasive surgical technique integrating multiple procedures with large specimen extraction via inguinal hernia orifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Vishnu R.; Ahmed, Leaque

    2015-01-01

    While laparoscopic surgery can be performed using small skin incisions, any resected specimen must still be able to fit through these opening. For procedures, such as cholecystectomies and appendectomies, this is not usually a problem; however, for large specimens such as bowel or large tumors, this becomes problematic. Currently, the standard technique is to attempt piecemeal removal of the specimen or enlarge one of the laparoscopic incisions, effectively creating a mini laparotomy. Creating a larger incision adds many of the drawbacks of open laparotomy and should be avoided whenever possible. In this article, we present a new technique of combining the repair of an inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia with a duodenal tumor resection in order to extract the specimen through the inguinal hernia orifice. PMID:26703927

  3. Generation of R-Curve from 4ENF Specimens: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Alfred Franklin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental determination of the resistance to delamination is very important in aerospace applications as composite materials have superior properties only in the fiber direction. To measure the interlaminar fracture toughness of composite materials, different kinds of specimens and experimental methods are available. This article examines the fracture energy of four-point end-notched flexure (4ENF composite specimens made of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy. Experiments were conducted on these laminates and the mode II fracture energy, GIIC, was evaluated using compliance method and was compared with beam theory solution. The crack growth resistance curve (R-curve for these specimens was generated and the found glass/epoxy shows higher toughness values than carbon/epoxy composite. From this study, it was observed that R-curve effect in 4ENF specimens is quite mild, which means that the measured delamination toughness, GIIC, is more accurate.

  4. Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee Shows Variable Anatomy in Pediatric Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Kevin G; Milewski, Matthew D; Cannamela, Peter C; Ganley, Theodore J; Fabricant, Peter D; Terhune, Elizabeth B; Styhl, Alexandra C; Anderson, Allen F; Polousky, John D

    2017-06-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction failure rates are highest in youth athletes. The role of the anterolateral ligament in rotational knee stability is of increasing interest, and several centers are exploring combined ACL and anterolateral ligament reconstruction for these young patients. Literature on the anterolateral ligament of the knee is sparse in regard to the pediatric population. A single study on specimens younger than age 5 years demonstrated the presence of the anterolateral ligament in only one of eight specimens; therefore, much about the prevalence and anatomy of the anterolateral ligament in pediatric specimens remains unknown. We sought to (1) investigate the presence or absence of the anterolateral ligament in prepubescent anatomic specimens; (2) describe the anatomic relationship of the anterolateral ligament to the lateral collateral ligament; and (3) describe the anatomic relationship between the anterolateral ligament and the physis. Fourteen skeletally immature knee specimens (median age, 8 years; range, 7-11 years) were dissected (12 male, two female specimens). The posterolateral structures were identified in all specimens, including the lateral collateral ligament and popliteus tendon. The presence or absence of the anterolateral ligament was documented in each specimen, along with origin, insertion, and dimensions, when applicable. The relationship of the anterolateral ligament origin to the lateral collateral ligament origin was recorded. The anterolateral ligament was identified in nine of 14 specimens. The tibial attachment point was consistently located in the same region on the proximal tibia, between the fibular head and Gerdy's tubercle; however, the femoral origin of the anterolateral ligament showed considerable variation with respect to the lateral collateral ligament origin. The median femoral origin of the anterolateral ligament was 10 mm (first interquartile 6 mm, third interquartile 13) distal to the distal

  5. An Experimental Study of Shear-Dominated Failure in the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deibler, Lisa Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reedlunn, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingraham, Mathew Duffy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Shelley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report presents an experimental study motivated by results obtained during the 2013 Sandia Fracture Challenge. The challenge involved A286 steel, shear-dominated compression specimens whose load-deflection response contained a load maximum fol- lowed by significant displacement under decreasing load, ending with a catastrophic fracture. Blind numerical simulations deviated from the experiments well before the maximum load and did not predict the failure displacement. A series of new tests were conducted on specimens machined from the original A286 steel stock to learn more about the deformation and failure processes in the specimen and potentially improve future numerical simulations. The study consisted of several uniaxial tension tests to explore anisotropy in the material, and a set of new tests on the compression speci- men. In some compression specimen tests, stereo digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure the surface strain fields local to the region of interest. In others, the compression specimen was loaded to a given displacement prior to failure, unloaded, sectioned, and imaged under the microscope to determine when material damage first appeared and how it spread. The experiments brought the following observations to light. The tensile tests revealed that the plastic response of the material is anisotropic. DIC during the shear- dominated compression tests showed that all three in-plane surface strain components had maxima in the order of 50% at the maximum load. Sectioning of the specimens revealed no signs of material damage at the point where simulations deviated from the experiments. Cracks and other damage did start to form approximately when the max- imum load was reached, and they grew as the load decreased, eventually culminating in catastrophic failure of the specimens. In addition to the steel specimens, a similar study was carried out for aluminum 7075-T651 specimens. These specimens achieved much lower loads and displacements

  6. Accelerating plant DNA barcode reference library construction using herbarium specimens: improved experimental techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Dong, Wenpan; Shi, Shuo; Cheng, Tao; Li, Changhao; Liu, Yanlei; Wu, Ping; Wu, Hongkun; Gao, Peng; Zhou, Shiliang

    2015-11-01

    A well-covered reference library is crucial for successful identification of species by DNA barcoding. The biggest difficulty in building such a reference library is the lack of materials of organisms. Herbarium collections are potentially an enormous resource of materials. In this study, we demonstrate that it is likely to build such reference libraries using the reconstructed (self-primed PCR amplified) DNA from the herbarium specimens. We used 179 rosaceous specimens to test the effects of DNA reconstruction, 420 randomly sampled specimens to estimate the usable percentage and another 223 specimens of true cherries (Cerasus, Rosaceae) to test the coverage of usable specimens to the species. The barcode rbcLb (the central four-sevenths of rbcL gene) and matK was each amplified in two halves and sequenced on Roche GS 454 FLX+. DNA from the herbarium specimens was typically shorter than 300 bp. DNA reconstruction enabled amplification fragments of 400-500 bp without bringing or inducing any sequence errors. About one-third of specimens in the national herbarium of China (PE) were proven usable after DNA reconstruction. The specimens in PE cover all Chinese true cherry species and 91.5% of vascular species listed in Flora of China. It is very possible to build well-covered reference libraries for DNA barcoding of vascular species in China. As exemplified in this study, DNA reconstruction and DNA-labelled next-generation sequencing can accelerate the construction of local reference libraries. By putting the local reference libraries together, a global library for DNA barcoding becomes closer to reality.

  7. Statistical analysis of the incidence of positives in the examination of parasitological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, E; Mohr, I

    1992-01-01

    Results of the examination of 2,000 parasitological specimens were analyzed for differences between results obtained by a technologist working in parasitology only and those obtained by general microbiologists who were also performing other laboratory work. The relative share of specimens determined to be positive by the specialist was approximately twice as high as the relative share determined by the general microbiologists. PMID:1624576

  8. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Test Methods on the Flexural Strength Results of Monolithic Zirconia Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Schatz; Monika Strickstrock; Malgorzata Roos; Daniel Edelhoff; Marlis Eichberger; Isabella-Maria Zylla; Bogna Stawarczyk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx2 (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods wer...

  9. Influence of specimen preparation and test methods on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Christine; Strickstrock, Monika; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Eichberger, Marlis; Zylla, Isabella-Maria; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx2 (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods wer...

  10. IMP3 expression in biopsy specimens of colorectal cancer predicts lymph node metastasis and TNM stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingzhu; Huang, Xiaoping; Fu, Bo; Liu, Jianghuan; Zhong, Ling; Yang, Qiao; Zhao, Tong

    2015-01-01

    IMP3 is associated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage and is a good independent prognostic biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the expression status and clinical implication of IMP3 in biopsy specimens have not yet been studied. We aim to address whether the presence of IMP3 expression in preoperative biopsies of CRC could predict lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. In this study, we examined IMP3 expression in paired biopsy and resection specimens of 71 CRC and analyzed the correlation of IMP3 expression with clinicopathological parameters. In the biopsy specimens, IMP3 positive expression was observed in 56 of 71 cases (78.9%) whereas negative expression was observed in 15 of 71 cases (21.1%). In the resection specimens, IMP3 positive expression was detected in 83.1% cases (59/71) whereas negative expression was detected in 16.9% cases (12/71). The absolute concordance rate between biopsy and resection specimens was 90.1% (64/71). The Spearman correlation test documented the existence of a strong linear correlation between the percentage of IMP3-positive cells in the biopsy and resection specimen (r = 0.629; P TNM stage (P = 0.007), tumor border (P = 0.049) and tumor budding (P = 0.012). IMP3 expression in biopsy specimens was significantly related to lymph node metastasis (P = 0.004), TNM stage (P = 0.005) and tumor budding (P = 0.001). In conclusion, IMP3 expression in biopsy specimens could be used to predict lymph node metastasis and TNM stage in CRC patients.

