WorldWideScience

Sample records for utilizing coal-derived fuels

  1. Pd/activated carbon sorbents for mid-temperature capture of mercury from coal-derived fuel gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dekui; Han, Jieru; Han, Lina; Wang, Jiancheng; Chang, Liping

    2014-07-01

    Higher concentrations of Hg can be emitted from coal pyrolysis or gasification than from coal combustion, especially elemental Hg. Highly efficient Hg removal technology from coal-derived fuel gas is thus of great importance. Based on the very excellent Hg removal ability of Pd and the high adsorption abilities of activated carbon (AC) for H₂S and Hg, a series of Pd/AC sorbents was prepared by using pore volume impregnation, and their performance in capturing Hg and H₂S from coal-derived fuel gas was investigated using a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. The effects of loading amount, reaction temperature and reaction atmosphere on Hg removal from coal-derived fuel gas were studied. The sorbents were characterized by N₂ adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the efficiency of Hg removal increased with the increasing of Pd loading amount, but the effective utilization rate of the active component Pd decreased significantly at the same time. High temperature had a negative influence on the Hg removal. The efficiency of Hg removal in the N₂-H₂S-H₂-CO-Hg atmosphere (simulated coal gas) was higher than that in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres, which showed that H₂ and CO, with their reducing capacity, could benefit promote the removal of Hg. The XPS results suggested that there were two different ways of capturing Hg over sorbents in N₂-H₂S-Hg and N₂-Hg atmospheres. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  3. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  4. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 1: Executive summary. [using coal or coal derived fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A data base for the comparison of advanced energy conversion systems for utility applications using coal or coal-derived fuels was developed. Estimates of power plant performance (efficiency), capital cost, cost of electricity, natural resource requirements, and environmental intrusion characteristics were made for ten advanced conversion systems. Emphasis was on the energy conversion system in the context of a base loaded utility power plant. All power plant concepts were premised on meeting emission standard requirements. A steam power plant (3500 psig, 1000 F) with a conventional coal-burning furnace-boiler was analyzed as a basis for comparison. Combined cycle gas/steam turbine system results indicated competitive efficiency and a lower cost of electricity compared to the reference steam plant. The Open-Cycle MHD system results indicated the potential for significantly higher efficiency than the reference steam plant but with a higher cost of electricity.

  5. Performance effects of coal-derived contaminants on the carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Wilemski, G. [Physical Sciences, Inc., Andover, MA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Coal-derived contaminant studies have been pursued at ERC since the early 1980`s when the pace of carbonate fuel cell development began to markedly increase. Initial work was concerned with performance effects on laboratory and bench-scale carbonate fuel cells primarily due to sulfur compounds. Results have now also been obtained with respect to nine additional coal-gas contaminants, including volatile trace metal species. Thermochemical calculations, out-of-cell experiments, and cell performance as well as endurance testshave recently been conducted which have involved the following species: NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S [COS], HCl, AsH{sub 3}[As{sub 2}(v)], Zn(v), Pb(v), Cd(v), H{sub 2} Se, Hg(v), Sn(v). Employing thermochemically calculated results, thermogravimetric (TGA) and pre-, and post-test analytical data as well as fuel cell performance observations, it has been shown that there are four main mechanisms of contaminant interaction with the carbonate fuel cell. These have been formulated into performance models for six significant contaminant species, thus providing long-term endurance estimations.

  6. Performance effects of coal-derived contaminants on the carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A. (Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)); Wilemski, G. (Physical Sciences, Inc., Andover, MA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Coal-derived contaminant studies have been pursued at ERC since the early 1980's when the pace of carbonate fuel cell development began to markedly increase. Initial work was concerned with performance effects on laboratory and bench-scale carbonate fuel cells primarily due to sulfur compounds. Results have now also been obtained with respect to nine additional coal-gas contaminants, including volatile trace metal species. Thermochemical calculations, out-of-cell experiments, and cell performance as well as endurance testshave recently been conducted which have involved the following species: NH[sub 3], H[sub 2]S [COS], HCl, AsH[sub 3][As[sub 2](v)], Zn(v), Pb(v), Cd(v), H[sub 2] Se, Hg(v), Sn(v). Employing thermochemically calculated results, thermogravimetric (TGA) and pre-, and post-test analytical data as well as fuel cell performance observations, it has been shown that there are four main mechanisms of contaminant interaction with the carbonate fuel cell. These have been formulated into performance models for six significant contaminant species, thus providing long-term endurance estimations.

  7. Moderate temperature gas purification system: Application to high calorific coal-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Shirai, H.; Nunokawa, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high-temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high-temperature (above 450{sup o}C) gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition. We suggest moderate temperature (around 300{sup o}C) operation of the gas purification system to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. Because the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal in the moderate temperature gas purification system, we evaluated the chemical removal processes; performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds was experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium aluminate sorbent had potential performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process with zinc ferrite sorbent was also applicable to the temperature range, though the reaction kinetics of the sorbent is essential to be approved.

  8. Moderate temperature gas purification system: application to high calorific coal derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Kobayashi; H. Shirai; M. Nunokawa [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Kanagawa (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high temperature gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition and slippage of contaminant of high vapor pressure. It was suggested that moderate temperature operation of the gas purification system is applied to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. To establish the moderate temperature gas purification system, the chemical-removal processes where the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal should be evaluated. Performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds were experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium based sorbent had potential good performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process was also applicable to the temperature range, although the improvement of the sulfidation reaction rate is considered to be essential. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2007-03-17

    hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

  10. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2008-03-31

    The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to

  11. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-05-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of fuel oil indicates that the fuel is somewhere in between a No. 4 and a No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates the fuel burns similarly to these two fuels, but trace metals for the coal-based material are different than petroleum-based fuel oils. Co-coking studies using cleaned coal are highly reproducible in the pilot-scale delayed coker. Evaluation of the coke by Alcoa, Inc. indicated that while the coke produced is of very good quality, the metals content of the carbon is still high in iron and silica. Coke is being evaluated for other possible uses

  12. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  13. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the present study was to determine in detail the interaction effects of 10 simultaneously present, coal-gas contaminants, both on each other and on components of the Carbonate Fuel Cell. The primary goal was to assess underlying chemistries and reaction mechanisms which may cause decay in fuel cell performance or endurance as a result of both physics-chemical and/or mechanical interactions with the cell components and internal fuel cell parts. It was found, both from theory and cell test evidence, that trace contaminant interactions may occur with: Fuel-cell Electrodes (e.g., in this study with the Ni-anode), Lithium/Potassium Carbonate Electrolyte, Nickel and SS-Hardware, and by Mechanical Obstruction of Gas Flow in the Anode Plenum.

  14. REFINERY INTEGRATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM COAL-DERIVED JET FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-05-18

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  15. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; John Andresen

    2004-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first twelve months of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  16. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  17. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie R. Rudnick; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2005-11-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the first six months of the second year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts, acquisition and installation of a research gasoline engine, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil are reported. Coal samples have procured and are being assessed for cleaning prior to use in coking studies.

  18. Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

    2006-09-17

    This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO

  19. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures

  20. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O' Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  1. Combustion studies of coal derived solid fuels by thermogravimetric analysis. III. Correlation between burnout temperature and carbon combustion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; DeBarr, J.A.; Chen, W.T.

    1990-01-01

    Burning profiles of 35-53 ??m size fractions of an Illinois coal and three partially devolatilized coals prepared from the original coal were obtained using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The burning profile burnout temperatures were higher for lower volatile fuels and correlated well with carbon combustion efficiencies of the fuels when burned in a laboratory-scale laminar flow reactor. Fuels with higher burnout temperatures had lower carbon combustion efficiencies under various time-temperature conditions in the laboratory-scale reactor. ?? 1990.

  2. Effects of coal-derived trace species on the performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Topical report on thermochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A.

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the present study was to determine in detail the interaction effects of 10 simultaneously present, coal-gas contaminants, both on each other and on components of the Carbonate Fuel Cell. The primary goal was to assess underlying chemistries and reaction mechanisms which may cause decay in fuel cell performance or endurance as a result of both physics-chemical and/or mechanical interactions with the cell components and internal fuel cell parts. It was found, both from theory and cell test evidence, that trace contaminant interactions may occur with: Fuel-cell Electrodes (e.g., in this study with the Ni-anode), Lithium/Potassium Carbonate Electrolyte, Nickel and SS-Hardware, and by Mechanical Obstruction of Gas Flow in the Anode Plenum.

  3. Characterization of coal-derived liquids and other fossil-fuel-related materials employing mass spectrometry. Final report, September 30, 1976-September 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheppele, S E

    1982-05-01

    A document was prepared which assessed the state-of-the art in the mass spectrometric characterization of fossil fuel materials and the relevance of these data to the fossil fuel industry. A Kratos DS50 SM data system was successfully interfaced to a CEC 21-110B mass spectrometer. Communications between the NOVA 3/12 computer in the data system and the OSU central computer were established. A Grant Comparator/Microdensitometer was acquired and made operational. Plans were developed and hardware acquired for interfacing the densitometer to the NOVA 3/12 computer. A quartz direct introduction probe was acquired for the CEC 21-110B. A temperature controller for the probe was acquired and interfaced to the slow speed ADC on the auxillary board in the data system/mass spectrometer interface. The combined FI/EI source was modified to operate in the FD mode and an apparatus was fabricated for conditioning FD emitters. A CSI supergrater 3 was interfaced to the PE 3920 gas chromatograph. The upgraded facility was used to develop mass spectrometric methods for the characterization of fossil fuel materials and to apply methods to the characterization of these materials. Activities included: (1) initial development of field-ionization mass spectrometry for the characterization of saturated hydrocarbons, (2) computerization of the technique of probe microdistillation/mass spectrometry, (3) initation of the development of a new method for the computer assisted assignment of formulas to ion masses, (4) characterization of neutral fractions from a hydrotreated tar-sands oil, and (5) characterization of coal-derived oils and asphaltenes.

  4. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  5. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

  6. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    A base case flow sheet for the production of higher alcohols from coal derived synthesis gas has been completed, including an economic analysis. The details of the flow sheet and economics are in Appendix 1. The pay back period for the capital investment for the plant has been calculated as a function of the market price of the product, and this figure is also shown as Figure I in Appendix 1. The estimated installed cost is almost $500 MM, and the estimated annual operating cost is $64 MM. At a price in the vicinity of $1.00/gal for the alcohol product, the pay back period for construction of the plant is four years. These values should be considered preliminary, since many of the capital costs were obtained from other paper studies sponsored by DOE and TVA and very few values could be found from actual plants which were built. This issue is currently being addressed. The most expensive capital costs were found to be the gasifier, the cryogenic air separation plant, the steam/power generation plant and the acid gas/sulfur removal processes taken as a whole. It is planned to focus attention on alternatives to the base case. The problem is that it is less expensive to make syngas from natural gas. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the cost of syngas from coal. This is where the energy park concept becomes important. In order for this process to be economical (at current market and political conditions) a method must be found to reduce the cost of syngas manufacture either by producing energy or by-products. Energy is produced in the base case, but the amount and method has not been optimized. The economic arguments for this concept are detailed in Appendix 2.

  7. Evaluation of catalytic combustion of actual coal-derived gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, J. C.; Shisler, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of a Pt-Pl catalytic reactor burning coal-derived, low-Btu gas were investigated. A large matrix of test conditions was explored involving variations in fuel/air inlet temperature and velocity, reactor pressure, and combustor exit temperature. Other data recorded included fuel gas composition, reactor temperatures, and exhaust emissions. Operating experience with the reactor was satisfactory. Combustion efficiencies were quite high (over 95 percent) over most of the operating range. Emissions of NOx were quite high (up to 500 ppm V and greater), owing to the high ammonia content of the fuel gas.

  8. Catalytic hydroprocessing of coal-derived gasification residues to fuel blending stocks: effect of reaction variables and catalyst on hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), and hydrodesulfurization (HDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieter Leckel [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

    2006-10-15

    Gas liquors, tar oils, and tar products resulting from the coal gasification of a high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch plant can be successfully refined to fuel blending components by the use of severe hydroprocessing conditions. High operating temperatures and pressures combined with low space velocities ensure the deep hydrogenation of refractory oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. Hydrodeoxygenation, particularly the removal of phenolic components, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation were obtained at greater than 99% levels using the NiMo and NiW on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Maximum deoxygenation activity was achieved using the NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst having a maximum pore size distribution in the range of 110-220{angstrom}. The NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, which also has a relatively high proportion of smaller pore sizes (35-60 {angstrom}), displays lower hydrogenation activity. 30 refs., 1 fig. 8 tabs.

  9. Degradation and stabilization of coal derived liquid. (IV). ; Effect of alcohol on coloration of coal derived light oil. Sekitan ekikayu no anteika. (IV). ; Sekitan ekikayu no chakushoku yokusei ni oyobosu alcohol no tenka koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukegawa, K.; Matsumura, A.; Kondo, T. (National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan)); TAhara, N. (Nitto Denko Corp., Osaka (Japan)); Nakamura, E. (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)); Niki, E. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Research Center for ADvanced Science and Technology)

    1990-01-20

    In order to improve the color stability of a coal derived light oil, the effect of hydrotreating and various additives has been studied. The color stability has been evaluated through measuring changes in absorbance by flow-cell spectrophotometer. Following results have been obtained: The color stabilities of hydrotreated coal derived light oils were improved remarkably with increasing hydrotreating temperature and pressure. Mild hydrotreating made the color stability of the coal derived light oil much better than the fuel oil, even though the nitrogen removal was very small. Phenolic compounds additives could not improve the color stability of the coal derived light oil. Alcohol, especially methanol, made the coloration rate of the coal derived light oil small to a great extent, on account of hydrogen bonding between methanol and nitrogen compounds in the fuel oil. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Experience with nuclear fuel utilization in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harizanov, Y [Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-01

    The presentation on experience with nuclear fuel utilization in Bulgaria briefly reviews the situation with nuclear energy in Bulgaria and then discusses nuclear fuel performance (amount of fuel loaded, type of fuel, burnup, fuel failures, assemblies deformation). 2 tabs.

  11. Mox fuel utilization in ATR

    OpenAIRE

    下村 和生; 川太 徳夫

    1987-01-01

    ATR, a heavy-water moderated boiling-light-water cooled reactor developed in Japan, is a unique reactor with out-standing flexibility regarding nuclear fuel utilization, because it has superior properties concerning the utilization of plutonium, recovered uranium and depleted uranium. The development of this type of reactor is expected to contribute both to the stable supply of energy and to the establishment of plutonium utilization in Japan. Much effort has been and will be made on the deve...

  12. News technology utilization fossil fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blišanová Monika

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel – “alternative energy“ is coal, petroleum, natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are scarce resources, but they are delimited. Reserves petroleum will be depleted after 39 years and reserves natural gas after 60 years.World reserves coal are good for another 240 years. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. It is the least expensive energy source for generating electricity. Many environmental problems associated with use of coal:in coal production, mining creates environmental problems.On Slovakia representative coal only important internal fuel – power of source and coal is produced in 5 locality. Nowadays, oneself invest to new technology on utilization coal. Perspective solution onself shows UCG, IGCC.

  13. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Possible changes in fuel properties are identified based on current trends and projections. The effect of those changes with respect to the aircraft fuel system are examined and some technological approaches to utilizing those fuels are described.

  14. Proceedings: 1993 fuel oil utilization workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The primary objective of the Workshop was to utilize the experiences of utility personnel and continue the interchange of information related to fuel oil issues. Participants also identified technical problem areas in which EPRI might best direct its efforts in research and development of fuel oil utilization and to improve oil-fired steam generating systems' performance. Speakers presented specific fuel projects conducted at their particular utilities, important issues in the utilization of fuel oil, studies conducted or currently in the process of being completed, and information on current and future regulations for fuel utilization. Among the major topics addressed at the 1993 Fuel Oil Utilization Workshop were burner and ESP improvements for the reduction of particulate and NO x emissions, practical experience in utilization of low API gravity residual fuel oils, the use of models to predict the spread of oil spills on land, implementing OPA 90 preparedness and response strategies planning, a report on the annual Utility Oil Buyers Conference, ASTM D-396 specification for No. 6 fuel oil, the utilization of Orimulsion reg-sign in utility boilers, recent progress on research addressing unburned carbon and opacity from oil-fired utility boilers, EPRI's hazardous air pollutant monitoring and implications for residual fuel oil, and the feasibility of toxic metals removal from residual fuel oils. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  15. Fuel utilization experience in Slovak Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petenyi, V [Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, Bajkalska (Slovakia)

    1997-12-01

    The paper summarizes shortly the gained experience in utilization of the fuel in the four-year fuel cycles and describes the future activities in fuel management. The spent fuel management is also included. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  16. Multiservice utility plug for remote fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Jensen, D.A.

    1979-10-01

    This paper presents the design of a multiservice utility plug and drive system to be used for reliably engaging and disengaging all utility connections automatically that serve large portable equipment modules. The modules are arranged into a fuel processing production line within the Fuels and Materials Examination Laboratory. The utility plugs allow the modules to be easily replaced, rearranged or removed for maintenance

  17. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  18. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C(sub 2) to C(sub 5+)) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline

  19. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

  20. Fact sheet on fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section (NFCMS) supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle, provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection, supports the development fuel modeling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions, provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation, supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO2, MOX, (Th, Pu)O2, (Th, U233)O2 fuels and zirconium alloy cladding and fuel assembly components and offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology and materials, economic and other aspects of nuclear fuel use (e.g. environmental impact). Recently NFCMS provided support to a Member State manufacturing Gadolinia doped fuel and provided in-mast sipping equipment to a Nuclear Power Plant to allow the determination of fuel failure. Member States interested in fuel performance and manufacture should contact the Technical Cooperation Department of the Agency and Member States interested in knowing more about the Agency's programme on source management should contact: C. Ganguly, Section Head, V. Inozemtsev, J. Killeen

  1. Nuclear fuel utilization in Kozloduy NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadzhiev, Z; Kharalampieva, Ts; Pejchinov, Ts [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1994-12-31

    An assessment of fuel utilization in Kozloduy NPP units 1-6 is made on the basis of operational data obtained for a total of 62 fuel cycles. Basic characteristics of core loading and operation conditions are given. SPPS-1 and BIPR-7 codes are used to calculate assembly-wise power distributions for different full power days of a given cycle and unit. The data are compared with the measured values of these quantities. The analysis performed shows that the core loading option chosen has led to efficient fuel utilization without violation of the nuclear safety criteria. For WWER-440 (Units 1 - 4) this is expressed in effective reduction of the reactor vessel irradiation, maintaining the design duration of the fuel cycles at a reduced number of assemblies by a factor 5 - 5-10%, utilizing fuel with higher enrichment and implementing the 4-year fuel cycle. For WWER-1000 the improvements lead to: adoption of the 3-year fuel cycle utilizing fuel with 4.4% initial enrichment, implementation of improved fuel with a new type of absorbers and more effective low-leakage core loading patterns. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 7 refs.

  2. SYNTHESIS OF METHACRYLATES FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, B.W.L.; Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.; Choi, G.N.

    1999-12-01

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel have developed a novel process for synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the US Department of Energy/Fossil Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC). This project has resulted in five US patents (four already published and one pending publication). It has served as the basis for the technical and economic assessment of the production of this high-volume intermediate from coal-derived synthesis gas. The three-step process consists of the synthesis of a propionate from ethylene carbonylation using coal-derived CO, condensation of the propionate with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA); and esterification of MAA with methanol to yield MMA. The first two steps, propionate synthesis and condensation catalysis, are the key technical challenges and the focus of the research presented here.

  3. Wood fuels utilization in Central Europe - the wood fuels consumption and the targets of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Following subjects are discussed in this presentation: The share of bioenergy of the total energy consumption in EU region; the wood fuels consumption in EU region in 1995; the division of bioenergy utilization (households, wood- based district heating, wood consumption in industry, power generation from wood and residues, biofuels, biogas and sludges); wood fuels consumption in households in EU countries in 1995; wood consumption in France; the additional wood fuel consumption potential in France; Blan bois - wood energy program; French wood energy markets; German wood energy markets; energy consumption in Germany; wood consumption in Bavaria; the wood fuels potential in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption in households in Bavaria; wood fuels consumption for district heating in Bavaria; fuel prices in Bavaria; Environmental regulations in Germany; small boiler markets in Germany; Energy consumption in Austria; small-scale utilization of wood fuels; utilization of wood energy. (Slides, additional information from the author)

  4. An optimized BWR fuel lattice for improved fuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernander, O.; Helmersson, S.; Schoen, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Optimization of the BWR fuel lattice has evolved into the water cross concept, termed ''SVEA'', whereby the improved moderation within bundles augments reactivity and thus improves fuel cycle economy. The novel design introduces into the assembly a cruciform and double-walled partition containing nonboiling water, thus forming four subchannels, each of which holds a 4x4 fuel rod bundle. In Scandinavian BWRs - for which commercial SVEA reloads are now scheduled - the reactivity gain is well exploited without adverse impact in other respects. In effect, the water cross design improves both mechanical and thermal-hydraulic performance. Increased average burnup is also promoted through achieving flatter local power distributions. The fuel utilization savings are in the order of 10%, depending on the basis of comparison, e.g. choice of discharge burnup and lattice type. This paper reviews the design considerations and the fuel utilization benefits of the water cross fuel for non-Scandinavian BWRs which have somewhat different core design parameters relative to ASEA-ATOM reactors. For one design proposal, comparisons are made with current standard 8x8 fuel rod bundles as well as with 9x9 type fuel in reactors with symmetric or asymmetric inter-assembly water gaps. The effect on reactivity coefficients and shutdown margin are estimated and an assessment is made of thermal-hydraulic properties. Consideration is also given to a novel and advantageous way of including mixed-oxide fuel in BWR reloads. (author)

  5. Analysis of nuclear fuel utilization strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.M. de; Rubini, L.A.; Silva, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Having in mind a rational utilization of the national uranium reserves, in the alternatives considered here in both the recycling of irradiated fuel and the introduction of fast breeder reactors (FBR's) in the electric energy generation system are analyzed. Present thermal reactors (PWR's) would be, thus, gradually replaced, and the plutonium produced by them used as fuel for the next generation of FBR's. (Author) [pt

  6. Problems related to fossil fuels utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rota, R.

    1999-01-01

    Fossil fuels still present the main energy source in the world since about 90% of the energy produced comes from combustion. This paper, based on the lectures given at the conference of Energy and Environment hold at the Accademia dei Lincei in 1998, presents a short review of some of the problems related to the utilization of fossil fuels, such as their availability in the medium period, the effect of pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere as well as the available technologies to deal with such problems [it

  7. Nuclear fuel utilization at the Kozloduy NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadzhiev, Z [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria); Kharalampieva, Ts; Pejchinov, Ts

    1996-12-31

    Data on core loading and operation conditions during past fuel cycles of the Units 1 to 6 at the Kozloduy NPP are presented. The Units 1 and 2 have reached average discharge fuel burn-up of 31 MW d/kg U, the Unit 3 - 34 MW d/kg U and the Unit 4 - 36.5 MW d/kg U. By use of dummies and low-leakage core loading patterns for WWER-440 cores an effective reduction in reactor pressure vessel irradiation is obtained. By increasing the enrichment level and improving the characteristics of the Units 3 and 4, a design fuel cycles duration has been reduced by 5-10% in number of assemblies. Core loading design has been modelled using computer codes SPPS-1, BIPR-7, ALBOM, PROROC. A 3-year fuel cycle utilizing 4.4% enriched fuel proved to be more efficient for WWER-1000 by 15% reduction in fuel cost compared to the 2-year cycle. Future developments include improvements of the in-core monitoring system and process on-line simulation based on more accurate computer codes. 7 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Utilities' nuclear fuel economic evaluation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonz, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the typical perceptions, methods, considerations, and procedures used by an operating electric utility in the economic evaluation of nuclear fuel preparation and utilization scenarios. The means given are probably not an exclusive review of those available, but are the author's recollection of systems employed to select and recommend preferable courses of action. Economic evaluation of proposed nuclear fuel scenarios is an important, but not exclusive, means of deciding on corporate action. If the economic evaluation is performed and coordinated with the other corporate considerations, such as technical and operational ability, electrical system operations management, tax effects, capital management, rates impact, etc., then the resultant recommendation may be employed to the benefit of the customers and, consequently, to the corporation

  9. Hydrogen utilization efficiency in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metkemeyer, R; Achard, P; Rouveyre, L; Picot, D [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre D' energrtique, Sophia Antipolis (France)

    1998-07-01

    In this paper, we present the work carried out within the framework of the FEVER project (Fuel cell Electric Vehicle for Efficiency and Range), an European project coordinated by Renault, joining Ecole des Mines de Paris, Ansaldo, De Nora, Air Liquide and Volvo. For the FEVER project, where an electrical air compressor is used for oxidant supply, there is no need for hydrogen spill over, meaning that the hydrogen stoichiometry has to be as close to one as possible. To determine the optimum hydrogen utilization efficiency for a 10 kW Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) fed with pure hydrogen, a 4 kW prototype fuel cell was tested with and without a hydrogen recirculator at the test facility of Ecole des Mines de Paris. Nitrogen cross over from the cathodic compartment to the anodic compartment limits the hydrogen utilization of the fuel cell without recirculator to 97.4 % whereas 100% is feasible when a recirculator is used. 5 refs.

  10. Program on MOX fuel utilization in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenda, Hirofumi

    2000-01-01

    MOX fuel utilization program by the Japanese electric power companies was released in February, 1997. Principal philosophy for MOX fuel design is that MOX fuel shall be compatible with Uranium fuel and behavior of core loaded with MOX fuel shall be similar to that of conventional core. MOX fuel is designed so that geometry and nuclear capability of MOX fuel are equivalent to Uranium fuel. (author)

  11. Alternate aircraft fuels prospects and operational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses NASA studies of the potentials of coal-derived aviation fuels, specifically synthetic aviation kerosene, liquid methane, and liquid hydrogen. Topics include areas of fuel production, air terminal requirements for aircraft fueling (for liquid hydrogen only), and the performance characteristics of aircraft designed to utilize alternate fuels. Energy requirements associated with the production of each of the three selected fuels are determined, and fuel prices are estimated. Subsonic commercial air transports using liquid hydrogen fuel have been analyzed, and their performance and the performance of aircraft which use commercial aviation kerosene are compared. Environmental and safety issues are considered.

  12. The summary of WWER-1000 fuel utilization in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasyev, A [Ukrainian State Committee on Nuclear Power Utilization, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-12-01

    The report discusses the status of the fuel and fuel cycles of WWER-1000 reactors in Ukraine. The major reasons that caused the Ukrainian utilities to overcome the conservative design solutions in order to improve fuel utilization and extend fuel burnup are shown. At the same time the sufficient fuel reliability and fuel cycle flexibility are ensured. The burnup distribution in the unloaded fuel assemblies and average fuel rod failure rate are presented. The questions of reactor core operation safety and the economical problems of the front end of the fuel cycle are also considered. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs.

  13. Fuel utilization in a progressive conversion reactor (PCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyse, C.F.; Judd, J.L.

    1981-05-01

    Preliminary studies indicate that for once-through fuel cycles, the PCR offers potential improvements over current LWRs in the following major areas: improved uranium utilization (reduced uranium demand), degraded plutonium product in spent fuel, reduced plutonium content of spent fuel, reduced amount of spent fuel, reduced fissile content of spent fuel, and reduced separative work

  14. Utilization of pulverized fuel ash in Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, Josette; Sammut, Michael; Montesin, Franco E.

    2006-01-01

    In Malta all of the waste produced is mixed and deposited at various sites around the island. None of these sites were purpose built, and all of the waste is above groundwater level. The landfills are not engineered and do not contain any measures to collect leachate and gases emanating from the disposal sites. Another waste, which is disposed of in landfills, is pulverized fuel ash (PFA), which is a by-product of coal combustion by the power station. This has been disposed of in landfill, because its use has been precluded due to the radioactivity of the ashes. The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of the pulverized fuel ash and to attempt to utilize it as a cement replacement in normal concrete mixes in the construction industry. The levels of radiation emitted from the ashes were measured by gamma spectrometry. The results of this study revealed that although at early ages cement replacement by PFA resulted in a reduction in compressive strength (P = 0), when compared to the reference concrete at later ages the strengths measured on concrete cores were comparable to the reference concrete (P > 0.05). The utilization of PFA up to 20% cement replacement in concrete did not raise the radioactivity of the concrete. In conclusion, utilization of PFA in the construction industry would be a better way of disposing of the ashes rather than controlling the leachate and any radioactivity emitted by the landfilled ashes

  15. Improvement of hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) in co-refining of coal-derived liquid and petroleum fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, M.; Ono, S. [Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1997-09-01

    The improvement in hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of coal-derived liquids by co-refining with a petroleum fraction results principally from lowering the nitrogen content of the feedstock (coal-derived liquid) by blending with a nitrogen-free petroleum fraction. Effects of different fractions of coal-derived liquids on HDN and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) were also examined. The HDN improvement by co-refining could be interpreted in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. 38 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Alternate aircraft fuels: Prospects and operational implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential use of coal-derived aviation fuels was assessed. The studies addressed the prices and thermal efficiencies associated with the production of coal-derived aviation kerosene, liquid methane and liquid hydrogen and the air terminal requirements and subsonic transport performance when utilizing liquid hydrogen. The fuel production studies indicated that liquid methane can be produced at a lower price and with a higher thermal efficiency than aviation kerosene or liquid hydrogen. Ground facilities of liquefaction, storage, distribution and refueling of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft at airports appear technically feasibile. The aircraft studies indicate modest onboard energy savings for hydrogen compared to conventional fuels. Liquid hydrogen was found to be superior to both aviation kerosene and liquid methane from the standpoint of aircraft engine emissions.

  17. Viewpoint of utilities regarding fuel management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    The engagement of utilities in nuclear power requires them to engage in an increasing amount of fuel management activities in order to carry out all the tasks involved. Essentially, these activities involve two main areas: The procurement of all steps of the fuel cycle from the head to the back end; and in-core fuel management. A general survey of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented together with the related activities and responsibilities which have to be borne by the utilities. Today's increasing utility involvement in the nuclear fuel management is shown, as well as future fuel management trends. The fuel management activities of the utilities are analysed with respect to organizational, technical, safeguarding, and financial aspects. The active participation of the utilities in fuel management helps to achieve high availability and flexibility of the nuclear power plant during its whole life as well as safe waste isolation. This can be ensured by continuous optimization of all fuel management aspects of the power plant or, on a larger scale, of a power plant system, i.e. activities by utilities to minimize fuel-cycle effects on the environment, which include optimization of fuel behaviour, and radiation exposure to the public and personnel; and technical and economic evaluations by utilities of out- and in-core fuel management. (author)

  18. Utilities' view on the fuel management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    Utilities engagement in nuclear power requires an increasing amount of fuel management activities by the utilities in order to meet all tasks involved. These activities comprise essentially two main areas: - activities to secure the procurement of all steps of the fuel cycle from the head to the back end; - activities related to the incore fuel managment. A general survey of the different steps of the nuclear fuel cycle is presented together with the related activities and responsibilities which have to be realized by the utilities. Starting in the past, today's increasing utility involvement in the nuclear fuel management is shown, as well as future fuel management trends. The scope of utilities' fuel management activities is analyzed with respect to organizational aspects, technical aspects, safeguarding aspects, and financial aspects. Utilities taking active part in the fuel management serves to achieve high availability and flexibility of the nuclear power plant during the whole plant life as well as safe waste isolation. This can be assured by continuous optimization of all fuel management aspects of the power plant or on a larger scale of a power plant system, i.e., utility activities to minimize the effects of fuel cycle on the environment, which includes optimization of fuel behaviour, radiation exposure to public and personnel, and utility technical and economic evaluations of out- and incore fuel management. These activities of nuclear power producing utilities in the field of nuclear fuel cycle are together with a close cooperation with fuel industry as well as national and international authorities a necessary basis for the further utilization of nuclear power

  19. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  1. Nuclear fuel cycle activities with an utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, E.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture will deal with the following topics: Fuel requirements: establishing fuel requirements - first core - reloads. Calculation of required uranium and separation work: reload planning - long term - short term - during refuelling; exactness of calculations: contracts: 1) Uranium and conversion; 2) Enrichment services; 3) Fuel elements; 4) Ownership; 5) Accidential loss of material; 6) Flexibility in time and amounts; 7) Specifications, surcharges; 8) Terms of payment; 9) Fuel containers, ownership, retransport; fuel reserves: 1) Natural uranium (concentrates or reserves in the ground); 2) Enriched uranium; 3) Fuel elements; 4) Cost of reserves; 5) Exchange in case of need. Handling of contracts: 1) Schedule for deliveries; Notes for deliveries; 3) Fuel accounting and balance; 4) Formalities (export and import licenses, customs etc.). Fuel cost: 1) Prices; 2) Fuel cost calculations for comparison of bids and cost forecast. (orig.) [de

  2. Practical constraints on fuel management a utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The practical and potential constraints of performing fuel management at a large utility are reviewed. Based on approximately six years of experience in performing fuel management the constraints due to commercial, technical, utility system, design methods, and personnel and computer resources are discussed in detail

  3. Adsorption of ultra-low concentration malodorous substances using coal-derived granular activated carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urano, K.; Maeda, T.; Yamashita, H.; Hagio, S.; Arioka, A.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental adsorption is reported of diosmin and 2-methylisoborneol using two types of coal-derived granular activated carbon and one derived from coconut husk. It was discovered that carbons with more pores below 15 angstroms in size gave a higher equilibrium adsorption of malodorous substances at mg/l concentrations. It was also found that the coal-derived materials, which contained more pores larger than 15 angstroms, gave faster adsorption. Given that the coal-derived carbons have a longer service life, it is concluded that they are suitable for use in full-scale adsorption plant where contact times are short. 3 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  4. the effect of advanced fuel designs on fuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarikaya, B.; Colak, U.; Tombakoglu, M.; Yilmazbayhan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Fuel management is one of the key topic in nuclear engineering. It is possible to increase fuel burnup and reactor lifetime by using advanced fuel management strategies. In order to increase the cycle lifetime, required amount of excess reactivity must be added to system. Burnable poisons can be used to compensate this excess reactivity. Usually gadolinium (Gd) is used as burnable poison. But the use of Gd presents some difficulties that have not been encountered with the use of boron

  5. Fuel utilization potential in light water reactors with once-through fuel irradiation (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampolla, D.S.; Conley, G.H.; Candelore, N.R.; Cowell, G.K.; Estes, G.P.; Flanery, B.K.; Duncombe, E.; Dunyak, J.; Satterwhite, D.G.

    1979-07-01

    Current commercial light water reactor cores operate without recylce of fuel, on a once-through fuel cycle. To help conserve the limited nuclear fuel resources, there is interest in increasing the energy yield and, hence, fuel utilization from once-through fuel irradiation. This report evaluates the potential increase in fuel utilization of light water reactor cores operating on a once-through cycle assuming 0.2% enrichment plant tails assay. This evaluation is based on a large number of survey calculations using techniques which were verified by more detailed calculations of several core concepts. It is concluded that the maximum fuel utilization which could be achieved by practical once-through pressurized light water reactor cores with either uranium or thorium is about 17 MWYth/ST U 3 O 8 (Megawatt Years Thermal per Short Ton of U 3 O 8 ). This is about 50% higher than that of current commercial light water reactor cores. Achievement of this increased fuel utilization would require average fuel burnup beyond 50,000 MWD/MT and incorporation of the following design features to reduce parasitic losses of neutrons: reflector blankets to utilize neutrons that would otherwise leak out of the core; fuel management practices in which a smaller fraction of the core is replaced at each refueling; and neutron economic reactivity control, such as movable fuel control rather than soluble boron control. For a hypothetical situation in which all neutron leakage and parasitic losses are eliminated and fuel depletion is not limited by design considerations, a maximum fuel utilization of about 20 MWYth/ST U 3 O 8 is calculated for either uranium or thorium. It is concluded that fuel utilization for comparable reactor designs is better with uranium fuel than with thorium fuel for average fuel depletions of 30,000 to 35,000 MWD/MT which are characteristic of present light water reactor cores

  6. Application of zeolite-based catalyst to hydrocracking of coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, H.; Sato, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Hinata, A.; Yoshitomi, S.; Castillo Mares, A.; Nishijima, A. (National Chemical Laboratory for Industry, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Y-zeolite supported catalysts were applied to the hydrocracking of coal-derived liquids. By the introduction of two-stage upgrading consisting of hydrotreating and hydrocracking, Wandoan coal-derived middle distillate was hydrocracked over Ni-Mo/Y-zeolite, producing a high gasoline fraction yield. Zeolite supported catalysts gave little hydrocracked compounds in the hydroprocessing of coal-derived heavy oils, even after hydrotreatment. The reaction inhibitors which seriously poison the active sites of zeolites were found to be small nitrogen-containing molecules. In the hydroprocessing of coal-derived heavy oils, zeolite supported catalysts were inferior to alumina supported catalysts. This is due to the high hydrocracking but low hydrogenation activity of zeolite supported catalysts. 22 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Investigation of sulfur-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in coal derived tars of pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion

    1999-07-01

    A study was undertaken to characterize sulphur forms in coal derived tars from pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of bituminous coal and lignite. The pyrolysis tars were analyzed for content of polycyclic aromatic sulfur hydrocarbons (PASH). 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Hawaii alternative fuels utilization program. Phase 3, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Staackmann, M.

    1996-08-01

    The Hawaii Alternative Fuels Utilization Program originated as a five-year grant awarded by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) to the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The overall program included research and demonstration efforts aimed at encouraging and sustaining the use of alternative (i.e., substitutes for gasoline and diesel) ground transportation fuels in Hawaii. Originally, research aimed at overcoming technical impediments to the widespread adoption of alternative fuels was an important facet of this program. Demonstration activities centered on the use of methanol-based fuels in alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In the present phase, operations were expanded to include flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) which can operate on M85 or regular unleaded gasoline or any combination of these two fuels. Additional demonstration work was accomplished in attempting to involve other elements of Hawaii in the promotion and use of alcohol fuels for ground transportation in Hawaii.

  9. Integrated report on the toxicological mitigation of coal liquids by hydrotreatment and other processes. [Petroleum and coal-derived products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M.R.; Griest, W.H.; Ho, C.H.; Smith, L.H.; Witschi, H.P.

    1986-06-01

    Research here on the toxicological properties of coal-derived liquids focuses on characterizing the refining process and refined products. Principle attention is given to the potential tumorigenicity of coal-derived fuels and to the identification of means to further reduce tumorigenicity should this be found necessary. Hydrotreatment is studied most extensively because it will be almost certainly required to produce commercial products and because it is likely to also greatly reduce tumorigenic activity relative to that of crude coal-liquid feedstocks. This report presents the results of a lifetime C3H mouse skin tumorigenicity assay of an H-Coal series of oils and considers the relationships between tumorigenicity, chemistry, and processing. Lifetime assay results are reported for an H-Coal syncrude mode light oil/heavy oil blend, a low severity hydrotreatment product, a high severity hydrotreatment product, a naphtha reformate, a heating oil, a petroleum-derived reformate, and a petroleum derived heating oil. Data are compared with those for an earlier study of an SRC-II blend and products of its hydrotreatment. Adequate data are presented to allow an independent qualitative assessment of the conclusions while statistical evaluation of the data is being completed. The report also documents the physical and chemical properties of the oils tested. 33 refs., 14 figs., 53 tabs.

