Sample records for Vagina

  1. Reconstruction of congenital defects of the vagina.

    Eldor, Liron; Friedman, Jeffrey D


    Congenital absence of the vagina is a relatively rare condition most commonly associated with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome. Historically, several reconstructive techniques have been described to provide for functional vaginal reconstruction on these patients, both operative and nonoperative. Although there are many advantages and disadvantages of the various procedures, one experience with the use of split thickness skin grafts to reconstruct the vagina has produced acceptable functional results with limited donor site morbidity. Careful planning and timing of this form of reconstruction can produce predictable results in patients who are nearing sexual maturity.

  2. Linfoma no Hodgkin primario de vagina

    Guldrís N,Eva María; Vázquez C,María Pía; Carballo N,Elba; Porto Q,Magdalena; Heliodoro Alba O,Luis; Iglesias R,Begoña


    La afectación primaria del tracto genital femenino de los linfomas no Hodgkin es poco frecuente (2% de los linfomas primarios extraganglionares). Los órganos más afectados son los ovarios seguidos del cérvix, siendo la localización endometrial y vaginal extremadamente rara. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 44 años diagnosticada de linfoma primario de vagina, estadio IE A, con remisión completa tras tratamiento combinado quimioterápico y quirúrgico. Es importante tener presente estas rar...

  3. Agenésia da Vagina


    Nos últimos dez anos foram tratados dez doentes com o diagnóstico de agenésia da vagina. A reconstrução foi realizada com recurso à técnica de McIndoe. Faz-se a análise retrospectiva dos doentes tratados, com referência ao diagnóstico (S. Mayer-Rokitansky-7, S. Androgenital-1, S. Testículo feminizante-2), sua classificação, tratamento, complicações e resultados. Na opinião dos autores a técnica de McIndoe é a mais indicada para o tratamento destas malformações, pela sua simplicidade, baixa mo...

  4. Primary malignant melanoma of cervix and vagina

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Yun, Jisun; Seo, Jung-Won; Bae, Go-Eun; Lee, Jeong-Won


    Primary malignant melanoma (MM) accounts for 1% of all cancers, and only 3% to 7% of these tumors occur in the female genital tract. Data are limited with respect to the basis for treatment recommendations because of the rarity of MM. The overall prognosis of melanomas of the female genital tract is very poor. Two cases of MM of the female genital tract are presented. The first case is of a 70-year-old female patient who complained of left thigh pain and underwent magnetic resonance imaging that showed cervical cancer with involvement of the vagina, bladder, and parametrium, in addition to multiple bony metastases of the proximal femur, acetabulum, and both iliac bones. The second case is of a 35-year-old female patient who suffered from vaginal bleeding for 5 months, and she was diagnosed as having primary vaginal melanoma. The patient underwent radical surgery and two additional surgeries because of recurrence of cancer in both inguinal areas. After surgery, the patient received adjuvant immunotherapy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In both the aforementioned cases, the pathologic diagnosis was made after immunohistochemical analysis, i.e., the tumor cells were stained with HMB-45 and S100, and were found to be positive for both immunostains. PMID:27668208

  5. A case of small cell carcinoma of the vagina

    Ryosuke Tamura


    Full Text Available Primary small cell carcinoma of the vagina is quite rare, and a standard treatment has not been established yet. Herein, we report a case of an 81-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a vaginal tumor without continuity with the uterine cervix. Histopathological diagnosis indicated alveolar solid growth of nuclear chromatin-rich atypical cells with a high N/C ratio and a partially recognized rosette-like structure, suggesting a differentiated neuroendocrine system. Chromogranin A and synapto- physin were positive. Stage I vaginal small cell carcinoma localized to the vagina was diagnosed. The tumor disappeared by radiation monotherapy with external beam irradiation and endocavitary irradiation. The patient remains alive without any disease 1 year and 8 months after the treatment, suggesting the efficacy of radiotherapy in small cell carcinoma of the vagina.


    Amit C


    Full Text Available This study of 150 patients presenting with bleeding per vagina in first, second & third trimester was conducted to evaluate the cause of bleeding, access the severity of condition, to predict the later coarse of pregnancy & to evaluate the role of ultrasonography in management. This study was conducted in department of Radiology at Basaweshwar Teaching & General hospital, Government general hospital & Sangameshwer teaching & General hospital. This study concludes that, Ultrasonography should be the first line of investigation in all the cases of bleeding per vagina in pregnancy

  7. Unusual migration of ventriculo peritoneal distal catheter into vagina

    Sghavamedin Tavallaee


    Full Text Available VP shunt is one of the most popular methods for ICP reduction and treatment of hydrocephalus. Various complications of this method are not uncommon such as shunt malfunction, infection and unusual migration of distal catheter. I present a case of migration of the peritoneal catheter out of the vagina.




    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Malignant tumors of vagina are rare accounting for 1 to 4 % of all genital malignancies. Rarest of rare is spindle cell sarcoma of vagina having a very poor prognosis. 47yrs old, regularly menstruating woman, completed f amily, presented with hard painful ulcerated swelling near the vaginal introitus and l ower vaginal wall of 4 months duration. On examination, 2x4cms sized ulcerated growth with exc avated base, covered with necrotic material, present in the left antero-lateral lower e nd of vagina, inner to hymenal ring which was tender, hard, indurated, infiltrating, fixed to bas e and did not bleed to touch. Another nodule of size 1x1cm tender, hard, fixed and necrotic was pres ent below the external urethral meatus. HPE revealed Amelanotic malignant melanoma of vagin a. Immunohistochemistry revealed Spindle cell sarcoma of vagina. Tumor board recommen ded neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CT + EBRT. Of the recommended 50Gy, s he completed 46Gy in 23days and 1 course of chemotherapy (VAC. On review after 9 mont hs, the lesion disappeared clinically and she was advised to complete the treatment. Inspite o f radio and chemotherapy secondaries to lungs and brain could not be prevented and the patien t expired 20 months after the final diagnosis

  9. Management of radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina

    Roberts, W.S.; Hoffman, M.S.; LaPolla, J.P.; Ruas, E.; Fiorica, J.V.; Cavanagh, D. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (USA))


    Twelve patients were seen between January 1983 and June 1989 with the clinical diagnosis of radionecrosis of the vulva or distal vagina. Seven patients received radiation for vulvar cancer, three for distal vaginal cancer, and two for recurrent endometrial cancer. No patient healed spontaneously and the mean delay in surgical therapy was 8.5 months. The radionecrotic site was treated with local therapy, radical local excision (with or without colostomy), or exenteration. The operative defect was closed primarily in three patients and covered with local flaps or myocutaneous flaps in seven patients. The two patients with local care still have radionecrotic ulcers. One of three patients who were closed primarily continues to have an ulcer. All other patients have healed satisfactorily except one who died after two attempts to correct the problem. Radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina should generally be treated surgically.

  10. Pelvic Myxoid Leiomyoma Mass between Vagina and Rectum

    Omar AlShalabi; Fadi Obaied Alahmar; Hazem Aljasem; Bayan Alsaid; Abdulghani AlShalabi


    Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. About 20–30% of women older than 35 are affected. Rare conditions of leiomyomas have extrauterine locations. Myxoid degeneration is a rare type of leiomyoma degeneration. We report a case of solid-cystic myxoid leiomyoma in a 53-year-old woman complained of constipation, urinary hesitation, and malodorous vaginal discharge with palpable 17 × 12 cm mass between vagina and rectum. Regarding the inferior location of the mass, a perineal appr...

  11. Pelvic Myxoid Leiomyoma Mass between Vagina and Rectum

    Alahmar, Fadi Obaied; Aljasem, Hazem; Alsaid, Bayan; AlShalabi, Abdulghani


    Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. About 20–30% of women older than 35 are affected. Rare conditions of leiomyomas have extrauterine locations. Myxoid degeneration is a rare type of leiomyoma degeneration. We report a case of solid-cystic myxoid leiomyoma in a 53-year-old woman complained of constipation, urinary hesitation, and malodorous vaginal discharge with palpable 17 × 12 cm mass between vagina and rectum. Regarding the inferior location of the mass, a perineal approach was used to enucleate it. This rare location has not been mentioned before. The woman was finally diagnosed by pathologists which was myxoid leiomyoma. PMID:27429825

  12. Pelvic Myxoid Leiomyoma Mass between Vagina and Rectum

    Omar AlShalabi


    Full Text Available Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. About 20–30% of women older than 35 are affected. Rare conditions of leiomyomas have extrauterine locations. Myxoid degeneration is a rare type of leiomyoma degeneration. We report a case of solid-cystic myxoid leiomyoma in a 53-year-old woman complained of constipation, urinary hesitation, and malodorous vaginal discharge with palpable 17×12 cm mass between vagina and rectum. Regarding the inferior location of the mass, a perineal approach was used to enucleate it. This rare location has not been mentioned before. The woman was finally diagnosed by pathologists which was myxoid leiomyoma.


    Dewa Made Rendy Sanjaya


    Full Text Available Kandidiasis vulvovaginitis ialah penyakit jamur candida yang mengenai mukosa vagina danvulva.Penyebabnya yang tersering biasanya adalah candida albicans.Gejala klinis KandidiasisVulvovaginitis ialah gatal didaerah vulva, dan pada yang berat terdapat rasa panas,dispaneuria.lesi eritema, hiperemis dilabia mayora, dan vagina 1/3 bawah. Dilaporkan satu  kasusseorang wanita. berumur 26 tahun dengan keluhan keputihan pada daerah vagina sertamengalami kegatalan dan rasa nyeri terjadi sejak 2 minggu yang lalu. Pada gambaran klinis tampak dinding vagina eritema, erosi dengan secret putih kental. Pada pengecatan gram darisecret mukosa vagina didapatkan leukosit blastopsora dan pseudohifa. Pemerikaan KOH 10%dari sekret vagina didapatkan blastopore dan pesudohifa.Penanganan yang diberikan adalah obatsistemik dengan flukonazol 1x150 mg dosis tunggal dan topical diberikan ketokenazol cream.Prognosis kasus tersebut adalah baik..


    Yazigi I.,Roberto; Rodríguez A.,Tulio; Contreras M,Luis


    Objetivo: Presentar la experiencia en el tratamiento de la neoplasia intraepitelial de vagina (VAIN) utilizando el láser de CO2. Método: 19 pacientes con el diagnóstico histológico de VAIN fueron tratadas con esta técnica. Se utilizó un diámetro del punto de helio-neón de 1,5 a 2 mm y un poder de densidad de 400 a 500 W/cm². Toda la lesión detectable más un margen de al menos 5 mm de tejido circundante aparentemente normal fueron vaporizados a una profundidad de 2 mm. Resultados: 12 de las 14...

  15. Particles translocate from the vagina to the oviducts and beyond

    Wehner, A.P.; Hall, A.S.; Weller, R.E.; Lepel, E.A.; Schirmer, R.E.


    To investigate whether particles deposited in the vagina translocate to the oviducts, 0.3 ml of a 4% bone black suspension was deposited in the posterior vaginal fornix of each of five cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during their mid-menstrual cycle. Simultaneously, each animal received 10 units of oxytocin by intramuscular injection. The oviducts of three animals were removed 1 hr after administration of the bone black, while those of the remaining two animals were removed 72 hr after dosing. The removed oviducts were flushed with Hank's solution and then with collagenase solution. The solutions were collected in clean vials and filtered. The filters were examined for bone black particles by light microscopy, as were filters through which solution blanks (negative controls) had been passed. Particles resembling bone black were found on all filters. There were no appreciable differences in the number or shape of these particles between the solution-blank filters and the oviduct-flush filters. The particles on both the solution-blank filters and on the oviduct-flush filters probably originated from environmental contamination by ubiquitous carbon particles. While these results suggested that no translocation took place, translocation could not be ruled out with certainty in the absence of quantitative analyses. A more definitive pilot study was then conducted with two dosed monkeys and one control, using talc labelled by neutron activation to circumvent the problem of environmental contamination. Gamma-Ray analysis of tissue and peritoneal lavage samples for the radionuclides /sup 46/Sc, /sup 59/Fe and /sup 60/Co indicated that no measurable quantities (i.e. greater than 0.5 micrograms) of talc translocated from the deposition site in the vagina to the uterine cavity and beyond.

  16. Evidence that endogenous relaxin promotes growth of the vagina and uterus during pregnancy in gilts.

    Min, G; Hartzog, M G; Jennings, R L; Winn, R J; Sherwood, O D


    Recently, it was demonstrated that endogenous relaxin promotes growth of the vagina during the second half of pregnancy in rats and that administration of porcine relaxin promotes growth of the uterus in nonpregnant or early pregnant gilts. This study examined the effects of circulating relaxin on growth of both the vagina and uterus during the last two thirds of the 114-day gestation period in gilts. Furthermore, this study employed an in vitro immunohistochemical localization technique to determine whether the vagina and uterus in pigs have specific relaxin-binding sites. Three groups of pregnant gilts were used: sham-ovariectomized controls (group C; n = 8), ovariectomized progesterone-treated (group OP; n = 6), and ovariectomized progesterone- plus relaxin-treated (group OPR; n = 7). Gilts were either sham ovariectomized or ovariectomized on day 40 of gestation. Hormone replacement therapy with progesterone (group OP), progesterone plus relaxin (group OPR), or hormone vehicles (group C) began on day 38 (progesterone) or day 40 (relaxin) and continued until day 110. On day 110, the vagina and uterus were collected, and wet weight, dry weight, and percent hydration were determined. Small pieces (2-3 cm3) of the vagina and uterus from groups C and OP were frozen and cryosectioned for the immunohistochemical localization of relaxin-binding sites. Relaxin promoted growth of both the vagina and uterus. The wet weights of both the vagina and uterus in relaxin-deficient gilts (group OP) were lower (P pig. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that both the vagina and uterus contain specific and saturable relaxin-binding sites in epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cells associated with blood vessels. We conclude that these cells probably initiate relaxin's effects on the vagina and uterus of the pregnant pig.

  17. Estrogen enhances cystatin C expression in the macaque vagina.

    Slayden, Ov D; Hettrich, Kevin; Carroll, Rebecca S; Otto, Lesley N; Clark, Amanda L; Brenner, Robert M


    Cystatin C is a secreted inhibitor of cysteine proteinases that participates in extracellular matrix remodeling. Whether hormones affect its expression in the vagina was unknown. Consequently, we examined the effects of estradiol (E(2)), progesterone (P), and raloxifene on vaginal cystatin C in rhesus macaques. In experiment 1, ovariectomized animals were treated sequentially with E(2) (14 d) and E(2) + P (14 d) to induce 28-d menstrual cycles. Vaginal samples were collected on d 6, 8, 14, and 28 of the induced cycle. Some cycled animals were deprived of both E(2) + P for 28 d. In experiment 2, ovariectomized animals were treated for 5 months with E(2) alone, E(2) + P, raloxifene, or left untreated. Total RNA from the vaginal wall was analyzed for the cystatin C transcript with a commercially prepared cDNA array and semiquantitative RT-PCR. Vaginal cryosections were analyzed by in situ hybridization for cystatin C transcript and by immunocytochemistry for the protein. E(2) treatment significantly (5-fold; P pelvic floor prolapse.

  18. Anatomic and histological characteristics of vagina reconstructed by McIndoe method

    Kozarski Jefta


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Congenital absence of vagina is known from ancient times of Greek. According to the literature data, incidence is 1/4 000 to 1/20 000. Treatment of this anomaly includes non-operative and operative procedures. McIndoe procedure uses split skin graft by Thiersch. The aim of this study was to establish anatomic and histological characteristics of vagina reconstructed by McIndoe method in Mayer Küster-Rockitansky Hauser (MKRH syndrome and compare them with normal vagina. Methods. The study included 21 patients of 18 and more years with congenital anomaly known as aplasio vaginae within the Mayer Küster-Rockitansky Hauser syndrome. The patients were operated on by the plastic surgeon using the McIndoe method. The study was a retrospective review of the data from the history of the disease, objective and gynecological examination and cytological analysis of native preparations of vaginal stain (Papanicolau. Comparatively, 21 females of 18 and more years with normal vaginas were also studied. All the subjects were divided into the groups R (reconstructed and C (control and the subgroups according to age up to 30 years (1 R, 1C, from 30 to 50 (2R, 2C, and over 50 (3R, 3C. Statistical data processing was performed by using the Student's t-test and Mann-Writney U-test. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The results show that there are differences in the depth and the wideness of reconstructed vagina, but the obtained values are still in the range of normal ones. Cytological differences between a reconstructed and the normal vagina were found. Conclusion. A reconstructed vagina is smaller than the normal one regarding depth and width, but within the range of normal values. A split skin graft used in the reconstruction, keeps its own cytological, i.e. histological and, so, biological characteristics.

  19. Surgical treatment of a huge submucous myoma prolapsed into the vagina

    AKDAŞ REİS, Yıldız; AKDAĞ CIRIK, Derya; TAŞCI, Tolga; SALİHOĞLU, Kerime; Boran, Nurettin; TULUNAY, Gokhan; Turan, Taner


    Nearly 5% of all myomas are originated from the smooth muscle of uterus, beneath the endometrium and called as ‘submucous myoma’. Submucous myomas distort the cavity when they enlarge and may even pass the cervix and reach to the vagina by uterine contractions. The most common treatment of the myomas prolapsing the vagina is the vaginal myomectomy. However, abdominal treatment may be necessary when the submucous myom grow within the cavity and enlarge the uterus. This paper presents a case of...


    Martínez-Torres, Martín


    Las hembras de muchas especies de lagartijas tienen la capacidad de almacenar espermatozoides en un sistema de túbulos especiales presentes en la vagina. Sin embargo, en otras especies los espermatozoides se almacenan en el infundíbulo. Se utilizó una técnica sencilla y rápida para determinar sí la vagina de Sceloporus torquatus tiene la capacidad de almacenar espermatozoides. En las hembras de esta especie, los espermatozoides son retenidos al menos 167 días en un sistema de túbulos especial...

  1. Congenital abnormality of the vagina complicated by haemato-pyocolpos in a 1-year labrador retriever.

    Alonge, S; Romussi, S; Grieco, V; Luvoni, G C


    A 1-year-old female Labrador retriever was referred with a few days history of haematic-like vulvar discharge. Physical examination, vaginal inspection and palpation did not reveal any remarkable finding. Transabdominal ultrasound showed echogenic fluid accumulation in the vagina suggesting haemato-pyocolpos. An exploratory laparotomy was performed: a well-delimited ectasic vagina was identified. Ovariohysterectomy and partial vaginectomy and vaginoplasty were performed to spay the bitch and to remove the ectasic vagina. Post-operative recovery and 12-month follow-up were uneventful. Clinical, morphological and histological findings were consistent with a congenital abnormality of the muscular layer of the vagina complicated by haemato-pyocolpos. The disorganization of the vaginal tunica muscularis may have acted as locus minoris resistentiae in the vaginal wall. The organ was dilated and atonic due to the gradual accumulation of physiological fluids complicated by an overgrowth of genital bacteria. This congenital disorder has to be taken into account as differential diagnosis of haemato-pyocolpos with vaginal discharge in young bitches.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma bovigenitalium Strain HAZ 596 from a Bovine Vagina in Japan

    Nagai, Kazuya; Murakami, Kenji


    ABSTRACT Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, a mycoplasmal species involved in various bovine diseases, including genital disease and mastitis, is also a commensal microorganism that inhabits the bovine genital organs. We present here the complete 853,553-bp genome sequence of M. bovigenitalium strain HAZ 596, which was isolated from a bovine vagina in Japan. PMID:28183755

  3. Safety, Efficiency, and Outcomes of Perineoplasty: Treatment of the Sensation of a Wide Vagina

    Mustafa Ulubay


    Full Text Available Background. The sensation of a wide vagina is a common problem for women after childbirth. As its etiology is unknown, there is no uniform management strategy. We hypothesized that, rather than vaginal laxity, the cause was level 3 pelvic support deficiency. Methods. This retrospective study compared preoperative and postoperative genital hiatus length, perineal length, and total vaginal length in patients treated with perineoplasty for the sensation of a wide vagina. A telephone survey was used to determine postoperative patient and male partner satisfaction rates. Results. Mean age of patients was 48 (26–68 years; mean body mass index (BMI was 25.3 (17.6–33.2; and mean parity was 2.5 (2–5. Preoperative and postoperative genital hiatus, perineal length, and total vaginal length were 4.62 and 3.18 (p<0.01, 3.06 and 4.04 (p<0.01, and 9.43 and 9.43 (p=0.882, respectively. At the 6-month follow-up, the success rate of the perineoplasty procedure was 87.9%; according to a visual analog scale, partner satisfaction rate was 92.6%. Ten percent (n=4 of patients said they experienced dyspareunia during sexual intercourse at the introitus of the vagina. Conclusion. With low dyspareunia rates, low complication rates, high patient satisfaction, and satisfactory anatomical success, perineoplasty can be considered successful for treatment of the sensation of a wide vagina.

  4. Foreign body in vagina: a cause of persistent vaginal discharge in children

    P. Pallavee


    Full Text Available Vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge in pediatric patients, while not uncommon, is commonly believed to be due to such causes as absence of the protective effect on the vaginal mucosa. However, other causes need also to be kept in mind. We report a case of chronic vaginal discharge in a 5 yr old, who had retained a foreign body in her vagina for 6-7 months. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 224-225

  5. Bacterial flora of semen collected from Danish warmblood stallions by artificial vagina.

    Madsen, M; Christensen, P


    Semen samples were collected from 21 Danish Warmblood stallions by the Colorado artificial vagina (Colorado AV, 14 samples) or by the Missouri artificial vagina (Missouri AV, 7 samples). The semen was examined bacteriologically by direct plating (DP) on blood agar plates, and by plating of semen swabs stored in Stuart's transport media (TM) at 4 degrees C for 1-4 days. No significant differences were observed between results obtained by DP and cultures of identical TM samples. Of the 21 samples examined, only 1 TM (4.8%) and 2 DP samples (9.5%) were sterile, while the rest yielded a predominantly mixed flora comprising 1 to 4 bacterial genera. The natural flora was dominated by coagulase-negative staphylococci (Staphylococcus lentus, S. capitis, S. haemolyticus, S. xylosus) (16/21 = 76%), coryneforms (11/21 = 52%) and alpha-hemolytic streptococci and lactobacilli (7/21 = 33%). Potential venereal pathogens were isolated from 7 stallions (33%). Beta-hemolytic streptococci were found in 4 stallions used for natural service, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype 6 (2 samples) and Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae capsule type K5 (1 sample) were isolated from 3 stallions used exclusively for artificial insemination. The role of the stallion as a carrier of potential venereal pathogens, and the artificial vagina as a source of contamination, is discussed in the context of mare endometritis.

  6. Compensatory structural adaptive modifications of vagina in response to functional demand in goat.

    Hussin, Amer M; Zaid, Nazih W; Hussain, S O


    Vaginal biopsies and smears were collected from ten adult local healthy goats. Routine histological methods were carried out on vaginal biopsies and then stained with PAS stain. The smears were stained with Methylene blue. All samples were inspected under light microscope. The present study found that many constituents of the wall of the vagina, which have an important functional role, were absent; among these were the vaginal glands, goblet cells, muscularis mucosa, and lymphatic nodules. On the other hand, vagina showed special compensatory histological mechanisms, namely, the deep epithelial folds, the well-developed germinated stratum basale, the apparent basement membrane, and the profuse defensive cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and mast cells. The general stains of this study could not recognize dendritic cells although they play an important functional role. Moreover, the herein study declared also that the vaginal smears showing many adaptive cellular mechanisms among these were, the keratinization, the process of sheet formation that lines the vaginal lumen, the process of metachromasia which is related to the cellular activity in protein synthesis, keratin, and finally the presence of endogenous microorganisms. It was concluded that all the above cellular compensatory adaptive mechanisms may compensate the lacking vaginal constituents and act to raise the immune response of the vagina.

  7. Cytokine activation during embryonic development and in hen ovary and vagina during reproductive age and Salmonella infection.

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G


    Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is usually associated with consumption of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) contaminated poultry meat or eggs. Contamination with SE is usually the result of infection of the digestive tract, or reproductive organs, especially the ovary and vagina. Thus, knowledge of endogenous innate immune mechanisms operating in the ovary and vagina of hen is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for triggering the immune response and inflammation in chicken to Salmonella infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of 11 proinflammatory cytokines in the chicken embryos during embryonic development, as well as in the hen ovary and vagina in vivo, to investigate whether sexual maturation affects their ovarian and vaginal mRNA abundance and to determine whether cytokine expression was constitutive or induced in the ovary and vagina as a response to SE infection. RT-PCR analysis revealed that several cytokines were expressed in the chicken embryos, and in the ovary and vagina of healthy birds. Expression of various cytokines during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated. In addition, a significant up-regulation of several cytokines in the ovary and vagina of sexually mature SE infected birds compared to healthy birds of the same age was observed. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the hen reproductive organs.

  8. [Life threatening postpartal haemorrhage after rupture of the vagina, uterine cervix, caesarean section or hysterectomy].

    Kozovski, I; Radoinova, D


    The authors discuss 10 cases--seven after vaginal and cervical rupture, 2 after Caesarean section and 1 after hysterectomy. Six of them died--5 after rupture of the vagina and cervix and one after Caesarean section. The lethal issue was avoidable in all cases because it was a result of untimely done or not done at all hysterectomy and other interventions, e.g., ligation of the hypogastric arteries, as well as of faulty surgical performance. Basic principles of surgical behavior in such cases are postulated.

  9. Congenital malformation of the vaginal orifice, imperforate vagina, in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Niimi, Kimie; Oguchi, Ayaka; Nishio, Kenji; Okano, Yasushi; Takahashi, Eiki


    The following is a report on a congenital vaginal malformation, imperforate vagina, in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). This anomaly was observed for the first time in an adult female in our research colony. There was no uterine and vaginal aplasia or atresia in her grossly normal genital tract. The plasma progesterone concentration suggested that the ovarian cycle had ceased. However, this may not be related to a functional anomaly, but rather to suppressed ovulation resulting from subordination to cagemates considering the various stages of follicular development observed.

  10. Radiation therapy for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina: Stanford University experience

    Spirtos, N.M.; Doshi, B.P.; Kapp, D.S.; Teng, N. (Stanford Univ. Medical Center, CA (USA))


    A retrospective analysis of 38 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina seen at Stanford University Medical Center from 1958 to 1984 was undertaken. Patients were analyzed with regard to symptoms, stage, treatment techniques, survival, patterns of failure, and complications. Eighteen patients were classified as FIGO Stage I, 5 as Stage II, 10 as Stage III, and 5 as Stage IV. The 5-year disease-free survival was 94% in Stage I, 80% in Stage II, 50% in Stage III, and 0% in Stage IV. Five patients (13%) had eight major complications secondary to treatment. Only 2 of 23 patients with Stage I or Stage II disease developed a recurrence. There was a significant correlation between dose and response in patients treated with radiotherapy.

  11. Struvite calculus in the vagina of a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    McFee, Wayne E; Carl A, Osborne


    On 27 January 2000, a struvite calculus was observed in the vagina during necropsy of a 138-cm-long female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) collected from the Stono River, South Carolina (USA). Vaginal calculi have been reported in other species of cetaceans but not in bottlenose dolphins. Urinary tract infection might have been an underlying cause of the calculus. While urinary tract inflammation was not detected by light microscopic evaluation of sections of the urinary tract, it is conceivable that sufficient time had lapsed following voiding of the calculus through the urethra for urinary tract infection to have resolved. To further define the prevalence and significance of urolithiasis, prosectors of dead stranded marine mammals are encouraged to closely observe their urinary and genital tracts for calculi and to submit them for quantitative analysis.

  12. Genome Sequences of 15 Gardnerella vaginalis Strains Isolated from the Vaginas of Women with and without Bacterial Vaginosis

    Robinson, Lloyd S.; Perry, Justin; Lek, Sai; Wollam, Aye; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George


    Gardnerella vaginalis is a predominant species in bacterial vaginosis, a dysbiosis of the vagina that is associated with adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of 15 Gardnerella vaginalis strains (now available through BEI Resources) isolated from women with and without bacterial vaginosis. PMID:27688326

  13. Recurrent paediatric pinworm infection of the vagina as a potential reservoir for Enterobius vermicularis.

    Kashyap, B; Samantray, J C; Kumar, S; Jhamb, R; Singh, A K; Kaur, I R


    Enterobius vermicularis infection remains one of the most common parasitic infections, particularly prevalent in children. Enterobiasis, although not usually dangerous, may cause significant morbidity. Elimination of the parasite from a family or an institution often poses problems, either because of an incomplete cure or re-infection. While there have been limited reports of ectopic enterobiasis throughout the world, ours is probably one of the rarest reports of recurrent vaginal E. vermicularis infection in the absence of any gastrointestinal symptoms despite complete treatment. A 4-year-old girl presented with recurrent episodes of vulval itching on 3-4 occasions over 2 years. There was no pruritis ani nor urinary/gastrointestinal complaints. The vulva was inflamed with 4-5 living worms, 6-7 mm in length, emerging from the anterior vaginal fornix, but with no vaginal discharge. Direct microscopic examination of vaginal swabs revealed adult worms of Enterobius but no eggs. Repeated stool samples from the patient, parents and a sibling were negative. The patient was treated orally with 100 mg of mebendazole for 3 days followed by two more courses at 3-week intervals over a period of 3 months. Recurrent vaginal enterobiasis despite complete treatment and in the absence of any gastrointestinal involvement suggests that the vagina is a potential reservoir for E. vermicularis, which supports the theory of rare ectopic enterobiasis through the ascending pathway of the female genital tract.

  14. Paraganglioma of the vagina: a case report and review of the literature

    Cai T


    Full Text Available Tao Cai,1 Yucong Li,2 Qingming Jiang,3 Dong Wang,2 Yu Huang2 1Department of Dermatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, 2Department of Gynecologic Oncology, 3Department of Pathology, Chongqing Cancer Research Institute, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Vaginal paraganglioma is a rare and unusual tumor occurring in the vaginal wall. It is a solitary primary paraganglioma, especially in atypical sites. Herein, we report an unusual case of a 17-year-old woman who had not experienced vomiting, or hypertension. She was found to have an immobile solid mass in the right side of her vaginal wall. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans revealed a well-defined solid ovoid mass adjacent to the bladder and pelvic floor. Tumor markers were within the normal range. A transient blood pressure increase occurred during the biopsy. After oral administration of antihypertensive drugs, surgery was performed to completely remove the mass. Histopathological examination indicated that it was a paraganglioma of the vagina. Repeat computed tomography examination did not reveal any local recurrence or distant metastasis during the 12-month follow-up period. Keywords: vaginal paraganglioma, neuroendocrine tumor, clinical features, treatment

  15. The effect of hyaluronic acid (Cicatridine) on healing and regeneration of the uterine cervix and vagina and vulvar dystrophy therapy.

    Markowska, J; Madry, R; Markowska, A


    Procedures aimed at the treatment of precancerous lesions and ectopia on the uterine cervix are frequently linked to lesions of anatomical structures. The application of hyaluronic acid (Cicatridine vaginal ovules) promotes accelerated healing of the uterine cervix and acquisition of a normal shape in the uterine cervix canal. Local application of hyaluronic acid in the vagina following radiotherapy due to cancer in the uterine cervix or endometrium favourably affects the healing of post-irradiation lesions in the vagina and improves quality of life. Over 90% of patients responded positively to the application of hyaluronic acid in the form of a cream on dystrophic lesions in the vulva. Hyaluronic acid aids the healing process of post-procedural wounds in the uterine cervix, following radiotherapy applied due to cancer of the uterine cervix, endometrium and in vulvar dystrophy.

  16. Sugar expression in the mucosae of the canine uterus and vagina during the oestrous cycle and with pyometra.

    Yasunaga, Y; Takeuchi, T; Shimokawa, T; Asano, A; Nabeta, M; Ohta, Y


    The pathogenesis of canine pyometra is still unclear, but bacterial infection of the endometrium, mediated by bacterial lectins, is suspected to induce pyometra. The aim of this study was to investigate sugar expression in the mucosae of the uterus and vagina of healthy dogs with normal oestrous cycles and in dogs with pyometra, using a panel of lectins to investigate the pathogenesis of pyometra. In dogs with pyometra, the uterine and vaginal mucosae were positive for lectins that selectively bind to glucose or mannose, especially during days 7-10 and 30-40 of dioestrus. These results suggest that temporal changes in sugar expression in the uterus and vagina present an opportunity for pathogens to infect the endometrium, causing pyometra.

  17. "Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vagina: HPV Detection, p16INK4A Overexpression and Clinicopathological Correlations"

    Fuste, Victoria; Del Pino, Marta; Perez, Assumpta; Garcia, Angel; Torne, Aureli; Pahisa, Jaume; Ordi, Jaume


    Abstract Aim: To determine the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina (SCCVa), and to evaluate its clinico-pathological significance. Methods: All cases of SCCVa diagnosed over a 15 year period from two hospitals in Barcelona, Spain (n=32) were retrieved. Patients with a history of carcinoma of the cervix diagnosed less than 5 years before were excluded. HPV was detected and typed by PCR using the SPF10 primers. Immunohistochemistry for...

  18. [Case report of live threatening complications due to self insertion of foreign body into the vagina for masturbation purpose].

    Kuzaka, Bolesław; Kobryń, Andrzej; Niemierko, Maciej; Czaplicki, Maciej


    Authors have reported a case report of life threatening complications due to insertion of foreign bodies into the vagina, because of masturbation purpose. In this case subsequently came to perforation of the urinary bladder by the huge calculus that developed over the foreign body, and next to the peritoneum with development peritonitis and acute renal insufficiency with the need of dialysotherapy. After a number of surgical operations, the patient with a definitive percutaneous nephrostomy was discharged.


    Radha Rani


    Full Text Available Vaginal pessaries still have a role in the management of uterine prolapse, particularly in elderly patients. The presence of a foreign body or device in the female pelvis can be a potential source of confusion to the radiologists, particularly to the inexperienced reader. We present a rare C.T. scan finding of a hard fruit kept in vagina 5yrs back for uterine prolapse.

  20. Topometric preparation and interstitial gamma-therapy of patients with recurrencies and metastases of uterine cancer to the vagina

    Bal' ter, S.A.; Androsov, N.S.; Strel' nitskaya, T.A.; Shpikalov, V.L. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr)


    The developed technique of preradiation topometry in patients with recurrencies and metastases of uterine cancer to the vagina allows to visualize boundaries of soft-tissue tumor formation and to specify its localization, sizes and relation with urethra, rectum, urinary bladder. Results of topometric investigation are used for individual planning of interstitial radiotherapy: fabrication of fixing instruments, choice of a number of sources, their activity, position, and exposure duration.

  1. Antagonistic Potential against Pathogenic Microorganisms and Hydrogen Peroxide Production of Indigenous Lactobacilli Isolated from Vagina of Chinese Pregnant Women



    Objective To investigate the indigenous lactobacilli from the vagina of pregnant women and to screen the isolates with antagonistic potential against pathogenic microorganisms. Methods The strains were isolated from pregnant women's vagina and identified using the APISOCH system. The ability of the isolates to produce hydrogen peroxide was analyzed semi-quantitatively using the TMB-HRP-MRS agar. The antagonistic effects of the isolates on pathogenic microorganisms were determined with a double layer agar plate. Results One hundred and three lactobacilli strains were isolated from 60 samples of vaginal secretion from healthy pregnant women. Among them, 78 strains could produce hydrogen peroxide, in which 68%, 80%, 80%, and 88% had antagonistic effects against Candida albicans CMCC98001, Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003, Escherichia coli CMCC44113, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMCC10110, respectively. Conclusion The recovery of hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli decreases with the increasing pregnant age and time. The most commonly isolated species from vagina of Chinese pregnant women are Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus crispatus. Most of L. Acidophilus and L. Crispatus produce a high H2O2 level.

  2. In Utero Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Lead to Long-term Deleterious Effects in the Vagina

    G. Schönfelder


    Full Text Available The origins of the “endocrine disrupter hypothesis” may be traced to reports on adolescent daughters born to women who had taken the highly potent synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, while pregnant, and who developed a rare form of vaginal cancer and adenocarcinoma. Bisphenol A (BPA is an estrogenic chemical that is highly employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products. Some observational studies have suggested that the amounts of BPA to which we are exposed could alter the reproductive organs of developing rodents. We examined the influence of BPA at low doses to address the questions of (a whether in utero exposure affects the vagina of the offspring and (b which mechanisms cause the toxic effects. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered either 0.1 (low dose or 50 mg/kg per day BPA, the no observed effect level, or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17αethinyl estradiol by gavage. Striking morphological changes were observed in the vagina of postpubertal offspring leading us to examine vaginal estrogen receptor (ER expression because BPA binds to the ERα, which is important for growth of the vaginal epithelium. We show that the full-length ERα is not expressed during estrus in the vagina of female offspring exposed to either dose of BPA when compared to the control group, whereas ERα expression does not differ from the control group during the diestrus stage. ERa downregulation seems to be responsible for the observed altered vaginal morphology.

  3. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control

    Shaikh, Rubina; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Kedar K., Deodhar; Bharat, Rekhi; Krishna, C. Murali


    In vivo Raman spectroscopy is being projected as a new, noninvasive method for cervical cancer diagnosis. In most of the reported studies, normal areas in the cancerous cervix were used as control. However, in the Indian subcontinent, the majority of cervical cancers are detected at advanced stages, leaving no normal sites for acquiring control spectra. Moreover, vagina and ectocervix are reported to have similar biochemical composition. Thus, in the present study, we have evaluated the feasibility of classifying normal and cancerous conditions in the Indian population and we have also explored the utility of the vagina as an internal control. A total of 228 normal and 181 tumor in vivo Raman spectra were acquired from 93 subjects under clinical supervision. The spectral features in normal conditions suggest the presence of collagen, while DNA and noncollagenous proteins were abundant in tumors. Principal-component linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) yielded 97% classification efficiency between normal and tumor groups. An analysis of a normal cervix and vaginal controls of cancerous and noncancerous subjects suggests similar spectral features between these groups. PC-LDA of tumor, normal cervix, and vaginal controls further support the utility of the vagina as an internal control. Overall, findings of the study corroborate with earlier studies and facilitate objective, noninvasive, and rapid Raman spectroscopic-based screening/diagnosis of cervical cancers.

  4. Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina. Diagnosis and multimodal treatment of a rare tumor and analysis of worldwide experience

    Mueller, Iris; Jacobs, Volker R.; Bogner, Gerhard; Staudach, Alfons; Koch, Horst; Wolfrum-Ristau, Pia; Schausberger, Christiane; Fischer, Thorsten [Paracelsus Medical University (PMU), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN), Salzburg (Austria); Kametriser, Gerhard; Sedlmayer, Felix [Paracelsus Medical University (PMU), Department of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)


    Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina is an extremely rare tumor of the female genital tract, with only a few cases reported so far worldwide. Consequently, there is no established standard treatment and limited knowledge about the prognosis and biologic behavior of vaginal mesonephric adenocarcinoma. This report documents a new case of vaginal mesonephric adenocarcinoma diagnosed in a 54-year-old woman, and analyzes this in the context of all previously published cases. MRI demonstrated that the 2.5 x 1.8 cm tumor of the vaginal wall was invading urethra and bladder. Following surgical excision, histologic analysis determined mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina, stage pT2 R1. In order to avoid the mutilating extended surgery which would be required to reach R0 and considerable impairment of quality of life, adjuvant radiochemotherapy was administered with external radiation and brachytherapy, including 5 cycles of cisplatin (40 mg/m{sup 2}) for radiosensitization. After 4 years of continuous oncologic follow-up, the patient is alive and clinically free of disease. In this case it was shown that adjuvant radiochemotherapy with radiation and brachytherapy was effective to manage the surgical R1 situation and maintain the patient's life quality. More published cases reports are needed to gradually substantiate optimal treatment strategies. (orig.) [German] Das mesonephrische Adenokarzinom der Vagina ist ein aeusserst seltener Tumor des weiblichen Genitaltrakts. In der internationalen Literatur finden sich nur wenig gut dokumentierte Faelle. Das biologische Verhaltensmuster dieses Tumors und dessen Prognose sind weitgehend unbekannt. In diesem Bericht wird ein neuer Fall einer 54-jaehrigen Frau mit einem mesonephrischen Adenokarzinom der Vagina vorgestellt und unter Beruecksichtigung aller bisher publizierten Faelle analysiert. Bei dem 2,5 x 1,8 cm grossen Tumor der Vaginalwand zeigte sich in der Magnetresonanztomographie eine Infiltration der Urethra und

  5. The Lactobacillus flora in vagina and rectum of fertile and postmenopausal healthy Swedish women

    Stjernquist Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactobacillus species are the most often found inhabitants of vaginal ecosystem of fertile women. In postmenopausal women with low oestrogen levels, Lactobacillus flora is diminishing or absent. However, no studies have been performed to investigate the correlation between oestrogen levels and the lactobacilli in the gut. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation in healthy women between vaginal and rectal microbial flora as well as possible variations with hormone levels. Methods Vaginal and rectal smears were taken from 20 healthy fertile women, average 40 years (range 28-49 years, in two different phases of the menstrual cycle, and from 20 postmenopausal women, average 60 years (range 52-85 years. Serum sex hormone levels were analyzed. Bacteria from the smears isolated on Rogosa Agar were grouped by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA and identified by multiplex PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Lactobacillus crispatus was more often found in the vaginal flora of fertile women than in that of postmenopausal (p = 0.036. Fifteen of 20 fertile women had lactobacilli in their rectal smears compared to 10 postmenopausal women (p = 0.071. There was no correlation between the number of bacteria in vagina and rectum, or between the number of bacteria and hormonal levels. Neither could any association between the presence of rectal lactobacilli and hormonal levels be found. Conclusion Lactobacillus crispatus was more prevalent in the vaginal flora of fertile women, whereas the Lactobacillus flora of rectum did not correlate to the vaginal flora nor to hormonal levels.

  6. Clinical holistic medicine: holistic sexology and acupressure through the vagina (Hippocratic pelvic massage).

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Omar, Hatim A; Merrick, Joav


    Many gynecological and sexological problems (like urine incontinence, chronic pelvic pains, vulvodynia, and lack of lust, excitement, and orgasm) are resistant to standard medical treatment. In our work at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen, we have found that vaginal acupressure, or Hippocratic pelvic massage, can help some of these problems. Technically, it is a very simple procedure as it corresponds to the explorative phase of the standard pelvic examination, supplemented with the patient's report on the feelings it provokes and the processing and integration of these feelings. Sometimes it can be very difficult to control the emotions released by the technique, i.e., regression to earlier traumas from childhood sexual abuse. This review discusses the theory behind vaginal acupressure, ethical aspects, and presentation of a case story. This procedure helped the patient to become present in her pelvis and to integrate old traumas with painful emotions. Holistic gynecology and sexology can help the patient to identify and let go of negative feelings, beliefs, and attitudes related to sex, gender, sexual organs, body, and soul at large. Shame, guilt, helplessness, fear, disgust, anxiety, anger, hatred, and other strong feelings are almost always an important part of a sexual or functional problem as these feelings are "held" by the tissue of the pelvis and sexual organs. Acupressure through the vagina/pelvic massage must be done with great care by an experienced physician, with a third person present, after obtaining consent and the necessary trust of the patient. It must be followed by conversational therapy and further holistic existential processing.

  7. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Sexology and Acupressure Through the Vagina (Hippocratic Pelvic Massage

    Søren Ventegodt


    Full Text Available Many gynecological and sexological problems (like urine incontinence, chronic pelvic pains, vulvodynia, and lack of lust, excitement, and orgasm are resistant to standard medical treatment. In our work at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen, we have found that vaginal acupressure, or Hippocratic pelvic massage, can help some of these problems. Technically, it is a very simple procedure as it corresponds to the explorative phase of the standard pelvic examination, supplemented with the patient's report on the feelings it provokes and the processing and integration of these feelings. Sometimes it can be very difficult to control the emotions released by the technique, i.e., regression to earlier traumas from childhood sexual abuse. This review discusses the theory behind vaginal acupressure, ethical aspects, and presentation of a case story. This procedure helped the patient to become present in her pelvis and to integrate old traumas with painful emotions. Holistic gynecology and sexology can help the patient to identify and let go of negative feelings, beliefs, and attitudes related to sex, gender, sexual organs, body, and soul at large. Shame, guilt, helplessness, fear, disgust, anxiety, anger, hatred, and other strong feelings are almost always an important part of a sexual or functional problem as these feelings are “held” by the tissue of the pelvis and sexual organs. Acupressure through the vagina/pelvic massage must be done with great care by an experienced physician, with a third person present, after obtaining consent and the necessary trust of the patient. It must be followed by conversational therapy and further holistic existential processing.

  8. Seminal plasma protein profiles of ejaculates obtained by internal artificial vagina and electroejaculation in Brahman bulls.

    Rego, J P A; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; McGowan, M R; Boe-Hansen, G B


    The present study was conducted to investigate if differences exist in the seminal plasma protein profile from mature Brahman bulls using two methods of semen collection: internal artificial vagina (IAV) and electroejaculation (EEJ). Semen was collected four times from three bulls on the same day and parameters were assessed immediately post-collection. Seminal plasma proteins were evaluated by 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Semen volume was greater (P < 0.05) for EEJ (4.6 ± 0.35 mL) than for IAV (1.86 ± 0.24 mL) but sperm concentration was greater in IAV (1505 ± 189 × 10(6) sperm/mL) than in EEJ samples (344 ± 87 × 10(6) sperm/mL). Sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm were not different between treatments. Total concentration of seminal plasma proteins was greater for samples collected by IAV as compared to EEJ (19.3 ± 0.9 compared with 13.0 ± 1.8 mg/mL, P < 0.05; respectively). Based on 2-D gels, 22 spots had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from IAV samples, corresponding to 21 proteins identified as transferrin, albumin, epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase, among others. Thirty-three spots, corresponding to 26 proteins, had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from EEJ samples. These proteins were identified as spermadhesin-1, Bovine Sperm Protin 1, 3 and 5 isoforms, angiogenin-1, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, clusterin, nucleobindin-1, cathepsins, spermadhesin Z13, annexins, among others. Thus, proteins in greater amounts in samples obtained by IAV and EEJ were mainly of epididymal origin and accessory sex glands, respectively.

  9. Unravelling the Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Biofilm: A Multiplex Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes.

    Hardy, Liselotte; Jespers, Vicky; Dahchour, Nassira; Mwambarangwe, Lambert; Musengamana, Viateur; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Crucitti, Tania


    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition defined by increased vaginal discharge without significant inflammation, is characterized by a change in the bacterial composition of the vagina. Lactobacillus spp., associated with a healthy vaginal microbiome, are outnumbered by BV-associated organisms. These bacteria could form a polymicrobial biofilm which allows them to persist in spite of antibiotic treatment. In this study, we examined the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae in vaginal biofilms using Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) probes targeting these bacteria. For this purpose, we developed three new PNA probes for A. vaginae. The most specific A. vaginae probe, AtoITM1, was selected and then used in an assay with two existing probes, Gard162 and BacUni-1, to evaluate multiplex FISH on clinical samples. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as the gold standard, we demonstrated a sensitivity of 66.7% (95% confidence interval: 54.5% - 77.1%) and a specificity of 89.4% (95% confidence interval: 76.1% - 96%) of the new AtoITM1 probe. FISH enabled us to show the presence of a polymicrobial biofilm in bacterial vaginosis, in which Atopobium vaginae is part of a Gardnerella vaginalis-dominated biofilm. We showed that the presence of this biofilm is associated with high bacterial loads of A. vaginae and G. vaginalis.

  10. El simbolismo de la vagina terrestre: metaforas de la fertilidad, el nacimiento y la muerte en mesoamerica

    Báez-Jorge, Félix


    Note portant sur l'auteur REFERENTES MÍTICOS Y CONTEXTOS SIMBÓLICOS En este ensayo realizo una nueva lectura de registros etnográficos, arqueológicos, epigráficos y documentales en torno al simbolismo de la vagina terrestre en el ámbito de la cosmovisión mesoamericana. Lo conceptualizo en tanto condensación dialéctica de diversos significados expresados en imágenes análogas. Incursiono en relatos míticos convergentes, puentes simbólicos entre la mujer y la tierra, pretendiendo trazar un arco ...

  11. Dosimetric evaluation of a combination of brachytherapy applicators for uterine cervix cancer with involvement of the distal vagina; Avaliacao dosimetrica de uma combinacao de aplicadores para braquiterapia de tumores do colo uterino com acometimento da porcao distal da vagina

    Guimaraes, Roger Guilherme Rodrigues [Real e Benemerita Sociedade Portuguesa de Beneficencia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia Estereotactica; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade; Stuart, Silvia Radwanski; Rubo, Rodrigo Augusto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia], e-mail:; Seraide, Rodrigo Migotto [Centro de Oncologia Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    Objective: To evaluate an alternative brachytherapy technique for uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina, without increasing the risk of toxicity. Materials And Methods: Theoretical study comparing three different high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy applicators: intrauterine tandem and vaginal cylinder (TC); tandem/ring applicator combined with vaginal cylinder (TR+C); and a virtual applicator combining both the tandem/ring and vaginal cylinder in a single device (TRC). Prescribed doses were 7 Gy at point A, and 5 Gy on the surface or at a 5 mm depth of the vaginal mucosa. Doses delivered to the rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon were kept below the tolerance limits. Volumes covered by the isodoses, respectively, 50% (V50), 100% (V100), 150% (V150) and 200% (V200) were compared. Results: Both the combined TR+C and TRC presented a better dose distribution as compared with the TC applicator. The TR+C dose distribution was similar to the TRC dose, with V150 and V200 being about 50% higher for TR+C (within the cylinder). Conclusion: Combined TR+C in a two-time single application may represent an alternative therapy technique for patients affected by uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina. (author)

  12. Ultrastructural study of the neovagina following the utilization of human amniotic membrane for treatment of congenital absence of the vagina

    L.F. Bleggi-Torres


    Full Text Available We present an ultrastructural study of the utilization of human amniotic membrane in the treatment of congenital absence of the vagina in 10 patients. All patients were surgically treated with application of an amniotic membrane graft using the modified McIndoe and Bannister technique. Sixty days after surgery, samples of the vaginal neo-epithelium were collected for transmission electron microscopy analysis. The ultrastructural findings consisted of a lining of mature squamous epithelium indicating the occurrence of metaplasia of the amniotic epithelium into the vaginal epithelium. The cells were arranged in layers as in the normal vaginal epithelium, i.e., superficial, intermediate and deep layers. There were desmosomes and cytoplasmic intermediate cytokeratin filaments, as well as some remnant features of the previous amniotic epithelium. These findings suggest that human amniotic membrane is able to complete metaplasia into squamous cells but the mechanism of this cellular transformation is unknown

  13. Analysis of study rezults of biopsies of the vagina mucous membrane in women with recurrent genital prolapse

    Banakhevich R.M.


    Full Text Available The study involved 53 women with recurrent genital prolapse. The average age of the women studied was 62,8±9,8 years, age of women of the control group was 57,2±6,3 years (p>0,05. Features of expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors levels, markers of cell proliferation and collagen in the biopsy of the vagina mucous membrane were estimated. In the vaginal mucosa of patients with recurrent prolapse expression of Ki-67 markers of proliferative activity was not established. According to the study general lowering of estrogen receptors by 76,2% in patients with recurrent genital prolapse was established, whereas in patients of the control group level of estrogen receptors in the unchanged epithelium and stroma was positive in 100% of cases. In patients with recurrent genital prolapse the decrease of expression of progesterone receptors by 83,4% was identified.

  14. Genital panics: constructing the vagina in women's qualitative narratives about pubic hair, menstrual sex, and vaginal self-image.

    Fahs, Breanne


    An emerging body of research targets women's relationship to their genitals, particularly as pubic hair removal and the promotion of female genital surgeries increase in popularity and visibility. This study asked women to discuss their subjective feelings about three related but distinct genital attitudes: pubic hair grooming, sex during menstruation, and genital/vaginal self-image. Specifically, this study applied thematic analysis to qualitative interviews with a community sample of 20 women (mean age=34, SD=13.35) from diverse ages, races, and sexual identity backgrounds to illuminate seven themes in women's narratives about their vaginas: (1) "dirty" or "gross"; (2) needing maintenance; (3) unknown or frustrating; (4) unnatural; (5) comparative; (6) ambivalent; (7) affirmative. Overwhelmingly, women used strong emotional language when discussing their genitals, often evoking descriptions of anxiety, excess, and need for control. Fusions between sexuality and body image, and connections between "genital panics" and internalized racism, sexism, and homophobia, also appeared.

  15. Characterization of microbial communities found in the human vagina by analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 16S rRNA genes

    Coolen, MJL; Post, E; Davis, CC; Forney, LJ


    To define and monitor the structure of microbial communities found in the human vagina, a cultivation-independent approach based on analyses of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of 16S rRNA genes was developed and validated. Sixteen bacterial strains commonly found in the h

  16. Diversity of the Lactobacillus group in breast milk and vagina of healthy women and potential role in the colonization of the infant gut

    Martin, R.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Smidt, H.; Rodriguez, J.M.


    Aims: To evaluate the diversity of the Lactobacillus group in breast milk and the vagina of healthy women and understand their potential role in the infant gut colonization using the 16S rRNA gene approaches. Methods and Results: Samples of breast milk, vaginal swabs and infant faeces were aseptical

  17. La vagina dentada: una interpretación de la Estela 25 de Izapa y las guacamayas del juego de pelota de Copán The dented vagina: an interpretation for Stela 25 of Izapa and ballcourt macaws of Copan

    Oswaldo Chinchilla Mazariegos


    Full Text Available Las aves representadas en la Estela 25 de Izapa y el juego de pelota de Copán forman el punto de partida para un examen del tema mitológico de la vagina dentada en Mesoamérica, y sus expresiones en el arte y la narrativa. Un amplio conjunto de narraciones mitológicas recopiladas en México y Guatemala sirve como base para un examen de la historia de Siete Guacamayo en el Popol Vuh, la cual se interpreta como una variante de un mito ampliamente difundido, relacionado con el origen del Sol y la Luna. La identificación de asuntos comunes, entre ellos el de la vagina dentada, refuerza la relación entre el mito del Popol Vuh y las representaciones de Izapa y Copán. A la vez, revela detalles poco conocidos sobre el simbolismo sexual presente en los mitos cosmogónicos mesoamericanos.The birds represented at Stela 25 of Izapa and Copan ball court are the starting point for the analysis of the mythological topic focused on the vagina dentata in Ancient Mesoamerica, as well as their expressions on art and narrative. A large body of mythological narratives is used as a basis for the examination of the "Siete Guacamayo" story included in the Popol Vuh, which is interpreted as part of a widely extended myth related with the creation of the Sun and the Moon. The identification of common issues, as the vagina dentata topic, strengthens the links between the Popol Vuh myth and the Izapa and Copan representations. It also reveals less known details on the sexual symbolism included in the Mesoamerican cosmogonic myths.