  11. Mongolian Rotifers on Micr oscope Slides: Instructions to Permanent Specimen Mounts from Expedition Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian D. Jersabek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We here describe a method for permanently mounting specimens on microscope slides, as we applied it in the newly established rotifer collection in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. The liquid photopolymer NOA 61 was used as a primary sealant for pure glycerine mounts. We furthermore outline simple methods of rotifer narcotization and fi xation in the fi eld that yield, for the majority of species, adequately preserved specimen material for further preparation and identifi cation purposes.

  12. Ideal number of biopsy tumor fragments for predicting HER2 status in gastric carcinoma resection specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangjeong; Ahn, Soomin; Van Vrancken, Michael; Lee, Minju; Ha, Sang Yun; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Jae J; Choi, Sunkyu; Jung, Sin-Ho; Choi, Min Gew; Lee, Jun-Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2015-11-10

    Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER2 expression is common in gastric cancers and pose a challenge for identifying patients who would benefit from anti-HER2 therapy. The aim of this study is to compare HER2 expression in biopsy and resection specimens of gastric carcinoma by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to find the ideal number of biopsy tumor fragments that can accurately predict HER2 overexpression in the corresponding surgically resected specimen. The HER2 IHC results of 702 paired biopsy and resection specimens of gastric cancer were compared.The mean number of biopsy fragments among all cases was 4.3 (range 1-11). HER2 was positive in 130 (18.5%) endoscopic biopsies and in 102 (14.5%) gastrectomy specimens. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER2 was found in 80 (61.5%) biopsies and 70 (68.6%) resection specimens. Out of the 70 surgical specimens with intratumoral heterogeneity, 24 (34.3%) of the corresponding biopsies were categorized as negative (positive conversion). In the 86 (12.3%) discrepant cases, negative conversion was observed in 57 (66.3%) cases and positive conversion in 29 (33.7%). The fragment numbers were significantly correlated with the discrepancy of results and positive predictability (P = 0.0315 and P = 0.0052). ROC curve analysis and positive predictability showed that 4 fragments should be obtained to minimize the differences in HER2 scores between biopsy and resection specimen.In gastric carcinomas with discrepant HER2 results between biopsy and surgical resection specimens, intratumoral heterogeneity is common with most of them showing positive conversion. To predict HER2 status precisely, at least 4 biopsy fragments containing tumor cells are required.

  13. Gleason score and laterality concordance between prostate biopsy and prostatectomy specimens

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Prostate biopsy involvement and Gleason score guide treatment decisions in prostate cancer. We evaluated concordance in Gleason score and laterality between biopsy and radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) specimens and factors that influenced this relationship. Material and Methods: We reviewed 538 prostate cancer diagnoses at a Veterans Affairs medical center (2000-2005) to identify men with prostate biopsy and RRP specimens. During this time there was a move from limited (6 co...

  14. Effect of height of rock specimen on strain localization, precursor to failure and entire deformational characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of shear band, precursors to shear failure occurring in strain-softening stage, axial, lateral and volumetric strains as well as Poisson's ratio of plane strain rock specimens in compression for different heights were investigated by use of Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua(FLAC). A material imperfection closer to the lower-left comer of the specimen was prescribed. For finer mesh, the imperfection was modeled by four null elements, while it was modeled by a null element for coarser mesh. FISH functions were written to calculate the entire deformational characteristics of the specimen. In elastic stage, the adopted constitutive relation was linear elastic; in strain-softening stage, a composite Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off and a post-peak linear constitutive relation were adopted. Height of rock specimen does not influence shear band's pattern (including the thickness and inclination angle of shear band). The slopes of the post-peak stress-axial strain curve, stress-lateral strain curve,lateral strain-axial strain curve, Poisson's ratio-axial strain curve and volumetric strain-axial strain curve depend on the height. Hence, the slopes of these curves cannot be considered as material properties. Nonlinear deformation prior to the peak stress is a kind of precursors to shear failure, which is less apparent for shorter specimen. For the same axial strain, lower lateral expansion is reached for shorter specimen, leading to lower Poisson's ratio and higher volumetric strain. The maximum volumetric strain of longer specimen is less than that of shorter specimen. The conclusions drawn from numerical results using finer mesh qualitatively agree with those using coarser mesh.

  15. Development of a Specialized Pack for Shipping Water Specimens in Glass Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    AD-R120 514 DEVELOPMENT OF A SPECIALIZED PACK FOR SHIPPING WATER ji’j SPECIMENS IN GLASS BOTTLES (U) AIR FORCE PACKAGING EVALUATION AGENCY WRIGHT...787-4519 immi Commercial (513) 257-4234 DIVIUCINT (W A SPICIALIZED PACK FOR SHIPING MATh SPECIMUS IN GLASS BOTTLS • S I) Air Force Packaging...breakage, during shipment, of glass bottles filled with water specimens. A prototype of the specialized container, employing the proposed Poly-Foam

  16. Three-Dimensional, Inelastic Response of Single-Edge Notch Bend Specimens Subjected to Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    B) specimens in [54] are similar to the setup reported in [52] for the fracture testing of 3 HY80 steel . This similarity, and the tendency of the...introduced via a new, efficient implementation of the Bodner-Partom viscoplastic constitu- tive model. Material properties for A533B steel (a medium...strength pressure vessel steel ) are used in the analyses. Static analyses of the same SE(B) specimens provide baseline results from which inertial

  17. Status of lithium-filled specimen subcapsules for the HFIR-MFE-RB10J experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.P.; Howell, M.; Lenox, K.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The HFIR-MFE-RB-10J experiment will be irradiated in a Removable Beryllium position in the HFIR for 10 reactor cycles, accumulating approximately 5 dpa in steel. The upper region of the capsule contains two lithium-filled subcapsules containing vanadium specimens. This report describes the techniques developed to achieve a satisfactory lithium fill with a specimen occupancy of 26% in each subcapsule.

  18. Isolation of DNA for Sequence Analysis from Herbarium Material of Some Lichen Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Aras, Sümer; CANSARAN, Demet

    2006-01-01

    An improved protocol for the isolation of DNA from herbarium material of some lichen specimens is described. The isolated DNA is suitable for PCR reactions for DNA sequence analysis. The hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) based protocol defined in this study provides a number of advantages, mainly speed and reliability. In addition, different DNA extraction protocols were examined to determine the yield of DNA from the thallus of lichen specimens. The methods examined include a CTAB ba...

  19. Isolation of DNA for Sequence Analysis from Herbarium Material of Some Lichen Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Aras, Sümer; CANSARAN, Demet

    2014-01-01

    An improved protocol for the isolation of DNA from herbarium material of some lichen specimens is described. The isolated DNA is suitable for PCR reactions for DNA sequence analysis. The hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) based protocol defined in this study provides a number of advantages, mainly speed and reliability. In addition, different DNA extraction protocols were examined to determine the yield of DNA from the thallus of lichen specimens. The methods examined include a CTAB ba...