  10. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  11. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  12. Utility residual fuel oil market conditions: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Planning for residual fuel oil usage and management remains an important part of the generation fuel planning and management function for many utilities. EPRI's Utility Planning Methods Center has maintained its analytical overview of the fuel oil markets as part of its overall fuel planning and management research program. This overview provides an update of recent fuel oil market directions. Several key events of the past year have had important implications for residual fuel oil markets. The key events have been the changes brought about by the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath, as well as continuing environmental policy developments. The Persian Gulf conflict has created renewed interest in reducing fuel oil use by utilities as part of an overall reduction in oil imports. The policy analysis performed to date has generally failed to properly evaluate utility industry capability. The Persian Gulf conflict has also resulted in an important change in the structure of international oil markets. The result of this policy-based change is likely to be a shift in oil pricing strategy. Finally, continued change in environmental requirements is continuing to shift utility residual oil requirements, but is also changing the nature of the US resid market itself

  13. Technology developments for Japanese BWR MOX fuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, M.; Mochida, T.; Nomata, T.; Asahi, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy established by the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan asserts that Japan will promote systematic utilization of MOX fuel in LWRs. Based on this Japanese nuclear energy policy, we have been pushing development of MOX fuel technology aimed at future full scale utilization of this fuel in BWRs. In this paper, the main R and D topics are described from three subject areas, MOX core and fuel design, MOX fuel irradiation behaviour, and MOX fuel fabrication technology. For the first area, we explain the compatibility of MOX fuel with UO 2 core, the feasibility of the full MOX core, and the adaptability of MOX design methods based on a mock-up criticality experiment. In the second, we outline the Tsuruga MOX irradiation program and the DOMO program, and suggest that MOX fuel behaviour is comparable to ordinary BWR UO 2 fuel behaviour. In the third, we examine the development of a fully automated MOX bundle assembling apparatus and its features. (author). 14 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs

  14. Firing the furnace? An econometric analysis of utilities' fuel choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchmann, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate how the fuel mix of German electricity producers does react to fuel price changes. The empirical analysis is based on panel data (1968-1998) of major utilities. Two different aspects of fuel choice are distinguished: at the one hand, the construction of usually fuel-specific capacities for electric power generation, i.e. investment decisions that determine the fuel mix in the long run; at the other, fuel use conditional on existing generation capacities, i.e. short-run inter-fuel substitution. According to the results from panel unit root tests, both the econometric models which describe these two aspects are specified in changes rather than levels. The partly discrete nature of investment decisions is taken into account, by constructing a discrete model of capacity adjustment. Our estimation results suggest that the fuel mix of electric utilities is price inelastic either if long-term investment or short-term inter-fuel substitution is considered. Finally, the empirical results are used to predict the potential impacts of CO 2 emissions trading on fuel choice in the German electric power industry

  15. Firing the furnace? An econometric analysis of utilities' fuel choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchmann, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate how the fuel mix of German electricity producers does react to fuel price changes. The empirical analysis is based on panel data (1968-1998) of major utilities. Two different aspects of fuel choice are distinguished: at the one hand, the construction of usually fuel-specific capacities for electric power generation, i.e. investment decisions that determine the fuel mix in the long run; at the other, fuel use conditional on existing generation capacities, i.e. short-run inter-fuel substitution. According to the results from panel unit root tests, both the econometric models which describe these two aspects are specified in changes rather than levels. The partly discrete nature of investment decisions is taken into account, by constructing a discrete model of capacity adjustment. Our estimation results suggest that the fuel mix of electric utilities is price inelastic either if long-term investment or short-term inter-fuel substitution is considered. Finally, the empirical results are used to predict the potential impacts of CO 2 emissions trading on fuel choice in the German electric power industry. (Author)

  16. Utility industry evaluation of the metal fuel facility and metal fuel performance for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, S.; Gibbons, J.P.; High, M.D.; O'Boyle, D.R.; Pickens, T.A.; Pilmer, D.F.; Tomonto, J.R.; Weinberg, C.J.

    1990-02-01

    A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the liquid metal reactor metal fuel process and facility conceptual design being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under Department of Energy sponsorship. The utility team concluded that a highly competent ANL team was making impressive progress in developing high performance advanced metal fuel and an economic processing and fabrication technology. The utility team concluded that the potential benefits of advanced metal fuel justified the development program, but that, at this early stage, there are considerable uncertainties in predicting the net overall economic benefit of metal fuel. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution towards enhancing the development program. 6 refs

  17. A scheme of better utilization of PWR spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bum Jin; Kang, Chang Soon

    1991-01-01

    The recycle of PWR spent fuels in a CANDU reactor, so called the tandem fuel cycle is investigated in this study. This scheme of utilizing PWR spent fuels will ease the shortage of spent fuel storage capacity as well as will improve the use of uranium resources. The minimum modification the design of present CANDU reactor is seeked in the recycle. Nine different fuel types are considered in this work and are classified into two categories: refabrication and reconfiguration. For refabrication, PWR spent fuels are processed and refabricated into the present 37 rod lattice structure of fuel bundle, and for reconfiguration, meanwhile, spent fuels are simply disassembled and rods are cut to fit into the present grid configuration of fuel bundle without refabrication. For each fuel option, the neutronics calculation of lattice was conducted to evaluate the allowable burn up and distribution. The fuel cycle cost of each option was also computed to assess the economic justification. The results show that most tandem fuel cycle option considered in this study are technically feasible as well as economically viable. (Author)

  18. Fuel utilization experience in Bohunice NPP and regulatory requirements for implementation of progressive fuel management strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patenyi, V [Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Bratislava (Slovakia); Darilek, P; Majercik, J [Vyskumny Ustav Jadrovych Elektrarni, Trnava (Slovakia)

    1994-12-31

    The experience gained in fuel utilization and the basic requirements for fuel licensing in the Slovak NPPs is described. The original project of WWER-440 reactors supposes 3-year fuel cycle with cycle length of about 320 full power days (FPD). Since 1984 it was reduced to 290 FPD. Based on the experience of other countries, a 4-year fuel cycle utilization started in 1987. It is illustrated with data from the Bohunice NPP units. Among 504 fuel assemblies left for the fourth burnup cycle no leakage was observed. The mean burnup achieved in the different units varied from 33.1 to 38.5 Mwd/kg U. The new fuel assemblies used are different from the recent ones in construction, thermohydraulics, water-uranium ratio, enrichment and material design. To meet the safety criteria, regulatory requirements for exploitation of new fuel in WWER-440 were formulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovak Republic. 1 tab., 5 refs.

  19. Greater utilization of wood residue fuels through improved financial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, C.D.; Ziemke, M.C.; Stanford, R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent events have focused attention on the promotion of greater utilization of biomass fuel. Considerations include the need to reduce increases in global warming and also to improve ground level air quality by limiting the use of fossil fuels. However, despite all these important environmentally related considerations, economics remains the most important factor in the decision process used to determine the feasibility of using available renewable fuels instead of more convenient fossil fuels. In many areas of the Southeast, this decision process involves choosing between wood residue fuels such as bark, sawdust and shavings and presently plentiful natural gas. The primary candidate users of wood residue fuels are industries that use large amounts of heat and electric power and are located near centers of activity in the forest products industry such as sawmills, veneer mills and furniture factories. Given that such facilities both produce wood residues and need large amounts of heat and electricity, it is understandable that these firms are often major users of wood-fired furnaces and boilers. The authors have observed that poor or incomplete financial planning by the subject firms is a major barrier to economic utilization of inexpensive and widely available renewable fuels. In this paper, the authors suggest that wider usage of improved financial planning could double the present modest annual incidence of new commercial wood-fueled installation

  20. Competitive reaction in hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of coal-derived naphtha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, M. (Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Lab.); Sakao, Y.; Ono, S. (Idemitsu Kosan Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-03-01

    The naphtha fraction derived from coal is expected to be one of the most suitable blending stocks for motor gasoline because of its high contents of cyclic hydrocarbons. However, since the contents of nitrogen and oxygen are high in the coal naphtha, the amounts of these elements must be reduced to acceptable levels. In this study, aiming to clarify the hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) performances of practical feed stocks, HDN and HDO of coal-derived naphtha and its model compounds were examined by using a catalyst Ni-Mo/Al2O3 group. There are tree types of nitrogen compounds, pyridine, pyrrole and aniline, in the coal-derived naphtha. Aniline type nitrogen compounds in the coal-derived naphtha are more resistant to HDN than pyridine type compounds, though aniline is more reactive than pyridine when the reaction is carried out individually. 14 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Thorium utilization: conversion ratio and fuel needs in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    As a preparatory study for thorium utilization in thermal reactors a study has been made of the fuel comsumption in existing reactor types. A quantitative description is given of the influence of enrichment, burnup, amount of structural material, choise of coolant and control requirements on the convertion ratio. The enrichment is an important factor and a low fuel comsumption can be achieved by increasing the enrichment

  2. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  3. Utilization of particle fuels in different reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    To date, particle fuel is only used in high temperature reactors (HTR). In this reactor type the particles exist of oxide fuel with a diameter of about 0.5 mm and are surrounded by various coatings in order to safely enclose fission products and decrease the radioactive release into the primary circuit. However, it is felt that fuel based upon spherical particles could have some advantages compared with pellets both on fabrication and in-core behaviour in several reactor concepts. This fuel is now of general interest and there is a high level of research and development activity in some countries. In order to collect, organize additional information and summarize experience on utilization of particle fuels in different reactor concepts, a questionnaire was prepared by IAEA in 1980 and sent to Member States, which might be involved in relevant developments. This survey has been prepared by a group of consultants and is mainly based on the responses to the IAEA questionnaire

  4. Government--utility interaction on spent fuel disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    The question of the needs of the electrical power industry for spent fuel storage in light of the moratorium on fuel reprocessing is addressed. The author feels that since the Federal government has assumed the responsibility for spent fuel storage, it is imperative that a firm plan, program, legislation, and funding be forthcoming immediately. Designation of an existing government site with existing nuclear activities in order to expedite the establishment of a storage facility is recommended. It is felt that the timing for such a site should be ''at the earliest possible date.'' Without storage facilities being provided by the government, utilities will be forced to build storage facilities at the reactor sites. This course of action is not considered cost effective but certainly preferable to shutting down the reactors. It is emphasized that spent fuel storage must be an interim solution and certainly not a final solution to the fuel reprocessing and waste disposal aspects of nuclear technology

  5. The burnable poisons utilization for fissile enriched CANDU fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serghiuta, D; Nainer, O [Team 3 Solutions, Don Mills, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Utilization of burnable poison for the fissile enriched fueled CANDU 6 Mk1 core is investigated. The main incentives for this analysis are the reduction of void reactivity effects, the maximization of the fissile content of fresh fuel bundles, and the achievement of better power shape control, in order to preserve the power envelope of the standard 37 rod fuel bundle. The latter allows also the preservation of construction parameters of the standard core (for example: number and location of reactivity devices). It also permits the use of regular shift fueling schemes. The paper makes analyses of MOX weapons-grade plutonium and 1.2% SEU fueled CANDU 6 Mk 1 cores. (author). 6 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  6. Upgrading including heteroatom removal from Victorian brown coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkins, F.P.; Youings, J.C.; Jackson, W.R.; Park, D. (University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania (Australia))

    1989-10-01

    It has been shown using model compounds that the hydrodeoxygenation performance of a catalyst is severely inhibited by the presence of nitrogen-containing compounds under conditions of moderate reaction severity. For a low molecular weight coal-derived liquid commercial catalysts were effective for HDO and HDN at 400{degree}C, 10 MPa H{sub 2} for 30 min reaction time. For a coal-derived liquid high in asphaltene commercial catalysts and others prepared and tested in this study were ineffective. Alternative catalysts and hydrotreating conditions of greater severity will be required for such materials to effect acceptable heteroatom removal. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Fuel cell heat utilization system; Nenryo denchi netsuriyo sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, T. [Tokyo (Japan); Omura, T. [Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-04

    In the conventional fuel cell heat utilization system, the waste heat is recovered to be utilized by either the waste heat recovery heat exchanger or the waste heat recovery steam. In the employment of the waste heat recovery heat exchanger system, however, the utility value is decreased when the temperature of the waste heat is lowered. Contrarily, in the employment of the waste heat recovery steam system, the supplementary water requirement is increased corresponding to the amount of waste heat recovery steam, resulting in the cost increase for water treatment. This invention solves the problem. In the invented fuel cell heat utilization system, a pressurized water from the steam separator is introduced into the second circuit to utilize directly the heat in the heat utilization system without employing the heat exchanger. If a blowdown valve is installed between the second circuit heat utilization system and the steam separator, the heat loss due to the blowdown can be reduced, since the low temperature water is blown down after being utilized in the heat utilization system. 4 figs.

  8. A study on KMRR utilization for fuel development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Hwan; Ryu, Woo Seog; Park, Ji Yeon; Joo, Kee Nam; Park, Jong Man; Park, Se Jin

    1991-01-01

    The most effective utilization scheme of the KMRR was studied in the field of nuclear fuel development through reviewing literatural documents on irradiation facilities and in-pile test. It is suggested that the KMRR should be used for verification tests of advanced fuels and for power ramping / cycling tests of fuel rods. In addition, the characterization tests for fuel development and the basic material research should be also performed. In-pile loops for fuel verification and/or power ramping / cycling tests are proposed to be installed in advance, and capsules are necessary for power ramping / cycling tests, fuel characterization tests and / or material tests. Instrumentation technologies for thermocouple, SPND (Self-Powered Neutron Detector) and pressure transducer, and the in-situ dimensional measuring systems have to be developed to obtain the useful and various results from irradiation tests in the KMRR. A mock-up test rod for characterizing fuel thermal response was manufactured and the related technologies as well as the design specification were set up. An equipment for microdrilling and grooving of fuel pellets and an apparatus for diffusion-bonding between zircaloy-4 and stainless steel were made. A study to verify the integrity of test rod weldments is presented using out-of pile corrosion test. (Author)

  9. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal

  10. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal

  11. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal

  12. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  13. Electric utility fuel choice behavior in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joskow, P.L.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1977-10-01

    Electric utility fuel choice behavior is analyzed by a conditional logit model to determine the effects of changing oil prices of five plants. Three of the plants faced favorable expected coal prices and, like many areas of the country, were insensitive to changing oil prices. This was not the case at the New England plant, however, where relatively small price increases would decrease the likelihood of choosing oil as an alternative fuel for new plants. The modeling of utility behavior in fuel decisions is felt to be applicable to other industries where a continuum of decision possibilities does not reasonably characterize choice alternatives. New behavior models are urged in order to obtain better predictions of the effects of a changing economic environment. 10 references.

  14. Primary migration of Jurassic coal-derived oil in Santanghu basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Zhong, N.; Ren, D. [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept of Resource Exploitation Engineering

    2000-11-01

    It is known that the differential evolution of the multiple macerals results in 'oil generation by stage', and that 'early generation, early expulsion' is one of the preconditions for the efficient accumulation of the coal-derived oil. Based upon the study on the evolution of the physical properties, related to the hydrocarbon expulsion, of the Jurassic organic rock in Santanghu basin during the course of maturation, the mechanism of the primary migration of its coal-derived oil was discussed. The rapid loss of the inherent moisture in the organic rock was not accordant with the main generation stage of the coal-derived oil, so it was unrealistic that the oil migrated by dissolution in the expelled water. It is thought that the special forming mechanism of the continuous 'bitumen network' under the condition of over-pressure and an earlier history of primary migration may be essential to the Jurassic coal-derived oil in Santanghu basin. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Newer methods for the characterization of higher molecular mass coal derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartle, K.D.

    1983-01-01

    Recent developments in a number of areas in the analytical chemistry of higher molecular mass coal derivatives are critically reviewed, viz. supercritical fluid chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography, charge-transfer fractionation, nmr spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and electrochemical analysis. (orig.) [de

  16. Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

    2011-07-29

    The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing

  17. Innovation avenues for coal derived power essential for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkley, Mark; Cruz, Elizabet; Vatanakul, Maytinee; Hynes, Rory; Stickler, Alexander

    2010-09-15

    Current political climates are culminating in the conflict between economic development and environmental regulation -- Climate Change. Developed nations are driven by and dependent upon the cheap, abundant power of coal. Today, developing nations wish to duplicate this historical pathway, yet are subject to global scrutiny. The politico-economic conflict between nations may be alleviated by innovative technologies delivering power and improved environmental considerations. The long-term economic trend has been upward and thus targeting expanding and converting existing economies to utilize innovative technologies is fundamental to addressing the balance between socio-economic and environmental interests.

  18. Air extraction in gas turbines burning coal-derived gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

    1993-11-01

    In the first phase of this contracted research, a comprehensive investigation was performed. Principally, the effort was directed to identify the technical barriers which might exist in integrating the air-blown coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art, US made, heavy-frame gas turbine. The guiding rule of the integration is to keep the compressor and the expander unchanged if possible. Because of the low-heat content of coal gas and of the need to accommodate air extraction, the combustor and perhaps, the flow region between the compressor exit and the expander inlet might need to be modified. In selecting a compressed air extraction scheme, one must consider how the scheme affects the air supply to the hot section of the turbine and the total pressure loss in the flow region. Air extraction must preserve effective cooling of the hot components, such as the transition pieces. It must also ensure proper air/fuel mixing in the combustor, hence the combustor exit pattern factor. The overall thermal efficiency of the power plant can be increased by minimizing the total pressure loss in the diffusers associated with the air extraction. Therefore, a study of airflow in the pre- and dump-diffusers with and without air extraction would provide information crucial to attaining high-thermal efficiency and to preventing hot spots. The research group at Clemson University suggested using a Griffith diffuser for the prediffuser and extracting air from the diffuser inlet. The present research establishes that the analytically identified problems in the impingement cooling flow are factual. This phase of the contracted research substantiates experimentally the advantage of using the Griffith diffuser with air extraction at the diffuser inlet.

  19. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Data for 1991 and 1990 receipts and costs for fossil fuels discussed in the Executive Summary are displayed in Tables ES1 through ES7. These data are for electric generating plants with a total steam-electric and combined-cycle nameplate capacity of 50 or more megawatts. Data presented in the Executive Summary on generation, consumption, and stocks of fossil fuels at electric utilities are based on data collected on the Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-759, ''Monthly Power Plant Report.'' These data cover all electric generating plants. The average delivered cost of coal, petroleum, and gas each decreased in 1991 from 1990 levels. Overall, the average annual cost of fossil fuels delivered to electric utilities in 1991 was $1.60 per million Btu, a decrease of $0.09 per million Btu from 1990. This was the lowest average annual cost since 1978 and was the result of the abundant supply of coal, petroleum, and gas available to electric utilities. US net generation of electricity by all electric utilities in 1991 increased by less than I percent--the smallest increase since the decline that occurred in 1982.3 Coal and gas-fired steam net generation, each, decreased by less than I percent and petroleum-fired steam net generation by nearly 5 percent. Nuclear-powered net generation, however, increased by 6 percent. Fossil fuels accounted for 68 percent of all generation; nuclear, 22 percent; and hydroelectric, 10 percent. Sales of electricity to ultimate consumers in 1991 were 2 percent higher than during 1990

  20. Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesan, Krishna

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this program was to develop low-emissions, efficient fuel-flexible combustion technology which enables operation of a given gas turbine on a wider range of opportunity fuels that lie outside of current natural gas-centered fuel specifications. The program encompasses a selection of important, representative fuels of opportunity for gas turbines with widely varying fundamental properties of combustion. The research program covers conceptual and detailed combustor design, fabrication, and testing of retrofitable and/or novel fuel-flexible gas turbine combustor hardware, specifically advanced fuel nozzle technology, at full-scale gas turbine combustor conditions. This project was performed over the period of October 2008 through September 2011 under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-08NT05868 for the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (USDOE/NETL) entitled "Fuel Flexible Combustion Systems for High-Efficiency Utilization of Opportunity Fuels in Gas Turbines". The overall objective of this program was met with great success. GE was able to successfully demonstrate the operability of two fuel-flexible combustion nozzles over a wide range of opportunity fuels at heavy-duty gas turbine conditions while meeting emissions goals. The GE MS6000B ("6B") gas turbine engine was chosen as the target platform for new fuel-flexible premixer development. Comprehensive conceptual design and analysis of new fuel-flexible premixing nozzles were undertaken. Gas turbine cycle models and detailed flow network models of the combustor provide the premixer conditions (temperature, pressure, pressure drops, velocities, and air flow splits) and illustrate the impact of widely varying fuel flow rates on the combustor. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were employed to compare some fundamental combustion characteristics of the target fuels, including flame speeds and lean blow-out behavior. Perfectly premixed combustion experiments were conducted to

  1. Forty years of the Weglopochodne Enterprise for Sale of Coal-Derived Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkowski, Z.

    1986-02-01

    Organizational structure of trade in coal-derived products in Poland from 1945 to 1985 is discussed. Fluctuations of organizational structures reflecting phases of centralization and decentralization of the national economy are analyzed. Coordinating role of the Weglopochodne Enterprise in the coking and chemical industries is stressed. Types of products produced by coking plants in Poland, trade and exports are discussed. Effects of organizational structures on development of coking plants are also discussed (increasing wear of coking plants, insufficient investment etc.). 3 references.

  2. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and... following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...

  3. A comparison of hydrogen-fueled fuel cells and combustion engines for electric utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenung, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen-fueled systems have been proposed for a number of stationary electric generation applications including remote power generation, load management, distribution system peak shaving, and reliability or power quality enhancement. Hydrogen fueling permits clean, low pollution operation. This is particularly true for systems that use hydrogen produced from electrolysis, rather than the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. Both fuel cells and combustion engines are suitable technologies for using hydrogen in many electric utility applications. This paper presents results from several studies performed for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program. A comparison between the two technologies shows that, whereas fuel cells are somewhat more energy efficient, combustion engine technology is less expensive. In this paper, a comparison of the two technologies is presented, with an emphasis on distributed power and power quality applications. The special case of a combined distributed generation I hydrogen refueling station is also addressed. The comparison is made on the basis of system costs and benefits, but also includes a comparison of technology status: power ratings and response time. A discussion of pollutant emissions and pollutant control strategies is included. The results show those electric utility applications for which each technology is best suited. (author)

  4. Nuclear fuel financing by USA investor-owned utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cave, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    Investor-owned utilities in the USA currently have almost 60 nuclear plants in commercial operation and an additional 90 plants under construction or awaiting operating licenses. To understand the specific techniques implemented to finance nuclear fuel and the advantages which they provide to individual companies, the total financing needs of the industry, the traditional pattern which utility external financing has taken, and the varied financial and regulatory bodies whose often conflicting objectives management must attempt to reconcile, must be understood. The aim of this paper is to aid such an understanding. The subject is discussed under the following headings: industry background; regulation and rating agencies; management objectives; financing structure; advantages (low financing cost; regulatory treatment; freer nature of agreement; access to commercial paper market; appropriate financing time-span; rating benefits; accounting treatment); conclusions. (U.K.)

  5. Utilization coke dust as fuel in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Utilization of coke dust available from coal carbonization plants, as a fuel in the cement industry has been undertaken and discussed in this research paper. The parameters studied include physical and chemical evaluation of the coke dust and its economic feasibility/ suitability as fuel for the cement plants. Detailed studies have been carried out on the above referred parameters. In addition a comparative study has been done to access its suitability in comparison to other fuels especially imported coal. It has been found that the coke dust contained about 66% fixed carbon, 29% ash, 4% volatile matter, 1% moisture and 0.48% sulphur. It gross calorific value was found to be 5292 Kcal/kg. The detailed analysis of coke dust ash was also performed to determine as to how its constituents will compare with the cement constituents. Keeping in view the experimental results/ data generated on the coke dust, it has been concluded that it can be quite a good substitute for imported coal. In doing so a substantial financial saving can be achieved which ranges 40-45%. (author)

  6. Bimetallic Nanocatalysts in Mesoporous Silica for Hydrogen Production from Coal-Derived Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuila, Debasish [North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States); Ilias, Shamsuddin [North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2013-02-13

    In steam reforming reactions (SRRs) of alkanes and alcohols to produce H2, noble metals such as platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are extensively used as catalyst. These metals are expensive; so, to reduce noble-metal loading, bi-metallic nanocatalysts containing non-noble metals in MCM-41 (Mobil Composition of Material No. 41, a mesoporous material) as a support material with high-surface area were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal procedure with a surfactant such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. Bi-metallic nanocatalysts of Pd-Ni and Pd-Co with varying metal loadings in MCM-41 were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The BET surface area of MCM-41 (~1000 m2/g) containing metal nanoparticles decreases with the increase in metal loading. The FTIR studies confirm strong interaction between Si-O-M (M = Pd, Ni, Co) units and successful inclusion of metal into the mesoporous silica matrix. The catalyst activities were examined in steam reforming of methanol (SRM) reactions to produce hydrogen. Reference tests using catalysts containing individual metals (Pd, Ni and Co) were also performed to investigate the effect of the bimetallic system on the catalytic behavior in the SRM reactions. The bimetallic system remarkably improves the hydrogen selectivity, methanol conversion and stability of the catalyst. The results are consistent with a synergistic behavior for the Pd-Ni-bimetallic system. The performance, durability and thermal stability of the Pd-Ni/MCM-41 and Pd-Co/MCM-41 suggest that these materials may be promising catalysts for hydrogen production from biofuels. A part of this work for synthesis and characterization of Pd-Ni-MCM-41 and its activity for SRM reactions has been published (“Development of Mesoporous Silica Encapsulated Pd-Ni Nanocatalyst for Hydrogen Production” in “Production and Purification of Ultraclean Transportation Fuels”; Hu, Y., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2011.)

  7. PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS; F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Douglas Way; Robert L. McCormick

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H(sub 2) separation. These membranes consist of a thin ((approx)10(micro)m) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. Based on preliminary results, thin Pd(sub 60)Cu(sub 40) films are expected to exhibit hydrogen flux up to ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H(sub 2) separation, and resist poisoning by H(sub 2)S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. The overall objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sequential electroless plating to fabricate Pd(sub 60)Cu(sub 40) alloy membranes on porous supports for H(sub 2) separation. These following advantages of these membranes for processing of coal-derived gas will be demonstrated: High H(sub 2) flux; Sulfur tolerant, even at very high total sulfur levels (1000 ppm); Operation at temperatures well above 500 C; and Resistance to embrittlement and degradation by thermal cycling. The proposed research plan is designed to providing a fundamental understanding of: Factors important in membrane fabrication; Optimization of membrane structure and composition; Effect of temperature, pressure, and gas composition on H(sub 2) flux and membrane selectivity; and How this membrane technology can be integrated in coal gasification-fuel cell systems

  8. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Catherine Riddle; Keri Campbell; Edward Mausolf

    2013-10-01

    Most of the aqueous processes developed, or under consideration worldwide for the recycling of used nuclear fuel (UNF) utilize the oxido-reduction properties of actinides to separate them from other radionuclides. Generally, after acid dissolution of the UNF, (essentially in nitric acid solution), actinides are separated from the raffinate by liquid-liquid extraction using specific solvents, associated along the process, with a particular reductant that will allow the separation to occur. For example, the industrial PUREX process utilizes hydroxylamine as a plutonium reductant. Hydroxylamine has numerous advantages: not only does it have the proper attributes to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III), but it is also a non-metallic chemical that is readily decomposed to innocuous products by heating. However, it has been observed that the presence of high nitric acid concentrations or impurities (such as metal ions) in hydroxylamine solutions increase the likelihood of the initiation of an autocatalytic reaction. Recently there has been some interest in the application of simple hydrophilic hydroxamic ligands such as acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) for the stripping of tetravalent actinides in the UREX process flowsheet. This approach is based on the high coordinating ability of hydroxamic acids with tetravalent actinides (Np and Pu) compared with hexavalent uranium. Thus, the use of AHA offers a route for controlling neptunium and plutonium in the UREX process by complexant based stripping of Np(IV) and Pu(IV) from the TBP solvent phase, while U(VI) ions are not affected by AHA and remain solvated in the TBP phase. In the European GANEX process, AHA is also used to form hydrophilic complexes with actinides and strip them from the organic phase into nitric acid. However, AHA does not decompose completely when treated with nitric acid and hampers nitric acid recycling. In lieu of using AHA in the UREX + process, formohydroxamic acid (FHA), although not commercially available, hold

  9. Chromatographic methods and techniques used in studies of coals, their progenitors and coal-derived materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubkova, Valentina [Jan Kochanowski University of Humanities and Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Kielce (Poland)

    2011-03-15

    The use of chromatography in studies of coals, their progenitors and coal-related products was reviewed. The specificity of the coal structure was discussed. The use of extraction in preparing study samples was discussed paying special attention to the occurrence of undesirable phenomena such as aggregation of coal derivate molecules, resulting from the formation of their dimers and trimers, and degradation of polar solvents at temperatures above 350 C. The following ways of fractionating samples of coal materials were considered: thermal, solvent, column with the use of preparative size exclusive chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography as well as membrane separation. The use of chromatography coupled with experimental techniques such as mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and pyrolysis was analysed. (orig.)

  10. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao; van Tol, Johan; Ye, Ruquan; Tour, James M.

    2015-11-01

    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10-4 T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10-4 T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn2+ (6S5/2, 3d5) (signal width = 61 (10-4 T), g = 2.0023, Aiso = 93(10-4 T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu2+ (2D5/2, 3d9) (g⊥ = 2.048 and g‖ = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn2+ and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu2+ signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements.

  11. Current status of U.S. coal utilization and non-fuel uses of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.S.; Schobert, H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the current situation is important for projecting the future direction of coal utilization. The world's annual consumption of coal in 1995 was 5104.01 million short tons (MST, 1 short ton = 0.907 metric ton). Coal plays a very important role in the US energy supply; US coal production in 1995 totaled 1033 MST, including 611.1 MST of bituminous coal, 328.4 MST of subbituminous coal, 86.1 MST of lignite, and 4.1 MST of anthracite. US coal consumption totaled 940.6 MST, with 88.1% in electric utilities, 3.5% in coke plants, 7.8% for other industrial uses, and only 0.6% in the residential and commercial sectors. The amount of fossil resources used for non-fuel purposes accounted for 8.4% of the total annual consumption in 1995. Non-fuel uses of fossil fuels particularly coal may become more important in the future. The demonstrated coal reserves in the world are large enough for consumption for over 220 years at the 1995 level, while proven oil reserves are only about 40 times the world's 1995 consumption level. Coal has several positive attributes when considered as a feedstock for aromatic chemicals, specialty chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Existing nonfuel uses of coals include (1) high temperature carbonization of bituminous and subbituminous coals to make metallurgical coke; (2) gasification of coal to make synthesis gases and other chemicals; (3) use of coal in manufacturing other materials such as activated carbons, carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and production of phosphorus (phosphoric acid); (4) the use of coal tars from carbonization and gasification for making aromatic and phenolic chemicals; (5) the use of coal tar pitch for making carbon fibers and activated carbon fibers; and (6) other non-fuel products derived from coal including combustion by-products. Coal may become more important both as an energy source and as the source of chemical feedstocks in the 21st century

  12. Carbon deposition thresholds on nickel-based solid oxide fuel cell anodes I. Fuel utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2015-03-01

    In the first of a two part publication, the effect of fuel utilization (Uf) on carbon deposition rates in solid oxide fuel cell nickel-based anodes was studied. Representative 5-component CH4 reformate compositions (CH4, H2, CO, H2O, & CO2) were selected graphically by plotting the solutions to a system of mass-balance constraint equations. The centroid of the solution space was chosen to represent a typical anode gas mixture for each nominal Uf value. Selected 5-component and 3-component gas mixtures were then delivered to anode-supported cells for 10 h, followed by determination of the resulting deposited carbon mass. The empirical carbon deposition thresholds were affected by atomic carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) fractions of the delivered gas mixtures and temperature. It was also found that CH4-rich gas mixtures caused irreversible damage, whereas atomically equivalent CO-rich compositions did not. The coking threshold predicted by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations employing graphite for the solid carbon phase agreed well with empirical thresholds at 700 °C (Uf ≈ 32%); however, at 600 °C, poor agreement was observed with the empirical threshold of ∼36%. Finally, cell operating temperatures correlated well with the difference in enthalpy between the supplied anode gas mixtures and their resulting thermodynamic equilibrium gas mixtures.

  13. Utilization of Used Nuclear Fuel in a Potential Future US Fuel Cycle Scenario - 13499

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. BOX 2008 MS6172, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831-6172 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    from the FRs due to time in the core, cooling time, reprocessing, and re-fabrication time is built into the analysis, along with impacts in delays and other key assumptions and sensitivities have been investigated. The results of this assessment highlight how the UNF from future reactors (LWRs and FRs) and the resulting fissile materials (U and Pu) from reprocessing can be effectively utilized, and show that the timings of future nuclear programs are key considerations (both for reactors and fuel cycle facilities). The analysis also highlights how the timings are relevant to managing the UNF and how such an analysis can therefore assist in informing the potential future R and D strategy and needs of the US fuel cycle programs and reactor technology. (authors)

  14. Utilization of Used Nuclear Fuel in a Potential Future US Fuel Cycle Scenario - 13499

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrall, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    from the FRs due to time in the core, cooling time, reprocessing, and re-fabrication time is built into the analysis, along with impacts in delays and other key assumptions and sensitivities have been investigated. The results of this assessment highlight how the UNF from future reactors (LWRs and FRs) and the resulting fissile materials (U and Pu) from reprocessing can be effectively utilized, and show that the timings of future nuclear programs are key considerations (both for reactors and fuel cycle facilities). The analysis also highlights how the timings are relevant to managing the UNF and how such an analysis can therefore assist in informing the potential future R and D strategy and needs of the US fuel cycle programs and reactor technology. (authors)

  15. Study on supported binary sulfide catalysts for secondary hydrogenation of coal-derived liquids; Sekitan ekikayu niji suisoka shokubai no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, H.; Matsubayashi, N.; Sato, T.; Imamura, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Nishijima, A. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-07-28

    To utilize the high performance of supported catalysts in coal liquefaction processes, one of the promising ways is to apply hydroprocessing sulfide catalysts to the secondary hydrogenation of coal-derived liquids which have undergone the solid separation unit. However, when the product yield from the first-stage liquefaction is maximized, the feed stocks in the secondary hydrogenation contain large amounts of residual fractions with preasphaltenes and metallic components. In this case, the development of a long-life catalyst is essential to establish the two-stage process as a practical one. From this viewpoint, the authors have investigated the deactivation causes of supported Ni-Mo sulfide catalysts through the analysis of the used catalysts in the secondary hydrogenation of coal-derived liquids for long periods. The major cause of the catalyst deactivation has been found to be metallic and carbonaceous deposition on the catalyst, which results thin layer which covers the catalyst particles. The catalysts located at the reactor inlet are more rapidly deactivated than those at the rector exit because of larger amounts of metallic foul ants and the above described shell-like layer. Hydrocracking active sites are much heavily deactivated compared with hydrogenation active sites. It is inferred that the basic or polar compounds contained in coal liquids are permanency adsorbed on the hydrocracking active sites. Spectroscopic analysis of the used catalysts clarified the destruction of the active phase of the binary sulfides, through the segregation and crystal growth. The structural changes of the catalysts are very likely caused by heteroatom compounds in the preasphaltenes. Thus, the primary cause of the catalyst deactivation is the preasphaltenes in the coal liquids. Hydroaromatic compounds in the coal liquids suppress the change of the deposited carbonaceous materials into inert coke which permanently deactivate the catalyst.

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu, E-mail: tour@rice.edu [Materials Science Division, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Tol, Johan van [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Ye, Ruquan [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tour, James M., E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu, E-mail: tour@rice.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-11-23

    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn{sup 2+} ({sup 6}S{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 5}) (signal width = 61 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023, A{sub iso} = 93(10{sup −4} T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu{sup 2+} ({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 9}) (g{sub ⊥} = 2.048 and g{sub ‖} = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn{sup 2+} and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu{sup 2+} signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements.

  17. Warm Cleanup of Coal-Derived Syngas: Multicontaminant Removal Process Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, Kurt A.; Rainbolt, James E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Braunberger, Beau; Li, Liyu; King, David L.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2017-02-15

    Warm cleanup of coal- or biomass-derived syngas requires sorbent and catalytic beds to protect downstream processes and catalysts from fouling. Sulfur is particularly harmful because even parts-per-million amounts are sufficient to poison downstream synthesis catalysts. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a conventional sorbent for sulfur removal; however, its operational performance using real gasifier-derived syngas and in an integrated warm cleanup process is not well reported. In this paper, we report the optimal temperature for bulk desulfurization to be 450oC, while removal of sulfur to parts-per-billion levels requires a lower temperature of approximately 350oC. Under these conditions, we found that sulfur in the form of both hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide could be absorbed equally well using ZnO. For long-term operation, sorbent regeneration is desirable to minimize process costs. Over the course of five sulfidation and regeneration cycles, a ZnO bed lost about a third of its initial sulfur capacity, however sorbent capacity stabilized. Here, we also demonstrate, at the bench-scale, a process and materials used for warm cleanup of coal-derived syngas using five operations: 1) Na2CO3 for HCl removal, 2) regenerable ZnO beds for bulk sulfur removal, 3) a second ZnO bed for trace sulfur removal, 4) a Ni-Cu/C sorbent for multi-contaminant inorganic removal, and 5) a Ir-Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst employed for ammonia decomposition and tar and light hydrocarbon steam reforming. Syngas cleanup was demonstrated through successful long-term performance of a poison-sensitive, Cu-based, water-gas-shift catalyst placed downstream of the cleanup process train. The tar reformer is an important and necessary operation with this particular gasification system; its inclusion was the difference between deactivating the water-gas catalyst with carbon deposition and successful 100-hour testing using 1 LPM of coal-derived syngas.

  18. INPR ACPR utilization in fuel behaviour studies under accidental condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Popov, Mircea

    1990-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the experimental program, investigating CANDU type fuel behaviour in transient condition, as well as the facilities supporting this program. The tests Reactivity Initiated Accident type. The experiments were performed within TRIGA ACPR facility, installed at INSTITUTE for NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS, Pitesti, ROMANIA. Studies of the safety issues took a great international developement during last years. In USA, Japan, owners of the similar reactors, and USSR there are a big commitment to such programs, intended to establish the nuclear fuel behaviour under RIA-conditions. In our country, too, there are programs aiming a complete testing of the CANDU type fuels. As it is known, RIA is not a CANDU specific accident, but the fuel behaviour in such conditions can give useful informations on the fuel cladding failure threshold and about reflooding post LOCA heat transfer condition. Based on some papers and specific requirements it was initiated and developed a safety research program on CANDU type fuel using the ACPR. The paper describes the reactor,test capsule, instrumentation, fuel samples, tests, post irradiation results. (orig.)

  19. Supplier-independent fuel management from the viewpoint of a large German utility - Objectives and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallmeyer, D.H.; Petersen, K.

    1986-01-01

    Internationally, many nuclear power operating utilities tend to have alternative fuel supplies and as a consequence also have to build up a supplier-independent fuel management. The main reasons are competition within the fuel assembly market as a price-regulating mechanism; quality comparison and corresponding improvements in fuel technology, documentation system and licensing support activities; improved necessity on the part of the manufacturer to be open for innovations; improved supply reliability by redundant manufacturer qualification; and gain of know-how for the utility by collection and comparison of the state of the art of the different suppliers in the important technical and physical disciplines

  20. The PWR fuel cycle. Utilization of uranium in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignot, E.

    After having briefly described the core of a pressurized water reactor, the fuel is examined and, in particular, the change in reactivity that governs the renewal of the fuel. The present French nuclear units are taken as example and it is shown that with the development of the nuclear complex, it is no longer possible to reason on the basis of an isolated reactor, since the running of a reactor is set by the network and its working constraints become a priority. The optimization of the fuel control must therefore cover the total cost [fr

  1. Design features of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) which improve fuel utilization in light water reactors (LWBR development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, H.C.; Freeman, L.B.

    1981-08-01

    This report surveys reactor core design features of the Light Water Breeder Reactor which make possible improved fuel utilization in light water reactor systems and breeding with the uranium-thorium fuel cycle. The impact of developing the uranium-thorium fuel cycle on utilization of nuclear fuel resources is discussed. The specific core design features related to improved fuel utilization and breeding which have been implemented in the Shippingport LWBR core are presented. These design features include a seed-blanket module with movable fuel for reactivity control, radial and axial reflcetor regions, low hafnium Zircaloy for fuel element cladding and structurals, and a closely spaced fuel rod lattice. Also included is a discussion of several design modifications which could further improve fuel utilization in future light water reactor systems. These include further development of movable fuel control, use of Zircaloy fuel rod support grids, and fuel element design modifications

  2. Application of fuel cells with heat recovery for integrated utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, V.; King, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of fuel cell powerplants with heat recovery for use in an integrated utility system. Such a design provides for a low pollution, noise-free, highly efficient integrated utility. Use of the waste heat from the fuel cell powerplant in an integrated utility system for the village center complex of a new community results in a reduction in resource consumption of 42 percent compared to conventional methods. In addition, the system has the potential of operating on fuels produced from waste materials (pyrolysis and digester gases); this would provide further reduction in energy consumption.

  3. BWR Fuel Assemblies Physics Analysis Utilizing 3D MCNP Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Ren-Tai; Williams, John B.; Folk, Ken S.