  18. A vagina-escola: seminário interdisciplinar sobre violência contra a mulher no ensino das profissões de saúde

    Carmen Simone Grilo Diniz


    Full Text Available O ensino de obstetrícia no Brasil tradicionalmente requer que o aluno realize um certo número de procedimentos para que seja avaliado, o que levou a uma cultura de ensino do uso não informado, não consentido, das vaginas das parturientes mais pobres, usuárias do SUS, pelos alunos de medicina e outras profissões, para o treinamento de habilidades cirúrgicas. Tais abusos permanecem normalizados por uma cultura institucional que não os reconhece como violações de direitos, promovendo um ensino de habilidades descolado do ensino de valores e dos direitos das usuárias. Para promover um diálogo entre os setores envolvidos, realizamos em março de 2015 o evento “A Vagina-escola: seminário sobre violência contra a mulher no ensino das profissões de saúde”. O seminário foi especialmente oportuno por acompanhar a recente declaração da Oorganização Mundial de Saúde (OMS “Prevenção e eliminação de abusos, desrespeito e maus-tratos durante o parto em instituições de saúde”, reforçando a urgência do tema na Saúde Coletiva.

  19. Reverse breech extraction versus the standard approach of pushing the impacted fetal head up through the vagina in caesarean section for obstructed labour: A randomised controlled trial.

    Nooh, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdeldayem, Hussein Mohammed; Ben-Affan, Othman


    The objective of this study was to assess effectiveness and safety of the reverse breech extraction approach in Caesarean section for obstructed labour, and compare it with the standard approach of pushing the fetal head up through the vagina. This randomised controlled trial included 192 women. In 96, the baby was delivered by the 'reverse breech extraction approach', and in the remaining 96, by the 'standard approach'. Extension of uterine incision occurred in 18 participants (18.8%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group, and 46 (47.9%) in the standard approach group (p = .0003). Two women (2.1%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group needed blood transfusion and 11 (11.5%) in the standard approach group (p = .012). Pyrexia developed in 3 participants (3.1%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group, and 19 (19.8%) in the standard approach group (p = .0006). Wound infection occurred in 2 women (2.1%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group, and 12 (12.5%) in the standard approach group (p = .007). Apgar score extraction approach group, and 21 (21.9%) in the standard approach group (p = .015). In conclusion, reverse breech extraction in Caesarean section for obstructed labour is an effective and safe alternative to the standard approach of pushing the fetal head up through the vagina.

  20. Abnormal excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding on Esmya-selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) in a symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid.

    Matytsina-Quinlan, Lyubov; Matytsina, Laura


    A woman in her late 40s presented with excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding and uterine fibroid. She reported excessive PV bleeding after starting Esmya; she was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department with profuse bleeding. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) developed after selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) administration in this symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid. The drug was withheld and surgical treatment considered. Progressive deterioration of PV bleeding after receiving SPRM led to an urgent laparoscopic total hysterectomy, which had to be postponed due to severe anaemia. Surgery took place regardless because the excessive bleeding continued. Histology revealed a 6 cm submucosal uterine fibroid (SMUF) and adenomyosis. Physicians prescribing SPRMs to stop PV bleeding should be aware of potential AUB, which could lead to urgent hysterectomy. The mechanism of action of SPRMs is not clearly understood. Awareness of the side effects of Esmya, such as AUB, must be kept in mind when administering SPRMs.

  1. Candida colonization of the vagina of HIV-seropositive pregnant women and their seronegative counterparts at selected health-care centers in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Blessing Itohan Ebhodaghe


    Full Text Available Background: Candida colonization of the vagina is a risk factor in pregnancy. Candida isolates have been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study determined the incidence of Candida species recovered from the vagina of HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative pregnant women that attended antenatal clinics in Akure, Ondo State between November 2014 and December 2015. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty pregnant women aged 19–43 participated in the study, which included 114 HIV-seropositive subjects with mean age 31.81 years and 126 HIV-seronegative subjects with mean age 29.05 years as controls. High vaginal swab was collected from each subject using sterile cotton-tipped applicator, streaked onto Mycological Agar - supplemented with streptomycin. Each sample was incubated 24 h for yeast and 72–120 h for the growth of molds. Yeast colonies that grew on Mycological Agar were picked and studied. Thereafter, colonies resembling Candida were identified using sugar assimilation and fermentation. Candida isolates were further speciated using Candida Ident Agar, modified. Antifungal resistance profile was identified with azoles, polyenes, echinocandins, flucytosine, and griseofulvin drugs. Antifungal resistant assay was determined by disc and agar well diffusion. Results: Altogether, 157 Candida isolates were recovered from HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects. Candida albicans constituted 46.5%, Candida dubliniensis and Candida glabrata 15.3% each, Candida krusei 12.1%, Candida spp. 5.7%, and Candida tropicalis and Candida pseudotropicalis 2.5% each. Antifungal resistance was widespread with azoles, polyenes, echinocandins, flucytosine, and griseofulvin. Conclusion: C. albicans was the predominant isolate recovered (17.2% HIV-seropositive and 29.3% HIV-seronegative subjects. Widespread antifungal resistance seems high and suggests possible abuse of these drugs.

  2. Effects of depomedroxyprogesterone acetate on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Agenor Storti-Filho


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats. The animals were divided into negative control groups (NCG, which received injections of sterile saline; positive control groups (PCG, which were given injections of estradiol valerate; and progesterone groups (PG, which were given injections of Depo-Provera®. After one week of hormonal induction, vaginal infection by C. albicans was induced in all the groups and detected by vaginal yeast culture and Papanicolaou smear. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy images were obtained to confirm the vaginal infection by yeast in PG. A difference in progesterone levels in PG was observed between the basal level and after hormonal induction (PO objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar os efeitos do acetato de depomedroxyprogesterona (ADMP no desenvolvimento e manutenção de Candida albicans na vagina de ratas Wistar ooferectomizadas. Os animais foram divididos em grupos controle negativos (GCN, que receberam injeções de salina estéril; grupos controle positivos (GCP, que receberam injeções de valerato de estradiol; e grupos progesterona (GP, nos quais foram feitas injeções de Depo-Provera®. Após uma semana da aplicação hormonal, foi induzida a infecção vaginal por C. albicans em todos os grupos, detectada por cultura para leveduras vaginais e esfregaço de Papanicolaou. Foram feitas ainda imagens por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e transmissão para confirmar a infecção pela levedura no GP. Foram observados diferentes níveis de progesterona em GP, entre os valores basais e após a indução hormonal (P<0,0001. Neste grupo, 100,0% das ratas contraíram a infecção vaginal na primeira semana, mas não a mantiveram até a terceira semana. A forma farmacêutica de ADMP foi efetiva em induzir as fases de metaestro e

  3. Analysis of microbial flora in dairy cow's vagina, and the isolation and identification of lactobacillus%奶牛阴道菌群分析与乳酸菌的分离及鉴定

    侯荣伦; 程超; 付艳茹; 刘彦民; 李利平; 郝永清; 黄少磊


    目的 研究奶牛阴道菌群,并从健康奶牛阴道分离出产酸能力很强的乳酸菌.方法 采用常规的方法对奶牛阴道进行细菌的分离及鉴定,并进行菌群分析.结果 健康奶牛阴道优势菌群主要为乳酸菌(P<0.01),屡配不孕奶牛阴道优势菌群主要为金黄色葡萄球菌(P<0.01);从健康奶牛阴道分离出的乳酸菌为55株,其中产酸能力很强的6株乳酸菌鉴定结果分别为Lactobacillus plantarum,Lactobacilluz brevis,Enterococcus faecalis,Lactococcus garvieae、Lactobacillus kitasatonis和Lactobacillus amylovorus.结论 奶牛阴道菌群中分离的6株乳酸菌可作为潜在的奶牛阴道微生态制剂进行深入研究.%Objective To Analyse the microbial flora in dairy cow's vagina, isolate and identify Lactobacillus with strong acid-producing capacity from vagina of healthy dairy cows. Method The standard microbiological methods were used to isolate and identify the bacteria in dairy cow's vagina. Result The most dominant bacteria in the vagina of healthy dairy cows belonged to Lactobacillus( P <0.01 ); The most dominant bacteria in the vagina of infertile dairy cows belonged to Staphylococcus aureus(P < 0.01 ); 55 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the vagina of healthy dairy cows. 6 of which with strong acid-producing capacity were further identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactococcus garvieae, Lactobacillus kitasatonis and Lactobacillus amylovorus, respectively. Conclusion The 6 lactic acid bacteria strains can be used as the candidates for the preparation of microecological additives of dairy cows and need further study.

  4. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection in ex vivo cervical tissue model of human vagina by palmitic acid; implications for a microbicide development.

    Xudong Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 80% of all new HIV-1 infections are acquired through sexual contact. Currently, there is no clinically approved microbicide, indicating a clear and urgent therapeutic need. We recently reported that palmitic acid (PA is a novel and specific inhibitor of HIV-1 fusion and entry. Mechanistically, PA inhibits HIV-1 infection by binding to a novel pocket on the CD4 receptor and blocks efficient gp120-to-CD4 attachment. Here, we wanted to assess the ability of PA to inhibit HIV-1 infection in cervical tissue ex vivo model of human vagina, and determine its effect on Lactobacillus (L species of probiotic vaginal flora. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results show that treatment with 100-200 µM PA inhibited HIV-1 infection in cervical tissue by up to 50%, and this treatment was not toxic to the tissue or to L. crispatus and jensenii species of vaginal flora. In vitro, in a cell free system that is independent of in vivo cell associated CD4 receptor; we determined inhibition constant (Ki to be ∼2.53 µM. SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate utility of PA as a model molecule for further preclinical development of a safe and potent HIV-1 entry microbicide inhibitor.

  5. A vagina pós-orgânica: intervenções e saberes sobre o corpo feminino acerca do “embelezamento íntimo”

    Marcelle Jacinto da Silva

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho tem como objetivo problematizar textos disponíveis na internet favoráveis aos procedimentos de embelezamento íntimo, associados mais aos argumentos sobre autoestima e saúde da mulher e menos à vaidade. Há uma relação direta entre saúde da mulher e embelezamento da região íntima/aparência da genitália, mas também se fala que as cirurgias não ocorrem para corrigir apenas a estética/aparência da região íntima, que inicialmente eram cirurgias para a correção de problemas funcionais. Nesse contexto, a “mulher moderna” seria aquela que aproveita as novidades tecnológicas para proveito próprio – no entanto, há muitas controvérsias, nomenclaturas e significados em jogo. Se a vagina tem sido alvo da “ditadura da beleza” tanto quanto outras partes do corpo feminino, e se há possibilidade de fabricá-la, é possível pensá-la enquanto pós-orgânica. Eis o argumento que guia este artigo, acionando concepções referentes a corpo, gênero, sexualidade, beleza e saúde.

  6. Pemphigus vulgaris of the vagina--its cytomorphologic features on liquid-based cytology and pitfalls: case report and cytological differential diagnosis.

    Onuma, Kazuya; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Modery, Judith; Kanbour, Anisa


    Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune bullous disease that involves skin and mucous membrane. Although the female genital tract is rarely affected, its cytomorphologic features on a conventional cervicovaginal smear have been notoriously described with a possibility of being misdiagnosed as neoplastic lesions. Its cytological mimicry for squamous cell carcinoma has been described as having serious misdiagnostic potential, particularly if appropriate clinical information is not provided. We report a case of pemphigus vulgaris involving the vagina diagnosed on a liquid-based cervicovaginal smear Thin Prep(R) (TP). The smear was initially reported as squamous cell carcinoma. However, re-evaluation of the TP smear raised the suspicion of pemphigus, which was supported subsequently by clinical information and tissue biopsy confirmation. We described the cytologic features of pemphigus vulgaris on a TP smear and compared them with those of neoplastic conditions. Pemphigus cells on a TP smear exhibit similar cytomorphologic features to those on a conventional smear. Recognizing euchromatin pattern and smooth nuclear contours which may be better appreciated on a TP can prevent overdiagnosis.

  7. Avaliação dosimétrica de uma combinação de aplicadores para braquiterapia de tumores do colo uterino com acometimento da porção distal da vagina Dosimetric evaluation of a combination of brachytherapy applicators for uterine cervix cancer with involvement of the distal vagina

    Roger Guilherme Rodrigues Guimarães


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar uma alternativa de braquiterapia para tumores do colo uterino acometendo a porção distal da vagina, sem aumentar os riscos de toxicidade. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo teórico comparando três diferentes aplicadores de braquiterapia intracavitária de alta taxa de dose: sonda intrauterina e cilindro vaginal (SC; sonda e anel associado ao cilindro vaginal (SA+C e um aplicador virtual com sonda, anel e cilindro vaginal em um único conjunto (SAC. Foram prescritas doses de 7 Gy no ponto A e 5 Gy na superfície ou a 5 mm de profundidade na mucosa vaginal, mantendo as doses nos pontos de reto, bexiga e sigmoide abaixo dos limites de tolerância. Foram comparados os volumes englobados pelas isodoses de 50% (V50, 100% (V100, 150% (V150 e 200% (V200, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Tanto SA+C quanto SAC apresentaram melhor distribuição de dose quando comparados ao aplicador SC. A distribuição de dose obtida com SA+C foi semelhante à do aplicador SAC, sendo V150 e V200 cerca de 50% maiores para SA+C, todavia, dentro do cilindro. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização de SA+C em uma única aplicação em dois tempos pode ser uma alternativa de tratamento para pacientes que apresentam tumores de colo uterino com acometimento distal da vagina.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an alternative brachytherapy technique for uterine cervix cancer involving the distal vagina, without increasing the risk of toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Theoretical study comparing three different high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy applicators: intrauterine tandem and vaginal cylinder (TC; tandem/ring applicator combined with vaginal cylinder (TR+C; and a virtual applicator combining both the tandem/ring and vaginal cylinder in a single device (TRC. Prescribed doses were 7 Gy at point A, and 5 Gy on the surface or at a 5 mm depth of the vaginal mucosa. Doses delivered to the rectum, bladder and sigmoid colon were kept below the tolerance limits. Volumes covered by the

  8. Detection of the Human 70-kD and 60-kD Heat Shock Proteins in the Vagina: Relation to Microbial Flora, Vaginal pH, and Method of Contraception

    P. Giraldo


    Full Text Available The expression of the 60-kD and 70-kD heat shock proteins (hsp60 and hsp70 in the vaginas of 43 asymptomatic women of reproductive age with or without a history of recurrent vulvovaginitis (RVV were compared. Vaginal wash samples were obtained and assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for human hsp60 and hsp70. Heat shock protein 70 was not detected in any of the 19 women with no history of RVV, and hsp60 was present in only one woman in this group. In contrast, in the RVV group, 11 (45.8% were hsp60-positive and eight (33.3% were hsp70-positive. The presence of either heat shock protein in the vagina was associated with an elevated vaginal pH (>4.5. Bacterial vaginosis or Candida was identified in some of the asymptomatic subjects; their occurrence was significantly higher in women with vaginal hsp70 than in women with no heat shock proteins. Oral contraceptives were used by 35.7% of subjects who were negative for vaginal heat shock proteins, as opposed to only 12.5% of women who were positive for hsp70 and 8.3% who were positive for hsp60. Expression of heat shock proteins in the vagina may indicate an altered vaginal environment and a susceptibility to vulvovaginal symptoms. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 7:23–25, 1999.

  9. 放置IUD妇女阴道微生态状况调查分析%Investigation on the microecological status of the vagina IUD insertion

    严韶; 苏洁; 江雯; 黄丽光; 候春雷; 张玲华


    目的 了解深圳市放置IUD妇女阴道微生态状况与年龄、居住类型、孕产史和个人生活习惯的关系.方法 对前来中心就诊要求放置IUD 609名已婚育龄妇女采用问卷调查、病史询问、妇科检查及阴道微生态检查,将被检者进行分类比较.结果 ①阴道微生态失调较高占26.1%(159/609),经常规检查进行上环术的受术者,尚有22.2%(124/558)阴道微生态失调;②随着年龄的增长,阴道微生态失调率随之增高,P<0.05;③与受教育程度相比,小学及以下文化程度的妇女诊断出微生态失调的可能性更高(42.8%);④微生态失调与阴道分娩次数也成呈正相关关系;⑤与非经期使用卫生护垫和阴道冲洗(间隔大于一周)等个人生活习惯,P=0.111,差异无统计学意义.结论 已婚育龄妇女阴道微生态变化受年龄、教育程度及分娩方式的影响.%Objective To investigate microecological status of the vagina of women who volunteer to receive IUD insertion, and to study the influence of age, residence type, maternal history and individual life habits on vaginal microecology. Methods 609 married women of reproductive age who volunteer to receive IUD insertion in our center were comparatively analyzed through questionnaire, medical history, gynecological and vaginal microecology examination. Results The rate of the vaginal microecology disorders is quite high, accounting for 26.1%. For women received IUD insertion, the rate was 22.2%. The rate of vaginal microecology disorders increased as the growth of age, with P<0.05. Women with no more primary school degree had higher risk of microecology disorders (42.8%). The ecological disorders and numbers of vaginal delivery are positively correlated. No correlation was found between vaginal microecology and individual life habits such as using health pads without menstrual period and vagina washing (more than a week) (P=0.111). Conclusion The conditions of vaginal

  10. Detection of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in the vagina: a comparison of culture and quantitative PCR among HIV-1 seropositive women

    Balkus Jennifer E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 producing Lactobacillus in the vagina may play a role in controlling genital HIV-1 shedding. Sensitive molecular methods improve our ability to characterize the vaginal microbiota; however, they cannot characterize phenotype. We assessed the concordance of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture with quantitative PCR (qPCR detection of Lactobacillus species commonly assumed to be H2O2-producers. Methods Samples were collected as part of a prospective cohort study of HIV-1 seropositive US women. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens were tested for L. crispatus and L. jensenii using 16S rRNA gene qPCR assays. Vaginal swabs were cultured for Lactobacillus and tested for H2O2-production. We calculated a kappa statistic to assess concordance between culture and qPCR. Results Culture and qPCR results were available for 376 visits from 57 women. Lactobacilli were detected by culture at 308 (82% visits, of which 233 of 308 (76% produced H2O2. L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii were detected at 215 (57% visits. Concordance between detection of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR and H2O2-producing Lactobacillus by culture was 75% (kappa = 0.45. Conclusions Among HIV-1 seropositive women, there was a moderate level of concordance between H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture and the presence of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR. However, one-quarter of samples with growth of H2O2-producing lactobacilli did not have L. crispatus or L. jensenii detected by qPCR. This discordance may be due to the presence of other H2O2-producing Lactobacillus species.

  11. Vagina: What's Normal, What's Not

    ... 2015. Robinson JN. Approach to episiotomy. Accessed Feb. 4, 2015. Fashokun TB, ... organ prolapse in women: Diagnostic evaluation. Accessed Feb. 5, 2015. Karam A, ...

  12. Citologia Hormonal do Trato Urinário Baixo e da Vagina de Mulheres na Pós-menopausa, antes e durante Estrogenioterapia Oral e Transdérmica

    Lustosa Áurea Belas


    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a ação dos estrogênios por via oral ou transdérmica nas células do trato urinário baixo e da vagina, em mulheres menopausadas. Métodos: foram incluídas 25 mulheres na pós-menopausa, nas quais se estudaram os efeitos citológicos da terapia de reposição hormonal estrogênica, por via oral e por via transdérmica, sobre as células da vagina e do sedimento urinário. As pacientes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em 2 grupos: Grupo I, constituído por 14 mulheres que receberam 0,625 mg de estrogênio conjugado eqüino associado a 5 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona, por via oral, diariamente sem intervalo por três meses, e Grupo II, formado por 11 mulheres que fizeram uso de 17-beta-estradiol matricial na dose de 50 mig, por via transdérmica, semanalmente, associado a 5 mg de acetato de medroxiprogesterona diariamente por três meses. As amostras urinárias foram obtidas do jato inicial da primeira urina da manhã, após asseio dos genitais, em frascos estéreis fornecidos pelo laboratório. A urina foi centrifugada e o esfregaço realizado a partir do sedimento urinário. Os esfregaços da vagina e do sedimento urinário foram imediatamente fixados em álcool absoluto e corados pelo método de Shorr. Resultados: observou-se que nas pacientes que utilizaram a via oral, houve maturação das células da vagina (o índice se elevou de 45,4 a 65,5 com dois meses de tratamento, permanecendo praticamente constante (62,0 a seguir. Quanto às células urinárias, não houve variação do valor de maturação (56,4 antes da medicação e 60,4 no final do período. Ao examinarmos tanto as células da urina quanto da vagina de pacientes que utilizaram a via transdérmica, notou-se que houve resposta satisfatória. Conclusão: com estes resultados podemos sugerir que os estrogênios, quando administrados por via transdérmica, estão associados à resposta satisfatória quanto ao trofismo tanto na vagina quanto na uretra

  13. 复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病发病机制的研究进展%An analysis of the factors contributing to recurrent vulva and vagina candidiasis

    徐倩倩; 宁玉梅


    复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(Recurrent candidiasis of vulva and vagina,RVVC)病因复杂,主要原因有机体免疫防御机制的变化,宿主局部因素,假丝酵母菌的菌群多样性变化等.认识、了解及掌握上述因素,对临床工作者有效防治RVVC起着非常重要作用.

  14. Progress in research of vagina micro ecological imbalance in Chinese and Western medicine%阴道微生态失调的中西医研究进展

    王丹丹; 董燕


    Vaginal micro ecological imbalance refers to the normal flora imbalance of the vagina, including the result of the impact of external factors , the mutual restraint and interdependent among the original flora to broke the balance , causing abnormal vaginal discharge, genital itching or waist, a gynecological abdominal pain symptoms of vaginitis, vaginal as female genital connection with the outside world the only passage between the environment, the human body is an important micro­ecological zones. Is also an important part of the reproductive tract micro flora. In the vaginal wall mucosal folds and then there is the vault vaginal flora, usually vaginal flora with lactobacilli was the dominant bacteria. Into a variety of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus probiotics for the maintenance of the vagina is important, PH value of the vagina can be maintained in the normal acidic condition, can also inhibit bacteria play a bactericidal effect, in addition to lactic acid bacteria in the vagina outside of further there are fungi, viruses, etc., under normal circumstances, a variety of flora in the vagina interdependent mutual restraint, joint action within the vaginal environment will be maintained at a balanced state, the dominant strain of Lactobacillus, once lost the advantage will lead to other flora overgrowth, breaking the vaginal micro flora balance, leading to female vaginal dysbiosis.%阴道微生态失调是指阴道中的正常的菌群在内因或在外因的影响下出现了菌群之间的失衡,使原来菌群之间的互相制约、互相依赖的平衡关系被打破,从而引起白带异常、外阴瘙痒或是腰部、下腹部疼痛[1]的阴道炎症状的一种妇科疾病。阴道作为连接女性内生殖器与外界环境之间唯一的通道,是人体内重要的微生态区,也是生殖道微生态的重要部分。在阴道的侧壁黏膜、皱襞,而后是穹窿都存在有阴道菌群,通常阴道菌群

  15. 外阴、阴道和宫颈尖锐湿疣组织中HPV感染的对比研究%A comparative study of HPV infection in condyloma acuminate tissues of vulva,vagina and cervix

    单慧敏; 施启丰; 耿建祥; 仲玉英; 梅静; 龙秀荣; 夏林; 王宏景; 赵雪


    目的:研讨外阴、阴道和宫颈尖锐湿疣(CA)组织中人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染型别的分布状况以及临床意义。方法应用基因芯片结合PCR技术对63例外阴尖锐湿疣、61例阴道尖锐湿疣和65例宫颈尖锐湿疣组织行23种HPV基因型检测,并分析患者的临床病理资料。结果63例外阴尖锐湿疣组织中检出HPV阳性者56例,HPV感染率为88.89%(56/63);61例阴道尖锐湿疣组织中检出HPV阳性者55例,HPV感染率为90.16%(55/61);65例宫颈尖锐湿疣组织中检出HPV阳性者62例,HPV感染率为95.39%(62/65)。结论HPV感染与外阴、阴道和宫颈尖锐湿疣的发病密切相关,HPV6和11是主流型别,以外阴尖锐湿疣最为常见。基因芯片结合PCR技术是适合应用于临床行HPV分型诊断的一种方法,具有敏感性好、特异性高的特点。对女性外阴、阴道和宫颈尖锐湿疣的临床诊断、治疗及其疫苗的研究具有重要的意义。%Objective To study the distribution status and clinical significance of human papillomavirus(HPV) infection geno‐types in condyloma acuminate(CA) tissues of vulva ,vagina and cervix .Methods The gene‐chips combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology were utilized for detecting 23 kinds of HPV genotypes in tissue specimens from 63 cases of vulval CA , 61 cases of vaginal CA and 65 cases of cervical CA .Their clinical pathological data were analyzed .Results In 63 cases of vulval CA ,56 cases were HPV positive with the HPV infection rate of 88 .89% (56/63) ,in 61 cases of vaginal CA ,55 cases were HPV positive with the HPV infection rate of 90 .16% (55/61) ,and in 65 cases of cervical CA ,62 cases were HPV positive with the HPV infection rate of 95 .39% (62/65) .Conclusion HPV infection is closely related to the CA pathgenesis in vulva ,vagina and cervix . HPV6 and HPV 11 are main stream genotypes ,in which vulval CA is most common .The gene

  16. 剖宫产后阴道分娩35例相关因素分析%Splits the Palace Post-natal Vagina Childbirth 35 Example Correlation Factors to Analyze

    邹清如; 蔡芬兰; 黄利兰; 宋薇


      目的 探讨剖宫产术后阴道分娩(VBAV)的相关因素.方法 回顾性分析135例瘢痕子宫孕妇的临床资料,根据分娩方式分为阴道分娩组(实验组)35例和剖宫产组(对照组)100例,对孕妇的一般情况进行调查分析,并在两组之间进行对比.结果 两组产妇在阴道分娩史、前次剖宫产指征、胎龄、新生儿体质量、宫颈条件等方面有统计学差异(P0.05).结论 VBAV与多种因素有关,针对上述相关因素可适时选择阴道分娩,减少剖宫产率,提高产科质量.%  Objective After the goal discussion splits the palace to produce the technique the vagina childbirth (VBAV) correlation factor. Method Review analysis 135example scar womb pregnant woman's clinical material, divides into the vagina childbirth group according to the childbirth way (experimental group) 35 examples and splits the palace to produce the group (control group) 100 examples, carries on the diagnosis to pregnant woman's ordinary circumstances, and carries on the contrast between two groups. Result The two group of parturient women in the vagina childbirth history, recently split the palace to produce refer draft, aspects and so on embryo age, newborn body weight, cervix of the uterus condition have statistics difference (P0.05).Conclusion VBAV and many kinds of factors related, may at the right moment choose the vagina childbirth in view of the above correlation factor, reduces splits the palace production rate, improves obstetrics quality.

  17. Vulvovaginal candidiasis during pregnancy and the change of local immune condition of vagina%妊娠期外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病与阴道局部免疫环境变化

    崔颖; 王少为


    Objective To examine the local immune condition of vagina, and to investigate the immunological pathogenesis of vulvovnginal candidiasis during pregnancy. Methods Women who visited Beijing Hospital for prenatal care or for health examination during September 2005 to August 2006 were cho-sen and divided into three groups: pregnant women with vtdvovaginal candidiasis (pregnant VVC group, 50 cases), non-pregnant women with VVC (non-pregnant VVC group, 55 cases), healthy women (control group, 35 cases). After primary microscopical screening, vaginal lavnge was centrifuged to separate super-natant, lymphocyte and epithelium. Concentration of IgE was messured by ELISA, and surface immunologi-cal markers of CD4 and CD8 were detected by flow cytometer. Results IgE concentration of the pregnant WC group was lower than that of the non-pregnant WC group, but higher than that of the control group (all Ps <0.05). CD4+ cells and CD4/CD8 ratio for the pregnant WC group were lower than those of the con-trol group (P<0.05). However, CD8 + cells for the pregnant VVC group was higher than that of the con-trol group (P<0.05). Conclusion The changes in immune environment of vagina may play a role in the pathogenesis of pregnant vulvovaginal candidiasis.%目的 了解妊娠期妇女阴道局部免疫特点,探讨妊娠期外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病的免疫学发病机理. 方法 选取2005年9月至2006年8月在卫生部北京医院妇产科门诊就诊及进行健康体检的育龄妇女,分为妊娠外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病组(妊娠VVC,50例)、单纯外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病组(单纯VVC,55例)、正常对照组(35例),经显微镜镜检初步筛选,留取阴道灌洗液,离心后分离上清液、淋巴细胞和上皮细胞成分.用ELISA法测定IgE浓度、流式细胞仪检测淋巴细胞表面免疫标志CD4、CD 8. 结果 IgE水平妊娠VVC组为(1.903±0.274)g/L,单纯VVC组为(2.032±0.289)g/L,正常对照组为(1.347±0.287)g/L,妊娠VVC组与单纯WC组和

  18. 宫颈炎症患者阴道局部免疫状态与疾病发生的相关性%Relevance between part of vagina's immune status and occurrence of disease of patients with cervicitis

    黄益于; 郭芙蓉


    目的:探讨分析宫颈炎症患者阴道局部免疫状态与疾病发生的相关性。方法选取我院2013年4月~2014年4月收治的250例宫颈炎症患者,分为淋病奈瑟菌宫颈炎(NG,50例)、人型支原体宫颈炎(MH,50例)、宫颈糜烂患者(EC,50例)、沙眼衣原体宫颈炎(CT,50例)、解脲支原体宫颈炎(UU,50例)和250例正常妇女作为对照组,对所有患者进行阴道灌洗,并应用酶联免疫吸附试验检测洗液中肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)和白细胞介素-8(IL-8)的水平,其中给予观察组宫颈炎康栓配合射频治疗该病,对照组采用常规射频治疗,对比其疗效和局部免疫状态与疾病发生的相关性。结果阴道灌洗液TNF-α水平,除宫颈糜烂患者(EC)组之外,其余各组均高于对照组,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。阴道灌洗液IL-8水平,NG组为(336±35)ng/L,MH组为(369±33)ng/L,CT组为(363±31)ng/L,三组和对照组相比,为(314±33)ng/L,(343±35)ng/L及(337±36)ng/L,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。UU组和EC组与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。宫颈炎组治疗总有效率优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论阴道局部免疫状态在各种宫颈炎症的发病机制中发挥了重要作用,尤其在与疾病发生的相关性中IL-8在人型支原体宫颈炎、沙眼衣原体宫颈炎及淋病奈瑟菌宫颈炎中有更重要的作用。%ObjectiveTo explore and analyze the relevance between part of vagina's immune status and occurrence of disease of patients with cervicitis.Methods250 patients with cervicitis who were admitted to our hospital from April 2013 to April 2014 were allocated into Neisseria gonorrhoeae cervicitis group (NG, 50 patients), Mycoplasma hominis cervicitis group (MH, 50 cases), erosion of cervix group (EC, 50 cases), cervicitis of chlamydia trachomatis group (CT

  19. Histologia e morfometria das glândulas das junções infundíbulo-magno e útero-vagina de codorna doméstica Histology and morphometry of the infundibulum-magnum and uterus-vaginal junctions of spotted quails

    Carime Moraes


    Full Text Available A análise comparativa das glândulas armazenadoras de espermatozóides das junções infundíbulo-magno e útero-vagina do oviduto da codorna Nothura maculosa foi realizada durante a fase reprodutiva. As aves foram eutanasiadas por inalação com éter etílico, após a pesagem. Após a laparotomia e o deslocamento cranial do esterno, foram coletadas amostras de dois centímetros da junção infundíbulo-magno e útero-vagina. Os fragmentos foram fixados em solução de Bouin por 24 horas e, posteriormente, banhos sucessivos de álcool 70% foram aplicados sobre as amostras. Em seguida, as amostras foram desidratadas em uma série de concentração crescente de alcoóis (80, 90, 95 e 3x100%, diafanizadas em xilol e incluídas em parafina. Cortes histológicos de sete micrômetros de espessura foram obtidos e corados pela técnica da Hematoxilina-eosina (HE, que foram analisados e fotomicrografados em um fotomicroscópio Olympus BX-50. Para a análise morfométrica, foram capturadas imagens das glândulas armazenadoras de espermatozóides da junção infundíbulo-magno e útero-vagina mediante o programa computacional "Image Pro Plus 4.1" da Cibernetics do Brasil, tornando-se possível a quantificação das mesmas. A mucosa da junção infundíbulo-magno apresentou pregas estreitas no infundíbulo e largas no magno, enquanto na junção útero-vagina mostrou-se amplamente pregueada na vagina e mais lisa na porção uterina. O número médio de glândulas armazenadoras de espermatozóides na junção infundíbulo-magno foi maior (11,7 glândulas (PThe comparative analysis of sperm-host glands of infundibulum-magnum and uterus-vagina junctions of Nothura maculosa quail oviduct was done during the reproductive phase. The birds were euthanized with ethyl ether after weight data were taken. After abdominal laparotomy and cranial displacement of the breastbone, two centimeters samples of infundibulum-magnum and uterus-vagina junctions were collected

  20. Relationship of microecological environmental changes of vagina and two kinds of vaginitis%女性阴道微生态变化与两种阴道炎的关系

    杨岚; 邵兰芬; 陈道桢


    Objective To investigate the relationship of microecological environment of vagina and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and trichomonas vaginitis (TV) of women. Methods The examinations of hydrogen peroxide, sialidase and leukocyte esterase in vaginal secretions were performed with routine smear and BV triple test in 2380 cases with WC (group WC), 1399 cases with TV( group TV) and 648 healthy controls (group C). Results The positive rates of leukocyte esterase in groups of WC and TV were 34. 7% and 61. 5% .respectively,which were both higer than 6. 6% in group C(P<0. 05). The positive rate was higher in group TV than that in group VVC (P<0. 05). Conclusion The occurance of WC and TV is closely related to the unbanlance of vaginal microecological environment Examining vaginal secretions with routine smear and Bvset, especially with leukocyte esterase test,should be taken for guiding the microecological evaluation and controlling the recurrence of vaginitis.%目的 了解外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病(VVC)及滴虫性阴道炎(Tv)与阴道微生态情况的关系.方法 用常规检测和细菌性阴道病(BV)三联法(BVset)测定2380例WC(WC组)、1399例TV患者(TV组)和648例正常体检者(对照组)阴道分泌物中过氧化氢(H2O2)浓度、唾液酸苷酶和白细胞酯酶活性.结果 VVC和TV患者三联法检测白细胞酯酶阳性率分别为34.7%和61.5%,明显高于对照组的6.6%(P<0.05);且TV组的白细胞酯酶阳性率显著高于WC组(P<0.05).结论 VVC和TV的发生与阴道微生态环境的失衡密切相关;对患者进行白带常规检测的同时进行BVset尤其是白细胞酯酶活性测定,能更好地反映出患者阴道微生态状况,对控制阴道炎的复发有一定的指导意义.

  1. 心理干预对先天性无阴道患者术后婚姻和生活质量的影响%The influence on the quality of marital and life in the congenital absence of vagina patients with operation by psychological intervention

    张晓玲; 朱清仙


    目的 探讨心理干预对先天性无阴道患者术后婚姻和生活质量的影响.方法 将先天性无阴道患者按自愿原则分为干预组18例和非干预组11例,对干预组的患者进行术前的认知行为治疗,用Olson婚姻质量调查问卷及诺丁汉健康量表对两组手术前后生活质量以及术后婚姻质量进行评估.结果:干预组术后婚姻和生活质量评分均显著优于非干预组(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 手术前心理干预能有效提高先天性无阴道患者术后婚姻和生活质量.%Objective To explore the influence on the quality of marital and life of the congenital absence of vagina patients with operation by psychological intervention.Methods The congenital absente of vagina patients were divided into psycholOgical intervened group(n=18,all cases were treated with the cognitive and behaviour therapy)and without intervened group(n=11).Before and after treatment the scores of the nottingham health poofity(NHP)were used in the two groups.After treatment the Olson's enrich questionary were tested also.Results The scores of NHP and Olson of psychological intervened group were significantly superior to those without intervened group(P<0.05 or P<0 01).Conclusion The cogntive and behaviour theraopy before operation is good for the quality of marital and life in congenital absence of vagina patients.

  2. Prevalência de cândida na flora vaginal de mulheres atendidas num serviço de planejamento familiar Prevalence of candida in the vagina of women attended at a family planning service

    Antônio Aleixo Neto


    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência de Candida sp. e a distribuição de suas espécies na flora vaginal de mulheres numa clínica de planejamento familiar. Método: estudo transversal no qual se avaliaram prospectivamente 72 mulheres não-grávidas, com ou sem queixas específicas, sendo coletadas amostras de secreção vaginal para cultura de leveduras, efetuada a medição do pH vaginal e anotados dados de achados do exame ginecológico. Resultados: leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida foram encontradas em 18 casos (25%. A C. albicans foi a espécie mais prevalente (77,8% e conseqüentemente 22,2% foram não-albicans. Entre as não-albicans a espécie mais prevalente foi a C. glabrata (16,7% seguida pela C. parapsilosis (5,6%. Prurido e ardor foram os únicos sintomas relacionados significativamente com a presença de cândida. Foi observado que a C. glabrata, ao contrário da C. albicans, não causa corrimento clinicamente verificável ao exame ginecológico. Não foram verificadas associações de alguns fatores predisponentes (idade, escolaridade e uso de contraceptivos com a presença ou não de cândida. Conclusões: nossos resultados sugerem: a uma alta prevalência de Candida sp. entre as mulheres (25%; b que as espécies não-albicans desempenham um papel importante no meio vaginal; c que prurido e ardor são os sintomas mais comuns na presença de cândida e d que a C. glabrata não costuma causar corrimento vaginal ao exame ginecológico. Finalmente, é importante observar que nossos resultados são consistentes com o que a literatura internacional tem mostrado nos últimos anos.SUMMARY Purpose: to estimate the prevalence of Candida sp. and the distribution of its species in the vagina of women attended at a family planning Service. Methods: a cross-sectional study evaluating prospectively 72 nonpregnant women, with or without specific complaints. Samples were checked for the presence of yeast and vaginal pH. Data obtained

  3. Molecular ecological structure of fungal flora in the vaginas of patients with diabetes mellitus%糖尿病患者阴道真菌菌群结构与生态分布研究

    郑能能; 吕雯; 周航; 冯国芳; 吕卫国


    Objective To characterize the ecological structure of vaginal fungal flora in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods 18S rDNA sequencing technique was employed for the construction of 18S rDNA clone libraries and phylogenetic tree of vaginal fungal flora in patients with DM and healthy women. Diversity and structural characteristics of fungal flora in each group was then analyzed. Results 3 fungal taxa with 14 genera including 21 phylotypes of fungal flora were found in vaginal specimens. The operational tax-onomic unit (OTUs) which belonged to healthy women (group H), HbA1c 7.5% patients (group DMc) was 7, 9, 13 and 16 respectively. Candida spp. was the most frequently detected clones in each group. An increased proportion of Candida spp. accompanied with decreased proportions of Saccharomyces cerevisi-ae and uncultured fungi was observed in patients with DM. C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei were identified as the predominant species amongst Candida spp. in each group. Conclusion The data revealed a varied ecological structure of vaginal fungal flora in patients with DM and indicated that the degree of disturbed fungal flora in the vaginas of patients with DM might be correlated with the status of glycaemic control.%目的 探讨糖尿病(DM)患者阴道真菌菌群结构和生态分布特点.方法 采用真菌18S rDNA克隆文库法,对不同血糖控制情况下DM患者的阴道真菌18S rDNA序列进行克隆和测序,构建阴道真菌18S rDNA克隆文库,建立系统发育树,获取DM患者阴道真菌菌群的结构和组成特征.结果 DM患者和健康妇女阴道标本中存在3个真菌类群14个属共20个种系型的真菌菌群.健康妇女(H组)、HbA1c<6.5%患者(DMa组)、HbA1c6.5%~7.5%患者(DMb组)和HbA1c>7.5%患者(DMc组)的阴道真菌菌落分别存在7、9、13和16个OTUs.念珠菌属为各组研究对象阴道真菌菌群的优势菌属,其阳性克隆子在H组、DMa组、DMb组和DMc组的比例呈上升

  4. On the Palm in the Vagina Midwifery Clinical Care Application%浅谈助产掌在阴道助产临床护理中的应用



    目的:为了进一步提高我院妇产科的整体医疗水平,保障产妇和胎儿的生命安全,本文就助产掌在阴道助产临床护理中的应用进行了的简单的研究和探讨。方法将2011年11月至2012年11月期间在我院接受阴道助产掌分娩(观察组)的60例患者的临床资料和同期在我院接受出口产钳助产分娩(对照组)的60例患者的临床资料进行回顾性的分析和对比。结果观察组患者产后12h和24h的出血量明显低于对照组,两组之间的差异显著(P<0.05)。观察组产妇术后感染的发生率也明显低于对照组,两组之间的差异显著(P<0.05)。结论助产掌在阴道助产临床护理过程中的临床价值十分显著,有效的提高了手术的成功概率,降低了手术的风险性,保障了产妇和新生儿的生命安全,值得推广。%Objective To further improve the overall hospital maternity medical standards to protect maternal and fetal safety of this paper palm midwifery midwifery clinical care in the vaginal application of a simple study and discussion. Methods From November 2011 to November 2012 in our hospital during vaginal delivery charge of delivery(study group), 60 patients with clinical data and export the same period in our hospital forceps delivery(control group)60 patients clinical data were retrospectively analyzed and compared. Results The patients 12 h and 24 h post-partum bleeding was significantly lower than the control group, a significant difference between the groups(P<0.05). Also, the observation group maternal incidence of postoperative infection was significantly lower than the control group, a significant difference between the groups(P<0.05). Conclusion Palm midwifery midwifery clinical care in the vagina during the clinical value is very significant, effectively raising the probability of success of surgery, reducing the risk of surgery to protect the lives of mothers and newborns, worthy

  5. Clinical Effect of Autonomous Uterine Cavity Water Sac Compression for Hemorrhea and Hemabate in Treatment of Postpartum Hemorrhage Deliv-ering by Vagina%自制宫腔水囊压迫止血联合欣母沛治疗阴道分娩产后出血的临床疗效



    Objective To observe the clinical curative effect of autonomous uterine cavity water sac compression for hemor-rhea and hemabate in treatment of postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine inertia delivering by vagina. Methods 132 cases of patients with postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine inertia delivering by vagina treated from January 2011 to December 2014 were given clinical experimental observation and randomly divided into two groups, the experimental group were treated with autonomous uterine cavity water sac compression for hemorrhea and hemabate, the control group were treated with simple hemabate, and the delivery outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results The incidence rates of complications in the experimental group and the control group were respectively 6.1% and 12.1%, and the inci-dence rates of laparotomy hemostasis in the experimental group and the control group were respectively 1.5% and 7.6%, P<0.05. Conclusion The clinical effect of autonomous uterine cavity water sac compression for hemorrhea and hemabate in treatment of postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine inertia delivering by vagina is better, and it can effectively stop bleeding and is worth promotion.%目的:探讨自制宫腔水囊压迫止血联合欣母沛治疗阴道分娩宫缩乏力性产后出血的临床疗效。方法整群选取2011年1月—2014年12月该院收治的132例阴道分娩宫缩乏力性产后出血患者进行临床实验观察,随机分为实验组与对照组,实验组使用自制宫腔水囊压迫止血联合欣母沛治疗,对照组使用单药欣母沛治疗,比较两组患者分娩结局。结果两组患者的并发症发生率为6.1%和12.1%,开腹手术止血为1.5%和7.6%(P<0.05)。结论使用自制宫腔水囊压迫止血联合欣母沛治疗阴道分娩宫缩乏力性产后出血具有较好的临床效果,能够有效止血,值得推广。

  6. Metabolism and distribution of elementary silver on nanometer silver antibacteria gel applied the rat vagina%纳米银抗菌水凝胶大鼠阴道给药后体内银元素的代谢与分布

    常淼; 彭秀丽; 张庆峰


    目的 研究纳米银抗菌水凝胶阴道给药后银元素在大鼠组织器官中的代谢与分布情况.方法 雌性Wistar大鼠随机分为试验组与对照组,试验组每天阴道给纳米银抗菌水凝胶1次,剂量为1750μg,连续给药5d;对照组不给药.采用原子吸收光谱法测定血清与器官中的银元素.结果 试验组给药后血清银元素浓度逐渐上升,至第5天达到高峰,后呈下降趋势;银元素在大鼠体内的分布情况是:脾>肾>肾上腺>肝>肺>心>子宫和卵巢>脑.结论 纳米银抗菌水凝胶阴道给药后在短时间内会产生一定浓度的蓄积.%Objective To study metabolism and distribution of elementary silver in several tissues of rats after nanometer silver antibacteria gel applied the rat vagina. Methods Pantheress Wistar rats were randomly divided into the test group and the control group. The 1750 μg of gel was administered to vagina once per day, continuously for 5 ds in test group. Don't give a medicine in control group. Adopt the atomic absorption spectrum method to measure the elementary silver content in serum and tissues. Results After the application of nanometer silver antibacteria gel, the serum elementary silver density in the test group increased gradually and attained peak 5th days, then showed a decreased trend. The distribution of elementary silver in the rat body was spleen > kidney > adrenal glands > liver > lung > heart > the womb and ovary > brain. Conclusion The nanometer silver antibacteria gel has a good bio-safety applied in the vagina.

  7. From a Script to a Movement——Development Course of the Feminism Drama "The Vagina Monologue"%从剧本走向运动——论女性主义先锋剧《阴道独白》的发展历程



    《阴道独白》不仅是一部女性主义先锋剧,更掀起了一场女性主义运动:作为一部剧本,其"独白"的特色鲜明;作为一种戏剧实践,它兼具先锋性与本土化的特征;作为一场戏剧运动,该戏取得的反响强烈、持久。%"The Vagina Monologues" is not only a feminist vanguard drama,but also set off a feminist movement.It has a distinctive characteristic of monologue as a drama itself and both vanguard and local features as a drama practice.It is also a peculiar drama movement gaining wide resonance and is of great enlightenment value.

  8. Local expression of surfactant protein A in the vagina of the patients with RVVC before and after treatment%表面活性蛋白A在复发性外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病患者治疗前后阴道局部的表达

    杨兰英; 贾俊茹; 王素芬; 李凤文


    Objective To observe the change of surfactant protein A(SP-A) level from the local vagina of the patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), discuss the relationship of the development and lapsing between SP-A and RVVC and analyze the effect of He-Ne laser (He -Ne) irradiation as the maintenance therapy on vaginal SP-A. Methods After initial antifungal treatment in the acute phase and adopting the maintenance therapy with He-Ne laser treatment for two courses for RWC patients (observation group), the treatment effect were followed up and the SP-A level of vaginal secretion were determined with ELISA method. At the same time, SP-A of the vaginal secretion specimen from healthy women of child-bearing age were detected and taken as control group. Results SP-A was (7. 24 ± 0. 76) nmol/L in control group with (1. 95 ± 0. 72) nmol/L in the acute phase of RVVC. After initial treatment, SP-A reached (2.92 ± 0. 53) nmol/ L, which was elevated comparing with that of acute episode (P<0.05). SP-A was (3. 64 ± 0. 62) nmol/L after the first treatment course with He-Ne laser, which got significant elevation comparing with that before laser treatment (P<0.05). After the second treatment course with laser, SP-A was (4.27 ±0.56) nmol/L, which was elevated comparing with that of the first treatment course (P< 0.05). On re-examination sixth months after stopping treatment, there was no significant difference for (3. 91 ± 0. 35) nmol/L of SP-A from local vagina in the observation group comparing with that of the laser treatment group after the second treatment course, but it was lower than that of the control group (P<0.001). There was significant decrease in SP-A from each group at various stages of RWC process comparing with that of the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion SP-A exists in local vagina, and the reduction of SP-A may be related to the development of RWC. The local irradiation with He-Ne laser may elevate SP-A level in vagina, thus, it provides evidence

  9. Infectious characteristic analysis and drug-resistance of pathogens among vagina infection pregnancy with premature rup-ture of membranes%阴道病原菌感染与胎膜早破的关系及其耐药性分析

    楚丽娟; 罗婷婷; 杨桂林; 李秋红


    Objective The distribution characteristics and antibiotic resistance of specific pathogens among va-gina infection pregnancy with premature rupture of membranes (prom) ,in order to guide rational antibacterial thera-py .Methods During the periods of Jan ,2010 to Jul ,2012 ,pathogens from vagina with infectious pregnancy were gathered ,two groups-prom group and normal control were divided .The drug sensitivity of isolated strains were deter-mined by the broth dilution method .Results Only Streptococcus agalactiae (b group) and Staphylococcus aureus were found statistical significance between the two groups ,presenting higher detection in prom group(P<0 .05) .The resistant rates of Staphylococcus aureus to penicillin and ampicillin were 100% ,the sensitivity rates to erythrocin and azithromycin were 33 .3% and 50% ,respectively ,to tetracycline were 66 .7% ,others were all above of 83 .3% .The sensitivity rates of Streptococcus agalactiae (b group) to levofloxacin ,azithromycin ,erythrocin ,and ofloxacin were 30% ~40% ,yet above 80% of sensitivity to penicillin and cephems .Conclusion Streptococcus agalactiae (b group) and Staphylococcus aureus have an effect on prom .The drug sensitivity to the two bacteria are effected .Rational use of antibiotics and surveillance should be taken into account ,to avoid the development of drug-resistance strains .%目的:探讨影响孕妇胎膜早破的具体病原菌及其耐药情况,以合理地指导临床用药。方法随机选取2010年1月至2012年7月该院就诊的感染性胎膜早破的妊娠晚期女性为研究对象(患者组),未发生胎膜早破的孕妇作为对照(健康对照组),收集阴道分泌物病原菌,采用肉汤法进行药敏试验。结果患者组病原菌表现为无乳链球菌(b群)和金黄色葡萄球菌检出率高于健康对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。金黄色葡萄球菌对氨苄西林和青霉素完全耐药,对红霉素和克

  10. Effect observation of compound duty pine fluid control cervical cancer treatment after loading radioactive vagina damage%复方岗松洗液防治宫颈癌后装治疗放射性阴道损伤的效果观察

    钟玉婵; 吉燕翔


    Objective:To study the prevention and control of loose lotion after cervical cancer treatment loading radioactive vagina damage effect.Methods:Chose our oncology from July 2009 to June 2011 were 100 cases of cervical cancer patients to the hospital in accordance with the order divided into observation group and control group,the two groups were given the same treatment after loading and pelvic external radiation therapy,and the control group patients every day with 0.02% of potassium permanganate solution 200 ml line vulva,vaginal wash one time.The observation group every day with 10% of the compound duty pine lotion 200 ml line vulva,vaginal flush.To happening radioactive vaginal injury person,two groups of systemic therapy were same,local treatment,all used warm water to wash the wound and disinfection tampons dry.Control group after the 0.1% of potassium permansanate solution daub,twice a day.The observation group used 50% of the compound duty pine lotion daub,twice a day.Results:The observation group vaginal injury incidence rate was lower than that in control group (P < 0.05).The total effective rate was higher than the control group (P <0.05).Conclusion:Compound duty pine lotion used in cervical cancer patients after loading,which can reduce the radioactive vagina damage occurs,to enhance the treatment effect,it is worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨复方岗松洗液防治宫颈癌后装治疗放射性阴道损伤的效果.方法:选择我院肿瘤科2009年7月~2011年6月收治的100例宫颈癌患者按照入院顺序分为观察组和对照组.两组均给予相同的后装治疗和盆腔外照射治疗,对照组患者用0.02%的高锰酸钾溶液200ml行外阴、阴道冲洗,1次/d,观察组用10%的复方岗松洗液200 ml行外阴、阴道冲洗,1次/d.对于发生放射性阴道损伤者,两组全身治疗相同,局部治疗方面,均采用温水冲洗切口并用消毒棉球擦干.之后对照组采用0.1

  11. Pregnancy Complications: Bleeding and Spotting from the Vagina

    ... miscarry have bleeding or spotting before the miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy. This is when a fertilized egg implants itself ... of the uterus and begins to grow. An ectopic pregnancy cannot result in the birth of a baby. ...

  12. Kauymáli y las vaginas dentadas

    Báez-Jorge, Félix


    Note portant sur l’auteur “El país que ya no tenga leyendas —dice el poeta— estácondenado a morir de frío. Pero el pueblo que no tuviera mitos estaría ya muerto”.G. Dumézil, El destino del guerrero I El interés temático de este breve ensayo se centra en Kauymáli (o Káuyumaric) uno de los personajes centrales de la mitología huichol. El análisis comprende su condición polisémica, su papel referencial en la configuración de la identidad étnica del mencionado grupo indígena, así como sus transfo...

  13. [The influence of radium therapie on the yeast contamination of the vagina (author's transl)].

    Mendling, W; Schnell, J D; Spiecker, R


    Before the beginning of radium therapy a vaginal yeast contamination of 9,7% was found of 113 patients with different genital carcinomas. However, the incidence of vaginal yeast contamination increased suddenly to 30,9% under the contac irradiation therapy with radium. The radiation effect of radium is not sufficient for a "selfsterilisation" of the radium-carrier in the case of yeast contamination. Therefore, a chemic desinfection of the radium-carriers is principly necessary. The significance of radium therapy with respect to vaginal yeast contamination is discussed and the recommendation is made that routine mycological supervision be carried out on all patients with gynaecological carcinomas and appropriate antimycotic therapy initiated where necessary.