  20. Test Feasibility of Next-Generation Sequencing Assays in Clinical Mutation Detection of Small Biopsy and Fine Needle Aspiration Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Tsai, Harrison; Tseng, Li-Hui; Illei, Peter; Gocke, Christopher D; Eshleman, James R; Netto, George; Lin, Ming-Tseh

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate preanalytic factors contributing to failure of next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays. AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel was conducted in 1,121 of 1,152 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues submitted to a clinical laboratory, including 493 small biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA) specimens (44%) and 25 metastatic bone specimens (2.2%). Single nucleotide mutations and/or insertion/deletion mutations were detected in 702 specimens. Thirty-eight specimens (3.4%) were reported as "no results" due to NGS assay failure. Higher failure rates were observed in specimens submitted for lung cancer panel and melanoma panel (3.1% and 3.7% vs 1.0% colorectal cancer panel), metastatic bone specimens (36% vs 2.6% nonbone specimens), referred specimens (5.0% vs 1.8% in-house specimens), and small biopsy and FNA specimens (5.8% and 3.1% vs 0.7% resection/excision specimens). Test feasibility was higher in in-house specimens than referred specimens (99.1% vs 96.9% in resection specimens, 94.4% vs 87.3% in small biopsy specimens, and 94.3% vs 58.8% in FNA specimens). NGS assays demonstrated clinical utility in solid tumor specimens, including those taken by biopsy or FNA. Preanalytic factors identified by this study that may contribute to NGS assay failure highlight the need for pathologists to revisit tissue processing protocols in order to better optimize cancer mutational profiling. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The Impact of Storage Times of Museum Insect Specimens on PCR Success: Case Study on Moth Collections in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARI SUTRISNO

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Museum specimens are vast repositories of genetic information of interests to biological researchers. Since a new method in DNA extraction, a non destructive method, has been reported to be successful in extracting DNA of museum specimens even fossils without any morphological damages, using museum specimens as resources of genetic information for molecular studies is becoming popular recently. However, the PCR success depends on the quality of the specimens. To evaluate the impact of the storage times of museum specimens on PCR success,we conducted DNA extraction of 14 dry museum specimens of the moths collected from 1992 to 2010 by using a non destructive method. The results showed that the DNA specimens museum were fragmented into various sizes (100-1000 bp depend on the storage times. On the other hand, fresh specimens which were preserved withinabsolute ethanol were almost not fragmented. The specimens of < 6 years old (2005-2010 succeed to amplify in 650 bp amplicon but for some specimens of 7 years old (2 of 3 specimens resulted in a very weak amplification. These specimens, however, were able to amplify strongly in 300 bp amplicon. The results also showed that specimens of 1-19 years old were success to amplify in 100 bp amplicon.

  2. Specimen banking of marine organisms in the United States: current status and long-term prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P R; Wise, S A; Thorsteinson, L; Koster, B J; Rowles, T

    1997-05-01

    A major part of the activities conducted over the last decade by the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) has involved the archival of marine specimens collected by ongoing environmental monitoring programs. These archived specimens include bivalves, marine sediments, and fish tissues collected by the National Status and Trends and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment programs, and marine mammal tissues collected by the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding, Response Program and the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project. In addition to supporting these programs, the specimens have been used to investigate circumpolar patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations, genetic separation of marine animal stocks, baseline levels of essential and nonessential elements in marine mammals, and the potential risk to human consumers in the Arctic from anthropogenic contaminants found in local subsistence foods. The NBSB specimens represent a resource that has the potential for addressing future issues of marine environmental quality and ecosystem changes through retrospective analysis; however, an ecosystem-based food web approach would maximize this potential. The current status of the NBSB activities related to the banking of marine organisms is presented and discussed, the long-term prospective of these activities is presented, and the importance of an ecosystem-based food web monitoring approach to the value of specimen banking is discussed.

  3. Strain measurement based on laser mark automatic tracking line mark on specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qiuhong; Sun, Zhengrong; Le, Zhongping; Liu, Yanna; Zhang, Lijian; Xie, Sendong

    2014-12-01

    Conventional video extensometers, using a measurement mark on specimen to obtain material strain, have a problem with deformation of the measurement mark. Therefore, the accurate position of the measurement mark is difficult to evaluate, and measurement accuracy is limited. To solve this problem, a strain measurement method based on a laser mark automatically tracking a line mark on the specimen is proposed. This method is using an undeformed laser mark to replace the line mark to calculate the specimen strain and eliminates the measurement error induced by the deformation of specimen marks. The positions of the laser mark and the line mark are achieved by using digital image processing. Automatic tracking is realized by means of an intelligent motor control. Also, the strain of the specimen is obtained by analyzing the movement trace of the laser mark. A video extensometer experimental setup based on the proposed method is constructed. Two experiments were carried out. The first experiment verified the validity and the repeatability of the method via tensile testing of the specimens of low-carbon steel and cast iron. The second one demonstrated the high measurement accuracy of the method by comparing with a clip-on extensometer.

  4. Increasing the efficiency of digitization workflows for herbarium specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Tulig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium has been databasing and imaging its estimated 7.3 million plant specimens for the past 17 years. Due to the size of the collection, we have been selectively digitizing fundable subsets of specimens, making successive passes through the herbarium with each new grant. With this strategy, the average rate for databasing complete records has been 10 specimens per hour. With 1.3 million specimens databased, this effort has taken about 130,000 hours of staff time. At this rate, to complete the herbarium and digitize the remaining 6 million specimens, another 600,000 hours would be needed. Given the current biodiversity and economic crises, there is neither the time nor money to complete the collection at this rate.Through a combination of grants over the last few years, The New York Botanical Garden has been testing new protocols and tactics for increasing the rate of digitization through combinations of data collaboration, field book digitization, partial data entry and imaging, and optical character recognition (OCR of specimen images. With the launch of the National Science Foundation’s new Advancing Digitization of Biological Collections program, we hope to move forward with larger, more efficient digitization projects, capturing data from larger portions of the herbarium at a fraction of the cost and time.

  5. Assessment of viable bacteria and bacterial DNA in blood and bloodstain specimens stored under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Mizuno, Natsuko

    2013-11-01

    Microbial forensic specimens that are collected at biocrime and bioterrorism scenes include blood, tissue, cloths containing biological fluids, swabs, water, soil, and aerosols. It is preferable that pathogens in such specimens are alive and kept in a steady state. Specimens may be stored for a prolonged period before analysis; therefore, it is important to understand the effect of the storage conditions on the pathogens contained within the specimens. In this study, we prepared blood and bloodstain specimens containing Gram-negative or -positive bacteria, stored the samples for 482 days under various conditions, and measured viable bacterial counts and total bacterial contents in the samples. Viable bacteria were preserved well in the samples stored at -30 and -80 °C, but were diminished or undetectable in the samples stored at 4 °C and room temperature. The total bacterial content was maintained in the blood samples stored at -30 and -80 °C and in the bloodstain samples stored under all temperature conditions, but decreased in the blood samples stored at 4 °C and room temperature. This study showed that the storage conditions affected viable bacteria and bacterial DNA and that freezing and drying were significant for their long-term storage. We provide important information for the storage of microbial forensic specimens.

  6. Transmission electron microscopy of bulk specimens over 10 µm in thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamatsu, Sunao, E-mail: sadamatsu@mech.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kagoshima University, Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaki; Higashida, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsumura, Syo [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Ultramicroscopy Research Center, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    We succeeded the observation of microstructures in bulk-sized specimens of over 10 µm in thickness by employing a technique that combines transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-filtered imaging based on electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). This method is unique in that it incorporates the inelastically scattered electrons into the imaging process. Using this technique, bright and sharp images of dislocations in crystalline silicon specimens as thick as 10 µm were obtained. A calibration curve to determine foil thickness of such a thick specimen was also derived. This method simply extends the observable thickness range in TEM. If combined with tilt series of observation over a significant range of angle, it will disclose three dimensional nanostructures in a µm-order block of a specimen, promoting our understanding of the controlling mechanisms behind various bulky material properties. - Highlights: • We developed a method which enables thick specimens to be observed using EF-TEM. • The effects of energy filter width and position on images were determined. • We suggested a method to determine the thickness of a thick film sample. • We achieved observation of microstructures in specimens with a thickness of 10 µm.

  7. Practical Approaches to Mitigation of Specimen Charging in High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Min Kim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Specimen charging that is associated with the electron bombardment on the sample is a practical hindrance to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM analysis because it causes a severe loss of resolution in either diffraction or image data. Conductive thin film deposition on an insulating specimen has been proposed as an effective approach to the mitigation of the specimen charging; however, this method is generally not useful in HRTEM imaging of materials because the deposited film induces another artifact in the HRTEM image contrast. In this study, we propose practical methods to mitigate the specimen charging that takes place during the HRTEM of materials. For bulk-type specimens prepared by either an ion-thinning or focused-ion beam (FIB process, a plasma cleaning treatment is significantly effective in eliminating the charging phenomenon. In the case of low-dimensional nanomaterials such as nanowires and nanoparticles, the plasma cleaning is not feasible; however, the charging effect can be effectively eliminated by adjusting the electron illumination condition. The proposed methods facilitate a decrease in the buildup of specimen charging, thereby enhancing the quality of high-resolution images significantly.