    2008-01-01

    MCNP is used to model a partially controlled BWR fresh fuel four assemblies (2x2) system for better understanding BWR fuel behavior and for benchmarking production codes. The impact of the GE14 plenum regions on axial power distribution is observed by comparing against the GE13 axial power distribution, in which the GE14 relative power is lower than the GE13 relative power at the 15. node and at the 16. node due to presence of the plenum regions in GE14 fuel in these two nodes. The segmented rod power distribution study indicates that the azimuthally dependent power distribution is very significant for the fuel rods next to the water gap in the uncontrolled portion. (authors)

  4. BWR Fuel Assemblies Physics Analysis Utilizing 3D MCNP Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ren-Tai [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Williams, John B.; Folk, Ken S. [Southern Nuclear Company, Birmingham, Alabama 35242 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    MCNP is used to model a partially controlled BWR fresh fuel four assemblies (2x2) system for better understanding BWR fuel behavior and for benchmarking production codes. The impact of the GE14 plenum regions on axial power distribution is observed by comparing against the GE13 axial power distribution, in which the GE14 relative power is lower than the GE13 relative power at the 15. node and at the 16. node due to presence of the plenum regions in GE14 fuel in these two nodes. The segmented rod power distribution study indicates that the azimuthally dependent power distribution is very significant for the fuel rods next to the water gap in the uncontrolled portion. (authors)

  5. Fuel peat utilization in Finland: resource use and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijting, J.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study was to inventorize the emissions and other stressors caused by fuel peat use in Finland. The life cycle approach was used to organise and compile the burdens associated with the fuel peat utilisation sector in the years 1994 and 1995. Fuel peat accounts for about 6.5 % of the total primary energy production in Finland. The study showed that most emissions out into the air occur during combustion of peat in energy plants. The emissions account for about 13 - 14 % of the CO 2 emissions released by fossil fuel utilisation in Finland, for 12 % of the SO 2 for 8 % of the N 2 O and approximately 4 % of the NOR emissions released by anthropogenic sources in Finland. Phosphorus releases into waters contributes for about 0.2 % while nitrogen releases account for 0.3 % in the total anthropogenic discharge in Finland. (orig.) 88 refs

  6. The Analysis Of Spent Fuel Utilization For A Gamma Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MS, Pudjijanto; Setiyanto

    2002-01-01

    The gamma irradiator using RSG-GAS spent fuels was analyzed. The cylindrical geometry of the irradiator was designed by locating the spent fuels the cylindrical periphery. The analysis was focused to evaluate the feasibilities of the irradiator as a fruits and vegetables irradiator. The spent fuels activities were calculated using Origen2 code, while the dose rate at the irradiation positions was determined by linear attenuation model with transport coefficient. The evaluated results showed that the cylindrical geometry of irradiators with diameter around 1-1.5 m gave the effective dose rate for fruits and vegetables preservation. It can be concluded that one can use the RSG-GAS spent fuels effectively as a gamma irradiator for certain applications

  7. Evaluation of Particle Counter Technology for Detection of Fuel Contamination Detection Utilizing Fuel System Supply Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    product used as a diesel product for ground use (1). Free water contamination (droplets) may appear as fine droplets or slugs of water in the fuel...methods and test procedures for the calibration and use of automatic particle counters. The transition of this technology to the fuel industry is...UNCLASSIFIED 6 UNCLASSIFIED Receipt Vehicle Fuel Tank Fuel Injector Aviation Fuel DEF (AUST) 5695B 18/16/13 Parker 18

  8. Radial power distribution shaping within a PWR fuel assembly utilizing asymmetrically loaded gadolinia-bearing fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, I.Z.

    1992-01-01

    As in-core fuel management designs evolve to meet the demands of increasing energy output, more innovative methods are developed to maintain power peaking within acceptable thermal margin limits. In-core fuel management staff must utilize various loading pattern strategies such as cross-core movement of fuel assemblies, multibatch enrichment schemes, and burnable absorbers as the primary means of controlling the radial power distribution. The utilization of fresh asymmetrically loaded gadolinia-bearing assemblies as a fuel management tool provides an additional means of controlling the radial power distribution. At Siemens Nuclear Power Corporation (SNP), fresh fuel assemblies fabricated with asymmetrically loaded gadolinia-bearing fuel rods have been used successfully for several cycles of reactor operation. Asymmetric assemblies are neutronically modeled using the same tools and models that SNP uses to model symmetrically loaded gadolinia-bearing fuel assemblies. The CASMO-2E code is used to produce the homogenized macroscopic assembly cross sections for the nodal core simulator. Optimum fuel pin locations within the asymmetrical assembly are determined using the pin-by-pin PDQ7 assembly core model for each new assembly design. The optimum pin location is determined by the rod loading that minimizes the peak-to-average pin power

  9. Chemistry and structure of coal derived asphaltenes and preasphaltenes. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    It is the objective of this project to isolate the asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions from coal liquids from a number of liquefaction processes. These processes consist of in general: catalytic hydrogenation, staged pyrolysis and solvent refining. These asphaltene fractions may be further separated by both gradient elution through column chromatography, and molecular size distribution through gel permeation chromatography. Those coal-derived asphaltene and preasphaltene fractions will be investigated by various chemical and physical methods for characterization of their structures. After the parameters are obtained, these parameters will be correlated with the refining and conversion variables which control a given type of liquefaction process. The effects of asphaltene in catalysis, ash or metal removal, desulfurization and denitrification will also be correlated. It is anticipated that understanding the role of asphaltenes in liquefaction processes will enable engineers to both improve existing processes, and to make recommendations for operational changes in planned liquefaction units in the United States. The objective of Phase 1 was to complete the isolation and separation of coal liquid fractions and to initiate their characterization. The objective of Phase 2 is to continue the characterization of coal asphaltenes and other coal liquid fractions by use of physical and instrumental methods. The structural parameters obtained will be used to postulate hypothetical average structures for coal liquid fractions. The objective of Phase 3 is to concentrate on the characterization of the preasphaltene (benzene insoluble fraction) of coal liquid fraction by the available physical and chemical methods to obtain a number of structural parameters.

  10. Improving fuel utilization in open-hearth production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozin, S Ye

    1981-01-01

    According to calculations, open-hearth shops employing oxygen can save from 20-25 kilograms of conventional fuel per ton of steel with O/sub 2/ consumption of 40-50 cubic meters per ton. Research indicates that O/sub 2/ is used most effectively during that melt period which can be shortened to the maximum extent. The use of paired lance oil nozzles with tilted jets which work in sync with reversing of the primary flame made it possible to increase furnace output by 2-3% and reduce fuel consumption by 2-3%. When building new, or rehabilitating existing, KU (expansion not given) and other equipment in the gas removal section, allowance must be made for the prospects of intensification of the process, variation in the resistance of the furnace during a run and other factors. Proper planning of preventive maintenance is essential for fuel conservation. It is well known that the specific fuel consumption increases by 10-20%, and steel production drops, during the final third than open-hearth furnance run. The possible margin for increasing output of open-hearth furnaces amounts to 10-20%, and 5-15% in terms of fuel economy. The primary elements involved in controlling the heat conditions are the study of the furnace operating indicators as a function of the mode parameters and periodic checking of the combustion performance and draft conditions; there must be increased interest in using and fulfilling the most progressive norms.

  11. Performance of a methane-fueled single-cell SOFC stack at various levels of fuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Bolden, R.; Ramprakash and Foger, K.

    1998-01-01

    Fuel-gas mixtures representing 10 to 85% utilization of a methane-steam mixture at S/C=2 were fed to a single cell stack with a Ni-based anode at 875 deg C. Cell voltage and power output were recorded at current densities of 50 to 350 mA/cm 2 . The accompanying anode off-gas composition at some of these conditions were measured using on-line gas chromatograph and compared with the compositions predicted by a thermodynamic model based on the assumption of no carbon formation. Electrical losses were measured at a chosen current density at various levels of fuel utilization by the galvanostatic current-interruption technique. Cell voltage stability was monitored for up to 1000 h at two levels of fuel utilization. The stack performance was simulated using a mathematical model of the stack; the simulations were compared with the stack test data. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  12. Analysis of oxy-fuel combustion power cycle utilizing a pressurized coal combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Gazzino, Marco; Hong, Jongsup; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Brisson II, John G; Field, Randall; Ghoniem, Ahmed F

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new technology in which fuels are burned in an environment of oxygen and recycled combustion gases. In this paper, an oxy-fuel combustion power cycle that utilizes a pressurized coal combustor is analyzed. We show that this approach recovers more thermal energy from the flue gases...

  13. Combustion and Heat Transfer Studies Utilizing Advanced Diagnostics: Fuels Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    competing reactions (Reactions (6) and (7)) and their respective rate equations (Eqs. 8 and 9). Reaction (6) has the advantage of no activation energy and...cartridges were J&W (diol, cyano and C-18) J.T. Baker (silica gel) and Alltech (IC/Ag). All were conditioned and used according to the vendors...hot fuel through the test section. At the same time the water supply to the fuel cooler is turned on. The main advantage of this procedure is that it

  14. Some possibilities for improvement of fuel utilization in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, A.; Marinkovic, N.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for improving the nuclear fuel utilization with the emphasis on LWRs are being dealt with in this paper. Some basic results concerning tubular fuel pellets of the Krsko nuclear power plants are presented, showing promising possibilities for uranium saving from the neutronics point of view. (author)

  15. UTILIZATION OF SECONDARY COMBUSTIBLE POWER RESOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MUNICIPAL AND HOUSEHOLD FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Berezovsky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows an advantage to utilize secondary power resources (lignin, wastes of fine coal with its dressing, sawdust in mixture with local types of fuel (peat in order to fulfill power supply purpose, namely: obtaining hot water in boilers of small capacity and obtaining household fuel.

  16. The Sport-Utility Vehicle: Debating Fuel-Economy Standards in Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a debate about national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) used as a foundation for exploring a public policy issue in the physical science classroom. The subject of automobile fuel economy benefits from a familiarity with thermodynamics, specifically heat engines, and is therefore applicable to a broad…

  17. Novel catalysts for upgrading coal-derived liquids. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.T.; Savage, P.E.; Briggs, D.E.

    1995-03-31

    Research described in this report was aimed at synthesizing and evaluating supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen from model and authentic coal-derived liquids. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported oxynitrides and oxycarbides were synthesized via the temperature programmed reaction of supported molybdenum oxides or hydrogen bronzes with NH{sub 3} or an equimolar mixture of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. Phase constituents and composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, CHN analysis, and neutron activation analysis. Oxygen chemisorption was used to probe the surface structure of the catalysts. The reaction rate data was collected using specially designed micro-batch reactors. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides were competitively active for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). In fact, the HDN and HDO specific reaction rates for several of the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were higher than those of a commercial Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydrotreatment catalyst. Furthermore, the product distributions indicated that the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were more hydrogen efficient than the sulfide catalysts. For HDN and HDS the catalytic activity was a strong inverse function of the Mo loading. In contrast, the benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activities did not appear to be affected by the Mo loading but were affected by the heating rate employed during nitridation or carburization. This observation suggested that HDN and HDS occurred on the same active sites while HDO was catalyzed by a different type of site.

  18. Development of 3-Pin Fuel Test Loop and Utilization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chung Young; Sim, B. S.; Lee, C. Y.

    2007-06-01

    The principal contents of this project are to design, fabricate and install the steady-state fuel test loop in HANARO for nuclear technology development. Procurement and, fabrication of main equipment, licensing and installation for fuel test loop have been performed. Following contents are described in the report. 1. Design - Design of the In-pile system and Out pile system 2. Fabrication and procurement of the equipment - Fabrication of the In-pile system and In-pool piping - Fabrication and procurement of the equipment of the out-pile system 3. Acquisition of the license - Preparation of the safety analysis report and acquisition of the license - Pre-service inspection of the facility 4. Installation and commissioning - Installation of the FTL - Development of the commissioning procedure

  19. Alternative routes to improved fuel utilization: Analysis of near-term economic incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, J.P.; Vieno, T.; Vira, J.

    1984-01-01

    The potential for savings in the nuclear fuel cycle costs is discussed from the point of view of a single utility. The analysis is concentrated on the existing and near-term economic incentives for improved fuel utilization, and the context is that of a small country without domestic fuel cycle services. In the uranium fuel cycle the extended burnup produces savings in the uranium feed as well as in the fuel fabrication and waste management requirements. The front-end fuel cycle cost impact is evaluated for BWRs. In the back-end part the situation is more specific of the concrete back-end solution. Estimates for savings in the cost of direct disposal of spent fuel are presented for a Finnish case. The economics of recycle is reviewed from a recent study on the use of MOX fuel in the Finnish BWRs. The results from a comparison with once-through alternative show that spent fuel reprocessing with consequent recycle of uranium and plutonium would be economically justified only with very high uranium prices. (author)

  20. Concept of automated system for spent fuel utilization ('Reburning') from compact nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianovski, V.V.; Lozhkin, O.V.; Nesterov, M.M.; Tarasov, N.A.; Uvarov, V.I.

    1997-01-01

    On the basic concept of an automated system of nuclear power installation safety is developed the utilization project of spent fuel from compact nuclear reactors. The main features of this project are: 1. design and creation of the mobile model-industrial installation; 2. development of the utilization and storage diagram of the spent fuel from compact nuclear reactors, with the specific recommendation for the natatorial means using both for the nuclear fuel reburning, for its transportation in places of the storage; 3. research of an opportunity during the utilization process to obtain additional power resources, ozone and others to increase of justifying expenses at the utilization; 4. creation of new generation engineering for the automation of remote control processes in the high radiation background conditions. 7 refs., 1 fig

  1. Utilization of opium poppy wastes as a fuel source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, A.; Cengiz, M.; Yayli, N. (KT University, Akcaabat-Trabzon (Turkey). Educational Faculty)

    1994-01-01

    Air dried and ground opium poppy stalks suspended in water containing sodium carbonate catalysts have been completely converted into liquid fuels and water soluble- chemicals at 573[degree]K in a 0.1 liter autoclave. Extractives and oil properties obtained from stalks and poppy seed were studied. Major components of the oil were linoleic acid (60.2%) and oleic acid (22.3%). Alcohol-benzene extractives of the stalks were 28.8% while ether solubility was 7.5%. 15 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Fuel utilization improvements in a once-through PWR fuel cycle. Final report on Task 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabby, D.

    1979-06-01

    In studying the position of the United States Department of Energy, Non-proliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program, this report determines the uranium saving associated with various improvement concepts applicable to a once-through fuel cycle of a standard four-loop Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor. Increased discharged fuel burnup from 33,000 to 45,000 MWD/MTM could achieve a 12% U 3 O 8 saving by 1990. Improved fuel management schemes combined with coastdown to 60% power, could result in U 3 O 8 savings of 6%

  3. Fuel utilization improvement in PWRs using the denatured 233U-Th cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, H.M.; Schwenk, G.A.; Toops, E.C.; Yotinen, V.O.

    1980-06-01

    A number of changes in PWR core design and/or operating strategy were evaluated to assess the fuel utilization improvement achievable by their implementation in a PWR using thorium-based fuel and operating in a recycle mode. The reference PWR for this study was identical to the B and W Standard Plant except that the fuel pellets were of denatured ( 233 U/ 238 U-Th)O 2 . An initial scoping study identified the three most promising improvement concepts as (1) a very tight lattice, (2) thorium blankets, and (3) ThO 2 rods placed in available guide tubes. A conceptual core design incorporating these changes was then developed, and the fuel utilization of this modified design was compared with that of the reference case

  4. Standardized, utility-DOE compatible, spent fuel storage-transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Virginia Power has developed and licensed a facility for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel in metal spent fuel storage casks. The modifications to the design of these casks necessary for licensing for both storage and transport of spent fuel are discussed along with the operational advantages of dual purpose storage-transport casks. Dual purpose casks can be used for storage at utility and DOE sites (MRS or repository) and for shipment between these sites with minimal spent fuel handling. The cost for a standardized system of casks that are compatible for use at both DOE and utility sites is discussed along with possible arrangements for sharing both the cost and benefits of dual purpose storage-transport casks

  5. Direct Utilization of Coal Syngas in High Temperature Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Ismail B. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This EPSCoR project had two primary goals: (i) to build infrastructure and work force at WVU to support long-term research in the area of fuel cells and related sciences; (ii) study effects of various impurities found in coal-syngas on performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). As detailed in this report the WVU research team has made significant accomplishments in both of these areas. What follows is a brief summary of these accomplishments: State-of-the-art test facilities and diagnostic tools have been built and put into use. These include cell manufacturing, half-cell and full-cell test benches, XPS, XRD, TEM, Raman, EDAX, SEM, EIS, and ESEM equipment, unique in-situ measurement techniques and test benches (Environmental EM, Transient Mass-Spectrometer-MS, and IR Optical Temperature measurements). In addition, computational capabilities have been developed culminating in a multi-scale multi-physics fuel cell simulation code, DREAM-SOFC, as well as a Beowulf cluster with 64 CPU units. We have trained 16 graduate students, 10 postdoctoral fellows, and recruited 4 new young faculty members who have actively participated in the EPSCoR project. All four of these faculty members have already been promoted to the tenured associate professor level. With the help of these faculty and students, we were able to secure 14 research awards/contracts amounting to a total of circa $5.0 Million external funding in closely related areas of research. Using the facilities mentioned above, the effects of PH3, HCl, Cl2, and H2S on cell performance have been studied in detail, mechanisms have been identified, and also remedies have been proposed and demonstrated in the laboratory. For example, it has been determined that PH3 reacts rapidly with Ni to from secondary compounds which may become softer or even melt at high temperature and then induce Ni migration to the surface of the cell changing the material and micro-structural properties of the cell drastically. It is found that

  6. Evaluation of utilizing spent fuel and plutonium by optimization model for nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Naoto; Fujii, Yasumasa; Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear power generation has played an important role in power generation mix as a base load power supply. On the other hand, increasing spent fuel and separated plutonium is a long-standing problem. It is expected that advanced fast reactor and high temperature gas reactor could reduce nuclear waste and effectively consume it as valuable resources. Specific scenarios about spent fuel and the gross weight of plutonium are assumed in this study, and the installable potential of fuel cycle and the most suitable reactor mix are analyzed. The model is formulated as liner programing. The model identifies the best strategy of mix of nuclear reactor types to minimize the present value of total cost in a forecast period. As a result, Fast Breeder Reactor and High Temperature Gas Reactor reduce stored spent fuel and increase the consumptions of plutonium. (author)

  7. Spent fuel transportation - lessons drawn and ways forward: European utilities perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debes, M.; Schimmele, J.G.; Sannen, H.; Patak, H.

    2001-01-01

    Surface contamination that was found on surfaces of spent fuel shipping containers (flasks) in 1998 was treated differently by authorities in different European countries. In two countries, Germany and Switzerland, spent fuel shipments were stopped for an indefinite period by Government authorities. This paper, co-authored by representatives of utilities from four European countries, explains the rationale for surface contamination limits in transport regulations and attempts to place the observed contamination in proper perspective. (author)

  8. Overview of reductants utilized in nuclear fuel reprocessing/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paviet-Hartmann, P. [Idaho National Laboratory, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Riddle, C. [Idaho National Laboratory, Material and Fuel Complex, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6150 (United States); Campbell, K. [University of Nevada Las Vegas, 4505 S. Maryland Pkwy, Las Vegas, NV 89144 (United States); Mausolf, E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Batelle Blvd, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The most widely used reductant to partition plutonium from uranium in the Purex process was ferrous sulfamate, other alternates were proposed such as hydrazine-stabilized ferrous nitrate or uranous nitrate, platinum catalyzed hydrogen, and hydrazine, hydroxylamine salts. New candidates to replace hydrazine or hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) are pursued worldwide. They may improve the performance of the industrial Purex process towards different operations such as de-extraction of plutonium and reduction of the amount of hydrazine which will limit the formation of hydrazoic acid. When looking at future recycling technologies using hydroxamic ligands, neither acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) nor formohydroxamic acid (FHA) seem promising because they hydrolyze to give hydroxylamine and the parent carboxylic acid. Hydroxyethylhydrazine, HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 3} (HEH) is a promising non-salt-forming reductant of Np and Pu ions because it is selective to neptunium and plutonium ions at room temperature and at relatively low acidity, it could serve as a replacement of HAN or AHA for the development of a novel used nuclear fuel recycling process.

  9. Spent fuel storage requirements for nuclear utilities and OCRWM [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.

    1990-03-01

    Projected spent fuel generation at US power reactors exceeds estimated aggregate pool storage capacity by approximately 30,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU). Based on the current repository schedule, little of the spent fuel inventory will be disposed of prior to shutdown of existing reactors, and a large additional capacity for surface storage of spent fuel will be required, either at reactors or at a centralized DOE storage site. Allocation of this storage requirement across the utility-DOE interface, and the resulting implications for reactor sites and the performance of the federal waste management system, were studied during the DOE MRS System Study and again subsequent to the reassessment of the repository schedule. Spent fuel logistics and cost results from these analyses will be used in definition of spent fuel storage capacity requirements for the federal system. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  10. Where U.S. utilities seek fuel to power reactors after 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    How utilities try to assure uranium supplies emerged Feb. 25 at a press conference in Canberra with four representatives of utilities that supply 20% of the operating nuclear capacity in the United States. Earlier, the speakers indicated that American import requirements would far exceed Australian estimates of the potential export market for Australian uranium. Australia, with the world's largest uncommitted uranium reserves, is wary of exporting because the opposition Labor Party adamantly opposes uranium development. If Labor returns to power, it could decide not to honor contracts by the present government. Participants included: Bernard Cherry, fuel manager at General Public Utilities; Colin Campbell of the Yankee Atomic Service Co., which provides engineering and fuel-supply service for seven New England nuclear plants; Jack Gilleland, assistant manager of power at the Tennessee Valley Authority; and Ralph Bostian, manager for systems results and fuel management at the Duke Power Co. When asked about available uranium supplies from Africa, the participants were dubious about those supplies; this led to a discussion on why the utilities are seeking their own sources. The answers are obvious. ERDA has indicated that about one-half of the operating reactors have fuel coverage beyond six reloads and about one-half of the reactors under construction have fuel coverage beyond two reloads

  11. Advance reactor and fuel-cycle systems--potentials and limitations for United States utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.; Williams, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential benefits and limitations of advance reactor and fuel-cycle systems for United States utilities. The results of the review of advanced technologies show that for the near and midterm, the only advance reactor and fuel-cycle system with significant potential for United States utilities is the current LWR, and evolutionary, not revolutionary, enhancements. For the long term, the liquid-metal breeder reactor continues to be the most promising advance nuclear option. The major factors leading to this conclusion are summarized

  12. Fossil fuel toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A program is described for the investigation of the toxicology of coal-derived effluents that will utilize a battery of cellular and mammalian test systems and end points to evaluate the toxicological effects of acute, sub-acute, and long-term, low-level exposure to gaseous and particulate effluents from combustion of coal, with special emphasis on fluidized bed combustion

  13. Innovative nuclear thermal rocket concept utilizing LEU fuel for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Venneri, Paolo; Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2015-01-01

    Space is one of the best places for humanity to turn to keep learning and exploiting. A Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is a viable and more efficient option for human space exploration than the existing Chemical Rockets (CRs) which are highly inefficient for long-term manned missions such as to Mars and its satellites. NERVA derived NTR engines have been studied for the human missions as a mainstream in the United States of America (USA). Actually, the NERVA technology has already been developed and successfully tested since 1950s. The state-of-the-art technology is based on a Hydrogen gas (H_2) cooled high temperature reactor with solid core utilizing High-Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to reduce heavy metal mass and to use fast or epithermal neutron spectrums enabling simple core designs. However, even though the NTR designs utilizing HEU is the best option in terms of rocket performance, they inevitably provoke nuclear proliferation obstacles on all Research and Development (R and D) activities by civilians and non-nuclear weapon states, and its eventual commercialization. To surmount the security issue to use HEU fuel for a NTR, a concept of the innovative NTR engine, Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket utilizing Low-Enriched Uranium fuel (KANUTER-LEU) is presented in this paper. The design goal of KANUTER-LEU is to make use of a LEU fuel for its compact reactor, but does not sacrifice the rocket performance relative to the traditional NTRs utilizing HEU. KANUTER-LEU mainly consists of a fission reactor utilizing H_2 propellant, a propulsion system and an optional Electricity Generation System as a bimodal engine. To implement LEU fuel for the reactor, the innovative engine adopts W-UO_2 CERMET fuel to drastically increase uranium density and thermal neutron spectrum to improve neutron economy in the core. The moderator and structural material selections also consider neutronic and thermo-physical characteristics to reduce non-fission neutron loss and

  14. Feasibility study on utilization of radiation from spent fuel in storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi; Sakamoto, Kazuaki; Saegusa, Toshiari; Sakaya, Tadatsugu; Fujiwara, Hiroaki.

    1997-01-01

    Spent fuels of nuclear power plant are stored safely until reprocessing because they are radioactive in addition to energy resources. It is foreseen that the amount of the stored spent fuel increases in the long term. Therefore, in the government, discussion on the storage away from reactor is in progress as well as one at reactor. Spent fuel emits a radioactive ray for a long time. In the storage facility, radiation is shielded not to have a detrimental influence upon the health and environment. If radioactive ray is incorrectly handled, it is hazardous for the health and the environment. But, it is very useful if it is properly utilized under a careful management. In the industry, radioactive ray by isotopes (e.g. Co-60) is used widely. In a view of the effective utilization of energy, the promotion of the siting, the regional development and the creation of employment opportunities of local inhabitants, it is preferable to make use of radiation from the spent fuel. In this study, feasibility of utilization of radiation energy from the spent fuel in a storage facility was evaluated. (author)

  15. The Design Features of the Double-Banked AMBIDEXTER Utilizing DUPIC Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Tae Kyu [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Joon; Hong, Sung Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Myung Hwan [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Tae An [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Se Kee [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Since the on-site spent fuel storage capabilities at reactors in Korea are expected to be saturated in a few years, the government has been pressed to find a solution for the spent nuclear fuel. So far one of workable means for reducing the load would be utilizing DUPIC fuel cycle technology. The technology was developed through Korea-Canada-U.S. collaboration to utilize the LWR spent fuel for the CANDU reactor. However, by various sociopolitical reasons, the DUPIC technology has not been yet commercialized. As the other alternatives to use the DUPIC technology, Gen-IV reactors would be pertinent. In the following session, the design features of a molten salt reactor system that can burn DUPIC fuel are explained. The followings are derived as conclusions after considering all the factors; The AMDEC, compared to ORIGEN2 simulations, can calculate the nuclides concentration changes within 1% deviation in various core zones and reactor system components by using different library sets which are weighted with each neutron spectrum; Fuel-flow effects coupled with nuclear reactions is well reflected in the AMDEC.

  16. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Volume II. BNFP: utilization alternatives, evaluations, and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Descriptions and status of the Barnwell separations facility and related fuel cycle facilities are given. Alternative uses other than reprocessing, evaluation of uses for reprocessing alternatives, resource utilization and its relationship to U.S. security objectives, and evaluation of ownership-management options are discussed

  17. Fabrication of the fuel elements cladding for utilization in the fluidized bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, L.; Sefidvash, F.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the fabrication of cladding of the spherical fuel elements for the utilization in the fluidized bed nuclear reactor is presented. Some prelimminary experiments were performed to adopt a method which adapt itself to mass production with the desired high quality. Still methods for cladding fabrication are under study. (Author) [pt

  18. Role of transportation in the utilities' management of spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Additional spent fuel storage can be provided by using a combination of wet and dry storage technologies, with the technology or technologies used in any specific instance being determined by the particular circumstances involved. The capability for spent fuel storage at a reactor site can be enhanced using any one or a combination of the following: expansion of existing pool storage capacity; more efficient use of available capacity; and addition of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI). Each of these methods, which are described more fully below, have characteristics that may make them more or less suitable for use, depending on the nuclear power plant where they will be deployed, the magnitude of the need for additional storage, the utility's overall spent fuel management strategy, and other factors. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. The comparison of alternatives for nuclear spent fuel management using multi-attribute utility function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. W.; Kang, C. S.

    1999-01-01

    It is necessary to find a solution immediately to nuclear spent fuel management that is temporarily stored in on-site spent fuel storage before the saturation of the storage. However the choice of alternative for nuclear spent fuel management consists of complex process that are affected by economic, technical and social factors. And it is not easy to quantify these factors; public opinion, probability of diplomatic problem and contribution to development of nuclear technology. Therefore the analysis of the affecting factors and assessment of alternatives are required. This study performed the comparison of the alternatives for nuclear spent fuel management using MAU (Multi-Attribute Utility Function) and AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process)

  20. Modified fuel assembly design for pressurized water reactors with improved fuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ronen, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A method for reactivity control through variation of the moderator content in the reactor core was proposed. The main idea is to adjust the amount of water in the core from a low value at beginning of cycle to a high value at end of cycle, so as to compensate for fissile material burnup and buildup of fission products. The possible implementation of this idea may be carried out by introducing a number of hollow tubes into the fuel assembly between the fuel rods. Then variation of the moderator content in the core may be managed through a change of the water level in these tubes. cated a potential savings in the fuel cycle requirements and costs. Preliminary steady-state thermal-hydraulic calculations indicate the possibility of implementing the proposed method in the existing pressurized water reactor plants. Feasibility of the proposed design may be finally established after rigorous thermal hydraulics as well as safety analysis calculations. Furthermore, there is need to elaborate the mechanical design of the pressure vessel internals together with cost benefit analysis

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell bi-layer anode with gadolinia-doped ceria for utilization of solid carbon fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, Isaiah D. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 290A Toomey Hall, 400 West 13th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 223 McNutt Hall, 1400 N. Bishop, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Koylu, Umit O. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 290A Toomey Hall, 400 West 13th Street, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Dogan, Fatih [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 223 McNutt Hall, 1400 N. Bishop, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Pyrolytic carbon was used as fuel in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and a bi-layer anode composed of nickel oxide gadolinia-doped ceria (NiO-GDC) and NiO-YSZ. The common problems of bulk shrinkage and emergent porosity in the YSZ layer adjacent to the GDC/YSZ interface were avoided by using an interlayer of porous NiO-YSZ as a buffer anode layer between the electrolyte and the NiO-GDC primary anode. Cells were fabricated from commercially available component powders so that unconventional production methods suggested in the literature were avoided, that is, the necessity of glycine-nitrate combustion synthesis, specialty multicomponent oxide powders, sputtering, or chemical vapor deposition. The easily-fabricated cell was successfully utilized with hydrogen and propane fuels as well as carbon deposited on the anode during the cyclic operation with the propane. A cell of similar construction could be used in the exhaust stream of a diesel engine to capture and utilize soot for secondary power generation and decreased particulate pollution without the need for filter regeneration. (author)

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

    1999-09-01

    Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  4. Comparison tests, in a pilot plant, of the performance of a coal-derived granular activated carbon: a comparison with coconut husk derived activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, S.; Kasahara, A.; Tsuruzono, Y.; Gotoh, M.

    1986-01-01

    A 160 m/sup 3//d pilot plant has been used in a series of comparison tests of the performance of coal-derived and coconut husk derived activated carbons. Activated carbons are used to remove trihalomethane precursors and malodorous substances from city water. A higher mean removal of coloration and COD/sub M//sub n/ was achieved with the coal-derived carbon (by factors of 1.5 and 1.8, respectively). The two activated carbons gave similar performances as regards turbidity, alkalinity, total iron and total manganese. 4 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Catalytic hydrotreatment of Illinois No. 6 coal-derived naphtha: comparison of molybdenum nitride and molybdenum sulfide for heteroatom removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raje, A.; Liaw, S.J.; Chary, K.V.R.; Davis, B.H. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1995-03-16

    The hydrotreatment of naphtha derived from Illinois No. 6 coal was investigated using molybdenum sulfide and nitride catalysts. The two catalysts are compared on the basis of total catalyst weight. Molybdenum sulfide is more active than molybdenum nitride for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of a coal-derived naphtha. The rate of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the naphtha over both catalysts are comparable. For hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), the sulfide is more active than the nitride only at higher temperatures ({gt}325{degree}C). Based upon conversion data, the naphtha can be lumped into a reactive and a less reactive fraction with each following first-order kinetics for heteroatom removal. The HDS and HDN rates and activation energies of the less reactive lump are smaller for the nitride than for the sulfide catalyst.

  6. Development of the spent fuel disassembling process by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T. K.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Yun, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    For developing the spent fuel disassembling process, the 3D graphic simulation has been established by utilizing the 3D graphic design technology which is widely used in the industry. The spent fuel disassembling process consists of a downender, a rod extraction device, a rod cutting device, a pellet extracting device and a skeleton compaction device. In this study, the 3D graphical design model of these devices is implemented by conceptual design and established the virtual workcell within kinematics to motion of each device. By implementing this graphic simulation, all the unit process involved in the spent fuel disassembling processes are analyzed and optimized. The 3D graphical model and the 3D graphic simulation can be effectively used for designing the process equipment, as well as the optimized process and maintenance process

  7. Microbial penetration and utilization of organic aircraft fuel-tank coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, M G; Reynolds, R J; Hedrick, H G

    1967-11-01

    Microorganisms have been found as contaminants in various types of aircraft fuel tanks. Their presence introduces problems in the operation of the aircraft, including destruction of components such as the organic coatings used as protective linings in the fuel tanks. Microbial penetration and utilization of the currently used organic coatings, EC 776, DV 1180, PR 1560, and DeSoto 1080, were determined by changes in electrical resistances of the coatings; mycelial weight changes; growth counts of the bacteria; and manometric determinations on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GD-FW B-25) and Cladosporium resinae (QMC-7998). The results indicate EC 776 and DV 1180 to be less resistant to microbial degradation than the other coatings. Organic coatings, serving as a source of nutrition, would be conducive to population buildups in aircraft fuel tanks.

  8. Utilization of corn cob biochar in a direct carbon fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinshuai; Zhao, Yicheng; Li, Yongdan

    2014-12-01

    Biochar obtained from the pyrolysis of corn cob is used as the fuel of a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) employing a composite electrolyte composed of a samarium doped ceria (SDC) and a eutectic carbonate phase. An anode layer made of NiO and SDC is utilized to suppress the cathode corrosion by the molten carbonate and improves the whole cell stability. The anode off-gas of the fuel cell is analyzed with a gas chromatograph. The effect of working temperature on the cell resistance and power output is examined. The maximum power output achieves 185 mW cm-2 at a current density of 340 mA cm-2 and 750 °C. An anode reaction scheme including the Boudouard reaction is proposed.

  9. MOX fuel: a contribution to disarmament. U.S. utilities' response to DOE's plutonium disposition decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, M.

    1997-01-01

    The author is chairman of the Nuclear Energy Institute Plutonium Disposition Working Group, which includes 11 nuclear utilities, including Ontario Hydro, and all the European fabricators of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. A feasibility study is going on, to see if Russian or other weapons grade plutonium made into MOX fuel can be used in US, Canadian, or other power reactors. The US nuclear power industry is going through a period of change, and its primary responsibility must be the safe, reliable and economic operation of its plants. There is no current US MOX capacity, but the Europeans have have manufactured and burned over 400 tons of MOX fuel since 1963. Canada may be involved, initially through a pilot-scale experiment in NRU reactor

  10. Improving fuel utilization in SmAHTR with spectral shift control design: Proof of concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyar, D.; Lindley, B.A.; Mohamed, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving the fuel utilization in a graphite moderated reactor by adopting the ‘spectral shift’ concept. • The feasibility of this concept was tested in the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor. • At BOL, the reactor is under-moderated, with excess neutrons being primarily breeding 239 Pu. • Graphite is continuously inserted thermalizing the neutron spectrum and increasing reactivity. • The extra 239 Pu bred during the cycle is then burned, allowing the cycle to be extended. - Abstract: This paper presents a spectral shift design based approach to improve the fuel utilization factor or alternatively to increase the cycle length in a graphite moderated reactor. The feasibility of this concept was tested in the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR). This is a small sized Fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) that uses tri-isotropic (TRISO)-coated particle fuels and graphite moderator materials. A major benefit of the TRISO particles is the ability to mitigate fission product release in the case of an accident. However, the fabrication costs associated with TRISO particles are expected to be significantly higher than the traditional UO 2 fuel. The preliminary studies presented in the paper are focused on extending the achievable irradiation period without increasing the value of the enrichment. In order to increase the discharge burnup, the design includes graphite structures that are initially removed from the core. This imposes a harder spectrum, which enhances the breeding of 239 Pu. Then, the graphite structures are gradually and continuously inserted into the core to sustain criticality. This procedure shifts the hard spectrum into a more thermal one and enables a more efficient utilization of 239 Pu. The preliminary results indicate that this design achieves considerably longer irradiation periods and hence lower fuel cycle costs than the reference design.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  12. Steam generators and fuel engineering utilizing solid, liquid, gaseous and special fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thor, G

    1983-01-01

    Provided were technological specifications and details in the design of brown coal fired steam generators, produced in the German Democratic Republic. These steam generators range in their capacity between 1.6 and more than 1,000 t/h. The appropriate coal feeding systems, water supply and cleaning equipment, coal pulverizers and ash removal units are also manufactured. Various schemes show the design of a 25 to 64 t/h, a 320 t/h and an 815 t/h brown coal steam generator. Specifications are given for series of fuel pulverizers available, for the water circulation system and steam evaporators. The VEB Dampferzeugerbau Berlin also offers steam generators for saliniferous brown coal with a steam capacity up to 125 t/h, steam generators for pulverized black coal with a capacity up to 350 t/h and oil and gas fired generators up to 250 t/h. The company has experience in combustion of biomass (sugar cane waste) with oil in steam generators of more than 100 t/h capacity, and in projecting firing systems for other biofuels including rice, peanut and coconut hulls, wood and bark. Multi-biofuel firing in combination with coal for steam generation is also regarded as possible. (In English)

  13. Consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles: Comparing a utility maximization and a regret minimization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorus, Caspar G.; Koetse, Mark J.; Hoen, Anco

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a utility-based and a regret-based model of consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles, based on a large-scale stated choice-experiment held among company car leasers in The Netherlands. Estimation and application of random utility maximization and random regret minimization discrete choice models shows that while the two models achieve almost identical fit with the data and differ only marginally in terms of predictive ability, they generate rather different choice probability-simulations and policy implications. The most eye-catching difference between the two models is that the random regret minimization model accommodates a compromise-effect, as it assigns relatively high choice probabilities to alternative fuel vehicles that perform reasonably well on each dimension instead of having a strong performance on some dimensions and a poor performance on others. - Highlights: • Utility- and regret-based models of preferences for alternative fuel vehicles. • Estimation based on stated choice-experiment among Dutch company car leasers. • Models generate rather different choice probabilities and policy implications. • Regret-based model accommodates a compromise-effect

  14. Long-term fuel cycle scenarios for advanced utilization of plutonium from LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Osamu; Tatematsu, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    The Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible fuel cycle (FLWR) realizes multiple recycling and breeding of Pu, which enables effective utilization of the uranium resource, and is based on well-developed LWR technologies. This reactor offers flexibility for the future nuclear fuel cycle situation. Three scenarios were defined for future deployment of nuclear power generation and fuel cycle systems in Japan and analyzed from the view point of Pu recycle, natural uranium consumption and stock of spent fuels. The LWR with long-term Pu recycle with or without MOX fuel reprocessing needs uranium of about 9 thousands tons per year and accumulated uranium consumption of 1.5 million tons in 2150. If the FLWR with net conversion ratio of 0.89 and 1.04 would be introduced in 2025 and 2050 or 2030, it would suppress ultimate required natural uranium and control the uranium consumption about less than 1.2 million tons in 2150, while the FLWR in 2025 and FBR with breeding ratio of 1.16 in 2050 will at 0.9 million tons after in 2100. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Loading pattern optimization with maximum utilization of discharging fuel employing adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, T. K.; Joo, H. G.; Kim, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to find the most economical loading pattern (LP) considering multi-cycle fuel loading, multi-objective fuel LP optimization problems are examined by employing an adaptively constrained discontinuous penalty function (ACDPF) method. This is an improved method to simplify the complicated acceptance logic of the original DPF method in that the stochastic effects caused by the different random number sequence can be reduced. The effectiveness of the multi-objective simulated annealing (SA) algorithm employing ACDPF is examined for the reload core LP of Cycle 4 of Yonggwang Nuclear Unit 4. Several optimization runs are performed with different numbers of objectives consisting of cycle length and average burnup of fuels to be discharged or reloaded. The candidate LPs obtained from the multi-objective optimization runs turn out to be better than the reference LP in the aspects of cycle length and utilization of given fuels. It is note that the proposed ACDPF based MOSA algorithm can be a practical method to obtain an economical LP considering multi-cycle fuel loading. (authors)

  16. Thorium Fuel Utilization Analysis on Small Long Life Reactor for Different Coolant Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permana, Sidik

    2017-07-01

    A small power reactor and long operation which can be deployed for less population and remote area has been proposed by the IAEA as a small and medium reactor (SMR) program. Beside uranium utilization, it can be used also thorium fuel resources for SMR as a part of optimalization of nuclear fuel as a “partner” fuel with uranium fuel. A small long-life reactor based on thorium fuel cycle for several reactor coolant types and several power output has been evaluated in the present study for 10 years period of reactor operation. Several key parameters are used to evaluate its effect to the reactor performances such as reactor criticality, excess reactivity, reactor burnup achievement and power density profile. Water-cooled types give higher criticality than liquid metal coolants. Liquid metal coolant for fast reactor system gives less criticality especially at beginning of cycle (BOC), which shows liquid metal coolant system obtains almost stable criticality condition. Liquid metal coolants are relatively less excess reactivity to maintain longer reactor operation than water coolants. In addition, liquid metal coolant gives higher achievable burnup than water coolant types as well as higher power density for liquid metal coolants.

  17. Developing RCM Strategy for Hydrogen Fuel Cells Utilizing On Line E-Condition Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglee, D; Knowles, M J

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are considered to be a viable solution to problems such as carbon emissions and fuel shortages for road transport. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are mainly used in this purpose because they can run at low temperatures and have a simple structure. Yet high maintenance costs and the inherent dangers of maintaining equipment using hydrogen are two main issues which need to be addressed. The development of appropriate and efficient strategies is currently lacking with regard to fuel cell maintenance. A Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) approach offers considerable benefit to the management of fuel cell maintenance since it includes an identification and consideration of the impact of critical components. Technological developments in e-maintenance systems, radio-frequency identification (RFID) and personal digital assistants (PDAs) have proven to satisfy the increasing demand for improved reliability, efficiency and safety. RFID technology is used to store and remotely retrieve electronic maintenance data in order to provide instant access to up-to-date, accurate and detailed information. The aim is to support fuel cell maintenance decisions by developing and applying a blend of leading-edge communications and sensor technology including RFID. The purpose of this paper is to review and present the state of the art in fuel cell condition monitoring and maintenance utilizing RCM and RFID technologies. Using an RCM analysis critical components and fault modes are identified. RFID tags are used to store the critical information, possible faults and their cause and effect. The relationship between causes, faults, symptoms and long term implications of fault conditions are summarized. Finally conclusions are drawn regarding suggested maintenance strategies and the optimal structure for an integrated, cost effective condition monitoring and maintenance management system.