  14. Genome Sequences of 14 Firmicutes Strains Isolated from the Human Vagina.

    Deitzler, Grace E; Ruiz, Maria J; Weimer, Cory; Park, SoEun; Robinson, Lloyd; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka; Lewis, Amanda L; Lewis, Warren G


    Research on vaginal infections is currently limited by a lack of available fully sequenced bacterial reference strains. Here, we present strains (now available through BEI Resources) and genome sequences for a set of 14 vaginal isolates from the phylum Firmicutes These genome sequences provide a valuable resource for future research in understanding the role of Gram-positive bacteria in vaginal health and disease.

  15. Genome Sequences of 14 Firmicutes Strains Isolated from the Human Vagina

    Deitzler, Grace E.; Ruiz, Maria J.; Weimer, Cory; Park, SoEun; Robinson, Lloyd; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka


    Research on vaginal infections is currently limited by a lack of available fully sequenced bacterial reference strains. Here, we present strains (now available through BEI Resources) and genome sequences for a set of 14 vaginal isolates from the phylum Firmicutes. These genome sequences provide a valuable resource for future research in understanding the role of Gram-positive bacteria in vaginal health and disease. PMID:27688329

  16. Sheila Jeffreys: The Industrial Vagina. The Political Economy of the Global Sex Trade. London: Routledge 2008.

    Susanne Hofmann


    Full Text Available Sheila Jeffreys analysiert die Prozesse, die zu einer Industrialisierung und Globalisierung von Prostitution im späten 20. und 21. Jahrhundert geführt haben. Hauptverantwortlich für die gegenwärtige Diskursverschiebung um Prostitution ist für Jeffreys zum einen die sexuelle Revolution der 1970er Jahre und zum anderen die massive Finanzierung von Unterstützer/-innen der Sexarbeiterinnen zur HIV-Prävention in den 1980ern. Jeffreys legt wie in früheren Arbeiten ihre radikal-feministische Position dar und fordert eine Abschaffung der Prostitution. In ihrer Abrechnung mit dem liberalen feministischen Diskurs, für den eine Unterstützung von Sexarbeiterinnen prioritär ist, ignoriert sie die Widersprüchlichkeiten und Komplexitäten der gelebten Realitäten. An vielen Stellen ihres Buches bekräftigt Jeffreys stereotypische Männlichkeitsvorstellungen, was durch einen Blick über den Tellerrand des ihr vertrauten wissenschaftlichen Bezugsrahmens hätte vermieden werden können.Sheila Jeffreys analyzes the processes that led to the industrialization and globalization of prostitution in the late 20th and 21th centuries. Jeffreys considers those primary factors responsible for the current shift in discourse on prostitution, which can be attributed to the sexual revolution of the 1970s on the one hand, and to massive financing of HIV prevention in the 1980s by sex worker supporters on the other. As in earlier studies, Jeffreys presents readers with her radical-feminist position and demands prostitution be abolished. In her confrontation with liberal-feminist discourse, in which the support of sex workers takes priority, she ignores the inconsistencies and complexities of real lived experience. At many points throughout her book, Jeffreys affirms stereotypical male conceptions, which could have been avoided had she looked beyond the theoretical frame of reference that makes up her comfort zone.

  17. A longitudinal study of Staphylococcus hyicus colonization of vagina of gilts and transmission to piglets

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Skov Jensen, E.W.


    High Staphylococcus hyicus colonization rates were found in vaginal samples of healthy breeding sows and in skin samples of their offspring. Twenty-two different phage types were identified among the 720 isolates of S. hyicus examined. Two to 13 different phage types were isolated per herd. Phage...... identical as regards to phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiogram patterns during the entire investigation period. Isolates from the skin of piglets were of the same type as their mothers, indicating that vertical transmission had taken place. S. hyicus strains isolated from the skin of piglets within...

  18. Radiotherapy for carcinoma of the vagina. Immunocytochemical and cytofluorometric analysis of prognostic factors

    Blecharz, P. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Gynecological Oncology; Reinfuss, M.; Jakubowicz, J. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Rys, J. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Tumor Pathology Oncology; Skotnicki, P.; Wysocki, W. [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute, Krakow (Poland). Dept. of Oncological Surgery


    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the potential prognostic factors in patients with primary invasive vaginal carcinoma (PIVC) treated with radical irradiation. Patients and methods: The analysis was performed on 77 patients with PIVC treated between 1985 and 2005 in the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute of Oncology, Cancer Center in Krakow. A total of 36 patients (46.8 %) survived 5 years with no evidence of disease (NED). The following groups of factors were assessed for potential prognostic value: population-based (age), clinical (Karnofsky Performance Score [KPS], hemoglobin level, primary location of the vaginal lesion, macroscopic type, length of the involved vaginal wall, FIGO stage), microscopic (microscopic type, grade, mitotic index, presence of atypical mitoses, lymphatic vessels invasion, lymphocytes/plasmocytes infiltration, focal necrosis, VAIN-3), immunohistochemical (protein p53 expression, MIB-1 index), cytofluorometric (ploidity, index DI, S-phase fraction, proliferation index SG2M) factors. Results: Significantly better 5-year NED was observed in patients: < 60 years, KPS {<=} 80, FIGO stage I and II, grade G1-2, MIB-1 index < 70, S-phase fraction < 10, and proliferation index < 25. Independent factors for better prognosis in the multivariate Cox analysis were age < 60 years, FIGO stage I or II, and MIB-1 index < 70. Conclusion: Independent prognostic factors in the radically irradiated PIVC patients were as follows: age, FIGO stage, MIB-1 index. (orig.)

  19. Laparoscopic management of fallopian tube prolapse masquerading as adenocarcinoma of the vagina in a hysterectomized woman

    Kucuk Mustafa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fallopian tube prolapse as a complication of abdominal hysterectomy is a rare occurrence. A case with fallopian tube prolapse was managed by a combined vaginal and laparoscopic approach and description of the operative technique is presented. Case presentation A 39-year-old woman with vaginal prolapse of the fallopian tube after total abdominal hysterectomy presented with an incorrect diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the vaginal apex. The prolapsed tube and cystic ovary were removed by vaginal and laparoscopic approach. The postoperative course went well. Conclusions Early or late fallopian tube prolapse can occur after total abdominal hysterectomy and vaginal hysterectomy. Symptoms consist of persistent blood loss or leukorrhea, dyspareunia and chronic pelvic pain. Vaginal removal of prolapsed tube with laparoscopic surgery may be a suitable treatment. The abdominal or vaginal approach used in surgical correction of prolapsed tubes must be decided in each case according to the patient's individual characteristics.




    Between 1982 and 1992, 32 patients with squamous cell vaginal cancer were treated. Fourteen patients had stage I, 11 stage II, two stage III and five stage IV disease. The mean age of stage I and II patients was 64, of stage III and IV patients 73. Six patients were pessary-bearing, two had a total

  1. Actinomyces in the vaginas of women with and without intrauterine contraceptive devices.

    Curtis, E M; Pine, L


    Either Actinomyces israeli, A. naeslundii, or Arachnia propionica was found, by immunofluorescence studies, in cervicovaginal mucus from 36% of 50 women. One or more of these organisms were found in a surprising 27% of those with neither intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) nor intravaginal foreign bodies. The only common finding was abundant vaginal mucus, and no clinical features were more serious than vaginal itching, odor, or vague discomfort. Among those women who harbored actinomycetes, the average duration of continuous IUD use was 5.3 years; the comparable figure for those with no infection was 2.1 years.

  2. Preference and checkup of lactobacilli from vagina%人阴道乳酸杆菌的优选和鉴定

    王丽莉; 陈其御



  3. [Update on current care guidelines. Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of cytological changes in the cervix, vagina and vulva].

    Pekka, Nieminen; Anttila, Ahti; Bützow, Ralf; Heikkilä, Elina; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Mäenpää, Johanna; Puistola, Ulla; Rantanen, Virpi; Rintala, Marjut; Räisänen, Ilkka; Santalahti, Anne; Talvensaari-Mattila, Anne; Vartiainen, Juhani; Vuento, Maarit; Yliskoski, Merja


    Approximately 150 cervical cancer cases are diagnosed in Finland annually. Both incidence and mortality have decreased by 80% since organised screening began. Recently, screening based on primary HPV-testing with Pap-smear triage has been shown to be more sensitive and more specific among women over 35 years old in randomised studies and thus may be implemented in routine. Abnormal findings in Pap smears indicate management. Confirmed CIN1 lesions are followed up and CIN2 and worse lesions treated. Follow-up after treatment should be reliably arranged, because elevated risk of cancer remains over 20 years after treatment. Quality control is of utmost importance.

  4. Clinical Analysis of 102 Cases of Bacterial Vagina Disease%102例细菌性阴道病的临床分析

    龙玲; 杜德红


    @@ 细菌性阴道病(Bacterial vaginosis)是已婚妇女的常见病,与妇科炎性疾病、女性不孕均有密切联系,主要通过性生活传播,夫妻双方要同时治疗.本文收集了102例细菌性阴道病,并进行回顾性分析,主要探讨其与妇科炎性疾病及不孕症的关系.

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus jensenii Strain SNUV360, a Probiotic for Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis Isolated from the Vagina of a Healthy Korean Woman

    Lee, Sunghee; You, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Bomi


    ABSTRACT Lactobacillus jensenii SNUV360 is a potential probiotic strain that shows antimicrobial activity for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Here, we present the complete genomic sequence of L. jensenii SNUV360, isolated from a vaginal sample from a healthy Korean woman. Analysis of the sequence may provide insight into its functional activity. PMID:28280032

  6. Treatment of patients with a congenital transversal vaginal septum or a partial aplasia of the vagina. The vaginal pull-through versus the push-through technique.

    Bijsterveldt, C.D. van; Willemsen, W.N.P.


    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the different modalities of congenital obstructing vaginal malformations and the evaluation of techniques to solve the problem. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: The University Hospital Nijmegen, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: The medical r

  7. 参菊洗剂体外抗阴道毛滴虫作用%Effect of Shenju Lotion Agaisnt Trichomonas in Vagina In Vitro



    目的:探讨参菊洗剂的体外抗阴道毛滴虫作用,为临床应用提供参考。方法用肝浸液将参菊洗剂配制成400.00,200.00,100.00,50.00,25.00,12.50,6.25 mg·mL-1培养液,对阴道毛滴虫进行体外培养,分别在2,4,6,8,12,24 h观察阴道毛滴虫的形态和活动状况,计算虫体死亡率,并与相同浓度洁尔阴洗液的体外抗阴道毛滴虫效果进行比较。结果参菊洗剂在体外对临床分离的阴道毛滴虫有抑制和杀灭作用,最低有效浓度为50 mg·mL-1。参菊洗剂各浓度组阴道毛滴虫的死亡率与相同浓度的洁尔阴洗液组比较,差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论参菊洗剂有明显的抗阴道毛滴虫作用。%Objective To investigate the in vitro effect of ShenJu lotion agaisnt Trichomonas vaginalis in order to provide clues for its clinical application. Methods ShenJu lotion was formulated into different concentrations(400.00,200. 00,100.00,50.00,25.00,12.50,6.25 mg·mL-1 )with liver extracts.The morphology and movement of Trichomonas vaginalis treated with different concentrations of ShenJu lotion in vitro for 2,4,6,8,12,or 24 h were observed and the mortality was calculated.The effects against Trichomonas vaginalis were compared between Jieeryin lotion and ShenJu lotion at the same concentrations. Results ShenJu lotion could significantly inhibit and kill clinical isolates of Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro and the lowest effective concentration was 50.00 mg·mL-1 .There was no significant difference in the mortality between ShenJu lotion and Jieeryin lotion(P>0.05). Conclusion ShenJu lotion has obvious effects against Trichomonas vaginalis.

  8. Identification Study of Lactobacilli from Women Vagina%女性阴道乳酸杆菌的鉴定研究

    谢小军; 曾忠铭; 宋作林; 何丽丽


    目的:鉴定女性生殖道乳杆菌种类及各种乳杆菌在阴道中的分布差异.方法:标本接种MRS 培养基分离培养, 使用API 50 CHL 鉴定条码对乳杆菌进行分类鉴定后;再根据GenBank中乳酸杆菌16S-23S rRNA基因间沉默区序列设计引物,测序进一步鉴定乳酸杆菌.结果: API50CHL鉴定出4种乳酸菌,分别为嗜酸乳杆菌、卷曲乳杆菌、德氏乳杆菌、乳酸球菌乳亚种;序列同源分析则为卷曲乳杆菌、格氏乳杆菌、德氏乳杆菌.结论:乳酸杆菌同源性相近,需选择合适的方法才能鉴定出稳定可靠的结果.

  9. 胎膜早破生殖道微生物监测%Surveillance of vagina microorganism in premature rupture of fetal membranae

    范琦慧; 陈顺美


    @@ 胎膜早破可导致感染,而感染也是胎膜早破主要原因之一.作者于1997年3月~1998年10月对82例胎膜早破者的生殖道细菌感染情况作了监测,并对胎膜早破与细菌感染的关系进行探讨.

  10. Noxious electrical stimulation of the pelvic floor and vagina induces transient voiding dysfunction in a rabbit survival model of pelvic floor dystonia

    Dobberfuhl, Amy D.; Spettel, Sara; Schuler, Catherine; Levin, Robert M.; Dubin, Andrew H.; De, Elise J.B.


    Purpose Existing data supports a relationship between pelvic floor dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms. We developed a survival model of pelvic floor dysfunction in the rabbit and evaluated cystometric (CMG), electromyographic (EMG) and ambulatory voiding behavior. Materials and Methods Twelve female adult virgin rabbits were housed in metabolic cages to record voiding and defecation. Anesthetized CMG/EMG was performed before and after treatment animals (n=9) received bilateral tetan...

  11. Characterization of cytological changes, IgA, IgG and IL-8 levels and pH value in the vagina of prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen minipigs during an estrous cycle

    Lorenzen, Emma; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Grossi, Anette Blak;


    minipigs ( n = 10). In sexually mature minipigs ( n = 10), evaluated through an estrous cycle, there was an increase in number of mucosal neutrophils and other leukocytes during estrus. The level of total IgA on the vaginal mucosa increased during diestrus. The level of total IgG showed no significant...... changes through the cycle. The vaginal IgA level in the prepubertal minipigs was similar to the low estrus level in sexually mature minipigs, and the IgG level in prepubertal was similar to the stable level in the sexually mature minipigs....

  12. Clinical application comparison of abdominal ultrasound and vagina ultrasound in diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome%经腹部超声和经阴道超声诊断多囊卵巢综合征



    Objective To compare the application velue of transabdominal ultrasound and transvaginal ultrasound in diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS).Methods Sixty cases of polycystic ovary syndrome were chose as group PCOS,55 cases of hospitalized healthy subjects were chose as control group.After admission,they were treated with abdominal ultrasound and trmsvaginal ultrasonography.The ovarian medulla area (S),ovarian section area (A),the number of follicles (NF) andovarian volume (OV) and the value of S:A was calculated.Results Transvaginal ultrasound detection value of NF was 14.89 ±3.68,which was significantly higher than that of abdominal ultrasonography,there was significant difference (P < 0.05).In PCOS group,NF,OV,A,S,S/A respectively was (13.26 ± 4.15) and (0.28 ± 3.62) V/cm3,(5.33 ± 1.7) V/cm3,(2.30 ±0.74) V/cm3,(3.41 ±0.07),which was significantly higher than those in the control group,there were significant differences(P <0.05).Ultrasound examination showed that left and right ovaries had homogeneous increasing trend,clearboundary,medulla area showed a trend of obviously increase.Abdominal ultrasound showed no echo,transvaginal ultrasonography revealed the presence of a wheel like echo.Conclusions A,S,S/A detection value can be used in diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome,ultrasonography image of ovarian transvaginal ultrasound is clear,when necessary,the two ways can be combined to improve the diagnostic rate.%目的 对比分析经腹部超声和经阴道超声诊断在多囊卵巢综合征中的应用价值.方法 以60例多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患者作为PCOS组,取55例同期入院体检正常者作为对照组,入院后均行经腹部超声和经阴道超声检查,计算卵巢髓质面积(S)、卵巢切面面积(A)、卵泡数量(NF)以及卵巢体积(-V)以及S:A的值.结果 经阴道超声检测的NF值为14.89±3.68,显著高于经腹部超声检查,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).PCOS组NF、OV、A、S、S/A值分别为(13.26±4.15)、(0.28±3.62) V/cm3、(5.33±1.7) V/cm3、(2.30±0.74) V/cm3、(3.41±0.07),均显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).超声检查结果显示左右卵巢均呈明显均匀增大趋势,可见清晰边界,髓质面积呈明显增大趋势.经腹部超声显示无回声,经阴道超声显示存在车轮状回声.结论 A、S、S/A等检测值可用多囊卵巢综合征的诊断中,经阴道超声的卵巢声像图较为清晰,必要时可采用两种方式联合诊断提高诊断率.

  13. 荆芥油-苦参素阴道用脂质体温敏凝胶的制备及其性质考察%Preparation and properties of nepeta oil-oxymatrine lipidosome pro vagina thermosensitive gel

    张朵朵; 吴艳丽; 危红华; 李莎莎; 宋艳丽; 郝保华


    目的 制备荆芥油-苦参素(OMT)阴道用脂质体温敏凝胶并考察其体外释放特征.方法 以泊洛沙姆407 (P-407)和泊洛沙姆188 (P-188)为凝胶基质,以凝胶的胶凝温度为考察指标对处方进行优化;复乳法制备OMT脂质体,冷溶法制备荆芥油-OMT阴道用脂质体温敏凝胶;采用HPLC法测定OMT的量,透析法研究荆芥油-OMT脂质体温敏凝胶的体外释放特性.结果 温敏凝胶基质最佳处方为18%P-407、5%P-188和0.2%羟丙基甲基纤维素(HPMC),所制备的荆芥油-OMT阴道用脂质体温敏凝胶胶凝温度为(36.8±0.2)℃.体外释放结果显示,荆芥油-OMT阴道用脂质体温敏凝胶24 h内累积释放率为(58.89±0.34)%,48 h内累积释放率为(66.38±0.12)%,具有明显的缓释作用.结论 制得的荆芥油-OMT脂质体温敏凝胶具有温敏特性和缓释作用,能有效延缓药物在阴道中的释放速率,提高其在阴道中的滞留时间.

  14. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    ... may have you: Learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ) Use estrogen cream in your vagina Try ... Urinary incontinence - vaginal sling procedures Vagina Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  15. Pelvic Support Problems

    ... A device inserted into the vagina to support sagging organs. Rectocele: Bulging of the rectum into the ... the urethra into the vaginal wall. Uterine Prolapse: Sagging of the uterus into the vagina. Uterus: A ...

  16. Forceps Delivery

    ... delivery. If your health care provider does an episiotomy — an incision in the tissue between the vagina ... the tissue between your vagina and your anus (episiotomy) to help ease the delivery of your baby. ...


    Mavzutov, A R; Tsvetkova, A V; Muretdinova, L A


    The article presents analysis of laboratory criteria and classifcations used to interpret results of laboratory analysis by technique of microscopy on bacterial vaginosis or dysbacteriosis of vagina. Their advantages and restrictions are demonstrated The unified criteria of evaluation are proposed concerning results of microscopy of mucosal discharge of vagina and corresponding classification. Thereafter, three degrees of bacterial vaginosis (dysbacteriosis of vagina) are differentiated: first degree--compensated dysbacteriosis of vagina, second degree--sub compensated dysbacteriosis of vagina and third degree--decompensated dysbacteriosis of vagina. The corresponding laboratory report of physician is formulated. The proposals are presented concerning development of common unified requirements to stages (pre-analytical, analytical, post-analytical) of laboratory diagnostic of bacterial vaginosis (dysbacteriosis of vagina) with purpose of their unambiguous understanding by clinicians and hence their decision making concerning necessity and tactics of management of patient.

  18. Comparative study vagina mould/ fletcher applicator in MRI guided pulsed rate brachytherapy in patients reached by an uterine cervix carcinoma; Etude comparative moule vaginal/applicateur de fletcher en curietherapie de debit pulse guide par IRM chez les patientes atteintes d'un cancer du col uterin

    Francois, G.; Dumas, I.; Mazeron, R.; Verezesan, O.; Monnier, L.; Vieillot, S.; Gensse, M.C.; Haie-Meder, C. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France)


    This study began in february 2009 and included until today ten patients. twenty patients are planned. The analysis of preliminary results show a much higher tolerance for the vaginal cast device. The dosimetry data were the object of a preliminary study that seems demonstrate an equivalence of the both modalities, with differences concerning the doses to critical organs; The definitive result swill be presented with the data including the twenty planned patients. (N.C.)

  19. Expression of MMP-10 and TIMP-3 in vagina of females with pelvic floor prolapse%MMP-10及TIMP-3在盆腔器官脱垂患者阴道壁组织中的表达

    刘丽萍; 王鲁文


    目的 探讨盆腔器官脱垂(pelvic organ prolapse,POP)患者阴道壁组织中基质金属蛋白酶-10(matrix metalloproteinase-10,MMP-10)和组织金属蛋白酶抑制物-3(tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3,TIMP-3)的表达,分析其与POP发生的关系.方法 随机选取35例有完整随访资料的女性POP患者为POP组.选取同期25例非卵巢功能性肿瘤和宫颈病变患者为对照组.于术中取患者阴道壁组织,采用免疫组化的方法观察MMP-10和TIMP-3的表达.结果 POP组MMP-10的表达较对照组升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);TMIP-3的表达低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 POP患者盆底支持结构的改变与阴道壁组织中的胶原代谢有关.联合检测MMP-10和TIMP-3对POP的诊断和治疗具有重要的临床意义.

  20. 德国赫尔曼O3水疗法配伍灭菌灵治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病400例疗效观察%German Herrmann the O3 hydrotherapy blends the antiseptic spirit treatment vulva vagina rayon saccharomycetes to get sick 400 example curative effect observation




  1. Cervical occlusion in women with cervical insufficiency: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial with cerclage, with and without cervical occlusion

    Secher, Niels Jørgen; MaCormack, CD; Weber, Tom;


    , without the membranes being exposed to the vagina. 6. Tertiary cerclage: Short cervix, membranes exposed to the vagina. Observational study: Eligible women who refuse to be randomised will participate in an observational study. 7. Repeat/requested cervical occlusion. METHODS: The women will be randomised...

  2. Giant primary vaginal calculus secondary to vesicovaginal fistula with partial vaginal outlet obstruction in a 12-year-old girl.

    Chen, Shushang; Ge, Rong; Zhu, Lingfeng; Yang, Shunliang; Wu, Weizhen; Yang, Yin; Tan, Jianming


    A vesicovaginal fistula with vagina obstruction associated with vaginal calculi is an extremely rare medical condition. We report a giant primary vaginal calculus resulting from vesicovaginal fistula with partial vaginal outlet obstruction secondary to perineum trauma and surgery in a 12-year-old girl. Episiotomy was performed and the adhesive labia minora was split. After the removal of a giant calculus in the vagina, approximately 8 cm in diameter, the fistula tract was completely excised, followed by the repair of the vesicovagina fistula and the vagina. The patient was symptom-free at 6-month follow-up examination.

  3. Posterior pelvic floor prolapse and a review of the anatomy, preoperative testing and surgical management.

    Kleeman, S D; Karram, M


    The vagina proper extends from the hymen to the cervix and uterus. The anterior wall of the rectum and the posterior vaginal wall are fused for approximately 3 to 4 cm into the vagina. Above this, a plane of dissection is easily created. Plastic repair of the posterior vagina that utilizes ''fascia'' are in fact using the split adventicia and fibromuscular walls of the vagina to support the anterior wall of the rectum. Evaluation of posterior vaginal wall defects requires not only an anatomical description of the prolapse, but also correlation of any functional derangements that may exist. Evaluation may include; defecography, bowel transit studies, manometry, endoluminal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical correction of posterior vaginal wall prolapse includes vaginal, trans anal and abdominal approaches. Vaginal approaches include site specific repairs and traditional posterior colporrhaphy with levator ani placation. Graft augmentation has been described with both approaches in an effort to improve outcomes and decrease failure rates.

  4. Vulvovaginal Health

    ... vagina or by taking a pill. What causes bacterial vaginosis? Bacterial vaginosis is caused by an overgrowth of the bacteria ... certain types of infections. Bacteria: One-celled organisms. Bacterial Vaginosis: A type of vaginal infection caused by the ...

  5. Lactobacillus

    ... same effect. Treating vaginal infections caused by bacteria (bacterial vaginosis). Clinical research shows certain strains of Lactobacillus might help treat bacterial vaginosis when applied inside the vagina. Researchers have found ...

  6. Cervicitis

    ... much growth of normal bacteria in the vagina (bacterial vaginosis) can also cause cervicitis. ... under a microscope (may show candidiasis , trichomoniasis , or bacterial vaginosis) Pap test Tests for gonorrhea or chlamydia Rarely, ...

  7. Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    ... higher risk that it will be an ectopic pregnancy . Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency. • In rare cases, ... the uterus at the top of the vagina. Ectopic Pregnancy: A pregnancy in which the fertilized egg begins ...

  8. Culdocentesis

    ... in the area. You may have a ruptured ectopic pregnancy or ovarian cyst . Normal Results No fluid in ... PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap 139. Read More Ectopic pregnancy Ovarian cysts Vagina Review Date 4/5/2016 ...

  9. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Full Text Available ... organs and to examine a baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s ... Transvaginal ultrasound. The transducer is inserted into a woman's vagina to view the uterus and ovaries. top ...

  10. Stroke Fact Sheet

    ... tells you to. Return to top Does taking birth control pills increase my risk for stroke? Taking birth ... your vagina Return to top Does using the birth control patch increase my risk for stroke? The patch ...

  11. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    ... infection caused by a type of fungus called candida albicans . Yeast infections usually happen in warm, moist parts of the body, like the mouth, or vagina. We all have candida in our bodies, but usually it's kept in ...

  12. Vaginal yeast infection

    ... discharge to thick, white, and chunky (like cottage cheese). Itching and burning of the vagina and labia ... a wet mount and KOH test. Sometimes, a culture is taken when the infection does not get ...

  13. Neonatal conjunctivitis

    ... given right after birth Infection by bacteria or viruses Bacteria that normally live in a woman's vagina may ... the time of delivery. She still may carry bacteria or viruses that can cause this problem.

  14. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    ... in the vagina, cervix, or uterus Had an abortion, miscarriage, or a baby How well does the ... of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  15. Paspalum hydrophylum spec. nov., aus Paraguay

    Henrard, J.Th.


    Paspalum hydrophylum HENR., spec. nov. — Planta aquatica, perennis, rhizoma crassum. Culmi erecti, metrales vel ultra, simplices, teretiusculi vel subcompressi, laeves, glaberrimi, multinodes, summo nodo supra medium culmi. Vaginae laxae, ecarinatae, leviter striatae, glabrae, internodiis longiores,

  16. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    ... scleroderma . Immunodeficiency such as AIDS or immunoglobulin deficiency. Short bowel syndrome caused by surgical removal of the small intestine. ... obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Liver disease Osteoporosis - overview Short bowel syndrome Toxic megacolon Vagina Review Date 5/11/2016 ...

  17. Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk

    ... Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk Bad 'bugs' tied ... Feb. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Certain types of bacteria in a pregnant woman's cervix and vagina can ...

  18. Biopsy - polyps

    Polyp biopsy ... are treated is the colon. How a polyp biopsy is done depends on the location: Colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy explores the large bowel Colposcopy-directed biopsy examines the vagina and cervix Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or ...

  19. Urinary Retention

    ... reaches the stricture. The urologist then uses a knife or laser to make an incision that opens ... who also specializes in the female reproductive system, making an incision in the wall of the vagina. ...

  20. Do Weekend Deliveries Pose Risks for Moms?

    ... the vagina and anus (perineum). In addition, neonatal intensive care unit admissions, neonatal seizures and antibiotic use all ... Dr. Mitchell Kramer, chairman of the department of obstetrics and gynecology at Northwell Health's Huntington Hospital in ...

  1. Hysterectomy

    ... cuts in the belly, in order to perform robotic surgery You and your doctor will decide which type ... through the vagina using a laparoscope or after robotic surgery. When a larger surgical cut (incision) in the ...

  2. Estradiol blood test

    ... may also be used to monitor people with hypopituitarism and women on certain fertility treatments. Normal Results ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 24. Read More Hypopituitarism Ovarian cancer Turner syndrome Vagina Review Date 9/ ...

  3. Laparoscopy

    ... used to look for the cause of chronic pelvic pain , infertility , or a pelvic mass. If a problem ... uterus at the top of the vagina. Chronic Pelvic Pain: Persistent pain in the pelvic region that has ...

  4. Experiment list: SRX129065 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTER...I (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of

  5. Experiment list: SRX314628 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the ...neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus

  6. Experiment list: SRX508008 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available te of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX... UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal e

  7. Experiment list: SRX129063 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available te of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX... UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal e

  8. Experiment list: SRX508009 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available te of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX... UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal e

  9. Experiment list: SRX314629 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available te of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX... UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal e

  10. Experiment list: SRX314630 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available te of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX... UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal e

  11. Experiment list: SRX336292 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTER...I (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of

  12. Experiment list: SRX129064 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available te of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX... UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal e

  13. Experiment list: SRX314627 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the ...neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus

  14. Experiment list: SRX336290 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the n...eck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus,

  15. Photodynamic Therapy

    ... types of cancer and pre-cancerous conditions, including cancers of the: Skin Cervix Bladder Prostate Bile duct Pancreas Stomach Brain Mouth Larynx (voice box) Vagina Vulva (the outside part of ...

  16. Vaginal Diseases

    Vaginal problems are some of the most common reasons women go to the doctor. They may have ... that affect the vagina include sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer. Treatment of vaginal problems ...

  17. What Is Vaginal Cancer?

    ... or epithelial lining ) because it is formed by epithelial cells. The vaginal wall underneath the epithelium is made up of connective tissue, muscle tissue, lymph vessels, and nerves. The vagina ...

  18. Frequent or urgent urination

    ... of your body) Swelling and infection of the urethra Vaginitis (swelling or discharge of the vulva and vagina) Less common causes include: Alcohol use Anxiety Bladder cancer (not common) Drinking caffeine Diabetes that is not ...

  19. Scientific Rationale and Algorithmization of Sochi Resort Natural and Preformed Physical Therapeutic Factors in the Course of Combined Treatment of Patients with Chronic Vulvovaginitis

    Kirill V. Gordon; Evgenii F. Filippov; Svetlana M. Avtomeenko


    Chronic vulvovaginitis is the most wide-spread gynecological pathology among women of childbearing age. The chief causations of nonspecific vulvovaginitis are reduction in oestrogen, disturbances in vaginal acidity, intestine dysbacteriosis, local and general immune disturbances. The growth of vagina opportunistic pathogenic flora is closely connected with the increase of bacterial slimes on vagina mucus. Sulphur balneotherapy in the form of general baths and vaginal irrigations, mechanical p...

  20. Identifikasi Spesies Candida pada Flour Albus Pengguna Alat Kontrasepsi Dalam Rahim


    Background: Candida sp. are normal flora in the mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, vagina, urethra, skin, and nails. Candida sp. infection of the vulva or vagina is called vaginal candidiasis. The clinical symptoms of vaginal candidiasis is flour albus, dyspareunia, dysuria, vulva and vaginal redness and edema. Intrauterin device (IUD) is one of the predisposing factors that can trigger Candida which is initially asymptomatic becomes active proliferate and cause vagin...

  1. Use of a Flexible Inflatable Multi-Channel Applicator for Vaginal Brachytherapy in the Management of Gynecologic Cancer

    Shin, Samuel M.; Duckworth, Tamara L.; Benjamin Thomas Cooper; Curtin, John P.; Schiff, Peter B.; J Keith DeWyngaert; Stella C Lymberis


    Introduction: Evaluate use of novel multi-channel applicator (MC) CapriTM to improve vaginal disease coverage achievable by single-channel applicator (SC) and comparable to Syed plan simulation. Material and Methods: 28 plans were evaluated from 4 patients with primary or recurrent gynecologic cancer in the vagina. Each received whole pelvis radiation, followed by 3 weekly treatments using HDR brachytherapy with a 13-channel MC. Upper vagina was treated to 5 mm depth to 1500 cGy/3 fractions...

  2. Use of a Flexible Inflatable Multi-Channel Applicator for Vaginal Brachytherapy in the Management of Gynecologic Cancer

    Shin, Samuel M.; Duckworth, Tamara L.; Cooper, Benjamin T; Curtin, John P.; Schiff, Peter B.; DeWyngaert, J. Keith; Stella C Lymberis


    Introduction Evaluate use of novel multi-channel applicator (MC) Capri™ to improve vaginal disease coverage achievable by single-channel applicator (SC) and comparable to Syed plan simulation. Materials and methods Twenty-eight plans were evaluated from four patients with primary or recurrent gynecologic cancer in the vagina. Each received whole pelvis radiation, followed by three weekly treatments using HDR brachytherapy with a 13-channel MC. Upper vagina was treated to 5 mm depth...

  3. Changes in the expression of interleukin-1beta and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor in the oviduct of laying hens in response to artificial insemination.

    Das, Shubash Chandra; Isobe, Naoki; Yoshimura, Yukinori


    The aim of this study was to determine the physiological significance of interleukin-1beta (IL1B) and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF) in the fate of sperm in the oviduct of laying hens after artificial insemination (AI). Laying hens were inseminated with fresh semen, PBS or seminal plasma and tissues from different oviductal segments were collected to observe the general histology, changes in the mRNA expression of IL1B and LITAF and the localization of positive cells expressing immunoreactive IL1B (irIL1B). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to observe the changes in mRNA expression of these molecules in the infundibulum, uterus, utero-vaginal junction (UVJ), and vagina after insemination. Intact sperm in the lumen and between the primary or secondary folds of the vagina were found until 6 h after insemination but were degraded at 12 h. The mRNA expression of IL1B and LITAF was significantly increased in the vagina until 6 h after AI but remained unchanged in the other oviductal segments. In the tissue of the vagina and UVJ, irIL1B was localized in the mucosal stroma. The number of irIL1B-positive cells was increased in the vagina but almost unchanged in UVJ after insemination with semen. Significant changes were not observed in the mRNA expression and irIL1B-positive cells in the vagina after PBS or seminal plasma insemination. The increase of IL1B and LITAF in the vagina may lead to sperm degradation and elimination by cilia of surface epithelium, whereas their lower levels in UVJ may permit sperm to survive in sperm storage tubules.

  4. Posterior vaginal wall cyst of Mullerian origin: a case report

    Sunita Samal


    Full Text Available Cystic lesions of vagina are relatively uncommon and an incidental finding during routine gynaecological examination. Mullerian cysts are congenital cysts of vagina, usually reported during childbearing age group. These cysts mostly arise at the level of cervix and extend anteriorly in relation to bladder, but very rarely they may also extend posteriorly. This is a rare case of posterior vaginal wall cyst of Mullerian origin. A 36-year-old multi para (P2L2 both SVD, presented with a mass descending through vagina since 2-3 months. Pelvic examination revealed a 5x5 cm cystic mass arising from the posterior vaginal wall. Complete excision of the cyst was done. The cyst was filled with chocolate coloured material and histopathology confirmed a Mullerian cyst. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(1.000: 245-246

  5. Herlyn Werner Wunderlich Syndrome with Hematocolpos: An Unusual Case Report of Full Diagnostic Approach and Treatment

    Rohit Bhoil


    Full Text Available Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW syndrome is an uncommon combined müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs and mesonephric duct malformation of female urogenital tract characterized by uterus didelphys and obstructed hemi-vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA syndrome. We present a rare and unusual case of this syndrome in a 19 year-old female who suffered from hypomenorrhoea and abdominal pain. She had an obstructed hemi-vagina on right side which led to marked distention of ipsilateral cervix, while proximal hemi-vagina compressed the contralateral side causing its partial obstruction resulting in hypomenorrhoea. Understanding the imaging findings of this rare condition is important for early diagnosis in order to prevent complications which may lead to infertility.

  6. A rare case of Turner′s syndrome presenting with Mullerian agenesis

    Suresh Vaddadi


    Full Text Available Turner′s syndrome also called as Ullrich Turner′s syndrome, is a disease of unclear pathogenesis characterized by complete or partial absence of one sex chromosome, with or without cell line mosaicism in a phenotypic female with short stature. Various anomalies result in a constellation of features, of which the most disturbing is primary amenorrhea due to gonadal dysgenesis. Hormone therapy in these patients can often result in successful menstruation, and scope for subsequent pregnancy because of anatomically normal uterus and vagina. Coexisting Mullerian agenesis in these patients can jeopardize the chances of future pregnancy as they have associated structural abnormalities of the uterus and vagina. We report a rare case of middle-aged female with Turner′s syndrome and Mullerian agenesis having absent secondary sexual characters and missing uterus with incompletely formed vagina.

  7. Fistula Vesiko Vaginalis

    Luki Ertandri


    Full Text Available Abstrak          Latar belakang : fistula vesiko vaginalis merupakan bagian dari fistula vesiko urogenital merupakansuatu keadaan ditandai fistel antara kandung kemih dengan vagina yang menyebabkan rembesan urin keluar melalui vagina.           Kasus : wanita P3A0H3, 44 tahun, datang dengan keluhan terasa rembesan buang air kecil dari kemaluan sejak 3 bulan yang lalu. Keluhan muncul 7 hari setelah menajalani operasi histerektomi 3 bulan yang lalu. Histerektomi dilakukan atas indikasi mioma uteri dilakukan di Rumah Sakit Swasta. Tanda vital dalam batas normal. Pada pemeriksaan inspekulo tampak cairan urin menumpuk di fornix posterior. Dilakukan prosedur tes methylene blue didapatkan hasil positif di puncak vagina anterior 1 fistel dengan ukuran 1-1,5 cm. Pada pasien dilakukan fistulorraphy vesikovagina dengan teknik repair latzko dalam spinal anasthesi.           Pembahasan : Kasus fistula vesiko vaginalis biasa muncul di negara berkembang. Diantara faktor predisposisi adalah disebabkan operasi histerektomi, selain itu trauma persalinan dan komplikasi operasi daerah pelvik. Pemeriksaan Fisik dan pemeriksaan tambahan secara konvensional atau minimal invasif seperti sistoskopi, sistografi menggunakan zat kontras bisa membantu menegakan diagnosa, menentukan lokasi, ukuran dan jumlah fistel. Pembedahan adalah terapi andalan untuk fistula urogenital melalui transvagina atau trans abdomen. Pendekatan terapi tergantung ilmu, pengalaman dan kolaborasi dengan ahli lain bila dibutuhkan.Kata kunci: fistula vesiko vaginalis, histerektomi, latzkoAbstractBackground : Vesica vagina fistula is a part of urogenital fistula wich condition that present fistula between bladder and vagina and make urine mold through vagina.Case Report: Woman P3A0H3, 44 years old, admitted with complaining mold of urine from vagina since three months ago after seven days having surgery procedure. Complaint appeared seven days after histerctomi procedure. The

  8. Anatomia e histologia do conduto genital feminino de Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pilidae

    Eliana de Fátima Marques de Mesquita


    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give an anatomical and histological analysis of the genital duct in mature and immature females of Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822. Anatomically, the vagina has an equal dimension in its extension, varying in form and volume, according to the maturation period. In the immaturity, it has a smaller diameter and volume. In the maturity, the vagina increases in volume, having the aspect of a tumescent organ, and in certain specimens shows an albuminous pink thread in its lumen. Histologically, the calcigenic activity of the gland is evidentiated by the presence of an amorphous and basophilic mass, without nuclear material. This material has a fragmented aspect in the vagina lumen that reacts positively in van Kossa's coloured preparations for calcareous salts.

  9. The Syrian Golden Hamster Estrous Cycle: Unique Characteristics, Visual Guide to Staging, and Comparison with the Rat.

    Chanut, Franck J A; Williams, Ann M


    The Syrian hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, is a suitable rodent species for standard regulatory toxicity studies. However, little is published about the female Syrian hamster reproductive system. It has unique anatomic features that differ from the other rodent species. In the hamster, the upper cervix is composed of 2 canals and the vagina shows 2 lateral pouches where keratin debris accumulates. These pouches must be distinguished from the vagina in order to stage the estrous cycle properly. The microscopic changes occurring during all the estrous cycle stages show some differences with the other rodents, the lower cervix and upper vagina presenting the more dramatic changes. The aim of this work was to produce a practical guide to staging the cycle and to highlight some of the differences between the rat and hamster reproductive system.

  10. Sobre a anatomia do sistema genital de Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 (Pulmonata, Stylommatophora, Bradybaenidae ocorrentes em Porto Alegre, estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Mônica Picoral


    Full Text Available Com base em material coletado em Porto Alegre, apresenta-se um estudo anatômico detalhado do sistema genital de Bradybena similaris (Férussac, 1821, comparado com trabalhos anteriores, propondo-se uma padronização da nomenclatura dos diversos órgãos e regiões, destacando-se a estrutura da região da encruzilhada ("carrefour", do ovispermioducto até a vagina e do pênis e assinalando-se a independência das aberturas do pênis, vagina e saco do dardo num átrio genital.

  11. Vaginal clear cell carcinoma in a Japanese Black cow

    Michishita, Masaki; HORI, Makito; NAKAHIRA, Rei; Takahashi, Kimimasa


    During artificial insemination of an 18-year-old female Japanese Black cow, a mass that was of a hen’s egg size was found in the vagina. On necropsy, the firm mass, measuring approximately 3.5 × 3.5 × 3.0 cm, was located at the superior region of the vagina. The cut surface of the mass was gray-white in color with occasional necrotic or hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, the mass was composed of tumor cells arranged in solid nests of various sizes with an occasional tubular structure separate...

  12. Scientific Rationale and Algorithmization of Sochi Resort Natural and Preformed Physical Therapeutic Factors in the Course of Combined Treatment of Patients with Chronic Vulvovaginitis

    Kirill V. Gordon


    Full Text Available Chronic vulvovaginitis is the most wide-spread gynecological pathology among women of childbearing age. The chief causations of nonspecific vulvovaginitis are reduction in oestrogen, disturbances in vaginal acidity, intestine dysbacteriosis, local and general immune disturbances. The growth of vagina opportunistic pathogenic flora is closely connected with the increase of bacterial slimes on vagina mucus. Sulphur balneotherapy in the form of general baths and vaginal irrigations, mechanical physiotherapy promotes disruption of bacterial slimes, oestrogen elevation, immune reconstruction and vaginal biocenosis, which has positive effect on patients’ fertility level, frequency of obstetrical and perinatal pathologies.

  13. A rare case of Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome with multiple leiomyomas in hypoplastic uterus

    Maithili Mandar Kulkarni


    Full Text Available Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome is a rare disorder described as aplasia or hypoplasia of uterus and vagina due to an early arrest in development of mullerian ducts. Women with this syndrome are characterized by the presence of 46 XX karyotype, normal female secondary sex characters, normal ovarian functions, and underdeveloped vagina. The presence of leiomyoma in MRKH syndrome is very rare, and only few cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of MRKH syndrome with multiple leiomyomas originating from the rudimentary horn of uterus in 25 years married, phenotypically female patient.

  14. Electrochemical vaginal potential during the estral cycle and pregnancy in the rat.

    Zipper, J; Angelo, S


    Potentials were measured with nonpolarizable salt electrodes (agar KCl-AgCl) during the estral cycle and pregnancy of the rat. The vaginal fundus is positive in regard to the external end of the vagina and does not present changes associated with the estral cycle. Vaginal-tongue potentials present biphasic cyclic changes associated with the estral cycle, the vagina being (-) during estro and (+) during diestro. Vaginal-abdominal skin potentials present monophasic modifications associated with the estral cycle. Vaginal-tongue potentials registered during pregnancy were (-) on the first day of pregnancy, (+) throughout pregnancy, and (-) on the first day postpartum.

  15. Use of a Yankauer suction tip combined with the Colpo-Pneumo Occluder balloon to suction the surgical field at the vaginal cuff during robotic hysterectomy.

    Stitely, Michael L; Hashmi, Mahreen; Jain, Preiya; Hochberg, Charles


    A 39-year-old patient with complex endometrial hyperplasia without atypia underwent robotic total laparoscopic hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The procedure was technically challenging because of the patient's obesity (body mass index 50 kg/m(2)). Concomitant suction of pooled blood and retraction of bowel and omentum were necessary to close the vaginal cuff. An endoscopic retractor was used through the assistant's port, and a Yankauer suction tip was placed through an inflated Colpo-Pneumo Occluder balloon in the vagina to provide directed suction to the vagina cuff. This technique enabled efficient closure of the vaginal cuff.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum CMPG5300, a Human Vaginal Isolate

    Malik, S.; Siezen, R.J.; Renckens, B.; Vaneechoutte, M.; Vanderleyden, J.; Lebeer, S.


    The draft genome of a highly auto-aggregating Lactobacillus plantarum strain isolated from a human vagina is reported. The peculiar phenotype also provides an adhesive and co-aggregative potential with various pathogens, which could be of significance in the vaginal niche. Detailed genome analysis c

  17. Terconazole Vaginal Cream, Vaginal Suppositories

    Terconazole comes as a cream and suppository to insert into the vagina. It is usually used daily at bedtime for either 3 or 7 days. ... prescribed by your doctor.To use the vaginal cream or vaginal suppositories, read the instructions provided with ...

  18. Syndrome in question.

    Wu, Yinhua; Qiao, Jianjun; Fang, Hong


    Vulvovaginal-gingival syndrome is characterized by erosions and desquamation of the vulva, vagina, and gingiva. We reported a case of a 32-year-old woman presenting with an 8-year history of damage to the vulval and perianal anatomy and limitation of mouth opening. The patient's symptoms were relieved after treatment with topical tacrolimus cream.

  19. β-Microseminoprotein endows post coital seminal plasma with potent candidacidal activity by a calcium- and pH-dependent mechanism

    Edström Hägerwall, Anneli; Rydengård, Victoria; Fernlund, Per;


    The innate immune factors controlling Candida albicans are mostly unknown. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is common in women and affects approximately 70-75% of all women at least once. Despite the propensity of Candida to colonize the vagina, transmission of Candida albicans following sexual intercourse...

  20. Detection of virulence factors of Uropathoigenic Escherichia coli isolates from infertile women high vaginal swabs

    Farhad Safarpourdehkourdi


    Conclusion: The high vaginal Escherichia coli harbored certain virulence genes of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. The urinary tract infections should be treated well to diminish its upstream transfer into vagina. Some more investigation should be perform for identifying the epidemiological aspects of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in high vaginal part of infertile women.

  1. Urogenital tumors

    Weller, R.E.


    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Granulomatous Vaginal Ulceration due to Metastatic Cutaneous Crohn's Disease

    Hugh J Freeman


    Full Text Available A 28-year-old woman with a prior history of Crohn's disease was evaluated for painful vaginal ulceration in 1984. Subsequent studies revealed isolated involvement of the vagina with a granulomatous inflammatory process characteristic of metastatic cutaneous Crohn's disease. Conservative symptomatic treatment was associated with resolution and no subsequent recurrence of genital tract disease.

  3. 21 CFR 884.5400 - Menstrual cup.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Menstrual cup. 884.5400 Section 884.5400 Food and... OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5400 Menstrual cup. (a) Identification. A menstrual cup is a receptacle placed in the vagina to collect...

  4. Formation of a vesicovaginal fistula in a pig model

    Lindberg, Jennifer; Rickardsson, Emilie; Andersen, Margrethe


    Objective: To establish an animal model of a vesicovaginal fistula that can later be used in the development of new treatment modalities. Materials and methods: Six female pigs of Landrace/Yorkshire breed were used. Vesicotomy was performed through open surgery. An standardized incision between t...... be an effective and cheap way to create a fistula between the bladder and vagina....

  5. Prenatal Care: First Trimester Visits

    ... include your partner in the appointment as well. Medical history Your health care provider will ask many questions, including details about: Your ... He or she will check for any undiagnosed medical conditions. Your health care provider will also examine your vagina and the opening ...

  6. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Menstrual Irregularities?

    ... the vagina Sweet, M. G., Schmidt-Dalton, T. A., Weiss, P. M., & Madsen, K. P. (2012). Evaluation and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women. American Family Physician , 85, 35-43. [top] French, L. (2005). Dysmenorrhea. American Family Physician , 71, 285- ...

  7. Abnormal vaginal microbiota may be associated with poor reproductive outcomes

    Haahr, T.


    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has a prevalence of approximately 19% in the infertile population. BV is often sub-clinical, characterized by a dysbiosis with anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardnerella (g) vaginalis and Atopobium (a) vaginae. Few studies have been...

  8. A multiplex real-time PCR assay for routine diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Kusters, J. G.; Reuland, E. A.; Bouter, S.; Koenig, P.; Dorigo-Zetsma, J. W.


    A semi-quantitative multiplex PCR assay for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) was evaluated in a prospective study in a population of Dutch women with complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge. The PCR targets Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Megasphaera phylotype 1, Lactobacillus cr

  9. Reactivity to human papillomavirus type 16 Ll virus-like particles in sera from patients with genital cancer and patients with carcinomas at five different extragenital sites

    G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard); C.M. Korse (Catharina); J.C.G.M. Buning-Kager (J. C G M); J.M. Bonfrer (Hans); S. Horenblas (Simon); B. Taal (Babs); J. Dillner (Joakim)


    textabstractA retrospective seroepidemiologic study was performed to examine the association between human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 infection and carcinomas of the oropharynx, the oesophagus, penis and vagina. Sera were selected from the serum bank from the Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (Netherla

  10. An unusual case of long standing vaginal foreign body removed with obstetric forceps



    Full Text Available This is a case of retained foreign body in vagina for 10 years, a wood apple which was inserted to reduce uterine prolapse. It was retained without any symptoms for 10 years. The foreign body was removed using obstetric forceps after other methods were failed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 502-504

  11. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    ... can have many causes. They include the following: • Pregnancy • Miscarriage • Ectopic pregnancy • Adenomyosis • Use of some birth control methods, such ... the uterus at the top of the vagina. Ectopic Pregnancy: A pregnancy in which the fertilized egg begins ...

  12. Polypropylene mesh in anterior vaginal prolapse surgery : efficacy, safety and costs

    Vollebregt, A.


    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common condition from which millions of women suffer worldwide. In women with POP the vaginal wall or uterus protrudes or bulges outside the vagina. The prevalence of Dutch women with a symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse is 11%. In the Netherlands more than 13000 surg

  13. ALS1 and ALS3 gene expression and biofilm formation in Candida albicans isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Shahla Roudbarmohammadi


    Conclusion: The results attained indicated that there is an association between the expression of ALS1 and ALS3 genes and fluconazole resistance in C. albicans. A considerable percent of the isolates expressing the ALS1 and ALS3 genes may have contributed to their adherence to vagina and biofilm formation.

  14. Encounters with oxygen: Aerobic physiology and H₂O₂ production of Lactobacillus johnsonii

    Hertzberger, R.Y.


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are intimately entwined with human life. They ferment several key food products in our diets and they reside on the mucosal surfaces of the mouth, intestine and vagina. Administration of adequate amounts of certain LAB species has been shown to provide health benefits, suc

  15. 21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal stent. 884.3900 Section 884.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or...

  16. Biofeedback and physiotherapy versus physiotherapy alone in the treatment of genuine stress urinary incontinence

    Glavind, K; Nøhr, S B; Walter, S


    Biofeedback is a method of pelvic floor rehabilitation using a surface electrode inserted into the vagina and a catheter in the rectum. Forty women with genuine urinary stress incontinence were randomized to compare the efficacy of physiotherapy and physiotherapy in combination with biofeedback...

  17. Pharmacomicrobiomics : the impact of human microbiome variations on systems pharmacology and personalized therapeutics

    ElRakaiby, Marwa; Dutilh, Bas E; Rizkallah, Mariam R; Boleij, Annemarie; Cole, Jason N; Aziz, Ramy K


    The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is a global initiative undertaken to identify and characterize the collection of human-associated microorganisms at multiple anatomic sites (skin, mouth, nose, colon, vagina), and to determine how intra-individual and inter-individual alterations in the microbiome

  18. Pharmacomicrobiomics: the impact of human microbiome variations on systems pharmacology and personalized therapeutics

    ElRakaiby, M.; Dutilh, B.E.; Rizkallah, M.R.; Boleij, A.; Cole, J.N.; Aziz, R.K.


    The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is a global initiative undertaken to identify and characterize the collection of human-associated microorganisms at multiple anatomic sites (skin, mouth, nose, colon, vagina), and to determine how intra-individual and inter-individual alterations in the microbiome

  19. Associations of Filaggrin Gene Loss-of-Function Variants and Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancer and Pre-Cancer in Danish Adults

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Jørgensen, Torben;


    to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and thus a higher risk of HPV-related cancer and pre-cancer. We investigated the association of the FLG genotype with incidence of HPV-related cancer of cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, anus and head and neck, and pre-cancer of the cervix. METHODS: We included 13...

  20. Two cases of the caudal duplication anomaly including a discordant monozygotic twin

    Kroes, HY; Takahashi, M; Zijlstra, RJ; Baert, JALL; Kooi, KA; Hofstra, RMW; van Essen, AJ


    We present two unrelated patients with various duplications in the caudal region. One patient presented with a duplication of the distal spine from L4, left double ureter, duplication of the vagina and cervix, and duplication of the distal colon. The second patient was diagnosed with a duplication o

  1. Genome Sequences of Nine Gram-Negative Vaginal Bacterial Isolates

    Deitzler, Grace E.; Ruiz, Maria J.; Lu, Wendy; Weimer, Cory; Park, SoEun; Robinson, Lloyd S.; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka


    The vagina is home to a wide variety of bacteria that have great potential to impact human health. Here, we announce reference strains (now available through BEI Resources) and draft genome sequences for 9 Gram-negative vaginal isolates from the taxa Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Fusobacterium, Proteus, and Prevotella. PMID:27688330

  2. Fistulogram/Sinogram

    ... that form between: two loops of intestine the anal canal and skin near the anus the vagina and another body part such as the colon, rectum , small intestine or bladder. Fistulograms may also be used to assess abscess collections post-drainage and to determine whether there ...