  8. Detection of alpha human papillomaviruses in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Boštjan J; Hošnjak, Lea; Poljak, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens stored in pathology departments worldwide are an invaluable source for diagnostic purposes when fresh clinical material is unavailable as well as for retrospective molecular and epidemiological studies, especially when dealing with rare clinical conditions for which prospective collection is not feasible. Accurate detection of HPV infection in these specimens is particularly challenging because nucleic acids are often degraded and therefore, not suitable for amplification of larger fragments of the viral genome or viral gene transcripts. This review provides a brief summary of molecular methods for detecting alpha-HPV DNA/RNA in FFPE tissue specimens. We specifically address the key procedural and environmental factors that have the greatest impact on the quality of nucleic acids extracted from FFPE tissue specimens, and describe some solutions that can be used to increase their integrity and/or amplifiability. Moreover, commonly used methods for HPV DNA/RNA detection in FFPE tissue specimens are presented and discussed, focusing on studies using polymerase chain reaction as an HPV detection method and published after 1999. Finally, we briefly summarize our 22 years of experience with HPV detection in FFPE tissue specimens.

  9. Deginerative changes of femoral articular cartilage in the knee : comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Youn; Hong, Sung Hwan; Sohn, Jin Hee; Wee, Young Hoon; Chang, Jun Dong; Park, Hong Seok; Lee, Eil Seoung; Kang Ik Won [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    To determine the sonographic findings of degenerative change in femoral articular cartilage of the knee by comparative study of specimen sonography and pathology. We obtained 40 specimens of cartilage of the femur (20 medial and 20 lateral condylar) from 20 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee who had undergone total knee replacement. The specimens were placed in a saline-filled container and sonography was performed using a 10-MHz linear transducer. Sonographic abnormalities were evaluated at the cartilage surface, within the cartilage, and at the bone-cartilage interface, and were compared with the corresponding pathologic findings. In addition, cartilage thickness was measured at a representative portion of each femoral cartilage specimen and was compared with the thickness determined by sonography. 'Dot' lesions, irregularity or loss of the hyperechoic line, were demonstrated by sonography at the saline-cartilage interface of 14 cartilages. Pathologic examination showed that these findings corresponded to cleft, detachment, erosion, and degeneration. Irregularities in the hyperechoic line at the bone-cartilage interface were revealed by sonography in eight cartilages and were related to irregularity or loss of tidemark, downward displacement of the cartilage, and subchondral callus formation. Dot lesions, corresponding to cleft and degeneration, were noted within one cartilage. Cartilage thickness measured on specimen and by sonography showed no significant difference (p=0.446). Specimen sonography suggested that articular cartilage underwent degenerative histopathological change. Cartilage thickness measured by sonography exactly reflected real thickness.

  10. Effect of specimen size on the impact properties of neutron irradiated A533B steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, L.E. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Kumar, A.S. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Rosinski, S.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS-0741, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A new methodology is proposed to correlate the upper shelf energy (USE) of full-size and subsize Charpy specimens of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel plate material. The methodology appears to be more satisfactory than those methodologies proposed earlier. The USE was normalized by a normalization factor involving the dimensions of the Charpy specimen, the elastic stress concentration factor, and the plastic constraint at the notch root. The normalized values of the USE were found to be invariant with specimen size. In addition, it was also found that the ratio of the USE of unirradiated to that of irradiated materials was approximately the same for full-, half-, and third-size specimens. The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) increased due to irradiation at 150 C to a nominal fluence of 1.0x10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (E>1 MeV) by 78, 83, and 70 C for full-, half-, and third-size specimens, respectively. These shifts in DBTT appeared to be independent of specimen size and notch geometry. (orig.).

  11. A transparent oversight policy for human anatomical specimen management: the University of California, Davis experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Brandi; Wacker, Charlotte; Ikemoto, Lisa; Meyers, Frederick J; Pomeroy, Claire

    2014-03-01

    The authors describe the development and implementation of a University of California (UC) system of oversight, education, tracking, and accountability for human anatomical specimen use in education and research activities. This program was created and initially implemented at UC Davis in 2005. Several incidents arising out of the handling of human anatomical specimens at UC campuses revealed significant challenges in the system for maintaining control of human anatomical specimens used in education and research. These events combined to undermine the public perception for research and educational endeavors involving anatomical materials at public institutions. Risks associated with the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of these specimens were not fully understood by the faculty, staff, and students who used them. Laws governing sources of specimens are grouped with those that govern organ procurement and tissue banking, and sometimes are found in cemetery and funeral regulations. These variables complicate interpretations and may hinder compliance. To regain confidence in the system, the need to set appropriate and realistic guidelines that mitigate risk and facilitate an institution's research and educational mission was identified. This article chronicles a multiyear process in which diverse stakeholders developed (1) a regulatory policy for oversight, (2) a policy education program, (3) procedures for tracking and accountability, and (4) a reporting and enforcement mechanism for appropriate and ethical use of human anatomical specimens in university education and research.

  12. Spatial Resolution in Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Without a Specimen Vacuum Chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kayla X; Holtz, Megan E; Richmond-Decker, Justin; Muller, David A

    2016-08-01

    A long-standing goal of electron microscopy has been the high-resolution characterization of specimens in their native environment. However, electron optics require high vacuum to maintain an unscattered and focused probe, a challenge for specimens requiring atmospheric or liquid environments. Here, we use an electron-transparent window at the base of a scanning electron microscope's objective lens to separate column vacuum from the specimen, enabling imaging under ambient conditions, without a specimen vacuum chamber. We demonstrate in-air imaging of specimens at nanoscale resolution using backscattered scanning electron microscopy (airSEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We explore resolution and contrast using Monte Carlo simulations and analytical models. We find that nanometer-scale resolution can be obtained at gas path lengths up to 400 μm, although contrast drops with increasing gas path length. As the electron-transparent window scatters considerably more than gas at our operating conditions, we observe that the densities and thicknesses of the electron-transparent window are the dominant limiting factors for image contrast at lower operating voltages. By enabling a variety of detector configurations, the airSEM is applicable to a wide range of environmental experiments including the imaging of hydrated biological specimens and in situ chemical and electrochemical processes.

  13. Phylogenetic modeling of heterogeneous gene-expression microarray data from cancerous specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Asab, Mones S; Chaouchi, Mohamed; Amri, Hakima

    2008-09-01

    The qualitative dimension of gene expression data and its heterogeneous nature in cancerous specimens can be accounted for by phylogenetic modeling that incorporates the directionality of altered gene expressions, complex patterns of expressions among a group of specimens, and data-based rather than specimen-based gene linkage. Our phylogenetic modeling approach is a double algorithmic technique that includes polarity assessment that brings out the qualitative value of the data, followed by maximum parsimony analysis that is most suitable for the data heterogeneity of cancer gene expression. We demonstrate that polarity assessment of expression values into derived and ancestral states, via outgroup comparison, reduces experimental noise; reveals dichotomously expressed asynchronous genes; and allows data pooling as well as comparability of intra- and interplatforms. Parsimony phylogenetic analysis of the polarized values produces a multidimensional classification of specimens into clades that reveal shared derived gene expressions (the synapomorphies); provides better assessment of ontogenic pathways and phyletic relatedness of specimens; efficiently utilizes dichotomously expressed genes; produces highly predictive class recognition; illustrates gene linkage and multiple developmental pathways; provides higher concordance between gene lists; and projects the direction of change among specimens. Further implication of this phylogenetic approach is that it may transform microarray into diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tool.

  14. Flexible laboratory system for 3D x-ray microtomography of 3-50 mm specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, David A.; Flynn, Michael J.; Hames, Sean M.