  18. Developing RCM Strategy for Hydrogen Fuel Cells Utilizing On Line E-Condition Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglee, D.; Knowles, M. J.

    2012-05-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are considered to be a viable solution to problems such as carbon emissions and fuel shortages for road transport. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are mainly used in this purpose because they can run at low temperatures and have a simple structure. Yet high maintenance costs and the inherent dangers of maintaining equipment using hydrogen are two main issues which need to be addressed. The development of appropriate and efficient strategies is currently lacking with regard to fuel cell maintenance. A Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) approach offers considerable benefit to the management of fuel cell maintenance since it includes an identification and consideration of the impact of critical components. Technological developments in e-maintenance systems, radio-frequency identification (RFID) and personal digital assistants (PDAs) have proven to satisfy the increasing demand for improved reliability, efficiency and safety. RFID technology is used to store and remotely retrieve electronic maintenance data in order to provide instant access to up-to-date, accurate and detailed information. The aim is to support fuel cell maintenance decisions by developing and applying a blend of leading-edge communications and sensor technology including RFID. The purpose of this paper is to review and present the state of the art in fuel cell condition monitoring and maintenance utilizing RCM and RFID technologies. Using an RCM analysis critical components and fault modes are identified. RFID tags are used to store the critical information, possible faults and their cause and effect. The relationship between causes, faults, symptoms and long term implications of fault conditions are summarized. Finally conclusions are drawn regarding suggested maintenance strategies and the optimal structure for an integrated, cost effective condition monitoring and maintenance management system.

  19. Research reactor utilization, safety, decommissioning, fuel and waste management. Posters of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    For more than 50 years research reactors have played an important role in the development of nuclear science and technology. They have made significant contributions to a large number of disciplines as well as to the educational and research programmes of about 70 countries world wide. About 675 research reactors have been built to date, of which some 278 are now operating in 59 countries (86 of them in 38 developing Member States). Altogether over 13,000 reactor-years of cumulative operational experience has been gained during this remarkable period. The objective of this conference was to foster the exchange of information on current research reactor concerns related to safety, operation, utilization, decommissioning and to provide a forum for reactor operators, designers, managers, users and regulators to share experience, exchange opinions and to discuss options and priorities. The topical areas covered were: a) Utilization, including new trends and directions for utilization of research reactors. Effective management of research reactors and associated facilities. Engineering considerations and experience related to refurbishment and modifications. Strategic planning and marketing. Classical applications (nuclear activation analysis, isotope production, neutron beam applications, industrial irradiations, medical applications). Training for operators. Educational programmes using a reactor. Current developments in design and fabrication of experimental facilities. Irradiation facilities. Projects for regional uses of facilities. Core management and calculation tools. Future trends for reactors. Use of simulators for training and educational programmes. b) Safety, including experience with the preparation and review of safety analysis reports. Human factors in safety analysis. Management of extended shutdown periods. Modifications: safety analysis, regulatory aspects, commissioning programmes. Engineering safety features. Safety culture. Safety peer reviews and

  20. Direct synthesis of Pt-free catalyst on gas diffusion layer of fuel cell and usage of high boiling point fuels for efficient utilization of waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandan, Ravi; Goswami, Gopal Krishna; Nanda, Karuna Kar

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Direct-grown boron-doped carbon nanotubes on gas-diffusion layer as efficient Pt-free cathode catalyst for alcohol fuel cells, high boiling point fuels used to obtain hot fuels for the enhancement of cell performance that paves the way for the utilization of waste heat. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •One-step direct synthesis of boron-doped carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) on gas diffusion layer (GDL). •Home built fuel-cell testing using BCNTs on GDL as Pt-free cathode catalyst. •BCNTs exhibit concentration dependent oxygen reduction reaction and the cell performance. •Effective utilization of waste heat to raise the fuel temperature. •Fuel selectivity to raise the fuel temperature and the overall performance of the fuel cells. -- Abstract: Gas diffusion layers (GDL) and electrocatalysts are integral parts of fuel cells. It is, however, a challenging task to grow Pt-free robust electrocatalyst directly on GDL for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) – a key reaction in fuel cells. Here, we demonstrate that boron-doped carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) grown directly on gas-diffusion layer (which avoid the need of ionomer solution used for catalyst loading) can be used as efficient Pt-free catalyst in alcohol fuel cells. Increase in boron concentration improves the electrochemical ORR activity in terms of onset and ORR peak positions, half-wave potentials and diffusion-limited current density that ensure the optimization of the device performance. The preferential 4e − pathway, excellent cell performance, superior tolerance to fuel crossover and long-term stability makes directly grown BCNTs as an efficient Pt-free cathode catalyst for cost-effective fuel cells. The maximum power density of the fuel cell is found to increase monotonically with boron concentration. In addition to the application of BCNTs in fuel cell, we have introduced the concept of hot fuels so that waste heat can effectively be used and external power sources can be avoided. The fuel

  1. Back-end fuel cycle efficiencies with respect to improved uranium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, B.; Hennies, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    The world-wide nuclear power plant (NPP) capacity is at present 160 GW(e). If one adds the power stations under construction and ordered, a plant capacity of approximately 480 GW(e) is obtained for 1990, with the share of LWRs making up more than 80%. A modern LWR consumes in the open fuel cycle about 4400 metric tonnes of natural uranium per GW(e), assuming a lifetime of 30 years and a load factor of 70%. Considering the natural uranium reserves known at present and exploitable under economic conditions, it can be conveniently estimated that, with the present NPP capacity extension perspective, the natural uranium resources may be exhausted in a few decades. This trend can be counteracted in a flexible manner by various approaches in fuel cycle technology and strategy: (i) by steady further development of the established LWR technology the uranium consumption can be reduced by about 15%; (ii) closing the nuclear fuel cycle on the basis of LWRs (i.e. thermal uranium and plutonium recycling) implies up to 40% savings in natural uranium consumption; (iii) more recent considerations include the advanced pressurized water reactor (APWR). The APWR combines the proven PWR technology with a newly developed tight lattice core with greatly improved conversion characteristics (conversion ratio = 0.90 to 0.95). In terms of uranium utilization, the APWR has an efficiency three to five times higher than a PWR; (iv) Commercial introduction of FBR systems results in an optimal utilization of uranium which, at the same time, guarantees the supply of nuclear fuel well beyond the present century. For a corresponding transition period an energy supply system can be conceived which relies essentially on extended back-end fuel cycle capacities. These would facilitate a symbiosis of PWR, APWR and FBR, characterized by high flexibility with respect to long-term developments on the energy market. (author)

  2. Characterization of the coal derived humic acids from Mukah, Sarawak as soil conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Sim Siong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, abundant coal resources were found in Sarawak and Sabah. The utilization of coal resources, to date, is emphasized on the energy productions. The non-energy utilization as soil conditioner is unexplored. Therefore, this study attempted to characterize the coal humic acids extracted from Mukah coal and to evaluate its properties as soil conditioner. The coal humic acids from the regenerated sample were also assessed. The results revealed that different extractants and concentrations influenced the properties of humic acids. The extraction with KOH at 0.5 mol L-1 produced humic acids with low ash content and high acidic functional groups, which are substantial as soil conditioner. However, the yield was low. Regeneration of coal sample with 10% nitric acids improved the yield to an average of 83.45%. The acidic functional groups of nitrohumic acids were improved with the ash content remained at a low level.

  3. 15 N utilization in nitride nuclear fuels for advanced nuclear power reactors and accelerator - driven systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, D.

    2005-01-01

    15 N utilization for nitride nuclear fuels production for nuclear power reactors and accelerator - driven systems is presented. Nitride nuclear fuel is the obvious choice for advanced nuclear reactors and ADS because of its favorable properties: a high melting point, excellent thermal conductivity, high fissile density, lower fission gas release and good radiation tolerance. The application of nitride fuels in nuclear reactors and ADS requires use of 15 N enriched nitrogen to suppress 14 C production due to (n,p) reaction on 14 N. Accelerator - driven system is a recent development merging of accelerator and fission reactor technologies to generate electricity and transmute long - lived radioactive wastes as minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm. A high-energy proton beam hitting a heavy metal target produces neutrons by spallation. The neutrons cause fission in the fuel, but unlike in conventional reactors, the fuel is sub-critical and fission ceases when the accelerator is turned off. Nitride fuel is a promising candidate for transmutation in ADS of minor actinides, which are converted into nitrides with 15 N for that purpose. Tacking into account that the world wide market is about 20 to 40 Kg 15 N annually, the supply of that isotope for nitride fuel production for nuclear power reactors and ADS would therefore demand an increase in production capacity by a factor of 1000. For an industrial plant producing 100 t/y 15 N, using present technology of isotopic exchange in NITROX system, the first separation stage of the cascade would be fed with 10M HNO 3 solution of 600 mc/h flow - rate. If conversion of HNO 3 into NO, NO 2 , at the enriching end of the columns, would be done with gaseous SO 2 , for a production plant of 100 t/y 15 N a consumption of 4 million t SO 2 /y and a production of 70 % H 2 SO 4 waste solution of 4.5 million mc/y are estimated. The reconversion of H 2 SO 4 into SO 2 in order to recycle of SO 2 is a problem to be solved to compensate the cost of SO 2

  4. Using distributed fuel cells to compete with established utilities under rules permitting retail wheeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.A.; Mathur, A.

    1996-01-01

    Regulatory reform in the electricity industry clearly has many implications for the corporate structure of electric utilities, the pricing of energy products and services, and the quality of service received by customers. But it also has implications for the selection of energy generating technologies. The rise of the cogenerator and independent power producer has been a major force in the expanded use of combined-cycle power plants and their technological advancement. The next stage of increased deregulation, retail wheeling, must also lead to further technological change, because the economic climate determines the operational characteristics required of new generating resources. This paper discusses the use of distributed fuel cells to compete with established utilities in areas where retail wheeling has been instituted. It will cover in detail the unique advantages of the technology under this industry configuration. The paper will pay particular attention to the operational and design characteristics of fuel cells that will provide companies the flexibility they require to compete successfully. Finally, the paper will discuss the implications for the use of distributed fuel cells of alternative retail wheeling implementation schemes

  5. Uranium resource utilization improvements in the once-through PWR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.

    1980-04-01

    In support of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), Combustion Engineering, Inc. performed a comprehensive analytical study of potential uranium utilization improvement options that can be backfit into existing PWRs operating on the once-through uranium fuel cycle. A large number of potential improvement options were examined as part of a preliminary survey of candidate options. The most attractive of these, from the standpoint of uranium utilization improvement, economic viability, and ease of implementation, were then selected for detailed analysis and were included in a single composite improvement case. This composite case represents an estimate of the total savings in U 3 O 8 consumption that can be achieved in current-design PWRs by implementing improvements which can be developed and demonstrated in the near term. The improvement options which were evaluated in detail and included in the composite case were a new five-batch, extended-burnup fuel management scheme, low-leakage fuel management, modified lattice designs, axial blankets, reinsertion of initial core batches, and end-of-cycle stretchout

  6. Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

    2012-06-30

    The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

  7. Recovery and utilization of valuable metals from spent nuclear fuel. 3: Mutual separation of valuable metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirishima, K.; Shibayama, H.; Nakahira, H.; Shimauchi, H.; Myochin, M.; Wada, Y.; Kawase, K.; Kishimoto, Y.

    1993-01-01

    In the project ''Recovery and Utilization of Valuable Metals from Spent Fuel,'' mutual separation process of valuable metals recovered from spent fuel has been studied by using the simulated solution contained Pb, Ru, Rh, Pd and Mo. Pd was separated successfully by DHS (di-hexyl sulfide) solvent extraction method, while Pb was recovered selectively from the raffinate by neutralization precipitation of other elements. On the other hand, Rh was roughly separated by washing the precipitate with alkaline solution, so that Rh was refined by chelate resin CS-346. Outline of the mutual separation process flow sheet has been established of the combination of these techniques. The experimental results and the process flow sheet of mutual separation of valuable metals are presented in this paper

  8. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes For Coal Derived Carbon Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Dady B. Dadyburjor; Gregory W. Hackett; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; Robert C. Svensson; John W. Zondlo

    2006-09-30

    In this reporting period, tonnage quantities of coal extract were produced but solid separation was not accomplished in a timely manner. It became clear that the originally selected filtration process would not be effective enough for a serious commercial process. Accordingly, centrifugation was investigated as a superior means for removing solids from the extract. Results show acceptable performance. Petrographic analysis of filtered solids was carried out by R and D Carbon Petrography under the auspices of Koppers and consultant Ken Krupinski. The general conclusion is that the material appears to be amenable to centrifugation. Filtered solids shows a substantial pitch component as well as some mesophase, resulting in increased viscosity. This is likely a contributing reason for the difficulty in filtering the material. Cost estimates were made for the hydotreatment and digestion reactors that would be needed for a 20,000 ton per year demonstration plants, with the aid of ChemTech Inc. The estimates show that the costs of scaling up the existing tank reactors are acceptable. However, a strong recommendation was made to consider pipe reactors, which are thought to be more cost effective and potentially higher performance in large scale systems. The alternate feedstocks for coke and carbon products were used to fabricate carbon electrodes as described in the last quarterly report. Gregory Hackett successfully defended his MS Thesis on the use of these electrodes in Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC), which is excerpted in Section 2.4 of this quarterly report.

  9. Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir; Sharma, Pradeepkumar; Albritton, Johnny; Jamal, Aqil

    2010-09-30

    One of the key obstacles for the introduction of commercial gasification technology for the production of power with Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants or the production of value added chemicals, transportation fuels, and hydrogen has been the cost of these systems. This situation is particularly challenging because the United States has ample coal resources available as raw materials and effective use of these raw materials could help us meet our energy and transportation fuel needs while significantly reducing our need to import oil. One component of the cost of these systems that faces strong challenges for continuous improvement is removing the undesirable components present in the syngas. The need to limit the increase in cost of electricity to < 35% for new coal-based power plants which include CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration addresses both the growing social concern for global climate change resulting from the emission of greenhouse gas and in particular CO{sub 2} and the need to control cost increases to power production necessary to meet this social objective. Similar improvements to technologies for trace contaminants are getting similar pressure to reduce environmental emissions and reduce production costs for the syngas to enable production of chemicals from coal that is cost competitive with oil and natural gas. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing sorbent technologies that enable capture of trace contaminants and CO{sub 2} at temperatures above 400 °F that achieve better capture performance, lower costs and higher thermal efficiency. This report describes the specific work of sorbent development for mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorous (P) and CO{sub 2} removal. Because the typical concentrations of Hg, As, Se, Cd, and P are less than 10 ppmv, the focus has been on single-use sorbents with sufficient capacity to ensure replacement costs are cost effective. The research in this

  10. Apollo-L2, an advanced fuel tokamak reactor utilizing direct conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Blanchard, J.P.; El-Guebaly, L.A.; Khater, H.Y.; Santarius, J.F.; Sawan, M.E.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Wittenberg, L.J.; Witt, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A scoping study of a tokamak reactor fueled by a D- 3 He plasma is presented. The Apollo D- 3 He tokamak capitalizes on recent advances in high field magnets (20 T) and utilizes rectennas to convert the synchrotron radiation directly to electricity. The low neutron wall loading (0.1 MW/m 2 ) permits a first wall lasting the life of the plant and enables the reactor to be classified as inherently safe. The cost of electricity is less than that from a similar power level DT reactor. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  11. Preparation and evaluation of coal-derived activated carbons for removal of mercury vapor from simulated coal combustion flue fases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, H.-C.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Richardson, C.F.; Carey, T.R.; Chang, R.

    1998-01-01

    Coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) were tested for their suitability in removing trace amounts of vapor-phase mercury from simulated flue gases generated by coal combustion. CDACs were prepared in bench-scale and pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactors with a three-step process, including coal preoxidation, carbonization, and then steam activation. CDACs from high-organicsulfur Illinois coals had a greater equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity than activated carbons prepared from a low-organic-sulfur Illinois coal. When a low-organic-sulfur CDAC was impregnated with elemental sulfur at 600 ??C, its equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity was comparable to the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon prepared from the high-organicsulfur coal. X-ray diffraction and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure examinations showed that the sulfur in the CDACs was mainly in organic forms. These results suggested that a portion of the inherent organic sulfur in the starting coal, which remained in the CDACs, played an important role in adsorption of Hg0. Besides organic sulfur, the BET surface area and micropore area of the CDACs also influenced Hg0 adsorption capacity. The HgCl2 adsorption capacity was not as dependent on the surface area and concentration of sulfur in the CDACs as was adsorption of Hg0. The properties and mercury adsorption capacities of the CDACs were compared with those obtained for commercial Darco FGD carbon.

  12. Environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization in the thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasem D Najafpour; Seyed Jafar Mehdizadeh; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide causes green house effect, has been considered as a pollutant source of our safe environment. Since combustion of fossil fuel may create tremendous amount of carbon dioxide, detecting any pollutant sources would be important to eliminate the pollution sources. Evaluation of smoke dispersion that has been generated by a power plant utilizing fossil fuel is the objective of this paper. The concentration of NO, and SO, in the soil, have been analyzed from a distance of 3 to 4 km far from power plant. The experimental results shown. that the concentration of toxic gases was a little above the international standards. Replacement of fossil fuel by natural gas caused NO, concentration to be developed in the atmosphere, therefore usage of natural gas is limited by environmental protection agencies. Beside the nuclear power plant, the power generated by other sources. are limited. Electric power generated by water dam is not a major contribution of electric power demand. Therefore generation of electricity by any other energy sources, which are friendly to the environment, is recommended. Other sources of energy, such as wind power, solar energy, geothermal, ocean thennal and renewable source of energy can be considered safe for the environment. The goal of environmental management system would be to meet the minimum requirements were established and demanded by the local environmental protection agency or international standard organization (ISO-14000). (Author)

  13. Analysis of oxy-fuel combustion power cycle utilizing a pressurized coal combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jongsup; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Brisson, J.G.; Field, Randall; Gazzino, Marco; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new technology in which fuels are burned in an environment of oxygen and recycled combustion gases. In this paper, an oxy-fuel combustion power cycle that utilizes a pressurized coal combustor is analyzed. We show that this approach recovers more thermal energy from the flue gases because the elevated flue gas pressure raises the dew point and the available latent enthalpy in the flue gases. The high-pressure water-condensing flue gas thermal energy recovery system reduces steam bleeding which is typically used in conventional steam cycles and enables the cycle to achieve higher efficiency. The pressurized combustion process provides the purification and compression unit with a concentrated carbon dioxide stream. For the purpose of our analysis, a flue gas purification and compression process including de-SO x , de-NO x , and low temperature flash unit is examined. We compare a case in which the combustor operates at 1.1 bars with a base case in which the combustor operates at 10 bars. Results show nearly 3% point increase in the net efficiency for the latter case.

  14. Joint venturing in the fuel, energy and environmental arena: Opportunities for utility subsidiaries and developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    We have witnessed major changes in the 1980s in the US fuel, energy and environmental areas. From the structure of heavily-regulated local and regional monopolies that predated World War 2, Federal and State governments have begun moving toward a more market-oriented approach to fuel supply, fuel transport and power generation with the goal of increasing competition to effect lower prices for consumers. Although some utilities have resisted this trend - arguing, for example, that third-party power purchasing threatens system reliability - others have joined the market by diversifying into the non-regulated side of the industry. Similarly, beginning with creation of the Superfund, continuing with last year's amendments to the Clean Air Act, and on into the future with anticipated changes for water, solid waste, and other areas, Congress and the EPA have created a regulatory structure that cries out for more capital yet makes such investment more risky. This paper examines joint venture strategies in the context of developing new business in the energy and environmental areas. This paper focuses on the interaction of three aspects of such efforts: (1) the issues of primary importance to the entity engaging in such efforts, (2) the impact of various strategies on the resolution of the issues, and (3) the use of joint ventures to maximize benefits and minimize risks

  15. Making the grid the backup: Utility applications for fuel cell power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklof, S.L. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are recognized as a versatile power generation option and accepted component of SMUD`s ART Program. SMUD has received wide support and recognition for promoting and implementing fuel cell power plants, as well as other innovative generation, based primarily on technological factors. Current economic and technical realities in the electric generation market highlight other important factors, such as the cost involved to develop a slate of such resources. The goal now is to develop only those select quality resources most likely to become commercially viable in the near future. The challenge becomes the identification of candidate technologies with the greatest potential, and then matching the technologies with the applications that will help to make them successful. Utility participation in this development is critical so as to provide the industry with case examples of advanced technologies that can be applied in a way beneficial to both the utility and its customers. The ART resource acquisitions provide the experience base upon which to guide this selection process, and should bring about the cost reductions and reliability improvements sought.

  16. High platinum utilization in ultra-low Pt loaded PEM fuel cell cathodes prepared by electrospraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.; Garcia-Ybarra, P.L.; Castillo, J.L. [Dept. Fisica Matematica y de Fluidos, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Cathode electrodes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with ultra-low platinum loadings as low as 0.012 mg{sub Pt}cm{sup -2} have been prepared by the electrospray method. The electrosprayed layers have nanostructured fractal morphologies with dendrites formed by clusters (about 100 nm diameter) of a few single catalyst particles rendering a large exposure surface of the catalyst. Optimization of the control parameters affecting this morphology has allowed us to overcome the state of the art for efficient electrodes prepared by electrospraying. Thus, using these cathodes in membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), a high platinum utilization in the range 8-10 kW g{sup -1} was obtained for the fuel cell operating at 40 C and atmospheric pressure. Moreover, a platinum utilization of 20 kW g{sup -1} was attained under more suitable operating conditions (70 C and 3.4 bar over-pressure). These results substantially improve the performances achieved previously with other low platinum loading electrodes prepared by electrospraying. (author)

  17. About Economy of Fuel at Thermal Power Stations due to Optimization of Utilization Diagram of Power-Generating Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Svechko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems of rational fuel utilization becomes more and more significant especially for thermal power stations (TPS. Thermal power stations have complicated starting-up diagrams and utilization modes of their technological equipment. Method of diagram optimization of TPS equipment utilization modes has been developed. The method is based on computer analytical model with application of spline-approximation of power equipment characteristics. The method allows to economize fuel consumption at a rate of 15-20 % with accuracy of the predicted calculation not more than 0.25 %.

  18. Direct Utilization of Liquid Fuels in SOFC for Portable Applications: Challenges for the Selection of Alternative Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC have the advantage of being able to operate with fuels other than hydrogen. In particular, liquid fuels are especially attractive for powering portable applications such as small power generators or auxiliary power units, in which case the direct utilization of the fuel would be convenient. Although liquid fuels are easier to handle and transport than hydrogen, their direct use in SOFC can lead to anode deactivation due to carbon formation, especially on traditional nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ anodes. Significant advances have been made in anodic materials that are resistant to carbon formation but often these materials are less electrochemically active than Ni/YSZ. In this review the challenges of using liquid fuels directly in SOFC, in terms of gas-phase and catalytic reactions within the anode chamber, will be discussed and the alternative anode materials so far investigated will be compared.

  19. Small-scale production and utilization of wood fuels; Puupolttoaineen pientuotanto ja -kaeyttoe - katsaus tutkimus- projekteihin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the research on small-scale production of wood fuels was to promote the forest owners` own utilization and procurement of firewood. The profitability of firewood was improved by developing new farm-tractor mountable equipment and methods for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs for harvesting of first-thinning wood and other small-dimeter wood. Totally new solution for machine felling of small trees and chopwood production were developed to serial production level. Recyclable processing and delivery units were developed for delivery of chopwood. A calculation model for analysing the costs of small-scale production of firewood became ready. A guide on the development of heating-entrepreneur activities, serving the entrepreneurs, was published. The objective of the firewood utilization research was to reduce the technical barriers of the utilization of firewood in small-house and real-estate scales. The main aim was to reduce the flue-gas emissions. The emissions of the fireplaces were reduced by developing the construction of fireplaces, catalytic combustion and heating methods. An automatic stoker-burner was developed for real-estate scale and a boiler series was designed for biofuels

  20. Small-scale production and utilization of wood fuels; Puupolttoaineen pientuotanto ja -kaeyttoe - katsaus tutkimus- projekteihin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, S [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the research on small-scale production of wood fuels was to promote the forest owners` own utilization and procurement of firewood. The profitability of firewood was improved by developing new farm-tractor mountable equipment and methods for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs for harvesting of first-thinning wood and other small-dimeter wood. Totally new solution for machine felling of small trees and chopwood production were developed to serial production level. Recyclable processing and delivery units were developed for delivery of chopwood. A calculation model for analysing the costs of small-scale production of firewood became ready. A guide on the development of heating-entrepreneur activities, serving the entrepreneurs, was published. The objective of the firewood utilization research was to reduce the technical barriers of the utilization of firewood in small-house and real-estate scales. The main aim was to reduce the flue-gas emissions. The emissions of the fireplaces were reduced by developing the construction of fireplaces, catalytic combustion and heating methods. An automatic stoker-burner was developed for real-estate scale and a boiler series was designed for biofuels

  1. Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Utilization and Transmutation of Actinides in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is strengthening the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies (Articles III-A.1 and III-A.3). The major challenges facing the long term development of nuclear energy as a part of the world's energy mix are improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptability. The concern linked to the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission has led to increased R and D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount of long lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. In recent years, in various countries and at an international level, more and more studies have been carried out on advanced and innovative waste management strategies (i.e. actinide separation and elimination). Within the framework of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (http://www.iaea.org/inisnkm/nkm/aws/fnss/index.html), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long lived radioactive waste, accelerator driven systems, thorium fuel options, innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles, non-conventional nuclear energy systems, and fusion/fission hybrids. These activities are implemented under the guidance and with the support of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). This publication compiles the analyses and findings of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste (2002

  2. A Review on Landfill Management in the Utilization of Plastic Waste as an Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayah Nurul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastes from landfills originate from many spheres of life. These are produces as a result of human activities either domestically or industrially. The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste of plastic. Hence, this paper aims review at utilizing of plastic as an alternative fuel.

  3. A Review on Landfill Management in the Utilization of Plastic Waste as an Alternative Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, Nurul; Syafrudin

    2018-02-01

    Wastes from landfills originate from many spheres of life. These are produces as a result of human activities either domestically or industrially. The global plastic production increased over years due to the vast applications of plastics in many sectors. The continuous demand of plastics caused the plastic wastes accumulation in the landfill consumed a lot of spaces that contributed to the environmental. In addition, economic growth and development also increased our demand and dependency on plastics which leads to its accumulation in landfills imposing risk on human health, animals and cause environmental pollution problems such as ground water contamination, sanitary related issues, etc. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste of plastic. Hence, this paper aims review at utilizing of plastic as an alternative fuel.

  4. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  5. Modulated diesel fuel injection strategy for efficient-clean utilization of low-grade biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaole; Qian, Yong; Zhou, Qiyan; Lu, Xingcai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Influences of direct injection strategy on biogas RCCI mode are researched. • Excessive early pilot injection timing leads to the retard of combustion. • Overall indicated thermal efficiency of low-grade biogas can be higher than 40%. • Pilot injection timing has strong influence on particle size distribution. • Composition of biogas has a great influence on the gas emissions. - Abstract: Recently, as a kind of renewable fuel, low-grade biogas has been researched to apply in internal combustion engine. In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to study the influence of injection strategies on the efficient utilization of low-grade biogas in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) mode with port fuel injection of biogas and in-cylinder direct injection of diesel based on a modified electronic controlled high-pressure directly injected compression ignition engine. Considered the high proportion of inert gas in biogas, a four-components simulated gas (H_2:CO:CH_4:N_2 = 5:40:5:50 vol%) has been selected as test fuels to simulate biogas. The effects of several injection control parameters such as pilot injection timing, main injection timing, common rail pressure and pilot injection ratio on the combustion and emissions are analyzed in detail. The research demonstrates that the main injection timing can effectively control the combustion phase and excessive early pilot injection timing leads to retard of combustion. CO emissions are relatively high due to homogenous charge of biogas. NOx and smoke emissions can be effectively controlled. In RCCI mode, the indicated thermal efficiency of biogas/diesel can reach 40%.

  6. Optimization of a dual-fuel heating system utilizing an EMS a maintain persistence of measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpert, J.S.; Wolpert, S.B.; Martin, G.

    1993-01-01

    An older small office building was subjected to a program substituting gas for electric heat to reduce energy cost and improve comfort for approximately one year and was permanently instituted, with the installation of an energy management system (EMS) the following year. This paper will present a description of the facility, its usage patterns, and the measures taken to introduce the fuel-switching program. The impacts on energy usage and cost as well as comfort will also be reported. This program was initiated by a preliminary audit of the facility conducted by the service contractor in conjunction with the area gas wholesaler. During the audit it was observed that the heating set points for the gas-fired equipment was kept fairly low. This was the result of the desire to keep the cooling set point low and the use of auto-changeover thermostats. The result of this was that the system utilized the gas heat to come up to 68-70 degrees with the majority of the zones then relying on their electric heat to bring temperatures into the 73-75 degrees range. In addition to impacting energy costs, this approach generated numerous comfort complaints. As a further electric penalty, the low cooling set point resulted in a heavy reliance on electric heat (reheat) all summer. The basis of the proposed strategy was to reduce the heavy usage of electric heat by making the building comfortable through reliance more heavily on gas heat. This was tested by raising the heating set points for the RTUS. The success of this approach, along with the comfort considerations and the desire for further savings, led to the installation of an EMS. This allowed further refinements of the control strategy, which are briefly described. When completed, the fuel-switching led to an increase in annual gas costs of 125% with a corresponding decrease in electric cost of nearly 30% for an annual utility cost savings of over 19%

  7. Utilization of Minor Actinides as a Fuel Component for Ultra-Long Life VHTR Configurations: Designs, Advantages and Limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

    2009-01-01

    This project assessed the advantages and limitations of using minor actinides as a fuel component to achieve ultra-long life Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) configurations. Researchers considered and compared the capabilities of pebble-bed and prismatic core designs with advanced actinide fuels to achieve ultra-long operation without refueling. Since both core designs permit flexibility in component configuration, fuel utilization, and fuel management, it is possible to improve fissile properties of minor actinides by neutron spectrum shifting through configuration adjustments. The project studied advanced actinide fuels, which could reduce the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository and enable recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The ultra-long core life autonomous approach may reduce the technical need for additional repositories and is capable to improve marketability of the Generation IV VHTR by allowing worldwide deployment, including remote regions and regions with limited industrial resources. Utilization of minor actinides in nuclear reactors facilitates developments of new fuel cycles towards sustainable nuclear energy scenarios.

  8. Utilization of Minor Actinides as a Fuel Component for Ultra-Long Life Bhr Configurations: Designs, Advantages and Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Pavel V. Tsvetkov

    2009-05-20

    This project assessed the advantages and limitations of using minor actinides as a fuel component to achieve ultra-long life Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) configurations. Researchers considered and compared the capabilities of pebble-bed and prismatic core designs with advanced actinide fuels to achieve ultra-long operation without refueling. Since both core designs permit flexibility in component configuration, fuel utilization, and fuel management, it is possible to improve fissile properties of minor actinides by neutron spectrum shifting through configuration adjustments. The project studied advanced actinide fuels, which could reduce the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository and enable recovery of the energy contained in spent fuel. The ultra-long core life autonomous approach may reduce the technical need for additional repositories and is capable to improve marketability of the Generation IV VHTR by allowing worldwide deployment, including remote regions and regions with limited industrial resources. Utilization of minor actinides in nuclear reactors facilitates developments of new fuel cycles towards sustainable nuclear energy scenarios.

  9. Compliance problems of small utility systems with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978: volume II - appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A study of the problems of compliance with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 experienced by electric utility systems which have a total generating capacity of less than 2000 MW is presented. This volume presents the following appendices: (A) case studies (Farmington, New Mexico; Lamar, Colorado; Dover, Delaware; Wolverine Electric Cooperative, Michigan; Central Telephone and Utilities, Kansas; Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada; Vero Beach, Florida; Lubbock, Texas; Western Farmers Cooperative, Oklahoma; and West Texas Utilities Company, Texas); (B) contacts and responses to study; (C) joint action legislation chart; (D) Texas Municipal Power Agency case study; (E) existing generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (F) future generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (G) Federal Register Notice of April 17, 1980, and letter of inquiry to utilities; (H) small utility responses; and (I) Section 744, PIFUA. (WHK)

  10. Thorium utilization in a small long-life HTR. Part II: Seed-and-blanket fuel blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ming, E-mail: dingming@hrbeu.edu.cn [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Harbin Engineering University, Nantong Street 145, 150001 Harbin (China); Kloosterman, Jan Leen [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Seed-and-blanket (S and B) fuel blocks are proposed for a small block-type HTR. • S and B fuel blocks consist of a seed region (UO{sub 2}) and a blanket region (ThO{sub 2}). • The neutronic performance of S and B fuel blocks are analyzed using SCALE 6. • Three S and B fuel blocks with a reactivity swing of 0.1 Δk are recommended. • S and B fuel blocks are compared with thorium MOX fuel blocks. - Abstract: In order to utilize thorium in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTRs), the concept of seed-and-blanket (S and B) fuel block is introduced into the U-Battery, which is a long-life block-type HTR with a thermal power of 20 MWth. A S and B fuel block consists of a seed region with uranium in the center, and a blanket region with thorium. The neutronic performance, such as the multiplication factor, conversion ratio and reactivity swing, of a typical S and B fuel block was investigated by SCALE 6.0 by parametric analysis of the composition parameters and geometric parameters of the fuel block for the U-Battery application. Since the purpose of U-235 in the S and B fuel block is to ignite the fission reactions in the fuel block, 20% enriched uranium is recommended for the S and B fuel block. When the ratio of the number of carbon to heavy metal atoms changes with the geometric parameters of the fuel block in the range of 200–250, the reactivity swing reaches very small values. Furthermore, for a reactivity swing of 0.1 Δk during 10 effective full power years, three configurations with 36, 54 and 78 UO{sub 2} fuel rods are recommended for the application of the U-Battery. The comparison analysis of the S and B fuel block with the Th/U MOX fuel block shows that the former has a longer lifetime and a lower reactivity swing.

  11. Biomethane as transport fuel – A comparison with other biogas utilization pathways in northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrizio, P.; Leduc, S.; Chinese, D.; Dotzauer, E.; Kraxner, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CHP and biomethane generation were investigated as biogas utilization pathways. • A spatially explicit biogas supply chain optimization model was developed. • Biomethane as vehicle fuel has lower investment and operational costs than CHP. • CHP has most favorable economics thanks to high carbon reduction potential. - Abstract: Italy is a large producer of biogas from anaerobic digestion, which is mainly used for power generation with limited use of cogenerated heat. Other utilization pathways, such as biomethane injection into the natural gas grid or biomethane used as a vehicle fuel, remain unexplored. Given the dense grid of natural gas pipelines and existing Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) refueling stations in northern Italy, significant market opportunities for biogas could also arise in the heating and transport sectors. The main objectives of this paper are to explore the potential role of agricultural biogas in different utilization pathways. Biogas combustion for simultaneous production of heat and power in small Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities is also assessed, as is upgrading to biomethane for transport or natural gas grid injection in the specific context of northern Italy. The spatially explicit optimization model BeWhere is used to identify optimal locations where greenfield biogas plants could be installed and to determine the most economic and environmentally beneficial mix of conversion technologies and plant capacities. Carbon price, for instance in the form of tradable emission permits, is assessed as a policy instrument and compared with other options such as price premiums on biomethane or electricity costs. Results show that starting from a carbon price of 15 EUR/tCO_2, the cogeneration option is preferable if plants are located in the proximity of existing district heating infrastructure. CNG plants are only competitive starting at a carbon price of 70 EUR/tCO_2 in areas with high feedstock availability. The

  12. Advanced orient cycle, for strategic separation, transmutation and utilization of nuclides in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, M.; Fujita, R.; Koyama, S.; Suzuki, T.; Fujii, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Electrolytic extraction (EE) method has been studied as a vital separation tool for new reprocessing process to realize transmutation and utilization of the specific fission products including LLFP * (e.g., Tc * , Ru, Rh, Pd * , Se * and Te * , etc) in the spent nuclear fuel. In an employed EE process, Pd 2 + cation itself would not only be easily (>99%) deposited from various nitric acid solutions, but enhance also the deposition of co-existing RuNO 3 + and ReO 4 - by acting as a catalyst (as Pd a datom). Such a catalytic electrolytic extraction (i.e., CEE) method was also applicable in the case of 9 9TcO 4 - deposition as well. Addition of Pd 2 + caused either to change the dendritic metal deposition form or to improve electrochemical property of deposits. The RMFP deposit, especially quaternary-, Pd-Ru-Rh-Re, deposits on the Pt electrode obtained by the CEE method were rather spherical in shape, seemed to be electrochemically agglomerated by nano particles. The deposits were stable and showed electrochemically nobler initial hydrogen evolution potential (φ H int.). Also in the given potential of -1.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the quaternary-, Pd-Ru-Rh-Re, deposit Pt electrode suggested the highest cathodic current corresponding to the hydrogen generation reaction. Namely, those catalytic activities were ca. twice superior to that of the Pt electrode in alkaline solution. The sea water is a possible resource for hydrogen production in future. In the course of sea water electrolysis, disturbance due to Ca(OH) 2 and Mg(OH) 2 precipitation was inevitable, but the cathodic current of the quaternary deposit of RMFP was the highest, the same as to that of Pt electrode in the alkaline water. Therefore, RMFP has a potential to alternate with Pt catalyst. The electrochemical property of Re and 9 9Tc, as for alternative element to Re, are under investigation with a special interest of this direction of utilization. The renovative reprocessing flow sheet by tertiary pyridine resin

  13. Drying of bio fuel utilizing waste heat; Torkning av biobraenslen med spillvaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Inge; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-10-01

    Many industries today have large sources of low grade heat (waste heat), however this energy is mainly lost with effluents to air and water. The aim of this study has been to investigate the technical and economical aspects of utilizing this low grade heat to dry biofuel. The project has been mainly focused towards the forest industry since they have both large amounts of biofuel and waste heat available. Drying of biofuel could generate added revenue (or reduced purchase costs) and through that also create larger incentives for further energy saving modifications to the main process. Due to the higher moisture content together with the risk of frozen bark in the winter time, additional fuels (such as oil) to combust bark in the existing boiler. This is mainly the case when mechanical dewatering is not available. Drying of bark results in an added energy value, which makes it possible to combust the bark without additional fuel. The primary energy demand, in the form of electricity and optional additional heating at load peaks, is low when waste heat is used for the drying process. In this way it is possible to increase the biofuel potential, since the primary energy input to the drying process is essentially lower then the increased energy value of the fuel. Drying also decreases the biological degradation of the fuel. Taking all the above into consideration, waste heat drying could result in a 25 % increase of the biofuel potential in the forest industry in Sweden, without additional cutting of wood. A survey has been done to state which commercial technologies are available for biofuel drying with waste heat. An inquiry was sent out to a number of suppliers and included a few different cases. Relations for approximating investment cost as well as electric power demand were created based on the answers from the inquiry. These relations have then been used in the economical evaluations made for a number of cases representing both sawmills and pulp and paper mills

  14. Nuclear fuel, with emphasis on its utilization in pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaneh, R.; Roshanzamir, M.

    1997-01-01

    Production processes of nuclear fuel on one hand and using nuclear fuels in reactors, particularly PWR Type reactors on the other hand is investigated. The first chapter reviews the relationship between fuel and reactors; The principals of reactor physics in relation with fuel are described shortly. The second chapter reviews uranium exploration and extraction as well as production of uranium concentrate and uranium dioxides. The third chapter is specified to the different procedures of uranium enrichment. In the fourth chapter, processing of uranium dioxide powder and fuel pellet is described. In the fifth chapter fabrication of fuel rod and fuel assemblies is explained thoroughly. The sixth chapter devoted to the different phenomena which occur ed in fuel structure and can during operational time of reactor; damage to fuel rods and developing theoretical models to describe these phenomena and analysis of fuel structure. The seventh chapter discusses how fuel rods are to be experimented during fabrication, operation and development of technology. The eighth chapter explains different fuels such as uranium compounds and mixed oxide fuel of uranium Gadolinium and uranium plutonium and the process of fabrication of zircaloy. In the tenth chapter, fuel reprocessing is investigated and the difficulties of developing this technology is referred

  15. Combustion of coal gas fuels in a staged combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Mcvey, J. B.; Sederquist, R. A.; Schultz, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Gaseous fuels produced from coal resources generally have heating values much lower than natural gas; the low heating value could result in unstable or inefficient combustion. Coal gas fuels may contain ammonia which if oxidized in an uncontrolled manner could result in unacceptable nitrogen oxide exhaust emission levels. Previous investigations indicate that staged, rich-lean combustion represents a desirable approach to achieve stable, efficient, low nitrogen oxide emission operation for coal-derived liquid fuels contaning up to 0.8-wt pct nitrogen. An experimental program was conducted to determine whether this fuel tolerance can be extended to include coal-derived gaseous fuels. The results of tests with three nitrogen-free fuels having heating values of 100, 250, and 350 Btu/scf and a 250 Btu/scf heating value doped to contain 0.7 pct ammonia are presented.