  3. Update on Anal Fistulae: Surgical Perspectives for the Gastroenterologist

    Helena Tabry


    Full Text Available Anal fistulae are common and debilitating; they are characterized by severe pain and discharge. They arise following infection near the anal canal, or as a primary event from an abscess in the abdomen, fistulating into the vagina or perianal skin. The term ‘cryptoglandular’ is given to abscesses arising from the anal glands.

  4. Oxytocin determination by radioimmunoassay in cattle. 2. Effect of mating and stimulation of the genital tract in bulls, cows and heifers

    Schams, D.; Baumann, G. (Institut fuer Physiologie der Sueddeutschen Versuchs- und Forschungsanstalt fuer Milchwirtschaft der TU Muenchen); Leidl, W. (Gynaekologische und Ambulatorische Tierklinik der Universitaet Muenchen, Germany)


    Oxytocin concentration in jugular vein blood was measured radioimmunologically with a detection limit of 3 pg/ml plasma in male and female cattle. Five bulls were tested; during mating a cow in oestrus with intromission and ejaculation, during mounting a dummy or another bull with ejaculation into an artificial vagina or during false mounts. No increase in oxytocin concentrations could be observed, but stimulation with an electro-ejaculator caused an increase ranging from 5-84 pg/ml after a latent period of 3-5 min. A similar response was observed in two cows following the same procedure. The contact with a bull, false mount or mating with intromission and ejaculation was not followed by a measurable oxytocin release in 5 test cows. The following stimulation techniques, massage of vulva and clitoris, massage of cervix and uterus per rectum, artificial insemination, introduction of a speculum into the vagina or insufflation of air into the vagina were performed with 5 cows and 5 heifers. Insufflation of air into the vagina was the most effective stimulus, eleciting an oxytocin release up to 588 pg/ml. All 5 heiers responded positively, as well as 4 cows in oestrus. The other manipulations cuased an oxytocin response mainly in heifers (whether in oestrus or dioestrus), whereas only one cow in oestrus responded with an oxytocin release. In general, oxytocin concentrations increase about 30-90 s after the start of the stimulus.

  5. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)


    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  6. Orchidaceae novae malayenses XVII

    Smith, J.J.


    Planta florens 62—72 cm alta. Caulis inferne vaginatus, ceterum foliatus. Folia c. 8, lineari-lanceolata ad linearia, breviter acuminata ad sensim acutata, acuta, sicco membranacea, 12.5—14 cm longa, 1.8—1.1 cm lata, superiora decrescentia et sensim in bracteas vergentia; vaginae inferiores longe tu

  7. A new species of Corybas (Orchidaceae) from Papua New Guinea

    Kores, Paul


    Herba parva erecta, 1—3(—7) cm alta. Tuber globosum, 4—6 mm diam., albidum aut dilute brunneum, subtiliter villosum. Rhizomata atque pars subterranea albida. sparse villosa. Pars supraterranea caulis dilute viridis, glabra, ad basim per unicam vaginam tubularem inclusa. Vagina 8—12 mm longa, uninerv

  8. Childhood lichen sclerosus is a rare but important diagnosis

    Jensen, Lise Soldbro; Bygum, Anette


    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic skin disorder with a predilection for the anogenital area. The disease is mostly seen in prepubertal and postmenopausal females. The lesions present as sharply demarcated white plaques encircling the vagina and anus. The atrophic form can lead to scarring...

  9. Uterine Fibroids Fact Sheet

    ... uterus through the vagina, instead of making a cut in the abdomen. In some cases hysterectomy can ... into the blood vessels. This blocks the blood supply to the fibroid, causing it to shrink. UFE can be an outpatient ... warning on power morcellators in treatment for uterine fibroids If your ...

  10. Genital Problems in Women

    ... intercourse can be due to VAGINISMUS, an involuntary spasm of the muscles around the vagina.Self CareSee your doctor if you think you may have vaginismus. Treatment is available. Certain exercises, including the contraction and relaxation of pelvic muscles, ...

  11. Comparison of molecular abnormalities in vulvar and vaginal melanomas.

    Aulmann, Sebastian; Sinn, Hans P; Penzel, Roland; Gilks, C Blake; Schott, Sarah; Hassel, Jessica C; Schmidt, Dietmar; Kommoss, Friedrich; Schirmacher, Peter; Kommoss, Stefan


    Malignant melanoma of the vulva and vagina is relatively uncommon and accounts for melanomas in women. The aim of our study was to establish the biological properties and evaluate potential therapeutic targets in these tumors. We collected a series of 65 cases from three centers and re-evaluated the tumor tissue for predominant growth pattern (superficial spreading, nodular, and mucosal lentiginous) and tumor thickness. KIT (CD117) expression was detected immunohistochemically. In addition, tumors were screened for BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutations by PCR and DNA sequencing as well as for KIT amplifications by fluorescence in situ hybridization. None of the cases contained BRAF mutations. NRAS mutations and KIT amplifications were detected in similar frequency (∼12%) in tumors of the vulva and vagina. In contrast, KIT mutations were present in 18% of primary melanomas of the vulva, but in none of the tumors arising in the vagina. Moderate or strong KIT protein expression was detected in 30 cases, including all tumors with KIT mutations and 6 of the 7 with KIT amplifications. In conclusion, BRAF mutations are virtually absent in melanomas originating from the vulva or vagina, whereas NRAS mutations and KIT amplifications occur in both locations. KIT mutations appear to be specific for melanomas of the vulva, suggesting that in spite of the anatomic proximity, the development of vulvar and vaginal melanomas involves different molecular alterations which may be targeted by novel treatment approaches.

  12. Two new Grasses from Paraguay

    Henrard, J.Th.


    Paspalum plumosum, HENR. nov. spec., — Perenne, dense caespitosum. Culmi stricte erecti, 6—9 dm alti, graciles, simplices, teretes, laeves pauci-nodes, nodis paullulo pilosis. Foliorum vaginae subarctae, apice hiantes, leviter compressae, laeves, glabrae, nitentes, striatae, sordide stramineo-fuscae

  13. Posterior vaginal wall Gartner′s duct cyst

    Ripan Bala


    Full Text Available Cyst of posterior vaginal wall is very rare. This case relates to a patient who presented with polypoidal mass protruding out from vagina which could have been easily mistaken as uterovaginal prolapse, but appropriate clinical evaluation supported with investigations clinched the diagnosis easily.


    parasite species were identified in the feces with Entamoeba coli, Balantidium coli and Entamoeba histolytica occurring most frequently. No...plasmodia or microfilariae were observed in blood smears. Entamoeba coli, observed on one occasion, was the only parasite species demonstrated in the vagina

  15. Medications for Inducing Ovulation

    ... here Fallopian Tube Ovary Cervix Cervical mucus Vagina Egg released (Ovulated) Sperm (around age 10-13, on average), she has ... sweep over the ovary and move the released egg into the tube. If sperm are present, the egg is usually fertilized in ...

  16. Healthcare for Women

    ... not good for the kidneys and a catheterization program may be warranted. Is orgasm possible? The vagina and sex organs can also be affected by Spina Bilda. Sexual arousal may not always induce vaginal lubrication. Thus, it is important to have a lubricant ...

  17. Short-time QiBaoMeiRan Formula Treatment Exerts Estrogenic Activities without Side Effects on Reproductive Tissues in Immature Mice.

    Xu, Ying; Ma, Xiao-ping; An, Jin-na; Zhang, Zi-jia; Ding, Jie; Qu, Ya-kun; Liu, Zhen-li; Lin, Na


    The Chinese herbal preparation QiBaoMeiRan formula (QBMR) displayed estrogenic effects in ovariectomized rats after long-term administration in a previous study. The uterus and vagina are negatively influenced by estrogens in hormone therapy. While QBMR is known to be a phytoestrogen, its estrogenic effects and safety on reproductive tissues after short-term administration and its mechanism via estrogen receptor (ER) pathway haven't been studied. Here, we characterized its estrogenic effects using immature mice together with in vitro studies for further molecular characterization. Immature mice were treated with QBMR at doses of 1.125, 2.25, and 4.5 g/kg for 7 days. 1.125 and 2.25 g/kg QBMR promoted the growth and development of uterus and vagina, and upregulated ERα and ERβ expression in reproductive tissues. QBMR had a stimulatory effect on proliferating cell nuclear antigen in vagina but not in uterus, and was without any influence on ki-67 antigen in uterus and vagina. QBMR significantly induced luciferase expression from the ERα/β-estrogen response element (ERE) luciferase reporter and upregulated ERα and ERβ expressions in MCF-7 cells, which were significantly inhibited by estrogen antagonist ICI182,780. This study demonstrated QBMR exerts estrogenic effects on reproductive tissues without side effects and through ER-ERE-dependent pathway.

  18. [Vaginal ecology, climate, landscapes and populations (xenoecies and facies)].

    Nicoli, J M; Nourrit, J; Michel-Nguyen, A; Sempe, M; Nicoli, R M


    Brief study of vaginal populations, the human vagina being considered as a biotopic cavity. Allusion to dynamic aspects ("vaginal climate", "landscapes") and to various bacterial populations. Introduction of the concept of xenoecies and of facies. This study is preceded by essential definitions of terms widely used in ecology.

  19. Endometriosis of episiotomy scar: a case report.

    Mihmanli, V; Ózkan, T; Genc, S; Cetinkaya, N; Uctas, H


    Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of histologically normal endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis predominantly locates on peritoneal surfaces, but it also affects the vagina, vulva, and perineum, usually secondary to surgical or obstetric trauma. Endometriosis in an episiotomy scar is a fairly rare phenomenon. The authors present a case of endometriosis in an episiotomy scar.

  20. Rate of Perineal Injuries and Episiotomy in a Sample of Women at Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil City

    Ali, Huda Juma'a; Zangana, Jwan M. Sabir


    Background and Objectives: Episiotomy is a surgical incision done during the last stages of labor and delivery to expand the opening of the vagina to prevent tearing of the perineum during the delivery of the baby. The objectives of this study are to estimate episiotomy and perineal injury rate, indication for episiotomy and their association with…

  1. An isolated vaginal metastasis from rectal cancer

    Ai Sadatomo


    Conclusion: We should keep the vagina within the field of view of pelvic MRI, which is one of the preoperative diagnostic tools for colorectal cancer. If female patients show gynecological symptoms, gynecological examination should be recommended. Isolated vaginal metastases are an indication for surgical resection, and adjuvant chemotherapy is also recommended.

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of fistulising Crohn's disease

    Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius


    A fistula is defined as a pathological connection between the intestine and an inner (bladder or other intestine) or outer (vagina or skin) epithelial surface. Fistulas are discovered in up to 25% of all Crohn's disease patients during long-term follow-up examinations. Most are perianal fistulas...

  3. The bovine cervix explored : the cow as a model for studies on functional changes in the cervix uteri

    Breeveld-Dwarkasing, V.N.A.


    The cervix uteri is a rigid tube which connects the uterus with the vagina and during most of the time it is firmly closed. During oestrus, late pregnancy and parturition, the morphological appearance in the cervix changes markedly, resulting in a softer cervix, which during parturition can even be

  4. Loss of a novel mucin-like epithelial glycoprotein in oral and cervical squamous cell carcinomas

    Nielsen, P A; Mandel, U; Therkildsen, M H


    layers of buccal epithelium and was also found in larynx, esophagus, vagina, and exocervix, but not in epidermis. Data showed that gp230 was distinct from MUC1 or CD44. It is interesting that in most cases gp230 was not expressed in squamous cell carcinomas of buccal and cervical mucosa. A few moderately...

  5. Genital warts

    ... warts URL of this page: // Genital warts To use the sharing ... They may be found on the penis , vulva , urethra, vagina , cervix , and around ... in the cervix , or to cervical cancer . These are called high-risk types of HPV. ...

  6. Four species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from the camouflage grouper Epinephelus polyphekadion (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia.

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Justine, Jean-Lou


    Gill diplectanid monogeneans from the camouflage grouper Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker) collected in the coral reef lagoon of New Caledonia, South Pacific, comprise four species. Very few monogeneans were found in most fish examined. Pseudorhabdosynochus dionysos n. sp. has a sclerotised vagina with a robust trumpet, a robust primary canal and two chambers of similar size; it is close to P. bacchus Sigura, Chauvet & Justine, 2007. P. viscosus n. sp. has a sclerotised vagina with a robust trumpet, long primary canal with an extremely thin wall and two small chambers, and a male quadriloculate organ with a characteristic thickening at the extremity of its cone. P. crassus n. sp., the most abundant species, has a sclerotised vagina with a thin-walled trumpet, thin-walled primary canal which is always coiled anteriorly and two small chambers. P. huitoe Justine, 2007, P. manifestus Justine & Sigura, 2007 and P. crassus have very similar sclerotised vaginae; however, species of this 'huitoe complex' can be distinguished by measurements of the haptoral hard parts. A few diplectanid specimens found in a single specimen of E. polyphekadion were attributed to P. huitoe, a species originally described from E. maculatus (Bloch) and also rarely found in E. cyanopodus Richardson in New Caledonia; specimens from these three fish species are morphologically indistinguishable.

  7. Monogeneans from Epinephelus chlorostigma (Val.) (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia, with the description of three new species of diplectanids.

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Henry, Emilie


    Gill monogeneans from the brownspotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma (Val.) collected in deep water off the coral barrier reef of New Caledonia, South Pacific, comprise seven species. These include the ancyrocephalid Haliotrema sp., the capsalid Allobenedenia cf. epinepheli Yamaguti, 1968, and five diplectanids, namely Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli (Yamaguti, 1938), reported in a previous paper, P. cyanopodus Sigura & Justine, 2008 and P. podocyanus Sigura & Justine, 2008, two species originally described from E. cyanopodus Richardson, P. stigmosus n. sp., P. exoticoides n. sp. and Diplectanum femineum n. sp. P. stigmosus is characterised by a sclerotised vagina with a straight primary canal, large ovoid primary chamber and spherical secondary chamber. P. exoticoides is a highly aberrant species, with a thick-walled male quadriloculate organ and a discoid sclerotised vagina with an exceptional structure. Interestingly, P. exoticoides resembles P. exoticus Sigura & Justine, 2008, a species from E. cyanopodus, and P. stigmosus resembles P. cyanopodus and P. podocyanus, also both from E. cyanopodus, suggesting close relationships between the diplectanid faunae of these two fish species. D. femineum belongs to a group of diplectanids, provisionally classified as 'Diplectanum' Diesing, 1858, which all share a small funnel-shaped male copulatory organ. In contrast to other members of this group which have no sclerotised vagina, D. femineum has a sclerotised vagina with the same organisation as those of species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958. This suggests that the species of 'Diplectanum' from groupers are closer to Pseudorhabdosynochus than suggested by the structure of the male organs.

  8. Dealing with Pain during Childbirth

    ... the baby's head and the stretching of the birth canal and vagina. Pain during labor is different for every woman. Although ... doctor. Natural Childbirth Some women choose to give birth using no ... controlled breathing for pain. If you'd like to experience childbirth without ...

  9. Efecto del método de obtención de semen de ovino sobre la calidad espermática (Effect of the method of obtaining of ovine semen on the spermatic quality

    Córdova-Izquierdo, Alejandro1*; ; ; y


    Full Text Available La colecta del semen del ganado ovino, ayuda a identificar problemas relacionados con el desempeño reproductivo de estos animales. Se han utilizado diferentes pruebas laboratoriales, para valorar la calidad seminal de los ovinos y poder realizar predicciones indirectas del potencial reproductivo de los machos reproductores; no obstante, su naturaleza subjetiva, no asegura el poder de fecundación de los machos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue valorar el efecto del método de obtención del semen de ovinos sobre la calidad espermática. Se empelaron 10 machos ovinos de la raza Suffolk de una Unidad de Producción Ovina, ubicada en el Estado de México, México. Para la recolección seminal se utilizó vagina artificial y directamente de la vagina, después de la monta natural. El semen fue valorado macro y microscópicamente. Los resultados promedios fueron, para vagina artificial: volumen 1.11 ml, pH 6.62, motilidad 64.5 %, concentración de espermatozoides/ml 206.4 x106, vivos 68.5 %, Muertos 31.87% y anormalidades 23.96%; directamente de la vagina: volumen 0.57 ml, pH 6.75, motilidad 60.4%, concentración de espermatozoides/ml 176.02 x 106, vivos 62.62 %, muertos 37.27% y anormalidades 11.12%. Los resultados indican que los resultados obtenidos con vagina artificial fueron los mejores. The collection of the semen of the livestock ovine, helps to identify problems related with the reproductive acting of these animals. They have been used different you prove laboratories, to value the seminal quality of the ovines and power to carry out indirect predictions of the reproductive potential of the reproductive males; nevertheless, its subjective nature, doesn't assure the power of fecundation of the males. The objective of this work was to value the effect of the method of obtaining of the ovines semen on the spermatic quality. You empelaron 10 male ovines of the race Suffolk of a Unit of Production Ovine, located in the State of Mexico, Mexico

  10. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome - a review

    N P Gupta


    Full Text Available Purpose: Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome is a congenital malformation characterized by an absence of the vagina associated with a variable abnormality of the uterus and the urinary tract butfunc-tional ovaries. We review the embryological, endocrino-logical, clinical, diagnostic, psychosocial and therapeutic features of this syndrome. Material and Methods: We performed a computer-ised Medline search and manual bibliographical review of more than 100 relevant articles on MRKHS published in the last 25 years. A thorough analysis of embryo-logical, endocrinological, clinical, psychosocial, diag-nostic and therapeutic features of this syndrome was performed and the important findings are summarised. Results: Embryologically, MRKHS appears to be the result of non fusion of the mesonephric duct (MD with the Wolff an (WD. The various Mullerian defects found are agenesis of vagina or uterus, rudimentary vagina or uterus with normal ovarian function. Nearly 50% of these patients have renal anomalies like renal agenesis, ectopic kidney, fusion anomaly like horse-shoe kidney and vesicoureteric reflux. Skeletal abnormalities are found in 10% of these patients, 2/3 of whom have anoma-lies of the spine, ribs or limbs. Clinical observations also support the view that 2 or more syndromes lie behind the title of MRKH syndrome, namely an isolated form of con-genital agenesis of the vagina and uterus (typical/type A and a more generalized condition, in which agenesis of the vagina and uterus is a major and perhaps even an obligatory characteristic (atypical/type B. Conclusion: Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syn-drome (MRKHS is a congenital malformation charac-terized by an absence of the vagina associated with a variable abnormality of the uterus and the urinary tract but functional ovaries. The various urinary tract anomalies described are renal agenesis, pelvic kidney, fusion anomaly like horse-shoe kidney and vesicoureteric reflux. It is not only

  11. The effect of semen collection method and level of egg yolk on capability of dilution and storage of buck semen

    N.N. Dhaher


    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of semen collection method for reduction of the deleterious interaction between the enzymes of bulbourethral gland and egg yolk during the dilution and storage of buck semen by three different level of egg yolk. Ten bucks were used in this study; the bucks were divided into two groups (five bucks in each group. Semen samples were collected once a week for four weeks from the bucks in first group using an artificial vagina, and from the animals in second group using an electroejaculator. The collected semen samples were diluted with sodium citrate extender with three different level of egg yolk (5, 10 and 20%. Extend semen samples were stored at 5 °C for three days. Computer assisted sperm analysis and Sperm Class Analyzer® were used for evaluation of the buck semen samples. Sperm motility parameters were evaluated which includes; percentage of motile sperm, percentage of progressive motile sperm, the value of the linear velocity (VSL, the value of the average velocity (VAP, the value of the curvilinear velocity (VCL, and the amplitude of lateral movement of the head (ALH. Results showed that all sperm motility parameters under the different level of egg yolk in semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were significantly higher than those which collected by electroejaculator. The percentage of motile sperm and progressive motile sperm of samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at 10% of egg yolk, while these motility parameters were higher at 5% of egg yolk for semen samples that collected by electroejaculator. The differences between the two methods of semen collection in VCL and ALH were clear and the values were higher in samples that collected using the artificial vagina. The values of VSL, VAP and VCL of semen samples that collected by artificial vagina were higher at the second day than first day of semen storage under 10% of egg yolk. In conclusion, there are effects

  12. Hallazgo de una leucorrea vaginal de carácter no inflamatoria en hembras bovinas. I. Examen macroscópico y microscópico (Finding of a vaginal leucorrhea of non-inflammatory character in bovine females. I. Macroscopic and microscopic examination

    Luis O. Alba Gómez,


    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de demostrar la existencia de una leucorrea vaginal no inflamatoria en hembras bovinas, se examinaron macroscópicamente los órganos genitales de 350 novillas y 800 vacas Cebú comercial y mestizas Holstein x Cebú sacrificadas en el matadero. Se colectaron secreciones leucorréicas en las vaginas o cuernos uterinos del 12 y 20% de las novillas y vacas respectivamente. Ninguno de los órganos genitales de estos animales mostraron signos de inflamación en sus mucosas. El examen histológico se realizó en 80 muestras de vagina y de cuernos uterinos leucorréicos y solamente el 6,3% de los cortes histológicos de vaginas y el 8,8% de los de úteros presentaron lesiones microscópicas leves. El pH vaginal promedió 6,85  0,2. No se encontraron diferencias en el espectro electroforético entre las secreciones mucosas y las leucorréicas. Tampoco se encontraron células inflamatorias en los frotis teñidos. Los resultados indican que las secreciones leucorréicas observadas no son verdaderos exudados, sino secreciones mucosas modificadas que no tienen un origen inflamatorio. With the objective of demonstrating the existence of a non-inflammatory vaginal leucorrhea in bovine females, the genital organs of 350 heifers and 800 Zebu cows and of the crossing Holstein x Zebu, slaughterhouse, were examined macroscopically. Mucopurulent and purulent exudates were collected in vaginas or uterine horns of the 12 and 20% of heifers and cows respectively. In none of the genital organs of these animals were observed inflammation signs in their mucous membranes. For the histological examination 80 samples of those vagina and uterine horns were used; only 6.3% of the histological preparations from vagina and 8.8% from the uterus presented slight microscopic lesions. The vaginal pH averaged 6,85  0,2. There were not differences in the electrophoretic spectrum between the mucous secretions and the leucorrheic one. Inflammatory cells in the

  13. Successful Delivery of Twin Pregnancy in Class U3b/C2/V1 Uterus by Bilateral Caesarean Section after Spontaneous Conception

    Yasmine El-Masry


    Full Text Available A case of a 19-year-old female with class U3b/C2/V1 uterus conceived a twin pregnancy with a fetus in each horn after spontaneous conception. She referred to our department with presentation of premature rupture of membranes, with a history of cesarean delivery of a single full term living fetus a year and a half before this delivery. Examination revealed two completely separate uterine horns with a fetus in each horn, two distinct externally rounded cervices, and a single vagina with a short nonobstructing vaginal septum in the upper part of the vagina. And as the appropriate mode of delivery is still unclear, each case should be managed as the condition requires, and in our case urgent bilateral caesarean sections were performed.

  14. [Vecchietti's operation for the formation of a neovagina: technic and results].

    Janisch, H; Riss, P; Schieder, K; Rogan, A M


    We performed Vecchietti's operation in 10 patients with absence of the vagina (8 Rokitansky-Küster-syndrome, 1 testicular feminization, 1 occlusion of the vagina after radiotherapy). There were no intra- or postoperative complications; on discharge the neovagina was patent for 2 fingers in all cases. On follow-up examinations 2 to 20 months postoperatively the neovagina was no longer patent in the patient after radiotherapy, all other patients had neovaginas with a length ranging from 5 to 9 cm and reported satisfactory coitus without dyspareunia. According to our experience the conditions for successful surgical formation of a neovagina are: good psychosocial adjustment, some preoperative sexual experience, higher age, preoperative counselling, and longterm follow-up.

  15. The McKusick-Kaufman hydrometrocolpos-polydactyly syndrome: A rare case report

    Swapnil P Yewalkar


    Full Text Available A combination of hydrometrocolpos, polydactyly, and cardiac anomlies is the cardinal feature of McKusick-Kaufman syndrome. Neonatal hydrometrocolpos is rare Mullerian duct anomaly caused by obstruction of the vagina. There is an accumulation of mucus secretions proximal to the obstruction. The secretions are secondary to intrauterine and postnatal stimulation of uterine and cervical glands by maternal estrogens. Here, we report a case of 1-day-old neonate who presented with abdominal distension. Ultrasound and computed tomography findings revealed a large abdominopelvic cystic mass posterior to the urinary bladder. Other associated findings were polydactyly and bilateral hydronephosis. Laparotomy confirmed the findings of hydrometrocolpos caused by stenosis/atresia of lower vagina.

  16. Large vesico-vaginal fistula caused by a foreign body.

    Massinde, An; Kihunrwa, A


    Foreign body is a rare cause of vesico-vaginal fistula most often reported in developed countries. In developing countries obstructed labor is the commonest cause of fistula. A nulliparous 19-year-old female presented with a 3-week history of a foreign body in the vagina causing urinary incontinence and offensive vaginal discharge. Her guardian allegedly inserted the foreign body after she refused a pre-arranged marriage. A plastic container was removed from the vagina under general anesthesia. A large vesico-vaginal fistula was discovered, which was successfully surgically repaired. We recommend urgent removal of the foreign body, preferably under general anesthesia. However, if the history or physical examination reveals prolonged exposure, repair of the fistula should be delayed to allow for adequate debridement in order to prevent any life-threatening complications.

  17. HIV-Enhancing Factors Are Secreted by Reproductive Epithelia upon Inoculation with Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Bacteria.

    Eade, Colleen R; Diaz, Camila; Chen, Sixue; Cole, Amy L; Cole, Alexander M


    Bacterial vaginosis is a common reproductive infection in which commensal vaginal lactobacilli are displaced by a mixed population of pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial vaginosis increases susceptibility to HIV, and it has been suggested that host innate immune responses to pathogenic bacteria contribute to enhanced infection, yet the cellular mechanisms mediating the increased HIV susceptibility remain uncharacterized. We evaluated the HIV-enhancing effects of bacterial vaginosis by inoculating endocervical epithelia with Atopobium vaginae, a bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria, and assaying secreted factors for HIV-enhancing activity. When epithelia and A. vaginae were cocultured, we observed increased HIV-enhancing activity mediated by secreted low molecular weight factors. From this complex mixture we identified several upregulated host proteins, which functioned in combination to enhance HIV infection. These studies suggest that the host immune response to bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria results in the release of HIV-enhancing factors. The combined activity of bacterial vaginosis-induced proteins likely mediates HIV enhancement.

  18. [Condition of periodontal tissue in women with bacterial vaginosis].

    Petrushanko, T A; Shul'zhenko, A D; Krutikova, E I


    Cross colonization of open cavities of human body has little been studied in contemporary medicine. There in no practical recommendations as for management of dental patients with urogenital tract microflora disorder. The paper presents the findings of clinical features of periodontium tissues in women with bacterial vaginosis correlated with bacteriological estimation of oral cavity and vagina, number of sexual partners. Interpretation of amine test of oral and vaginal fluids has been provided for the first time. Chronic generalized inflammatory and inflammatory-dystrophic periodontal diseases of different severity have been detected in all female patients with gynecological diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Gardnerella vaginalis, which is atypical representative of oral cavity microflora, has been detected by the PCR method in bacterial vaginosis both in vagina and oral cavity. The major markers of bacterial vaginosis have been also detected in oral cavity in women with this pathology.

  19. The Human Vaginal Bacterial Biota and Bacterial Vaginosis

    Sujatha Srinivasan


    Full Text Available The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV. PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition.

  20. [Clinical utility of Pourmedia GBS agar on screening for vaginal colonization of Group B Streptococcus].

    Kaneda, Mitsunori; Nagasaki, Hiromi; Tasaki, Megumi; Kamiyama, Kiyoshi


    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) are normal flora of the vagina and intestinal, but if the pregnant woman was infected with GBS in the vagina, miscarriage or premature would occur or the newborn would be developed to severe GBS infection. It is recommended that the inspection of GBS on all pregnant women by Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) and Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We examined the comparison of detection rate between Pourmedia GBS agar (Eiken Chemical Co., Ltd.) and Nissui Separated Plate Sheep Blood Agar/BTB Lactose Agar medium (Nissui Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.) on 112 sample. The positive rate of Pourmedia GBS agar was 21.4% (24/112 samples), Whereas Nissui Separated Plate Sheep Blood Agar/BTB Lactose Agar medium was 17.8% (20/112 samples). It was found that the detection rate was improved by using Pourmedia GBS agar on GBS screening test of vaginal swab.

  1. Sawadalepis prima n. g., n. sp. (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from the Schreiber's bent-winged bat Miniopterus schreibersii Kuhl (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from China.

    Makarikova, Tatiana A; Makarikov, Arseny A


    Sawadalepis n. g. is erected for Sawadalepis prima n. sp. in Schreiber's bent-winged bat Miniopterus schreibersii Kuhl (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from southern China. Diagnostic features of the currently monotypic genus include attributes of the osmoregulatory system and female genital organs. The dorsal osmoregulatory canals are shifted bilaterally towards the margins of proglottides in relation to the ventral canals. The genital pores are unilateral and sinistral. Among female attributes, the copulatory part of the vagina is covered externally by a dense layer of intensely stained cells; the conductive part of the vagina is clearly distinguishable from the seminal receptacle; the uterus has ventral and dorsal diverticula, extending bilaterally beyond the longitudinal osmoregulatory canals; and the eggs are spherical with thick outer coat.

  2. [Identification of yeasts in pap smears: clinical characteristics associated with candidiasis].

    Llovera Suárez, Vilma; Perurena Lancha, Mayda Rosa


    A study of 404 women that attended the Microbiology Laboratory of Ramón Gonzalez Coro Gynecoobstetric Hospital, in Havana City, was conducted aimed at identifying species of yeasts isolated from Pap smears, registering the signs and clinical symptoms and determining the risk factors associated with infection. The isolated yeasts were identified by the filamentation tests in serum, production of chlamydoconidia and carbohydrate assimilation. It was found that 138 (34.16%) of women had yeasts in the vagina. 3 genera were identified: Candida (88.49%). Trichosporon (10.79%) and Rhodotorula (0.72%). Pruritus and heat showed statistical significance (p < 0.01). Pregnancy, the use of IUD and the antibacterial therapy proved to be the most common risk factors in relation to the presence of Candida in the vagina.

  3. Concomitant Imperforate Hymen and Transverse Vaginal Septum Complicated with Pyocolpos and Abdominovaginal Fistula

    Berna Dilbaz


    Full Text Available A 13-year-old patient with a complaint of worsening lower abdominal pain during the past 4 months was admitted to the emergency department. An abdominopelvic ultrasound scan revealed a distended uterocervical cavity suggestive of hematometrocolpos. Imperforate hymen was observed on examination of the external genitalia. MRI scan revealed an air-fluid level representing pyometrocolpos within a distended vagina. Posterior vaginal extraperitoneal leakage as the sign of a fistula between the vagina and the rectovaginal space was detected. Although laparoscopic approach was planned, malodorous pus expelled after the insertion of the Veress needle, it was decided to proceed to laparotomy. Pus with peritoneal microabscess formations was observed at laparotomy. The imperforate hymen and TVS were excised vaginally. A more complex anomaly should be suspected in cases with hematometra and concomitant imperforated hymen without any bulging and thorough evaluation using radiological imaging techniques should be performed before surgical approach.

  4. Sugar expressions on the vaginal epithelium in pregnant mice.

    Yasunaga, Youhei; Takeuchi, Takashi; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Nabeta, Motowo; Matsuu, Aya; Asano, Atsushi; Ohta, Yasuhiko


    Sugar expressions were examined on the epithelium of both the middle portion of the vagina and the vaginal portion of the cervical canal (CC) in pregnant mice to understand the pathogenesis of bacterial infection in the female reproductive organ by using a panel of lectins. As a result, N-acetylglucosamine was positive before pregnant day (P) 7 but negative after P10 and at diestrus on both the vagina and the CC. In addition, some differences in sugar expressions were seen between them. These results suggest that sugar expressions on the mucosal surface would change not only site-specifically but also time-dependently, and these sugar differences indicate the possibility of the alteration of the settled bacterial species on the vaginal mucosa in pregnancy.

  5. Abnormal vaginal microbiota may be associated with poor reproductive outcomes

    Haahr, Thor


    primers were specific for four common Lactobacillus spp., G. vaginalis and A. vaginae. Results: The prevalence of BV defined by Nugent score was 21% (27/130), whereas the prevalence of an abnormal vaginal microbiota was 28% (36/130) defined by qPCR with high concentrations of G. vaginalis and/or A....... vaginae. The qPCR diagnostic approach had a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 93% for Nugent-defined BV. Eighty-four patients completed IVF treatment. The overall clinical pregnancy rate was 35% (29/84). Interestingly, only 9% (2/22) with qPCR defined abnormal vaginal microbiota obtained a clinical...... pregnancy (P = 0.004). Wider implications: If a negative correlation between abnormal vaginal microbiota and the clinical pregnancy rate is corroborated, patients could be screened and subsequently treated for abnormal vaginal microbiota prior to fertility treatment....

  6. 阴道镜下活检诊断宫颈上皮内瘤变678例%Colposcopic biopsy diagaosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia experience of 678 cases

    常宗龙; 杨霞


    Objective:The mirror appraising the electron vagina is worth to cervix lesion diagnose.Methods:678 example patients outpatient service does a vagina in FEB,2008 in MAY,2006~mirror mirror examining,checking a vagina go over has an image;Abnormal person,draws materials under the mirror,gives to pathological mechanism go over directly in the vagina,electron vagina mirror the image makes a definite diagnosis with neck of uterus microanatomy diagnose collation analysis,with pathological mechanism result action standard.Results:Patient of this group inspects up out the chronic cervicitis 85.99%, CIN11.50%,original place cancer 1.92%,infiltrates cancer 0.59%.Mirror infiltrating the cancer vagina the image is that the blood vessel is abnormal mainly,original place cancer vagina mirror visible image acetic acid white epithellum,major partners the shape blood vessei,heterotype blood vessel,mosaic and floccosoids wait a little bit;CIN acetic acid white maximum appears on epithelium,the shape blood vessel,heterotype blood vessel,rnosaic and floccosoids take second place;The chronic cervicitis gives first place to no representative shape blood vessel China and acetic acid white epithelium.Conclusion:Vagina mirror means examining importance reproducing road lesion under being early phase diagnose and treat.%目的:评价电子阴道镜对子宫颈病变的诊断价值.方法:2006年2月~2008年5月678例患者门诊行阴道镜检查,对阴道镜检查有图像异常者,直接在阴道镜下取材,送病理检查.电子阴道镜图像与宫颈组织学诊断对照分析,以病理结果作为确诊标准.结果:本组检出慢性宫颈炎85.99%,CIN11.50%,原位癌1.92%,浸润癌0.59%.浸润癌阴道镜图像主要是血管异常,原位癌阴道镜图像可见醋酸白色上皮,多数伴有点状血管、异型血管、镶嵌和白斑等;CIN醋酸白色上皮出现最多,点状血管、异型血管、镶嵌和白斑次之;慢性宫颈炎以不典型点状血管和醋酸白色

  7. Recurrent Fistula between Ileal Pouch and Vagina—Successful Treatment with a Gracilis Muscle Flap

    Feride Aydin


    Full Text Available Fistulae between an ileal pouch and the vagina are an uncommon complication of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis following proctocolectomy and mucosectomy in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis coli. Several reports describe the successful use of muscle flaps to close recurrent pouch-vaginal-fistulae (PVF. However, series only contain small numbers and an optimal management has not yet been determined. We report the case of a 26-year old woman with a third recurrence of a PVF after proctocolectomy for treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis in October 2005. Because local approaches failed, definitive closure of the fistula was achieved by interposition of a gracilis muscle flap between the pouch-anal anastomosis and the vagina. The postoperative course was uneventful; the patient was discharged 7 days after surgery and remained free of recurrence and symptomatic complaints for 22 months now. The gracilis muscle flap proved to be an effective method in the treatment of recurrent PVF.

  8. The effect of Lacto- and Bifidobacteria in monoculture on the vaginal microflora in norm and in cases of intravaginal staphylococcosis.

    Babenko, L R; Lazarenko, L M; Shynkarenko, L M; Mokrozub, V V; Pidgorskyi, V S; Spivak, M Ja


    The influence of probiotic strains of Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280, Lactobacillus acidophilus IMV B-7279, Bifidobacterium animalis VKL, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMV B-7281 and Bifidobacterium animalis VKB, each strain separately, to the range of the urogenital tract microflora in physiological norm and in cases of experimental intravaginal staphylococcosis of mice induced by Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4. It was found that all these strains had different efficiency in Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 growth suppression in the vagina of infected mice and affect the spectrum of microorganisms. Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280 strain had effective antistaphylococcal effect and reduced the number of coliform bacteria and fungi in the vagina in cases of intravaginal staphylococcosis of mice. Lactobacillus casei IMV B-7280 strain is promising to create probiotic drugs effective in treating intravaginal staphylococcosis.

  9. Vaginal reconstruction using perineal-thigh flaps with subcutaneous pedicle.

    Chen, Z; Chen, C; Chen, M; Zhang, J; Wu, N; Wang, J


    A technique of vaginal reconstruction using bilateral, perineal-thigh flaps with subcutaneous pedicle is described. In this procedure, the flaps were raised bilaterally and introduced into an artificial space between the urinary bladder and rectum. The blood supply for the flaps flows from the perineal artery through anastomotic branches to the external pudendal artery. The authors used the technique on four patients, and all the flaps survived entirely. There was no complication. According to a more than two-year follow-up survey, the reconstructed vaginas are expansible and contract little. No stent is needed. There is good sensitivity in the wall of the artificial vagina because sensory nerves run through the flaps.


    Muhammad Rizal


    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi kualitas semen cair domba garut yang diencerkan dengan larutan pengencer tris dengan penambahan berbagai konsentrasi beta-karoten. Semen dikoleksi dengan vagina buatan satu kali dalam satu minggu dari empat pejantan domba garut dewasa kelamin. Segera setelah dievaluasi, semen segar dibagi ke dalam tiga buah tabung reaksi dan masing-masing diencerkan dengan pengencer tris (kontrol, pengencer tris + 0,0125% beta-karoten

  11. Three cases of Lipschutz vulval ulceration.

    Alés-Fernández, M; Rodríguez-Pichardo, A; García-Bravo, B; Ferrándiz-Pulido, L; Camacho-Martínez, F M


    A Lipschütz ulcer or 'ulcus vulvae acutum' is an acute simple ulceration of the vulva or vagina of non-venereal origin which can be associated with lymphadenopathy. Three cases are described with accompanying clinical photographs. Two cases refer to adolescents, one an infant, all without any history of sexual contact. The cases serve to illustrate a little known but potentially important differential diagnosis of vulval ulceration.

  12. [A technical suggestion for laboratory tests in cases of rape].

    Fazio Pellacchio, M C; Celli, R


    The paper suggests completing the clinical tests carried out in cases of rape by collecting material not only from the fornix of the vagina but also from the cervical canal using cotton-wool buds, and examining any spermatozoa adhering to the cotton filaments by staining with Baecchi's method. Alternatively, the paper suggests carrying out these tests in anticipation of their possible use as forensic evidence if requested by the court.

  13. Vaginal shape at resting pelvic MRI: Predictor of pelvic floor weakness?

    Tillack, AA; Joe, B; Yeh, B; Jun, SL; Kornak, J; Zhao, S; Deng, D


    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Objective: The objective was to determine if alteration in vaginal shape seen on nonstraining pelvic magnetic resonance (MR) scans is associated with pelvic floor weakness. Methods: Two readers classified the shape of the middle third of the vagina on resting T2-weighted axial images as normal or abnormal for 76 women with and without pelvic floor weakness. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing pelvic floor dysfunction were 84% and 68% for reader A and 4...

  14. Rectal extrusion of the catheter and air ventriculography following bowel perforation in ventriculo-peritoneal shunt

    Arico, M.; Podesta, A.F.; Bianchi, E.; Beluffi, G.; Fiori, P.; Chiari, G.; Pezzotta, S.


    Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt is frequently carried out in infantile hydrocephalus. The peritoneal shunt has a lower morbidity than ventriculo-atrial shunt and severe complications are uncommon. Abdominal complications include intestinal perforation, shunt migration, inguinal hernia, cerebrospinal fluid pseudocysts and hollow viscus perforation. A few cases of catheter extrusion from the rectum, vagina, umbilicus and urethra have been described. We report a new case of intestinal perforation with rectal extrusion of the catheter associated with a ventriculogram.

  15. [Saforelle - a new approach to treat vaginitis].

    Karamisheva, V; Nachev, A


    Infections of the vulva and vagina are one of the most common gynecological diseases. They can be determined by a variety of physical, chemical and biological factors. The main risk factors contributing to vaginitis are aerobic and anaerobic bacterias, fungal and viral infections, and irritants. Subjective complaints are pruritus, vulvar and/or perivulvar erytema and different in volume and characterization discharge. Excepting etiological treatment in most cases it is necessary to use additional agents, for example Saforelle.

  16. Vaginal Atrophy following Long-Term Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Use: A Case Report

    Christie Walker


    Full Text Available Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA is a commonly used form of contraception, with noncontraceptive benefits for the user. The mode of action is through the suppression of ovulation. It leads to hypoestrogenism which causes dryness of the vagina and dyspareunia. We present in this paper a patient that was very symptomatic with regard to vaginal atrophic changes determined by vaginal cytology. This side effect may become increasingly more common as we see more long-term use of DMPA.

  17. The Function of PTP1B in Neuroendocrine Differentation of Prostate Cancer


    uterine segment, vagina and ovary, 14 cases), urinary bladder (10 cases), head and neck (6 cases), stomach (3 cases), and pancreas (3 cases). The prostate...contained positive cells (100%, 2 cases; 90%, 1 case; 10%, 1 case), 3 of 8 cases of uterine cervical SCNCs contained positive cells (90%, 2 cases; 30%, 1...molecule in oral cavity cancer. Exp Oncol 2006;28:94-8. [16] Stavropoulos NE, Filliadis I, Ioachim E, et al. CD44 standard form expression as a

  18. Analisa Faktor Perilaku yang Mempengaruhi Terjadinya Keputihan pada Siswi SMK Negeri 8 Medan

    Marpaung, Ronauli Agnes


    All of teen needs serious attention because they are at risk of reproductive health problems including the whitish (vaginal discharge). Vaginal disharge is discharge from the vagina that is not blood. The occurrence of vaginal discharge can be caused by physiological and pathological factors. The occurrence of pathological vaginal discharge in adolescents due to lack of good behavior (knowledge, attitudes and actions) youth in maintaining the cleanliness of her feminine area to...

  19. Dystopic dysplastic kidney with ectopic ureter: improved localization by fusion of MR urography and {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA SPECT datasets

    Kreissl, Michael C.; Lorenz, Reinhard [University Clinic Wuerzburg, Clinic and Polyclinic of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Ohnheiser, Gerd [University Clinic Wuerzburg, Zentrum Operative Medizin, Clinic and Polyclinic of Urology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Darge, Kassa [University Clinic Wuerzburg, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Institute of Radiodiagnosis, Wuerzburg (Germany)


    We report a 12-year-old girl with a long history of constant urinary dribbling and apparently only a left kidney. Using a multimodality approach involving the fusion of MR urography and {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) SPECT datasets, it was finally possible to exactly localize the very small dystopic, dysplastic right kidney and its ectopic ureter draining into the vagina. (orig.)

  20. The influence of biofilm formation by Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobes on bacterial vaginosis

    Machado, António; Cerca, Nuno


    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the worldwide leading vaginal disorder in women of reproductive age. BV is characterized by the replacement of beneficial lactobacilli and the augmentation of anaerobic bacteria. Gardnerella vaginalis is a predominant bacterial species, however, BV is also associated with other numerous anaerobes, such as Atopobium vaginae, Mobiluncus mulieris, Prevotella bivia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptoniphilus sp.. Currently, the role of G. vaginalis in the etiology of BV...

  1. Semen Displacement as a Sperm Competition Strategy in Humans

    Gordon G. Gallup


    Full Text Available We examine some of the implications of the possibility that the human penis may have evolved to compete with sperm from other males by displacing rival semen from the cervical end of the vagina prior to ejaculation. The semen displacement hypothesis integrates considerable information about genital morphology and human reproductive behavior, and can be used to generate a number of interesting predictions.

  2. Update on anal fistulae: Surgical perspectives for the gastroenterologist

    Helena Tabry; Farrands, Paul A


    Anal fistulae are common and debilitating; they are characterized by severe pain and discharge. They arise following infection near the anal canal, or as a primary event from an abscess in the abdomen, fistulating into the vagina or perianal skin. The term ‘cryptoglandular’ is given to abscesses arising from the anal glands.For many years, the treatment of choice was to lay open the fistula; however, this risks causing incontinence with potentially devastating consequences. Alternative surgic...

  3. Genital-tract infection and disease in nude and immunologically competent mice after inoculation of a human strain of Chlamydia trachomatis.


    A fast, human strain of Chlamydia trachomatis was introduced into the uterus of progesterone-treated CBA mice and congenic CBA nude mice through the uterine wall or via the cervical canal. The numbers of inclusions produced by samples taken from the vagina of the nude mice were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than those produced by samples from immunologically competent normal mice. However, the infection was self-limited, lasting about 60 days, and there was no statistical differenc...


    Suryati Suryati


    Di Indonesia penggunaan kondom wanita tidak begitu popular seperti kondom pria, khususnya di Sumatera Barat. Kondom wanita ini menyerupai satu sarung atau kantong kecil yang sangat tipis yang dapat digunakan oleh para wanita pada waktu melakukanhubungan seks. Kondom wanita ini semuanya harus dimasukkan ke dalam vagina, dan kondom ini dapat membantumencegah terjadinya kehamilan dan penyakit-penyakit seksual (STDs) termasuk HIV. Kondom wanita ini terbuat dari polyurethane yang menyerupai sarung...

  5. Lichen planus of uterine cervix - the first report of a novel site of occurrence: a case report

    Gupta, Ruchika; Bansal, Bhavna; Singh, Sompal; Yadav, Indra; Gupta, Kusum; Kudesia, Madhur


    Introduction Lichen planus is an immune mediated inflammatory lesion involving skin and mucosal sites including oral mucosa, vulva and rarely vagina. Lichen planus occurring at mucosal sites has been shown to be associated with squamous cell carcinoma in a proportion of cases. To the best of our knowledge, no case of lichen planus of uterine cervix has been reported in the available literature. Case Presentation A 45-year-old female underwent vaginal hysterectomy for uterine prolapse. The res...

  6. Záchyt Streptococcus agalactiae u těhotných žen a novorozenců

    HÁLOVÁ, Eliška


    S. agalactiae are common commensals of the nasopharynx, vagina and gastrointestinal tract. Now digestive tract is considered a very likely source of vaginal colonization. Colonization by the bacteria is in many cases asymptomatic. S. agalactiae causes a variety of infections in neonates and is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Transmission takes place vertically from colonized mother to fetus. A potential source of GBS infections may also be mother's milk. This type of tran...

  7. Evaluation of microbiological diagnostics in urogenital infections in postmenopausal women

    Blaženka Hunjak,; Zdenka Peršić


    Objective To establish the percentage of infections in postmenopausal women with urinary symptoms which can be confirmed by microbiological analysis, the most common causative agents and whether the urethra and vagina in patients with cystitis are concurrently colonized by pathogenic microorganisms. Methods Laboratories of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health in Zagreb, in the period of two years, analyzed 245 samples taken from patients with urinary symptoms who had been postmeno...

  8. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in a Patient with Esophageal and Genital Leiomyomatosis

    An, Young Sil; Kim, Deog Yoon [Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis is a rare benign tumor, which can be associated with leiomyoma in female genital tracts involving the uterus, vagina, and vulva. Alport syndrome, an inherited disorder that includes the kidneys, eyes, and sensorineural hearing loss, is also rarely associated with these multiple leiomyomatosis. In our case, {sup 18}F-fluoroseoxyglucose positron emission tomography/ computed tomography was used to distinguish esophageal and genital leiomyomatosis from malignant masses.

  9. Angiomyofibroblastoma: A diagnostic dilemma.

    Mallya, Varuna; Sahai, Kavita; Rathi, K R; Prasad, Urmila


    Angiomyofibroblastoma is a very rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the superficial soft-tissues. Most of the cases have been reported in the vulva. It presents usually in the reproductive age group. Histologically it is characterized by alternating hypo and hypercellular areas admixed with thin walled blood vessels with a perivascular concentration of stromal cells. We report a case of this lesion arising in the vagina in a 46-year-old woman.

  10. Angiomyofibroblastoma: A diagnostic dilemma

    Varuna Mallya


    Full Text Available Angiomyofibroblastoma is a very rare benign mesenchymal tumor of the superficial soft-tissues. Most of the cases have been reported in the vulva. It presents usually in the reproductive age group. Histologically it is characterized by alternating hypo and hypercellular areas admixed with thin walled blood vessels with a perivascular concentration of stromal cells. We report a case of this lesion arising in the vagina in a 46-year-old woman.

  11. Dynamic MR Imaging of the Pelvic Floor:Technical Considerations and Image Analysis


    @@ The pelvic floor is a complex anatomic and functional unit of multiple muscle layers, fascia and ligaments.In clinical routine, a simple anatomic concept of the female pelvic floor has gained acceptance.Especially for treatment planning,the female pelvic floor may be separated into three functional compartments:.the anterior compartment (bladder and urethra), the middle compartment (vagina,cervix,uterus,and adnexa), and the posterior compartment (anus and rectum).

  12. Meme Kanserli Hastalarda Menopozal Semptomlara Yaklaşım

    METİNDİR, Jale


    Because of improved survival rates in breast cancer, more women are having to face the conseçuences of estrogen depri-vation, be it directly as a result of their treatment or indirectly simply through living longer. The resulting fail in estrodiol levels af-fect various tissues and organs, including the hypothalamic temparature-regulating centre, vagina, skin, vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, and bone. Estrogen replacement therapy (with and without added progestins) is the most effective ...

  13. Morphology of the female reproductive system of European pea crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae).

    Becker, Carola; Brandis, Dirk; Storch, Volker


    Commensal pea crabs inhabiting bivalves have a high reproductive output due to the extension andfecundity of the ovary. We studied the underlying morphology of the female reproductive system in the Pinnotheridae Pinnotheres pisum, Pinnotheres pectunculi and Nepinnotheres pinnotheres using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eubrachyura have internal fertilization: the paired vaginas enlarge into storage structures, the spermathecae, which are connected to the ovaries by oviducts. Sperm is stored inside the spermathecae until the oocytes are mature. The oocytes are transported by oviducts into the spermathecae where fertilization takes place. In the investigated pinnotherids, the vagina is of the "concave pattern" (sensu Hartnoll1968): musculature is attached alongside flexible parts of the vagina wall that controls the dimension of its lumen. The genital opening is closed by a muscular mobile operculum. The spermatheca can be divided into two distinct regions by function and morphology. The ventral part includes the connection with vagina and oviduct and is regarded as the zone where fertilization takes place. It is lined with cuticle except where the oviduct enters the spermatheca by the "holocrine transfer tissue." At ovulation, the oocytes have to pass through this multilayered glandular epithelium performing holocrine secretion. The dorsal part of the spermatheca is considered as the main sperm storage area. It is lined by a highly secretory apocrine glandular epithelium. Thus, two different forms of secretion occur in the spermathecae of pinnotherids. The definite role of secretion in sperm storage and fertilization is not yet resolved, but it is notable that structure and function of spermathecal secretion are more complex in pinnotherids, and probably more efficient, than in other brachyuran crabs.


    Bambang Wasito


    A man frequently complains many matters on his sexual functions. Sometime people care with the penis diameter than the length. Here no physiological reason on diameter that influences sensation during coitus. Vagina can amazing and accomodating the present object to a size of one finger until a baby head. The size phallus is an attractive attentionas to increase the number of men who looking for penis enlargement, some men ask penis enlargement for functional reasons; nevertheless, the majori...

  15. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military: Top-Line Estimates for Active-Duty Service Members from the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study


    Study Survey DoD, in consultation with the White House National Security Staff, stipulated that the sample size for the RMWS was to include a census of...of Active-Duty DoD Respondents Who Completed Each Survey Module Survey Module Sample Size Respondents Response Rate WGRA Outcomes (prior form...include the buttocks, inner thigh, breast, groin, anus, vagina, penis and testicles. Top-Line Results from the RAND Military Workplace Study 41 12

  16. Mating in the Capsalid Monogenean Benedenia seriolae, a Skin Parasite of the Yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata, in Japan

    KEARN G. C.


    Mating is described for the first time in a member of the genus Benedenia, namely in Benedenia seriolae from the skin of the yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata, and is compared with mating in the related monogenean, Entobdella soleae. In adult specimens of B. seriolae separated from the host and attached to glass, mating is brief, the penis of one hermaphrodite individual being inserted into the relatively spacious vestibule of the vagina of the co-copulant and vice versa. There is no spermato...


    Somia Gul; Hina Qamar; Wardha Jawaid; Urooj Bukhari; Yumna Javed


    Leucorrhea also spelled leucorrhoea, flow of a whitish, yellowish, or greenish discharge from the vagina of the female that may be normal or that may be a sign of infection. It is mucous discharge which represents desquamation of vaginal epithelial cells because of the effects of estrogen on the vaginal mucosa. It is important to distinguish leucorrhea from pathologic discharge. Leucorrhea usually does not cause irritation but some adolescents worry that it may represent an infection. A total...