    1995-03-01

    Point projection microradiography has established value for imaging large, wet, opaque, and intact specimens in 2D projection views. We have developed a 3D microtomography system by combining the principles of microradiography with computed tomography (CT). An extension of conventional CT methods is utilized to yield 3D data from 2D microradiographic projections. Use of 2D cone beam projections rather than 1D projections of a slice simplifies the specimen motion hardware, and reduces the amount of wasted radiation. Our imaging system consists of a microfocus x-ray source and x-ray image intensifier coupled to a CCD camera. The system is flexible in the size of specimens which can be imaged. Resolving power varies with specimen size from 4 lp/mm for 50 mm diameter objects to 40 lp/mm for 3 mm diameter objects. Image resolution is isotropic in three dimensions. The 3D nature of the resulting image data can be used to visualize internal structure and compute stereologic parameters such as volume, surface area, and surface/volume orientation. This instrument has been used to image bone specimens in studies of human vertebrae, human femoral necks, dog metacarpals, and rabbit tibias. Other applications include imaging small industrial parts, plastics, ceramics, composite materials, and geologic specimens.

  15. Effect of specimen thickness on Mode Ⅱ fracture toughness of rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Anti-symmetric four-point bending specimens with different thickness, without and with guiding grooves, were used to conduct Mode Ⅱ fracture test and study the effect of specimen thickness on Mode Ⅱ fracture toughness of rock. Numerical calculations show that the occurrence of Mode Ⅱ fracture in the specimens without guiding grooves (when the inner and outer loading points are moved close to the notch plane) and with guiding grooves is attributed to a favorable stress condition created for Mode Ⅱ fracture, i.e. tensile stress at the notch tip is depressed to be lower than the tensile strength or to be compressive stress, and the ratio of shear stress to tensile stress at notch tip is very high. The measured value of Mode Ⅱ fracture toughness KⅡC decreases with the increase of the specimen thickness or the net thickness of specimen. This is because a thick specimen promotes a plane strain state and thus results in a relatively small fracture toughness.

  16. Specimen banking of marine organisms in the United States: Current status and long-term prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P.R.; Wise, S.A.; Thorsteinson, L.; Koster, B.J.; Rowles, T.

    1997-01-01

    A major part of the activities conducted over the last decade by the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB) has involved the archival of marine specimens collected by ongoing environmental monitoring programs. These archived specimens include bivalves, marine sediments, and fish tissues collected by the National Status and Trends and the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Damage Assessment programs, and marine mammal tissues collected by the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program and the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project. In addition to supporting these programs, the specimens have been used to investigate circumpolar patterns of chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations, genetic separation of marine animal stocks, baseline levels of essential and nonessential elements in marine mammals, and the potential risk to human consumers in the Arctic from anthropogenic contaminants found in local subsistence foods. The NBSB specimens represent a resource that has the potential for addressing future issues of marine environmental quality and ecosystem changes through retrospective analysis; however, an ecosystem-based food web approach would maximize this potential. The current status of the NBSB activities related to the banking of marine organisms is presented and discussed, the long-term prospective of these activities is presented, and the importance of an ecosystem-based food web monitoring approach to the value of specimen banking is discussed.

  17. Finite element modeling and experimental studies on mixed mode-I/III fracture specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bozkurt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, finite element modeling and experimental studies on a mode-I/III specimen similar to the compact tension specimen are presented. By using bolts, the specimen is attached to two loading apparatus that allow different levels of mode-I/III loading by changing the loading holes. Specimens having two different thicknesses are analyzed and tested. Modeling, meshing and the solution of the problem involving the whole assembly, i.e., loading devices, bolts and the specimen, with contact mechanics are performed using ANSYSTM. Then, the mode-I/III specimen is analyzed separately using a submodeling approach, in which threedimensional enriched finite elements are used in FRAC3D solver to calculate the resulting stress intensity factors along the crack front. In all of the analyses, it is clearly shown that although the loading is in the mode-I and III directions, mode-II stress intensity factors coupled with mode-III are also generated due to rotational relative deformations of crack surfaces. The results show that the mode-II stress intensity factors change sign along the crack front and their magnitudes are close to the mode-III stress intensity factors. It is also seen that magnitudes of the mode-III stress intensity factors do not vary much along the crack front. Fracture experiments also performed and, using the stress intensity factors from the analyses and crack paths and surfaces are shown.

  18. Fatigue life estimation for different notched specimens based on the volumetric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of notch radius for different notched specimens has been studied on the values of stress concentration factor, notch strength reduction factor, and fatigue life duration of the specimens. The material which has been selected for this investigation is Al 2024T3 . Volumetric approach has been applied to obtain the values of notch strength reduction factor and results have been compared with those obtained from the Neuber and Peterson methods. Load controlled fatigue tests of mentioned specimens have been conducted on the 250kN servo-hydraulic Zwick/Amsler fatigue testing machine with the frequency of 10Hz. The fatigue lives of the specimens have also been predicted based on the available smooth S-N curve of Al2024-T3 and also the amounts of notch strength reduction factor which have been obtained from volumetric, Neuber and Peterson methods. The values of stress and strain around the notch roots are required to predict the fatigue life of notched specimens, so Ansys finite element code has been used and non-linear analyses have been performed to obtain the stress and strain distributions around the notches. The plastic deformations of the material have been simulated using multi-linear kinematic hardening and cyclic stress-strain relation. The work here shows that the volumetric approach does a very good job for predicting the fatigue life of the notched specimens.

  19. Next generation self-shielded flux cored electrode with improved toughness for off shore oil well platform structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Daya; Soltis, Patrick; Narayanan, Badri; Quintana, Marie; Fox, Jeff [The Lincoln Electric Company (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Self-shielded flux cored arc welding electrodes (FCAW-S) are ideal for outdoor applications, particularly open fabrication yards where high winds are a possibility. Development work was carried out on a FCAW-S electrode for welding 70 and 80 ksi yield strength base materials with a required minimum average Charpy V-Notch (CVN) absorbed energy value of 35 ft-lb at -40 deg F in the weld metal. The effect of Al, Mg, Ti, and Zr on CVN toughness was evaluated by running a Design of Experiments approach to systematically vary the levels of these components in the electrode fill and, in turn, the weld metal. These electrodes were used to weld simulated pipe joints. Over the range of compositions tested, 0.05% Ti in the weld metal was found to be optimum for CVN toughness. Ti also had a beneficial effect on the usable voltage range. Simulated offshore joints were welded to evaluate the effect of base metal dilution, heat input, and welding procedure on the toughness of weld metal. CVN toughness was again measured at -40 deg F on samples taken from the root and the cap pass regions. The root pass impact toughness showed strong dependence on the base metal dilution and the heat input used to weld the root and fill passes. (author)

  20. Evaluation of rapid commercial enzyme immunoassay for detection of Giardia lamblia in formalin-preserved stool specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    E. H. Scheffler; Van Etta, L L

    1994-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-three formalin-preserved stool specimens were evaluated by using ProSpecT Giardia Rapid Assay (membrane bound) (Alexon, Inc., Sunnyvale, Calif.). Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) results were compared with those by conventional microscopic examination. Two hundred four specimens were negative by both methods, and 13 (6.3%) were positive. Five specimens were negative by initial microscopic exam and positive by EIA; three of these specimens were found to be positive upon extensive mi...

  1. Modeling and testing miniature torsion specimens for SiC joining development studies for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, C.H., E-mail: chuck.henager@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Nguyen, B.N.; Kurtz, R.J.; Roosendaal, T.J.; Borlaug, B.A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Ferraris, M.; Ventrella, A. [Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Katoh, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The international fusion community has designed a miniature torsion specimen for neutron irradiation studies of joined SiC and SiC/SiC composite materials. Miniature torsion joints based on this specimen design were fabricated using displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} + SiC joints with SiC and tested in torsion-shear prior to and after neutron irradiation. However, many miniature torsion specimens fail out-of-plane within the SiC specimen body, which makes it problematic to assign a shear strength value to the joints and makes it difficult to compare unirradiated and irradiated strengths to determine irradiation effects. Finite element elastic damage and elastic–plastic damage models of miniature torsion joints are developed that indicate shear fracture is more likely to occur within the body of the joined sample and cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model results are compared and discussed with regard to unirradiated and irradiated test data for a variety of joint materials. The unirradiated data includes Ti{sub 3}SiC{sub 2} + SiC/CVD-SiC joints with tailored joint moduli, and includes steel/epoxy and CVD-SiC/epoxy joints. The implications for joint data based on this sample design are discussed. - Highlights: • Finite element damage models developed and applied to understand miniature torsion specimen. • Damage models correctly predict torsion joint failure locations for wide range of materials. • Tests of strong, stiff ceramic joints will not produce accurate shear strength values. • Miniature torsion specimen has diminished test utility but still valuable.