  16. Utilization of the waste gases from a petroleum refinery as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Contreras, Jose Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The fuels waste gases that are burned in a flare stack were proposed as an alternative for its utilization. The current operation of the flare stack system of a petroleum refinery was analyzed. The historical information of the equipment and original design of the same was used. From the calculations that were performed, it is expected that the delivered heat for the flare gases approaching to 65 MJ/M 3 , so it would be an effective fuel for be used in furnaces and boilers. A new flare stack system and a system for recovery of the waste gases of process is proposed. The new flare stack system must have a liquid separator of 2,3 meters of diameter, a length of 6,4 meters and a capacity of 26,1 cubic meters. The velocity of the gas to the exit of the separator has been of 80,7 m/s. The liquid hydrocarbon flow that has exited the separator has been of 71 m 3 /h, with a speed of 0,91 m/s and a pump of 2,75 HP is required. The liquid seal of flare stack systems must have a minimum height of 1,05 m. The gas recovery system to burn in the flare stack should be located between the liquid separator and liquid seal of the flare stack systems. For an average consumption of 150 m 3 /h of fuel gas for furnaces and boilers, the gas recovery system must have with a compressor of 4,75 HP, a liquid separator of 50 m 3 and a pump of 2,50 HP. The gas recovery system has had with an absorber of 7 plates for washing of the stream acid gas with MEA, at 40 degrees celsius and an pressure of operating of 67 kPa, and a flow of 55,88 kg/h at amine solution. The flare gas flow has been recommended to be analyzed chemically, as well as the measurement of the flow of gas streams plant consumption and gases flare. A technical-economic feasibility study of the process should be realized. (author) [es

  17. A performance comparison of urban utility vehicles powered with IC engine and solid polymer fuel cell technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teachman, M.E.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Utility vehicles provide ground transportation for crew and electric power at work sites that lack grid supply. The performances of utility vehicles designed with conventional architectures (spark ignition engine for propulsion and a motor generator for electric power) and with a fuel cell/battery architectures, are compared over a range of vehicle missions. Results indicate that fuel cell/battery hybrid systems are lighter than conventional systems for missions requiring short driving distances and work site power levels exceeding 10 kW. Conventional spark ignition engine/gen-set power systems are lighter for missions requiring more than 1 hour of driving and less than 10 kW of work site power. Fuel cell/battery systems are more efficient than spark ignition engine/gen-set systems for all missions. 7 figs., 3 tabs., 20 refs

  18. Economical analysis to utilize MTR fuel elements using silicides in research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergallo, Juan E.; Novara, Oscar E.; Adelfang, Pablo

    2000-01-01

    According to international programs on reducing enrichment in research reactors and the necessity to maintain their operation, new fuel elements have been developed in order to meet both objectives. Thus, U-Si alloy fuel elements for research reactors are becoming of greater interest for the international markets. It became necessary to make an economic study about the convenience of introducing this type of fuel elements in the RA-3 reactor and to know the potentiality of this fuel. The economical behavior of the reactor operation has been evaluated comparing the actual U 3 O 8 nuclear fuel cycle with U 3 Si 2 nuclear fuels. Results obtained show that the main economical factor to determine the change of fuels is the cost of fabrication, and the change is advisable up to an 80% difference. The other factors related to the cost of nuclear fuel cycle are not relevant or have real minor impacts. (author)

  19. COAL DERIVED MATRIX PITCHES FOR CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE MANUFACTURE/PRODUCTION OF FIBERS AND COMPOSITES FROM COAL-BASED PRECURSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter G. Stansberry; John W. Zondlo

    2001-07-01

    The Consortium for premium Carbon Products from Coal, with funding from the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory continue with the development of innovative technologies that will allow coal or coal-derived feedstocks to be used in the production of value-added carbon materials. In addition to supporting eleven independent projects during budget period 3, three meetings were held at two separate locations for the membership. The first was held at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort on May 15-16, 2000. This was followed by two meetings at Penn State, a tutorial on August 11, 2000 and a technical progress meeting on October 26-27.

  20. A fiber optics system for monitoring utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds during desulfurization for logistic fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Achintya; Yang, Hongyun; Dimick, Paul; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    An in-situ fiber optic based technique for direct measurement of capacity utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds by monitoring bed color changes during desulfurization for fuel cell systems is presented. Adsorbents composed of bulk metal oxides (ZnO) and supported metal oxides (ZnO/SiO2 and Cusbnd ZnO/SiO2) for H2S removal at 22 °C are examined. Adsorbent bed utilization at breakthrough is determined by the optical sensor as the maximum derivative of area under UV-vis spectrum from 250 to 800 nm observed as a function of service time. Since the response time of the sensor due to bed color change is close to bed breakthrough time, a series of probes along the bed predicts utilization of the portion of bed prior to H2S breakthrough. The efficacy of the optical sensor is evaluated as a function of inlet H2S concentration, H2S flow rate and desulfurization in presence of CO, CO2 and moisture in feed. A 6 mm optical probe is employed to measure utilization of a 3/16 inch ZnO extrudate bed for H2S removal. It is envisioned that with the application of the optical sensor, desulfurization can be carried out at high adsorbent utilization and low operational costs during on-board miniaturized fuel processing for logistic fuel cell power systems.

  1. A Supply-Chain Analysis Framework for Assessing Densified Biomass Solid Fuel Utilization Policies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Densified Biomass Solid Fuel (DBSF is a typical solid form of biomass, using agricultural and forestry residues as raw materials. DBSF utilization is considered to be an alternative to fossil energy, like coal in China, associated with a reduction of environmental pollution. China has abundant biomass resources and is suitable to develop DBSF. Until now, a number of policies aimed at fostering DBSF industry have been proliferated by policy makers in China. However, considering the seasonality and instability of biomass resources, these inefficiencies could trigger future scarcities of biomass feedstocks, baffling the resilience of biomass supply chains. Therefore, this review paper focuses on DBSF policies and strategies in China, based on the supply chain framework. We analyzed the current developing situation of DBSF industry in China and developed a framework for policy instruments based on the supply chain steps, which can be used to identify and assess the deficiencies of current DBSF industry policies, and we proposed some suggestions. These findings may inform policy development and identify synergies at different steps in the supply chain to enhance the development of DBSF industry.

  2. Production, purification and utilization of biogas as fuel for internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Noel M.; Villanueva, Eliseo P.

    2018-03-01

    This study attempts to modify a 4-cylinder gasoline engine to run with a purified compressed biogas as substitute for fossil fuels. Water scrubbing method was used as the easiest purification technique to remove CO2 and iron filing for H2S. The pressurized raw biogas was fed in a low cost made portable floating type gas holder with volume capacity of 0.74 m3. The purified biogas was compressed using a reciprocating compressor through a two stage series of enrichment and moisture removal process using activated alumina into the steel cylinder to improve the quality of the methane content. The enriched biogas was filled in the LPG tank for 20 minutes at 10 bars at an average of 73.67% CH4 with no traces of H2S as storage for engine utilization. The modification involved the installation and mounting of LPG conversion kit. A comparative analysis of the performance and combustion characteristics of the engine was evaluated separately with gasoline and purified compressed biogas using electro-dynamometer as variable loads. The findings show that power output deterioration in compressed biogas was mainly due to high percentage of CO2 and other gases impurities. It also shows that because of the calorific value of biogas, the thermal efficiency is lesser than that of gasoline. It implies that the overall engine performance can be improved by removing undesirable gases in the mixture.

  3. Choice and utilization of slightly enriched uranium fuel for high performance research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerles, J.M.; Schwartz, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Problems relating to the replacement of highly enriched (90% or 93% U 235 ) uranium fuel: by moderately enriched (20% or 40% in U 235 ) metallic uranium fuel and slightly enriched (3% or 8% in U 235 ) uranium oxide fuel are discussed

  4. Recent advances on the production and utilization trends of bio-fuels: A global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, M.F.; Balat, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. There are many benefits for the environment, economy and consumers in using bio-fuels. Bio-oil can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Upgrading of bio-oil to a transportation fuel is technically feasible, but needs further development. Bio-fuels are made from biomass through thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction and supercritical fluid extraction or biochemical. Biochemical conversion of biomass is completed through alcoholic fermentation to produce liquid fuels and anaerobic digestion or fermentation, resulting in biogas. In wood derived pyrolysis oil, specific oxygenated compounds are present in relatively large amounts. Basically, the recovery of pure compounds from the complex bio-oil is technically feasible but probably economically unattractive because of the high costs for recovery of the chemical and its low concentration in the oil

  5. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biogas Utilization as an Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merry Indahsari Devi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the feasibility and economic analysis of biogas energy as a supply for the diesel engine generator. The techno-economic analysis was performed by using three parameters which are Net Present Value (NPV, Internal Rate of Return (IRR, and Payback Period (PP as the feasibility indicators of the biogas power plant project. Calculation of substitution was obtained from the comparison between data of diesel engine using diesel fuel and dual-fuel with biogas. Economic calculations include the substitution percentage of diesel fuel by biogas for dual-fuel. Meanwhile, the calculation of savings was based on the ratio of energy content between diesel fuel and biogas. The eventual outcome is determined using economic comparison between the use of diesel fuel and dual-fuel mode. Feasibility shows that the pilot plant of 1 to 6 kWh using diesel fuel and dual-fuel are not feasible while techno-economic parameter analysis shows that NPV<0, IRRfuel is still not.

  6. Optimization of a fuel cell powertrain for a sport utility vehicle. Paper no. IGEC-1-087

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.B.; Mendes, C.; Mali, T.J.; Fowler, M.W.; Fraser, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    A central composite design was utilized to study the effects of fuel cell powertrain sizing and efficiencies on vehicle performance based on a Chevrolet Equinox platform. Simulations were performed using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), a vehicle simulator that constructs and executes various Simulink vehicle models. Once parametric equations relating performance metrics and subcomponent sizing and efficiency were fit, optimal design points were obtained using non-linear optimization. Optimized architectures were used to compare fuel cell powertrains incorporating ultracapacitors, nickel-metal hydride battery packs, and lithium-ion battery packs. The performance metrics also provided a basis for comparison with conventional, battery, and hybrid configurations. The fuel cell configurations exhibited similar or improved acceleration performance, with approximately double the mileage of the stock vehicle. The range of the fuel cell Equinox was reduced from the stock vehicle to approximately 300 miles. The battery vehicles showed the highest efficiencies and mileages, but exhibited an unacceptable range of approximately 100 miles. The hybrid configuration showed notable improvements over the stock vehicle, but still lacked the degree of benefits provided by the fuel cell (FCVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Also, the acceleration time for the hybrid vehicle was sluggish, likely due to the increase weight of the configuration. The work described in this study was performed by members of the University Of Waterloo Alternate Fuels Team (UWAFT) as part of the Challenge X Vehicle Competition. (author)

  7. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part I: Pebble Bed Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Boer; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2011-03-01

    significant failure is to be expected for the reference fuel particle during normal operation. It was found, however, that the sensitivity of the coating stress to the CO production in the kernel was large. The CO production is expected to be higher in DB fuel than in UO2 fuel, but its exact level has a high uncertainty. Furthermore, in the fuel performance analysis transient conditions were not yet taken into account. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge burnup level, while retaining its inherent safety characteristics. Using generic pebble bed reactor cores, this task will perform physics calculations to evaluate the capabilities of the pebble bed reactor to perform utilization and destruction of LWR used-fuel transuranics. The task will use established benchmarked models, and will introduce modeling advancements appropriate to the nature of the fuel considered (high transuranic [TRU] content and high burn-up). Accomplishments of this work include: •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Uranium. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Modified Open Cycle Components. •Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Americium targets.

  8. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part I: Pebble Bed Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Brian; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.

    2011-01-01

    failure is to be expected for the reference fuel particle during normal operation. It was found, however, that the sensitivity of the coating stress to the CO production in the kernel was large. The CO production is expected to be higher in DB fuel than in UO2 fuel, but its exact level has a high uncertainty. Furthermore, in the fuel performance analysis transient conditions were not yet taken into account. The effort of this task in FY 2010 has focused on the optimization of the core to maximize the pebble discharge burnup level, while retaining its inherent safety characteristics. Using generic pebble bed reactor cores, this task will perform physics calculations to evaluate the capabilities of the pebble bed reactor to perform utilization and destruction of LWR used-fuel transuranics. The task will use established benchmarked models, and will introduce modeling advancements appropriate to the nature of the fuel considered (high transuranic (TRU) content and high burn-up). Accomplishments of this work include: (1) Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel. (2) Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Uranium. (3) Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Modified Open Cycle Components. (4) Core analysis of a HTR-MODULE design loaded with Deep-Burn fuel and Americium targets.

  9. Utilizing Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel for industrial steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie B. Maglaya [De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-01-01

    The fast depletion of fuel oil and the continuous increase in the demand for power is a global issue. In the Philippines, the demand for diesel oil is expected to increase significantly in a 20-year period as projected by the Department of Energy. In line with the Philippine Government's thrust to lessen the dependence on imported energy, the agenda for the search for alternative fuel is highly prioritized. Thus, this paper presents the results of the study on performance analysis and efficiency test of a diesel oil fired industrial steam generator using Philippine Calatrava coal-diesel oil mixture (CDOM) as alternative fuel. A computer program was developed in HyperText Markup Language (HTML{copyright}) and JavaScript{copyright} to aid the computation of the adiabatic flame temperature from the governing system of equations based on the heat interaction between CDOM fuel, combustion air and products of combustion to determine the most desirable alternative fuel. Actual experimentation for the determination of CDOM fuel properties was also conducted to verify the alternative fuel selected through theoretical calculations. Results showed that the CDOM fuel with a particle size passing 75 {mu}m (-200 mesh) sieve having a proportion of 5% pulverized coal-95% diesel oil and 10% pulverized coal-90% diesel oil could be handled throughout the test with no degradation of the industrial steam generator. The steam generator efficiency using diesel oil is close to the steam generator efficiency using both CDOM fuels. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Ignition of Liquid Fuel Spray and Simulated Solid Rocket Fuel by Photoignition of Carbon Nanotube Utilizing a Camera Flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    10,11 There has been a recent report on the photoignition of graphene oxide for fuel ignition applications.12 In this report, we will describe the...slide Aluminum foil Glass petri dish Xe flash Camera Sample Black spray paint Figure 2- Schematic and photographs of the experimental setup...Gilje, Sergey Dubin, Alireza Badakhshan, Jabari Farrar, Stephen. A. Danczyk, Richard B. Kaner, “Photothermal Deoxygenation of Graphene Oxide for

  11. Wildfire fuel harvesting and resultant biomass utilization using a cut-to-length/small chipper system

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Chad Bolding; Bobby L. Lanford

    2005-01-01

    Currently, there is a lack of information concerning mechanical forest fuel reduction. This study examined and measured the feasibility of ground-based mechanical harvesting to reduce forest fuel buildup and produce energywood. Cut-to-length (CTL) harvesting coupled with a small in-woods chipper provided a low impact way to harvest pre-commercial trees and tops along...

  12. A LMFBR for thorium utilization and for the U233/Th fuel rods specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Dias, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    The use of U 233 /Th as fuel in the middle part of LMFBR core and the Pu/U in the external part of the core, are proposed. The basic neutronic and safety characteristics and the specifications of fuel rods to be used in the internal core, are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Utilization of waste coconut coir dust as a source of fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Festin, T.F.; Jose, W.I.

    1979-01-01

    A review on the production of a gaseous fuel by the pyrolysis of waste coir dust, which is a by-product in the manufacturing of coir fibers from coconut husks. Experimental and pilot-plant studies on the pyrolysis of coir dust are discussed and the properties of the dust and the fuel gas produced are given. (Refs. 13).

  14. Effects of degree of approval and message on utility of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigaki, Toshihiko

    2007-01-01

    It is said that the effectiveness of nuclear power generation is the greatest factor contributing to whether or not people support the nuclear power policy. The major objectives of this research are twofold: from among opinions regarding the effectiveness of the nuclear fuel cycle, to clarify what kinds of opinions people support and what kinds of opinions have influenced judgments about the pros and cons of the nuclear fuel cycle; and to measure the extent to which people's awareness of the nuclear fuel cycle is influenced by numerical information that has been added to a nuclear-fuel-cycle-related message that has been created on the basis of results of the survey conducted for the first objective mentioned above. As for the first objective, the survey results revealed that the opinion 'the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle leads to the effective use of energy resources' did not garner much support from the public. However, it was indicated that people being for or against that opinion may have relatively great effect on their judgment regarding the pros and ons of nuclear fuel cycle establishment. For the second objective, we showed people the messages the nuclear fuel cycle enables effective use of natural uranium' and 'the nuclear fuel cycle enables tens times more effective use of natural uranium' to the latter of which numerical information was added. As a result, we found no difference in people's attitude toward the nuclear fuel cycle even if numerical information was added to a nuclear-fuel-cycle-related message. (author)

  15. Investigation of the Feasibility of Utilizing Gamma Emission Computed Tomography in Evaluating Fission Product Migration in Irradiated TRISO Fuel Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harp, Jason M.; Demkowicz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) the TRISO particle fuel serves as the primary fission product containment. However the large number of TRISO particles present in proposed HTGRs dictates that there will be a small fraction (~10"-"4 to 10"-"5) of as manufactured defects and in-pile particle failures that will lead to some fission product release. The matrix material surrounding the TRISO particles in fuel compacts and the structural graphite holding the TRISO particles in place can also serve as sinks for containing any released fission products. However data on the migration of solid fission products through these materials is lacking. One of the primary goals of the AGR-3/4 experiment is to study fission product migration from intentionally failed TRISO particles in prototypic HTGR components such as structural graphite and compact matrix material. In this work, the potential for a Gamma Emission Computed Tomography (GECT) technique to non-destructively examine the fission product distribution in AGR-3/4 components and other irradiation experiments is explored. Specifically, the feasibility of using the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) Precision Gamma Scanner (PGS) system for this GECT application was considered. Previous experience utilizing similar techniques, the expected activities in AGR-3/4 rings, and analysis of this work indicate using GECT to evaluate AGR-3/4 will be feasible. The GECT technique was also applied to other irradiated nuclear fuel systems currently available in the HFEF hot cell, including oxide fuel pins, metallic fuel pins, and monolithic plate fuel. Results indicate GECT with the HFEF PGS is effective. (author)

  16. Utilization of the NFS West Valley Installation for spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.W.

    1978-04-01

    Several thousand MT of capacity of AFR storage will be required in the 1980's. The pool at NFS has capacity for an additional 60 MT of BWR fuel or 150 MT of PWR assemblies. Zircaloy-clad LWR fuel can be stored in pools for up to 100 years. Environmental effects are discussed. Expansion of the pool capacity for as much as 1000 MT more, either by using more compact storage racks or constructing a new pool or an independent pool, is considered. Some indication of the environmental impacts of expanded fuel storage capacity at West Valley is offered by experience at Barnwell

  17. Integrated Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Increased Utilization of Gaseous Opportunity Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratapas, John [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Zelepouga, Serguei [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gnatenko, Vitaliy [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Saveliev, Alexei [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Jangale, Vilas [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Li, Hailin [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Getz, Timothy [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Mather, Daniel [Digital Engines, New York, NY (United States)

    2013-08-31

    The project is addressing barriers to or opportunities for increasing distributed generation (DG)/combined heat and power (CHP) use in industrial applications using renewable/opportunity fuels. This project brings together novel gas quality sensor (GQS) technology with engine management for opportunity fuels such as landfill gas, digester gas and coal bed methane. By providing the capability for near real-time monitoring of the composition of these opportunity fuels, the GQS output can be used to improve the performance, increase efficiency, raise system reliability, and provide improved project economics and reduced emissions for engines used in distributed generation and combined heat and power.

  18. The Analysis of RSG-GAS Spent Fuel Elements Utilization as a Gamma Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudjijanto MS; Setiyanto

    2004-01-01

    A gamma irradiator using RSG-GAS spent fuels was analyzed. The cylindrical geometry of the irradiator was designed using spent fuels placed in the cylindrical periphery. The analysis especially was focused to evaluate the feasibilities of the irradiator for foods and non-foods which need not too high dose rates. While the spent fuels activities were calculated by ORIGEN2 code, the dose rates at the irradiation positions were determined by linear attenuation model with transport coefficient. The evaluated results showed that the cylindrical geometry of the irradiator with diameter around 1-1.5 m gave the effective dose rate for irradiation needs the dose rate about 2 kGy/hr. Regarding this work, it can be concluded that one can use the unutilized spent fuels effectively as a gamma irradiator for certain applications. (author)

  19. Application of linear programming and perturbation theory in optimization of fuel utilization in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaljevski, N.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed optimization procedure is fast due to application of linear programming. Non-linear constraints which demand iterative application of linear programming are slowing down the calculation. Linearization can be done by different procedures starting from simple empirical rules for fuel in-core management to complicated general perturbation theory with higher order of corrections. A mathematical model was formulated for optimization of improved fuel cycle. A detailed algorithm for determining minimum of fresh fuel at the beginning of each fuel cycle is shown and the problem is linearized by first order perturbation theory and it is optimized by linear programming. Numerical illustration of the proposed method was done for the experimental reactor mostly for saving computer time

  20. Status and prospects of thermal breeders and their effect on fuel utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The report evaluates the extent to which thermal breeders and near-breeders might complement fast breeders or serve as an alternative in solving the long-term nuclear fuel supply problem. It considers in a general way issues such as proliferation, safety, environmental impacts, economics, power plant availability and fuel cycle versatility in order to determine whether thermal breeder reactors offer advantages or disadvantages with respect to such issues.

  1. The utility owner experience in the fuel management of the SENA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charransol, P.

    1975-01-01

    The calculation method developed to solve fuel management problems of the SENA reactor is presented. Comparison between measurements and predictions shows that the computation method used for the reactor loaded with UO 2 assemblies gives: cycle length with an associated uncertainty of 3%, power distribution with an associated uncertainty of 2 to 5% and isotopic fuel composition with an uncertainty of 2 to 4% [fr

  2. Status and prospects of thermal breeders and their effect on fuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The report evaluates the extent to which thermal breeders and near-breeders might complement fast breeders or serve as an alternative in solving the long-term nuclear fuel supply problem. It considers in a general way issues such as proliferation, safety, environmental impacts, economics, power plant availability and fuel cycle versatility in order to determine whether thermal breeder reactors offer advantages or disadvantages with respect to such issues

  3. Carbonate fuel cells: Milliwatts to megawatts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, M.; Maru, H. C.

    coal-derived gases, diesel, and other logistic fuels. Innovative carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power plant designs promising record energy conversion efficiencies approaching 75% have also emerged. This paper will review the historical development of this unique technology from milliwatt-scale laboratory cells to present megawatt-scale commercial power plants.

  4. Solid-phase bioremediation of diesel fuel-contaminated soil utilizing indigenous microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnetta, P.J.; Laubacher, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, R.E. Wright Environmental, Inc. (REWEI) was retained by BP Oil Company (BP) to evaluate the use of bioremediation technology to remediate approximately 3,000 cubic yards (yd 3 ) of soil impacted with diesel fuel. The impacted soil resulted from the release of several hundred gallons of diesel fuel from a ruptured valve on an aboveground pipeline within a terminal. The overland flow of the diesel fuel resulted in a significant area of soil being impacted by the fuel. Immediate response activities limited vertical migration of the fuel through the excavation and stockpiling of the surface-impacted soil. The nature of the contaminant -- an unweathered, refined petroleum product comprised primarily of alkanes of a medium chain length -- and the biodegradable nature of the diesel fuel made bioremediation a cost-effective and technically feasible remedial option. The objective of the project was to reduce the concentrations of the petroleum hydrocarbons to below the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) soil cleanup levels in order to reuse the soil on-site as fill. Basic agronomic principles were applied throughout all phases of the project in order to successfully biodegrade the hydrocarbon

  5. Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Mustafa; Balat, Havva

    2009-01-01

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. A number of environmental and economic benefits are claimed for bio-fuels. Bio-ethanol is by far the most widely used bio-fuel for transportation worldwide. Production of bio-ethanol from biomass is one way to reduce both consumption of crude oil and environmental pollution. Using bio-ethanol blended gasoline fuel for automobiles can significantly reduce petroleum use and exhaust greenhouse gas emission. Bio-ethanol can be produced from different kinds of raw materials. These raw materials are classified into three categories of agricultural raw materials: simple sugars, starch and lignocellulose. Bio-ethanol from sugar cane, produced under the proper conditions, is essentially a clean fuel and has several clear advantages over petroleum-derived gasoline in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality in metropolitan areas. Conversion technologies for producing bio-ethanol from cellulosic biomass resources such as forest materials, agricultural residues and urban wastes are under development and have not yet been demonstrated commercially.

  6. Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Chinmaya; Naghshtabrizi, Payam; Verma, Rajeev; Tang, Zhijun; Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. The control strategy is separated into two parts, (1) Predictive Battery Management (PBM), and (2) Predictive Power Management (PPM). PBM is the higher level control with slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

  7. In-Core Fuel Managements for PWRs: Investigation on solution for optimal utilization of PWR fuel through the use of fuel assemblies with differently enriched 235U fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caprioli, Sara

    2004-04-01

    A possibility for more efficient use of the nuclear fuel in a pressurized water reactor is investigated. The alternative proposed here consists of the implementation of PWR fuel assemblies with differently enriched 235 U fuel pins. This possibility is examined in comparison with the standard assembly design. The comparison is performed both in terms of single assembly performance and in the terms of nuclear reactor core performance and fuel utility. For the evaluation of the actual performance of the new assembly types, 5 operated fuel core sequences of R3 (Ringhals' third unit), for the period 1999 - 2004 (cycles 17 - 21) were examined. For every cycle, the standard fresh fuel assemblies have been identified and taken as reference cases for the study of the new type of assemblies with differently enriched uranium rods. In every cycle, assemblies with and without burnable absorber are freshly loaded into the core. The axial enrichment distribution is kept uniform, allowing for a radial (planar) enrichment level distribution only. At an assembly level, it has been observed that the implementation of the alternative enrichment configuration can lead to lower and flatter internal peaking factor distribution with respect to the uniformly enriched reference assemblies. This can be achieved by limiting the enrichment levels distribution to a rather narrow range. The highest enrichment level chosen has the greatest impact on the power distribution of the assemblies. As it increases, the enrichment level drives the internal peaking factor to greater values than in the reference assemblies. Generally, the highest enrichment level that would allow an improvement in the power performance of the assembly lies between 3.95 w/o and 4.17 w/o. The highest possible enrichment level depends on the average enrichment of the overall assembly, which is kept constant to the average enrichment of the reference assemblies. The improvements that can be obtained at this level are rather

  8. Energetic utilization of Solid Recovered Fuels with wood chips in a stoker-fired furnace; Energetische Nutzung von Solid Recovered Fuels mit Holzhackschnitzeln in einer Rostfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Piotr; Gehrmann, Hans-Joachim; Seifert, Helmut; Pfrang-Stotz, Gudrun; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie (ITC); Schubert, Stefanie [TOMRA Sorting Solutions, Muelheim-Kaerlich (Germany). Test Facility Recycling TITECH; Glorius, Thomas [Remondis GmbH, Region Rheinland, Erftstadt (Germany). Stoffstrommanagement

    2013-03-01

    Very often, in Germany biofuels are utilized energetically in a pure energetic mode predominantly in EEG incinerator plants. Further clear increases of efficiencies only are possible within a cocombustion in power plant processes with enhanced vapour parameters or in cogeneration power plants, respectively. In the course of an international collaborative project, first experiments at demonstration scale at two fluidized bed boilers at the power plant Wachtberg (Frechen, Federal Republic of Germany) it could be shown, that alternative fuels with an enhanced amount of biomass can be cocombusted without disadvantageous impacts on the emissions. The addition of sulphur to the mono-combustion of biofuels and substitute fuels reduced the total amount of chlorine. But the addition of sulphur also resulted in clearly harder coverings in waste heat recovery boilers by means of the formation of anhydrite as well as to an enhanced dust loading. The substitute fuel online analysis system from TOMRA Sorting Solutions (Wedel/Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany) was installed in front of the stoker-fired furnace for the online-monitoring of the operation parameters chlorine, water and calorific value.

  9. Utilization of waste cooking oil as an alternative fuel for Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ridvan; Ulusoy, Yahya

    2017-04-03

    This study is based on three essential considerations concerning biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil: diesel engine emissions of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil, its potential in Turkey, and policies of the Turkish government about environmentally friendly alternative fuels. Emission tests have been realized with 35.8 kW, four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel tractor engine. Test results are compared with Euro non-road emission standards for diesel fuel and five different blends of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The results of the experimental study show that the best blends are B10 and B20 as they show the lowest emission level. The other dimensions of the study include potential analysis of waste cooking oil as diesel fuels, referring to fuel price policies applied in the past, and proposed future policies about the same issues. It was also outlined some conclusions and recommendations in connection with recycling of waste oils as alternative fuels.

  10. Utilization of methanol for polymer electrolyte fuel cells in mobile systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, V M [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Broeckerhoff, P [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Hoehlein, B [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Menzer, R [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany); Stimming, U [Research Centre Juelich (KFA), Inst. of Energy Process Engineering (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    The constantly growing volume of road traffic requires the introduction of new vehicle propulsion systems with higher efficiency and drastically reduced emission rates. As part of the fuel cell programme of the Research Centre Juelich a vehicle propulsion system with methanol as secondary energy carrier and a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as the main component for energy conversion is developed. The fuel gas is produced by a heterogeneously catalyzed steam reforming reaction in which methanol is converted to H[sub 2], CO and CO[sub 2]. The required energy is provided by the catalytic conversion of methanol for both heating up the system and reforming methanol. The high CO content of the fuel gas requires further processing of the gas or the development of new electrocatalysts for the anode. Various Pt-Ru alloys show promising behaviour as CO-tolerant anodes. The entire fuel cell system is discussed in terms of energy and emission balances. The development of important components is described and experimental results are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Construction and utilization of linear empirical core models for PWR in-core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okafor, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    An empirical core-model construction procedure for pressurized water reactor (PWR) in-core fuel management is developed that allows determining the optimal BOC k ∞ profiles in PWRs as a single linear-programming problem and thus facilitates the overall optimization process for in-core fuel management due to algorithmic simplification and reduction in computation time. The optimal profile is defined as one that maximizes cycle burnup. The model construction scheme treats the fuel-assembly power fractions, burnup, and leakage as state variables and BOC zone enrichments as control variables. The core model consists of linear correlations between the state and control variables that describe fuel-assembly behavior in time and space. These correlations are obtained through time-dependent two-dimensional core simulations. The core model incorporates the effects of composition changes in all the enrichment control zones on a given fuel assembly and is valid at all times during the cycle for a given range of control variables. No assumption is made on the geometry of the control zones. A scatter-composition distribution, as well as annular, can be considered for model construction. The application of the methodology to a typical PWR core indicates good agreement between the model and exact simulation results

  12. Kansas Department of Transportation enterprise energy and carbon accounting and utility usage research phase 2B : improving energy and fuel efficiencies in KDOT operations, [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of facilities and operations has become an important function for many organizations. In many cases, such as utility and fuel use, reducing these impacts can also be coupled to financial savings. The Kansas Departmen...

  13. Kansas Department of Transportation enterprise energy and carbon accounting and utility usage research phase 2B : improving energy and fuel efficiencies in KDOT operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of facilities and operations has become an important function for many organizations. In many : cases, such as utility and fuel use, reducing these impacts can also be coupled to financial savings. The Kansas Departm...

  14. Quantitative and qualitative investigation of the fuel utilization and introducing a novel calculation idea based on transfer phenomena in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefkhani, M. Baghban; Ghadamian, H.; Massoudi, A.; Aminy, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of fuel utilization in PEMFC within transfer phenomenon approach. • The main defect of the theoretical calculation of U_F depends on Nernst equation. • U_F has a differential nature so it is employed to do theoretical calculation. - Abstract: In this study, fuel utilization (U_F) of a PEMFC have been investigated within transfer phenomenon approach. Description of the U_F and fuel consumption measurement is the main factor to obtain the U_F. The differences between the experimental study and theoretical calculations results in the previous research articles reveal the available theoretical equations should be studied more based on the fundamental affairs of the U_F. Hence, there is a substantial issue that the U_F description satisfies the principles, and then it can be validated by the experimental results. The results of this study indicate that the U_F and power grew by 1.1% and 1%, respectively, based on one degree increased temperature. In addition, for every 1 kPa pressure increment, U_F improved considerably by 0.25% and 0.173% in the 40 °C and 80 °C, respectively. Furthermore, in the constant temperature, the power improved by 22% based on one atmospheric growth of the pressure. Results of this research show that the U_F has a differential nature, therefore differential equations will be employed to do an accurate theoretical calculation. Accordingly, it seems that the main defect of the theoretical calculation depends on Nernst equation that can be modified by a differential nature coefficient.

  15. Aviation Fuel Gauging Sensor Utilizing Multiple Diaphragm Sensors Incorporating Polymer Optical Fiber Bragg Gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Saez-Rodriguez, D.

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance fuel gauging sensor is described that uses five diaphragm-based pressure sensors, which are monitored using a linear array of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings. The sensors were initially characterized using water, revealing a sensitivity of 98 pm/cm for four of the sensors...... of sensors manufactured with a polyurethane-based diaphragm showed no measurable deterioration over a three month period immersed in fuel. These sensors exhibited a sensitivity of 39 pm/cm, which is less than the silicone rubber devices due to the stiffer nature of the polyurethane material used....

  16. Implementation of the utilization program for the fuel elements of the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.R.; Serra, O.H.; Parker, Alejandro

    1981-01-01

    The programming operation for the use of the fuel elements in the Atucha-1 nuclear power plant was initially under the responsibility of the KWU Company, as part of the services rendered due for the manufacturing of said elements. This job was done with the help of the TRISIC program, developed in the early seventies by CNEA and SIEMENS staff. From april 21, 1979 on, CNEA took over the responsibility and strategy of the interchange of fuel elements. The several stages carried out for the implementation of this service are detailed. (M.E.L.) [es

  17. Improvement in fuel utilization in pressurized heavy water reactors due to increased heavy water purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), the reactivity of the reactor and, consequently, the discharge burnup of the fuel depend on the isotopic purity of the heavy water used in the reactor. The optimal purity of heavy water used in PHWRs, in turn, depends on the cost of fabricated uranium fuel and on the incremental cost incurred in improving the heavy water purity. The physics and economics aspects of the desirability of increasing the heavy water purity in PHWRs in India were first examined in 1978. With the cost data available at that time, it was found that improving the heavy water purity from 99.80% to 99.95% was economically attractive. The same problem is reinvestigated with current cost data. Even now, there is sufficient incentive to improve the isotopic purity of heavy water used in PHWRs. Admittedly, the economic advantage that can be derived depends on the cost of the fabricated fuel. Nevertheless, irrespective of the economics, there is also a fairly substantial saving in natural uranium. That the increase in the heavy water purity is to be maintained only in the low-pressure moderator system, and not in the high-pressure coolant system, makes the option of achieving higher fuel burnup with higher heavy water purity feasible

  18. Considerations about the utilization of electrically heated rods used for simulation of nuclear fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R. de C.F. de; Carajilescov, P.

    1987-01-01

    The dinamic behavior of electrically heated rods used for simulation of nuclear fuel pins in nuclear power transients, is analysed by the application of the lumped parameter and the finite difference methods. Deviations of the rods surface conditions, for extreme accidental transient conditions are presented and discussed. (author) [pt

  19. Sales promotion and utilization of fuel. Engineering service of the heat industry for industrial companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, E. (Ruhrgas A.G., Essen (Germany, F.R.). Abt. E-F)

    1978-01-01

    The contribution illustrates, from the industrial viewpoint, how one may produce process heat rationally and make optimum use of it using natural gas and how competing fuels can be supplanted. The heat economy engineering activities of a modern gas supply undertaking and a few practical examples to improve the industrial produce structure are shown.

  20. Out-of-core nuclear fuel cycle optimization utilizing an engineering workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, P.J.; Comes, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Within the past several years, rapid advances in computer technology have resulted in substantial increases in their performance. The net effect is that problems that could previously only be executed on mainframe computers can now be executed on micro- and minicomputers. The authors are interested in developing an engineering workstation for nuclear fuel management applications. An engineering workstation is defined as a microcomputer with enhanced graphics and communication capabilities. Current fuel management applications range from using workstations as front-end/back-end processors for mainframe computers to completing fuel management scoping calculations. More recently, interest in using workstations for final in-core design calculations has appeared. The authors have used the VAX 11/750 minicomputer, which is not truly an engineering workstation but has comparable performance, to complete both in-core and out-of-core fuel management scoping studies. In this paper, the authors concentrate on our out-of-core research. While much previous work in this area has dealt with decisions concerned with equilibrium cycles, the current project addresses the more realistic situation of nonequilibrium cycles

  1. Review on utilization of the pervaporation membrane for passive vapor feed direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, N F I; Hasran, U A; Kamarudin, S K

    2013-01-01

    The Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) is a promising portable power source for mobile electronic devices because of its advantages including easy fuel storage, high energy density, low temperature operation and compact structure. In DMFC, methanol is used as a fuel source where it can be fed in liquid or vapor phase. However, the vapor feed DMFC has an advantage over the liquid feed system as it has the potential to have a higher operating temperature to increase the reaction rates and power outputs, to enhance the mass transfers, to reduce methanol crossover, reliable for high methanol concentration and it can increase the fuel cell performance. Methanol vapor can be delivered to the anode by using a pervaporation membrane, heating the liquid methanol or another method that compatible. Therefore, this paper is a review on vapor feed DMFC as a better energy source than liquid feed DMFC, the pervaporation membrane used to vaporize methanol feed from the reservoir and its applications in vapor feed DMFC

  2. Composite fuels. Defining a strategy for better Pu utilization in PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porta, Jacques; Baldi, Stefano [DRN/DER/SIS CE Cadarache Bat. 211, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance CEDEX (France); Puill, Andre; Aillaud, Cecile

    1999-07-01

    After a description of the French context dominated by the accumulation of plutonium, and the international context in which the tendency is towards the disappearance of plutonium reserves and the destruction of minor actinides, a few solutions selected in the framework of the Innovating Fuels programme are presented. The aim is to burn the surplus Pu by means of fuel in inert matrices since, in addition to the increased burnup, the absence of plutonium generating conversion must be considered. The experiments intended to qualify selected CERCERs and CERMETs are presented and discussed, the feasibility of CERMET UO2 and MOX cores is established. Things are more complicated for PuO2 CERMET and we show that, in order to optimize loading, a dedicated heterogeneous assembly has to be defined. The Advanced Plutonium Assembly (APA) is presented. The last part of this article is devoted to the first fabrication tests on these very particular fuels and to the definition of reference accidents liable to affect 'cold' fuels such as CERMETs. (author)

  3. Composite fuels. Defining a strategy for better Pu utilization in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porta, Jacques; Baldi, Stefano; Puill, Andre; Aillaud, Cecile

    1999-01-01

    After a description of the French context dominated by the accumulation of plutonium, and the international context in which the tendency is towards the disappearance of plutonium reserves and the destruction of minor actinides, a few solutions selected in the framework of the Innovating Fuels programme are presented. The aim is to burn the surplus Pu by means of fuel in inert matrices since, in addition to the increased burnup, the absence of plutonium generating conversion must be considered. The experiments intended to qualify selected CERCERs and CERMETs are presented and discussed, the feasibility of CERMET UO2 and MOX cores is established. Things are more complicated for PuO2 CERMET and we show that, in order to optimize loading, a dedicated heterogeneous assembly has to be defined. The Advanced Plutonium Assembly (APA) is presented. The last part of this article is devoted to the first fabrication tests on these very particular fuels and to the definition of reference accidents liable to affect 'cold' fuels such as CERMETs. (author)

  4. 78 FR 11622 - Request for Proposals: 2013 Hazardous Fuels Woody Biomass Utilization Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Service, State and Private Forestry (S&PF), Technology Marketing Unit, located at the Forest Products... fuel treatments, insect and disease mitigation, forest management due to catastrophic weather events... engineering design often limits the ability of an applicant or business to secure Federal, State or private...

  5. 77 FR 5755 - Request for Proposals: 2012 Hazardous Fuels Woody Biomass Utilization Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, State and Private Forestry (S&PF), Technology Marketing Unit, located at... activities, wildfire hazardous fuel treatments, insect and disease mitigation, forest management due to... business to receive Federal, State or private funding. DATES: Thursday, March 1, 2012, Application Deadline...

  6. Utility view on QA/QC of WWER-440 fuel design and manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the legislation implements in the Czech Republic, QA/QC system at CEZ, demonstration and development program (purchaser point of view), audit of QA/QC system for fuel design and manufacturing as well as QA/QC records are discussed

  7. A new air-fuel WSGGM for better utility boiler simulation, design and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of air-fuel combustion processes. The WSGGM coefficients evaluated by Smith et al. (1982) for several partial pressures of CO2 and H2O vapor are often used for gas temperatures up to 2400K, which is supplemented by the coefficient values presented by Coppalle...