  18. Malformations in a cohort of 284 women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH

    Oppelt Patricia G


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the spectrum of genital and associated malformations in women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome using evaluated diagnostic procedures and the Vagina Cervix Uterus Adnex – associated Malformation classification system (VCUAM. Methods 290 women with MRKH syndrome were clinically evaluated with using clinical examinations, abdominal and perineal/rectal ultrasound, MRI, and laparoscopy. Results Classification of female genital malformation according to the Vagina Cervix Uterus Adnex – associated Malformation classification system was possible in 284 women (97.9%. Complete atresia of Vagina (V5b and bilateral atresia of Cervix (C2b were found in 284 patients (100%. Uterus: bilateral rudimentary or a plastic uterine horns were found in 239 women (84.2%. Adnexa: normal Adnexa were found in 248 women (87.3%. Malformations: associated malformations were found in 126 of 282 evaluable women (44.7%, 84 women (29.6% had malformations of the renal system. Of 284 women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome 212 women (74.7% could be classified as V5bC2bU4bA0. The most frequent classification was V5bC2bU4bA0M0 (46.8% diagnosed in 133 of 284 women. Conclusions Complete atresia of vagina and cervix were found in all patients, variable malformations were found with uterus and adnexa. A variety of associated malformations were present, predominantly of the renal system. It is therefore recommended that all patients with genital malformations should be evaluated for renal abnormalities.

  19. High incidence of recurrent copy number variants in patients with isolated and syndromic Mullerian aplasia


    Abstract Background: Congenital malformations involving the Mullerian ducts are observed in around 5% of infertile women. Complete aplasia of the uterus, cervix, and upper vagina, also termed Mullerian aplasia or Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome occurs with an incidence of around 1 in 4,500 female births, and occurs in both isolated and syndromic forms. Previous reports have suggested that a proportion of cases, especially syndromic cases, are caused by variation in c...

  20. Virus papiloma humano y cáncer cérvico-uterino



    Molecular, clinical and epidemiolagical studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cáncer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for...

  1. Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture May be Effective for Treating Sexual Dysfunction

    Pavel Lee; Junsang Yu


    Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a health problem which occurs during any phase of the sexual response cycle that keeps the individual or couple from experiencing satisfaction from the sexual activity. SD covers a wide variety of symptoms like in men, erectile dysfunction and premature or delayed ejaculation, in women, spasms of the vagina and pain with sexual intercourse, in both sexes, sexual desire and response. And pharmacopuncture, i.e. injection of subclinical doses of drugs, mostly herb medi...

  2. Lactobacilli Dominance and Vaginal pH: Why is the Human Vaginal Microbiome Unique?

    Miller, Elizabeth A.; Beasley, DeAnna E.; Dunn, Robert R.; Archie, Elizabeth A


    The human vaginal microbiome is dominated by bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus, which create an acidic environment thought to protect women against sexually transmitted pathogens and opportunistic infections. Strikingly, lactobacilli dominance appears to be unique to humans; while the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the human vagina is typically >70%, in other mammals lactobacilli rarely comprise more than 1% of vaginal microbiota. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain hu...

  3. Lactobacilli Dominance and Vaginal pH: Why Is the Human Vaginal Microbiome Unique?

    Miller, Elizabeth A.; Beasley, DeAnna E.; Dunn, Robert R.; Archie, Elizabeth A


    The human vaginal microbiome is dominated by bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus, which create an acidic environment thought to protect women against sexually transmitted pathogens and opportunistic infections. Strikingly, lactobacilli dominance appears to be unique to humans; while the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the human vagina is typically >70%, in other mammals lactobacilli rarely comprise more than 1% of vaginal microbiota. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain hu...

  4. Sensory innervation of the external and internal genitalia of the female rat

    Peters, Lawrence C.; Kristal, Mark B.; Komisaruk, Barry R.


    Using a whole-nerve recording method, the genitalia of the female rat were found to receive afferent innervation as follows. Pelvic nerve: vagina, cervix, and perineal skin; hypogastric nerve: cervix and proximal three fifths of the uterus; pudendal nerve: skin of perineum, inner thigh, and clitoral sheath. It is probable that the pudendal and pelvic nerves are activated during copulation, and that all 3 nerves are activated during parturition.


    A. A. Kostin


    Full Text Available In this study of statistical data for the first time in Russia the analysis of the morbidity and mortality of patients with malignant neoplasms that may be associated with human papilloma virus (HPV is performed: cervical cancer (cervical cancer, cancer of the vulva and vagina, cancer of penis, cancer of the rectum, anal canal and rectosigmoid junction cancer, cancer of the pharynx and larynx.


    Praffulla Chandra


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Primary carcinoma of vagina is a rare entity in Gynaecological oncology. A tumour should be considered as a primary vaginal carcinoma when cervix is uninvolved. Here we are reporting a case of primary vaginal adenocarcinoma with a rare uterine malformation, right renal agenesis and enlarged left kidney. This case was confirmed by meticulous physical examination, histopathology and relevant radiological investigations which excluded the possibility of carcinoma cervix, endometrium and ovary. This patient was treated solely by chemotherapy


    Kanan; Sonali


    The condition is inherited as X - linked recessive gene 1 . The underlying pathology is the inability of end organs to respond to androgens. These cases are phenotypically and psychologically female with adequate breast development , normal external genitalia , a vagina with variable depth , absent /sparse pubic hair and axillary hair. The exact incidence in India is not known but the reported incidence is 1 in 2 , 000 to 1 in 62 ,400 worldwi...

  8. Benzoyl Peroxide Formulated Polycarbophil/Carbopol 934P Hydrogel with Selective Antimicrobial Activity, Potentially Beneficial for Treatment and Prevention of Bacterial Vaginosis

    Shiqi Xu; Cavera, Veronica L.; Rogers, Michael A.; Qingrong Huang; Konstantin Zubovskiy; Chikindas, Michael L.


    The human vagina is colonized by a variety of indigenous microflora; in healthy individuals the predominant bacterial genus is Lactobacillus while those with bacterial vaginosis (BV) carry a variety of anaerobic representatives of the phylum Actinobacteria. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) encapsulated in a hydrogel against Gardnerella vaginalis, one of the causative agents of BV, as well as indicating its safety for healthy human lactobacilli. ...

  9. Monogeneans of the speckled blue grouper, Epinephelus cyanopodus (Perciformes, Serranidae), from off New Caledonia, with a description of four new species of Pseudorhabdosynochus and one new species of Laticola (Monogenea : Diplectanidae), and evidence of monogenean faunal changes according to the size of fish

    Sigura, A.; Justine, Jean-Lou


    Nine species were identified among 1500 monogeneans collected on the gills of 17 speckled blue groupers, Epinephelus cyanopodus, caught off New Caledonia, South Pacific. A new method for describing squamodiscs in tables is proposed. Diplectanids included one new species of Laticola, which was the most abundant species, and six species of Pseudorhabdosynochus, including four new species, which were differentiated mainly on the basis of morphology of the sclerotised vagina. Laticola cyanus n. s...

  10. A case of splenic metastasis of ovarian cancer treated with complete laparoscopic splenectomy and transvaginal specimen extraction.

    Takase, Yoshiaki; Tomizawa, Naoki; Enokida, Yasuaki; Shiraishi, Takuya; Katoh, Ryuji; Suto, Yujin; Sato, Hiroaki; Muroya, Ken; Kurosaki, Ryo; Kobayashi, Katsumi; Arakawa, Kazuhisa; Ando, Tatsumasa; Takesyohi, Izumi


    A 61-year-old woman was diagnosed with right inguinal lymph node and splenic metastasis of ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma. We performed right inguinal lymph node dissection and total laparoscopic splenectomy in the supine position followed by transvaginal specimen extraction (TVSE). First, using three ports, we extracted the right inguinal lymph node. We repaired the posterior wall of the inguinal canal using a mesh plug. We added two ports and displaced the spleen from the retroperitoneum and lifted it using a snake retractor, disconnecting the hilum using an automatic suturing device. Next, the posterior wall of the vagina was intraperitoneally incised. And an Alexis® laparoscopic system was inserted into the vagina. The cap maintained aeroperitoneum, a collection bag was inserted in the abdominal cavity via the vagina, and the spleen was collected. When the spleen was removed from the body, partial fragmentation of the organ was required in the bag. Organ fragmentation was performed only within the bag, and we made sure not to tear the bag. The vaginal wound was laparoscopically sutured. The patient had no operative complications and was able to actively ambulate at the first day after surgery due to a slight postoperative pain. Total laparoscopic splenectomy with TVSE in the supine position may be a safe and feasible method for selected female patients. This technique enables minimally invasive surgery for female patients with splenic disease.

  11. Pengaruh Tepung Teripang Pasir (Holothuria Scabra Terhadap Perilaku Seksual dan Kadar Testosteron Darah Mencit (Mus musculus

    Sarifah Nurjanah


    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is generally believed as a natural material that can be used as a tonic food to increase man vitality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sandfish powder on sexual behavior and blood testosterone level of male mice. Method applied in the study was laboratory experimental method. Mature male mice were treated with administration of sandfish powder with three dosage rate of steroid content (10, 30 and 50 ìg/100 g body weight during 12 days, whereas for control treatment were without hormone administration and with the metil testosterone administration. Parameters that were investigated were kissing vagina and mounting for sexual behavior and the blood testosterone level of male mice. It was found that administration of sandfish powder significantly give effect on the number of kissing vagina and mounting compared to control. Administration of 10 ìg/100 g body weight on male mice showed the highest sexual behavior with 25 kissing vagina for and 6 mounting for 30 minutes. Moreover, administration of sandfish powder increased the testosterone level in the male mice blood. This may due to the steroid contained in sandfish powder and nutrition value that increase mice libido. The study proved that the sandfish powder has a potential as a nature aphrodisiac.

  12. Detection of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes for forensic identification of vaginal fluid.

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Motani, Hisako; Watanabe, Ken; Iwase, Hirotaro; Sakurada, Koichi


    To preliminarily evaluate the applicability of bacterial DNA as a marker for the forensic identification of vaginal fluid, we developed and performed PCR-based detection of 16S ribosomal RNA genes of Lactobacillus spp. dominating the vagina and of bacterial vaginosis-related bacteria from DNA extracted from body fluids and stains. As a result, 16S ribosomal RNA genes of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii and Atopobium vaginae were specifically detected in vaginal fluid and female urine samples. Bacterial genes detected in female urine might have originated from contaminated vaginal fluid. In addition, those of Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus gasseri and Gardnerella vaginalis were also detected in non-vaginal body fluids such as semen. Because bacterial genes were successfully amplified in DNA samples extracted by using the general procedure for animal tissues without any optional treatments, DNA samples prepared for the identification of vaginal fluid can also be used for personal identification. In conclusion, 16S ribosomal RNA genes of L. crispatus, L. jensenii and A. vaginae could be effective markers for forensic identification of vaginal fluid.

  13. Vaginal delivery of carboplatin-loaded thermosensitive hydrogel to prevent local cervical cancer recurrence in mice.

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Jin; Wu, Wenbin; Li, Hongjun


    Local tumor recurrence after cervical cancer surgery remains a clinical problem. Vaginal delivery of thermosensitive hydrogel may be suited to reduce tumor relapse rate with more efficacy and safety. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of carboplatin-loaded poloxamer hydrogel to prevent local recurrence of cervical cancer after surgery. In vivo vaginal retention evaluation of 27% poloxamer hydrogel in mice was proven to be a suitable vaginal drug delivery formulation due to its low gelation temperature. A mimic orthotopic cervical/vaginal cancer recurrence model after surgery was established by injecting murine cervical cancer cell line U14 into the vaginal submucosa to simulate the residual tumor cells infiltrated in the surgical site, followed by drug administration 24 h later to interfere with the formation/recurrence of the tumor. By infusing fluorescein sodium-loaded hydrogel into the vagina of mice, a maximized accumulation of fluorescein sodium (Flu) in the vagina was achieved and few signals were observed in other organs. When used in the prevention of the cervical cancer formation/recurrence in mice, the carboplatin-loaded poloxamer hydrogel exhibited great efficacy and systemic safety. In conclusion, thermosensitive hydrogel presents a simple, practical approach for the local drug delivery via vagina against cervical cancer recurrence.

  14. Tuboovarian Abscess as Primary Presentation for Imperforate Hymen

    Jeh Wen Ho


    Full Text Available Objective. Imperforate hymen represents the extreme in the spectrum of hymenal embryological variations. The archetypal presentation in the adolescent patient is that of cyclical abdominopelvic pain in the presence of amenorrhoea. We reported a rare event of imperforate hymen presenting as a cause of tuboovarian abscess (TOA. Case Study. A 14-year-old girl presented to the emergency department complaining of severe left iliac fossa pain. It was her first episode of heavy bleeding per vagina, and she had a history of cyclical pelvic pain. She was clinically unwell, and an external genital examination demonstrated a partially perforated hymen. A transabdominal ultrasound showed grossly dilated serpiginous fallopian tubes. The upper part of the vagina was filled with homogeneous echogenic substance. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated complex right adnexa mass with bilateral pyo-haemato-salpinges, haematometra, and haematocolpos. In theatre, the imperforate hymen was opened via cruciate incision and blood was drained from the vagina. At laparoscopy, dense purulent material was evacuated prior to an incision and drainage of the persistent right TOA. Conclusion. Ideally identification of imperforate hymen should occur during neonatal examination to prevent symptomatic presentation. Our case highlights the risks of late recognition resulting in the development of sepsis and TOA.

  15. Utility of vaginal and rectal contrast medium in MRI for the detection of deep pelvic endometriosis

    Chassang, M.; Novellas, S.; Bloch-Marcotte, C.; Chevallier, P. [Hopital Archet 2, Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Interventionnelle, Centre Hospitalier Regional et Universitaire de Nice, 151 route de Saint Antoine de Ginestiere, B.P. 3079, Nice Cedex 3 (France); Delotte, J.; Bongain, A. [Hopital Archet 2, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre Hospitalier Regional et Universitaire de Nice, 151 route de Saint Antoine de Ginestiere, B.P. 3079, Nice Cedex 3 (France); Toullalan, O. [Hopital de Cannes, Service de Gynecologie, 15 avenue des Broussailles, B.P. 264, Cannes Cedex (France)


    To study the sensitivity of MRI performed utilising vaginal and rectal opacification with ultrasound gel in the detection of deep pelvic endometriosis. This was a prospective monocentric study. All patients evaluated by the gynaecologist for pelvic pain, endometriosis or infertility were included. Axial and sagittal T2-weighted images were performed both with and without vaginal and rectal opacification with ultrasound gel. Three radiologists, all blinded, interpreted the images with a minimum of 15 days between the two readings. MRI performance with and without vaginal and rectal opacification was evaluated by calculating sensitivity, specificity and both positive and negative predictive values. Seventy-eight patients were included. Among these, 31 patients had deep pelvic endometriosis of which 24 were confirmed by laparoscopy. Seventy-six locations of deep pelvic endometriosis were discovered on MRI. For the three reviewers there was a significant improvement in sensitivity between pre- and post-contrast MRI (p < 0.0002). Opacification of the vagina and rectum significantly improved the sensitivity of MRI for the detection of deep pelvic endometriosis by expanding the vagina and rectum, thus allowing better delineation of the pelvic organs. This was especially apparent for lesions localised to the vagina and rectovaginal septum. (orig.)


    Babenko L. P.


    Full Text Available The aim of work was to determine antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus casei ІМV В-7280 probiotic strain on the experimental urogenital tract infection of mice. The influence of intravaginal and/or per os administration of this strain once per day during 7 days on the microflora of vagina, kidneys and intestinal contents of Staphylococcus aureus 8325-4 infected mice was studied. It was established, that in cases of experimental staphylococcal infection of urogenital tract L. Casei IMV B-7280 had effective antagonistic activity against S. aureus 8325-4 and opportunistic bacteria. After L. casei IMV B-7280 introduction into infected mice reduction or complete elimination of S. aureus 8325-4 in vagina, kidneys and intestinal contents in different periods of observation was established. Under the influence of L. casei ІМВ В-7280 the number of coliform bacteria, streptococci and staphylococci in the vagina was normalized, and fungal flora — decreased even in comparison with intact mice. Normalization of kidneys microflora was also observed. In the intestinal contents of infected mice trea ted with L. casei IMV B-7280 the number of streptococci did not change, staphylococci number decreased, but the number of fungal and coliform flora remained relatively low during the observation period. L. casei IMV B-7280 probiotic strain is promising to create immunobiotics with antibacterial action, which can be used for the prevention and treatment of urogenital infections caused by opportunistic microorganisms.


    Diego Lobon Jimenez Filho


    Full Text Available Pneumovagina is a common cause of mares infertility. This condition is characterized by continuous or intermittent air into the vagina. Consequently, infection and chronic inflammation of the vagina and uterus may occur. In mares with pneumovagina are likely endometritis, due to the presence of feces and debris into the vagina associated with differences in intra-abdominal, vaginal and uterine. The treatment is surgical correction of anatomic defect that predisposes to disease. The urovagina is a disease of the posterior reproductive tract, characterized by accumulation of urine in the vagina, most commonly in the anterior portion. The accumulation of urine causes irritation and contributes to inflammation and infection of the uterus and vaginal canal, the animal may develop vaginitis, endometritis and cevicites. Treatment should take into account the cause, since animals with poor body condition may benefit from weight gain. The remaining cases require surgical treatment to modify the external urethral orifice. The main consequence, both as to the pneumovagina urovagina is decreased fertility, it is important to evaluate the same after the treatment. A pneumovagina é uma causa comum de infertilidade em éguas. Essa afecção se caracteriza pela presença continua ou intermitente de ar no canal vaginal. Como consequência pode ocorrer infecção e inflamação crônica da vagina e do útero. Éguas com pneumovagina são susceptíveis a ocorrência de endometrite, devido a presença de fezes e debris associado às diferenças na pressão intra-abdominal, vaginal e uterina. O tratamento é a correção cirúrgica do defeito anatômico que predispõe a afecção. A urovagina é uma patologia do trato reprodutivo posterior, caracterizada pelo acúmulo de urina no interior do canal vaginal, com maior frequência na sua porção anterior. O acúmulo de urina provoca irritação e contribui para a ocorrência de um quadro inflamatório e infeccioso do

  18. Morfologia e histologia do oviduto de marrecas Ana boschas Morphology and histology of Ana Boschasfemale ducks oviduct

    C. Moraes


    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o comprimento do infundíbulo, do magno, do istmo, do útero e da vagina e o número de pregas do magno e do istmo do oviduto de 20 marrecas Ana boschas na fase reprodutiva. O infundíbulo apresenta mucosa com pregas longitudinais e baixas, revestidas por epitélio pseudoestratificado cilíndrico ciliado, com células caliciformes. O magno, compartimento mais longo do oviduto, 25,38cm±3,20, encontra-se constituído por uma camada mucosa com pregas altas e espessas revestidas por células cilíndricas ciliadas e abundantes células caliciformes. O istmo é formado por uma mucosa com pregas estreitas e curtas e numerosas glândulas tubulares que se estendem para o interior da lâmina própria. O útero, região curta do oviduto, 5,25cm±1,26, apresenta parede com pregas e cristas baixas e numerosas glândulas tubulares enoveladas, dirigidas para o interior da lâmina própria. A vagina, um estreito tubo muscular, está constituído por oito anéis circulares, em média, e uma camada muscular altamente desenvolvida e espessa. A morfologia do oviduto da marreca apresenta características morfológicas e histológicas distintas dos galiniformes, observando-se que a vagina e a porção cranial do infundíbulo apresentam pregas e células caliciformes, respectivamente, sendo estas últimas estruturas ausentes nos galiniformes.The length of infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus, vagina, and the number of oviduct, magnum, and isthmus folds were evaluated in 20 Ana boschas female ducks in the reproductive phase. The infundibulum presented mucous membrane with longitudinal and short folds, covered by ciliated columnar pseudostratified epithelium, with goblet cells. Magnum, the longest oviduct compartment, 25.38cm±3.20, is constituted by mucous membrane with high and thick folds that are covered by ciliated columnar cells and many goblet cells. Isthmus is formed by mucous membrane with narrow and short folds, and many tubular glands that

  19. Throwing the dice for the diagnosis of vaginal complaints?

    Taras David


    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Vaginitis is among the most common conditions women are seeking medical care for. Although these infections can easily be treated, the relapse rate is high. This may be due to inadequate use of the diagnostic potential. Methods We evaluated the misjudgement rate of the aetiology of vaginal complaints. A total of 220 vaginal samples from women with a vaginal complaint were obtained and analysed for numbers of total lactobacilli, H2O2-producing lactobacilli, total aerobic cell counts and total anaerobic cell counts including bifidobacteria, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp. Additionally, the presence of Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis was evaluated by DNA-hybridisation using the PCR and Affirm VPIII Microbial Identification Test, respectively. Results The participating physicians diagnosed Bacterial vaginosis (BV as origin of discomfort in 80 cases, candidiasis in 109 cases and mixed infections in 8 cases. However, a present BV, defined as lack of H2O2-lactobacilli, presence of marker organisms, such as G. vaginalis, Bacteroides spp. or Atopobium vaginae, and an elevated pH were identified in only 45 cases of the women examined. Candida spp. were detected in 46 cases. Interestingly, an elevated pH corresponded solely to the presence of Atopobium vaginae, which was detected in 11 cases. Conclusion Errors in the diagnosis of BV and candida vulvovaginitis (CV were high. Interestingly, the cases of misjudgement of CV (77% were more numerous than that of BV (61%. The use of Amsel criteria or microscopy did not reduce the number of misinterpretations. The study reveals that the misdiagnosis of vaginal complaints is rather high.

  20. Comparison of effects of estradiol (E2) with those of octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC)--2 filters of UV light - on several uterine, vaginal and bone parameters.

    Seidlová-Wuttke, D; Jarry, H; Christoffel, J; Rimoldi, G; Wuttke, W


    OMC and 4MBC are 2 absorbers of ultraviolet light which are used in unknown quantities in sunscreens, cosmetics and plastic products to protect against UV light-induced damage of the skin or of fragrances or plastic material. From there, they were shown to reach surface water and/or by direct contamination or ingestion the human. Under various conditions in mice and rats, both substances were shown to be estrogenic. Therefore, we compared in vitro and in vivo the effects of chronic application of these compounds at 2 doses with those of E2, all administered via food. No signs of toxicity were observed under application of 0.6 mg E2, 57.5 or 275 mg of OMC, 57.5 or 250 mg of 4MBC; these amounts were ingested with 21 g of control food, 17.8 g E2 food, 20.6 g or 22.3 g OMC food and 23.7 or 22.8 g 4MBC food. In the uterus, vagina and bone, E2 exerted the expected stimulatory effects which were minimally shared by OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and vagina as assessed by histology and determination of a variety of estrogen-regulated genes such as insulin-like growth factor-1, progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor beta. In the bone, OMC had no effect, while 4MBC shared the antiosteoporotic effects of E2 as measured by quantitative computer tomography in the metaphysis of the tibia. The mechanism of action of 4MBC, however, appears to be different as E2 reduced serum osteocalcin and the C-terminal breakdown products of collagen-1alpha1 which were both increased by 4MBC. Taken together, these data indicate a very weak estrogenic effect of OMC and 4MBC in the uterus and in the vagina but not in the bone where 4MBC exerted antiosteoporotic effects by a different mechanism than E2.

  1. Evaluation of profertility effect of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 2621 in a murine model

    Praveen Bhandari


    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Urogenital infections of bacterial origin have a high incidence among the female population at reproductive age, affecting the fertility. Strains of Escherichia coli can colonize the vagina and replace natural microflora. Lactobacillus the predominant vaginal microorganism in healthy women, maintains the acidic vaginal pH which inhibits pathogenic microorganisms. Studies on Lactobacillus have shown that these can inhibit E. coli growth and vaginal colonization. An alternative therapeutic approach to antimicrobial therapy is to re-establish Lactobacillus in this microbiome through probiotic administration to resurge fertility. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the capability of L. plantarum 2621 strain with probiotic properties, to prevent the vaginal colonization of E. coli causing agglutination of sperms and to evaluate its profertility effect in a murine model. m0 ethods: Screened mice were divided into five groups i.e. control group, E. coli group, Lactobacillus group, prophylactic and therapeutic groups. The control group was infused with 20 µl PBS, E.coli group was administered with 10 [6] cfu/20 µl E. coli, and probiotic group was administered with Lactobacillus (10 [8] cfu/20 µl for 10 consecutive days. In prophylactic group, the vagina was colonized with 10 consecutive doses of Lactobacillus (10 [8] cfu/20 µl. After 24 h, it was followed by 10 day intravaginal infection with E. coli (10 [6] cfu/20 µl whereas for the therapeutic group vagina was colonized with (10 [6] cfu/20 µl E. coli for 10 consecutive days, followed by 10 day intravaginal administration with Lactobacillus after 24 h. Results: Upon mating and completion of gestation period, control, probiotic and the therapeutic groups had litters in contrast to the prophylactic group and the group administered with E. coli. Interpretation & conclusions: Results indicated that Lactobacillus intermitted colonization of pathogenic


    AL. Bulotta


    Full Text Available Introduction. 21α-hydroxylase deficiency is the most frequent cause of virilization in patients with female karyotype due to exposure of a female fetus to excess of androgen. We report anatomical and cosmetic results of feminizing genital reconstruction of two related patients (second cousin with XX karyotype born with urogenital sinus anomalies (UGS and not treated at birth. Materials and Metods. Patient 1 is 6-years old with ambiguous genitalia graded as Prader V and never undergone therapy or surgery. Patient 2 is 10-years old, graded as Prader IV and subjected to hormonal therapy and clitoral amputation at the age of 6. Mobilization of urogenital sinus, pull-through of vagina and tubulization of urethra was performed in both after placement of Foley chateters in vagina and bladder by cisto-vaginoscopy. Genitoplasty involved refashioning the tissues to create minora and majora labia and, after removal of corpora, partial clitorectomy was carried in patient 1 and clitoridal reconstruction in patient 2. Result. Vaginal introitus was positioned in the vestibule region below urethral meatus. Foley chateters was removed after two weeks in narcosis and the cosmetic and anatomic result was good. Conclusion. Goals of feminizing genitoplasty are to restore, soon as possible, anatomy achieving a more feminine appareance with a vagina for menstruation, to preserve reproductive capacity and to prevent urological sequelae but it’s also important to contribute in a development of a more stable gender identity. This procedure in two stage, based on an accurate diagnosis, is good to create feminine genital appareance in children with female pseudohermaphroditism expecially if not treated at birth.

  3. Diplectanids from Mycteroperca spp. (Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean Sea: Redescriptions of six species from material collected off Tunisia and Libya, proposal for the 'Pseudorhabdosynochus riouxi group’, and a taxonomic key

    Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou


    Diplectanid monogeneans are gill parasites that can infect fish in huge numbers and thus become harmful, especially in maricultured fish. It is therefore useful to have taxonomic tools, such as keys, to identify species. The following diplectanid species from groupers of the Mediterranean Sea were studied: five species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958, including P. riouxi (Oliver, 1986) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata, P. enitsuji Neifar & Euzet, 2007, P. bouaini Neifar & Euzet, 2007, P. dolicocolpos Neifar & Euzet, 2007 and P. sinediscus Neifar & Euzet, 2007 from the goldblotch grouper M. costae, and Echinoplectanum echinophallus (Euzet & Oliver, 1965) Justine & Euzet, 2006 from the dusky grouper. New material was obtained from fish collected from off Tunisia and Libya and compared to the type-material and voucher specimens in museum collections. Identifications of fish were confirmed by barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. The sclerotized vagina was considered the most important structure for systematics. The three species P. riouxi, P. bouaini, and P. enitsuji share a common general structure of the sclerotized vagina with a conspicuous spherical secondary chamber. We thus propose the ‘Pseudorhabdosynochus riouxi group’ to accommodate them. Pseudorhabdosynochus dolicocolpos has an elongate vaginal structure that is completely different from all its congeneric species reported from the Mediterranean Sea, and Pseudorhabdosynochus sinediscus has a sclerotized vagina in which the secondary chamber is not visible, and a haptor without squamodiscs. A taxonomic key to diplectanid species on Mycteroperca spp. in the Mediterranean Sea is proposed; it includes ten species of Pseudorhabdosynochus and one species of Echinoplectanum. PMID:28152034

  4. The association of uterine cervical microbiota with an increased risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Korea.

    Oh, H Y; Kim, B-S; Seo, S-S; Kong, J-S; Lee, J-K; Park, S-Y; Hong, K-M; Kim, H-K; Kim, M K


    Recent studies have suggested potential roles of the microbiome in cervicovaginal diseases. However, there has been no report on the cervical microbiome in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We aimed to identify the cervical microbiota of Korean women and assess the association between the cervical microbiota and CIN, and to determine the combined effect of the microbiota and human papillomavirus (HPV) on the risk of CIN. The cervical microbiota of 70 women with CIN and 50 control women was analysed using pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene. The associations between specific microbial patterns or abundance of specific microbiota and CIN risk were assessed using multivariate logistic regression, and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and the synergy index (S) were calculated. The phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, Fusobacteria and TM7 were predominant in the microbiota and four distinct community types were observed in all women. A high score of the pattern characterized by predominance of Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus iners with a minority of Lactobacillus crispatus had a higher CIN risk (OR 5.80, 95% CI 1.73-19.4) and abundance of A. vaginae had a higher CIN risk (OR 6.63, 95% CI 1.61-27.2). The synergistic effect of a high score of this microbial pattern and oncogenic HPV was observed (OR 34.1, 95% CI 4.95-284.5; RERI/S, 15.9/1.93). A predominance of A. vaginae, G. vaginalis and L. iners with a concomitant paucity of L. crispatus in the cervical microbiota was associated with CIN risk, suggesting that bacterial dysbiosis and its combination with oncogenic HPV may be a risk factor for cervical neoplasia.

  5. Antimicrobial Potentials of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From a Nigerian Menstruating Woman

    Funmilola Abidemi Ayeni


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Racial differences affect the composition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in women’s vagina. However, the bacteria present in women’s vagina exert protective effect against invading uropathogens through production of several inhibitory compounds. The LAB composition of the vagina of a menstruating Nigerian woman was examined to detect any difference between the subject’s vaginal LAB flora and reported cases of women from western world and to investigate the antimicrobial activities of these lactic acid bacteria against potential uropathogens and enteropathogens with analysis of possible compounds that may be responsible for inhibition. Methods: Informed consent was obtained from the subject. LAB were identified by partially sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. The organic acids were detected through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC while the volatile compounds were detected by gas chromatography. The hydrogen peroxide production was assayed through enzymatic reactions. Results: Enterococcus faecalis FAA025 and Streptococcus equines FAA026 were the only bacterial strains isolated. The two LAB strains inhibited the growth of all tested uropathogens and enteropathogens to remarkable degree. Both strains produced high quantities of lactic acid while high quantities of hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid and ethanol were only observed in Streptococcus equines FAA026. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that in spite of absence of lactobacilli during menstruation in the subject, other LAB present (Enterococcus faecalis FAA025 and Streptococcus equines FAA026 can exert protective effects against invading uropathogens. Also, the LAB composition of the Nigerian woman is similar to her counterparts in the West. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 283-290

  6. Morfologia macroscópica do aparelho reprodutor feminino de Leontopithecus cativos (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae Gross morphology of the female genital tract of captive Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae

    L. Pissinatti


    Full Text Available Descreveu-se o sistema reprodutor feminino em três espécies de mico-leão Leontopithecus (Lesson 1840, cativos: L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus e L. chrysomelas. A vulva está delimitada pelos lábios vulvares menores e com clitóris conspícuo. A superfície do períneo urogenital apresenta elevações papilares mais concentradas nos lábios vulvares, conferindo-lhe aspecto rugoso. O vestíbulo vaginal constitui um tubo muscular de parede espessa que se estende da rima da vulva até o óstio da vagina. A vagina é um tubo muscular alongado e achatado dorsoventralmente, que comunica o vestíbulo vaginal ao colo uterino. O útero piriforme está localizado na porção caudal da cavidade abdominal. Craniolateralmente abrem-se tubas uterinas convolutas e ovários grosseiramente fusiformes de superfície lisa.It is described the female genital tract of three species of lion tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, and L. chrysomelas. Fifteen animals were selected from the Museum of the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro - CPRJ/FEEMA. The vulva is delimited by the labia and has a conspicuous clitoris. The surface of the urogenital perineum has papillary elevations more concentrated in the labia, which results in a rough aspect. The vestibule is a thick-walled muscular tube, extending from the pudendal cleft to the vaginal orifice. The vagina is an elongated and flat muscular tube, which communicates dorsoventrally the vestibulum and the cervix of uterus. The pyriform uterus is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. Craniolaterally, the convolute uterine tubes open, enveloping the ovaries, which are roughly fusiform with a smooth surface.

  7. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies on Trichomonas vaginalis adhering to and phagocytizing genitourinary epithelial cells

    陈文列; 陈金富; 钟秀容; 梁平; 林炜


    Background Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) belongs to a common sexually transmitted disease pathogen causing genitourinary trichomoniasis in both sexes. We investigated the pathogenetic mechanism of genitourinary trichomoniasis.Methods Cultured T. vaginalis bodies were injected into the vaginas of rats, or incubated with genitourinary epithelial cells of female subjects, male subjects, and sperm. The ultrastructural and microscopic changes were observed via transmission and scanning electron microscopy and through microscopic histochemistry.Results Groups of T.vaginalis adhered to PAS positive columnar cells at the surface of stratified epithelium in the middle and upper portions of the vaginas. They also traversed under these cells. The parasites were shown to be PAS, cathepsin D, and actin positive, and they could release hydrolase into the cytoplasm of adhered epithelial cells. In the amebiform T.vaginalis, microfilaments were arranged into reticular formation. Similar phenomena were found during the interaction of T.vaginalis with host cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Usually several protozoa adhered to an epithelial cell and formed polymorphic pseudopodia or surface invaginations to surround and phagocytize the microvilli or other parts of the epithelial cytoplasm. Adhesion and phagocytosis of sperm by the protozoa occurred at 15-30 minutes of incubation. Digestion of sperm was found at 45-75 minutes and was complete at 90-105 minutes.Conclusions T.vaginalis tends to parasitize at the fornix of the vagina, because this is the site where columnar cells are rich in mucinogen granules and their microvilli are helpful for adhesion and nibbling. T.vaginalis possesses some invading and attacking abilities. Shape change, canalization, encystation, phagocytosis, digestion, the cell coat, cytoskeleton, and lysosome all play important roles in the process of adhesion. They have two methods of phagocytosis: nibbling and ingestion. Genitourinary epithelium may be

  8. Colonización nasal y vaginal por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina en mujeres embarazadas en Cartagena, Colombia

    Oscar Correa


    Full Text Available Introduction: The host niche for Staphylococcus aureus (SA are the anterior nares; however, vaginal colonization rates between 14% and 17.1% in pregnant women have been recently reported, raising interest about the potential risk in postpartum women and in neonates from colonized mothers.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of nasal and vaginal colonization of SA and the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates in pregnant women attending a maternity hospital in Cartagena, Colombia.Methods: Nasal and vaginal swabs were obtained from participants and subjected to microbiological and molecular assays. A post discharge follow-up was performed for up to four weeks.Results: From 100 pregnant women enrolled in the study, 34 were colonized with SA; 29 only in the nares, three only in the vagina, and two at both sites. Colonization of pregnant women with SA was more common in the nares than in the vagina or at both sites [29/34 (85.3% vs 3/34 (8.8% and 2/34 (5.9%; p<0.05]. We obtained 36 SA isolates, nine (25% of which were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, one was from the vagina; thus, the overall MRSA colonization rate among pregnant women was 9%. Molecular analysis showed that Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genes were carried by the vaginal MRSA, seven of the nasal MRSA, and two of the Methicillinsensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA isolates. Two MRSA isolates carried SCCmec type I and seven carried SCCmec type IV.Conclusions: Nasal colonization rate for SA in the study population was similar to previous reports. However, the frequency of nasal colonization of MRSA was higher while vaginal colonization of SA was lower than previouslyreported in other studies for similar populations. The MRSA isolates obtained showed a community profile.

  9. Determination of factors affecting relapse of vaginitis among reproductive-aged women: An experimental study

    Parsapour, Roxana; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Rahimiforoushani, Abbas; Sadeghi, Roya


    Introduction Vaginitis is a common problem for women, especially in reproductive-aged women. It is a worldwide health problem with many side effects but could be prevented by a health-promoting lifestyle related to vagina health. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting relapse of vaginitis. Methods In this experimental study, 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis were selected from 10 health centers in Kermanshah (Iran) during 2015 and were equally included in the intervention and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-created questionnaire, which included sociodemographic and health-promoting lifestyle questions, was used. The educational intervention was performed over 20 sessions, each lasting 25–35 minutes. An intervention group was educated by face-to-face education, pamphlets, phone contacts, text messages, and social media. Another group continued the routine clinic education and treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were analyzed through chi-square and a logistics regression model using IBM-SPSS version 20. Results The results of the study indicated a significant relation between sociodemographic characteristics such as women and their husbands’ literacy, job, family size, income, area for each member of family, tendency of pregnancy, body mass index (BMI), and caesarean experience (plifestyle dimensions and prevention of vaginitis were identified. Relapse after intervention in the intervention group was 27.7% and 72.3% in the control group. According to the logistic regression analysis, chance for relapse of vaginitis in the group that did not receive intervention was more than the same chance in the intervention group (OR=5.14). Conclusion Health-promoting lifestyle intervention influences prevention of vaginitis. Health-promoting lifestyle, literacy promotion, prevention of caesarian, and obesity are beneficial to improvement in lifestyle dimensions associated with vagina health could be

  10. Role of MRI in the evaluation of ambiguous genitalia

    Secaf, E. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. de Radiologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Univ. de Sao Paulo (Brazil)); Hricak, H. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Urology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Gooding, C.A. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Ho, V.W. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States)); Gorczyca, D.P. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States) Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Ringertz, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Conte, F.A. (Dept. of Pediatr


    Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interpretation was assessed prospectively in patients with ambiguous genitalia or intersex problems. MRI depiction of the uterus was possible in 93 %, the vagina in 95 %, the penis in 100 %, the testis in 88 %, and the ovary in 74 % of patients. The strength of MRI lies in the multiplanar capability and tissue characterization by means of T1- and T2-weighted sequences. MRI contributes to accurate morphologic evaluation of muellerian duct structures, the gonads, and the development of the phallus, all of which are essential for appropriate gender assignment and planning of surgical reconstruction. (orig.)

  11. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy.

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y


    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed.

  12. Carcinoma de células escamosas em língua pós-transplante de medula óssea por Anemia de Fanconi Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue due to Fanconi's Anemia after bone marrow transplantation

    Ricardo Pasquini; José Z. Neto; Medeiros,Carlos R. de; Marco A. Bitencourt; Carmem M. S. Bonfim; Vaneuza A. Moreira; Setúbal,Daniela C.; Flowers, Mary E.D.; Elcio Kupka; Araújo,Marcos V.


    Anemia Fanconi (AF) é uma síndrome autossômica recessiva, caracterizada por pancitopenia progressiva com hipoplasia de MO, em associação com várias anormalidades constitucionais, tendo como único recurso terapêutico com possibilidade potencial de cura o transplante de medula óssea, e sendo tais pacientes propensos ao desenvolvimento de malignidades hematológicas e carcinoma de células escamosas (CEC) em diversos locais: reto, vagina, cérvice, esôfago, cavidade bucal, faringe ou pele, mas espe...

  13. Carcinoma de células escamosas em língua pós-transplante de medula óssea por Anemia de Fanconi

    Pasquini Ricardo; Neto José Z.; Medeiros Carlos R.; Bitencourt Marco A.; Bonfim Carmem M. S.; Moreira Vaneuza A.; Setúbal Daniela C.; Flowers Mary E. D.; Kupka Elcio; Araújo Marcos V.


    Anemia Fanconi (AF) é uma síndrome autossômica recessiva, caracterizada por pancitopenia progressiva com hipoplasia de MO, em associação com várias anormalidades constitucionais, tendo como único recurso terapêutico com possibilidade potencial de cura o transplante de medula óssea, e sendo tais pacientes propensos ao desenvolvimento de malignidades hematológicas e carcinoma de células escamosas (CEC) em diversos locais: reto, vagina, cérvice, esôfago, cavidade bucal, faringe ou pele, mas espe...

  14. Vulvar malignant melanoma: a rare tumor with worse prognosis

    Swati Singh


    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma, which has a highly malignant potential, is a tumor of the skin and mucosal membranes. Malignant melanomas of the female genital tract, including the vulva and vagina, are rare. Their overall prognosis is worse. A 75 year old woman presented with complaint of growth in vulvar region since 4 months. There was history of itching in vulvar region over growth. Surgery is still the best available treatment for the control and potential cure of malignant melanomas [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(3.000: 494-496

  15. Koilocytes in urinary cytology in a patient with kidney transplant.

    Altamirano, Eugenia; Drut, Ricardo


    We are reporting the case of a 17-year-old girl with kidney transplant under immunosuppressive treatment. Evidences of transplant malfunction led to urinary cytology to rule out BKV infection. The smears showed the presence of koilocytes. Gynecologic examination revealed numerous condylomatous lesions in the vulva, vagina, and cervix. PAP smears showed cells with moderate to severe koilocytic dysplasia. PCR performed on material retrieved from both the smears showed HPV18 DNA sequences. Koilocytes have rarely been documented in urinary cytologic examination. Since post-transplant immunosuppressed patients are prone to develop florid and extensive HPV infections, urinary cytology may prove useful for routine search of cells with this virus cytopathic effect.

  16. Fluconazole susceptibility of 3,056 clinical isolates of Candida species from 2005 to 2009 in a tertiary-care hospital

    Y Ying


    Full Text Available In recent years, Candida infections have been increasing significantly. This study was to investigate the distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of such infections. Totally, 3,056 clinical isolates were analysed, C. albicans was the most prevalent species from respiratory and vaginal specimens. However, non-albicans species constituted the majority of isolates from blood, urine, intensive care unit (ICU, organ transplant and burned patients. Similarly, Candida spp. from different specimens and clinical services had different degrees of susceptibility to fluconazole. Isolates from vagina and burned patients had the highest resistance rate, while all of the isolates from ascites and dermatological services were susceptible to fluconazole.

  17. Vaginoplastia: modificación de la técnica de McIndoe usando esponja de gel hemostático Vaginoplasty: modification to McIndoe techique using hemostatic gel sponge


    Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 23 años de edad, que consulta por amenorrea primaria. En el examen físico encontramos: fenotipo femenino, genitales externos normales y genitales internos con ausencia de vagina. Los exámenes complementarios, ultrasonido y tomografía abdomino-pélvica, demostraron útero aplásico. El perfil hormonal (FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterona, testosterona y prolactina) fue normal y el cariotipo, 46 XX. Se diagnosticó clínicamente como Síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-K...

  18. The Mayer-von Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome


    Introduction: The Mayer-von Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome happens in approximately one of 5000 women born alive and is the commonest cause of congenital absence of the vagina.Method:We present two cases handled surgically by means of abdomino-perineal correction with intestine interposition, performed by the specialties of Pediatric Gynecology and Coloproctology in the Hospital San Ignacio. Given the clinical and paraclinical findings, the creation of a neovagina it was considered ...

  19. Aplicación de los colgajos fasciocutáneos vulvoperineales en cirugía pediátrica: a propósito de un caso Application of vulvoperineal fasciocutaneous flaps in pediatric surgery: case report


    La incidencia de agenesia de vagina es de 1/4000- 10000 recién nacidas vivas. La causa más frecuente es el síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser. Presentamos un caso de reconstrucción vaginal con colgajos fasciocutáneos vulvoperineales de Málaga en una paciente pediátrica afecta de este síndrome, describiendo los pasos del procedimiento y las bases anatómicas en las que se fundamenta. Esta técnica permite la creación de una neovagina sensible, con una cobertura de excelente calidad, con ...

  20. Dystocia due to schistosomus reflexus (cojoined twins in a Yankassa ewe

    Ambali Hauwa Motunrayo


    Full Text Available A two years' old, white and brown Yankassa ewe, weighing 20 kg was presented with dystocia of about 48 h duration at Mabs Veterinary Centre Ltd, Lagos. On thorough physical and vaginal examination, there were evidences of feotal parts and foul smelling discharges per vagina. A systematic and calculated traction and retropulsion revealed schistosomus reflexus cojoined twins. There was a complete recovery of the ewe 3 days post operative management. Finally, this case reported a true schistosomus reflexus cojoined twins in Yankassa ewe which was successfully relieved through traction and retropulsion despite the supposedly small birth canal which precluded the procedure in ewes except for caesarian section or fetotomy

  1. Effect of vaginal douching and different semen extenders on bacterial load and fertility in turkeys.

    Omprakash, A V; Venkatesh, G


    1. A study on artificial insemination of Beltsville Small White turkeys investigated the effect on bacterial load and fertility of vaginal douching with diluents containing Gentamicin 400 microg/ml and different semen extenders. 2. Irrespective of the extenders used, vaginal douching with Gentamicin reduced the microbial load of the vagina with resultant improvement in fertility and hatchability and corresponding reduction in embryonic mortality. 3. Eggs from hens inseminated with semen extended with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender (BPSE) diluent along with vaginal douching showed a trend towards higher per cent fertility and per cent hatchability of total and fertile eggs set compared to other extenders, though this was non-significant.

  2. Hallazgo de una leucorrea vaginal de carácter no inflamatoria en hembras bovinas. III. Características clínicas y fertilidad (Finding of a vaginal leucorrhea of non-inflammatory character in bovine females. III.Clinical characteristics and fertility)

    Luis O. Alba Gómez; Humberto Casañas Suárez; Enrique A. Silveira Prado; Eduardo Cruz Muñoz; Luis O. Maroto Martín;


    El objetivo de este trabajo fue el de demostrar que la leucorrea vaginal no inflamatoria encontrada en algunas hembras bovinas, no afectaba su eficiencia reproductiva. Para esto se utilizaron 159 novillas y 474 vacas de los genotipos ¾ x ¼ y 5/8 x 3/8 Holstein x Cebú, incorporadas al programa de inseminación artificial. En el 13,8 y 10,5% de las novillas y vacas respectivamente se encontraron colecciones de seudoexudados muco-purulentos y purulentos en sus vaginas. Ninguna de las hembras util...

  3. Espermicida y espermiostático: ¿hacen referencia a lo mismo?


    Antecedentes: La literatura científica ha definido los espermicidas como agentes químicos que pueden inmovilizar y algunas veces matar los espermatozoides en la vagina, sin embargo estos términos se usan de forma arbitraria y no hay un consenso que defina si la palabra espermicida debe referirse exclusivamente a una sustancia que causa la muerte espermática o a sustancias que sólo causan la inmovilización espermática y no necesariamente la muerte. Objetivo: Especificar la definición más adecu...

  4. Chronic partial urethral obstruction in female rats: description of an experimental model and initial results Obstrução parcial uretral crônica em ratos: descrição de um modelo experimental e resultados iniciais

    Silvio Tucci Jr


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of infravesical urinary obstruction in female rats. METHODS: After median caudal laparotomy, the urethra of 14 female rats was delicately separated from the vagina and loosely wrapped with cellophane tape measuring 0.4 x 1.0 cm. The animals were evaluated 4 (n=7 and 8 (n=7 weeks later. Five additional control animals were only subjected to separation of the urethra and vagina and monitored for 12 weeks. RESULTS: After four weeks, three rats presented vesical dilation associated with discrete ureteral ectasis in 2 animals, with the third presenting discrete hydronephrosis in one kidney. After eight weeks, five rats (71.4% presented vesical distension with bilateral ureterohydronephrosis. No significant changes (p>0.05 in serum urea or creatinine occurred in any group compared to preoperative values. CONCLUSION: We present here an inexpensive and simple method for the slow induction of urethral obstruction in adult female rats, with the development of progressive vesical hypertrophy and ureterohydronephrosis, which may be used as an experimental model for the study of different aspects of obstructive nephropathy.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver modelo experimental de obstrução urinária infravesical em ratas. MÉTODOS: Após laparotomia caudal mediana, as uretras de 14 ratas foram delicadamente separadas da vagina e frouxamente envoltas com fita de celofane medindo 0.4 x 1.0 cm. Os animais foram avaliados 4 (n=7 e 8 (n=7 semanas depois. Cinco animais adicionais (controle foram submetidos apenas à separação da uretra e da vagina e monitoradas por 12 semanas. RESULTADOS: Após quatro semanas, três ratas apresentaram dilatação vesical associada a discreta ectasia ureteral em 2 animais, com o terceiro apresentando discreta hidronefrose em um rim. Após oito semanas, cinco ratas (71.4% apresentaram distensão vesical com ureterohidronefrose bilateral. Não ocorreram alterações significativas (p>0.05 nos valores

  5. 壳聚糖生物性能及用于细菌性阴道病的探索与研究%Research of Bio-performance of Chitosan and Chitosan Being Used for Bacterial Vaginopathy

    崔惠素; 石巍


    Objective Discussing the chitosan' medical efficiency to treat Gynecology bacteria infectious disease by researching the bacteriostasis, biocompatibility of chitosan and analyzing the chitosan' medical efficiency to Bacterial vaginosis by clinical examination. Methods The antibiotic experiment of chitosan to Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Escherichia Coli (ATCC 25922) and Golden staphylococcus (ATCC 6538) has been studied in this paper. The vaginal irritation experimentation of chitosan to female rabbit and the sensitization experimentation of chitosan to guinea pig also have been conducted. To study the curative effect, we also coat a layer of chitosan in 20 patients' vagina. Result The Antibacterial rate of chitosan to Candida albicans is more than 98% and to Escherichia Coli is more than 99% and to Golden staphylococcus is more than 99%. Cytotoxicity of chitosan to vagina mucosa is grade 1 and sensitization of chitosan to vagina mucosa is none and stimulation of chitosan to vagina mucosa is very slightly. The total efficiency rate to treat Gynecology bacteria infectious disease is 90% and the cure rate is 75%.%目的 通过对壳聚糖抑菌性、生物相容性以及对细菌性阴道病的临床研究,探讨壳聚糖对妇科细菌感染性疾病的疗效.方法 壳聚糖对白色念珠菌(ATCC 10231 )、大肠杆菌(ATCC 25922 )、金色葡萄球菌(ATCC 6538 )进行抑菌试验.壳聚糖对雌性白兔进行阴道刺激试验和致敏试验.临床试验将壳聚糖均匀涂覆在细菌性阴道病患者阴道内,每天一次,8天为一个疗程,共20 例,观察疗效.结果 壳聚糖凝胶对白色念珠菌的抑菌率≥98%,对大肠杆菌的抑菌率≥99%,对金色葡萄球菌的抑菌率≥99%.与阴道粘膜的生物相容性中细胞毒性为1级,无致敏反应,呈极轻微阴道粘膜刺激.对细菌性阴道病的总有效率为90% 、愈显率为75%.

  6. Morfologia e morfometria do oviduto de codornas Nothura maculosa Morphology and morphometry of Nothura maculosa quail oviduct

    Carime Moraes


    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por finalidade descrever o oviduto de codornas. Foram utilizadas 20 codornas na fase reprodutiva. Avaliaram-se os comprimentos do infundíbulo, do magno, do istmo, do útero, da vagina e o número de pregas no magno e no istmo. Para o estudo histológico, coletaram-se fragmentos do oviduto, os quais foram fixados em Bouin, destinados à rotina histológica e corados pela técnica de Hematoxilina-Eosina. O infundíbulo apresentou pregas longitudinais e oblíquas, revestidas por epitélio pseudo estratificado cilíndrico ciliado não-secretor, cranialmente, e secretor, caudalmente. O magno é o componente mais longo (15,2cm, com mucosa revestida por epitélio pseudo estratificado cilíndrico ciliado com células caliciformes. O istmo é um segmento curto, com pregas reduzidas, compostas por estruturas histológicas semelhantes ao magno. O útero é uma região de parede pregueada, com glândulas tubulares enoveladas. A vagina é um estreito tubo com musculatura espessa. O oviduto da codorna apresentou sua morfologia semelhante ao dos galiniformes, como a galinha e a perua.This study was aimed at describing the quail oviduct. Twenty quails in the reproductive phase were used. Lengths of the infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, uterus, vagina, and the number of folds of magnum and isthmus were evaluated. For the histological study, fragments of the oviduct were collected, fixed in Bouin, destined to the histological routine and stained by Hematoxilin-Eosine technique. The infundibulum presented longitudinal and oblique folds, covered with ciliated, columnar pseudostratified epithelium, nonglandular cranially, and glandular, caudally. The magnum is the longest component (15.2cm, with mucous membrane covered with ciliated, columnar pseudostratified epithelium with goblet cells. The isthmus is a short segment with reduced folds, composed by histological structures similar to the magnum. The uterus is an area of folded wall, with reeled

  7. El estado del arte en las infecciones producidas por el virus del papiloma humano

    Julio César Reina; Nubia Muñoz; Gloria Inés Sánchez


    La infección anogenital por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) es la infección de transmisión sexual más frecuente en todo el mundo. En los humanos se han identificado alrededor de 100 genotipos de los cuales unos 40 infectan la región ano-genital. Los 15 genotipos de alto riesgo, son causa necesaria del cáncer cervical y han sido implicados como agentes carcinogénicos de la vulva, vagina, pene, ano y región orofaríngea. Los VPH de bajo riesgo producen las verrugas genitales (condilomas) y la...

  8. Superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma: report of four cases and literature review

    WANG Qi-feng; WU Yu-yu; WANG Jian


    @@ In 2001, Laskin et al~1 firstly described a series of 14 seemly distinctive mesenchymal tumors that occurred exclusively in the superficial lamina propria of the vagina and cervix of middle to old-aged women. They proposed the term "superficial cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma (SCVM)" to highlight the unique features of this tumor: the superficial subepithelial location and myofibroblastic differentiation of the tumor cells. SCVM appears less well recognized with only three additional reports have been documented in the English literatures.~(2-4) In this study, we described four new cases of SCVM to further characterize the clinical and pathological features of this rare entity.

  9. Fluconazole susceptibility of 3,056 clinical isolates of Candida species from 2005 to 2009 in a tertiary-care hospital.

    Ying, Y; Zhang, J; Huang, S B; Liu, F D; Liu, J H; Zhang, J; Hu, X F; Zhang, Z Q; Liu, X; Huang, X T


    In recent years, Candida infections have been increasing significantly. This study was to investigate the distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of such infections. Totally, 3,056 clinical isolates were analysed, C. albicans was the most prevalent species from respiratory and vaginal specimens. However, non-albicans species constituted the majority of isolates from blood, urine, intensive care unit (ICU), organ transplant and burned patients. Similarly, Candida spp. from different specimens and clinical services had different degrees of susceptibility to fluconazole. Isolates from vagina and burned patients had the highest resistance rate, while all of the isolates from ascites and dermatological services were susceptible to fluconazole.