  2. Comparison of Red Blood Cell Hemolysis Using Plasma and Serum Separation Tubes for Outpatient Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Won, Dahae; Jeong, Tae-Dong; Lee, Woochang; Chun, Sail

    2015-01-01

    Background To rapidly obtain outpatient results, we use plasma separation tubes (PST) for chemistry analysis. If lactate dehydrogenase measurement is required, serum separation tubes (SST) are used. There has been no evaluation of hemolysis with these tubes. We compared the hemolytic index (HI) obtained by using PST and SST and applied this for choosing appropriate tubes for clinical laboratories. Methods The HI of specimens obtained from outpatients visiting Asan Medical Center between July and December 2012 was analyzed. The HI was scored from 0 to 10 by using the Toshiba 200FR (Toshiba Medical Systems Co., Japan). HI was classified by sample tube type, and significant hemolysis was defined as a HI of 2 or more. For significant hemolysis cases, medical records were reviewed to identify the causes. Results Among 171,519 specimens, significant hemolysis was observed in 0.66% of specimens (0.68% of PST specimens, 0.46% of SST specimens). The mean HI in PST was 0.18 (SD: 0.43) and that in SST was 0.14 (SD: 0.37). The proportion of significant hemolysis was significantly higher in PST than in SST (P=0.001). The cause of significant hemolysis was identified as chemotherapy and prosthetic valve in 48.1% of specimens. Complex sampling errors may have caused significant hemolysis in the remaining 51.9% of specimens. Conclusions The incidence of hemolysis was slightly higher for PST than SST, although both were sample volume, and less risk of random errors due to fibrin strands. PMID:25729720

  3. Reliability of Cobas Amplicor PCR test in detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory and nonorespiratory specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepšanović Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Traditional methods for detection of mycobacteria, such as microscopic examination for the presence of acid-fast bacilli and isolation of the organism by culture, have either a low sensitivity and/or specificity, or take weeks before a definite result is available. Molecular methods, especially those based on nucleic acid amplification, are rapid diagnostic methods which combine high sensitivity and high specificity. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of the Cobas Amplicor Mycobacterium tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction (CAPCR assay in detecting the tuberculosis cause in respiratory and nonrespiratory specimens (compared to culture. Methods. Specimens were decontaminated by the N-acetyl-L-cystein- NaOH method. A 500 μL aliquot of the processed specimen were used for inoculation of Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J slants, a drop for acid-fast staining, and 100 μL for PCR. The Cobas Amplicor PCR was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Results. A total of 110 respiratory and 355 nonrespiratory specimens were investigated. After resolving discrepancies by reviewing medical history, overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for CA-PCR assay compared to culture, were 83%, 100%, 100%, and 96.8%, respectively. In comparison, they were 50%, 99.7%, 87.5%, and 98%, respectively, for the nonrespiratory specimens. The inhibition rate was 2.8% for respiratory, and 7.6% for nonrespiratory specimens. Conclusion. CA-PCR is a reliable assay that enables specialists to start treatment promptly on a positive test result. Lower value for specificity in a group of nonrespiratory specimens is a consequence of an extremely small number of mycobacteria in some of them.

  4. Creating & using specimen images for collection documentation, research, teaching and outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demouthe, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    In this age of digital media, there are many opportunities for use of good images of specimens. On-line resources such as institutional web sites and global sites such as PaleoNet and the Paleobiology Database provide venues for collection information and images. Pictures can also be made available to the general public through popular media sites such as Flickr and Facebook, where they can be retrieved and used by teachers, students, and the general public. The number of requests for specimen loans can be drastically reduced by offering the scientific community access to data and specimen images using the internet. This is an important consideration in these days of limited support budgets, since it reduces the amount of staff time necessary for giving researchers and educators access to collections. It also saves wear and tear on the specimens themselves. Many institutions now limit or refuse to send specimens out of their own countries because of the risks involved in going through security and customs. The internet can bridge political boundaries, allowing everyone equal access to collections. In order to develop photographic documentation of a collection, thoughtful preparation will make the process easier and more efficient. Acquire the necessary equipment, establish standards for images, and develop a simple workflow design. Manage images in the camera, and produce the best possible results, rather than relying on time-consuming editing after the fact. It is extremely important that the images of each specimen be of the highest quality and resolution. Poor quality, low resolution photos are not good for anything, and will often have to be retaken when another need arises. Repeating the photography process involves more handling of specimens and more staff time. Once good photos exist, smaller versions can be created for use on the web. The originals can be archived and used for publication and other purposes.

  5. Genotypic analysis of meningococcal factor h-binding protein from non-culture clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Clark

    Full Text Available Factor H-Binding Protein (fHbp is an outer membrane protein antigen included in two novel meningococcal group B vaccines and, as such, is an important typing target. Approximately 50% of meningococcal disease cases in England and Wales are confirmed using real-time PCR on non-culture clinical specimens only. Protocols for typing fHbp from this subset of cases have not yet been established. Here we present a nested PCR-based assay designed to amplify and sequence fHbp from non-culture clinical specimens. From analytical sensitivity experiments carried out using diluted DNA extracts, an estimated analytical sensitivity limit of 6 fg/µL of DNA (<3 genome copies/µL was calculated. The sensitivity of the assay was shown to be comparable to the ctrA-directed real-time PCR assay currently used to confirm invasive disease diagnoses from submitted clinical specimens. A panel of 96 diverse, patient-matched clinical specimen/isolate pairs from invasive disease cases was used to illustrate the breadth of strain coverage for the assay. All fHbp alleles sequenced from the isolates matched those derived from previous whole genome analyses. The first-round PCR primer binding sites are highly conserved, however an exceptional second-round PCR primer site mismatch in one validation isolate prevented amplification. In this case, amplification from the corresponding clinical specimen was achieved, suggesting that the use of a nested PCR procedure may compensate for any minor mismatches in round-two primer sites. The assay was successful at typing 91/96 (94.8% of the non-culture clinical specimens in this study and exhibits sufficient sensitivity to type fHbp from the vast majority of non-culture clinical specimens received by the Meningococcal Reference Unit, Public Health England.

  6. Effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in forensic drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Yamamuro, Tadashi; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In forensic drug testing, it is important to immediately take biological specimens from suspects and victims to prove their drug intake. We evaluated the effectiveness of saliva and fingerprints as alternative specimens to urine and blood in terms of ease of sampling, drug detection sensitivity, and drug detection periods for each specimen type. After four commercially available pharmaceutical products were administered to healthy subjects, each in a single dose, their urine, blood, saliva, and fingerprints were taken at predetermined sampling times over approximately four weeks. Fourteen analytes (the administered drugs and their main metabolites) were extracted from each specimen using simple pretreatments, such as dilution and deproteinization, and were analyzed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Most of the analytes were detected in saliva and fingerprints, as well as in urine and blood. The time-courses of drug concentrations were similar between urine and fingerprints, and between blood and saliva. Compared to the other compounds, the acidic compounds, for example ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid, were more difficult to detect in all specimens. Acetaminophen, dihydrocodeine, and methylephedrine were detected in fingerprints at later sampling times than in urine. However, a relationship between the drug structures and their detection periods in each specimen was not found. Saliva and fingerprints could be easily sampled on site without using special techniques or facilities. In addition, fingerprints could be immediately analyzed after simple and rapid treatment. In cases where it would be difficult to immediately obtain urine and blood, saliva and fingerprints could be effective alternative specimens for drug testing. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Binding of the blood group-reactive lectins to human adult kidney specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, L; Juusela, H; Virtanen, I

    1990-01-01

    The binding of a panel of blood group-reactive lectins to frozen sections of human kidney was studied with a special emphasis on reactivity with endothelia and basement membranes. The blood group A-reactive lectins, all specific for alpha-D-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), Helix aspersa (HAA), Helix pomatia (HPA), and Griffonia simplicifolia I-A4 (GSA-I-A4) agglutinins bound to the endothelium in specimens with blood groups A and AB. In other samples, these lectins reacted predominantly with tubular basement membranes, as well as with certain tubules. Both Dolichos biflorus (DBA) and Vicia villosa agglutinins (VVA), reported to react with blood group A1 substance, failed to reveal endothelia in most specimens, but bound differently to tubules in all blood groups. The blood group B-reactive lectins, specific for alpha-D-galactose (alpha-Gal) or GalNAc, respectively, GSA-I-B4 and Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA), bound to the endothelia in specimens from blood group B or AB and in other specimens bound only to certain tubules. Among the blood group O-reactive lectins, specific for alpha-L-fucose (Fuc), Ulex europaeus I agglutinin (UEA-I) conjugates, but not other lectins with a similar nominal specificity, bound strongly to endothelia in specimens with blood group O. The UEA-I conjugates bound distinctly more faintly to endothelia in specimens of other blood groups. The present results indicate that lectins, binding to defined blood group determinants, react with endothelia in specimens of the respective blood group status. Furthermore, they suggest that basement membranes and some tubules in the human kidney show a distinct heterogeneity in their expression of saccharide residues, related to their blood group status.