  8. A complete fuel development facility utilizing a dual core TRIGA reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, A; Law, G C [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1974-07-01

    A TRIGA Dual Core Reactor System has been chosen by the Romanian Government as the heart of a new fuel development facility which will be operated by the Romanian Institute for Nuclear Technologies. The Facility, which will be operational in 1976, is an integral part of the Romanian National Program for Power Reactor Development, with particular emphasis being placed on fuel development. The unique combination of a new 14 MW steady state TRIGA reactor, and the well-proven TRIGA Annular Core Pulsing Reactor (ACPR) in one below-ground reactor pool resulted in a substantial construction cost savings and gives the facility remarkable experimental flexibility. The inherent safety of the TRIGA fuel elements in both reactor cores means that a secondary containment building is not necessary, resulting in further construction cost savings. The 14 MW steady state reactor gives acceptably high neutron fluxes for long- term testing of various prototype fuel-cladding-coolant combinations; and the TRIGA ACPR high pulse capability allows transient testing of fuel specimens, which is so important for accurate prediction of the performance of power reactor fuel elements under postulated failure conditions. The 14 MW steady state reactor has one large and three small in-core irradiation loop positions, two large irradiation loop positions adjacent to the core face, and twenty small holes in the beryllium reflector for small capsule irradiation. The power level of 14 MW will yield peak unperturbed thermal neutron fluxes in the central experiment position approaching 3.0 x 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}-sec. The ACPR has one large dry central experimental cavity which can be loaded at pool level through a shielded offset loading tube; a small diameter in-core flux trap; and an in-core pneumatically-operated capsule irradiation position. A peak pulse of 15,000 MW will yield a peak fast neutron flux in the central experimental cavity of about 1.5 x 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}-sec. The pulse width at

  9. In-Core Fuel Managements for PWRs: Investigation on solution for optimal utilization of PWR fuel through the use of fuel assemblies with differently enriched {sup 235}U fuel pins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioli, Sara

    2004-04-01

    A possibility for more efficient use of the nuclear fuel in a pressurized water reactor is investigated. The alternative proposed here consists of the implementation of PWR fuel assemblies with differently enriched {sup 235}U fuel pins. This possibility is examined in comparison with the standard assembly design. The comparison is performed both in terms of single assembly performance and in the terms of nuclear reactor core performance and fuel utility. For the evaluation of the actual performance of the new assembly types, 5 operated fuel core sequences of R3 (Ringhals' third unit), for the period 1999 - 2004 (cycles 17 - 21) were examined. For every cycle, the standard fresh fuel assemblies have been identified and taken as reference cases for the study of the new type of assemblies with differently enriched uranium rods. In every cycle, assemblies with and without burnable absorber are freshly loaded into the core. The axial enrichment distribution is kept uniform, allowing for a radial (planar) enrichment level distribution only. At an assembly level, it has been observed that the implementation of the alternative enrichment configuration can lead to lower and flatter internal peaking factor distribution with respect to the uniformly enriched reference assemblies. This can be achieved by limiting the enrichment levels distribution to a rather narrow range. The highest enrichment level chosen has the greatest impact on the power distribution of the assemblies. As it increases, the enrichment level drives the internal peaking factor to greater values than in the reference assemblies. Generally, the highest enrichment level that would allow an improvement in the power performance of the assembly lies between 3.95 w/o and 4.17 w/o. The highest possible enrichment level depends on the average enrichment of the overall assembly, which is kept constant to the average enrichment of the reference assemblies. The improvements that can be obtained at this level are

  10. Preliminary experience and near future utilization programmes of the MPR-30 fueled by LEU [low enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbie, B.; Soentono, S.

    1987-01-01

    The MTR type reactor MPR-30 G.A. Siwabessy, located at PUSPIPTEK Serpong has recently reached its first criticality. This multipurpose reactor is supposed to be the first MTR type reactor in the world that is designed and constructed to be fueled by low enriched uranium. Preliminary experience covering the approach to the first criticality and the excess reactivity loading as well as some thermal hydraulics and power ascension tests are briefly presented and discussed. The near future utilization programmes during and after commissioning are also presented. (Author)

  11. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  12. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  13. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  14. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  15. Final Report: Utilizing Alternative Fuel Ignition Properties to Improve SI and CI Engine Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, Margaret; Boehman, Andre; Lavoie, George; Fatouraie, Mohammad

    2017-11-30

    Experimental and modeling studies were completed to explore leveraging physical and chemical fuel properties for improved thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines. Fundamental studies of the ignition chemistry of ethanol and iso-octane blends and constant volume spray chamber studies of gasoline and diesel sprays supported the core research effort which used several reciprocating engine platforms. Single cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine studies were carried out to characterize the impact of ethanol/gasoline, syngas (H2 and CO)/gasoline and other oxygenate/gasoline blends on engine performance. The results of the single-cylinder engine experiments and other data from the literature were used to train a GT Power model and to develop a knock criteria based on reaction chemistry. The models were used to interpret the experimental results and project future performance. Studies were also carried out using a state of the art, direct injection (DI) turbocharged multi- cylinder engine with piezo-actuated fuel injectors to demonstrate the promising spray and spark timing strategies from single-cylinder engine studies on the multi-cylinder engine. Key outcomes and conclusions of the studies were: 1. Efficiency benefits of ethanol and gasoline fuel blends were consistent and substantial (e.g. 5-8% absolute improvement in gross indicated thermal efficiency (GITE)). 2. The best ethanol/gasoline blend (based on maximum thermal efficiency) was determined by the engine hardware and limits based on component protection (e.g. peak in-cylinder pressure or maximum turbocharger inlet temperature) – and not by knock limits. Blends with <50% ethanol delivered significant thermal efficiency gains with conventional SI hardware while maintain good safety integrity to the engine hardware. 3. Other compositions of fuel blends including syngas (H2 and CO) and other dilution strategies provided significant efficiency gains as well (e.g. 5% absolute improvement in ITE). 4. When the

  16. Biomass-derived Syngas Utilization for Fuels and Chemicals - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayton, David C

    2010-03-24

    Executive Summary The growing gap between petroleum production and demand, mounting environmental concerns, and increasing fuel prices have stimulated intense interest in research and development (R&D) of alternative fuels, both synthetic and bio-derived. Currently, the most technically defined thermochemical route for producing alternative fuels from lignocellulosic biomass involves gasification/reforming of biomass to produce syngas (carbon monoxide [CO] + hydrogen [H2]), followed by syngas cleaning, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) or mixed alcohol synthesis, and some product upgrading via hydroprocessing or separation. A detailed techno-economic analysis of this type of process has recently been published [1] and it highlights the need for technical breakthroughs and technology demonstration for gas cleanup and fuel synthesis. The latter two technical barrier areas contribute 40% of the total thermochemical ethanol cost and 70% of the production cost, if feedstock costs are factored out. Developing and validating technologies that reduce the capital and operating costs of these unit operations will greatly reduce the risk for commercializing integrated biomass gasification/fuel synthesis processes for biofuel production. The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate new catalysts and catalytic processes that can efficiently convert biomass-derived syngas into diesel fuel and C2-C4 alcohols. The goal is to improve the economics of the processes by improving the catalytic activity and product selectivity, which could lead to commercialization. The project was divided into 4 tasks: Task 1: Reactor Systems: Construction of three reactor systems was a project milestone. Construction of a fixed-bed microreactor (FBR), a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) were completed to meet this milestone. Task 2: Iron Fischer-Tropsch (FT) Catalyst: An attrition resistant iron FT catalyst will be developed and tested

  17. Utilization of ''CONTACT'' experiments to improve the fission gas release knowledge in PWR fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, M; Abassin, J J; Bruet, M; Baron, D; Melin, P

    1983-03-01

    The CONTACT experiments, which were carried out by the French CEA, within the framework of a CEA-FRAMATOME collaboration agreement, bear on the behaviour of in-pile irradiated PWR fuel rods. We will focus here upon their results dealing with fission gas release. The experimental device is briefly described, then the following results are given: the kinetics of stable fission gas release for various linear ratings; the instantaneous fractional release rates of radioactive gases versus their decay constant in the range 1.5 10/sup -6/-3.6 10/sup -3/s/sup -1/, for various burnups, as also the influence of fuel temperature. Moreover, the influence of the nature and the pressure of the filling gas upon the release is presented for various linear ratings. The experimental results are discussed and analysed with the purpose to model various physical phenomena involved in the release (low-temperature mechanisms, diffusion).

  18. Evaluation of fuel cycle options for plutonium utilization: 1977 study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardue, W.M.; Madia, W.J.; Pobereskin, M.; Tripplett, M.B.; Waddell, J.D.

    1977-05-01

    This is the third in a series of three reports on the analysis of plutonium recycle. Analyses are based upon an October, 1976, middle case ERDA forecast of nuclear growth which predicts 510 GWe of nuclear capacity in the year 2000. Four fuel cycle options were reviewed, ranging from no LWR recycle of uranium of plutonium to recycle options both with and without breeder reactors. A special effort was devoted to the review of various estimates of the costs of reprocessing nuclear fuels, with a resulting value of $190/kg of heavy metal (deflated 1975 dollars). The associated range is estimated to $125/kg to $250/kg. Sensitivity analysis of reprocessing costs, uranium consumption, average generation costs, and total discounted costs of electricity indicate that the long-term economic advantages of plutonium recycle are quite conclusive. Nuclear scenarios which project low growth rates and which delay the start of recycle and introduction of a breeder reactor postpone the apparent economic advantages

  19. Utilizing methane from degassing as a fuel for furnaces of drying systems. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, V.I.; Telegin, A.K.

    1984-10-01

    The use is evaluated of methane from coal seam degassing in the Severnaya mine as a fuel for dryers in the Severnaya coal preparation plant in the USSR. Dryers used in the plant are equipped with PMZ-4TsR furnaces. Middlings (type Zh18 coal) with 30% ash content and 0.25 MJ/kg calorific value were used as a fuel. When dryers were fired with middlings moisture content in coal concentrate declined from 10.1% to 5.1%, system output amounted to 133 t/h. After plant modernization middlings were replaced with methane from coal seam degassing (methane content in the mixture with air ranged from 40 to 60%). Replacing middlings with methane increased dryer output from 133 to 203 t/h. Moisture content in dried coal was reduced from 11.8 to 4.8%. Repair cost decreased, environmental pollution caused by combustion also declined. Payback period amounted to 6 months.

  20. Utilization of ''CONTACT'' experiments to improve the fission gas release knowledge in PWR fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.; Abassin, J.J.; Bruet, M.

    1983-01-01

    The CONTACT experiments, which were carried out by the French CEA, within the framework of a CEA-FRAMATOME collaboration agreement, bear on the behaviour of in-pile irradiated PWR fuel rods. We will focus here upon their results dealing with fission gas release. The experimental device is briefly described, then the following results are given: the kinetics of stable fission gas release for various linear ratings; the instantaneous fractional release rates of radioactive gases versus their decay constant in the range 1.5 10 -6 -3.6 10 -3 s -1 , for various burnups, as also the influence of fuel temperature. Moreover, the influence of the nature and the pressure of the filling gas upon the release is presented for various linear ratings. The experimental results are discussed and analysed with the purpose to model various physical phenomena involved in the release (low-temperature mechanisms, diffusion)

  1. Materials properties utilization in a cumulative mechanical damage function for LMFBR fuel pin failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    An overview is presented of one of the fuel-pin analysis techniques used in the CRBRP program, the cumulative mechanical damage function. This technique, as applied to LMFBR's, was developed along with the majority of models used to describe the mechanical properties and environmental behavior of the cladding (i.e., 20 percent cold-worked, 316 stainless steel). As it relates to fuel-pin analyses the Cumulative Mechanical Damage Function (CDF) continually monitors cladding integrity through steady state and transient operation; it is a time dependent function of temperature and stress which reflects the effects of both the prior mechanical history and the variations in mechanical properties caused by exposure to the reactor environment

  2. Benefits of utilizing CellProfiler as a characterization tool for U–10Mo nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collette, R.; Douglas, J.; Patterson, L.; Bahun, G.; King, J.; Keiser, D.; Schulthess, J.

    2015-01-01

    Automated image processing techniques have the potential to aid in the performance evaluation of nuclear fuels by eliminating judgment calls that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. Analysis of in-core fuel performance is required for design and safety evaluations related to almost every aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle. This study presents a methodology for assessing the quality of uranium–molybdenum fuel images and describes image analysis routines designed for the characterization of several important microstructural properties. The analyses are performed in CellProfiler, an open-source program designed to enable biologists without training in computer vision or programming to automatically extract cellular measurements from large image sets. The quality metric scores an image based on three parameters: the illumination gradient across the image, the overall focus of the image, and the fraction of the image that contains scratches. The metric presents the user with the ability to ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ an image based on a reproducible quality score. Passable images may then be characterized through a separate CellProfiler pipeline, which enlists a variety of common image analysis techniques. The results demonstrate the ability to reliably pass or fail images based on the illumination, focus, and scratch fraction of the image, followed by automatic extraction of morphological data with respect to fission gas voids, interaction layers, and grain boundaries. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • A technique is developed to score U–10Mo FIB-SEM image quality using CellProfiler. • The pass/fail metric is based on image illumination, focus, and area scratched. • Automated image analysis is performed in pipeline fashion to characterize images. • Fission gas void, interaction layer, and grain boundary coverage data is extracted. • Preliminary characterization results demonstrate consistency of the algorithm

  3. Abundance and Utility: For Military Operations, Liquid Fuels Remain a Solid Choice over Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    GTL plants in the world (two in both Malaysia and Qatar and one in South Africa). As recent developments are increasing the supply of natural gas...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The article (likely in cleaner form) will eventually be posted online at: http://www.tacticaldefensemedia.com/archive/dod_power.php The...there are approximately 1,400 CNG and 100 LNG (public and private) refueling stations, compared to about 150,000 retail fueling stations. While

  4. Benefits of utilizing CellProfiler as a characterization tool for U–10Mo nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collette, R.; Douglas, J.; Patterson, L.; Bahun, G. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); King, J., E-mail: kingjc@mines.edu [Nuclear Science and Engineering Program, Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois St, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Keiser, D.; Schulthess, J. [Nuclear Fuels and Materials Division, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Automated image processing techniques have the potential to aid in the performance evaluation of nuclear fuels by eliminating judgment calls that may vary from person-to-person or sample-to-sample. Analysis of in-core fuel performance is required for design and safety evaluations related to almost every aspect of the nuclear fuel cycle. This study presents a methodology for assessing the quality of uranium–molybdenum fuel images and describes image analysis routines designed for the characterization of several important microstructural properties. The analyses are performed in CellProfiler, an open-source program designed to enable biologists without training in computer vision or programming to automatically extract cellular measurements from large image sets. The quality metric scores an image based on three parameters: the illumination gradient across the image, the overall focus of the image, and the fraction of the image that contains scratches. The metric presents the user with the ability to ‘pass’ or ‘fail’ an image based on a reproducible quality score. Passable images may then be characterized through a separate CellProfiler pipeline, which enlists a variety of common image analysis techniques. The results demonstrate the ability to reliably pass or fail images based on the illumination, focus, and scratch fraction of the image, followed by automatic extraction of morphological data with respect to fission gas voids, interaction layers, and grain boundaries. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • A technique is developed to score U–10Mo FIB-SEM image quality using CellProfiler. • The pass/fail metric is based on image illumination, focus, and area scratched. • Automated image analysis is performed in pipeline fashion to characterize images. • Fission gas void, interaction layer, and grain boundary coverage data is extracted. • Preliminary characterization results demonstrate consistency of the algorithm.

  5. ON THE NECESSITY OF CHANGES IN THE STRATEGY OF UTILIZATION SHIP BOILER TECHNICAL CONDITION MAINTENANCE IN THE ASPECT OF LNG APPLIED AS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy oils (HFO fuels used on ships play a part in degradation of technical condition of heat exchange surfaces of utiliza-tion boilers especially on the exhaust gas side. Presence of sulphur in these fuels is the main factor favouring degrada-tion. The upper limit for sulphur content in the fuel used outside the SECA areas equal to 3.5% is currently in force, at least until the year 2020 or 2025. The recommended by classification societies overhauls of utilization boilers are, there-fore characterized by a specially chosen strategy thanks to which it is possible to maintain their appropriate technical condition. The requirement to use fuels with low sulphur content (LSFO, which are significantly more expensive than MDO fuels, in the areas of controlled sulphur emissions also led to a further introduction of alternative fuels, such as methanol and above all liquefied natural gas (LNG, onto ships. That is especially valid for the ship owners whose vessels e.g. ferries sail mainly within SCECA This article analyses the consequences of the introduced fuel change on utilization boiler maintenance. A change in the technical condition maintenance strategy for utilization boilers has been suggested.

  6. Potential utilization of biodiesel as alternative fuel for compression ignition engine in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, M. A.; Ma'arof, M. I. N.; Ahmad, I. N.; Husain, H.

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel is a type of fuel which is derived from various sources of vegetable plants and waste fuels. Today, numerous biodiesels have been engineered to be at par or even better in term of performance in comparison to pure diesel. Therefore, biodiesel has shown a promising sign as one of the best candidate in overcoming total dependency on pure diesel. This paper gives review on various tests and experiments conducted on biodiesel in order to highlight the potentials given by this particular fuel. In addition, providing the supporting evidences to further endorse for a mass usage of biodiesel in Malaysia - simultaneously, driving the country to become a potential global biodiesel producer in the near future. The reviewed studies were obtained mainly via indexed journals and online libraries. Conclusively, every test and study for every blend of biodiesel had shown consistent positive results in regards to performance and in overcoming emission related issues. Thus, providing the evidence that biodiesel is highly reliable. Malaysia as a semi-agricultural nation could take the advantage in becoming one of the leading global biodiesel producers. Nevertheless, this will requires total cooperation of every concerned government bodies and authorities.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) discussed the environmental impacts of extraction, transportation, and utilization of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) discussed the environmental impacts of extraction, transportation, and utilization of fossil fuels at a meeting in Warsaw, the first in a series of UNEP undertakings, to be followed by studies on nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. The major issues examined at the meeting were human health effects of atmospheric emissions, especially SO/sub 2/; effects of SO/sub 2/ on vegetation and bodies of fresh water; long-term ecologic effects of oil spills in the sea; and potential effects on climate from atmospheric CO/sub 2/ arising from fossil fuel combustion. A doubling of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration would cause an estimated 1.5/sup 0/-3.0/sup 0/C increase in the surface air temperature. With an amount of CO/sub 2/ equivalent to 0.5 x 10/sup 10/ tonnes of carbon annually injected into the atmosphere from fossil fuels, of which only 0.27 x 10/sup 10/ tonnes are removed by some exchange processes with ocean or land. A 17% increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ over the 1976 concentration of 332 ppm is expected by the year 2000.

  10. Efficient utilization of waste date pits for the synthesis of green diesel and jet fuel fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Muhtaseb, Ala’a H.; Jamil, Farrukh; Al-Haj, Lamya; Al-Hinai, Mohab A.; Baawain, Mahad; Myint, Myo Tay Zar; Rooney, David

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Active catalysts Pt/C and Pd/C were developed from waste date pits. • Catalysts showed good activity in hydrodeoxygenation of date pit oil to alkane fuels. • The liquid product fractions lay within the range of the jet fuel and green diesel. • Green diesel fraction obtained by Pd/C was 72.03% and jet fuel was 30.39%. • Date pits can be a promising platform for the production of catalysts and biofuels. - Abstract: Date pits are considered one of the major agricultural wastes in Oman. The present work involves the synthesis of active catalysts from waste date pits carbon produced by carbonization and impregnation with Pt and Pd metals. Synthesized catalysts Pt/C and Pd/C were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX, BET and XPS. The activity of the catalysts’ performance was evaluated by the hydrodeoxygenation of date pits oil for the production of second-generation biofuels, which includes jet fuel and green diesel fractions. Results indicate that the synthesized catalysts were highly active for the hydrodeoxygenation of date pits oil. Based on the elemental analysis, the degree of deoxygenation (DOD) of product oil was 97.5% and 89.4% for the Pd/C and Pt/C catalysts respectively. The high DOD was also confirmed by product analyses that mainly consist of paraffinic hydrocarbons. Results also showed that between the two catalysts, Pd/C showed a higher activity towards hydrodeoxygenation, a conclusion that was based on the high DOD of the product oil due to hydrocarbons formation. Based on the type of components in the product oil, the maximum fraction of hydrocarbons formed lay within the range of 72.03% and 72.78% green diesel, and 30.39% and 28.25% jet fuel using Pd/C and Pt/C catalysts respectively. It can be concluded that waste date pits can be a promising platform for the production of catalysts and biofuels.

  11. Physical characterization of biomass fuels prepared for suspension firing in utility boilers for CFD modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Yin, Chungen; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 1.2 kg Danish wheat straw (Jutland, 1997) prepared for suspension firing in a PF boiler has been analyzed for the purpose of generating size and shape distribution functions applicable to numerical modelling of combustion processes involving biomass, characterised by highly anisotropic...... shapes. The sample is subdivided by straw type, and coherent size, type and mass distribution parameters are reported for the entire sample. This type of data is necessary in order to use CFD reliably as a design and retrofit tool for co-firing biomass with fossil fuels, as the combustion processes...

  12. Effective utilization of fossil fuels for low carbon world -- IGCC and high performance gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Hiromi; Hashimoto, Takao; Sakamoto, Koichi; Komori, Toyoaki; Kishine, Takashi; Shiozaki, Shigehiro

    2010-09-15

    The reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions is required to minimize the effect of hydrocarbon based power generation on global warming. In pursue of this objective, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries is dedicating considerable efforts on two different ways to reduce the environmental impact. The first one involves gas turbine performance improvement by raising firing temperature for Natural-gas and LNG applications. In this regard, the latest J class gas turbine was designed to operate at 1600 deg C and expected combined cycle efficiency in excess of 60%. The other approach involves the use of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants to burn solid fuel like coal.

  13. State environmental review of a proposed utility independent spent fuel storage installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabel, G.; Halstead, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the environmental review process which was applied by the State of Minnesota to a proposed dry cask storage facility. An environmental analysis of the proposed project is summarized, as are alternatives including other dry storage technologies, increased in-pool storage, transhipment, reprocessing, use of higher burnup fuel and conservation. Public comments and concerns included potential cask failures, health impacts, and the possibility of the site becoming a open-quotes permanentclose quotes storage facility. State intervention in the federal license process is also described

  14. Feasibility of biogas utilization in fuel cells; Viabilidade do uso de biogas em celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, Humberto Elias [Programa de Pos-graduacao em Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia (PRODETEC/LACTEC/IEP), Cutitiba, PR (Brazil); Cantao, Mauricio Pereira [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: mauricio.cantao@utp.br

    2010-10-15

    Waste water treatment stations using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) produce biogas, composed of carbon dioxide diluted methane plus minority compounds. This kind of reactor is worthwhile but demands methane burning in order to reduce atmospheric pollution and damage to ozone layer. Meanwhile, biogas can be used for energy generation due to its heating value. In this paper a technical and economic feasibility study about the use of biogas as a hydrogen source for fuel cells feeding is presented. Two methods for assessment of biogas production in UASB reactor were compared for ETE Atuba Sul case. (author)

  15. Changes in quality management for light water reactor fuel manufacturing: A utility's view of driving forces and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettmann, A.; Skusa, J.; Ketteler, M.

    2000-01-01

    Quality management in LWR fuel manufacturing for the use in German reactors is based on international guidelines and national/local authority requirements defined in operational licenses. The quality management is twofold and comprises a quality assurance system and the check of manufacturing documents including witnessing of fabrication processes and inspections. Utility and authority appointed technical expert witness manufacturing and take part in inspections performed by the manufacturer where the scope is strictly defined and does not provide possibilities of flexible responses to manufacturing occurrences. For future developments in quality management HEW supports strengthening the ideas of quality planning. Analysis of all factors influencing fuel reliability shall be performed prior to manufacturing. This will increase the efforts in reviewing of drawings and specifications. Included here shall be a review of processes that will be used in manufacturing. The qualification and robustness of processes shall be demonstrated with special qualification programs and analysis of manufacturing statistics. Instead of product/project related inspections the use of all manufacturing data will provide a complete picture of the manufacturing quality. By applying statistical methods it will be possible to identify trends in manufacturing before deviations occur. So the basic driving force to implement statistical process control for the utilities is the wish to get comprehensive information of delivered quality, whereas for manufacturers it might be to increase production yields and thus to lower costs. The introduction and full use of statistical process control requires open information about manufacturing processes and inspection results by the manufacturers. This might include data judged to be economically sensitive. It also requires changes in attitude at the utilities and appointed experts. HEW has started to review and change internal guidelines to allow

  16. Anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells utilizing directly solar light illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Daobao; Wang, Shuxi; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Jian; Zha, Longwu; Hou, Yuanyuan; He, Jianguo; Xiao, Ying; Lin, Huashui; Tian, Zhaowu

    2009-01-01

    Shine a light: A PtNiRu/TiO(2) anode catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells shows photocatalytic activity. The peak current density for ethanol oxidation under solar light illumination is 2-3 times greater than that in the absence of solar light. Ethanol is oxidized by light-generated holes, and the electrons are collected by the TiO(2) support to generate the oxidation current.Novel PtNiRu/TiO(2) anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) were prepared from PtNiRu nanoparticles (1:1:1 atomic ratios) and a nanoporous TiO(2) film by a sol-gel and electrodeposition method. The performances of the catalysts for ethanol oxidation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate a remarkable enhancement of activity for ethanol oxidation under solar light illumination. Under solar light illumination, the generated oxidation peak current density is 24.6 mA cm(-2), which is about 2.5 times higher than that observed without solar light (9.9 mA cm(-2)). The high catalytic activity of the PtNiRu/TiO(2) complex catalyst for the electrooxidation of ethanol may be attributed to the modified metal/nanoporous TiO(2) film, and the enhanced electrooxidation of ethanol under solar light may be due to the photogeneration of holes in the modified nanoporous TiO(2) film.

  17. Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Coulter

    2008-03-31

    Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}) has utilized its expertise in large-area vacuum deposition methods to conduct research into the fabrication of dense, freestanding Pd-alloy membranes that are 3-5 microns thick and over 100 in{sup 2} in area. The membranes were deposited onto flexible and rigid supports that were subsequently removed and separated using novel techniques developed over the course of the project. Using these methods, the production of novel alloy compositions centered around the Pd-Cu system were developed with the objective of producing a thermally stable, nano-crystalline grain structure with the highest flux recorded as 242 SCFH/ft{sup 2} for a 2 {micro}m thick Pd{sub 53}Cu{sub 47} at 400 C and 20 psig feed pressure which when extrapolated is over twice the 2010 Department of Energy pure H{sub 2} flux target. Several membranes were made with the same permeability, but with different thicknesses and these membranes were highly selective. Researchers at the Colorado School of Mines supported the effort with extensive testing of experimental membranes as well as design and modeling of novel alloy composite structures. IdaTech provided commercial bench testing and analysis of SwRI-manufactured membranes. The completed deliverables for the project include test data on the performance of experimental membranes fabricated by vacuum deposition and several Pd-alloy membranes that were supplied to IdaTech for testing.

  18. The fuel cell as a energy center. The chances of utilization of sewage gas; Die Brennstoffzelle als Energiezentrum. Die Chancen der Verwertung von Klaergas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, P. [CFC Solutions GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The basis of the fuel cell power station of the CFC Solutions GmbH (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) is the carbonate fuel cell, with which arbitrary gaseous fuels can be used for power generation. The reformation of the methane containing gaseous fuel to hydrogen in the fuel cell requires heat energy, which is obtained as waste heat of the cell reaction. Apart from the electricity by the fuel cell power station heat energy is produced. Thus the fuel cell power station also can be used for the production of process steam and production of coldness by means of an absorption refrigeration system. A further advantage is that for the fuel cell power station no hydrogen have to be manufactured. In comparison to the motoric heat and power cogeneration or small gas turbines thee are further advantages for fuel cell power stations: a) high electrical efficiency within the kilowatt range; b) high temperature useful heat; c) efficient cooling; d) Flexibility with the fuel (natural gas, fermentation gas, sewage gas); e) good extent of utilization of the power station; f) flexible interpretation and operation according to user requirement; g) premium power and USV applications; g) smallest emission to exhaust gas and noises.

  19. Oxidative regeneration of Ni-Mo-gamma-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts used for hydrotreatment of coal-derived oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Yuji; Furimsky, Edward; Sato, Toshio; Shimada, Hiromichi; Matsubayashi, Nobuyuki; Nishijima, Akio

    1986-10-23

    In order to easily find the oxidative reaction characteristics of carbonaceous materials and sulfur deposited on the catalysts used for hydrogenation, oxidative regeneration behavior as studied with a fixed bed reactor, and the surfaces of the spent catalysts were analyzed by XPS to find the changes in form of active metals and sulfur on the catalysts. Ni-Mo-gamma-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts were used for hydrotreatment of primary coal-derived oil from Morwell coal. The spent catalysts were extracted by THF, dried and crushed into 100-200 mesh powder. The relation between catalyst regeneration temperature and CO/sub 2/ or SO/sub 2/, the relation between generated gas compositions and temperature in regeneration, and the activation energy of carbon and sulfur in the catalysts for oxidative reaction were indicated with data. As a result, it was found that a part of the active metals turned to sulfates by hydrotreatment and the residual sulfur existed in form of sulfate. ( 6 figs, 2 tabs, 4 refs )

  20. Enhanced fuel production in thorium/lithium hybrid blankets utilizing uranium multipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitulski, R.H.

    1979-10-01

    A consistent neutronics analysis is performed to determine the effectiveness of uranium bearing neutron multiplier zones on increasing the production of U/sup 233/ in thorium/lithium blankets for use in a tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor. The nuclear performance of these blankets is evaluated as a function of zone thicknesses and exposure by using the coupled transport burnup code ANISN-CINDER-HIC. Various parameters such as U/sup 233/, Pu/sup 239/, and H/sup 3/ production rates, the blanket energy multiplication, isotopic composition of the fuels, and neutron leakages into the various zones are evaluated during a 5 year (6 MW.y.m/sup -2/) exposure period. Although the results of this study were obtained for a tokomak magnetic fusion device, the qualitative behavior associated with the use of the uranium bearing neutron multiplier should be applicable to all fusion-fission hybrids.

  1. Enhanced fuel production in thorium/lithium hybrid blankets utilizing uranium multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitulski, R.H.

    1979-10-01

    A consistent neutronics analysis is performed to determine the effectiveness of uranium bearing neutron multiplier zones on increasing the production of U 233 in thorium/lithium blankets for use in a tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor. The nuclear performance of these blankets is evaluated as a function of zone thicknesses and exposure by using the coupled transport burnup code ANISN-CINDER-HIC. Various parameters such as U 233 , Pu 239 , and H 3 production rates, the blanket energy multiplication, isotopic composition of the fuels, and neutron leakages into the various zones are evaluated during a 5 year (6 MW.y.m -2 ) exposure period. Although the results of this study were obtained for a tokomak magnetic fusion device, the qualitative behavior associated with the use of the uranium bearing neutron multiplier should be applicable to all fusion-fission hybrids

  2. Cathode Assessment for Maximizing Current Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells Utilizing Bioethanol Effluent as Substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Guotao; Thygesen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electricity production requires effective current generation from waste products via robust cathode reduction. Three cathode types using dissolved oxygen cathodes (DOCs), ferricyanide cathodes (FeCs) and air cathodes (AiCs) were therefore assessed...... to be the most sustainable option since it does not require ferricyanide. The data offer a new add-on option to the straw biorefinery by using bioethanol effluent for microbial electricity production....... using bioethanol effluent, containing 20.5 g/L xylose, 1.8 g/L arabinose and 2.5 g/L propionic acid. In each set-up the anode and cathode had an electrode surface area of 88 cm(2), which was used for calculation of the current density. Electricity generation was evaluated by quantifying current...

  3. Development and Utilization of mathematical Optimization in Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, Paul; Hays, Ross

    2011-01-01

    Over the past sixty years, a wide variety of nuclear power technologies have been theorized, investigated and tested to various degrees. These technologies, if properly applied, could provide a stable, long-term, economical source of CO2-free electric power. However, the recycling of nuclear fuel introduces a degree of coupling between reactor systems which must be accounted for when making long term strategic plans. This work investigates the use of a simulated annealing optimization algorithm coupled together with the VISION fuel cycle simulation model in order to identify attractive strategies from economic, evironmental, non-proliferation and waste-disposal perspectives, which each have associated an objective function. The simulated annealing optimization algorithm works by perturbing the fraction of new reactor capacity allocated to each available reactor type (using a set of heuristic rules) then evaluating the resulting deployment scenario outcomes using the VISION model and the chosen objective functions. These new scenarios, which are either accepted or rejected according the the Metropolis Criterion, are then used as the basis for further perturbations. By repeating this process several thousand times, a family of near-optimal solutions are obtained. Preliminary results from this work using a two-step, Once-through LWR to Full-recycle/FRburner deployment scenario with exponentially increasing electric demand indicate that the algorithm is capable of finding reactor deployment profiles that reduce the long-term-heat waste disposal burden relative to an initial reference scenario. Further work is under way to refine the current results and to extend them to include the other objective functions and to examine the optimization trade-offs that exist between these different objectives.

  4. Development and Utilization of mathematical Optimization in Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turinsky, Paul; Hays, Ross

    2011-09-02

    Over the past sixty years, a wide variety of nuclear power technologies have been theorized, investigated and tested to various degrees. These technologies, if properly applied, could provide a stable, long-term, economical source of CO2-free electric power. However, the recycling of nuclear fuel introduces a degree of coupling between reactor systems which must be accounted for when making long term strategic plans. This work investigates the use of a simulated annealing optimization algorithm coupled together with the VISION fuel cycle simulation model in order to identify attractive strategies from economic, evironmental, non-proliferation and waste-disposal perspectives, which each have associated an objective function. The simulated annealing optimization algorithm works by perturbing the fraction of new reactor capacity allocated to each available reactor type (using a set of heuristic rules) then evaluating the resulting deployment scenario outcomes using the VISION model and the chosen objective functions. These new scenarios, which are either accepted or rejected according the the Metropolis Criterion, are then used as the basis for further perturbations. By repeating this process several thousand times, a family of near-optimal solutions are obtained. Preliminary results from this work using a two-step, Once-through LWR to Full-recycle/FRburner deployment scenario with exponentially increasing electric demand indicate that the algorithm is capable of nding reactor deployment pro les that reduce the long-term-heat waste disposal burden relative to an initial reference scenario. Further work is under way to re ne the current results and to extend them to include the other objective functions and to examine the optimization trade-o s that exist between these di erent objectives.

  5. Utilization of the Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation Technique for Characterization and Verification of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-27

    New nondestructive assay techniques are sought to better characterize spent nuclear fuel. One of the NDA instruments selected for possible deployment is differential die-away self-interrogation (DDSI). The proposed DDSI approach for spent fuel assembly assay utilizes primarily the spontaneous fission and (α, n) neutrons in the assemblies as an internal interrogating radiation source. The neutrons released in spontaneous fission or (α,n) reactions are thermalized in the surrounding water and induce fission in fissile isotopes, thereby creating a measurable signal from isotopes of interest that would be otherwise difficult to measure. The DDSI instrument employs neutron coincidence counting with 3He tubes and list-mode-based data acquisition to allow for production of Rossi-alpha distributions (RADs) in post-processing. The list-mode approach to data collection and subsequent construction of RADs has expanded the analytical possibilities, as will be demonstrated throughout this thesis. One of the primary advantages is that the measured signal in the form of a RAD can be analyzed in its entirety including determination of die-away times in different time domains. This capability led to the development of the early die-away method, a novel leakage multiplication determination method which is tested throughout the thesis on different sources in simulation space and fresh fuel experiments. The early die-away method is a robust, accurate, improved method of determining multiplication without the need for knowledge of the (α,n) source term. The DDSI technique and instrument are presented along with the many novel capabilities enabled by and discovered through RAD analysis. Among the new capabilities presented are the early die-away method, total plutonium content determination, and highly sensitive missing pin detection. Simulation of hundreds of different spent and fresh fuel assemblies were used to develop the analysis algorithms and the techniques were tested on a

  6. Analysis of neutronics benchmarks for the utilization of mixed oxide fuel in light water reactor using DRAGON code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nithyadevi, Rajan; Thilagam, L.; Karthikeyan, R.; Pal, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of advanced computational code – DRAGON-5 using advanced self shielding model USS. • Testing the capability of DRAGON-5 code for the analysis of light water reactor system. • Wide variety of fuels LEU, MOX and spent fuel have been analyzed. • Parameters such as k ∞ , one, few and multi-group macroscopic cross-sections and fluxes were calculated. • Suitability of deterministic methodology employed in DRAGON-5 code is demonstrated for LWR. - Abstract: Advances in reactor physics have led to the development of new computational technologies and upgraded cross-section libraries so as to produce an accurate approximation to the true solution for the problem. Thus it is necessary to revisit the benchmark problems with the advanced computational code system and upgraded cross-section libraries to see how far they are in agreement with the earlier reported values. Present study is one such analysis with the DRAGON code employing advanced self shielding models like USS and 172 energy group ‘JEFF3.1’ cross-section library in DRAGLIB format. Although DRAGON code has already demonstrated its capability for heavy water moderator systems, it is now tested for light water reactor (LWR) and fast reactor systems. As a part of validation of DRAGON for LWR, a VVER computational benchmark titled “Neutronics Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel-Volume 3” submitted by the Russian Federation has been taken up. Presently, pincell and assembly calculations are carried out considering variation in fuel temperature (both fresh and spent), moderator temperatures and boron content in the moderator. Various parameters such as infinite neutron multiplication (k ∞ ) factor, one group integrated flux, few group homogenized cross-sections (absorption, nu-fission) and reaction rates (absorption, nu-fission) of individual isotopic nuclides are calculated for different reactor states. Comparisons of results are made with the reported Monte Carlo

  7. PWR in-core nuclear fuel management optimization utilizing nodal (non-linear NEM) generalized perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, G.I.; Turinsky, P.J.; Kropaczek, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The computational capability of efficiently and accurately evaluate reactor core attributes (i.e., k eff and power distributions as a function of cycle burnup) utilizing a second-order accurate advanced nodal Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) model has been developed. The GPT model is derived from the forward non-linear iterative Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) strategy, thereby extending its inherent savings in memory storage and high computational efficiency to also encompass GPT via the preservation of the finite-difference matrix structure. The above development was easily implemented into the existing coarse-mesh finite-difference GPT-based in-core fuel management optimization code FORMOSA-P, thus combining the proven robustness of its adaptive Simulated Annealing (SA) multiple-objective optimization algorithm with a high-fidelity NEM GPT neutronics model to produce a powerful computational tool used to generate families of near-optimum loading patterns for PWRs. (orig.)