  10. La aplicación de un protocolo de cribado de cáncer anal en población de riesgo permite diagnosticar y tratar precozmente las lesiones precursoras

    Sanz Ortega, Gonzalo


    La infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH) es la enfermedad de transmisión sexual (ETS) más extendida en el mundo. La fuerte evidencia del VPH como agente causal en los cánceres de cuello uterino, pene, vulva, vagina, ano y oro-faringe la destaca la Agencia Internacional para la Investigación del Cáncer. Se ha producido un auge de la patología relacionada con el VPH a nivel anal. Ha aumentado en nuestro medio de la incidencia del cáncer anal en poblaciones de riesgo (inmunodeprimidos...

  11. Aggressive approach in a case of cancer cervix with uremia

    M G Janaki


    Full Text Available Carcinoma of cervix is the most common cancer in developing countries. Majority of them present in locally advanced stages. A 36-year-old lady presented with bleeding and white discharge per vagina since four months, vomiting and reduced urine output since two weeks. Patient had an exophytic cervical growth. Investigation revealed elevated serum creatinine. Patient received single fraction radiation and underwent percutaneous nephrostomy. At one month follow-up, serum creatinine returned to almost normal level. Patient underwent bilateral ante grade stenting and completed concurrent chemoradiotherapy. In selected subsets of patients, aggressive management offered longer palliation and good quality of life.

  12. A new species of Smicridea from Argentina (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae

    Julieta V. SGANGA


    Full Text Available Se describen el macho y la hembra de una especie nueva de Smicridea (Rhyacophylax Müller (Hydropsychidae: Smicrideinae, recolectados cerca del Parque Nacional El Palmar, provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina. Los machos se caracterizan por la presencia de tres puntas en el ápice del falo, una dorsal y dos laterales, y dos ganchos internos. La hembras se distinguen fácil- mente por las características de la vagina y de la placa interna.

  13. [Enterobiasis vaginal. Report of one case].

    Ayala Castellanos, María de la Merced; Monroy Rodríguez, Fabiola; Gómez López, Edgar Martín


    The nematode Enterobius vermicularis is normally found within the human gastrointestinal tract. Pregnant females migrate towards the anus to lay their eggs. During this nocturnal migration some worms find another adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. The presented case is a 34-year-old woman referred to the Colposcopy Unit of the Antiguo Hospital Civil of Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde by cervical erosion. With the colposcopy a live worm in the vagina was visualized; it was identified as a gravid female of Enterobius vermicularis by microscopy. The diagnosis of ectopic enterobiasis was an incidental finding during the colposcopic examination of the patient with diagnosis of ectopy.

  14. Pinworm in pregnancy.

    Vose, Lauren


    A case of enterobiasis in pregnancy that presented as copious nocturnal vaginal discharge is reported. Enterobius vermicularis is the most common parasite infecting humans. Transmission can be fecal-oral or via fomites, and recently arrived immigrants from developing countries and individuals who live in households with young children are particularly at risk. Pinworms are most frequently found in the gastrointestinal tract but can also enter the vagina and bladder. Patients typically present with nocturnal anal itching, and diagnosis can be made by clinical history. Treatment includes an antihelminthic agent for the patient and members of the household as well as home hygiene measures to prevent transmission.


    Lalitha Kumari


    Full Text Available : MRKH Syndrome is one of diverse spectrum of congenital mullerian duct anamolies ranging from complete absence to hypoplasia of uterus and upper 2/3rd of vagina owing to their embryological origin. This is the second most common cause of primary amennorhoea in young females who shows normal development of secondary sexual characters and endocrine profile with essential normal female phenotype & genotype (46 XX. Our study is to emphasis the role of MRI in diagnosis of this syndrome non-invasively without exposure to radiation. The excellent soft tissue anatomical details by MRI provides the diagnosis with accuracy along with information of adjacent viscera and other associated systemic anamolies.

  16. Bedside etiology of childhood cancer. [X radiation, /sup 224/Ra

    Miller, R.W.


    The following topics are discussed: adenocarcinomas of the vagina in young women exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol; neuroblastoma in children exposed prenatally to hydantoin; increased frequency of leukemia in Japanese children surviving the atomic bomb; cancer in adults following administration of /sup 224/Ra during childhood; increased risk of lung cancer following environmental exposure of children to asbestos; lung cancer in adults following exposure to lead, copper, zinc, and arsenic; association of chromosomal aberrations with leukemia in children exposed to x radiation and benzene; immunosuppression in lymphoma patients; renal dysplasia in patients with Wilms' tumor; and aggregation of neoplasms in families. (HLW)

  17. [The forensic expertise of cadavers of females suspected to be victims of sexually motivated homicide].

    Dmitrieva, O A


    According to the author's independent observations, the criminal, as a rule, strangles his victim in sex-related murders. In cases of suspected sex-related murders of women, the female urogenital system needs to be examined as an anatomically whole preparation. It was proven that the spermatozoid structure (in the cadaveric vagina, whose condition was optimal) began to change from week 2 with almost all their heads being destroyed by the end of week 6. When cadavers are found in 1.5-2 months after the event, there is no reason to give up examinations of the sperm from cadaver.

  18. Primary vaginal calculus secondary to urethrovaginal fistula with imperforate hymen in a 6-year-old girl.

    Oguzkurt, Pelin; Ince, Emine; Ezer, Semire Serin; Temiz, Abdülkerim; Demir, Senay; Hicsonmez, Akgun


    Primary vaginal stones are extremely rare in children and may be mistaken for bladder calculi on plain radiography. We present a case of a large vaginal calculus in a 6-year-old girl who had an imperforate hymen and urethrovaginal fistula. Hymenotomy and urethrovaginal fistula repair were performed, and the vaginal stone was extracted. It was postulated that the vaginal calculus originated from stasis of urine through the urethrovaginal fistula in the obstructed vagina. This is a unique case of a vaginal calculus with a congenital urethrovaginal fistula associated with an imperforate hymen.

  19. Delayed vaginal reconstruction in the fibrotic pelvis following radiation or previous reconstruction

    Berek, J.S.; Hacker, N.F.; Lagasse, L.D.; Smith, M.L.


    Vaginal reconstruction was performed in 14 patients who had developed vaginal stenosis secondary to extensive pelvic fibrosis after pelvic radiation therapy (12 patients) or prior vaginal reconstruction (2 patients). Sixteen procedures were performed using a split-thickness skin graft. All patients had satisfactory vaginal restoration, and 12 patients reported good vaginal function. No fistula developed as a result of the operative procedure, but one patient later developed a rectovaginal fistula resulting from tumor recurrence. Successful vaginal reconstruction can be achieved even years after initial therapy in patients who develop an obliterated vagina from previous radiation or surgery.

  20. Pyometra and Pregnancy with Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome.

    Reis, Maria Inês; Vicente, Ana Patrícia; Cominho, Joana; Gomes, Andrea Sousa; Martins, Luísa; Nunes, Filomena


    We describe a Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS) patient with previous history of infertility who got pregnant without treatment and presented a pyometra in the contralateral uterus throughout the gestational period, despite multiple antibiotic treatments. Due to the uterus' congenital anomaly and the possibility of ascending infection with subsequent abortion, this pregnancy was classified as high-risk. We believe that the partial horizontal septum in the vagina may have contributed to the closure of the gravid uterus cervix, thus ensuring that the pregnancy came to term, with an uneventful vaginal delivery.

  1. Surfactant protein D in the female genital tract

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Floridon, C; Nielsen, O;


    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a role in innate immunity against various pathogens and in vivo studies have demonstrated that SP-D also has anti-inflammatory properties. SP-D was originally demonstrated in alveolar type II cells, but recent studies have shown extrapulmonary expression of SP......-D indicating a systemic role for the protein. This study describes the presence of SP-D in the female genital tract, the placenta and in amniotic fluid using immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SP-D was observed in cells lining surface epithelium and secretory glands in the vagina...

  2. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    Gorakh Mal; Sumant Vyas; Alagiri Srinivasan; Nitin Vasant Rao Patil; Krishan Murari Lal Pathak


    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18–24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen a...

  3. Rectovaginal Fistula after Low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer Using a Double Stapling Technique

    Satoshi Yodonawa


    Full Text Available A 55-year-old female underwent low anterior resection for rectal cancer using a double stapling technique. She developed a rectovaginal fistula on the 9th postoperative day. She was discharged from hospital after undergoing transverse colostomy, and 5 months later she underwent transvaginal repair of the rectovaginal fistula. She subsequently had an uneventful recovery. The leading cause of this complication is involvement of the posterior wall of the vagina in the staple line when firing the circular stapler. Transvaginal repair with a diverting stoma for rectovaginal fistula is a safe, minimally invasive and effective method.

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of the ultrasonography in complicated pregnancy

    Cha, Kyung Soo; Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung [Chungang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Ultrasonography is an invaluable diagnostic method in Obstetrics. It provides safe, speedy and repeatable way to obtain image of normal and abnormal pregnancy. The ultrasonograms of 167 patients with suspicion of complicated pregnancy were analyzed. The results were as follows. 1. 86 patients showed normal ultrasonogram(50.9%). 100% in intrauterine fetal death and gross fetal anomaly, 100% in abnormal fetal position and number, 95% in pregnancy with pelvic mass, 83% in ectopic pregnancy, 81% in abortion, 78% in molar pregnancy, 74% in plancenta previa. 3. Ultrasonic diagnosis of abrupto placenta was difficult. 4. Diagnostic accuracy was 80% in bicornuate uterus and double vagina

  5. Localization of placenta in scanning by /sup 113m/In radiopharmaceuticals

    Cho, O.K.; Oh, K.K.; Park, C.Y.; Choi, B.S.; Ha, C.H.; Chung, S.O.; Kwak, H.M.


    Placenta previa is a common grave complication of late pregnancy, usually manifestated clinically by painless antenatal vaginal bleeding. Digital and rectal examinations are dangerous, due to the possibility that profuse hemorrhage from the vagina may result. Various radiological examinations have been performed in placenta previa for diagnosis and localization. However radioisotopic methods are superior due to safety, simplicity and a lower radiation dose, both fetal and maternal, compared to plain radiography. Among radiopharmaceuticals, In/sup 113m/ (transferrin for blood pool scan) is useful, giving more satisfactory results without any complications or untoward reactions.

  6. Vaginal dose de-escalation in image guided adaptive brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer

    Mohamed, Sandy; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; de Leeuw, Astrid A C;


    at diagnosis from 3 institutions were analysed. External beam radiotherapy was combined with MRI-guided brachytherapy. VDD was obtained by decreasing dwell times in ovoid/ring and increasing dwell times in tandem/needles. The aim was to maintain the target dose (D90 of HR-CTV ⩾ 85 Gy EQD2) while reducing...... the dose to the surface of the vagina to mean vaginal loading (ovoid/ring) was reduced from 51% to 33% of the total loading with VDD, which significantly reduced the dose to the vaginal dose points (p...... mean of 4 ± 4 Gy EQD2 (p

  7. 直肠阴道隔的解剖学研究及其临床意义%The anatomy of the rectovaginal septum and its clinical significance

    翟丽东; 刘瑾; 袁武; 刘万祥; 黄三合; 何路; 李云生


    目的:为直肠癌切除术,阴道塌陷及影像学提供解剖学依据.方法:25例福尔马林固定的成年女性盆腔标本,14例行正中失状切,在体式镜下观察,11例制成250~750μm厚的水平和矢状位火棉胶切片.结果:直肠阴道隔由前后两层组成.前层是Denonvilliers' fascia,后层是直肠同有筋膜.二者紧贴在一起,向上在直肠子宫陷凹处的腹膜折返下方分开,向下在会阴体上方分开,两侧在阴道后外侧分开.Denonvilliers' fascia在不同水平其两侧的止点不同:在宫颈平面止于宫旁组织,在阴道上部止于阴道旁组织,在阴道中部止于盆筋膜腱弓,在阴道下部止于肛提肌出口的外侧.结论:直肠阴道隔由前方的Denonvilliers' fascia和后方的直肠同有筋膜组成.%Objective: To provide anatomic data of the rectovaginal septum for the treatment of rectal cancer and vaginal prolape. Methods: 25 antiseptic pelvic specimens of adult female were used in this study. 14 specimens were made sagittal sections and observed under anatomical microscopy,while aother 11 were embedded by celloidin and made into successive slices with the thickness of 250-750um. Results: The rectovaginal septum composed of anterior and posterior layers. The anterior layer was Denonvilliers' fascia,and the posterior layer the fascia propria of rectum. The two layers closely sticked together,and divided superiorly at the reflection of peritoneum of the rectouterine pouch,inferiorly at the upside of the perineal body,laterally at the posterolateral side of vagina. The insertions of Denonvilliers' fascia were different at different levels: at the cervix,Denonvilliets' fascia merged into parametrium; at the upper vagina,it ended laterally at paracolpium; at the middle vagina,it anchored to the arcns tendineus fasciae pelvis; at the lower vagina,it ended at the lateral side of the levator ani muscles' outlet. Conclusions: The rectovaginal septum forms by Denonvilliers' fascia and the

  8. Female urethral diverticulum containing a giant calculus: a CARE-compliant case report.

    Dong, ZhiLong; Wang, Hanzhang; Zuo, LinJun; Hou, MingLi


    Urethral diverticula with calculi have a low incidence as reported in the literature. Diverticulum of female urethra is rare, often discovered due to associated complications. We report a case of diverticulum of the female urethra containing giant calculi in a 62-year-old multiparous woman. She consulted with our office due to dysuria and a hard, painful periurethral mass in the anterior vagina wall. The diverticulum was approached surgically by a vaginal route, and local extraction of the calculi and subsequent diverticulectomy successfully treated the condition.Diagnosis of a complicated diverticulum can be easily achieved if one possesses a high degree of clinical symptoms.

  9. True hermaphroditism in a St. Lawrence beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    De Guise, S; Lagacé, A; Béland, P


    A hermaphrodite beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) was found in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Québec, Canada. This animal had two testicles, two separate ovaries, and the complete ducts of each sex; cervix, vagina and vulva were absent. Mature spermatozoa were found in the lumen of seminiferous tubules in the testicles, and numerous involuted corpora lutea were recognized in the ovaries. This represents the first case of true hermaphroditism in a cetacean, and is the fourth hermaphrodite mammal with two testicles and two separate ovaries.


    Kokeela Torayraju


    Full Text Available Jumlah penderita infeksi saluran kemih (ISK pada geriatri di Indonesia akan semakin meningkat dan menjadi penyebab kedua tersering setelah pneumonia. Pendekatan diagnosis dan terapi ISK pada geriatri memiliki kekhususan. Ada tidaknya gejala dan tanda spesifik serta bagaimana cara pengambilan spesimen turut berperan dalam diagnosis ISK pada geriatri. Faktor predisposisi penderita ISK pada geriatri meliputi diabetes melitus, gizi kurang, gangguan faal kognitif, depresi, gangguan status fungsional, prostatitis, riwayat operasi, dan prolaps vagina. Gejala dan tanda yang sering muncul adalah sindrom delirium, inkontinensia urin dan syncope yang diawali oleh penurunan nafsu makan. Strategi penatalaksanaan meliputi modalitas non‐ farmakologik dan farmakologik. Kata Kunci : infeksi saluran kemih (ISK, geriatri.


    Rajlaxmi Jaysing


    Full Text Available Endometriosis is defined as ectopic presence of endometrial glands and stroma. It mainly affects pelvic peritoneal surfaces, ovaries and uterine ligaments. Even it can rarely affect vulva, vagina or perineum secondary to obstetric and surgical trauma. We are presenting a case of scar endometriosis following episiotomy in a woman with a positive history and classical physical findings who underwent wide surgical excision. The recovery was good with excellent functional results. The optimal management is wide surgical excision with additional tissue pathology to reduce recurrence and rule out malignancy.

  12. Wulwodynia – problem interdyscyplinarny dotyczący także kobiet pomenopauzalnych

    Ewa Baszak-Radomańska


    Full Text Available Wulwodynia is defined as a discomfort or pain in the entrance to the vagina, urethra, perineum or anuswithout perceptible pathological changes. Postmenopausal women often experience vaginal dryness (45%,and burning (10%, whereas pain during sexual intercourse feels 1/3 of women after menopause (provokedwulwodynia. Differences in the management of patient with post-menopausal wulwodynia is getting a biopsyof the vulva in justified cases, which is obviously not necessary in the vulvar pain patients of childbearing age.Another difference is that the most effective treatment consisting of local estrogenotherapy. The article presentsthe spectrum of therapeutic intervention.

  13. Propylene glycol-embodying deformable liposomes as a novel drug delivery carrier for vaginal fibrauretine delivery applications.

    Li, Wei-Ze; Hao, Xu-Liang; Zhao, Ning; Han, Wen-Xia; Zhai, Xi-Feng; Zhao, Qian; Wang, Yu-E; Zhou, Yong-Qiang; Cheng, Yu-Chuan; Yue, Yong-Hua; Fu, Li-Na; Zhou, Ji-Lei; Wu, Hong-Yu; Dong, Chun-Jing


    The purpose of this work was to develop and characterize the fibrauretine (FN) loaded propylene glycol-embodying deformable liposomes (FDL), and evaluate the pharmacokinetic behavior and safety of FDL for vaginal drug delivery applications. FDL was characterized for structure, particle size, zeta potential, deformability and encapsulation efficiency; the ability of FDL to deliver FN across vagina tissue in vitro and the distribution behavior of FN in rat by vaginal drug delivery were investigated, the safety of FDL to the vagina of rabbits and rats as well as human vaginal epithelial cells (VK2/E6E7) were also evaluated. Results revealed that: (i) the FDL have a closed spherical shape and lamellar structure with a homogeneous size of 185±19nm, and exhibited a negative charge of -53±2.7mV, FDL also have a good flexibility with a deformability of 92±5.6 (%phospholipids/min); (ii) the dissolving capacity of inner water phase and hydrophilicity of phospholipid bilayers of deformable liposomes were increased by the presence of propylene glycol, this may be elucidated by the fluorescent probes both lipophilic Nile red and hydrophilic calcein that were filled up the entire volume of the FDL uniformly, so the FDL with a high entrapment capacity (were calculated as percentages of total drug) for FN was 78±2.14%; (iii) the permeability of FN through vaginal mucosa was obviously improved by propylene glycol-embodying deformable liposomes, no matter whether the FN loaded in liposomes or not, although FN loaded in liposomes caused the highest permeability and drug reservoir in vagina; (iv) the FN mainly aggregated in the vagina and uterus, then the blood, spleen, liver, kidney, heart and lungs for vaginal drug delivery, this indicating vaginal delivery of FDL have a better 'vaginal local targeting effect'; and (v) the results of safety evaluation illustrate that the FDL is non-irritant and well tolerated in vivo, thereby establishing its vaginal drug delivery potential

  14. A new species of diplectanid (Monogenoidea from Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae off Peru

    Knoff Marcelo


    Full Text Available Pseudorhabdosynochus jeanloui n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae is described from specimens collected from the gills of the Pacific creolefish, Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae from a fish market in Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. The new species is differentiated from other members of the genus by the structure of its sclerotized vagina, which has two spherical chambers of similar diameter. This is the first Pseudorhabdosynochus species described from the Pacific coast of America, the third species of the genus reported from South America and the first described from a member of Paranthias.

  15. A new species of diplectanid (Monogenoidea) from Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) off Peru

    Knoff, Marcelo; Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Cárdenas, Melissa Querido; Cárdenas-Callirgos, Jorge M.; Gomes, Delir Corrêa


    Pseudorhabdosynochus jeanloui n. sp. (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) is described from specimens collected from the gills of the Pacific creolefish, Paranthias colonus (Perciformes, Serranidae) from a fish market in Chorrillos, Lima, Peru. The new species is differentiated from other members of the genus by the structure of its sclerotized vagina, which has two spherical chambers of similar diameter. This is the first Pseudorhabdosynochus species described from the Pacific coast of America, the third species of the genus reported from South America and the first described from a member of Paranthias. PMID:25754099

  16. Three new species of Monogenea (Platyhelminthes parasites of fish in the Guandu river, southeastern Brazil=Três novas espécies de Monogenea (Platyhelminthes parasitos de peixes do rio Guandu, Sudeste do Brasil

    José Luis Fernando Luque


    Full Text Available Current essay describes three new Monogenean species, namely, Cosmetocleithrum striatuli sp. nov., Jainus leporini sp. nov. and Rhabdosynochus guanduensis sp. nov., parasites on the gills of Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877, Leporinus copelandii Steindachner, 1875 and Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792, respectively. Fish were collected from the Guandu river, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between August 2005 and November 2008. Cosmetocleithrum striatuli sp. nov. differs from all other congeneric species by the shape of an accessory piece (more robust and resembling a crustacean claw or chela and by the shape of its ventral and dorsal bars (not V-shaped and with expanded lateral ends directed to the rear. Jainus leporini sp. nov. differs from all other Jainus species by the male copulation organ (MCO, with a 2-ring coil, by the absence of medial projection on ventral bar and by a plate-like sclerotized structure associated to the vagina. Rhabdosynochus guanduensis sp. nov. differs from all other congeneric species by the morphology of the copulation complex and by a shell-shaped vagina.Três novas espécies, Cosmetocleithrum striatuli sp. nov., Jainus leporini sp. nov. e Rhabdosynochus guanduensis sp. nov., parasitando as brânquias de Trachelyopterus striatulus (Steindachner, 1877, Leporinus copelandii Steindachner, 1875 e Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792, respectivamente, são descritas no presente trabalho. Os peixes foram coletados do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, no período de agosto de 2005 a novembro de 2008. Cosmetocleithrum striatuli sp. nov. difere de todas as outras espécies congenéricas pelo formato da pesca acessória (muito robusta e semelhante a uma quela de crustáceo e pelo formato das barras ventral e dorsal (sem o formato de V e com as extremidades laterais expandidas e direcionadas posteriormente. Jainus leporini sp. nov. difere de todas as outras espécies do gênero pelo

  17. Diagnóstico clínico, de laboratorio y tratamiento de la vaginosis por Gardnerella vaginilis



    La vaginosis bacteriana es la infección de tejidos vaginales, generalmente por transmisión sexual, en cambio la vaginitis es la inflamación de la mucosa de la vagina y obedece a diversas etiologías. La vaginosis es más frecuente durante el periodo fértil y aunque su etiología es polimicrobiana se ha visto que uno de los agentes infecciosos más importante es Gardnerella vaginalis; identificada en la década de 1950 por Leopod, Gardner y Dukes, los que después de varios estudios la encontraron e...

  18. Hysteroscopy and episiotomy in a rescued, cold-stressed Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) for diagnosis and treatment of a retained fetal skeleton.

    Hall, Natalie H; Walsh, Mike; DeLuca, Catherine; Bukoski, Alex


    A rescued female manatee was observed expelling a fetal bone from the vulva. The manatee was anesthetized and diagnosed with uterine retention of a fetal skeleton by ultrasound and hysteroscopy. Episiotomy was performed to gain manual access to the vagina and uterus for removal of the skeleton. Second intention healing of the episiotomy site produced excellent results. Rescued female manatees should receive a thorough reproductive tract evaluation since presence of retained fetal tissues might not be evident in blood or hormone analyses. Retention of a whole or partial dead fetus can be life-threatening to manatees, and retained tissues should be removed as early as possible.

  19. Perianal Endometriosis Mimicking Recurrent Perianal Abscess

    Mohd Iqbal


    Full Text Available Endometriosis of the perianal region is an extremely rare condition usually seen in episiotomy scars and can involve the septum separating vagina and anal canal. The clinician is unlikely to suspect it if there is no scar in the perineum and patient the does not give a history of episiotomy. Moreover it is difficult to suspect when the patient does not report cyclical pain and therefore it is likely to be treated as perianal sepsis. We report the rare case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with recurrent painful nodule of endometriosis of the perianal area without previous episiotomy.

  20. Pathogenicity of different strains of Histophilus somni in the experimental induction of ovine epididymitis


    The purpose of this study was to determine any differences in pathogenicity when sheep are experimentally infected with different Histophilus somni isolates: a) 2336 bovine origin strain; b) an isolate from ram orchitis and epididymitis; c) an isolate from the brain of a sheep with neurological signs; d) an isolate from the vagina of a clinically healthy ewe. A total of 20 rams divided in groups of 5 animals each were inoculated in the epididymis with 1 × 107 CFU/mL of H. somni; a negative co...

  1. Exfoliative cytology in pregnant and non-pregnant females of Lagostomus maximus

    Flamini, Mirta Alicia; Barbeito, Claudio Gustavo; Portiansky, Enrique Leo


    La citología exfoliativa o colpocitograma es un método de laboratorio de uso frecuente para reconocer cambios cíclicos en el epitelio vaginal. Se describen los tipos de células del epitelio vaginal de la vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) y se establece un patrón de referencia de los cambios morfológicos que experimenta la vagina de estas hembras en sus diferentes estados fisiológicos. Los animales fueron divididos en cuatro grupos: no preñadas en anestro, no preñadas en fase folicular, con preñad...

  2. Mucormycosis of pouch of douglas in a diabetic lady: Report of a rare case

    Santosh Kumar Mondal


    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a severe fungal infection which is rare in clinical practice. This infection is usually acquired by inhalation; other portals of entry are ingestion and traumatic implantation, especially in immuno-compromised patients. Here, we present a case of mucormycosis in a 44 year old diabetic woman. The patient had collection of fluid in the Pouch of Douglas and history of bleeding per vagina. Hysterectomy was done which showed a blackish serosal surface of the posterior uterus. Subsequent investigations revealed mycormycosis affecting the pouch of Douglas. Patient was treated with liposomal amphotericin B and is now keeping well.

  3. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. and Strelkovimermis ozawindibi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing chironomid (Insecta: Diptera) adults eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes.

    Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G


    Two new species of Strelkovimermis are described from chironomid imagoes eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes. The 2 species are distinguished from the other 12 species in the genus by terminal mouths, rounded or nippled posterior ends, short buccal funnels, short terminal limbs of the S-shaped vagina, and presence of a bursal sleeve. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. is distinguished from S. ozawindibi n. sp. by the presence of a dorsal protractor. Procladius (Psilotanypus) bellus (Loew) is the host of S. rubtsovi. The chironomid host of S. ozawindibi has not been determined. An artificial key is provided to distinguish the 14 species of the genus.

  4. [Congenital recto-vaginal fistula associated with a normal anus (type H fistula) and rectal atresia in a patient. Report of a case and a brief revision of the literature].

    Fernández Fernández, Jesús Ángel; Parodi Hueck, Luis


    Congenital recto-urogenital type fistulas with a normal anus and rectal atresia, represent both anorectal malformations that are infrequently seen in clinical practice. We describe the case of a girl with an association of these two anomalies, together with a double vagina who, on her seventh day of life, expelled feces through her genitals. The malformations were corrected by means of a posterior sagittal approach, descending from the rectum to the anus without perineal dissection. The vaginal septum was resected thru the vulva. There is no evidence of recurrence of the recto-vaginal fistula.

  5. Management of recurrent urinary tract infections in healthy adult women.

    Hickling, Duane R; Nitti, Victor W


    Recurrence after urinary tract infection (rUTI) is common in adult women. The majority of recurrences are believed to be reinfection from extraurinary sources such as the rectum or vagina. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli are now known to invade urothelial cells and form quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs. Management of women with frequent symptomatic rUTI can be particularly vexing for both patients and their treating physicians. This review addresses available and promising management strategies for rUTI in healthy adult women.

  6. Surveillance and management of estrous cycle in Awassi and Lacaune ewes during out of season

    Liviu Bogdan; Sanda Andrei; Anamaria Luciana Blaga Petrean; Ileana Bogdan; Ioan Paşca; Sidonia Bogdan


    The purpose of this study was to increase fertility in sheep by applying modern biotechnology: induction and synchronization of estrous in non- breeding season. The ewes were divided into 3 equal batches. In all batches intravaginal sponge (Veramix/Intervet) containing 60 mg of MPA was left in the vagina for 14 days. Immediately after removal of the sponge an injections of prostaglandin (Dinolytic/Pfizer) at the dose of 12.5 mg (2,5ml)/animal was administered in batch II. Batch III received t...

  7. [New challenges to the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia].

    Sun, J H


    Due to the progress of intracavitary afterloading technology and dosage of brachytherapy, a similar dose distribution as that of cervical conization can be achieved and can be applied to the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), it is called "afterloading conization" . Being adjusted the radioactive source movement and weight, low exposure doses to the ovary, endometrium and vagina can be assured. So a high quality of life after treatment could be maintained and overcomes the shortcomings of cervical conization and hysterectomy, such as anesthesia, bleeding, over or insufficient treatment, early ovarian ageing and operative complications.

  8. Vaginal cancer in a patient treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 3): case report.

    Androutsopoulos, G; Adonakis, G; Ravazoula, P; Kourounis, G


    In 1% to 3% of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) will either coexist or occur at a later date. The time interval from an earlier diagnosis of CIN 3 to a current diagnosis of VAIN 3 varies from two to 17 years. Invasive vaginal cancer occurred in a woman five years after total abdominal hysterectomy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In women who have undergone total hysterectomy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer, postoperative cytologic and colposcopic follow-up of the vagina is necessary.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of fistulising Crohn's disease

    Hvas, Christian Lodberg; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius


    A fistula is defined as a pathological connection between the intestine and an inner (bladder or other intestine) or outer (vagina or skin) epithelial surface. Fistulas are discovered in up to 25% of all Crohn's disease patients during long-term follow-up examinations. Most are perianal fistulas....../MRI for complete anatomical definition. Any abscess should be drained, and the disease extent throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract should be evaluated. Treatment goals for perianal fistulas include reduced fistula secretion or none, evaluated by clinical examination; the absence of abscesses; and patient...


    Héctor Silva Cárcamo; José Luis Arita Erazo; Juan Carlos Fúnez


    El Síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser, es una anomalía poco frecuente, causada por aplasia de conductos de Müller, se caracteriza por ausencia congénita de vagina, alteraciones uterinas (variedad tipo I), acompañada de alteraciones renales y/o esqueléticas (variedad tipo II), con fenotipo femenino y función ovárica normal. Su incidencia es 1 en 4000-5000 mujeres. Caso clínico: Segundo caso reportado en Honduras, paciente femenina, 17 años de edad, acude por presentar amenorrea primar...

  11. Knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Ab Rahman, Azriani; Ab Rahman, Razlina; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Salleh, Halim; Ismail, Shaiful Bahri; Ali, Siti Hawa; Muda, Wan Manan Wan; Ishak, Maizun; Ahmad, Amaluddin


    The objectives of this study were to describe the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school and to compare the levels of knowledge between males and females and between older and younger groups of adolescents. Across-sectional study was conducted among 1,034 secondary school students using a self administered validated questionnaire. The items with the fewest correct responses included: whether one can get pregnant after a single act of sexual intercourse (30.4%), whether sexual intercourse causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (12.4%) and whether washing the vagina after sexual intercourse prevents pregnancy (17.0%). Their main source of sexual information was friends (64.4%). An independent t-test revealed the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among females than males on items assessing whether the genitalia may be touched freely by family members, females having attained menarche may become pregnant if having sex, whether pregnancy will occur if there is penetration of the penis into the vagina, whether premarital sexual intercourse causes pregnancy and if there is a relationship between abandoned babies and premarital pregnancies. The mean knowledge score assessing whether pregnancy can be prevented using condoms was higher among males than females. The mean knowledge scores were significantly higher among form four and form five students than forms one, two and three students. Lack of knowledge regarding important aspects of sexual and reproductive health warrant the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education.

  12. Unraveling molecular signatures of immunostimulatory adjuvants in the female genital tract through systems biology.

    Madelene Lindqvist

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs unequivocally represent a major public health concern in both industrialized and developing countries. Previous efforts to develop vaccines for systemic immunization against a large number of STIs in humans have been unsuccessful. There is currently a drive to develop mucosal vaccines and adjuvants for delivery through the genital tract to confer protective immunity against STIs. Identification of molecular signatures that can be used as biomarkers for adjuvant potency can inform rational development of potent mucosal adjuvants. Here, we used systems biology to study global gene expression and signature molecules and pathways in the mouse vagina after treatment with two classes of experimental adjuvants. The Toll-like receptor 9 agonist CpG ODN and the invariant natural killer T cell agonist alpha-galactosylceramide, which we previously identified as equally potent vaginal adjuvants, were selected for this study. Our integrated analysis of genome-wide transcriptome data determined which signature pathways, processes and networks are shared by or otherwise exclusive to these 2 classes of experimental vaginal adjuvants in the mouse vagina. To our knowledge, this is the first integrated genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the effects of immunomodulatory adjuvants on the female genital tract of a mammal. These results could inform rational development of effective mucosal adjuvants for vaccination against STIs.

  13. Deformable anatomical templates for brachytherapy treatment planning in radiotherapy of cervical cancer

    Christensen, Gary E.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Chao, K. S. C.; Miller, Michael I.; So, F. B.; Vannier, Michael W.


    This paper describes a new method to register serial, volumetric x-ray computed tomography (CT) data sets for tracking soft-tissue deformation caused by insertion of intracavity brachytherapy applicators to treat cervical cancer. 3D CT scans collected from the same patient with and without a brachytherapy applicator are registered to aid in computation of the radiation dose to tumor and normal tissue. The 3D CT image volume of pelvic anatomy with the applicator. Initial registration is accomplished by rigid alignment of the pelvic bones and non-rigid alignment of gray scale CT data and hand segmentations of the vagina, cervix, bladder, and rectum. A viscous fluid transformation model is used for non-rigid registration to allow for local, non-linear registration of the vagina, cervix, bladder, and rectum without disturbing the rigid registration of the bony pelvis and adjacent structures. Results are presented in which two 3D CT data sets of the same patient - imaged with and without a brachytherapy applicator - are registered.

  14. MR Imaging in Diagnosis of Pelvic Floor Descent: Supine versus Sitting Position

    Renzi, Adolfo; Monaco, Luigi; Serra, Nicola; Feragalli, Beatrice; Iacomino, Aniello; Brunese, Luca; Cappabianca, Salvatore


    Introduction. Functional disorders of the pelvic floor represent have a significant impact on the quality of life. The advent of open-configuration systems allowed for the evaluation of defecation with MR imaging in sitting position. The purpose of the present study is to compare the results of static and dynamic pelvic MR performed in supine position versus sitting position, using a new MR prototype machine, in the diagnosis of pelvic floor descent. Materials and Methods. Thirty-one patients with pelvic floor disorders were enrolled, and underwent MR Defecography in supine position with 1.5 T closed magnet (MAGNETOM Symphony, Siemens, Germany) and in sitting position with a 0.25-Tesla open magnet system (G-Scan ESAOTE, Italy). Results. In rest and squeezing phases, positions of bladder, vagina, and ARJ were significantly different when the patient was imaged in supine versus sitting position. In the defecation phase, a significant difference for the bladder and vagina position was detected between the two exams whereas a significant difference for the ARJ was not found. A statistically significant difference exists when the pelvic floor descent is evaluated in sitting versus supine position. Conclusion. Our results show that MR Defecography in sitting position may represent a useful tool to correctly diagnose and grade the pelvic organ descent. PMID:26880893

  15. MR Imaging in Diagnosis of Pelvic Floor Descent: Supine versus Sitting Position

    Francesca Iacobellis


    Full Text Available Introduction. Functional disorders of the pelvic floor represent have a significant impact on the quality of life. The advent of open-configuration systems allowed for the evaluation of defecation with MR imaging in sitting position. The purpose of the present study is to compare the results of static and dynamic pelvic MR performed in supine position versus sitting position, using a new MR prototype machine, in the diagnosis of pelvic floor descent. Materials and Methods. Thirty-one patients with pelvic floor disorders were enrolled, and underwent MR Defecography in supine position with 1.5 T closed magnet (MAGNETOM Symphony, Siemens, Germany and in sitting position with a 0.25-Tesla open magnet system (G-Scan ESAOTE, Italy. Results. In rest and squeezing phases, positions of bladder, vagina, and ARJ were significantly different when the patient was imaged in supine versus sitting position. In the defecation phase, a significant difference for the bladder and vagina position was detected between the two exams whereas a significant difference for the ARJ was not found. A statistically significant difference exists when the pelvic floor descent is evaluated in sitting versus supine position. Conclusion. Our results show that MR Defecography in sitting position may represent a useful tool to correctly diagnose and grade the pelvic organ descent.

  16. Triphasic MRI of pelvic organ descent: sources of measurement error

    Morren, Geert L. [Bowel and Digestion Centre, The Oxford Clinic, 38 Oxford Terrace, Christchurch (New Zealand)]. E-mail:; Balasingam, Adrian G. [Christchurch Radiology Group, P.O. Box 21107, 4th Floor, Leicester House, 291 Madras Street, Christchurch (New Zealand); Wells, J. Elisabeth [Department of Public Health and General Medicine, Christchurch School of Medicine, St. Elmo Courts, Christchurch (New Zealand); Hunter, Anne M. [Christchurch Radiology Group, P.O. Box 21107, 4th Floor, Leicester House, 291 Madras Street, Christchurch (New Zealand); Coates, Richard H. [Christchurch Radiology Group, P.O. Box 21107, 4th Floor, Leicester House, 291 Madras Street, Christchurch (New Zealand); Perry, Richard E. [Bowel and Digestion Centre, The Oxford Clinic, 38 Oxford Terrace, Christchurch (New Zealand)


    Purpose: To identify sources of error when measuring pelvic organ displacement during straining using triphasic dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: Ten healthy nulliparous woman underwent triphasic dynamic 1.5 T pelvic MRI twice with 1 week between studies. The bladder was filled with 200 ml of a saline solution, the vagina and rectum were opacified with ultrasound gel. T2 weighted images in the sagittal plane were analysed twice by each of the two observers in a blinded fashion. Horizontal and vertical displacement of the bladder neck, bladder base, introitus vaginae, posterior fornix, cul-de sac, pouch of Douglas, anterior rectal wall, anorectal junction and change of the vaginal axis were measured eight times in each volunteer (two images, each read twice by two observers). Variance components were calculated for subject, observer, week, interactions of these three factors, and pure error. An overall standard error of measurement was calculated for a single observation by one observer on a film from one woman at one visit. Results: For the majority of anatomical reference points, the range of displacements measured was wide and the overall measurement error was large. Intra-observer error and week-to-week variation within a subject were important sources of measurement error. Conclusion: Important sources of measurement error when using triphasic dynamic MRI to measure pelvic organ displacement during straining were identified. Recommendations to minimize those errors are made.

  17. [Nursing care in the initial phases of pelvic floor prolapse].

    Hernández-González, Ana Maria


    Uterine prolapse consists of a falling or sliding of the uterus from its normal position in the pelvic cavity inside the vagina and is one of the most frequent alterations secondary to pelvic floor dysfunction in gynecology consultations. Although patients are reluctant to talk about this sensitive issue, they complain of feeling a lump in their genitals, urinary incontinence, and problems in their sexual relations. In fact, uterine prolapse is not a disease but an alteration of the elements suspending and containing the uterus, which are almost always injured by pregnancy and childbirth. Other causes in addition to trauma of the endopelvic fascia (mainly cardinal and uterosacral ligaments) are injuries or relaxations of the pelvic floor (the muscles lifting the anus and the fascia that covers the bladder, vagina and rectum). Causes of uterine prolapse without obstetric antecedents are usually those that involve an increase in abdominal pressure and respiratory diseases causing severe coughing. The incidence of uterine prolapse is highest in multiparous women, with prolonged deliveries, a long second stage involving marked straining, in forceps deliveries and in women with perineal tears. Nursing care is essential, both in the prevention and the detection of prolapse, so that women can express their needs without fear and are aware of the need for appropriate treatment in the incipient stages of prolapse.

  18. Effect of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection of female guinea pigs.

    Rank, R G; White, H J; Hough, A J; Pasley, J N; Barron, A L


    Female guinea pigs were treated daily with 1 mg of beta-estradiol-3-benzoate intramuscularly beginning 14 days before intravaginal inoculation with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis and continuing during the course of the infection. Treatment with estradiol was found to markedly influence the course of genital infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, producing infections of greater intensity and longer duration than those in control animals. Moreover, pathogenesis was altered in that ascending infection was observed, resulting in endometritis, cystic salpingitis, and cystitis. Infection in the controls was limited to the cervix and vagina. Estradiol treatment increased the apparent number of infected cells in the cervix and vagina as detected by histopathology and immunofluorescent staining. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis were comparable in estradiol-treated and untreated animals. These data indicate that hormonal manipulation may have profound effects on the course of chlamydial genital infections.

  19. Investigation of Trichomonas Vaginalis by Parasitological and Cytological Methods in Patients Admitted to Gynecology Outpatient Clinics in a University Hospital

    Özlem Aycan-Kaya


    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to compare parasitological and cytological diagnostic methods to detect T. Vaginalis in samples taken from posterior fornix of vagina. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, study population (n=104 were selected from women applying to gynecology outpatient clinic of Mustafa Kemal University Hospital with different complaints between March- August 2013. The presence of T. vaginalis was investigated by parasitological and cytological diagnostic methods. While direct microscopy, giemsa staining and culture in Cysteine-Peptone-Liver-Maltose medium (CPLM were performed for parasitological diagnosis of T. vaginalis in samples taken from posterior fornix of vagina, cervical smear stained by Papanicolaou (PAPS was used for cytological diagnosis. Results: T. vaginalis was detected in 12 (11.5%, 12 (11.5%, 14 (%13.4 of materials by direct microscopy, giemsa staining and culture, respectively. T. vaginalis was detected only 5 (4.8% of materials by cytology. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Our study results showed that parasitological methods are more sensitive than cytological methods in diagnosis of T. vaginalis. Therefore, T. vaginalis should be screened in women with non-specific symptoms in under developed countries where lack of periodic examination and polygamy were seen.

  20. [Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].

    Djukić, Slobodanka; Ćirković, Ivana; Arsić, Biljana; Garalejić, Eliana


    Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2-producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent's scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up-to-date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short-term and long-term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  1. Multiplex detection of bacteria associated with normal microbiota and with bacterial vaginosis in vaginal swabs by use of oligonucleotide-coupled fluorescent microspheres.

    Dumonceaux, Tim J; Schellenberg, John; Goleski, Vanessa; Hill, Janet E; Jaoko, Walter; Kimani, Joshua; Money, Deborah; Ball, T Blake; Plummer, Francis A; Severini, Alberto


    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a recurrent condition that is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases, preterm births, and pelvic inflammatory disease. In contrast to the Lactobacillus-dominated normal vaginal microbiota, BV is characterized by a lack of lactobacilli and an abundance of anaerobic and gram-negative organisms, including Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae. To date, the laboratory diagnosis of BV has relied upon the fulfillment of criteria determined by microscopic observation of Gram-stained vaginal swabs. We describe a molecular-based method for the easy determination of the species profile within the vaginal microbiota based on the amplification of the chaperonin-60 genes of all bacteria present in the swab and hybridization of the amplicon to species-specific oligonucleotide-coupled fluorescent beads that are identified by flow cytometry with a Luminex instrument. We designed a nineplex Luminex array for characterization of the vaginal microbiota and applied it to the analysis of vaginal swabs from individuals from Africa and North America. Using the presence of A. vaginae or G. vaginalis, or both, as the defining criterion for BV, we found that the method was highly specific and sensitive for the diagnosis of BV using microscopy as a gold standard.

  2. Vaginal Microbiota and the Use of Probiotics

    Sarah Cribby


    Full Text Available The human vagina is inhabited by a range of microbes from a pool of over 50 species. Lactobacilli are the most common, particularly in healthy women. The microbiota can change composition rapidly, for reasons that are not fully clear. This can lead to infection or to a state in which organisms with pathogenic potential coexist with other commensals. The most common urogenital infection in premenopausal women is bacterial vaginosis (BV, a condition characterized by a depletion of lactobacilli population and the presence of Gram-negative anaerobes, or in some cases Gram-positive cocci, and aerobic pathogens. Treatment of BV traditionally involves the antibiotics metronidazole or clindamycin, however, the recurrence rate remains high, and this treatment is not designed to restore the lactobacilli. In vitro studies have shown that Lactobacillus strains can disrupt BV and yeast biofilms and inhibit the growth of urogenital pathogens. The use of probiotics to populate the vagina and prevent or treat infection has been considered for some time, but only quite recently have data emerged to show efficacy, including supplementation of antimicrobial treatment to improve cure rates and prevent recurrences.

  3. Vaginal Practices of HIV-Negative Zimbabwean Women

    Abigail Norris Turner


    Full Text Available Background. Vaginal practices (VPs may increase HIV risk by injuring vaginal epithelium or by increasing risk of bacterial vaginosis, an established risk factor for HIV. Methods. HIV-negative Zimbabwean women (n=2,185 participating in a prospective study on hormonal contraception and HIV risk completed an ancillary questionnaire capturing detailed VP data at quarterly followup visits for two years. Results. Most participants (84% reported ever cleansing inside the vagina, and at 40% of visits women reported drying the vagina using cloth or paper. Vaginal tightening using cloth/cotton wool, lemon juice, traditional herbs/powders, or other products was reported at 4% of visits. Women with ≥15 unprotected sex acts monthly had higher odds of cleansing (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04–1.32. Women with sexually transmitted infections had higher odds of tightening (aOR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08–1.86. Conclusion. Because certain vaginal practices were associated with other HIV risk factors, synergism between VPs and other risk factors should be explored.

  4. Gram-positive bacterial superantigen outside-in signaling causes toxic shock syndrome.

    Brosnahan, Amanda J; Schlievert, Patrick M


    Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci) are Gram-positive pathogens capable of producing a variety of bacterial exotoxins known as superantigens. Superantigens interact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells to induce T cell proliferation and massive cytokine production, which leads to fever, rash, capillary leak and subsequent hypotension, the major symptoms of toxic shock syndrome. Both S. aureus and group A streptococci colonize mucosal surfaces, including the anterior nares and vagina for S. aureus, and the oropharynx and less commonly the vagina for group A streptococci. However, due to their abilities to secrete a variety of virulence factors, the organisms can also cause illnesses from the mucosa. This review provides an updated discussion of the biochemical and structural features of one group of secreted virulence factors, the staphylococcal and group A streptococcal superantigens, and their abilities to cause toxic shock syndrome from a mucosal surface. The main focus of this review, however, is the abilities of superantigens to induce cytokines and chemokines from epithelial cells, which has been linked to a dodecapeptide region that is relatively conserved among all superantigens and is distinct from the binding sites required for interactions with APCs and T cells. This phenomenon, termed outside-in signaling, acts to recruit adaptive immune cells to the submucosa, where the superantigens can then interact with those cells to initiate the final cytokine cascades that lead to toxic shock syndrome.

  5. Multicentre evaluation of a novel vaginal dose reporting method in 153 cervical cancer patients

    Westerveld, Henrike; de Leeuw, Astrid; Kirchheiner, Kathrin


    and methods In a subset of patients from the EMBRACE study, vaginal doses were evaluated. Doses at the applicator surface left/right and anterior/posterior and at 5 mm depth were measured. In addition, the dose at the Posterior–Inferior Border of Symphysis (PIBS) vaginal dose point and PIBS±2 cm......, respectively). At 5 mm depth, doses were 98 (55–212) Gy/91 (54–227) Gy left/right, and 71 (51–145) Gy/67 (49–189) Gy anterior/posterior, respectively. The dose at PIBS and PIBS±2 cm was 41 (3–81) Gy, 54 (32–109) Gy and 5 (1–51) Gy, respectively. At PIBS+2 cm (mid vagina) dose variation was coming from BT....... The variation at PIBS−2 cm (lower vagina) was mainly dependent on EBRT field border location. Conclusions This novel method for reporting vaginal doses coming from EBRT and BT through well-defined dose points gives a robust representation of the dose along the vaginal axis. In addition, it allows comparison...

  6. Indigenous technique of fabricating vaginal mould for vaginal reconstruction and uterine drainage in McIndoe vaginoplasty using 10 ml syringe

    Brijesh Mishra


    Full Text Available Absence of vagina poses multitude of physical and psychosocial problems in woman's life. 10% of Mayer- Rokitansky-üster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome patients with high vaginal septum and vaginal atreisa has additional issue of draining uterine cavity. MC Indoe vaginoplasty is universally acceptable and widely practiced procedure for neocolposis reconstruction. Simultaneous reconstruction of vagina with simultaneous continued uterine drainage presents surgical challenge. We offer a simple solution of creating a vaginal mould using a 10 ml disposable syringe, which enables graft application of neovaginal cavity with simultaneous protected uterine drainage per vaginum. Total 10 patients were included in this study of which 4 needed uterine drainage procedure in addition to neovaginal creation. All the patients fared well, there were no problems regarding graft loss or vaginal mould extrusion etc. Fabrication of mould for graft enables easy dressing changes with out disturbing the skin graft. This innovation offers a simple easily reproducible and cheap way of fabricating vaginal mould for McIndoe vaginoplasty. It is especially useful for neovaginal graft application and simultaneous uterine drainage.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of Müllerian Remnants in Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome

    Yoo, Roh-Eul; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Sang Youn; Kim, Seung Hyup [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)


    To analyze magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of Müllerian remnants in young females clinically suspected of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome in a primary amenorrhea workup. Fifteen young females underwent multiplanar T2- and transverse T1-weighted MRI at either a 1.5T or 3.0T MR imager. Two gynecologic radiologists reached consensus decisions for the evaluation of Müllerian remnants, vagina, ovaries, and associated findings. All cases had bilateral uterine buds in the pelvic cavity, with unilateral cavitation in two cases. The buds had an average long-axis diameter of 2.64 ± 0.65 cm. In all cases, bilateral buds were connected with fibrous band-like structures. In 13 cases, the band-like structures converged at the midline or a paramedian triangular soft tissue lying above the bladder dome. The lower one-third of the vagina was identified in 14 cases. Fourteen cases showed bilateral normal ovaries near the uterine buds. One unilateral pelvic kidney, one unilateral renal agenesis, one mild scoliosis, and three lumbar sacralization cases were found as associated findings. Typical Müllerian remnants in MRKH syndrome consist of bilateral uterine buds connected by the fibrous band-like structures, which converge at the midline triangular soft tissue lying above the bladder dome.

  8. [Vulvovaginitis: correlation with predisposing factors, clinical manifestations and microbiological studies].

    Fosch, S; Fogolín, N; Azzaroni, E; Pairetti, N; Dana, L; Minacori, H; Tita, I; Redona, M; Gribaudo, G


    Vaginitis (V) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are one of the most common reasons the middle class patient has to consult a gynaecologist. The purpose of this work is to analyse samples of vaginal fluid targeting the infection etiology and its relationship to related factors: (intrauterine devices, contraceptive pills, condoms, use of antibiotics), symptoms and signs. From November 1, 2001 to October 30, 2003, a cross-section study was carried out of 400 nonpregnant, sexually active women in an age range of 15 to 55. Vaginal secretions were analysed by Gram and Giemsa stains and culturing was used. Interpreting: (1) normal--no observable changes, absence of the infecting agents studied here; (2) infected--changes observed: bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis (CV) and trichomoniasis (TC) and (3) imbalance in vagina ecology, with medium alterations (D). Results obtained: (1) normal: 209 (52.2%); infected: 115 (28.8%) including 13.5% VB, 12.5% CV, 2.8% TC, and (3) 76 (19%) with imbalance of vagina ecology. Bacterial vaginosis and flora imbalance were related to the use of intrauterine devices, and candidiasis to contraceptive pills and previous antibiotic use. The number of symptoms increased in patients with vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis.

  9. Endometrial mesenchymal stem cells as a cell based therapy for pelvic organ prolapse.

    Emmerson, Stuart J; Gargett, Caroline E


    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when the pelvic organs (bladder, bowel or uterus) herniate into the vagina, causing incontinence, voiding, bowel and sexual dysfunction, negatively impacting upon a woman's quality of life. POP affects 25% of all women and results from childbirth injury. For 19% of all women, surgical reconstructive surgery is required for treatment, often augmented with surgical mesh. The surgical treatment fails in up to 30% of cases or results in adverse effects, such as pain and mesh erosion into the bladder, bowel or vagina. Due to these complications the Food and Drug Administration cautioned against the use of vaginal mesh and several major brands have been recently been withdrawn from market. In this review we will discuss new cell-based approaches being developed for the treatment of POP. Several cell types have been investigated in animal models, including a new source of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) derived from human endometrium. The unique characteristics of endometrial MSC, methods for their isolation and purification and steps towards their development for good manufacturing practice production will be described. Animal models that could be used to examine the potential for this approach will also be discussed as will a rodent model showing promise in developing an endometrial MSC-based therapy for POP. The development of a preclinical large animal model for assessing tissue engineering constructs for treating POP will also be mentioned.

  10. Eversión vesical completa a través de una fístula vesicovaginal

    Jhoan Aragón Charry


    Full Text Available La eversión vesical completa es rara. Se presenta el caso de una eversión de vejiga urinaria a través de una fístula vesicovaginal acompañada de prolapso útero-vaginal concurrente. Se trata de paciente de 70 años que presentó una tumoración compatible con un prolapso vaginal grado IV y una tumoración edematosa, pegajosa y piriforme por delante del prolapso compatible con la vejiga con un orificio en la pared anterior de la vagina a través del cual la mucosa de la vejiga estaba evertida, procediendo al reposicionamiento y corrección manual de la eversión para luego ser corregida quirúrgicamente. Complete bladder eversion through vesicovaginal fistula Abstract Complete bladder eversion is rare. A case of bladder eversion trough vesicovaginal fistula accompanied with concomitant uterovaginal prolapse is presented. A 70 year-old patients presented a tumor compatible with vaginal prolapse type IV and an edematous, sticky and piriform tumor ahead of prolapse compatible with bladder with an orifice on anterior wall of vagina through bladder mucosa was everted, proceeding to reduction and manual correction of eversion and then was surgical corrected.