  8. Validation of the acceptability of 10x20 mm specimens for fracture toughness determination of high-strength steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, C.L.; Voormeeren, L.O.; Janssen, M.; Wallin, K.

    2013-01-01

    Standards have traditionally required that fracture toughness specimens be the full thickness of the base material. However, this requirement may be unnecessary, especially if minimum specimen size dimensions based on plastic zone are met and the subsized specimens are statistically adjusted for the

  9. Comparison between Saliva and Nasopharyngeal Swab Specimens for Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Gon; Yun, Seung Gyu; Kim, Min Young; Park, Kwisung; Cho, Chi Hyun; Yoon, Soo Young; Nam, Myung Hyun; Lee, Chang Kyu; Cho, Yun-Jung; Lim, Chae Seung

    2017-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) are being widely used as specimens for multiplex real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for respiratory virus detection. However, it remains unclear whether NPS specimens are optimal for all viruses targeted by multiplex RT-PCR. In addition, the procedure to obtain NPS specimens causes coughing in most patients, which possibly increases the risk of nosocomial spread of viruses. In this study, paired NPS and saliva specimens were collected from 236 adult male patients with suspected acute respiratory illnesses. Specimens were tested for 16 respiratory viruses by multiplex real-time RT-PCR. Among the specimens collected from the 236 patients, at least 1 respiratory virus was detected in 183 NPS specimens (77.5%) and 180 saliva specimens (76.3%). The rates of detection of respiratory viruses were comparable for NPS and saliva specimens (P = 0.766). Nine virus species and 349 viruses were isolated, 256 from NPS specimens and 273 from saliva specimens (P = 0.1574). Adenovirus was detected more frequently in saliva samples (P saliva samples was excluded by direct sequencing. In conclusion, neither of the sampling methods was consistently more sensitive than the other. We suggest that these cost-effective methods for detecting respiratory viruses in mixed NPS-saliva specimens might be valuable for future studies. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Handling and Staging of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens. Working group 1: specimen handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaratunga, Hemamali; Montironi, Rodolfo; True, Lawrence; Epstein, Jonathan I; Griffiths, David F; Humphrey, Peter A; van der Kwast, Theo; Wheeler, Thomas M; Srigley, John R; Delahunt, Brett; Egevad, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 International Society of Urological Pathology Consensus Conference in Boston made recommendations regarding the standardization of pathology reporting of radical prostatectomy specimens. Issues relating to the handling and processing of radical prostatectomy specimens were coordinated by working group 1. Most uropathologists followed similar procedures for fixation of radical prostatectomy specimens, with 51% of respondents transporting tissue in formalin. There was also consensus that the prostate weight without the seminal vesicles should be recorded. There was consensus that the surface of the prostate should be painted. It was agreed that both the prostate apex and base should be examined by the cone method with sagittal sectioning of the tissue sample. There was consensus that the gland should be fully fixed before sectioning. Both partial and complete embedding of prostates was considered to be acceptable as long as the method of partial embedding is stated. No consensus was determined regarding the necessity of weighing and measuring the length of the seminal vesicles, the preparation of whole mounts rather than standardized blocks and the methodology for sampling of fresh tissue for research purposes, and it was agreed that these should be left to the discretion of the working pathologist.

  11. Characteristics of SIP Response for Rock Specimens in the Gagok Skarn Deposit, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Mi Kyung, P.; Park, S.; Shin, S.

    2012-12-01

    Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) method was conducted to develop mineral exploration technique in the Gagok skarn deposit, Korea. The Gagok mine was once abandoned and recently reopened. The Gagok stratabound skarn deposit is originated from the Cretaceous granite intrusion into the Paleozoic limestone and slate formations. The ore minerals of the Gagok deposit include sulfide minerals such as sphalerite, pyrrhotite, galena, chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, etc. The characteristics of SIP response for the rock specimens were examined to re-evaluate mineral resources. Total 104 rock specimens were obtained from the mine shafts at the various elevations, and were modified in cylindrical shape for the measurement of SIP response, along with other physical properties such as porosity, density, DC electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, and seismic velocity. The SIP measurement system consists of electrical current transmitter and receiver (model GDP-32 system, Zonge Co. USA), and measures amplitude for resistivity, and phase at 14 steps of frequencies ranging from 0.125 to 1,024 Hz. The results of the SIP measurement shows that the rock specimens from ore bodies accompanied with sulfide minerals such as sphalerite and pyrite produce large phase differences with frequencies applied. The results also show that the rock specimens at the lower elevation of the mine shaft have stronger SIP response and mineralization. The rock specimens with large phase differences of strong SIP response were classified into three phase curve types, based on the range of critical frequency from the SIP measurement. (1) Curve type 1: critical frequency of less than 1 Hz with decreasing phase curve (2) Curve type 2: critical frequency of 1 to 10 Hz with bell shape, (3) Curve type 3: critical frequency of larger than 10 Hz with mixture of curve type 1 and 2. It is believed that the graphitic components and sulfide minerals such as sphalerite and pyrite are dominant in the rock

  12. Genomic Treasure Troves: Complete Genome Sequencing of Herbarium and Insect Museum Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Martijn; Erkens, Roy H. J.; van de Vossenberg, Bart; Wieringa, Jan J.; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Stielow, Benjamin; Geml, József; Richardson, James E.; Bakker, Freek T.

    2013-01-01

    Unlocking the vast genomic diversity stored in natural history collections would create unprecedented opportunities for genome-scale evolutionary, phylogenetic, domestication and population genomic studies. Many researchers have been discouraged from using historical specimens in molecular studies because of both generally limited success of DNA extraction and the challenges associated with PCR-amplifying highly degraded DNA. In today's next-generation sequencing (NGS) world, opportunities and prospects for historical DNA have changed dramatically, as most NGS methods are actually designed for taking short fragmented DNA molecules as templates. Here we show that using a standard multiplex and paired-end Illumina sequencing approach, genome-scale sequence data can be generated reliably from dry-preserved plant, fungal and insect specimens collected up to 115 years ago, and with minimal destructive sampling. Using a reference-based assembly approach, we were able to produce the entire nuclear genome of a 43-year-old Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) herbarium specimen with high and uniform sequence coverage. Nuclear genome sequences of three fungal specimens of 22–82 years of age (Agaricus bisporus, Laccaria bicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus) were generated with 81.4–97.9% exome coverage. Complete organellar genome sequences were assembled for all specimens. Using de novo assembly we retrieved between 16.2–71.0% of coding sequence regions, and hence remain somewhat cautious about prospects for de novo genome assembly from historical specimens. Non-target sequence contaminations were observed in 2 of our insect museum specimens. We anticipate that future museum genomics projects will perhaps not generate entire genome sequences in all cases (our specimens contained relatively small and low-complexity genomes), but at least generating vital comparative genomic data for testing (phylo)genetic, demographic and genetic hypotheses, that become increasingly more

  13. Assessment of nuclear nanomorphology marker to improve the detection of malignancy from bile duct biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Douglas J; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Uttam, Shikhar; Staton, Kevin; Bista, Rajan; Rizvi, Sumera; Slivka, Adam; Brand, Randall; Liu, Yang