  8. Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

  9. Multi level optimization of burnable poison utilization for advanced PWR fuel management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serkan

    The objective of this study was to develop an unique methodology and a practical tool for designing burnable poison (BP) pattern for a given PWR core. Two techniques were studied in developing this tool. First, the deterministic technique called Modified Power Shape Forced Diffusion (MPSFD) method followed by a fine tuning algorithm, based on some heuristic rules, was developed to achieve this goal. Second, an efficient and a practical genetic algorithm (GA) tool was developed and applied successfully to Burnable Poisons (BPs) placement optimization problem for a reference Three Mile Island-1 (TMI-1) core. This thesis presents the step by step progress in developing such a tool. The developed deterministic method appeared to perform as expected. The GA technique produced excellent BP designs. It was discovered that the Beginning of Cycle (BOC) Kinf of a BP fuel assembly (FA) design is a good filter to eliminate invalid BP designs created during the optimization process. By eliminating all BP designs having BOC Kinf above a set limit, the computational time was greatly reduced since the evaluation process with reactor physics calculations for an invalid solution is canceled. Moreover, the GA was applied to develop the BP loading pattern to minimize the total Gadolinium (Gd) amount in the core together with the residual binding at End-of-Cycle (EOC) and to keep the maximum peak pin power during core depletion and Soluble boron concentration at BOC both less than their limit values. The number of UO2/Gd2O3 pins and Gd 2O3 concentrations for each fresh fuel location in the core are the decision variables and the total amount of the Gd in the core and maximum peak pin power during core depletion are in the fitness functions. The use of different fitness function definition and forcing the solution movement towards to desired region in the solution space accelerated the GA runs. Special emphasize is given to minimizing the residual binding to increase core lifetime as

  10. Coal-Derived Warm Syngas Purification and CO2 Capture-Assisted Methane Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); King, David L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Xiaohong S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xing, Rong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spies, Kurt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhu, Yunhua [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rainbolt, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Liyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Braunberger, B. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Gasifier-derived syngas from coal has many applications in the area of catalytic transformation to fuels and chemicals. Raw syngas must be treated to remove a number of impurities that would otherwise poison the synthesis catalysts. Inorganic impurities include alkali salts, chloride, sulfur compounds, heavy metals, ammonia, and various P, As, Sb, and Se- containing compounds. Systems comprising multiple sorbent and catalytic beds have been developed for the removal of impurities from gasified coal using a warm cleanup approach. This approach has the potential to be more economic than the currently available acid gas removal (AGR) approaches and improves upon currently available processes that do not provide the level of impurity removal that is required for catalytic synthesis application. Gasification also lends itself much more readily to the capture of CO2, important in the regulation and control of greenhouse gas emissions. CO2 capture material was developed and in this study was demonstrated to assist in methane production from the purified syngas. Simultaneous CO2 sorption enhances the CO methanation reaction through relaxation of thermodynamic constraint, thus providing economic benefit rather than simply consisting of an add-on cost for carbon capture and release. Molten and pre-molten LiNaKCO3 can promote MgO and MgO-based double salts to capture CO2 with high cycling capacity. A stable cycling CO2 capacity up to 13 mmol/g was demonstrated. This capture material was specifically developed in this study to operate in the same temperature range and therefore integrate effectively with warm gas cleanup and methane synthesis. By combining syngas methanation, water-gas-shift, and CO2 sorption in a single reactor, single pass yield to methane of 99% was demonstrated at 10 bar and 330°C when using a 20 wt% Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst and a molten-phase promoted Mg

  11. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  12. Combined energy production and waste management in manned spacecraft utilizing on-demand hydrogen production and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitzur, Shani; Rosenband, Valery; Gany, Alon

    2016-11-01

    Energy supply and waste management are among the most significant challenges in human spacecraft. Great efforts are invested in managing solid waste, recycling grey water and urine, cleaning the atmosphere, removing CO2, generating and saving energy, and making further use of components and products. This paper describes and investigates a concept for managing waste water and urine to simultaneously produce electric and heat energies as well as fresh water. It utilizes an original technique for aluminum activation to react spontaneously with water at room temperature to produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. This reaction has further been proven to be effective also when using waste water and urine. Applying the hydrogen produced in a fuel cell, one obtains electric energy as well as fresh (drinking) water. The method was compared to the traditional energy production technology of the Space Shuttle, which is based on storing the fuel cell reactants, hydrogen and oxygen, in cryogenic tanks. It is shown that the alternative concept presented here may provide improved safety, compactness (reduction of more than one half of the volume of the hydrogen storage system), and management of waste liquids for energy generation and drinking water production. Nevertheless, it adds mass compared to the cryogenic hydrogen technology. It is concluded that the proposed method may be used as an emergency and backup power system as well as an additional hydrogen source for extended missions in human spacecraft.

  13. CO{sub 2}-mitigation measures through reduction of fossil fuel burning in power utilities. Which road to go?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupp, A. [Energetica International Inc., Suva (Fiji)

    1996-12-31

    Five conditions, at minimum, should be examined in the comparative analysis of CO{sub 2}-mitigation options for the power sector. Under the continuing constraint of scarce financial resources for any private or public investment in the power sector, the following combination of requirements characterise a successful CO{sub 2}-mitigation project: (1) Financial attractiveness for private or public investors. (2) Low, or even negative, long range marginal costs per ton of `CO{sub 2} saved`. (3) High impact on CO{sub 2}-mitigation, which indicates a large market potential for the measure. (4) The number of individual investments required to achieve the impact is relatively small. In other words, logistical difficulties in project implementation are minimised. (5) The projects are `socially fair` and have minimal negative impact on any segment of the society. This paper deals with options to reduce carbonaceous fuel burning in the power sector. Part I explains how projects should be selected and classified. Part II describes the technical options. Since reduction of carbonaceous fuel burning may be achieved through Demand Side Management (DSM) and Supply Side Management (SSM) both are treated. Within the context of this paper SSM does not mean to expand power supply as demand grows. It means to economically generate and distribute power as efficiently as possible. In too many instances DSM has degenerated into efficient lighting programs and utility managed incentives and rebate programs. To what extent this is a desirable situation for utilities in Developing Countries that face totally different problems as their counterparts in highly industrialised countries remains to be seen. Which road to go is the topic of this paper.

  14. Energy balance and GHG-abatement cost of cassava utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan Thi; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001, in order to enhance ethanol's cost competitiveness with gasoline, the Thai government has approved the exemption of excise tax imposed on ethanol, controlling the retail price of gasohol (a mixture of ethanol and gasoline at a ratio of 1:9) to be less than that of octane 95 gasoline, within a range not exceeding 1.5 baht a litre. The policy to promote ethanol for transport is being supported by its positive effects on energy security and climate change mitigation. An analysis of energy, greenhouse gas (GHG) balances and GHG abatement cost was done to evaluate fuel ethanol produced from cassava in Thailand. Positive energy balance of 22.4 MJ/L and net avoided GHG emission of 1.6 kg CO 2 eq./L found for cassava-based ethanol (CE) proved that it would be a good substitute for gasoline, effective in fossil energy saving and GHG reduction. With a GHG abatement cost of US$99 per tonne of CO 2 , CE is rather less cost effective than the many other climate strategies relevant to Thailand in the short term. Opportunities for improvements are discussed to make CE a reasonable option for national climate policy

  15. Progress and challenges in utilization of palm oil biomass as fuel for decentralized electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia); Biomass Conversion Research Center (BCRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Zahedi, Gholamreza; Hashim, Haslenda [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    It has been broadly accepted worldwide that global warming, indeed, is the greatest threat of the time to the environment. Renewable energy (RE) is expected as a perfect solution to reduce global warming and to endorse sustainable development. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) from increasing energy-intensive industries has eventually caused human civilization to suffer. Realizing the exigency of reducing emissions and simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researchers foresee the RE as the perfect entrant to overcome these challenges. RE provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view while biomass, a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant, appears an important renewable source of energy and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Being a widely spread source, biomass offers the execution of decentralized electricity generation gaining importance in liberalized electricity markets. The decentralized power is characterized by generation of electricity nearer to the demand centers, meeting the local energy needs. Researchers envisaged an increasing decentralization of power supply, expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the progress and challenges for decentralized electricity generation by palm oil biomass according to the overall concept of sustainable development. (author)

  16. Progress and challenges in utilization of palm oil biomass as fuel for decentralized electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed; Zahedi, Gholamreza; Hashim, Haslenda

    2011-01-01

    It has been broadly accepted worldwide that global warming, indeed, is the greatest threat of the time to the environment. Renewable energy (RE) is expected as a perfect solution to reduce global warming and to endorse sustainable development. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) from increasing energy-intensive industries has eventually caused human civilization to suffer. Realizing the exigency of reducing emissions and simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researchers foresee the RE as the perfect entrant to overcome these challenges. RE provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view while biomass, a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant, appears an important renewable source of energy and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Being a widely spread source, biomass offers the execution of decentralized electricity generation gaining importance in liberalized electricity markets. The decentralized power is characterized by generation of electricity nearer to the demand centers, meeting the local energy needs. Researchers envisaged an increasing decentralization of power supply, expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the progress and challenges for decentralized electricity generation by palm oil biomass according to the overall concept of sustainable development. (author)

  17. Aspects on optimization of natural uranium fuel utilization in heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This paper is dealing with a possibility to decrease the natural uranium consumption of CANDU PHWR using the once-through cycle. This possibility is based on the utilization of slightly enriched uranium. The optimal two-zone structure of a reactor using natural uranium is found out. The optimal criterium is the maximization of the burnup (equivalent to minimization of uranium requirements) with a constraint on power density radial uniformity factor. As regards the enriched uranium, the optimal enrichment and the two-zone structure of a reactor which minimizes the natural uranium requirement with constraints on uniformity factor and maximum burnup are established. Corresponding to a maximum burnup of 16,000 MWd/t and 1% enrichment, the natural uranium requirement is found to be 10% less than that of the natural uranium reactor

  18. Development of cold and drought tolerant short-season maize germplasm for fuel and feed utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo J Carena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maize has become a profitable alternative for North Dakota (ND farmers and ranchers. However, U.S. northern industry hybrids still lack cold and drought stress tolerance as well as adequate grain quality for ethanol and feedstock products. Moreover, there is a need to increase the value of feedstock operations before and after ethanol utilization. The ND maize breeding program initiated the development of hybrids with high quality protein content through the Early Quality Protein Maize for Feedstock (EarlyQPMF project. The North Dakota State University (NDSU maize breeding program acts as a genetic provider to foundation seed companies, retailer seed companies, processing industry, and breeders nationally and internationally. In the past 10 years, NDSU was awarded 9 PVP maize certificates and released 38 maize products. Within those, 13 inbred lines were exclusively released to a foundation seed company for commercial purposes. In addition, 2 hybrids were identified for commercial production in central and western ND.

  19. Utilization of Triton X-100 and polyethylene glycols during surfactant-mediated biodegradation of diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrwas, Bogdan; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Szulc, Alicja; Cyplik, Paweł; Białas, Wojciech; Szymański, Andrzej; Hołderna-Odachowska, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Efficient degradation of Triton X-100 under both aerobic and aerobic conditions. ► Triton X-100 was most likely degraded via the ‘central fission’ mechanism. ► Preferential degradation of Triton X-100 over diesel oil. ► The presence of surfactants decreased diesel oil biodegradation efficiency. - Abstract: The hypothesis regarding preferential biodegradation of surfactants applied for enhancement of microbial hydrocarbons degradation was studied. At first the microbial degradation of sole Triton X-100 by soil isolated hydrocarbon degrading bacterial consortium was confirmed under both full and limited aeration with nitrate as an electron acceptor. Triton X-100 (600 mg/l) was utilized twice as fast for aerobic conditions (t 1/2 = 10.3 h), compared to anaerobic conditions (t 1/2 = 21.8 h). HPLC/ESI-MS analysis revealed the preferential biodegradation trends in both components classes of commercial Triton X-100 (alkylphenol ethoxylates) as well as polyethylene glycols. The obtained results suggest that the observed changes in the degree of ethoxylation for polyethylene glycol homologues occurred as a consequence of the ‘central fission’ mechanism during Triton X-100 biodegradation. Subsequent experiments with Triton X-100 at approx. CMC concentration (150 mg/l) and diesel oil supported our initial hypothesis that the surfactant would become the preferred carbon source even for hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Regardless of aeration regimes Triton X-100 was utilized within 48–72 h. Efficiency of diesel oil degradation was decreased in the presence of surfactant for aerobic conditions by approx. 25% reaching 60 instead of 80% noted for experiments without surfactant. No surfactant influence was observed for anaerobic conditions.

  20. Effect of Coal Contaminants on Solid Oxide Fuel System Performance and Service Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopala Krishnan; P. Jayaweera; J. Bao; J. Perez; K. H. Lau; M. Hornbostel; A. Sanjurjo; J. R. Albritton; R. P. Gupta

    2008-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy's SECA program envisions the development of high-efficiency, low-emission, CO{sub 2} sequestration-ready, and fuel-flexible technology to produce electricity from fossil fuels. One such technology is the integrated gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that produces electricity from the gas stream of a coal gasifier. SOFCs have high fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiency, environmental compatibility (low NO{sub x} production), and modularity. Naturally occurring coal has many impurities and some of these impurities end in the fuel gas stream either as a vapor or in the form of fine particulate matter. Establishing the tolerance limits of SOFCs for contaminants in the coal-derived gas will allow proper design of the fuel feed system that will not catastrophically damage the SOFC or allow long-term cumulative degradation. The anodes of Ni-cermet-based SOFCs are vulnerable to degradation in the presence of contaminants that are expected to be present in a coal-derived fuel gas stream. Whereas the effects of some contaminants such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3} and HCl have been studied, the effects of other contaminants such as As, P, and Hg have not been ascertained. The primary objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells to trace level contaminants present in a coal-derived gas stream in the temperature range 700 to 900 C. The results were used to assess catastrophic damage risk and long-term cumulative effects of the trace contaminants on the lifetime expectancy of SOFC systems fed with coal-derived gas streams.

  1. Utilization of Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Rice Husks in Unfired Bricks for Sustainable Construction Materials Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A.M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of sustainable construction component could prevent and control the pollution and environmental degradation in Malaysia. This is a key area in Malaysia’s Green Strategies (Ministry of Science, Technology and the environment, 2002. This paper reports on the laboratory investigation to establish the potential of utilizing Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk (RH in developing green construction components. Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC reported that currently Malaysia’s contribution to world palm oil production is 39% and has taken 44% of world exports. Consequently it will increase the POFA production in palm oil manufacturing and this waste sometimes dispose in open area near the factory. On the other hand Malaysia also producing more 300k hectares of paddy production, thus rice husk is also a concern as an agricultural waste. The research objective is to study on the potential of utilizing of agricultural waste in developing of green bricks. This research involved laboratory investigations. In this research 2% - 10% of POFA and 1% - 5% RH were used in the mix composition of the brick’s weight. Addition of POFA was aimed to reduce the cement usage and RH was added to reduce sand in the bricks. The bricks were manually pressed in Materials Laboratory in Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, UiTM Shah Alam. The result showed that the addition of POFA and RH are able to reduce the density but in contrast the compressive strength were decrease compare to the control unit.

  2. Enhancing substrate utilization and power production of a microbial fuel cell with nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel as cathode catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Gábor Márk; Lóránt, Bálint; Lóka, Máté; Nagy, Balázs; László, Krisztina

    2017-07-01

    Catalytic efficiency of a nitrogen-doped, mesoporous carbon aerogel cathode catalyst was investigated in a two-chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) applying graphite felt as base material for cathode and anode, utilizing peptone as carbon source. This mesoporous carbon aerogel containing catalyst layer on the cathode increased the maximum power density normalized to the anode volume to 2.7 times higher compared to the maximum power density obtained applying graphite felt cathode without the catalyst layer. At high (2 and 3) cathode/anode volume ratios, maximum power density exceeded 40 W m -3 . At the same time, current density and specific substrate utilization rate increased by 58% resulting in 31.9 A m -3 and 18.8 g COD m -3  h -1 , respectively (normalized to anode volume). Besides the increase of the power and the rate of biodegradation, the investigated catalyst decreased the internal resistance from the range of 450-600 to 350-370 Ω. Although Pt/C catalyst proved to be more efficient, a considerable decrease in the material costs might be achieved by substituting it with nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel in MFCs. Such cathode still displays enhanced catalytic effect.

  3. High utilization platinum deposition on single-walled carbon nanotubes as catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.J.; Yin, G.P.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Z.B.; Gao, Y.Z.

    2007-01-01

    This research aims to enhance the activity of Pt catalysts, thus to lower the loading of Pt metal in fuel cell. Highly dispersed platinum supported on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as catalyst was prepared by ion exchange method. The homemade Pt/SWNTs underwent a repetition of ion exchange and reduction process in order to achieve an increase of the metal loading. For comparison, the similar loading of Pt catalyst supported on carbon nanotubes was prepared by borohydride reduction method. The catalysts were characterized by using energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX), transmission electron micrograph (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). Compared with the Pt/SWNTs catalyst prepared by borohydride method, higher Pt utilization was achieved on the SWNTs by ion exchange method. Furthermore, in comparison to the E-TEK 20 wt.% Pt/C catalyst with the support of carbon black, the results from electrochemical measurement indicated that the Pt/SWNTs prepared by ion exchange method displayed a higher catalytic activity for methanol oxidation and higher Pt utilization, while no significant increasing in the catalytic activity of the Pt/SWNTs catalyst obtained by borohydride method

  4. An essay pertaining to the supply and price of natural gas as fuel for electric utilities and independent power producers; and, the related growth of non-utility generators to meet capacity shortfalls in the next decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact natural gas and petroleum prices have on how the electric power industry decides to meet increasing demand for electric power. The topics of the paper include the pricing impact of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict, the BTU parity argument, electric utility capacity shortfalls in 1993, the growth of the non-utility generator and the independent power developer market, natural gas as the desired fuel of the decade, the financial strategy in acquiring natural gas reserves, the cost and availability of natural gas supplies for non-utility generators, and the reluctance of the gas producers to enter long term contracts

  5. Some aspects of the utilization of zicaloy and austenitic steel as cladding material for PWR reactor fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira e Silva, A.; Perrotta, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour under irradiation of fuel rods for light water reactors was simulated by using fuel performance codes. Two types of cladding were analyzed: zircaloy and austenitic stainless steel. The fuel performance codes, originally made for zircaloy cladding, were adapted for austenitic stainless steel. The simulation results for the two types of cladding are presented, compared and discussed. (F.E.) [pt

  6. Thorium utilization in a small long-life HTR. Part I: Th/U MOX fuel blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ming, E-mail: dingm2005@gmail.com [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB, Delft (Netherlands); Harbin Engineering University, Nantong Street 145, 150001 Harbin (China); Kloosterman, Jan Leen, E-mail: j.l.kloosterman@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We propose thorium MOX (TMOX) fuel blocks for a small block-type HTR. • The TMOX fuel blocks with low-enriched uranium are recommended. • More thorium decreases the reactivity swing of the TMOX fuel blocks. • Thorium reduces the negative temperature coefficient of the TMOX fuel blocks. • Thorium increases the conversion ratio of the TMOX fuel blocks. - Abstract: The U-Battery is a small, long-life and transportable high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR). The neutronic features of a typical fuel block with uranium and thorium have been investigated for a application of the U-Battery, by parametrically analyzing the composition and geometric parameters. The type of fuel block is defined as Th/U MOX fuel block because uranium and thorium are assumed to be mixed in each fuel kernel as a form of (Th,U)O{sub 2}. If the initially loaded mass of U-235 is mostly consumed in the early period of the lifetime of Th/U MOX fuel block, low-enriched uranium (LEU) as ignited fuel will not largely reduce the neutronic performance of the Th/U MOX fuel block, compared with high-enriched uranium. The radii of fuel kernels and fuel compacts and packing fraction of TRISO particles determine the atomic ratio of the carbon to heavy metal. When the ratio is smaller than 400, the difference among them due to double heterogeneous effects can be neglected for the Th/U MOX fuel block. In the range between 200 and 400, the reactivity swing of the Th/U MOX fuel block during 10 years is sufficiently small. The magnitude of the negative reactivity temperature coefficients of the Th/U MOX fuel block decreases by 20–45%, which is positive to reduce temperature defect of the Th/U MOX fuel block. The conversion ratio (CR) of the fuel increases from 0.48 (typical CR of the LEU-fueled U-Battery) to 0.78. The larger conversion ratio of the Th/U MOX fuel block reduces the reactivity swing during 10 years for the U-Battery.

  7. Preliminary Thermohydraulic Analysis of a New Moderated Reactor Utilizing an LEU-Fuel for Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket utilizing an LEU fuel (KANUTER-LEU) is a non-proliferative and comparably efficient NTR engine with relatively low thrust levels of 40 - 50 kN for in-space transportation. The small modular engine can expand mission versatility, when flexibly used in a clustered engine arrangement, so that it can perform various scale missions from low-thrust robotic science missions to high-thrust manned missions. In addition, the clustered engine system can enhance engine redundancy and ensuing crew safety as well as the thrust. The propulsion system is an energy conversion system to transform the thermal energy of the reactor into the kinetic energy of the propellant to produce the powers for thrust, propellant feeding and electricity. It is mainly made up of a propellant Feeding System (PFS) comprising a Turbo-Pump Assembly (TPA), a Regenerative Nozzle Assembly (RNA), etc. For this core design study, an expander cycle is assumed to be the propulsion system. The EGS converts the thermal energy of the EHTGR in the idle operation (only 350 kW th power) to electric power during the electric power mode. This paper presents a preliminary thermohydraulic design analysis to explore the design space for the new reactor and to estimate the referential engine performance. The new non-proliferative NTR engine concept, KANUTER-LEU, is under designing to surmount the nuclear proliferation obstacles on allR and Dactivities and eventual commercialization for future generations. To efficiently implement a heavy LEU fuel for the NTR engine, its reactor design innovatively possesses the key characteristics of the high U density fuel with high heating and H 2 corrosion resistances, the thermal neutron spectrum core and also minimizing non-fission neutron loss, and the compact reactor design with protectively cooling capability. To investigate feasible design space for the moderated EHTGR-LEU and resultant engine performance, the preliminary design

  8. Preliminary Thermohydraulic Analysis of a New Moderated Reactor Utilizing an LEU-Fuel for Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket utilizing an LEU fuel (KANUTER-LEU) is a non-proliferative and comparably efficient NTR engine with relatively low thrust levels of 40 - 50 kN for in-space transportation. The small modular engine can expand mission versatility, when flexibly used in a clustered engine arrangement, so that it can perform various scale missions from low-thrust robotic science missions to high-thrust manned missions. In addition, the clustered engine system can enhance engine redundancy and ensuing crew safety as well as the thrust. The propulsion system is an energy conversion system to transform the thermal energy of the reactor into the kinetic energy of the propellant to produce the powers for thrust, propellant feeding and electricity. It is mainly made up of a propellant Feeding System (PFS) comprising a Turbo-Pump Assembly (TPA), a Regenerative Nozzle Assembly (RNA), etc. For this core design study, an expander cycle is assumed to be the propulsion system. The EGS converts the thermal energy of the EHTGR in the idle operation (only 350 kW{sub th} power) to electric power during the electric power mode. This paper presents a preliminary thermohydraulic design analysis to explore the design space for the new reactor and to estimate the referential engine performance. The new non-proliferative NTR engine concept, KANUTER-LEU, is under designing to surmount the nuclear proliferation obstacles on allR and Dactivities and eventual commercialization for future generations. To efficiently implement a heavy LEU fuel for the NTR engine, its reactor design innovatively possesses the key characteristics of the high U density fuel with high heating and H{sub 2} corrosion resistances, the thermal neutron spectrum core and also minimizing non-fission neutron loss, and the compact reactor design with protectively cooling capability. To investigate feasible design space for the moderated EHTGR-LEU and resultant engine performance, the

  9. Investigation on utilization of biogas and Karanja oil biodiesel in dual fuel mode in a single cylinder DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna Pattanaik, Bhabani; Nayak, Chandrakanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Gandhi Institute for Technological Advancement, Madanpur, Bhubaneswar - 752054, Odisha (India); Kumar Nanda, Basanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Maharaja Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, experiments were performed on a single cylinder DI diesel engine by using bio-gas as a primary fuel and Karanja oil biodiesel and diesel oil as secondary fuels in dual fuel operation. The experiments were performed to measure performance parameters i.e. (brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature) and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide unburned hydro carbon and smoke etc. at different load conditions. For the dual-fuel system, the intake system of the test engine was modified to convert into biogas and biodiesel of a dual-fueled combustion engine. Biogas was injected during the intake process by gas injectors. The study showed that, the engine performance parameters like BP, BTE and EGT gradually increase with increase in engine load for all test conditions using both pilot fuels diesel and KOBD. However, the BSFC of the engine showed decreasing slope with increase in engine load for all test conditions. Above 40% engine load the BSFC values for all test fuels are very close to each other. The engine emission analysis showed that the CO2, CO and NOx emissions increase with increase in engine load for both single and dual fuel mode operation using both pilot fuels. The NOx concentration of exhaust gases in dual fuel mode is superior than that of single mode.

  10. Flexible 75 kWel Stirling CHP-plant for bio-fuels with low emissions and a high fuel utilization. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the project ''Flexible 75 kWel Stirling CHP-plant for bio-fuels with low emissions and a high fuel utilization'' was to combine the Danish experiences with the Stirling engine and updraft gasification with the application of the FLOX gas burner technology for developing and demonstrating a flexible biomass-based small scale CHP plant with 75 kW electrical output, high power efficiency and low emissions. Further, the project has aimed at increasing the technology's reliability and decreasing the need for service. Also, the project has included the development of a control and communication system for unmanned start-up and operation of the plant. During the project the objective was altered and so the development of a new Stirling engine design was done on the 4-cylindred 35 kWe Stirling engine instead of the 8-cylindred 75 kWe Stirling engine. Focus has been on designing a more durable engine designed for easy and fast service. Cold test of the engine has been successful and now full-scale hot tests are to be performed. In the project Stirling DK has also in cooperation with project partner Danish gas Technology Centre developed the Stirling Engine with Diluted Oxidation (SEDIOX) concept which is a combustion technology based on the diluted oxidation principle. A trademark is obtained and also a patent application is filed and pending regarding the SEDIOX combustion chamber concept. All components for the Stirling gasification plant were produced and installed at Svanholm Estate. The plant consisted of one conventional combustion chamber and one SD3E-type Stirling engine. The plant was commissioned in June 2009 and 1,472 hours of operation and 43 MWh of electricity production was achieved before the plant was de-commissioned in February 2010 due to divergences between Svanholm Estate and Stirling DK. During operation the control system including remote access was tested thoroughly and with great success. The new overall

  11. Utilization of the experimental reactor Osiris for the study and the development of fuels of the fast neutron reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcon, M.; Faugere, J.L.; Genthon, J.P.; Maillot, R.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear fuel tests for the fast neutron reactor type have been carried out at the Osiris reactor: thermal study of (U,Pu)O 2 oxide by measurement with thermocouples in the core of the fuel pellet; study of the effects of power cycling on nuclear fuel; study of the mechanical interactions between oxide and cladding by measurement of the cladding deformation during irradiation [fr

  12. Neutronic analysis concerning the utilization of mixed U N-Pu N nitride fuel for fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renke, C.A.C.; Batista, J.L.; Waintraub, M.; Santos Bastos, W. dos; Brito Aghina, L.O. de.

    1991-08-01

    Neutronic behavior of mixed UN-PuN nitride fuel in substitution of the mixed oxide U O 2 - Pu O 2 for fast reactors is discussed with focus on Super Phenix I. Characteristics parameters of both cores are calculated and compared and the results presented show a great advantage for the nitride fuel, pointing out a larger performance of fuel elements in the core and an effective reduction of reactivity loss during the cycle. (author)

  13. Exhaust gas emissions from various automotive fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects on health, environment and energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlvik, P.; Brandberg, Aa.

    1999-12-01

    The main aim of the investigation has been to assess the effects on health and environment from various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects that can be identified and quantified, such as acidification, ozone formation, cancer risk and climate change, have been of primary interest but other effects, such as respiratory diseases, have also been investigated. Data have been collected through literature surveys for subsequent calculation of the mentioned effects in different time-frames. Corrections have been used to take into consideration the influence of climate, ageing and driving pattern. Emissions generated in fuel production have also been accounted for. The most significant and important differences between the fuels have been found for effects as ozone formation cancer risk and particulate emissions. Alternative fuels, such as methanol and methane (natural gas and biogas), significantly decrease the ozone formation in comparison to petrol, while ethanol, methanol and methane are advantageous concerning cancer risk. The particulate emissions are considerably higher for diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil and RME in comparison to the other fuels. In the future, the importance of acid emissions in the fuel production will increase since the NO x and SO x emissions will decrease from the vehicles. The emissions of climate gases could be significantly reduced by using non-fossil fuels but the efficiency of the drive train is also of importance. The technical development potential for further emission reductions is considerable for all fuels but the advantage for the best fuel options will remain in the future

  14. Discussion on effective utilization of nuclear fuel based on peculiar property of the fifth unstable nuclide series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiahua

    2000-01-01

    Based on a peculiar property of the Fifth Unstable Nuclide Series (FUNS) in developing stage, namely the transformation rate of parent fuel- 238 U consumption to fission production being increased with the fuel's reactor core life, it was shown that the used fuel taken out from the reactor core of PWR could be used again as PWR fuel, and the post processing for the used fuel needed only to de-contaminate the fission products from the used fuel and then to rebuild it into its normal form. Scheme A discussed the condition of using such rebuilt used fuel in PWR. Another peculiar property of FUNS is characterized by the fact that the equilibrium saturate concentrations of the derived nuclides in FUNS are different for different types of reactor. It is well known that the saturate concentration of 239 Pu in PWR is much larger than that in HWR. Scheme B i.e. a method of using the rebuilt used fuel from PWR to replace the natural uranium fuel for HWR was discussed

  15. Sogin enriched uranium extraction (EUREX) plant spent fuel pool cleaning and decontamination utilizing the Smart Safe solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denton, M.S.; Gili, M.; Nasta, M.; Quintiliani, R.; Caccia, G.; Botzen, W.; Forrester, K.

    2009-01-01

    SOGIN's EUREX facility in Italy was developed as a pilot plant functional testing laboratory for spent fuel reprocessing. This facility was operated successfully for many years since 1970 and was eventually shutdown consistent with Italy's suspension of all nuclear operations. At the time of suspension, the EUREX facility still had spent nuclear fuel assemblies in storage from a nearby PWR. Other fuel assemblies from an Italian AGR had remained stored in the spent fuel pool for the 20 years or so waiting for removal and reprocessing abroad. Being Magnox fuel elements, their recovery for the transport produced a huge amount of sludge in the pool. During this time, sediment, dirt, corrosion products, fuel cladding, etc. has collected within the fuel pool as a crud layer dispersed throughout. Most of this crud has accumulated on the horizontal surfaces of the pool and fuel element assemblies, while some remains as a suspended colloidal material. Furthermore many other contaminated metal components, used during the operation years, where still inside the pool. Due to a pool leak discovered in 2006, SOGIN speeded up its pool decommissioning program, making also available the transfer of the spent fuel to a nearby interim repository, with the goal to completely drain the pool in the shortest period of time. In order for SOGIN to successfully transfer the fuel assemblies from their current storage basket locations to the spent fuel transfer cask, the bulk of the crud needed to be removed. This cleanup operation was deemed necessary to minimize the suspension of contamination in the water during underwater handling operations. This would reduce the decontamination efforts on the transfer cask upon removal, once loaded with the spent fuel, and enhance safety by reducing potential underwater visibility issues. The operations were completed in July 2008 with the release to the environment of the pool water, thoroughly purified and without any relevant radiological impact. The

  16. Optimization of Heterogeneous Fuel Designs for Utilization of Thorium In PWRs To Enhance Proliferation Resistance and Reduce Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todosow, M.; Galperin, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the first stage of the project aimed to examine heterogeneous core design options for the implementation of the thorium- 233 U fuel cycle in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and to identify the core design and fuel management strategies that will maximize the benefits from inclusion of thorium in the fuel. The project is carried out within a framework of Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) supported by the US Department of Energy (1). Principal investigators are M. Todosow from Brookhaven National Laboratory and M. Kazimi from Massachusetts Institute of Technology with contributions from Kurchatov Institute (Russia) and Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel). The fuel cycle assessment concentrates on key measures of performance in several important areas including proliferation characteristics of the spent fuel, reliability, safety, cost, environmental impact, and licensing issues

  17. HETEROGENEOUS REBURNING BY MIXED FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Yin Chen; Benson B. Gathitu

    2005-01-14

    Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

  18. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  19. Second row transition metal sulfides for the hydrotreatment of coal-derived naphtha. 1. Catalyst preparation, characterization and comparison of rate of simultaneous removal of total sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raje, A.P.; Liaw, S.-J.; Srinivasan, R.; Davis, B.H. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    1997-03-13

    Naphtha derived from an Illinois No. 6 coal contains appreciable quantities of sulfur-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds. The hydrotreatment of this naphtha was evaluated over unsupported transition metal sulfide catalysts (Ru, Rh, Mo, Pd, Zr, Mb). The catalysts were prepared by a room temperature precipitation reaction. Surface areas, crystalline phase and particle size distributions were determined by Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. A comparison of average particle sizes calculated from these three techniques has enable the understanding of the morphology of the transition metal sulfides. The catalysts exhibit a so-called volcano plot for the HDS of dibenzothiophene. Similar so-called volcano plots are also exhibited for the simultaneous hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the coal-derived naphtha containing a mixture of heteroatoms. The order of reactivity of the transition metal catalysts is the same for all three of the processes. Ruthenium sulfide is the most active catalyst for HDS, HDN and HDO of the coal-derived naphtha. 22 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Utilization of radiographic and ultrasonic testing for an evaluation of plate type fuel elements during manufacturing stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Mucio Jose Drummond de; Silva Junior, Silverio Ferreira da; Messias, Jose Marcos; Braga, Daniel Martins; Paula, Joao Bosco de

    2005-01-01

    Structural discontinuities can be introduced in the plate type fuel elements during the manufacturing stages due to mechanical processing conditions. The use of nondestructive testing methods to monitoring the fuel elements during the manufacturing stages presents a significant importance, contributing for manufacturing process improvement and cost reducing. This paper describes a procedure to be used detection and evaluation of structural discontinuities in plate type fuel elements during the manufacturing stages using the ultrasonic testing method and the radiographic testing method. The main results obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Thorium utilization program progress report for January 1, 1974--June 30, 1975. [Reprocessing; refabrication; recycle fuel irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotts, A.L.; Kasten, P.R.

    1976-05-01

    Work was carried out on the following: HTGR reprocessing development and pilot plant, refabrication development and pilot plant, recycle fuel irradiations, engineering and economic studies, and conceptual design of a commercial recycle plant. (DLC)

  2. New, efficient and viable system for ethanol fuel utilization on combined electric/internal combustion engine vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, André G.; Silva, Gabriel C. D.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Biancolli, Ana L. G.; Ticianelli, Edson A.

    2015-10-01

    Although ethanol can be directly employed as fuel on polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFC), its low oxidation kinetics in the anode and the crossover to the cathode lead to a substantial reduction of energy conversion efficiency. However, when fuel cell driven vehicles are considered, the system may include an on board steam reformer for converting ethanol into hydrogen, but the hydrogen produced contains carbon monoxide, which limits applications in PEMFCs. Here, we present a system consisting of an ethanol dehydrogenation catalytic reactor for producing hydrogen, which is supplied to a PEMFC to generate electricity for electric motors. A liquid by-product effluent from the reactor can be used as fuel for an integrated internal combustion engine, or catalytically recycled to extract more hydrogen molecules. Power densities comparable to those of a PEMFC operating with pure hydrogen are attained by using the hydrogen rich stream produced by the ethanol dehydrogenation reactor.

  3. Effect of Variation of Speed Limits on Intercity Bus Fuel Consumption, Coach and Driver Utilization, and Corporate Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    The effect of speed limit and passenger load on fuel consumption was determined using actual intercity buses with simulated passenger loads over different types of terrain. In addition to road tests, laboratory type measurements were made on four int...

  4. Evaluation and demonstration of methods for improved fuel utilization. First semi-annual progress report, September 1979-March 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decher, U.

    1980-01-01

    Demonstrations of improved fuel management and burnup are being performed in the Fort Calhoun reactor. More efficient fuel management will be achieved through the implementation of a low leakage concept called SAVFUEL (Shimmed And Very Flexible Uranium Element Loading), which is expected to reduce uranium requirements by 2 to 4%. The burnup will be increased sufficiently to reduce uranium requirements by 5 to 15%. Four fuel assemblies scheduled to demonstrate the SAVFUEL duty cycle and loaded into the core in December 1978 were inspected visually prior to their second exposure cycle. In addition, seventeen fuel assemblies were inspected after their fourth exposure cycle having achieved assembly average burnup up to 36 GWD/T. One assembly has been reinserted into Cycle 6 for a fifth exposure cycle. The preliminary results of all visual fuel inspections which appear to show excellent fuel rod performance are presented in this report. This report also contains the results of a licensing activity which was performed to allow insertion of a highly burned assembly into the reactor for a fifth irradiation cycle

  5. A preliminary assessment of system cost impacts of using transportable storage casks and other shippable metal casks in the utility/DOE spent fuel management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    In view of the foregoing, a study was conducted by E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc. and H and R Technical Associates, Inc. to determine the prospective viability of the use of TSCs and shippable SOCs in the combined utility/DOE system. This study considered costs, ALARA considerations and the logistics of the use and delivery of casks to the DOE system by utilities. It was intended that this study would result in a technical and cost resource base that could be used for evaluating various strategies and scenarios for deploying TSCs or SOCs in the combined utility/DOE spent fuel management system with respect to the prospective economic advantage that could be realized

  6. Design and implementing a diffuse controller that, intervenes the electronic injection of fuel in a vehicle, for the utilization HHO as a supplementary fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinchilla Vargas, Erick Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    A study was performed on the behavior of an internal combustion engine of a vehicle when has added oxyhydrogen (HHO) as a supplementary fuel, produced from a modified alkaline type electrolyser called HHO generator. The first stage is consisted of a theoretical and experimental analysis of the happened in the internal combustion engine by adding oxyhydrogen. The experimental part has performed road tests and equipment available were used in the engine test laboratories of RECOPE, as a roller dynamometer and a gas analyzer. The result from this first stage has found a slight increase in fuel performance and an unstable idling speed in the engine, this latest product in the vehicle's computer has been without design for the engine had operate with the addition of HHO. The second stage has designed one controller based in the diffuse logic with it is achieved in fuel performance and the flaws found are annulled. The third stage has involved the implementation of controller in the vehicle, which has involved taking the sensor signals of airflow and oxygen, pass by the controller, to be assigned new parameters and then deliver again to the vehicle computer without this notice the change. The performance of the designed controller is verified in the fourth stage, the same tests were made as in the first stage, in this way it was possible to verify and validate the data. Finally, a further increase is obtained in vehicle fuel efficiency, coupled with improved engine performance in different driving conditions without sacrificing power and torque. (author) [es

  7. Texas Disasters II: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Assist the Texas Forest Service in Mapping and Analyzing Fuel Loads and Phenology in Texas Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Michael; Williams, Meredith; Fenn, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The risk of severe wildfires in Texas has been related to weather phenomena such as climate change and recent urban expansion into wild land areas. During recent years, Texas wild land areas have experienced sequences of wet and dry years that have contributed to increased wildfire risk and frequency. To prevent and contain wildfires, the Texas Forest Service (TFS) is tasked with evaluating and reducing potential fire risk to better manage and distribute resources. This task is made more difficult due to the vast and varied landscape of Texas. The TFS assesses fire risk by understanding vegetative fuel types and fuel loads. To better assist the TFS, NASA Earth observations, including Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Specrtoradiometer (MODIS) data, were analyzed to produce maps of vegetation type and specific vegetation phenology as it related to potential wildfire fuel loads. Fuel maps from 2010-2011 and 2014-2015 fire seasons, created by the Texas Disasters I project, were used and provided alternating, complementary map indicators of wildfire risk in Texas. The TFS will utilize the end products and capabilities to evaluate and better understand wildfire risk across Texas.

  8. Design Study of Modular Nuclear Power Plant with Small Long Life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors Utilizing MOX Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilham, Muhammad; Su'ud, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Growing energy needed due to increasing of the world’s population encourages development of technology and science of nuclear power plant in its safety and security. In this research, it will be explained about design study of modular fast reactor with helium gas cooling (GCFR) small long life reactor, which can be operated over 20 years. It had been conducted about neutronic design GCFR with Mixed Oxide (UO2-PuO2) fuel in range of 100-200 MWth NPPs of power and 50-60% of fuel fraction variation with cylindrical pin cell and cylindrical balance of reactor core geometry. Calculation method used SRAC-CITATION code. The obtained results are the effective multiplication factor and density value of core reactor power (with geometry optimalization) to obtain optimum design core reactor power, whereas the obtained of optimum core reactor power is 200 MWth with 55% of fuel fraction and 9-13% of percentages.

  9. Fuel licensing process for an industrial use. ATF licensing process for an industrial use - Utility's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeckel, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    To develop and license a breakthrough nuclear fuel technology for commercial use is becoming challenging. All the former safety analysis design limits (SAFDLs) defined in the 1970's for the standard UO 2 -Zr fuels, might no longer be applicable. Identification of the appropriate safety analysis design limits For each type of innovative fuel, the developers will have to identify and investigate all the possible failure/ruins scenarios (not only those related to severe accidents but also those related to normal operation). In order to save time and to focus on the best options, those failure scenarios (which could be 'killers' for the ATF concept) have to be determined early enough in the development process. Based on the above failure scenarios, the developers will have to propose the licensing limits (and the experimental protocol to determine and to justify them). As mentioned earlier, the licensing limits should not be defined against the accidental conditions only. For the operators, the (good) in-reactor fuel behaviour is crucial. As an example, in the case of the new fuel concepts coming with an outer coating, it is important to include the analysis of the consequences of the loss of this protective outer layer in the licensing process due to a manufacturing defect or an inevitable in-reactor fretting wear. Obviously, the new/specific SAFDLs will have to be endorsed by the regulators (which could be a long process by itself). Identification of a commercial reactor to irradiate the first ATF A commercial NPP is not a material test reactor (MTR); irradiating lead test fuel rods (LTFRs) or lead test assemblies (LTAs) implies strict requirements regarding the manufacturing processes [which should not include chemicals (additives or solvents) potentially incompatible with the nuclear technical specifications], the compatibility with the hosting fuel core (in terms of geometry, enrichment, thermal hydraulic performances, etc.) and the robustness and

  10. Utilization of Plutonium and Higher Actinides in the HTGR as Possibility to Maintain Long-Term Operation on One Fuel Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, Galina V.; Peddicord, Kenneth L.