  11. Isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria from genital tract of the Arabian mares affected with genital tract infection and antimicrobial sensitivity

    H. F. AL-Abidy


    Full Text Available This study was conducted for isolation and identification of the pathogenic bacteria presented in the genital tract infectionof the Arabian mares, and shows the anti microbial sensitivity. The study included 75 samples taken from infected maressuffering from genital tract infection diagnosed on the basis of case history and clinical signs which included bloody purulentdischarge ranched from yellow to green in colure, fetid oder with congested and oedematous vagina and from some abortioncases, and from mares suffered from tetanus disease symptoms during the period between October 2007 to April 2008 in studfarms breeding mares in Mosul. The samples were collected by swabs from the clitoris, clitorial fossa and the vagina. Isolationof bacteria was performed using aerobic and anaerobic culture techniques. Results of the present study showed a total ofisolation 75% from all samples taken with a high percentage isolation of Clostridium tetani (16.6%, followed by Archanobacterium pyogenes (10.6%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, (6.7% for each Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiellapneumonia, Streptococcus dysagalactiae subsp equisimilis, and (5.3% for each bacteria Actinobacillus equilli, Streptococcuszooepidemicus, Staphylococcus aureus, then Proteus vulgaris (2.6%, and Escherichia coli (1.3%. The most bacterial isolateswere resistant to amoxicillin (100%, ampicillin (90.9 %, and erythromycin (65.9%, while the most isolates were sensitive tokanamycin (70.4%. It could be concluted that the most important bacteria causing genital tract infection of mares could beClostridium tetani and Archanobacterium pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most bacterial isolates were resistant toamoxicillin, ampicillin and erythromycin.

  12. A non-invasive technique for standing surgical repair of urinary bladder rupture in a post-partum mare: a case report

    Stephen JO


    Full Text Available Abstract An 11-year-old mare presented 36 hours after foaling with a ruptured bladder. Uroperitoneum was diagnosed on ultrasound and from the creatinine concentration of the peritoneal fluid. Bladder endoscopy demonstrated tissue necrosis and a rent in the dorsocranial aspect of the bladder. Following stabilisation, including abdominal drainage and lavage, the mare was taken to standing surgery. Under continuous sedation and epidural anaesthesia, and after surgical preparation, a Balfour retractor was placed in the vagina. Using sterile lubricant and moderate force, it was possible to insert a hand into the bladder. The tear was easily palpable on the dorsal portion of the bladder. Two fingers were inserted through the tear and used to provide traction to evert the bladder completely into the vagina where it could grasped with the surgeons other hand to prevent further trauma. A second surgeon could then visualise the entire tear and repaired this using a single layer of size zero PDS suture in a single continuous pattern. As soon as the bladder was repaired, it was replaced via the urethra. The mare did well after surgery and was discharged after 48 hours, apparently normal. This report is the first describing repair of the bladder without an abdominal incision or incision into the urethral sphincter. This greatly reduces the chance of possible complications such as urine pooling after surgery with the previously described standing technique or bladder trauma due to traction with abdominal surgery.

  13. Estrogenic Effect of 70% Ethanol Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val. Extract on Ovariectomized Female Mice (Mus musculus L.

    A.N. Dewi


    Full Text Available The influence of extract turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val. on endometrium thickness, vaginal epithelium, mammary gland, and protein of estrogen receptor of ovariectomized mice was examined. Twenty five ovariectomized mice which were divided into five groups, were treated by ethynilestradiol (8,4 x 10-3 g, aquades (10 ml, and turmeric extract at doses 230 mg/kg b.w.; 310 mg/kg b.w.; and 390 mg/kg b.w. for eight days. At the end of experiments the mice were killed, then the uterus, vagina, and mammae were removed and the wet weight of uterus was recorded. Uterus, vagina, and mammae were examined histologically. Estrogen receptor protein from uterus were analized by using SDS-PAGE. One way anava test showed that turmeric extract at doses 310 mg/kg b.w. and 390 mg/kg b.w give estrogenic effect on vaginal ephitelium, endometrium thickness, and diametre of mammary glands. SDS-PAGE analysis showed there were differences in protein concentration between control and treatment groups which were seen in the thickness of the bands. Estrogen receptor band could be detected in sampel of treatment groups at molecular weight 45 kDa.

  14. Interdisciplinary treatment of the patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the Bartholin’s gland resulting in 15 years’ survival: a case report and review of literature

    Marek Nowak


    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the Bartholin’s gland is very rare, comprises below 2% of Bartholin’s gland lesions and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ADC is one of the most uncommon variants and accounts for 10-15% of Bartholin’s gland malignancies. There is no consensus on treatment of ADC of the Bartholin’s gland: reported cases were treated with local excision or vulvectomy with or without lymphadenectomy followed or not by radiotherapy. The survival of patients varies significantly, so we present a case of interdisciplinary treatment of ADC resulting in 15 years’ survival. The patient was initially treated with local excision, but the margins were not clear. Then vulvectomy, inguinal lymphadenectomy and adjuvant brachytherapy were performed resulting in 7 years free of the disease. Relapses were excised by abdominoperineal amputation of the rectum and distal part of the vagina with sigmoideostomy, excisions of local recurrences in vagina and metastasectomy of isolated lung metastases. The patient died manifesting multiple lung metastases 15 years after the initial diagnosis. Based on our experience and world literature, in cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the Bartholin’s gland, vulvectomy with or without lymphadenectomy should be considered as a treatment of choice and in patients with positive margin, surgery should be extended by adjuvant radiotherapy.

  15. Interdisciplinary treatment of the patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma of the Bartholin's gland resulting in 15 years' survival: a case report and review of literature.

    Nowak, Marek; Rycel, Magdalena; Szpakowski, Marian; Kulig, Andrzej; Sobotkowski, Janusz; Dziki, Adam


    Carcinoma of the Bartholin's gland is very rare, comprises below 2% of Bartholin's gland lesions and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ADC) is one of the most uncommon variants and accounts for 10-15% of Bartholin's gland malignancies. There is no consensus on treatment of ADC of the Bartholin's gland: reported cases were treated with local excision or vulvectomy with or without lymphadenectomy followed or not by radiotherapy. The survival of patients varies significantly, so we present a case of interdisciplinary treatment of ADC resulting in 15 years' survival. The patient was initially treated with local excision, but the margins were not clear. Then vulvectomy, inguinal lymphadenectomy and adjuvant brachytherapy were performed resulting in 7 years free of the disease. Relapses were excised by abdominoperineal amputation of the rectum and distal part of the vagina with sigmoideostomy, excisions of local recurrences in vagina and metastasectomy of isolated lung metastases. The patient died manifesting multiple lung metastases 15 years after the initial diagnosis. Based on our experience and world literature, in cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the Bartholin's gland, vulvectomy with or without lymphadenectomy should be considered as a treatment of choice and in patients with positive margin, surgery should be extended by adjuvant radiotherapy.

  16. Comparative histomorphometrical study of genital tract in adult laying hen and duck.

    Mohammadpour, Ahmad-Ali; Zamanimoghadam, Abdolkarim; Heidari, Massoumeh


    This study was carried out to compare the histomorphological structures of oviductal regions of the apparently healthy adult laying hens (Gallus gallus dometicus) and ducks (Ansa ansa domesticus). For this purpose, 20 hens and 20 female ducks aged between 1-1.5 years were used. After euthanasia, the oviducts were dissected out and all of the gross morphometrical parameters including length, width and thickness as well as weight and length of them were recorded. For histological studies, after tissue preparation and staining with H&E, histological layers of isthmus, uterus and vagina were recognized and the size of them with micrometry method were determined. Our data analyses indicated that, the mean weight, length of oviduct as well as weight of isthmus, uterus in hen were significantly (P hen. In histological studies, epithelium and cilia were well developed in duck and lamina propria was filled with glands in the regions of the isthmus and uterus. The length of primary mucosal folds of isthmus and uterus in duck was more than hen. The longest mucosal fold has been seen in uterus. Most of the parameters in duck were greater than hen except the length of secondary fold of three parts of oviduct including isthmus, uterus, and vagina.

  17. The absence of the paternal penis.

    Elise, D


    Girls' experiences of object loss, in conjunction with female anatomical structure, may lend themselves to a particular genital anxiety regarding openness and emptiness. The relational void in giving up the mother as love object may lead to an internal self-representation of a "hole" to be filled, much as the mouth sucks the pacifier in the absence of the nipple. This image may then be extended to the genital representation. In turning to the father, a girl may find that she lacks a relationship with him in the relational space opened up by the loss of the mother; the penis is symbolically withheld from her in the father's relational distance. This lack of sexual and relational gratification, it is proposed, may be schematized by a female as her body being empty of something. The father's absence--the absence of the paternal penis--may lead to an absence of the mental representation of the vagina and to an inhibition of the role the vagina then plays for a woman in sexual desire. Vaginal repression may serve to disguise object hunger that might otherwise be experienced as vaginal longing. An abbreviated clinical vignette, revolving around a masturbatory fantasy, is offered in partial illustration of the thesis.

  18. 宫内节育器嵌顿的临床治疗体会



    目的:探讨宫内节育器嵌顿的原因及取出的临床治疗方法。方法:回顾性分析我院本人收治的部分嵌顿宫内节育器取出病例30例。结果:1例经阴道手术取出失败予经腹取环,其余均成功从阴道取出,未发现节育器残留和活动性出血等情况发生。结论:明确嵌顿节育器的位置和嵌顿程度,合适的取出方式,是保证治疗效果的关键%Objective To investigate the causes of incarceration of intrauterine device (IUD) and Clinical treatment method of IUD. Method A retrospective analysis of 30 incarcerated IUD cases in our hospital which were operated by me. Results One case of removing the IUD from the vagina failed, therefore, the IUD was removed from the abdomen. the rest were successful y removed from the vagina without any findings of IUD residues and active bleeding ,etc. Conclusion The key of ensuring the treatment effect lies in ascertaining the position of IUD and incarcerated degree as wel as the proper way to remove the IUD.

  19. Presentación de caso del tumor maligno vaginal en edad pediátrica

    Yuria Suárez Ortiz


    Full Text Available La  presentación de caso es de un adenocarcinoma de células claras de vagina, diagnosticado en el Laboratorio Nacional de Asmara, Eritrea, en diciembre de 2008. Este padecimiento es una neoplasia extremadamente rara, que representa del 1 al 2% de los cánceres ginecológicos. Se trata de una niña de cuatro años de edad, atendida en el Hospital de Adikey del territorio eritreano, en la consulta de ginecología, por presentar sangramiento vaginal. Al realizar el examen físico se encontró una tumoración que ocupaba toda la vagina; se le realizó exéresis quirúrgica de la lesión y en estudio anatomopatológico se confirmó un adenocarcinoma de células claras, los cuales son considerados tumores infrecuentes y deben incluirse en el diagnóstico diferencial de otros tumores vaginales descritos en infantes, con un comportamiento agresivo, recomendándose un tratamiento quirúrgico radical.

  20. An integral theory of female urinary incontinence. Experimental and clinical considerations.

    Petros, P E; Ulmsten, U I


    In this Theory paper, the complex interplay of the specific structures involved in female urinary continence are analyzed. In addition the effects of age, hormones, and iatrogenically induced scar tissue on these structures, are discussed specifically with regard to understanding the proper basis for treatment of urinary incontinence. According to the Theory stress and urge symptoms may both derive, for different reasons from the same anatomical defect, a lax vagina. This laxity may be caused by defects within the vaginal wall itself, or its supporting structures i.e. ligaments, muscles, and their connective tissue insertions. The vagina has a dual function. It mediates (transmits) the various muscle movements involved in bladder neck opening and closure through three separate closure mechanisms. It also has a structural function, and prevents urgency by supporting the hypothesized stretch receptors at the proximal urethra and bladder neck. Altered collagen/elastin in the vaginal connective tissue and/or its ligamentous supports may cause laxity. This dissipates the muscle contraction, causing stress incontinence, and/or activation of an inappropriate micturition reflex, ("bladder instability") by stimulation of bladder base stretch receptors. The latter is manifested by symptoms of frequency, urgency, nocturia with or without urine loss.

  1. Observations on the Gender Culture on the American Campus%V日风潮:美国校园性别文化观察报告



    @@ V日索引--从一出戏谈起 传统的瓦伦汀日(Valentine's Day),即西方的情人节.而据2000年3月份华盛顿出版的报道,2 000年在美国的一百五十多所校园里,因为一出戏剧的上演,情人节被赋予新的含义.发起活动的女性主义团体以它作为"妇女战胜暴力纪念日"(Victory over Violence),简称V-day.反对派认为这个活动的灵感来自一出戏剧--(The Vagina Monologues),女性主义要把情人节变成"阴道节"(Vagina-Day).这一演出活动,引起关于教育标准和色情作品的争论.我觉得,从作品、其反响以及与之相关的性别话题,可以看到性别教育在美国大学校园的普及、传统的抵制与女性主义的进展.这场风潮,正可作为观察美国校园性别文化的一个角度.

  2. Audit on preinvasive and invasive neoplasm of the cervix and associated pathologies among the women with uterine prolapse in rural women of North India

    Seema Dayal


    Full Text Available Background: Uterine prolapse is a common complaint in gynecology. It is defined as an abnormal downward displacement or protrusion of the pelvic structures in the vaginal canal. Aim: The aim of this study was to know the gross and microscopic cervical changes in uterine prolapse and their association with clinical findings. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the histopathology section of the Department of Pathology in Rural Institute of Medical Science and Research, Saifai, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, on hysterectomy specimens with prolapse uterus from January 2012 to May 2015. Results: The minimum age of patients with prolapse was 25 years and maximum age was 70 years, maximum number of patients belonged to 41–50 years age group (38.72%. Common clinical complaint was something coming out per vagina (53.61%. On gross examination, hypertrophy of cervix was a common pathology (46.38%. Histopathology examination of prolapse uterus showed chronic cervicitis (87.65%, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (21.70%, and others, but carcinoma cervix was not present. Conclusion: Prolapse uterus was a common gynecological complaint among rural women, usually clinically presenting with something coming out per vagina. Grossly, the cervix appeared hypertrophied in the majority. Histopathological examination showed chronic cervicitis in bulk. Chronic cervicitis paves the way for premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix, though cervical carcinoma is rare in prolapse uterus. Prolapse uterus must be diagnosed early so as to provide early treatment before the complications arise.

  3. Biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Piot, P; Van Dyck, E; Peeters, M; Hale, J; Totten, P A; Holmes, K K


    A simple and reproducible scheme for identifying biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis has been developed, based on reactions for lipase, hippurate hydrolysis, and beta-galactosidase. Among a total of 359 strains tested, eight biotypes were observed, the most common ones being types 1 (beta-galactosidase positive, lipase positive, hippurate positive), 2 (beta-galactosidase negative, lipase positive, hippurate positive), and 5 (beta-galactosidase negative, lipase negative, hippurate positive). The distribution in biotypes was similar among isolates from Antwerp, Seattle, and Nairobi. There were no differences in biotypes between strains isolated from patients with and without bacterial vaginosis (nonspecific vaginitis). Up to 14% of women with bacterial vaginosis harbored at least two different biotypes of G. vaginalis in the vagina. G. vaginalis strains isolated before and after treatment for bacterial vaginosis belonged to identical biotypes when the time interval between two specimens was less than 1 week. Similarly, G. vaginalis isolates from the vaginas of women with bacterial vaginosis and from the urethras of their male sex partners belonged to identical biotypes when strains were isolated within the same 24-h period from both partners (P less than 0.005).

  4. Assessment of sexual functioning, mental health, and life goals in women with vaginal agenesis.

    Morgan, Elizabeth M; Quint, Elisabeth H


    Vaginal agenesis is a congenital disorder defined by the incomplete formation of the vagina and other reproductive organs, often including the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes. For the patient, this frequently means infertility and an underdeveloped vagina with the subsequent difficulty to have vaginal intercourse. The patient with vaginal agenesis and her family then encounter a variety of psychological concerns that must be addressed during diagnosis, including weighing treatment options, managing interventions, and coping with long-term issues following diagnosis and treatment, such as partnership concerns and infertility. In this study, seven patients between the ages of 18 and 34 completed questionnaires assessing demographic information, sexual functioning, mental health, self-esteem, and life goals. Sexual functioning results were highly variable. Participants reported significant emotional reactions at diagnosis as well as anxiety about the disorder, specifically its role in relationships. However, overall, the group showed average levels of mental health and self-esteem. Participants also showed positive coping techniques through conceptualization of life goals.

  5. The whole versus the sum of some of the parts: toward resolving the apparent controversy of clitoral versus vaginal orgasms

    James G. Pfaus


    Full Text Available Background: The nature of a woman’s orgasm has been a source of scientific, political, and cultural debate for over a century. Since the Victorian era, the pendulum has swung from the vagina to the clitoris, and to some extent back again, with the current debate stuck over whether internal sensory structures exist in the vagina that could account for orgasms based largely on their stimulation, or whether stimulation of the external glans clitoris is always necessary for orgasm. Method: We review the history of the clitoral versus vaginal orgasm debate as it has evolved with conflicting ideas and data from psychiatry and psychoanalysis, epidemiology, evolutionary theory, feminist political theory, physiology, and finally neuroscience. Results: A new synthesis is presented that acknowledges the enormous potential women have to experience orgasms from one or more sources of sensory input, including the external clitoral glans, internal region around the “G-spot” that corresponds to the internal clitoral bulbs, the cervix, as well as sensory stimulation of non-genital areas such as the nipples. Conclusions: With experience, stimulation of one or all of these triggering zones are integrated into a “whole” set of sensory inputs, movements, body positions, autonomic arousal, and partner- and contextual-related cues, that reliably induces pleasure and orgasm during masturbation and copulation. The process of integration is iterative and can change across the lifespan with new experiences of orgasm.

  6. La ubiquitinacion de los espermatozoides durante su paso por el tracto reproductor de la coneja (Ubiquitination of the sperm during their passage through reproductive tract of the female rabbit

    Toledano-Olivares A


    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue conocer si las proteínas de la membrana plasmática de espermatozoides de conejo, se ubiquitinan durante su tránsito por el tracto reproductor de la hembra. Se utilizaron conejos Nueva Zelanda (10 machos y 10 hembras sexualmente maduros con fertilidad probada, a los machos se les realizó un espermograma, a las hembras se les dio monta natural y 5 horas después se sacrificaron por dislocación cervical. Se diseco eltracto reproductor y se ligaron las tres regiones anatómicas: vagina, útero y oviducto, se lavaron con PBS y se contaron los espermatozoides de cada región. Posteriormente se analizó el porcentaje de espermatozoides positivos a ubiquitina por microscopía de fluorescencia con el anticuerpo anti-Ub (P4D1, Los resultados fueron: en vagina se encontró un total de 42 ± 15 x 106, en útero 12 ± 8 x 106 y en oviducto 0.70 ± 0.10 x 106 espermatozoides.

  7. The whole versus the sum of some of the parts: toward resolving the apparent controversy of clitoral versus vaginal orgasms

    Pfaus, James G.; Quintana, Gonzalo R.; Mac Cionnaith, Conall; Parada, Mayte


    Background The nature of a woman’s orgasm has been a source of scientific, political, and cultural debate for over a century. Since the Victorian era, the pendulum has swung from the vagina to the clitoris, and to some extent back again, with the current debate stuck over whether internal sensory structures exist in the vagina that could account for orgasms based largely on their stimulation, or whether stimulation of the external glans clitoris is always necessary for orgasm. Method We review the history of the clitoral versus vaginal orgasm debate as it has evolved with conflicting ideas and data from psychiatry and psychoanalysis, epidemiology, evolutionary theory, feminist political theory, physiology, and finally neuroscience. Results A new synthesis is presented that acknowledges the enormous potential women have to experience orgasms from one or more sources of sensory input, including the external clitoral glans, internal region around the “G-spot” that corresponds to the internal clitoral bulbs, the cervix, as well as sensory stimulation of non-genital areas such as the nipples. Conclusions With experience, stimulation of one or all of these triggering zones are integrated into a “whole” set of sensory inputs, movements, body positions, autonomic arousal, and partner- and contextual-related cues, that reliably induces pleasure and orgasm during masturbation and copulation. The process of integration is iterative and can change across the lifespan with new experiences of orgasm. PMID:27791968

  8. Preoperative radiotherapy followed by radical vulvectomy with inguinal lymphadenectomy for advanced vulvar carcinomas

    Rotmensch, J.; Rubin, S.J.; Sutton, H.G.; Javaheri, G.; Halpern, H.J.; Schwartz, J.L.; Stewart, M.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Herbst, A.L. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))


    A therapeutic alternative to exenteration for large locally advanced vulvar carcinoma involving the rectum, anus, or vagina is the use of preoperative radiation followed by radical surgery. Between 1980 and 1988, 13 patients with Stage III and 3 with Stage IV vulvar carcinoma involving the rectum/anus, urethra, or vagina were treated with 4000 rad to the vulva and 4500 rad to the inguinal and pelvic nodes followed by a radical vulvectomy and inguinal lymphadenectomy 4 weeks later. The overall 5 year cumulative survival was 45%. Twelve tumors regressed after radiation with 62.5% of the patients having visceral preservation while in 4 patients there was no major response to radiation and urinary or fecal diversion was required. Of the 6 recurrences 4 were central and 2 distant. Three patients with central recurrences had tumor within 1 cm of the vulvectomy margin. Complications included wet desquamation, inguinal wound separation, lymphedema, and urethral strictures. There were no operative deaths. It is concluded that the use of preoperative radiation followed by radical vulvectomy may be an alternative to pelvic exenteration in selected patients with advanced vulvar lesions.




    Full Text Available A 30 years, 4th Gravida with 3 abortions with history of 8 months amenorrhea was admitted to the hospital with chief complaints of leaking per vagina since 4 hours and was not associated with pain abdomen or bleeding per vaginum. Perceiving decreased fetal movements since 6 hours. She had 3 previous missed abortions followed by D and E. In the present pregnancy, gestational age was 32 weeks at the time of admission. Patient’s general condition was stable, all other investigation were found to be normal her pulse was 100 beats/min, tachycardia present, BP -100/70mmHg. On obstetric examination, uterus was 30 weeks size, 1-2 contraction lasting for 15- 20 seconds, Breech presentation, FHR was 124 per minute, regular, decreased liquor clinically. On vulvovaginal examination- Frank leaking per vagina present. Ultrasound showed single live intrauterine pregnancy of 29 weeks 3 days with breech presentation with oligohydramnios, Placenta was at fundal region, Biophysical profile was 6/8, FHR 124 bpm. After taking high risk consent in view of fetal prematurity, patient was posted for Emergency LSCS. And extracted a single live preterm female baby of weight of 1.45 kg by breech. During the cesarean section, on opening abdomen lower segment was found to be congested with torturous vessels. So we suspected missed diagnosis of placenta previa. After delivery of the baby, we found succenturiate lobe of the placenta occupying lower uterine segment with vessels running across the membrane.

  10. Vaginoplastia: modificación de la técnica de McIndoe usando esponja de gel hemostático Vaginoplasty: modification to McIndoe techique using hemostatic gel sponge

    N. Antoniadis


    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 23 años de edad, que consulta por amenorrea primaria. En el examen físico encontramos: fenotipo femenino, genitales externos normales y genitales internos con ausencia de vagina. Los exámenes complementarios, ultrasonido y tomografía abdomino-pélvica, demostraron útero aplásico. El perfil hormonal (FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterona, testosterona y prolactina fue normal y el cariotipo, 46 XX. Se diagnosticó clínicamente como Síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser. Realizamos vaginoplastia utilizando técnica descrita por McIndoe modificada, empleando esponja de gel hemostático para la fijación de los injertos.We report a case of a 23 years old female patient with primary amenorrhea. Physical exam: phenotipically female, normal external genitalia, show internal genitalia without evidence of vagina. Complimentary exams, abdominopelvic ultrasound and tomography: aplasic uterus. FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, prolactin, all normal. Cariotype: 46XX. She is clinically diagnosed as a Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Vaginoplasty was performed by modifications of McIndoe´s technique, using hemostatic gel sponges for grafts integration.

  11. Unusual association of Turner syndrome and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome.

    Meena, Alpana; Daga, Mradul Kumar; Dixit, Rashmi


    Gonadal dysgenesis and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) are the most common causes of primary amenorrhoea. Patients with gonadal dysgenesis present with primary amenorrhoea and lack of secondary sexual characteristics, which, in contrast, are present in patients with MRKHS. The coexistence of the 2 syndromes has been reported in only a few studies so far. We describe a case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with short stature and primary amenorrhoea. Investigations revealed hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and absence of the uterus, and upper two-thirds of the vagina, with presence of the rudimentary lower third of the vagina and non-visualised bilateral ovaries on imaging. Karyotyping obtained by lymphocyte culture GTG banding revealed 45X/46XX. The patient was diagnosed as having a rare case of gonadal dysgenesis with MRKH. She was started on growth hormone therapy. The association of these syndromes is uncommon, and has further implications on fertility and pregnancy, affecting the quality of life.

  12. Amputação abdômino-perineal mais colostomia para-vaginal no tratamento do câncer reto-anal Abdomino-perineal amputation plus para-vaginal colostomy in the treatment of reto-anal cancer

    Alcino Lázaro da Silva


    Full Text Available O apresenta uma proposta e as tentativas iniciais para evitar a colostomia abdominal quando esta tem que ser definitiva. Na mulher foi possível a sua execução, desde que se aproveitou o tono da musculatura esfincteral vulvovaginal quando ela pode ser preservada na amputação de reto-ânus. O colo, preparado com as válvulas, desce posteriormente à vagina, por dentro do conjunto esfincteral vulvovaginal. As observações iniciais mostram que esta tentativa poderia ser incrementada para melhores estudos de continência.The Author presents a proposal and lhe initial attempties to avoid the abdominal colostomy when it has to be definitive. In the woman was possible its execution, since it took advantage from the vulvovaginal esfincteral muscle nohen it can be preserved ot the anus-rectum amputation. The colon, prepared wit the valves, descend posteriorily from the vagina, inside the vulvo-vaginal esfincteral group. The initial observations shows that this attempt could be better developed for cotinency etudies.

  13. Endometrial mesenchymal stem cells as a cell based therapy for pelvic organ prolapse

    Stuart; J; Emmerson; Caroline; E; Gargett


    Pelvic organ prolapse(POP) occurs when the pelvic organs(bladder, bowel or uterus) herniate into the vagina, causing incontinence, voiding, bowel and sexual dysfunction, negatively impacting upon a woman’s quality of life. POP affects 25% of all women and results from childbirth injury. For 19% of all women, surgical reconstructive surgery is required for treatment, often augmented with surgical mesh. The surgical treatment fails in up to 30% of cases or results in adverse effects, such as pain and mesh erosion into the bladder, bowel or vagina. Due to these complications the Food and Drug Administration cautioned against the use of vaginal mesh and several major brands have been recently been withdrawn from market. In this review we will discuss new cell-based approaches being developed for the treatment of POP. Several cell types have been investigated in animal models, including a new source of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells(MSC) derived from human endometrium. The unique characteristics of endometrial MSC, methods for their isolation and purification and steps towards their development for good manufacturing practice production will be described. Animal models that could be used to examine the potential for this approach will also be discussed as will a rodent model showing promise in developing an endometrial MSC-based therapy for POP. The development of a preclinical large animal model for assessing tissue engineering constructs for treating POP will also be mentioned.

  14. Anatomy and histology of apical support: a literature review concerning cardinal and uterosacral ligaments.

    Ramanah, Rajeev; Berger, Mitchell B; Parratte, Bernard M; DeLancey, John O L


    The objective of this work was to collect and summarize relevant literature on the anatomy, histology, and imaging of apical support of the upper vagina and the uterus provided by the cardinal (CL) and uterosacral (USL) ligaments. A literature search in English, French, and German languages was carried out with the keywords apical support, cardinal ligament, transverse cervical ligament, Mackenrodt ligament, parametrium, paracervix, retinaculum uteri, web, uterosacral ligament, and sacrouterine ligament in the PubMed database. Other relevant journal and textbook articles were sought by retrieving references cited in previous PubMed articles. Fifty references were examined in peer-reviewed journals and textbooks. The USL extends from the S2 to the S4 vertebra region to the dorsal margin of the uterine cervix and/or to the upper third of the posterior vaginal wall. It has a superficial and deep component. Autonomous nerve fibers are a major constituent of the deep USL. CL is defined as a perivascular sheath with a proximal insertion around the origin of the internal iliac artery and a distal insertion on the cervix and/or vagina. It is divided into a cranial (vascular) and a caudal (neural) portions. Histologically, it contains mainly vessels, with no distinct band of connective tissue. Both the deep USL and the caudal CL are closely related to the inferior hypogastric plexus. USL and CL are visceral ligaments, with mesentery-like structures containing vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and adipose tissue.

  15. A Simple Laparoscopic Procedure to Restore a Normal Vaginal Length After Colpohysterectomy With Large Upper Colpectomy for Cervical and/or Vaginal Neoplasia.

    Leblanc, Eric; Bresson, Lucie; Merlot, Benjamin; Puga, Marco; Kridelka, Frederic; Tsunoda, Audrey; Narducci, Fabrice


    Colpohysterectomy is sometimes associated with a large upper colpectomy resulting in a shortened vagina, potentially impacting sexual function. We report on a preliminary experience of a laparoscopic colpoplasty to restore a normal vaginal length. Patients with shortened vaginas after a laparoscopic colpohysterectomy were considered for a laparoscopic modified Davydov's procedure to create a new vaginal vault using the peritoneum of the rectum and bladder. From 2010 to 2014, 8 patients were offered this procedure, after informed preoperative consent. Indications were 2 extensive recurrent vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 and 6 radical hysterectomies for cervical cancer. Mean vaginal length before surgery was 3.8 cm (standard deviation, 1.6). Median operative time was 50 minutes (range, 45-90). Blood loss was minimal (50-100 mL). No perioperative complications occurred. Median vaginal length at discharge was 11.3 cm (range, 9-13). Sexual intercourse could be resumed around 10 weeks after surgery. At a median follow-up of 33.8 months (range, 2.4-51.3), 6 patients remained sexually active but 2 had stopped. Although this experience is small, this laparoscopic modified Davydov's procedure seems to be an effective procedure, adaptable to each patient's anatomy. If the initial postoperative regular self-dilatation is carefully observed, vaginal patency is durably restored and enables normal sexual function.

  16. Actinomyces infection associated with intra-uterine device.

    Santa, M C; Buschmann, B O; Daniel, S J


    Since 1926 numerous cases of Actinomyces genital infection have been reported. An association with the IUD, metallic or polyethylene, has become evident after several severe complications in patients using this contraceptive method. The route of entry, in addition to direct spread from the bowel, may be direct extention across the anal area and perineum upward through the vagina, endometrial cavity to the fallopian tubes and ovaries. The vaginal string of the IUD is thought to break the protective barrier of the cervical mucus, permitting transit of organisms from the vagina into the uterus and from there to the tubo-ovarian complexes. Vascular spread is another possible route of infection. The uterine cavity in these patients becomes a good culture medium for these organisms. In patients wearing IUDs for 1 year, 13% presented with chronic endometritis and 65% showed recognizable endometrial change, manifested by diffuse or focal round-cell infiltration. Lower abdominal pain, heavy yellow discharge, and fever and weight loss were the symptoms most frequently presented with infection by Actinomyces. A new cytologic approach of preparing smears from freshly removed Lippes loops from symptomatic patients has been reported. Resulting samples have numerous macrophages and fibroblasts. This could prove a good method for identifying Actinomyces in the patients harboring this orgasm. The case of a 54-year-old black female having worn an IUD for 12 consecutive years is summarized.

  17. Primary Vaginal Myeloid Sarcoma: A Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Gaurang Modi


    Full Text Available Myeloid sarcoma (chloroma, granulocytic sarcoma, or extramedullary myeloid tumour is an extramedullary mass forming neoplasm composed of myeloid precursor cells. It is usually associated with myeloproliferative disorders but very rarely may precede the onset of leukemia. Here, we are presenting a rare case of primary vaginal myeloid sarcoma in a geriatric female patient without initial presentation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. A 68-year-old female patient with ECOG Performance Score of 1 presented with pervaginal bleeding for 20 days. On colposcopic examination, she was found to have mass in the anterior fornix of vagina. A punch biopsy specimen revealed chloromatous infiltration of the vagina. LCA (leukocyte common antigen, MPO (myeloperoxidase, and c-kit were strongly positive on IHC (immunohistochemistry. The patient’s routine blood investigations were normal including peripheral smear, lactose dehydrogenase, uric acid, 2D echocardiography, conventional cytogenetics, bone marrow aspiration, and biopsy. The patient was given 4 cycles of decitabine (Decitex, manufactured by Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited, India, 20 mg/m2 for 5 days at an interval of 28 days. There was a partial response to decitabine according to RECIST criteria. As decitabine therapy was well tolerated, we are continuing in the same way until disease progression without any complications. The patient is undergoing regular follow-up at our centre.

  18. 2062例环卫工人阴道分泌物检查结果分析

    伏攀; 李春碧


    目的:通过对2062例环卫工人阴道分泌物的检测,了解其病原菌检出率并研究阴道清洁度、年龄与病原菌检出的关系。方法对2062例女环卫工人阴道分泌物进行直接涂片和革兰氏染色法检查。结果2062例环卫工人共检出阴道炎患者538例,占26.09%:其中线索细胞检出率最高,占15.13%,其次为霉菌感染,占7.61%,滴虫感染最低,占3.34%;在2062例中阴道清洁度为Ⅲ°~Ⅳ°者占65.57%;31~40岁组线索细胞检出率较其它年龄组高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);50~60岁组霉菌感染较其它年龄组高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);各年龄组中,阴道毛滴虫检出率比较一致,差异无统计学意义。结论环卫工人女性阴道炎患者防治形势不容乐观,在白带常规检查中,即使清洁度正常时也要注意查找病原菌,线索细胞在不同清洁度、不同年龄中均有较高的检出率,应加强该项目的检测。%Objective To acquaint the checkout-ratio of pathogenic bacteria and research the effect done to the checkout-ratio of pathogenic bacteria by cleanling degree of vagina and age via examining the vagina secretion of 2062 sanitationwomen.Methods Examing the vagina secretion of 2062 sanitationwomen, using direct smear method and gram staining method.Results 538 in 2062, 26.09% are vaginitis, in which there is the highest 15.1% clue cell checkout, the 7.61% mold and the lowest 3.34% trichomoniasis infection. Among the 2062 samples, 65.57% areⅢ°-Ⅳ° cleaning degree of vagina. The ratio of clue cell checkout in the age group of 31-40 is higher than others, which has statistical significance (P<0.05). The mold infection ratio is higher than others in the age group 50-60, which has its statistical significance as well (P<0.05). There is no obvious statistically significant difference in Trichomoniasis checkout among all age groups.Conclusion The prevention and cure of

  19. 复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病患者及性伴侣带菌情况分析%Analysis of yeast species from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and patients' sexual partners

    宗利丽; 王彩丽; 曾俊; 王玉凤; 赵欣; 毛婷


    Objective To explore the factors related to the recurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis(RVVC). Methods Samples were collected from the discharge of vagina, rectum, oral cavity of 55 patients and the discharge of balanus in their 45 sexual partners. Using SSCP analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain to identify the species of C. albicans of the samples. Genotypes of C. albicans strains were determined with use of SSCP combined to GeneScan analysis of microsatellite CAI of C. albicans. Results The positive rate of vagina, oral and rectal Candida species colonization in the 55 women and 45 men was 100. 0% (55/55) ,61.8% (34/55) ,1.8% (1/55) and 60. 0% (27/45) ,respectively. And the percentage of Candida strains among the vagina, rectum and balanus were concurrent. In the same person, the coincidence of Candida albicans genotype between the discharge from vagina and rectum were 86. 2%. 54. 5% of the Candida albicans genotype of the discharge from the vagina of RVVC patients were same as the discharge from the balanus of her sexual partner. Conclusion The state of having Candida on the rectum or the balanus of sexual partner is one of the potential risk factors of RVVC.%目的 研究复发性外阴阴道念珠菌病(RWC)复发相关因素.方法 选择55例RVVC患者及其中45位患者性伴侣,取阴道、肛门、口腔及龟头分泌物分离念珠菌,采用ITS1区单链构型多态性(SSCP)分析和大亚基26S rDNA基因D1/D2区序列分析相结合的方法进行菌种鉴定,应用微卫星CAI位点的SSCP和基因扫描分析相结合的方法进行白色念珠菌的基因型测定.结果 RVVC患者阴道、肛门、口腔及其性伴侣龟头分泌物的念珠菌培养阳性率分别为100.0%(55/55)、61.8%(34/55)、1.8%(1/55)和60.0%(27/45),各部位念珠菌感染均以白色念珠菌为主,且所占比例无明显差异.同一患者阴道与肛门、阴道与性伴侣龟头分泌物

  20. 一氧化氮、血管活性肠肽与压力性尿失禁关系的实验研究%The experimental study of the relationship between the nitric oxide, vasoactive intestinal peptide and stress urinary incontinence

    杨海北; 方克伟; 李泽惠; 钱忠义


    目的 明确压力性尿失禁(SUI)模型SD老鼠的尿道、阴道、肛提肌中非肾上腺素非胆碱能神经递质一氧化氮(NO)与血管活性肠肽(VIP)的分布规律及其表达差异,探讨NO与VIP在SUI发病机制中的作用.方法 从成功建模的Sprague-Dawley(SD)雌性大鼠中选择12只作为实验组,另外12只未经任何处理的正常大鼠作为对照组.处死所有实验对象,取尿道、阴道、肛提肌行HE染色及免疫组化染色(ABC法)检测上述组织内NO与VIP的分布规律及其表达差异,用积分光密度衡量,结果用独立样本t检验进行统计学分析.结果 (1)HE染色见对照组大鼠的尿道,阴道、肛提肌染色均匀,各种细胞体积大小正常,肌纤维排列整齐;实验组表现为组织染色不均匀,组织水肿,萎缩变薄,肌纤维排列疏松、稍紊乱,有少量炎症反应及细胞坏死.(2)免疫组化染色表明对照组大鼠尿道、阴道、肛提肌NO的积分光密度分别为:3.95±1.02、6.01±1.32、18.67±4.94.实验组则分别为:1.04±0.38、1.44±0.48、6.16±1.32;VIP的积分光密度在对照组大鼠尿道、阴道、肛提肌分别为:3.57±0.77、7.15±1.67、20.29±3.39.实验组则分别为:0.73±0.23、2.51±0.60、3.69±1.24.对照组和实验组大鼠尿道、阴道、肛提肌中NO与VIP的表达有显著差异,差异有统计学意义(p<0.01).结论 (1)盆底肌肉组织变性,水肿导致盆底支持力量减弱可能与SUI发生有关;(2)非肾上腺素非胆碱能神经递质NO和VIP在血管周围最多,主要在肌浆中表达;实验组与对照组的差异说明NO与VIP参与了SUI的发生、发展.%Objectives To determine both the distribution and expression of non-adrenergic and noncholinergic neurotransmitters(NANC) nitric oxide (NO) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the urethra, vagina, elevator ani muscle of the SUI model rats. And to clarify their roles in the pathogenesis of SUI. Methods Choosing 12 SUI SD rats as experimental

  1. Architectural differences in the anterior and middle compartments of the pelvic floor of young-adult and postmenopausal females.

    Wu, Yi; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Hagoort, Jaco; Tan, Li-Wen; Zhang, Shao-Xiang; Lamers, Wouter H


    The pelvic floor guards the passage of the pelvic organs to the exterior. The near-epidemic prevalence of incontinence in women continues to generate interest in the functional anatomy of the pelvic floor. However, due to its complex architecture and poor accessibility, the classical 'dissectional' approach has been unable to come up with a satisfactory description, so that many aspects of its anatomy continue to raise debate. For this reason, we opted for a 'sectional' approach, using the Chinese Visible Human project (four females, 21-35 years) and the Visible Human Project (USA; one female, 59 years) datasets to investigate age-related changes in the architecture of the anterior and middle compartments of the pelvic floor. The puborectal component of the levator ani muscle defined the levator hiatus boundary. The urethral sphincter complex consisted of a circular proximal portion (urethral sphincter proper), a sling that passed on the vaginal wall laterally to attach to the puborectal muscle (urethral compressor), and a circular portion that surrounded the distal urethra and vagina (urethrovaginal sphincter). The exclusive attachment of the urethral sphincter to soft tissues implies dependence on pelvic-floor integrity for optimal function. The vagina was circular at the introitus and gradually flattened between bladder and rectum. Well-developed fibrous tissue connected the inferior vaginal wall with urethra, rectum and pelvic floor. With eight-muscle insertions, the perineal body was a strong, irregular fibrous node that guarded the levator hiatus. Only loose areolar tissue comprising a remarkably well developed venous plexus connecting the middle and superior parts of the vagina with the lateral pelvic wall. The posterolateral boundary of the putative cardinal and sacrouterine ligaments coincided with the adventitia surrounding the mesorectum. The major difference between the young-adult and postmenopausal pelvic floor was the expansion of fat in between

  2. Mudwigglus gen. n. (Nematoda: Diplopeltidae) from the continental slope of New Zealand, with description of three new species and notes on their distribution.

    Leduc, Daniel


    Three new free-living nematode species belonging to the genus Mudwigglus gen. n. are described from the continental slope of New Zealand. The new genus is characterised by four short cephalic setae, fovea amphidialis in the shape of an elongated loop, narrow mouth opening, small, lightly cuticularised buccal cavity, pharynx with oval-shaped basal bulb, and secretory-excretory pore (if present) at level of pharyngeal bulb or slightly anterior. Mudwigglus gen. et sp. n. differs from other genera of the family Diplopeltidae in the combination of the following traits: presence of reflexed ovaries, male reproductive system with both testes directed anteriorly and reflexed posterior testis, and presence of tubular pre-cloacal supplements and pre-cloacal seta. Mudwigglus patumuka gen. et sp. n. is characterised by gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophyses, vagina directed posteriorly, and short conical tail with three terminal setae. M. macramphidum gen. et sp. n. is characterised by long fovea amphidialis, cylindrical buccal cavity, gubernaculum without apophyses, vagina at right angle to body surface, and conico-cylindrical tail without terminal setae. M. plebeius gen. et sp. n. is characterised by cylindrical buccal cavity with cuticularised ring, gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophyses, females with vagina directed posteriorly, and conico-cylindrical tail with two terminal setae. Diplopeluta nellyae Vinex and Gourbault, 1992 is transferred to Mudwigglus gen. n. based on observations of paratypes from New Caledonia, and of specimens from the New Zealand continental slope, which both show the presence of two testes facing anteriorly. M. macramphidum gen. et sp. n. was restricted to a single site on Chatham Rise crest (350 m water depth), whereas M. patumuka gen. et sp. was recorded from six sites on western Chatham Rise (350-2800 m). M. plebeius gen. et sp. n. was recorded from 13 sites on Chatham Rise and two sites on Challenger Plateau (264-2300 m). Mudwigglus nellyae

  3. 纳米银抗菌凝胶联合氟康唑治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌疗效观察%Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Nano Silver Antibacterial Gel Combined with Fluconazole



    目的:探讨纳米银抗菌凝胶联合氟康唑治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病疗效。方法选择门诊确诊的外阴阴道假丝酵母菌患者58例随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组氟康唑单次口服150mg,纳米银抗菌凝胶连用6d。对照组纳米银抗菌凝胶连用6d,对比疗效。结果两组停药后7d总有效率为93.3%和82.1%,两组在下次月经干净后总有效率为93.3%和78.6%。结论纳米银抗菌凝胶联合氟康唑治疗外阴阴道假丝酵母菌具有较好的疗效。%Objective To explore the nano silver antibacterial gel with fluconazole therapy vulva vagina candida disease curative ef ect. Methods Clinic diagnosis of patients with vulva vagina candida 58 cases were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, treatment group fluconazole single oral 150 mg, a laparoscope, usual y connected to a nano silver antibacterial gel 6 days. A laparoscope, usual y connected to a control group of nano silver antibacterial gel 6 days, compare the curative ef ect. Results Two groups of seven days after the drug was stopped the total ef ective rate was 93.3%and 82.1%, the two groups in next time menstruation clean after the total ef ective rate was 93.3%and 93.3%. Conclusion Nano silver antibacterial gel with fluconazole therapy vulva vagina candida has good curative ef ect.

  4. Bacterial vaginosis (BV candidate bacteria: associations with BV and behavioural practices in sexually-experienced and inexperienced women.

    Katherine Fethers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years several new fastidious bacteria have been identified that display a high specificity for BV; however no previous studies have comprehensively assessed the behavioural risk associations of these bacterial vaginosis-candidate organisms (BV-COs. METHODS: We examined the associations between 8 key previously described BV-COs and BV status established by Nugent's score (NS. We also examined the sexual practices associated with each BV-CO. We incorporated 2 study populations: 193 from a sexually-inexperienced university population and 146 from a highly sexually-active clinic population. Detailed behavioural data was collected by questionnaire and vaginal smears were scored by the Nugent method. Stored samples were tested by quantitative PCR assays for the 8 BV-COs: Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis, Leptotrichia spp., Megasphaera type I, Sneathia spp., and the Clostridia-like bacteria BVAB1, BVAB2 and BVAB3. Associations between BV-COs and BV and behaviours were examined by univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: On univariate analysis, all BV-COs were more common in BV compared to normal flora. However, only Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, A. vaginae and G. vaginalis were significantly independently associated with BV by multivariable analysis. Six of the eight BV-COs (Megasphaera type I, BVAB2, BVAB3, Sneathia, Leptotrichia and G. vaginalis were rare or absent in sexually-unexposed women, and demonstrated increasing odds of detection with increasing levels of sexual activity and/or numbers of lifetime sexual partners. Only G. vaginalis and A. vaginae were commonly detected in sexually-unexposed women. Megasphaera type I was independently associated with women-who-have-sex-with women (WSW and lifetime sexual partner numbers, while unprotected penile-vaginal-sex was associated with BVAB2 detection by multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Four of eight key BV-COs were significantly associated with BV after adjusting

  5. First report and morphological, molecular characterization of Xiphinema chambersi Thorne, 1939 (Nematoda, Longidoridae in Canada

    Qing Yu


    Full Text Available A Xiphinema species, new to Canada was recovered from rhizosphere of oak trees in Ontario, Canada. The identity was confirmed with morphological and molecular methods as X. chambersi Thorne, 1939. Female bodies are 2.1–2.4 mm long; odontostyle lengths are 110–118 µm; tail 110–177 µm long, arcuate, elongate-conoid, with hyline region 22-43 µm long. Vagina directed about 30 degrees posteriorly. Reproductive system is monodelphic with ovary reflexed anteriorly, vulva opening at 23–26% of the body. Males were not found. The 18S and ITS1 sequences of this population had 3–4 bp differences (99% identity and 30 bp differences (97% identity from two Arkansas populations respectively. The nematode population had three juvenile stages. Some variations of the morphometrics were observed comparing with the other populations. This is the first report of X. chambersi in Canada.


    Nathalia Hack Moreira


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of the season of the year on testicular morphology, fresh and frozen/thawed semen quality from Pantaneiro bulls bred in Brasilia, DF. Six bulls were submitted, once a month for one year, to evaluation of testicular measurements, semen collection using an artificial vagina and cryopreserved with medium containing Tris-based, egg  yolk and glycerol. The testicular length and volume were greater (P 0.05. In conclusion, Pantaneiro bulls, bred in the Midwest region of Brazil, can be used in natural mating programs in all seasons. Aiming to improve the Brazilian Animal Germplasm Bank with a higher number of samples collected, we suggest that the freezing of the semen is done between June and August, although there will be no losses of semen quality at any time. Keywords: bovine; conservation; cryopreservation; reproduction; seasonality.

  7. Clinical predictors of adverse course of nonspecific bacterial vulvovaginitis at girls born from mothers with dysplasia of connective tissue

    Mozes V.G.


    Full Text Available Research objective: To define clinical predictors of adverse course of nonspecific bacterial vulvovaginitis (NBV at girls born from mothers with the undifferentiated forms of dysplasia of connective tissue (UFDCT. Materials: At 157 girls clinical research, bacteriological and bacterioscopy research of leucorrhoea from vagina has been conducted, NBV has been diagnosed at 111 girls. At all girls and at their mothers the immunity has been investigated; at all mothers of girls with NBV phenotypic reveals of UFDCT have been found out. Results: At girls with NBV born from mothers with UFDCT severe course of a disease has been marked; and at mothers with UFDCT and at their children with NBV disorders of humoral immunity have been revealed. Presence of more than 5 stigmas of dysembryogenesis with prevalence of thoracodiaphragmatic, articular, cosmetic syndromes and pathology of organs of vision at mothers of girls with NBV is possible to use as predictors of adverse course of the disease

  8. Gynecologic health and disease in relation to the microbiome of the female reproductive tract.

    Green, Katherine A; Zarek, Shvetha M; Catherino, William H


    It is well established that the vagina is colonized by bacteria that serve important roles in homeostasis. Imbalances in the proportion of bacteria may lead to a predisposition to infection or reproductive complications. Molecular-based approaches demonstrated a greater degree of microbial diversity both within and between women than previously recognized. The vaginal microbiome may fluctuate during various states of health, such as during the menstrual cycle or after menopause, and there may be differences in the vaginal microbiome between women of different ethnicities. Furthermore, the specific composition of the vaginal microbiome may influence the predisposition to dysbiosis and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. An understanding of the diversity of the vaginal microbial environment during states of health is essential for the identification of risk factors for disease and the development of appropriate treatment.

  9. Complications of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in patients with endometrial cancer.

    Arduino, S; Leo, L; Febo, G; Tessarolo, M; Wierdis, T; Lanza, A


    The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) changed the staging criteria for endometrial cancer in 1988 and adopted a surgical-pathological staging involving also pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy. A total of 236 patients were treated for endometrial adenocarcinoma at Department B of the Gynecologic and Obstetrics Institute, University of Turin, between January 1976 and December 1995. Our protocol for surgical staging always entails pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy and a simple total hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy with removal of the upper third of the vagina. The aim of this study was to carry out a retrospective evaluation of the morbidity in patients with endometrial cancer after surgical treatment, either TAH-BSO alone or TAH-BSO with pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy.

  10. [Phantoms for the collection of genital secretions in stallions].

    Klug, E; Brinkhoff, D; Flüge, A; Scherbarth, R; Essich, G; Kienzler, M


    Practical experiences of the phantom method for collection of genital secretions from stallions are reported. Taking a phantom used in the Richard-Götze-Haus Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover as a prototype two further models slightly modified have been constructed, baring a flat hollow in the right side of the caudal phantom body for manual inserting of the Artificial Vagina. These three models fulfill four important conditions for routine use: (1) sufficient sexual attractivity for the stallions; 80-85% successful collections of presecretions out of a total of 1050 using the dummy and 70% successful semen collections from more than 240 in total; (2) solid and resistant construction; (3) easy cleaning and desinfection of the surface of the phantom to get representative samples; (4) firm installation on a hygienic floor.

  11. Effect of probe location on changes in vaginal electrical impedance during the porcine estrous cycle.

    Rezác, Petr; Pöschl, Michael; Krivánek, Ivo


    The impedance technique is one of many methods that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of reproductive events occurring in cyclic animals. The influence of the depth of probe insertion on changes in vaginal impedance in sows during the estrous cycle was examined. Sows were checked twice a day for estrus via exposure to a sexually mature boar. The criterion for confirmation of ovulation was an increase in plasma progesterone levels above 4.0 ng/ml 8 and 12 days after the beginning of estrus. The impedance measurements were carried out using a four-terminal method at a distance of 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 cm from the vulva. In all six locations of the vagina the mean impedance values decreased gradually after weaning (Pfour-terminal method. The study suggests that the causes of impedance fluctuation are not only technical but also include a number of poorly understood biological causes.

  12. [Vaginal metastasis of renal carcinoma (author's transl)].

    Carl, P; Marx, F J


    Four cases of vaginal metastases of renal carcinoma are reported. This is an incidence of 1.3% in 313 operated patients (from 1/1/70 to 12/31/76). A surgical treatment of primary renal carcinoma and vaginal metastasis seems to be reasonable in there cases. Since in accordance with the literature metastatic involvement of vagina and vulva seems not to be a very rare finding, the diagnostic in renal carcinoma should imply a gynecologic examination. Although in carcinoma of the left kidney metastatic spreading into the external female genitalia most probably occurs by a retrograde venous pathway (left ovarian vein), the way of dissemination in carcinoma of the right side is unclear.

  13. Transport of ova transferred to rabbit oviducts at varying intervals after human chorionic gonadotropin injection.

    Weinberg, L; Pauerstein, C J


    Ova obtained from donors were transfered to the oviducts of New Zealand White rabbits at various times after injection of human chorionic gonadotropin. The rabbits were killed at varying intervals after transfer. The genital tracts were removed, divided into segments (ampulla, isthmus, uterus, and vagina), and flushed to recover the ova. The experiments demonstrated the following: (1) A mechanism is present that retains some of the transferred ova above the ampullary-isthmic junction (AIJ). This mechanism is most efficient 60 hours after hCG injection. (2) Transferred ova that succeed in negotiating the AIJ are found in locations appropriate to the time elapsed from ovulation, rather than from transfer; i.e., they "catch up" to the endogenous ova.

  14. Dosimetric comparison of IMRT and modulated arc-therapy techniques in the treatment of cervical cancers; Comparaison dosimetrique des techniques de RCMI et d'arctherapie modulee dans le traitement des cancers du col uterin

    Renard-Oldrini, S.; Charra-Brunaud, C.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Huger, S.; Marchesi, V.; Bouziz, D.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Nancy (France)


    The authors report the dosimetric comparison of two techniques used for the treatment of cervical cancers: the intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) with static beams and modulated arc-therapy with RapidArc. The treatment plans of 15 patients have been compared. The clinical target volume (CTV) comprises the gross target volume, the cervix, the upper third of the vagina, and ganglionary areas. The previsional target volume comprises the clinical target volume and a one centimetre margin. Organs at risk are rectum, bladder, intestine and bone marrow. Arc-therapy seems to provide a better sparing of intestine that IMRT, while maintaining a good coverage of the previsional target volume and decreasing treatment duration. Short communication

  15. Antifungal, anti-biofilm and adhesion activity of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against Candida species.