    2014-06-01

    The accurate diagnosis of malignancy from small bile duct biopsy specimens is often challenging. This proof-of-concept study assessed the feasibility of a novel optical technology, spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (SL-QPM), that assesses nanoscale structural alterations in epithelial nuclei for improving the diagnosis of malignancy in bile duct biopsy specimens. The SL-QPM analysis was performed on standard histology specimens of bile duct biopsy specimens from 45 patients. We analyzed normal cells with benign follow-up, histologically normal cells with pancreaticobiliary malignancy, and malignant epithelial cells. The SL-QPM-derived nuclear nanomorphology marker can not only distinguish benign and malignant epithelial cells but can also detect features of malignancy in those cells normal by light microscopy with a discriminatory accuracy of 0.90. When combining pathology with SL-QPM, the sensitivity is improved to 88.5% from 65.4% of conventional pathology, while maintaining 100% specificity. SL-QPM-derived nuclear nanomorphology markers represent a novel approach for detecting malignancy from histologically normal-appearing epithelial cells, with potential as an adjunctive test in patients with negative or inconclusive pathologic diagnosis on bile duct biopsy specimens. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  14. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by nested polymerase chain reaction in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Antônia da Cruz Furini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of nested polymerase chain reaction (NPCR with that of cultures in the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens.METHODS: We analyzed 20 and 78 pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens, respectively, of 67 hospitalized patients suspected of having tuberculosis. An automated microbial system was used for the identification of Mycobacterium spp. cultures, and M. tuberculosis IS6110 was used as the target sequence in the NPCR. The kappa statistic was used in order to assess the level of agreement among the results.RESULTS: Among the 67 patients, 6 and 5, respectively, were diagnosed with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and the NPCR was positive in all of the cases. Among the 98 clinical specimens, smear microscopy, culture, and NPCR were positive in 6.00%, 8.16%, and 13.26%, respectively. Comparing the results of NPCR with those of cultures (the gold standard, we found that NPCR had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 83%, respectively, in pulmonary specimens, compared with 83% and 96%, respectively, in extrapulmonary specimens, with good concordance between the tests (kappa, 0.50 and 0.6867, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Although NPCR proved to be a very useful tool for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex, clinical, epidemiological, and other laboratory data should also be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

  15. Usefulness of liquid-based cytology in hormone receptor analysis of breast cancer specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Rieko; Aogi, Kenjiro; Yamamoto, Tamami; Takabatake, Daisuke; Takashima, Seiki; Teramoto, Norihiro; Kagawa, Akihiro; Morita, Sachiko

    2011-02-01

    Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of the hormone receptor (HR) in breast cancer cytology is an important issue nowadays. Several studies have shown discrepancy in the HR status between the primary tumor and metastases. Cytology can be used for patients with metastatic disease. Although cytological assessment of HR is an excellent method, it has not been routinely used because of the difficulty in consistently preparing multiple good quality slides. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) preparation is considered as the key to resolving the aforementioned problem; however, few studies have reported the HR assessment in breast cancer using LBC. Therefore, the HR status of LBC slides from 82 breast cancers was compared with that of the corresponding surgical specimens. The HR assay in both the LBC slides and surgical specimens was conducted by IHC using an autostainer. For the IHC staining, the protocol recommended by the manufacturer for paraffin-embedded sections was used for both the cytology and histology specimens. The HR results of the cytology agreed with those of the histology in 80 of the 82 cases (accuracy rate, 98%) for estrogen receptor, and in 78 of the 82 cases (accuracy rate, 95%) for progesterone receptor. The overall accuracy of the HR status on the cytology and the histology was 99% in 81 of the 82 cases. In conclusion, in HR analysis of breast cancers, LBC followed by IHC using an autostainer was useful for the standard processing of cytological specimens and showed a good correlation with the results of analysis on the histology specimens.

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring thermal conductivity of small, highly insulating specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A hot plate method and apparatus for the measurement of thermal conductivity combines the following capabilities: 1) measurements of very small specimens; 2) measurements of specimens with thermal conductivity on the same order of that as air; and, 3) the ability to use air as a reference material. Care is taken to ensure that the heat flow through the test specimen is essentially one-dimensional. No attempt is made to use heated guards to minimize the flow of heat from the hot plate to the surroundings. Results indicate that since large correction factors must be applied to account for guard imperfections when specimen dimensions are small, simply measuring and correcting for heat from the heater disc that does not flow into the specimen is preferable. The invention is a hot plate method capable of using air as a standard reference material for the steady-state measurement of the thermal conductivity of very small test samples having thermal conductivity on the order of air.

  17. Apparent fracture toughness of acrylic bone cement: effect of test specimen configuration and sterilization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G

    1999-01-01

    The plane strain fracture toughness of Palacos R bone cement was determined using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) principles and three different test specimen configurations: single edge notched three-point (SENB), rectangular compact tension (RCT), and chevron notched short rod (CNSR). Another aspect of the study was an investigation of the effect of three methods used to sterilize the powder constituents of the cement-none, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide--on the fracture toughness of the fully polymerized material. A detailed justification is provided for using LEFM. The fracture toughness results obtained using the CNSR specimens were, on average, 14 and 16% higher than those obtained using the SENB and RCT types, respectively. These differences are accounted for in terms of differences in four aspects of these specimen configuration (namely, residual stress effects, loading rate, material inhomogeneity, and the nature of the test). For a given specimen configuration, gamma irradiation produced a statistically significant decrease in fracture toughness which, it is suggested, is due to the concomitant depreciation in molecular weight. For a given cement type, there is no statistically significant difference in fracture toughness results obtained using SENB and RCT specimens. It is thus suggested that either of these configurations can be used to determine the fracture toughness of acrylic bone cement.

  18. A new approach for explanation of specimen rupture under high electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovskij, I M; Wanderka, N; Storizhko, V E; Ksenofontov, V A; Mazilova, T I

    2009-04-01

    Failure of needle-shaped specimens under the action of high electric fields is one of the most serious problems in many field-ionization devices and methods. It was shown that the length of what was removed during discharge part of specimens in most of the cases was several orders greater than that of an initial radius of the specimen apex. Experimental results obtained in this work indicate that electrical breakdown in field-ion microscopes is initiated by the impact of nanoparticles detached from a point anode in a high electric field. A new approach for explanation of an observed specimen failure in a high electric field was proposed, where the formation and expansion of the cathode plasma play the key role in the mechanical rupture and melting of field-ion tips. The expanding plasma behaves as a dynamic capacitor plate characterized by a high velocity and increasing field strength at the specimen tip. The field rise rate at a constant voltage in a dynamic plasma-to-tip capacitor is of the order of >10(20)V/m/s. The present experimental data along with the ecton model of the vacuum breakdown allow the results to be discussed as a mechanical sample failure under the action of the superhigh positive field pulse induced by the cathode plasma expansion.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Direct Tension Test for Cylindrical Concrete Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung J. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete cracking strength can be defined as the tensile strength of concrete subjected to pure tension stress. However, as it is difficult to apply direct tension load to concrete specimens, concrete cracking is usually quantified by the modulus of rupture for flexural members. In this study, a new direct tension test setup for cylindrical specimens (101.6 mm in diameter and 203.2 mm in height similar to those used in compression test is developed. Double steel plates are used to obtain uniform stress distributions. Finite element analysis for the proposed test setup is conducted. The uniformity of the stress distribution along the cylindrical specimen is examined and compared with rectangular cross section. Fuzzy image pattern recognition method is used to assess stress uniformity along the specimen. Moreover, the probability of cracking at different locations along the specimen is evaluated using probabilistic finite element analysis. The experimental and numerical results of the cracking location showed that gravity effect on fresh concrete during setting time might affect the distribution of concrete cracking strength along the height of the structural elements.

  20. Modeling and numerical analysis of granite rock specimen under mechanical loading and fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Leroy Ngueyep. Mambou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ISO 834 fire on the mechanical properties of granite rock specimen submitted to uniaxial loading is numerically investigated. Based on Newton's second law, the rate-equation model of granite rock specimen under mechanical load and fire is established. The effect of heat treatment on the mechanical performance of granite is analyzed at the center and the ends of specimen. At the free end of granite rock specimen, it is shown that from 20 °C to 500 °C, the internal stress and internal strain are weak; whereas above 500 °C, they start to increase rapidly, announcing the imminent collapse. At the center of specimen, the analysis of the internal stress and internal strain reveals that the fire reduces the mechanical performance of granite significantly. Moreover, it is found that after 3 min of exposure to fire, the mechanical energy necessary to fragment the granite can be reduced up to 80%.