    Cannas, Sara; Molicotti, Paola; Usai, Donatella; Maxia, Andrea; Zanetti, Stefania


    Candida species belong to the normal microbiota of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and vagina. The increasing incidence of drug-resistant pathogens and the toxicity of the antifungal compounds have drawn the attention towards the antimicrobial activity of natural products, an inexpensive alternative. The aim of this work was to evaluate the adhesion activity, the biofilm formation and the action of the Myrtus communis L. essential oil (EO) on the biofilm formation towards three species isolated from clinical samples: Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis. Furthermore, we evaluated the antimycotic activity of the EO towards the three species, and the results were compared with the minimum inhibitory concentration of six antimycotics. The activity of the EO against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis was better than that obtained against C. tropicalis; moreover, the strains used in the assay were adhesive and biofilm producer, and the effect of myrtle EO on the biofilm formation yielded encouraging results.

  16. Pelvic Surgical Site Infections in Gynecologic Surgery

    Mark P. Lachiewicz


    Full Text Available The development of surgical site infection (SSI remains the most common complication of gynecologic surgical procedures and results in significant patient morbidity. Gynecologic procedures pose a unique challenge in that potential pathogenic microorganisms from the skin or vagina and endocervix may migrate to operative sites and can result in vaginal cuff cellulitis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic abscesses. Multiple host and surgical risk factors have been identified as risks that increase infectious sequelae after pelvic surgery. This paper will review these risk factors as many are modifiable and care should be taken to address such factors in order to decrease the chance of infection. We will also review the definitions, microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of pelvic SSIs after gynecologic surgery.

  17. Sexual Transmission of XMRV: A Potential Infection Route

    Prachi Sharma


    Full Text Available Although XMRV dissemination in humans is a matter of debate, the prostate of select patients seem to harbor XMRV, which raises questions about its potential route of transmission. We established a model of infection in rhesus macaques inoculated with XMRV. In spite of the intravenous inoculation, all infected macaques exhibited readily detectable XMRV signal in the reproductive tract of all 4 males and 1 female during both acute and chronic infection stages. XMRV showed explosive growth in the acini of prostate during acute but not chronic infection. In seminal vesicles, epididymis, and testes, XMRV protein production was detected throughout infection in interstitial or epithelial cells. In the female monkey, epithelial cells in the cervix and vagina were also positive for XMRV gag. The ready detection of XMRV in the reproductive tract of male and female macaques infected intravenously suggests the potential for sexual transmission for XMRV.

  18. [Reconstructive surgery of female pelvic floor prolapse].

    Schär, Gabriel


    It is recommended to perform pelvic floor prolapse surgery within a concept which bases on the women's symptoms, the expectations on life quality and functional aspects of the vagina, urinary bladder and rectum. Decisions on type of surgery must also be founded on the anatomical defect. An apical prolapse should either be fixed by sacrospinous ligament suspension or by sacrocolpopexy. In case of a cystocele the type of defect must be considered; a cystocele with a central defect can be corrected by anterior colporrhaphy whereas the cystocele caused by a paravaginal defect needs lateral fixation which today is increasingly done by vaginal mesh surgery. Rectocele repair is performed by posterior colporrhaphy. Knowledge of success and complication rates is essential for taking the right surgical decisions and for counselling the patient.

  19. Trichomoniasis: evaluation to execution.

    Harp, Djana F; Chowdhury, Indrajit


    Trichomoniasis is the most common sexually transmitted disease, caused by a motile flagellate non-invasive parasitic protozoan, Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis). More than 160 million people worldwide are annually infected by this protozoan. T. vaginalis occupies an extracellular niche in the complex human genito-urinary environment (vagina, cervix, penis, prostate gland, and urethra) to survive, multiply and evade host defenses. T. vaginalis (strain G3) has a ∼160 megabase genome with 60,000 genes, the largest number of genes ever identified in protozoans. The T. vaginalis genome is a highly conserved gene family that encodes a massive proteome with one of the largest coding (expressing ∼4000 genes) capacities in the trophozoite stage, and helps T. vaginalis to adapt and survive in diverse environment. Based on recent developments in the field, we review T. vaginalis structure, patho-mechanisms, parasitic virulence, and advances in diagnosis and therapeutics.

  20. Rehabilitation for severe delayed ejaculation (intravaginal ejaculation disorder) with use of a masturbation aid

    Yoshitomo Kobori; Hiroaki Aoki; Koujiro Nishio; Ryo Sato; Yoshio Ashizawa; Hiroshi Yagi; Shigehiro So; Gaku Arai; Hiroshi Okada


    Objective:To overcome intravaginal ejaculation disorder with the help of a masturbation aid (TENGA®). Methods:A total of 10 patients with intravaginal ejaculation disorder underwent rehabilitation using TENGA. Patients' satisfaction, achievement of intravaginal ejaculation and pregnancy were evaluated through a questionnaire. Results:Seven of the patients (70%) achieved ejaculation in the masturbation aid (TENGA) of which two patients (20%) succeeded in ejaculation within a partner's vagina after rehabilitation. One case achieved spontaneous pregnancy. Conclusions:The use of a masturbation aid (TENGA) has shown to be a useful tool in correcting the methods of masturbation and achieve normal intravaginal ejaculation, and could be an effective option for the treatment of intravaginal ejaculation disorder.

  1. Pelvic Organ Distribution of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Injected Intravenously after Simulated Childbirth Injury in Female Rats

    Michelle Cruz


    Full Text Available The local route of stem cell administration utilized presently in clinical trials for stress incontinence may not take full advantage of the capabilities of these cells. The goal of this study was to evaluate if intravenously injected mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs home to pelvic organs after simulated childbirth injury in a rat model. Female rats underwent either vaginal distension (VD or sham VD. All rats received 2 million GFP-labeled MSCs intravenously 1 hour after injury. Four or 10 days later pelvic organs and muscles were imaged for visualization of GFP-positive cells. Significantly more MSCs home to the urethra, vagina, rectum, and levator ani muscle 4 days after VD than after sham VD. MSCs were present 10 days after injection but GFP intensity had decreased. This study provides basic science evidence that intravenous administration of MSCs could provide an effective route for cell-based therapy to facilitate repair after injury and treat stress incontinence.

  2. Vulvar Angiomyofibroblastoma: A Case Report

    Mustafa Ulubay


    Full Text Available Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMFB is a rare seen mesenchymal tumor that is categorized as a genital stromal tumor. It is commonly seen in the middle-aged women usually affecting the labia majora and rarely the vagina. A variant called AMFB-like tumors are also rarely seen in male patients. AMFB with its clinical presentation and location can be wrongly diagnosed as an aggressive angiomyxomas, bartholin cyst or lower genital tract lipomas. In the patients who are applying because of the vulvar mass, AMFB should not be forgotten for the pre-diagnosis. The treatment is generally simple surgical excision.In this case, AMFB was reported with a wrongly pre-diagnosis as a bartholin cyst to which a medical treatment had been given. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 822-825

  3. β-Microseminoprotein endows post coital seminal plasma with potent candidacidal activity by a calcium- and pH-dependent mechanism

    Edström Hägerwall, Anneli; Rydengård, Victoria; Fernlund, Per;


    The innate immune factors controlling Candida albicans are mostly unknown. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is common in women and affects approximately 70-75% of all women at least once. Despite the propensity of Candida to colonize the vagina, transmission of Candida albicans following sexual intercourse...... identify β-microseminoprotein as an important innate immune factor active against C. albicans and may help explain the low sexual transmission rate of Candida....... is very rare. This prompted us to investigate whether the post coital vaginal milieu contained factors active against C. albicans. By CFU assays, we found prominent candidacidal activity of post coital seminal plasma at both neutral and the acid vaginal pH. In contrast, normal seminal plasma did...

  4. A Case of Dystocia Induced by Misuse of Oxytocin in a Boerboel Bitch

    Khalid Talha Biobaku


    Full Text Available A two year old boerboel bitch with dark greenish vaginal discharge and history of over 24 hours of difficult labor was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital University of Ibadan for clinical examination and treatment. The owner had wrongfully given oxytocin after observation of signs of parturition. Following careful physical and clinical examinations of the bitch by Veterinary doctors, dystocia due to obstruction of maternal birth canal by a dead fetus was diagnosed. Treatment regimen was by digital manipulation which stimulated cervical dilatation and careful delivery of dead fetus via the vagina. Thereafter, oxytocin was administered to augment the bitch’s weak uterine contraction. Four weak puppies were delivered out of which three survived following adequate treatment.

  5. Uterine conserving surgery in a case of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus

    Vineet Mishra


    Full Text Available The presence of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus is a very rare mullerian anomaly. Its true incidence is still unknown. The presence of functioning unicornuate uterus poses a great challenge for a gynecologist because a successful repair could restore normal menses and may preserve a patient′s fertility. Hence, we report a case of 16-year-old unmarried female who presented with chief complaints of primary amenorrhea with cyclical lower abdominal pain. On clinical and radiological evaluation, she was diagnosed with complete cervicovaginal agenesis with right unicornuate uterus (hematometra and hematosalpinx. She underwent vaginoplasty (McIndoes method along with uterovaginal anastomosis by neocervix formation, in order to preserve her uterus. On follow-up, her vagina was completely healed, and she was menstruating normally.

  6. Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis and Management of Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in Adults

    Marco Nezzo


    Full Text Available Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is an X-linked recessive androgen receptor disorder characterized by a female phenotype with an XY karyotype. Individuals affected by this syndrome have normal female external genitalia but agenesis of the Müllerian duct derivatives, that is, absence of the Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and the proximal part of the vagina, with presence of endoabdominal, labial, or inguinal testes. The estimated prevalence is between 1 and 5 in 100,000 genetic males. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome can be diagnosed as a result of mismatch between the prenatal sex prediction and the phenotype at birth, can be detected by chance, or remain undetected until investigations for primary amenorrhea. Imaging can be important both to diagnose the pathology and to localize gonads prior to surgical treatment. In this paper, we present three cases of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome in adult women of 34, 22, and 38 years old.

  7. Acute genital ulcers.

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora


    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  8. Bacterial vaginosis diagnosed by analysis of first-void-urine specimens

    Datcu, Raluca; Gesink, Dionne; Mulvad, Gert


    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is traditionally diagnosed using vaginal samples. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BV can be diagnosed from first-void urine (FVU). Self-collected vaginal smears, vaginal swabs, and FVU were obtained from 176 women. BV was diagnosed by Nugent's criteria....... The FVU and vaginal swabs were analyzed by quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) for selected vaginal bacteria (Atopobium vaginae, Prevotella spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium 2, Eggerthella-like bacterium, "Leptotrichia amnionii," Megasphaera type 1), and all had an area under...... performed on swabs and FVU samples. A linear regression analysis showed good agreement between bacterial loads from swabs and FVU, but Prevotella spp. could be detected in high numbers in a few FVU samples without being present in swabs. This method will allow diagnosis of BV in studies where only urine has...


    Tsvetkova, A V; Murtazina, Z A; Markusheva, T V; Mavzutov, A R


    The bacterial vaginosis is one of the most frequent causes of women visiting gynecologist. The diagnostics of bacterial vaginosis is predominantly based on Amsel criteria (1983). Nowadays, the objectivity of these criteria is disputed more often. The analysis of excretion of mucous membranes of posterolateral fornix of vagina was applied to 640 women with clinical diagnosis bacterial vaginosis. The application of light microscopy to mounts of excretion confirmed in laboratory way the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis in 100 (15.63%) women. The complaints of burning and unpleasant smell and the Amsel criterion of detection of "key cells" against the background of pH > 4.5 were established as statistically significant for bacterial vaginosis. According study data, the occurrence of excretions has no statistical reliable obligation for differentiation of bacterial vaginosis form other inflammatory pathological conditions of female reproductive sphere. At the same time, detection of "key cells" in mount reliably correlated with bacterial vaginosis.

  10. Inhibition of Candida albicans by Fluvastatin Is Dependent on pH

    Martin Schmidt


    Full Text Available The cholesterol-lowering drug fluvastatin (FS has an inhibitory effect on the growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans that is dependent on the pH of the medium. At the low pH value of the vagina, FS is growth inhibitory at low and at high concentrations, while at intermediate concentrations (1–10 mM, it has no inhibitory effect. Examination of the effect of the common antifungal drug fluconazole in combination with FS demonstrates drug interactions in the low concentration range. Determination of intracellular stress and the activity of the FS target enzyme HMG-CoA reductase confirm our hypothesis that in the intermediate dose range adjustments to the sterol biosynthesis pathway can compensate for the action of FS. We conclude that the pH dependent uptake of FS across yeast membranes might make FS combination therapy an attractive possibility for treatment of vaginal C. albicans infections.

  11. Treatment with tibolone partially protects 3-D microarchitecture of lumbar Vertebral Bone Tissues and Prevents Ovariectomy-induced Reduction in Mechanical Properties

    Ding, Ming

    Treatment with Tibolone partially Protects 3-D Microarchitecture of Lumbar Vertebral Bone Tissues and Prevents Ovariectomy-induced Reduction in Mechanical Properties Tibolone (Org OD14) is a tissue selective steroid with estrogenic effects on the brain, bone and vagina, without stimulating...... the breast and endometrium. A previous study has shown that longterm treatment with tibolone prevents ovariectomy (OVX) induced bone loss in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tibolone on three-dimensional (3-D) microarchitecture and mechanical properties of rat lumbar vertebra. We...... and cortical bones were quantified and the mechanical properties of the lumbar cancellous and cortical bones were determined separately. Our data demonstrated that OVX lead to pronounced reduction in mechanical properties and bone mass. Treatment with tibolone increased mechanical properties and improved 3-D...

  12. The contraceptive vaginal ring.

    Edwardson, Jill; Jamshidi, Roxanne


    The contraceptive vaginal ring offers effective contraception that is self-administered, requires less frequent dosing than many other forms of contraception, and provides low doses of hormones. NuvaRing (Organon, Oss, The Netherlands), the only contraceptive vaginal ring approved for use in the United States, contains etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol. It is inserted into the vagina for 3 weeks, followed by a 1-week ring-free period, and works by inhibiting ovulation. Most women note a beneficial effect on bleeding profiles and are satisfied with NuvaRing. Commonly reported adverse events include vaginitis, leukorrhea, headaches, and device-related events such as discomfort. Serious adverse events are rare. In Chile and Peru, progesterone-only vaginal contraceptive rings are available for nursing women. Studies are ongoing examining new formulations of vaginal contraceptive rings.

  13. Ultrastructural localization of acid phosphatase in nonhuman primate vaginal epithelium.

    King, B F


    The vagina of the rhesus monkey is lined by a stratified squamous epithelium. However, little is known regarding the cytochemical composition of its cell organelles and the substances found in the intercellular spaces. In this study we have examined the ultrastructural distribution of acid phosphatase in the vaginal epithelium. In basal and parabasal cells reaction product was found in some Golgi cisternae and vesicles and in a variety of cytoplasmic granules. Reaction product was also found in some, but not all, membrane-coating granules. In the upper layers of the epithelium, the membrane-coating granules extruded their contents and acid phosphatase was localized in the intercellular spaces. The possible roles of acid phosphatase in keratinization, desquamation, or modification of substances in the intercellular compartment are discussed.

  14. Timing cervicovesical fistula repair with repeat cesarean section.

    Geoffrion, Roxana; Hyakutake, Momoe T


    We present a case in which there was optimal management of recurrent cervicovesical fistula. The patient sustained a fistula shortly after a cesarean for cephalopelvic disproportion in the second stage. She underwent an unsuccessful attempt at vaginal repair 3 months postpartum and continued experiencing intermittent urinary leakage through the vagina. She expressed a wish for further childbearing and was counseled to undergo fistula repair at the time of repeat cesarean section. Twenty-seven months after her first delivery, she had a second healthy pregnancy and the repair of her cervicovesical fistula was performed with collagen graft interposition at the time of her elective cesarean section. This case report highlights the importance of surgical timing and comments on various factors that possibly enhance the success of the fistula repair.

  15. Reversibility of dopamine receptor antagonist-induced hyperprolactinemia and associated histological changes in Tg RasH2 wild-type mice.

    Krishna, Gopala; Ganiger, Shivaputhrappa; Kannan, Kamala; Gopalakrishnan, Gopa; Goel, Saryu


    The purpose of this study was to better understand the biological effects of increased prolactin levels induced in mice by dopamine D2 receptor antagonist molindone treatment. Toxicokinetics, prolactin levels, and reproductive tissue histology were evaluated in Tg rasH2 wild-type mice treated orally with molindone at 0, 5, 15, and 50mg/kg/day for 6 months, followed by a 2-month posttreatment recovery period. A greater than dose-proportional increase in molindone exposure ([AUC]0‒24) was observed on Day 180 for both sexes. Statistically significant (Phyperprolactinemia, including corpora lutea enlargement and interstitial cell atrophy in the ovaries, and atrophy of the uterus and vagina were observed on Day 180. These changes were reversed during the recovery period in the 5- and 15-mg/kg/day treatment groups. Mice receiving molindone at 50mg/kg/day also showed signs of reversal on histologic examination.

  16. Vaginal myofibroblastoma with glands expressing mammary and prostatic antigens.

    Wallenfels, I; Chlumská, A


    A case of unusual vaginal myofibroblastoma containing glands which expressed mammary and prostatic markers is described. The tumor occurred in 70-year-old woman in the proximal third of the vagina. It showed morphology and immunophenotype typical of so-called cervicovaginal myofibroblastoma. The peripheral zone of the lesion contained a few groups of glands suggesting vaginal adenosis or prostatic-type glands on initial examination. The glands showed a surprising simultaneous expression of mammary markers mammaglobin and GCDFP-15 and prostatic markers prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP). Immunostains for alpha-smooth muscle actin, p63 and CD10 highlighted the myoepithelial cell layer of the glands. The finding indicates that simultaneous use of both mammary and prostatic markers for examination of unusual glandular lesions in the vulvovaginal location can be helpful for an exact diagnosis, and can contribute to better understanding of prostatic and mammary differentiations in the female lower genital tract.

  17. [Possibilities of surgical treatment of lesions of the organs of the reproductive system and disorders of sexual development].

    Okulov, A B; Negmadzhanov, B B; Bogdanova, E A; Iusim, E M; Glybina, T M; Godlevskiĭ, D N; Urinov, M Ia; Matveev, Iu K


    The authors describe the data on clinico-laboratory and instrumental examinations and surgical treatment of about 5,000 children with different reproductive organ injuries including complex patterns of abnormal sexual differentiation. The designed diagnostic programs made it possible to distribute patients into groups and according to the disease entities in conformity with the classification suggested. It is emphasized that in the developing science concerned with sex, it is necessary to distinguish an area pertaining to childhood, namely pediatric andrology, and to delineate its subject matter and tasks. Skilled assistance can be rendered by a specialized center. A broad spectrum of improved masculinizing (including the design of an artificial phallus) and feminizing (including the design of an artificial vagina from the rectosigmoid segment of the colon) is provided. The catamnestic data are evaluated.

  18. Uterine conserving surgery in a case of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus

    Mishra, Vineet; Saini, Suwa Ram; Nanda, Sakshi; Choudhary, Sumesh; Roy, Priyankur; Singh, Tanvir


    The presence of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus is a very rare mullerian anomaly. Its true incidence is still unknown. The presence of functioning unicornuate uterus poses a great challenge for a gynecologist because a successful repair could restore normal menses and may preserve a patient's fertility. Hence, we report a case of 16-year-old unmarried female who presented with chief complaints of primary amenorrhea with cyclical lower abdominal pain. On clinical and radiological evaluation, she was diagnosed with complete cervicovaginal agenesis with right unicornuate uterus (hematometra and hematosalpinx). She underwent vaginoplasty (McIndoes method) along with uterovaginal anastomosis by neocervix formation, in order to preserve her uterus. On follow-up, her vagina was completely healed, and she was menstruating normally. PMID:28216917

  19. Pulmonary Aplasia with Unusual Associations in a Woman

    Arshad Altaf Bachh


    Full Text Available Failure of development of the primitive lung bud leads to an extremely rare congenital anomaly with a prevalence of 34 per 10 lac live births termed pulmonary aplasia. In half of such cases, associated congenital malformations of the cardiovascular, skeletal, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary systems are present. The Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome is defined as the congenital aplasia of the uterus and the upper two thirds of the vagina with normal secondary sexual characteristics, ovaries, and a normal karyotype (46, XX. We report an extremely rare association of right lung aplasia, MRKH syndrome, and right renal agenesis with left pelvic kidney, which to the best of our knowledge is the first such association reported.

  20. [Enterobiasis of the female pelvi-genital tract: a report of three cases].

    Khabir, A; Makni, S; Khmiri, H; Gheriani, M; Rekik, S; Boudawara, T S


    Ectopic localization of oxyuriasis is rare and frequently does not cause clinical problems. It has been reported in the vagina, endometrium, fallopian tube, peritoneal surface and ovary; In these localizations it often causes pseudo-tumoral granulomas. The aim of our study was to describe etiopathogenic and clinical criteria of this rare pathology. We report one case of endometrial enterobiasis which developed in a 28-year-old women and two cases of tubo-ovarian pseudotumoral abscesses containing the ova of enterobius which appeared as a latero-uterin mass in women aged 28 and 38 years. Enterobius vermicularis may cause tubo-ovarian abscess formation with necrotizing epitheloid granulomas mimicking tumors. Antihelminth therapies are successful.

  1. 儿童骨盆骨折的合并伤%Associated Injuries of Pelvic Fracture in Childhood (A Clinical Analysis of 35 Cases)

    王军; 张新河; 徐新六


    回顾了35例骨盆骨折患儿的临床资料,对其合并伤的原因、特点、诊断和治疗进行了讨论分析.%An analysis of the clinical manifestation and management of pelvic fracture in recent 7 years is presented. There were 27 males and 8 females. The age ranged from 2 years to 14 years. Some 89% of pelvic fractures were due to traffic accidents. All of them had two or more associated injuries, including; injury of big vessels in 3 cases, retroperitoneal hematoma in 4, urethra and bladder injuries in 15, rupture of vagina in 3. The diagnosis and treatment of the major associated injuries were discussed in the text.

  2. The MURCS Association: Mullerian Duct Aplasia, Renal Hypoplasia and Cervicothoracic Somite Dysplasia - A Case Report.

    Akhter, N; Begum, B N; Newaz, M


    We report on a 22 years old lady with aplasia of uterus and most of the vagina with normal secondary sexual characteristics, unilateral renal hypoplasia and anomalies of cervico throacic somites (MURCS Association), growth retardation, cardiac defect and congenital urethrovaginal fistula. Although there is a broad spectrum of anomalies described with MURCS association genitourinary fistula is not yet reported and reviewed in published articles. The relevance of this paper is to show the importance of further investigation in cases of primary amenorrhoea with mullerian agenesis to establish that the patient has MURCS association and not simply MRKH (Mayer Rokitansky-Kusterhauser Syndrome) syndrome. Consequently we should provide guidance to the patients and their families about the best way to conduct the case including genetic counseling and family screening.

  3. Laparoscopic repair of vesicovaginal fistula

    Miłosz Wilczyński


    Full Text Available A vesicovaginal fistula is one of the complications that a gynaecologist is bound to face after oncological operations, especially in postmenopausal women. Over the years there have been introduced many techniques of surgical treatment of this entity, including transabdominal and transvaginal approaches.We present a case of a 46-year-old patient who suffered from urinary leakage via the vagina due to the presence of a vesicovaginal fistula that developed after radical abdominal hysterectomy and subsequent radiotherapy. The decision was made to repair it laparoscopically due to retracted, fibrous and scarred tissue in the vaginal apex that precluded a transvaginal approach. A small cystotomy followed by an excision of fistula borders was performed. After six-month follow-up no recurrence of the disease has been noted.We conclude that laparoscopy is an interesting alternative to traditional approaches that provides comparable results.

  4. Toll-Like Receptors and Cytokines as Surrogate Biomarkers for Evaluating Vaginal Immune Response following Microbicide Administration

    Sadhana M. Gupta


    Full Text Available Topical microbicides are intended for frequent use by women in reproductive age. Hence, it is essential to evaluate their impact on mucosal immune function in the vagina. In the present study, we evaluated nisin, a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide (AMP, for its efficacy as an intravaginal microbicide. Its effect on the vaginal immune function was determined by localizing Toll-like receptors (TLRs-3, 9 and cytokines (IL-4, 6 , 10 and TNF-α in the rabbit cervicovaginal epithelium following intravaginal administration of high dose of nisin gel for 14 consecutive days. The results revealed no alteration in the expression of TLRs and cytokines at both protein and mRNA levels. However, in SDS gel-treated group, the levels were significantly upregulated with the induction of NF-κB signalling cascade. Thus, TLRs and cytokines appear as sensitive indicators for screening immunotoxic potential of candidate microbicides.

  5. The Effectiveness of Vaginal Contraceptive Sponge

    金毓翠; 丁家佩; 董吟秋; 董炳麟; 许雪芬


    The vaginal contraceptive sponge is made of polyurethane containing 1 g of nonoxynot-9, The gross cumulative twelve month life table pregnancy rate of 352 cases using vaginal contraceptive sponge was 5.7/ 100 women and the method pregnancy rate was 2. 3/ 100 women. The gross cumulative continuation rate per 100 women was 74. Only 2 patients (1,0/ 100 women) suffering from vaginitis and itching of vulva no longer wished to continue in the stud). Over the course of the study no significant changes were observed in any of the laboratory parameters such as vagina & cervix smear etc. that had been monitored. This modality associated with few side effects and its effectiveness rate and also indicated a protection from the risk of acquring of sex-transmitted diseases.

  6. Fernando Vallejo: El ángel del apocalipsis

    Fabio Martínez


    Full Text Available Debo comenzar por decir que Fernando Vallejo, el escritor colombiano que se hizo famoso por su magistral obra sobre la vida de Barba Jacob, no es ningún santo. Músico, cineasta y viajero impenitente, su compleja y prolífica obra, hoy es piedra de escándalo y motivo de las más exacerbadas contradicciones, que van desde un análisis justo y objetivo de su obra hasta la condena moral y filistea , como se puede observar en Medellín , su ciudad natal, donde todos los días -como dice Antonin Artaud- la gente come vagina cocinada con salsa verde.

  7. Acrometastasis to hand in vaginal carcinoma: A rare entity

    Divya Khosla


    Full Text Available Although metastases to bones from solid tumors are very common, involvement of small bones of the hands is extremely rare. We report the first case of acrometastasis in vaginal carcinoma. We present a 65-year-old multiparous woman with FIGO Stage II vaginal carcinoma. The patient received treatment with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy. She had complete response to above treatment. Eleven months later, she presented with swelling on dorsum of hand. Investigations revealed metastasis to 4th metacarpal bone with lung metastasis. Hence, we present a patient with metastasis of carcinoma vagina to the 4 th metacarpal to draw the attention for the potential of such lesions to be developed in this region. It should be remembered that bone metastasis at unusual sites might be seen in vaginal carcinoma. We present this case because of its rarity and for documentation and discussion.

  8. [Female genital surgery, G-spot amplification techniques--state of the science].

    Bachelet, J-T; Mojallal, A; Boucher, F


    The G-spot amplification is a process of "functional" intimate surgery consisting of a temporary physical increase of the size and sensitivity of the G-spot with a filler injected into the septum between the bladder and the vagina's anterior wall, in order to increase the frequency and importance of female orgasm during vaginal penetration. This surgical technique is based on the existence of an eponymous anatomical area described by Dr Gräfenberg in 1950, responsible upon stimulation of systematic orgasm different from the clitoral orgasm, referring to the vaginal orgasm as described by Freud in 1905. The purpose of this article is to review the scientific basis of the G-spot, whose very existence is currently a debated topic, and to discuss the role of G-spot amplification surgery.

  9. The microbiota and microbiome in aging: potential implications in health and age-related diseases.

    Zapata, Heidi J; Quagliarello, Vincent J


    Advances in bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing allow for characterization of the human commensal bacterial community (microbiota) and its corresponding genome (microbiome). Surveys of healthy adults reveal that a signature composite of bacteria characterizes each unique body habitat (e.g., gut, skin, oral cavity, vagina). A myriad of clinical changes, including a basal proinflammatory state (inflamm-aging), that directly interface with the microbiota of older adults and enhance susceptibility to disease accompany aging. Studies in older adults demonstrate that the gut microbiota correlates with diet, location of residence (e.g., community dwelling, long-term care settings), and basal level of inflammation. Links exist between the microbiota and a variety of clinical problems plaguing older adults, including physical frailty, Clostridium difficile colitis, vulvovaginal atrophy, colorectal carcinoma, and atherosclerotic disease. Manipulation of the microbiota and microbiome of older adults holds promise as an innovative strategy to influence the development of comorbidities associated with aging.

  10. Vaginal Evisceration: An Unexpected Complication of Conization

    Ali Ghassani


    Full Text Available Background. Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ is routinely performed for the management of high grade intracervical neoplasia (CIN. Several uncommon complications have been described, including postoperative peritonitis, pseudoaneurysm of uterine artery, and bowel fistula. We report a unique case of postoperative vaginal evisceration and the subsequent management. Case. A 73-years-old woman underwent LLETZ for high grade CIN. On postoperative day 3, she was admitted for small bowel evisceration through the vagina. Surgical management was based on combined laparoscopic and transvaginal approach and consisted in bowel inspection and reinstatement, peritoneal washing, and dehiscence repair. Conclusions. Vaginal evisceration is a rare but potentially serious complication of pelvic surgery. This case report is to make clinicians aware of such complication following LLETZ and its management.

  11. Pelvic organ prolapse: review of the aetiology, presentation, diagnosis and management.

    Machin, Sarah Elizabeth; Mukhopadhyay, Sambit


    Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition affecting a large number of women. Incidence increases after the menopause. Age, parity and obesity are the most consistently reported risk factors. Many women can be asymptomatic of prolapse but common symptoms include a sensation of a bulge or fullness in the vagina or urinary, bowel or sexual dysfunction. Management depends upon symptoms and the type and grade of the prolapse as well as any associated medical co-morbidities. Management options include expectant, conservative or surgical approaches. Up to 10% of women having a surgical procedure for prolapse will require a second procedure. It is, therefore, important to consider lifestyle modifications such as weight loss and conservative measures including pelvic floor muscle training, topical estrogens and pessaries as initial management options.

  12. Embryo-fetal exposure and developmental outcome of thalidomide following oral and intravaginal administration to pregnant rabbits.

    Hui, Julia Y; Hoffmann, Matthew; Kumar, Gondi


    Studies in pregnant rabbits were conducted to evaluate if there are any differences in the uptake of thalidomide into the intrauterine compartment and developmental toxicity risk following oral and intravaginal administration. Thalidomide concentrations in maternal plasma, yolk sac cavity (YSC) fluid and embryo following intravaginal administration were 2- to 7-fold lower than their respective levels after oral administration. Ratios of thalidomide concentration in YSC fluid to maternal plasma were similar between these two routes, indicating no difference in uptake into the intrauterine compartment. A rabbit embryo-fetal development study using oral and intravaginal thalidomide administration at 2mg/kg/day (a dose >10,000-fold higher than the expected amount of thalidomide in human semen) did not result in any developmental abnormalities. These data demonstrated no preferential transfer mechanism of thalidomide from vagina to conceptus, and no additional embryo-fetal developmental toxicity risks with thalidomide exposure via the vaginal route.

  13. Validation of the polysemen admixture on viability and acrosomal morphology of boar spermatozoa

    Ogbuewu IP


    Full Text Available Semen were collected using artificial vagina (AV, from 5 large white boars aged 2-2.5 years twice a week for 16 weeks in each of the two seasons, early rainy (ER and late rainy (LR seasons, to determine the effects of multiple semen pool admixture on the viability and acrosomal morphology. The semen qualities studied were sperm motility, live sperm and sperm concentration, while the acrosomal parameters includes normal apical ridge (NAR, damaged apical ridge (DAR, missing apical ridge (MAR and loose apical ridge (LAC. There were no significant (P>0.05 seasonal effects. Three-boar semen admixture gave the highest percentage NAR, motility, live sperm concentration and least DAR and LAC, although these were not significantly (P>0.05 different from the 2-boar semen admixture. The result of this study suggests that 3-boar semen admixture is most suitable for use in artificial insemination program.

  14. [Experimental testing of Pflüger's reflex hypothesis of menstruation in late 19th century].

    Simmer, H H


    Pflüger's hypothesis of a nerve reflex as the cause of menstruation published in 1865 and accepted by many, nonetheless did not lead to experimental investigations for 25 years. According to this hypothesis the nerve reflex starts in the ovary by an increase of the intraovarian pressure by the growing follicles. In 1884 Adolph Kehrer proposed a program to test the nerve reflex, but only in 1890, Cohnstein artificially increased the intraovarian pressure in women by bimanual compression from the outside and the vagina. His results were not convincing. Six years later, Strassmann injected fluids into ovaries of animals and obtained changes in the uterus resembling those of oestrus. His results seemed to verify a prognosis derived from Pflüger's hypothesis. Thus, after a long interval, that hypothesis had become a paradigma. Though reasons can be given for the delay, it is little understood, why experimental testing started so late.

  15. Pseudohermafroditismo masculino

    David Vargas González


    Full Text Available El pseudohermafroditismo masculino dentro de las alteraciones de la diferenciación sexual (ADS constituye un grupo complejo de entidades. Su frecuencia en nuestro medio es muy escasa. Se presenta el caso de una adolescente, remitida a consulta por aumento del tamaño del clítoris, con erecciones del mismo. Al examen físico se encontró: presencia de falo, rodetes labioescrotales sin testes y vagina corta. En el estudio ultrasonográfico se descartó la presencia de útero y ovarios y se constató la presencia de testículos en cavidad abdominal. La cromatina sexual de células en interfase de la mucosa oral reveló la presencia de 0% de cuerpo Barr y el estudio cromosómico mostró un cariotipo masculino normal (46XY

  16. Glycoproteins of mouse vaginal epithelium: differential expression related to estrous cyclicity

    Horvat, B; Multhaupt, H A; Damjanov, I


    We used lectin overlay blotting and SDS-PAGE to analyze the estrous cycle-specific expression of mouse vaginal epithelial glycoproteins. Seven lectins chosen for their differential carbohydrate-binding specificity revealed 15 glycoproteins that showed cycle-related expression. Each lectin had...... a unique binding pattern different from the patterns revealed by other lectins. However, several estrous cycle phase-specific glycoproteins reacted with more than one lectin. The most prominent of these glycoproteins (M(r) 92-95 KD) was weakly expressed in late diestrus and fully expressed only...... in proestrus, coincident with the transformation of two superficial layers of vaginal squamous epithelium into mucinous cuboidal cells. Electron microscopic lectin histochemistry revealed the glycoproteins in the mucinous granules of surface cuboidal cells and in the lumen of the vagina. Our results illustrate...

  17. Gross morphology and morphometry of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758 female genital organs

    Erika Branco


    Full Text Available The gross anatomy of the genital organs of four specimens of young female of Saimiri sciureus was investigated. The animals were bred in captivity at the Centro Nacional de Primatas and had died from natural causes. The vulva was limited by the labium minus and presented a well-developed clitoris which seemed to represent a rudimentary penis. The vaginal vestibule was the first cavity and was very short, presenting a thick muscular wall which extended from the vulva comissure to the vaginal ostium. The vagina was constituted by an elongated and dorsally flattened muscular tube with a thin wall between the vaginal vestibule and cervix. The cervix was short with well-developed musculature. The uterus was simple, presenting a global fundus located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. The uterine tubes were elongated and rectilinear, connected to the ovaries which were large, ellipsoid in shape, and presented a smooth surface.


    Sri Sulastri


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian aspartam terhadap panjang siklus estrus mencit betina dewasa. Rancangan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 4 perlakuan dan 6 ulangan. Perlakuan P0 sebagai kontrol diberi aquades dan perlakuan P1, P2 dan P3 diberi aspartam dosis10 mg/kg bb; 15 mg/kg bb dan20 mg/kg bb. Aspartam diberikan setiap hari secara oral (gavage selama 14 hari sebanyak 0,3 ml. Setelah 14 hari, apusan vagina dibuat setiap 8 jam dalam sehari selama dua kali siklus estrus. Variabel yang diamati adalah panjang waktu tiap fase dalam siklus estrus. Hasil analisis menggunakan Uji One Way Anova dan Uji Kruskal Wallis menunjukkan bahwa aspartam secara nyata (P<0,05 memperpanjang siklus estrus dengan peningkatan dosis yang diberikan.

  19. 腹腔镜下乙状结肠代阴道和腹膜代阴道成形术治疗Ⅱ型阴道闭锁%Laparoscopic-assisted vaginoplasty by using sigmoid colon and peritoneum for congenital complete colpatresia

    包碧惠; 徐忠兰; 宋娟; 刘春桃; 陈勇; 徐惠成; 梁志清; 唐帅


    Objective To study the desired therapeutic effect of vaginoplasty using sigmoid colon or peritoneum for entire vaginal atre-sia.Methods From May 2015 to October 2015,8 patients with complete vaginal atresia in our hospital performed vaginoplasty using sigmoid colon or peritoneum successfully.The operation methods,prognosis and therapeutic effect and quality of sexual life of two groups were com-pared and analyzed to investigate a perfect operative method and ideal nursing.Results Laparoscopic vaginoplasty using the peritoneum compared with that using sigmoid colon has advantages of shorter time of operation,less bleeding,less trauma and quicker recovery.However, artificial vagina using sigmoid colon was much more similar to a natural vagina in morphological and physiological characteristics,merely ac-companied by excessive mucus discharge during the postoperative period.At lower risk of vaginal adhesion and stenosis,laparoscopically as-sisted vaginoplasty using sigmoid colon graft also puts high technical requirements.Two patients normally developed uterus menstruate regular-ly.Four patients without uterus and 2 patients with rudimentary uterus experienced good sexual intercourse after vaginoplasty.Conclusion Patients with complete colpatresia who have normal womb should creat a patent and functional vagina until adolescence to restore its physio-logical and reproductive function.Anatomical reconstructive treatment of vaginal agenesis for patients with absent or hypoplastic uterus can be postponed till the late teens or in the adult.Both laparoscopic sigmoid vaginoplasty and peritoneal vaginoplasty achieve a minimal-invasive, cosmetic,natural lubricous, smooth artificial vagina for patient’ s sex life satisfactory.%目的:探讨腹腔镜下乙状结肠代阴道和腹膜代阴道成形术治疗Ⅱ型阴道闭锁的效果。方法我院2015年5月至2015年10月收治8例先天性阴道完全闭锁(Ⅱ型阴道闭锁)患者,均顺利实施腹腔镜下乙

  20. Baseline Comorbidities in a Population-Based Cohort of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Receiving Biological Therapy: Data from the Australian Rheumatology Association Database

    Andrew M. Briggs


    Methods. Descriptive analysis from the Australian Rheumatology Association Database (ARAD. Results. Up to October 2006, there were 681 RA patients taking biologics enrolled in ARAD. Baseline data were available for 624 (72% female, mean (SD age 57.0 (12.5 years. Of these, 59.5% reported at least one comorbid condition, most commonly hypertension (35.7% and osteoporosis (30.4%; 61 (9.8% had a history of malignancy (35 nonmelanoma skin, 5 breast, 4 bowel, 5 cervix, 3 melanoma, 3 prostate and 1 each of lip, lung, myeloma, testis, uterus, vagina. Self-reported infections within the previous 6 months were common (71.5%. Conclusions. History of comorbidities, including recent infections, is common among Australian RA patients commencing biologics, and 10% have a history of malignancy. This may impact future evaluations of health outcomes among this population, including attribution of adverse events of biologic therapy.

  1. Operative considerations for late-presenting persistent Müllerian duct syndrome.

    Ark, Jacob T; Moses, Kelvin A


    Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a condition in which a 46, XY male displays masculine external genitalia, but internally retains developed Müllerian duct structures (uterus, fallopian tubes, and upper two-thirds vagina). Thoughtful operative consideration is needed to maximize the therapeutic benefit while minimizing the risk of hypogonadism, infertility, and erectile dysfunction. We report a 53-year-old male with a pelvic mass incidentally discovered on routine ultrasound, intra-operatively discovered to be PMDS. PMDS is a rare condition that may present late in life. The primary operative consideration is performing orchiopexy for cancer surveillance or orchiectomy if orchiopexy is not possible. Additional considerations include surveillance and counseling of infertility, hypogonadism, and assessment of the potential need for involvement of psychiatry. Removal of Müllerian remnants is a subject to debate. If possible, discuss with the patient their risks and options in the preoperative setting to guide operative planning.

  2. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Gorakh Mal


    Full Text Available Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89±1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18–24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P<0.01 increase in sperm motility. No significant differences were found in viability of spermatozoa indicating no visible detrimental effects on spermatozoa. The cause of semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in liquefied dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time.


    Z. I. Qureshi, M. Iqbal, A. Wahab, R. Yass and M. Naif


    Full Text Available A seven year old female dromedary camel was examined for the complaint of inability to breed due to problem during penile intromission. Vaginoscopy, using equine tube vaginoscope, revealed the presence of a tissue flap cranial to the urethral opening, buldging caudally and separating the cranial and caudal parts of vagina. Digital palpation was also performed and the condition was diagnosed as transverse vaginal septum. For treatment, the vaginal septum was grasped with an Allis tissue forceps and a circular piece was severed from the center with the Metzenbaum scissors. The remaining portion of septum was then carefully trimmed. About 28 days after surgery, the animal showed heat signs and was mated. On ultrasonographic examination three months, post mating the animal was found pregnant.

  4. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Mal, Gorakh; Vyas, Sumant; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Patil, Nitin Vasant Rao; Pathak, Krishan Murari Lal


    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18-24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time.


    Suryati Suryati


    Full Text Available Di Indonesia penggunaan kondom wanita tidak begitu popular seperti kondom pria, khususnya di Sumatera Barat. Kondom wanita ini menyerupai satu sarung atau kantong kecil yang sangat tipis yang dapat digunakan oleh para wanita pada waktu melakukanhubungan seks. Kondom wanita ini semuanya harus dimasukkan ke dalam vagina, dan kondom ini dapat membantumencegah terjadinya kehamilan dan penyakit-penyakit seksual (STDs termasuk HIV. Kondom wanita ini terbuat dari polyurethane yang menyerupai sarung atau kantong kecil dengan panjang 1 7 cm (6,5 inci. Pada setiap ujungnya terdapat cincin yang sangat fleksibel. Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO telah menasehatkan atau menganjurkan kepada masyarakat se dunia untuk menggunakan kondom wanita yang baru, pada setiap kali melakukan hubungan seksual, untuk mencegah teijadinya kehamilan dan melindungi diri dari penularan penyakit-penyakit infeksi seksual, dan HIV.

  6. Proteocephalus brooksi n. sp. (Cestoda:Proteocephalidae) in the neotropical freshwater fish Rhamdia guatemalensis (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico.

    García-Prieto, L; Rodríguez, L M; Pérez-Ponce de León, G


    Proteocephalus brooksi n. sp. is described from the neotropical pimelodid fish Rhamdia guatemalensis from Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, México. The new species is characterized by the "paramuscular" position of vitellaria, the cortical origin of uterine stem with development of medullar lateral branches, the alternated position of vagina (anteriorly and posteriorly to cirrus sac), and the absence of apical organ and vaginal sphincter. Proteocephalus brooksi most closely resembles Nomimoscolex matogrossensis from which it differs in a series of characters. The probable paraphyletic nature of both Proteocephalus and Nomimoscolex and the convergent evolution of the "paramuscular" location of vitellaria among proteocephalideans are suggested, and the need for a phylogenetic analysis of the group is emphasized. The new species is assigned to Proteocephalus pending such an analysis.

  7. The surgical team as a source of postoperative wound infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes

    Kolmos, H J; Svendsen, R N; Nielsen, S V


    Postoperative wound infection, caused by Streptococcus pyogenes transmitted during the operation from members of the surgical team, is a rare but serious complication of surgery. This study describes three cases, which could be traced to an orthopaedic surgeon, who carried the epidemic strain...... in this throat. Epidemiological characteristics of 14 other outbreaks, published in the English-language literature, are summarized. In total, these 15 outbreaks involved 136 patients. The overall case fatality rate was 12%. Anaesthesiologists and other assisting staff members were involved more often than...... surgeons and obstetricians. In outbreaks where an attack rate could be calculated, it was at least 7%. T-28 was the most commonly involved T-type, accounting for seven outbreaks. The anus and vagina were the most common carrier sites in staff members. A combination of penicillin and oral vancomycin seemed...

  8. Vaginal practices: eroticism and implications for women's health and condom use in Mozambique.

    Bagnol, Brigitte; Mariano, Esmeralda


    This paper analyses two female sexual practices in Tete Province, Mozambique: (1) the practice of elongating the labia minora and (2) what is sometimes called 'dry sex' involving the insertion of natural and/or synthetic products into the vagina or the ingestion of these products orally. These practices are fundamental to the construction of female identity, eroticism and the experience of pleasure. Notions such as 'closed/open', 'dry/damp', 'hot/cold', 'heavy/light', 'life/death', 'wealth/poverty' and 'sweet/not sweet' are central to local understandings of sexual practices and reproduction. These notions may affect the women's sexual health because they influence preferences for sex without a condom. These practices may also be associated with the alteration of the vaginal flora and vaginal lesions that may make women more vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections.

  9. The Origins of the Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract in Children

    L. A. Lityaeva


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the peculiarities of the intestinal microbiota in infants and its role in the development of gastrointestinal pathology.Clinical and microbiological examination of 60 pairs of «mother-child» in identifying risk factors for antenatal and microecological status of pregnant women with subsequent monitoring of the health of children up to 3—5 years.It was revealed that antenatal risk factors and disorders of the microbiota of the vagina and intestine in pregnancy contribute to innate decrease colonization resistance in children that initiates persistence and enhanced proliferation of opportunistic bacteria in the intestines of children with the development of the syndrome of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine, most of them to 3—5 years.

  10. Organizational and activational effects of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Silbergeld Ellen K.


    Full Text Available Endocrine disruption is a hypothesis of common mode of action that may define a set of structurally varied chemicals, both natural and synthetic. Their common mode of action may suggest that they produce or contribute to similar toxic effects, although this has been difficult to demonstrate. Insights from developmental biology suggest that development of hormone sensitive systems, such as the brain and the genitourinary tract, may be particularly sensitive to EDCs. Because these systems are both organized and later activated by hormones, the brain and vagina may be valuable model systems to study the toxicity of EDCs in females and to elucidate mechanisms whereby early exposures appear to affect long term function.

  11. Magic Power: changing gender dynamics and sex-enhancement practices among youths in Makassar, Indonesia.

    Hardon, Anita; Ilmi Idrus, Nurul


    This paper examines changing sexualities and gender relations as they are reflected in the use of sexual enhancement products by young women and men in the eastern Indonesian city of Makassar. To examine the relationships between the use of these products and socially sanctioned gender roles, their 'gender scripts' were studied--the assumptions embedded in the products' design and advertising. What kinds of femininity and masculinity are expressed through their use? It was found that the most popular products--'magic tissues' that promise to prolong erections and a 'neotraditional' vaginal wash that promises to cleanse, perfume, and tighten vaginas--espouse the dual purpose of promoting sexual pleasure and hygiene. While it was found that the images in advertising to reflect changing gender relations in the field site, this research also points to enduring gender scripts in Indonesian culture: men should be virile, women should be clean and attractive.

  12. Unusual manifestations of secondary urothelial carcinoma

    Chaohui Lisa Zhao


    Full Text Available High-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma regularly invades the bladder wall, adjacent prostate, seminal vesicles, ureters, vagina, rectum, retroperitoneum, and regional lymph nodes. In advanced stages, it may disseminate to the liver, lungs, and bone marrow. On rare occasions, unusual metastatic foci like skin have been reported. The incidence of urothelial carcinoma has increased with associated rise in variants of urothelial carcinoma and unusual metastatic foci. It is imperative that urologists and pathologists are aware of the unusual variants and unusual metastatic locations to expedite the diagnostic process. Hereby we report an unusual case of secondary involvement of spinal nerve by conventional urothelial carcinoma. Also a second case of rhabdoid variant of urothelial carcinoma showing synchronous involvement of bladder and subcutaneous tissue of upper extremity is presented.

  13. Surgical repair of bilateral levator ani muscles with ultrasound guidance.

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Shobeiri, S Abbas; Quiroz, Lieschen H


    Separation of the levator ani muscles from pubic bone is a common major levator trauma that may occur in vaginal delivery and is associated with pelvic floor dysfunctions. We describe a novel ultrasound-guided technique to repair these muscles. A 33-year-old woman presented with a history of difficult vaginal delivery and complaint of numbness and weakness of the vagina. In evaluation, bilateral levator defects were diagnosed by physical examination, three-dimensional endovaginal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. With ultrasound guidance the detached ends of muscles were tagged and sutured to their insertion points at the pubic bone. The patient's normal anatomy was restored with the return to normal pelvic floor tone. A follow-up ultrasound showed restored levator anatomy at 3 months.

  14. Antibiotic Administration and Factors Influencing the Vaginal Microbiota during Pregnancy

    Stokholm, Jakob


    The commensal flora consists of non-pathogenic microbiota found on all body surfaces maintaining a well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic state. The vaginal microbiota represents a microbial ecosystem. A low pH level is maintained by acid producing bacteria, most often dominated by Lactobacillus....... The low pH level is together with the host immunity responsible for protection of the vagina. A vast number of other bacterial species are represented in the vaginal commensal microbiota and among these both Staphylococcus and E. coli are often found. Skewing of the vaginal commensal flora...... with a following increase in pH level can lead to an overgrowth of certain microbiota resulting in bacterial vaginosis or vaginal candidiasis. Humans are continuously exposed to a large amount of environmental factors providing a possible influence on their microbial ecology. Antibiotic administration is one...

  15. 子宫颈癌患者术前心理状态分析及护理



    In our country, Cervical cancer is the most common caneer in femal procreation apparatry,Cervical cancer patients with 1 b-Ⅱ a stage aretreated. With operation, the 5 years survival rate is about 93.4%(I stage),82.7%(Ⅱ stage).But the operation have many difricults and combine disease such as:pelvic infection,Lymph cyst, urine difficult, ureter vagina fistula. So patients feel intensity and trepidation even with senvenity psychology hinder vefor operation. Thelefore psychology nurse become the imparanent content in patients'recover with-cervical comcer. In this article, weconclude the experience in psychology nurse to 24 cervical cancer patients whose psychology is in good condition throughour nurse which is helpful to successful fulfillment of operation patients' recover.

  16. Conservative coloprotectomy for the sexually active woman.

    Entman, S S; Coleman, J L; Wilson, G


    The procedure described herein, capitalizes on a knowledge of the relationships between the pelvic viscera, its autonomic innervation and its tissue support. Operative time is shorter, not only because of the presence of a simultaneous second surgical team, but also because the improved exposure and use of bloodless planes facilitates dissection and reduces blood loss. The careful treatment of the cul-de-sac peritoneum helps protect the autonomic innervation of the pelvis, preserving the function of the bladder and sexual response. Preserving the perineal body and obliterating the dead space behind the posterior vaginal wall with the levator ani muscle provides a muscular cushion for the vagina, preserving maximum coital function. For the woman who is sexually active, these are important goals. Her improved sense of well-being following successful surgical therapy of the disease will result in increasing libido, and her successful adaptation to her new condition will be influenced favorably by her ability to function sexually.

  17. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer: A review

    Bucchi, Dania; Stracci, Fabrizio; Buonora, Nicola; Masanotti, Giuseppe


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Exposure to HPV is very common, and an estimated 65%-100% of sexually active adults are exposed to HPV in their lifetime. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, but there is a 10% chance that individuals will develop a persistent infection and have an increased risk of developing a carcinoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that the following cancer sites have a strong causal relationship with HPV: cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx, including the base of the tongue and the tonsils. However, studies of the aetiological role of HPV in colorectal and esophageal malignancies have conflicting results. The aim of this review was to organize recent evidence and issues about the association between HPV infection and gastrointestinal tumours with a focus on esophageal, colorectal and anal cancers. The ultimate goal was to highlight possible implications for prognosis and prevention. PMID:27672265

  18. The role of human papilloma virus in urological malignancies.

    Heidegger, Isabel; Borena, Wegene; Pichler, Renate


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cancer of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx. However, the role of HPV infection in urological tumors is not yet clarified. HPV appears not to play a major causative role in renal and testicular carcinogenesis. However, HPV infection should be kept in mind regarding cases of prostate cancer, as well as in a sub-group of patients with bladder cancer with squamous differentiation. Concerning the role of HPV in penile cancer incidence, it is a recognized risk factor proven in a large number of studies. This short review provides an update regarding recent literature on HPV in urological malignancies, thereby, also discussing possible limitations on HPV detection in urological cancer.

  19. Adaptation of Candida albicans to commensalism in the gut.

    Prieto, Daniel; Correia, Inês; Pla, Jesús; Román, Elvira


    Candida albicans is a common resident of the oral cavity, GI tract and vagina in healthy humans where it establishes a commensal relationship with the host. Colonization of the gut, which is an important niche for the microbe, may lead to systemic dissemination and disease upon alteration of host defences. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the adaptation of C. albicans to the gut is therefore important for the design of new ways of combating fungal diseases. In this review we discuss the available models to study commensalism of this yeast, the main mechanisms controlling the establishment of the fungus, such as microbiota, mucus layer and antimicrobial peptides, and the gene regulatory circuits that ensure its survival in this niche.

  20. Anatomy of the Spermatophore in Triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) and Its Applications to the Study of Chagas Disease Vector Biology

    Pereira-Lourenço, Ariane S.; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R.; Freitas, Simone P. C.


    The present study focused on spermatophore structure, transfer, and subsequent destination inside bloodfeeding females of the species Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius neglectus. The morphology of the spermatophore differed between the species studied, such that in T. infestans, the shape was ovaloid, whereas in R. neglectus, the shape resembled a rod. Structures' spine-like cuticulars distributed across the inner surface of the vagina of both species were observed; however, the role of these cuticulars is unknown in Triatominae. In both species, there was an opening in the spermatophore exactly where the common oviduct is connected, thereby making it possible to confirm that the process of spermatozoid migration takes place through this opening. The results obtained show that the spermatophores of T. infestans and R. neglectus differ in size, shape, and structure. Therefore, they can be used as taxonomic markers and may provide information regarding physiology and evolution. PMID:23958911