    2002-01-01

    Promising existing nuclear reactor concepts together with new ideas are being discussed worldwide. Many new studies are underway in order to identify prototypes that will be analyzed and developed further as systems for Generation IV. The focus is on designs demonstrating full inherent safety, competitive economics and proliferation resistance. The work discussed here is centered on a modularized small-size High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) concept. This paper discusses the possibility of maintaining long-term operation on one fuel loading through utilization of plutonium and higher actinides in the small-size pebble-bed reactor (PBR). Acknowledging the well-known flexibility of the PBR design with respect to fuel composition, the principal limitations of the long-term burning of plutonium and higher actinides are considered. The technological challenges and further research are outlined. The results allow the identification of physical features of the PBR that significantly influence flexibility of the design and its applications. (authors)

  11. Fusion as a source of synthetic fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-01-01

    In the near-term, coal derived synthetic fuels will be used; but in the long-term, resource depletion and environmental effects will mandate synthetic fuels from inexhaustible sources - fission, fusion, and solar. Of the three sources, fusion appears uniquely suited for the efficient production of hydrogen-based fuels, due to its ability to directly generate very high process temperatures (up to approx. 2000 0 C) for water splitting reactions. Fusion-based water splitting reactions include high temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam, thermochemical cycles, hybrid electrochemical/thermochemical, and direct thermal decomposition. HTE appears to be the simplest and most efficient process with efficiencies of 50 to 70% (fusion to hydrogen chemical energy), depending on process conditions

  12. Energy Conservation Alternatives Study (ECAS): Conceptual Design and Implementation Assessment of a Utility Steam Plant with Conventional Furnace and Wet Lime Stack Gas Scrubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dale H.

    1976-01-01

    A study was performed to estimate the technical/economic characteristics of a steam power plant (3500 pounds per square inch gauge, 1000 degrees Fahrenheit / 1000 degrees Fahrenheit) with a coal-burning radiant furnace and a wet lime stack gas scrubber to control sulfur emissions. Particulate emissions were controlled by an electrostatic precipitator operating at 300 degrees Fahrenheit. The stack gas from the scrubber was reheated from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 250 degrees Fahrenheit as a base case, and from 125 degrees Fahrenheit to 175 degrees Fahrenheit as an alternate case. The study was performed on a basis consistent with the General Electric ECAS Phase II evaluation of advanced energy conversion systems for electric utility baseload applications using coal or coal-derived fuels. A conceptual design of the power plant was developed, including the on-site calcination of limestone to lime and the provision of sludge ponds to store the products of flue gas scrubbing. From this design, estimates were derived for power plant efficiency, capital cost, environmental intrusion characteristics, natural resource requirements, and cost of electricity at an assumed capacity factor of 65 percent. An implementation assessment was performed where factors affecting applicability of the conceptual design power plant in electric utility generation systems were appraised. At 250 degrees Fahrenheit and 175 degrees Fahrenheit stack gas temperatures respectively, the plants showed a cost of electricity of 39.8 and 37.0 mills per kilowatt-hours and overall plant efficiencies of 32 percent and 34 percent.

  13. An investigation into the feasibility of thorium fuels utilization in seed-blanket configurations for TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damahuri, Abdul Hannan Bin; Mohamed, Hassan; Aziz Mohamed, Abdul; Idris, Faridah

    2018-01-01

    Thorium is one of the elements that needs to be explored for nuclear fuel research and development. One of the popular core configurations of thorium fuel is seed-blanket configuration or also known as Radkowsky Thorium Fuel concept. The seed will act as a supplier of neutrons, which will be placed inside of the core. The blanket, on the other hand, is the consumer of neutrons that is located at outermost of the core. In this work, a neutronic analysis of seed-blanket configuration for the TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP) is carried out using Monte Carlo method. The reactor, which has been operated since 1982 use uranium zirconium hydride (U-ZrH1.6) as the fuel and have multiple uranium weight which are 8.5, 12 and 20 wt.%. The pool type reactor is one and only research reactor that located in Malaysia. The design of core included the Uranium Zirconium Hydride located at the centre of the core that will act as the seed to supply neutron. The thorium oxide that will act as blanket situated outside of seed region will receive neutron to transmute 232Th to 233U. The neutron multiplication factor or criticality of each configuration is estimated. Results show that the highest initial criticality achieved is 1.30153.

  14. Assessment of fuel resource diversity and utilization patterns in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in Kumaun Himalaya, India, for conservation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Sher S.; Dhar, Uppeandra; Rawal, Ranbeer S. [G.B. Pant Inst. of Himalayan Environment and Development, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2000-07-01

    A general decrease in abundance of wood plant species used as sources of fuel suggests that more detailed information is urgently needed on species-level trends and their conservation. Such studies have not been carried out so far in India and elsewhere; we therefore quantified the species-wise extraction of fuel from a site (Gori Ganga Valley) in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in the Kumaun Himalaya. In all, 31 species (26 trees and 5 shrubs) were used as fuel, of which 14 were native to the Himalaya. Utilisation patterns, distributions, probabilities of use (PU), resources use indices (RUI), preferences and availabilities in forest communities of these species were determined. Use pattern did not vary much amongst low altitude villages (Similarity: 52-74%), whereas along the vertical (elevational) gradient it varied considerably (Similarity: 15-31%). Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz, Pinus roxburghii Sarg., Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus, Macaranga pustulata King ex Hk. F., Quercus lanuginosa Don, Engelhardtia spicata Bl. and Mallotus philippensis (Lamk.) Muell. contributed most to collections, while Pyracantha crenulata (Don) Roem., Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels, Alnus nepalensis Don and Bauhinia vahlii Wt. and Arn. were in lesser demand. W. fruticosa, P. roxburghii, M. pustulata, Casearia elliptica Willd., E. spicata, M. philippensis, Q. leucotrichophora and Phoebe lanceolata (Nees) Nees showed high values of PU and RUI, indicating high pressure. Higher density of P. roxburghii, Rhododendron arboreum Sm., Q. lanuginosa, Q. leucotrichophora, Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude, C. elliptica and M. pustulata amongst trees and Maesa indica A.DC., P. crenulata and W. fruticosa amongst shrubs exhibited high density but the remaining species showed low density indicating the possible depletion. Intensive management of natural habitats of species highly-referred for fuel, diversification of choice of species from natives to non-natives, large scale propagation of highly

  15. Utilization of thorium and U-ZrH1.6 fuels in various heterogeneous cores for TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damahuri, Abdul Hannan Bin; Mohamed, Hassan; Aziz Mohamed, Abdul; Idris, Faridah

    2018-01-01

    The use of thorium as nuclear fuel has been an appealing prospect for many years and will be great significance to nuclear power generation. There is an increasing need for more research on thorium as Malaysian government is currently active in the national Thorium Flagship Project, which was launched in 2014. The thorium project, which is still in phase 1, focuses on the research and development of the thorium extraction from mineral processing ore. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate other alternative TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor (RTP) core designs that can fully utilize thorium. Currently, the RTP reactor has an average neutron flux of 2.797 x 1012 cm-2/s-1 and an effective multiplication factor, k eff, of 1.001. The RTP core has a circular array core configuration with six circular rings. Each ring consists of 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 or 36 U-ZrH1.6 fuel rods. There are three main type of uranium weight, namely 8.5, 12 and 20 wt.%. For this research, uranium zirconium hydride (U-ZrH1.6) fuel rods in the RTP core were replaced by thorium (ThO2) fuel rods. Seven core configurations with different thorium fuel rods placements were modelled in a 2D structure and simulated using Monte Carlo n-particle (MCNPX) code. Results show that the highest initial criticality obtained is around 1.35101. Additionally there is a significant discrepancy between results from previous study and the work because of the large estimated leakage probability of approximately 21.7% and 2D model simplification.

  16. Experimental clean combustor program, alternate fuels addendum, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, C. C.; Bahr, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The characteristics of current and advanced low-emissions combustors when operated with special test fuels simulating broader range combustion properties of petroleum or coal derived fuels were studied. Five fuels were evaluated; conventional JP-5, conventional No. 2 Diesel, two different blends of Jet A and commercial aromatic mixtures - zylene bottoms and haphthalene charge stock, and a fuel derived from shale oil crude which was refined to Jet A specifications. Three CF6-50 engine size combustor types were evaluated; the standard production combustor, a radial/axial staged combustor, and a double annular combustor. Performance and pollutant emissons characteristics at idle and simulated takeoff conditions were evaluated in a full annular combustor rig. Altitude relight characteristics were evaluated in a 60 degree sector combustor rig. Carboning and flashback characteristics at simulated takeoff conditions were evaluated in a 12 degree sector combustor rig. For the five fuels tested, effects were moderate, but well defined.

  17. New fuel air control strategy for reducing NOx emissions from corner-fired utility boilers at medium-low loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sinan; Fang, Qingyan; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rapidly growing renewable power, the fossil fuel power plants have to be increasingly operated under large and rapid load change conditions, which can induce various challenges. This work aims to reduce NOx emissions of large-scale corner-fired boilers operated at medium–low loads....... The combustion characteristics and NOx emissions from a 1000 MWe corner-fired tower boiler under different loads are investigated experimentally and numerically. A new control strategy for the annular fuel air is proposed and implemented in the boiler, in which the secondary air admitted to the furnace through...... the air annulus around each coal nozzle tip is controlled by the boiler load, instead of being controlled by the output of the connected mill as commonly used in this kind of power plant. Both the experimental and simulation results show that the new control strategy reduces NOx emissions at the entrance...

  18. Biomass utilization for green environment: Co-combustion of diesel fuel and producer gas in thermal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ani, F.N.; Mehamed, A.F.

    2007-01-01

    Study of co-combustion of diesel oil and producer gas from a gasifier, individually as well as combined, in an experimental combustion chamber revealed that the producer gas can be co-combusted with liquid fuel. The process produced more CO, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ as compared to the combustion of diesel oil alone; the exhaust temperature for the process was higher than the diesel combustion alone. (author)

  19. The utility industry's perspective on OCRWM's plans for developing the system for transporting spent fuel under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodnick, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The electric utility industry has a vital interest in the transport program to be developed by the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The industry's interest stems in part from the fact that the DOE's transportation program is financed by the Nuclear Waste Fund which is made up of ratepayer funds. However, the industry is also vitally interested in the DOE's transportation program because it could impact the ongoing transportation operations of all nuclear utilities, and, perhaps most importantly, without the utility industry's input, DOE is not able to develop an optimal transportation program. The NWPA contemplates that the DOE conducts its transportation program in accordance with the existing federal and state regulatory structure. DOE has significant discretion, however, in creating and implementing the business, operational and institutional aspects of its NWPA transportation program. The utility industry intends to ensure that the DOE meets the challenge to develop a safe, efficient and economically sound program to transport spent fuel and high-level waste to the appropriate federal facilities

  20. Fundamental analysis of thermally regenerative fuel cell utilizing solar heat; Taiyonetsu wo riyosuru netsu saiseigata nenryo denchi no kiso tokusei no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Y; Tanaka, T; Takashima, T; Doi, T [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan); Aosawa, T; Kogoshi, S [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Study was made on a thermally regenerative fuel cell using solar heat. The thermally regenerative fuel cell was devised which is composed of 2-propanol liquid-phase endothermic dehydrogenation at nearly 100degC, and acetone liquid- phase exothermic hydrogenation at nearly 30degC as reverse reaction. This low-temperature dehydrogenation can relatively easily utilize a flat solar heat concentrator. 2-propanol dehydrogenation generates acetone and hydrogen. Generated acetone generates electric power in hydrogenation, generating propanol. This propanol regenerates acetone and hydrogen in dehydrogenation. The activity of Ru and Pt composite catalyst was considerably higher than that of Ru or Pt single catalyst. The activity was also higher in carbon felt or carbon cloth carrier than carbon plate carrier. The open circuit voltage of the fuel cell was estimated to be 110-120mV, nearly consisting with theoretical values. Short circuit current was also estimated to be 9-11mA, suggesting reduction of its internal resistance as an important subject. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The increase of the efficiency for comprehensive utilization of the fuel and energetic resources (The use coal enterprises of Kazakhstan as example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satova, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    In Kazakhstan during the period of transition to the market economy in the condition of reduction of coal production and increasing expenditures in coal branch, the problem of of the rational utilization of coal resources becomes the most vital issue. In the thesis theoretical and methodological aspects of socio-economic efficiency of utilization of the fuel and energetic resources are investigated. Different fields of usage of coal and coal wastes are studied, economic evaluation of mechanic and thermo-chemical methods of producing coal in process of bringing resources saving technologies; the national efficiency of using products in the quantity of technological raw and energetic fuel is brought out; the influence refining for the widening of the raw-base of industry, promoting the economic results of production and the lowering environmental pollution. It was estimated that the extracted coal of the region includes 1020 thousand tonne of aluminium oxide and 996 thousand tonne of sulphur; in the course of extracting and coal processing 3650 thousand tonne of firm wastes appeared; during the extracting of Ehkibastuz coal - 90970 thousand tonne, and the Karaganda coal - 40040 thousand tonne.The coal components and wastes mentioned above should be considered not only as source of environment pollution but also as potential resource for the production of industrial goods according to their qualitative characteristics and the availability of technical ideas of the processing. The implementation of the mentioned pre-sup-positions in the conditions of the forming market economy will allow to use the organic part of coal more competently, to involve the other useful components of coal in the sphere of production consumption, to utilize gaseous and firm wastes and to gain of the basis the expansion of resource base of same branches of industry and the reduction of environment pollution. It will be also accompanied by the needs in capital investments for the industrial

  2. Sex-related differences in fuel utilization and hormonal response to exercise: implications for individuals with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Nicole K; Yardley, Jane E

    2018-06-01

    Sex-related differences in metabolic and neuroendocrine response to exercise in individuals without diabetes have been well established. Men and women differ in fuel selection during exercise, in which women rely to a greater extent on fat oxidation, whereas males rely mostly on carbohydrate oxidation for energy production. The difference in fuel selection appears to be mediated by sex-related differences in hormonal (including catecholamines, growth hormone, and estrogen) response to different types and intensities of exercise. In general, men exhibit an amplified counter-regulatory response to exercise, with elevated levels of catecholamines compared with women. However, women exhibit greater sensitivity to the lipolytic action of the catecholamines and deplete less of their glycogen stores than men during exercise, which suggests that women may experience a greater defense in blood glucose control after exercise than men. Conversely, little is known about sex-related differences in response to exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A single study investigating sex-related differences in response to moderate aerobic exercise in individuals with T1D found sex-related differences in catecholamine response and fuel selection, but changes in blood glucose were not measured. To our knowledge, there are no studies investigating sex-related differences in blood glucose responses to different types and intensities of exercise in individuals with T1D. This review summarizes sex-related differences in exercise responses that could potentially impact blood glucose levels during exercise in individuals with T1D and highlights the need for further research.

  3. Effects of alloys elements, impurities and microstructural factors in austenitic stainless steel to utilize in fuel rod of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, A.

    1988-08-01

    Austenitic Stainless Steel is used as cladding material of pressurized water reactor fuel rods because of its good performance. The addition of alloy elements and the control of impurities make this to happen. Fission products do not contribute to corrosion. Dimensional changes are not critical up to 1,0 x 10 22 n/cm 2 (E>0,1 MeV) of neutronic doses. The hydrogen does not cause embrittlement in the reactor operation temperatures, and helium contributes to embrittlement if the material is warmed upon 650 0 C. (author) [pt

  4. Current state and environmental impact assessment for utilizing oil palm empty fruit bunches for fuel, fiber and fertilizer – A case study of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiew, Yoon Lin; Shimada, Sohei

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the trend of utilizing oil palm residue, i.e. the empty fruit bunches (EFB) left after extraction of the palm oil, using a case study of Malaysia, which is one of the world's major palm oil producers, and discusses the environmental performance of recycling technologies being developed in Malaysia for fuel, fiber, and fertilizer. Seven technologies are analyzed: ethanol production, methane recovery, briquette production, biofuel for combined heat and power (CHP) plants, composting, medium density fiberboard (MDF) production, and pulp and paper production. The life cycle assessment (LCA) method is used to discuss the environmental impacts of these technologies for adding value to this biomass. Sensitivity analyses are conducted to determine the land use effects for the various technologies utilizing EFB and to estimate the energy generation potential of raw EFB in CHP plants and methane production. Among the technologies for energy production, CHP plants have the best performance if the electricity generated is connected to the national grid, with superior benefits in the majority of impact categories compared to briquette, methane, and ethanol production. Overall, we find that methane recovery and composting are more environmentally friendly than other technologies, as measured by reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Pulp and paper, and MDF production are favorable technologies for land use impacts; however, they have intense primary energy requirements, chemical use in the processes, and emissions from their waste treatment systems. Our results provide information for decision makers when planning for sustainable use of oil palm biomass. -- Highlights: ► The recent technologies that utilize oil palm empty fruit bunches in Malaysia are evaluated using LCA. ► EFB used as fuel has significant benefits to environment compared to use as fertilizer. ► EFB used for fiber production contribute benefits to land use. ► This study provides

  5. Utility of Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 in a Microbial Fuel Cell as an Early Warning Device for Hexavalent Chromium Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guey-Horng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fast hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI determination is important for environmental risk and health-related considerations. We used a microbial fuel cell-based biosensor inoculated with a facultatively anaerobic, Cr(VI-reducing, and exoelectrogenic Ochrobactrum anthropi YC152 to determine the Cr(VI concentration in water. The results indicated that O. anthropi YC152 exhibited high adaptability to pH, temperature, salinity, and water quality under anaerobic conditions. The stable performance of the microbial fuel cell (MFC-based biosensor indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor system. The MFC voltage decreased as the Cr(VI concentration in the MFC increased. Two satisfactory linear relationships were observed between the Cr(VI concentration and voltage output for various Cr(VI concentration ranges (0.0125–0.3 mg/L and 0.3–5 mg/L. The MFC biosensor is a simple device that can accurately measure Cr(VI concentrations in drinking water, groundwater, and electroplating wastewater in 45 min with low deviations (<10%. The use of the biosensor can help in preventing the violation of effluent regulations and the maximum allowable concentration of Cr(VI in water. Thus, the developed MFC biosensor has potential as an early warning detection device for Cr(VI determination even if O. anthropi YC152 is a possible opportunistic pathogen.

  6. Advanced fuel development at AECL: What does the future hold for CANDU fuels/fuel cycles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupferschmidt, W.C.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This paper outlines advanced fuel development at AECL. It discusses expanding the limits of fuel utilization, deploy alternate fuel cycles, increase fuel flexibility, employ recycled fuels; increase safety and reliability, decrease environmental impact and develop proliferation resistant fuel and fuel cycle.

  7. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively utilize nuclear fuels by increasing the reactivity of a fuel assembly and reduce the concentration at the central region thereof upon completion of the burning. Constitution: A fuel assembly is bisected into a central region and a peripheral region by disposing an inner channel box within a channel box. The flow rate of coolants passing through the central region is made greater than that in the peripheral region. The concentration of uranium 235 of the fuel rods in the central region is made higher. In such a structure, since the moderating effect in the central region is improved, the reactivity of the fuel assembly is increased and the uranium concentration in the central region upon completion of the burning can be reduced, fuel economy and effective utilization of uranium can be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Utilization of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate and oleate as alternate energy fuels in brain cell cultures of newborn mice after hypoxia at different glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, E; Kohler, E; Herschkowitz, N

    1989-11-01

    In dissociated whole brain cell cultures from newborn mice, we have previously shown that during glucose deprivation under normoxia, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate and oleic acid are increasingly used for energy production. We now asked whether this glucose dependency of the utilization of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate and oleic acid as alternate energy fuels is also present after a hypoxic phase. 3-Hydroxy[3-14C]butyrate or [U-14C]oleic acid were added to 7- and 14-d-old cultures and 14CO2-production compared after hypoxia in normal and glucose-deprived conditions. After hypoxia, the ability of the cells 7 d in culture to increase D-beta-hydroxybutyrate consumption in response to glucose deprivation is diminished, 14-d-old cells lose this ability. In contrast, after hypoxia, both 7- and 14-d-old cultures maintain or even improve the ability to increase oleate consumption, when glucose is lacking.

  9. A multi-attribute utility decision analysis for treatment alternatives for the DOE/SR aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Freddie J.; Weiner, Ruth Fleischman; Wheeler, Timothy A.; Sorenson, Ken B.; Kuzio, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-attribute utility analysis is applied to a decision process to select a treatment method for the management of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE). DOE will receive, treat, and temporarily store Al-SNF, most of which is composed of highly enriched uranium, at its Savannah River Site in South Carolina. DOE intends ultimately to send the treated Al-SNF to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. DOE initially considered ten treatment alternatives for the management of Al-SNF, and has narrowed the choice to two of these: the direct disposal and melt and dilute alternatives. The decision analysis presented in this document focuses on a formal decision process used to evaluate these two remaining alternatives

  10. Fuel Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberstein, A.

    1982-09-01

    FRAGEMA has developed most types of inspection equipments to work on irradiated fuel assemblies and on single fuel rods during reactor outages with an efficiency compatible with the utilities operating priorities. In order to illustrate this statement, two specific examples of inspection equipments are shortly described: the on-site removable fuel rod assembly examination stand, and the fuel assembly multiple examination device. FRAGEMA has developed techniques for the identifiction of the leaking fuel rods in the fuel assembly and the tooling necessary to perform the replacement of the faulted element. These examples of methods, techniques and equipments described and the experience accumulated through their use allow FRAGEMA to qualify for offering the supply of the corresponding software, hardware or both whenever an accurate understanding of the fuel behaviour is necessary and whenever direct intervention on the assembly and associated components is necessary due to safety, operating or economical reasons

  11. Methylomusa anaerophila gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic methanol-utilizing bacterium isolated from a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Nanako; Yamamuro, Ayaka; Miyahara, Morio; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Abe, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2018-04-01

    Abacterial strain, designated MMFC1 T , was isolated from a methanol-fed microbial fuel cell that had been inoculated with sludge obtained from a wastewater-treatmentfacility in a chemical plant. The strain grows by fermenting methanol to produce acetate under anaerobic conditions, while homoacetogenic growth is not observed. MMFC1 T also grows on pyruvate and lactate but not on sugars and other organic acids. Cells are curved rods and motile, have peritrichous flagella, and form endospores. The genome sequence of strain MMFC1 T supports the physiological data. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence shows that strain MMFC1 T is affiliated with the family Sporomusaceae, while the closest relative is Sporomusa ovata with nucleotide-sequencesimilarity of 93.5 %. Major fatty acids are iso-C13 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 1ω9 and iso-C17 : 0. On the basis of its physiological, genomic and phylogenetic features, a novel genus and species are proposed to accommodate strain MMFC1 T , with the name Methylomusa anaerophila gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Methylomusa anaerophila is MMFC1 T (=JCM 31821 T = KCTC 15592 T ).

  12. High efficiency, quasi-instantaneous steam expansion device utilizing fossil or nuclear fuel as the heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudio Filippone

    1999-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency

  13. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  14. Oil drilling rig diesel power-plant fuel efficiency improvement potentials through rule-based generator scheduling and utilization of battery energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavković, Danijel; Sedić, Almir; Guzović, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolated oil drilling rig microgrid power flows are analyzed over 30 days. • Rule-based diesel generator scheduling is proposed to reduce fuel consumption. • A battery energy storage is parameterized and used for peak load leveling. • The effectiveness of proposed hybrid microgrid is verified by simulations. • Return-of-investment might be expected within 20% of battery system lifetime. - Abstract: This paper presents the development of a rule-based energy management control strategy suitable for isolated diesel power-plants equipped with a battery energy storage system for peak load shaving. The proposed control strategy includes the generator scheduling strategy and peak load leveling scheme based on current microgrid active and reactive power requirements. In order to investigate the potentials for fuel expenditure reduction, 30 days-worth of microgrid power flow data has been collected on an isolated land-based oil drilling rig powered by a diesel generator power-plant, characterized by highly-variable active and reactive load profiles due to intermittent engagements and disengagements of high-power electric machinery such as top-drive, draw-works and mud-pump motors. The analysis has indicated that by avoiding the low-power operation of individual generators and by providing the peak power requirements (peak shaving) from a dedicated energy storage system, the power-plant fuel efficiency may be notably improved. An averaged power flow simulation model has been built, comprising the proposed rule-based power flow control strategy and the averaged model of a suitably sized battery energy storage system equipped with grid-tied power converter and state-of-charge control system. The effectiveness of the proposed rule-based strategy has been evaluated by means of computer simulation analysis based on drilling rig microgrid active and reactive power data recorded during the 30 day period. The analysis has indicated that fuel consumption of

  15. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO 2 pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO 2 and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under irradiation

  16. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  17. Final Report on Utilization of TRU TRISO Fuel as Applied to HTR Systems Part II: Prismatic Reactor Cross Section Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent Descotes

    2011-03-01

    The deep-burn prismatic high temperature reactor is made up of an annular core loaded with transuranic isotopes and surrounded in the center and in the periphery by reflector blocks in graphite. This disposition creates challenges for the neutronics compared to usual light water reactor calculation schemes. The longer mean free path of neutrons in graphite affects the neutron spectrum deep inside the blocks located next to the reflector. The neutron thermalisation in the graphite leads to two characteristic fission peaks at the inner and outer interfaces as a result of the increased thermal flux seen in those assemblies. Spectral changes are seen at least on half of the fuel blocks adjacent to the reflector. This spectral effect of the reflector may prevent us from successfully using the two step scheme -lattice then core calculation- typically used for light water reactors. We have been studying the core without control mechanisms to provide input for the development of a complete calculation scheme. To correct the spectrum at the lattice level, we have tried to generate cross-sections from supercell calculations at the lattice level, thus taking into account part of the graphite surrounding the blocks of interest for generating the homogenised cross-sections for the full-core calculation. This one has been done with 2 to 295 groups to assess if increasing the number of groups leads to more accurate results. A comparison with a classical single block model has been done. Both paths were compared to a reference calculation done with MCNP. It is concluded that the agreement with MCNP is better with supercells, but that the single block model remains quite close if enough groups are kept for the core calculation. 26 groups seems to be a good compromise between time and accu- racy. However, some trials with depletion have shown huge variations of the isotopic composition across a block next to the reflector. It may imply that at least an in- core depletion for the

  18. Utilization of alternative fuels and materials in cement kiln towards emissions of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes (BTEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliane Ulfi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-processing in cement industry has benefits for energy conservation and waste recycling. Nevertheless, emissions of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes (BTEX tend to increase compared to a non co-processing kiln. A study was conducted in kiln feeding solid AFR (similar to municipal solid waste, MSW having production capacity 4600-ton clinker/day (max. 5000 ton/day and kiln feeding biomass having production capacity 7800-ton clinker/day (max. 8000 ton/day. The concentration of VOCs emissions tends to be higher at the raw mill on rather than the raw mill off. At the raw mill on, concentration of total volatile organic carbon (VOCs emission from cement kiln stack feeding Solid AFR 1, biomass, Solid AFR 2, and mixture of Solid AFR and biomass is 16.18 mg/Nm3, 16.15 mg/Nm3, 9.02 mg/Nm3, and 14.11 mg/Nm3 respectively. The utilization of biomass resulted in the lower fraction of benzene and the higher fraction of xylenes in the total VOCs emission. Operating conditions such as thermal substitution rate, preheater temperature, and kiln speed are also likely to affect BTEX emissions.

  19. The Mississippi University Research Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass: Production of Alternative Fuels from Waste Biomass Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drs. Mark E. Zapp; Todd French; Lewis Brown; Clifford George; Rafael Hernandez; Marvin Salin (from Mississippie State University); Drs. Huey-Min Hwang, Ken Lee, Yi Zhang; Maria Begonia (from Jackson State University); Drs. Clint Williford; Al Mikell (from the University of Mississippi); Drs. Robert Moore; Roger Hester (from the University of Southern Mississippi).

    2009-03-31

    The Mississippi Consortium for the Utilization of Biomass was formed via funding from the US Department of Energy's EPSCoR Program, which is administered by the Office of Basic Science. Funding was approved in July of 1999 and received by participating Mississippi institutions by 2000. The project was funded via two 3-year phases of operation (the second phase was awarded based on the high merits observed from the first 3-year phase), with funding ending in 2007. The mission of the Consortium was to promote the utilization of biomass, both cultured and waste derived, for the production of commodity and specialty chemicals. These scientific efforts, although generally basic in nature, are key to the development of future industries within the Southeastern United States. In this proposal, the majority of the efforts performed under the DOE EPSCoR funding were focused primarily toward the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks and biogas from waste products. However, some of the individual projects within this program investigated the production of other products from biomass feeds (i.e. acetic acid and biogas) along with materials to facilitate the more efficient production of chemicals from biomass. Mississippi is a leading state in terms of raw biomass production. Its top industries are timber, poultry production, and row crop agriculture. However, for all of its vast amounts of biomass produced on an annual basis, only a small percentage of the biomass is actually industrially produced into products, with the bulk of the biomass being wasted. This situation is actually quite representative of many Southeastern US states. The research and development efforts performed attempted to further develop promising chemical production techniques that use Mississippi biomass feedstocks. The three processes that were the primary areas of interest for ethanol production were syngas fermentation, acid hydrolysis followed by hydrolyzate fermentation, and

  20. Technology for the Recovery of Fuel and Adsorbent Carbons from Coal Burning Utility Ash Ponds and Landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Groppo; T.L. Robl

    2005-09-30

    marketable lightweight aggregate and recover a high-grade fuel product. Spiral concentration provided acceptable grade lightweight aggregate with yields of only 10 to 20%. Incorporating a sieve bend into the process to recover coarse, porous ash particles from the outside race of the spirals increased aggregate yield to as high as 75%, however, the carbon content of the aggregate also increased. An opening size of 28 mesh on the sieve bend appeared to be sufficient. Lightweight concrete blocks (28 to 32 lbs) were produced from bottom ash and results show that acceptable strength could be attained with a cement/concrete ratio as low as 1/4. A mobile Proof-of-Concept (POC) field unit was designed and fabricated to meet the processing objectives of the project. The POC plant consisted of two trailer-mounted modules and was completely self sufficient with respect to power and water requirements. The POC unit was hauled to Coleman Station and operated at a feed rate of 2 tph. Results showed that the spirals operated similarly to previous pilot-scale operations and a 500 lb composite sample of coarse carbon was collected with a grade of 51.7% C or 7279 Btu/lb. Flotation results compared favorably with release analysis and 500 lbs of composite froth product was collected with a grade of 35% C or 4925 Btu/lb. The froth product was dewatered to 39% moisture with vacuum filtration. Pan pelletization and briquetting were evaluated as a means of minimizing handling concerns. Rotary pan pelletization produced uniform pellets with a compressive strength of 4 lbf without the use of any binder. Briquettes were produced by blending the coarse and fine carbon products at a ratio of 1:10, which is the proportion that the two products would be produced in a commercial operation. Using 3% lime as a binder produced the most desirable briquettes with respect to strength, attrition and drop testing. Additionally, the POC carbon products compared favorably with commercial activated carbon when used

  1. Integral nuclear fuel element assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    An integral nuclear fuel element assembly utilizes longitudinally finned fuel pins. The continuous or interrupted fins of the fuel pins are brazed to fins of juxtaposed fuel pins or directly to the juxtaposed fuel pins or both. The integrally brazed fuel assembly is designed to satisfy the thermal and hydraulic requirements of a fuel assembly lattice having moderator to fuel atom ratios required to achieve high conversion and breeding ratios

  2. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

  3. Used fuel packing plant for CANDU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzies, I.; Thayer, B.; Bains, N., E-mail: imenzies@atsautomation.com [ATS Automation, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Murchison, A., E-mail: amurchison@nwmo.ca [NWMO, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Large forgings have been selected to containerize Light Water Reactor used nuclear fuel. CANDU fuel, which is significantly smaller in size, allows novel approaches for containerization. For example, by utilizing commercially available extruded ASME pipe a conceptual design of a Used Fuel Packing Plant for containerization of used CANDU fuel in a long lived metallic container has been developed. The design adopts a modular approach with multiple independent work cells to transfer and containerize the used fuel. Based on current technologies and concepts from proven industrial systems, the Used Fuel Packing Plant can assemble twelve used fuel containers per day considering conservative levels of process availability. (author)

  4. GreenSynFuels. Economical and technological statement regarding integration and storage of renewable energy in the energy sector by production of green synthetic fuels for utilization in fuel cells. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebaek, J. (Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus (Denmark)); Boegild Hansen, J. (Haldor Topsoee, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Mogensen, Mogens (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)) (and others)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of the project is to select and validate technology concepts for the establishment of a Danish production of green synthetic fuels primarily for fuel cells. The feasibility of the selected concepts is assessed trough a techno-economical calculation, which includes mass and energy balances and economics including CAPEX and OPEX assessments. It is envisioned by the project partners that a production of green synthetic fuels, such as methanol, can 1) bring stability to a future electricity grid with a high share of renewable energy, 2) replace fossil fuels in the transport sector, and 3) boost Danish green technology export. In the project, two technology concepts were derived through carefully considerations and plenum discussions by the project group members: Concept 1): Methanol/DME Synthesis based on Electrolysis assisted Gasification of Wood. Concept 2): Methanol/DME synthesis based on biogas temporarily stored in the natural gas network. Concept 1) is clearly the most favored by the project group and is therefore analyzed for its techno-economic feasibility. Using mass and energy balances the technical perspectives of the concept were investigated, along with an economic breakdown of the CAPEX and OPEX cost of the methanol production plant. The plant was technically compared to a traditional methanol production plant using gasified biomass. The project group has decided to focus on large scale plants, as the scale economics favor large scale plants. Therefore, the dimensioning input of the concept 1) plant is 1000 tons wood per day. This is truly a large scale gasification plant; however, in a methanol synthesis context the plant is not particularly large. The SOEC electrolyzer unit is dimensioned by the need of hydrogen to balance the stoichiometric ratio of the methanol synthesis reaction, which will result in 141 MW installed SOEC. The resulting methanol output is 1,050 tons methanol per day. In comparison to a traditional methanol synthesis plant

  5. National fuel cell seminar. Program and abstracts. [Abstracts of 40 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of 40 papers are presented. Topics include fuel cell systems, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, solid fuel and solid electrolyte fuel cells, low temperature fuel cells, and fuel utilization. (WHK)

  6. Evaluation of Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Abbott; Edward Casey; Etop Esen; Douglas Smith; Bruce Burke; Binh Nguyen; Samuel Tam; Paul Worhach; Mahabubul Alam; Juhun Song; James Szybist; Ragini Acharya; Vince Zello; David Morris; Patrick Flynn; Stephen Kirby; Krishan Bhatia; Jeff Gonder; Yun Wang; Wenpeng Liu; Hua Meng; Subramani Velu; Jian-Ping Shen, Weidong Gu; Elise Bickford; Chunshan Song; Chao-Yang Wang; Andre' Boehman

    2006-02-28

    applicable to coal-derived FT liquid fuels. After different gas clean up processes steps, the coal-derived syngas will produce FT liquid fuels that have similar properties to natural gas derived FT liquids.

  7. Advanced system analysis for indirect methanol fuel cell power plants for transportation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; McFarland, R.D.; Huff, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The indirect methanol cell fuel concept being actively pursued by the United States Department of Energy and General Motors Corporation is based on electrochemical engine (e.c.e.) an electrical generator capable for usually efficient and clean power production from methanol fuel for the transportation sector. This on-board generator works in consort with batteries to provide electric power to drive propulsion motors for a range of electric vehicles. Success in this technology could do much to improve impacted environmental areas and to convert part of the transportation fleet to natural gas- and coal-derived methanol as the fuel source. These developments parallel work in Europe and Japan where various fuel cell powered vehicles, often fueled with tanked or hydride hydrogen are under active development. This paper describes status of each of these components, and describe a model that predicts the steady state performance of the e.c.e

  8. Energetic-environmental-economic assessment of the biogas system with three utilization pathways: Combined heat and power, biomethane and fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Xiangping; Shang, Dawei; Bao, Di; Zhang, Suojiang; Zheng, Tao

    2016-08-01

    A typical biogas system with three utilization pathways, i.e., biogas upgrading, biogas combined heat and power (CHP), biogas solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were designed. It was assessed from the viewpoint of energy, environment and economy by using energy efficiency, green degree and net present value index respectively. The assessment considered the trade-off relationships among these indexes, which is more comprehensive than previous systematic evaluation work only included single or two of the pathway(s) by using one or two of the index(es). Assessment results indicated that biogas upgrading pathway has the highest systematic energy efficiency (46.5%) and shortest payback period (8.9year) with the green degree production is the lowest (9.29gd/day). While for biogas SOFC pathway, although the green degree production is the highest (21.77gd/day), the payback period is longer (14.5year) and the energy efficiency is 13.6% lower than the biogas upgrading pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of hydrogen driven from biomass waste to power Remote areas away from the electric grid utilizing fuel cells and internal combustion engines vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Hazem [Farmingdale State College, NY (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Recent concerns over the security and reliability of the world’s energy supply has caused a flux towards the research and development of renewable sources. A leading renewable source has been found in the biomass gasification of biological materials derived from organic matters such as wood chips, forest debris, and farm waste that are found in abundance in the USA. Accordingly, there is a very strong interest worldwide in the development of new technologies that provide an in-depth understanding of this economically viable energy source. This work aims to allow the coupling of biomass gasification and fuel cell systems as well as Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) to produce high-energy efficiency, clean environmental performance and near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass gasification is a process, which produces synthesis gas (syngas) that contains 19% hydrogen and 20% carbon monoxide from inexpensive organic matter waste. This project main goal is to provide cost effective energy to the public utilizing remote farms’ waste and landfill recycling area.

  10. The combined use of micro-hydropyrolysis and compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) as a novel technique to identify coal-derived biodegraded PAH flux in the complex environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng-Gong Sun; Gbolagade Olalere; Wisdom Ivwurie; Mick Cooper; Colin Snape [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre

    2007-07-01

    A novel analytical methodology combining CSIA and micro-hydropyrolysis (CSIA/micro-HyPy) has been developed to aid unambiguous source apportionment of PAHs in the complex environment where PAH matrices have been heavily biodegraded and/or their isotopic signatures are overlapping for some sources. Asphaltenes retain useful information of biogeochemical significance, which can be accessed via hydropyrolysis. The PAHs released from hydropyrolysis of asphaltenes, the bound PAHs, from different primary sources (e.g. crude oils, low and high temperature coal tars) were characterized and compared to free aromatics in regard to their molecular and 13C-isotopic profiles. It was found that hydropyrolysis of asphaltenes can generate molecular and isotopic profiles highly representative of their primary sources. For both low and high temperature coal tar, the bound aromatics have broadly similar molecular distributions to their free aromatic counterparts and have {sup 13}C-isotopic values almost identical to those of UK bituminous coals(-23{per_thousand}), indicating that the asphaltenes are actually released as representative fragments of coal structures during carbonization. As expected, the bound aromatics are more 13C-enriched by 1-3 {per_thousand} (-21 to -23{per_thousand}) compared to free aromatics (-24 to -26{per_thousand}). No significant isotopic difference was observed between free and bound aromatics for a North Sea crude oil, all having similar {sup 13}C-isotopic values (-27.2-30.2 {per_thousand}) that are significantly lighter than those for coal-derived aromatics. Applications of this novel methodological CSIA/micro-HyPy technique to samples previously examined from an area around a former carbonization plant have been successfully demonstrated where unambiguous source apportionment could not be achieved previously for the PAHs due to likely environmental alternation. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  12. Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohue, M.D.

    1993-09-01

    We have developed new equations of state for pure-component chain molecules. The excellent performance of complicated theories, such as the Generalized Flory Dimer (GFD) theory can be mimicked by simpler equations, if assumptions for the shape parameters are made. We developed engineering correlations based on GFD theory, using local composition theory to take into account attractive forces. During this period, we compared methods for calculating repulsive and attractive contributions to equation of state against computer simulation data for hard and square-well chains, and against experimental data from the literature. We also have studied microstructure and local order in fluids that contain asymmetric molecules. We developed a thermodynamic model for polar compounds based on a site-site interaction approach. We have shown the equivalence of various classes of theories for hydrogen bonding, and used this equivalence to derive a multiple site model for water. In addition, simple cubic equations of state have been applied to calculate physical and chemical-reaction equilibria in nonideal systems. We measured infinite dilution activity coefficients using HPLC. We also measured high pressure vapor liquid equilibria of ternary and quaternary systems containing supercritical solvents. We used FT-IR spectroscopy to examine self-association of aliphatic alcohols due to hydrogen bonding, and to investigate the hydrogen bonding in polymer-solvent mixtures

  13. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, S.E.; Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    To develop a database relating hydrotreating parameters to feed and product quality by experimentally evaluating options for hydrotreating whole coal liquids, distillate cuts of coal liquids, petroleum, and blends of coal liquids with petroleum.

  14. Nuclear fuel activities in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D S [Fuel Development Branch, Chalk River Labs., AECL (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Nuclear fuel activities in Canada are considered in the presentation on the following directions: Canadian utility fuel performance; CANDU owner`s group fuel programs; AECL advanced fuel program (high burnup fuel behaviour and development); Pu dispositioning (MOX) activities. 1 tab.

  15. Evaluation and demonstration of methods for improved fuel utilization. Second semi-annual progress report, April 1, 1980-September 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrations are being performed in the Fort Calhoun reactor. The current program consists of two parts, one to demonstrate low leakage fuel management (SAVFUEL - Shimmed And Very Flexible Uranium Element Loading) and the other to demonstrate high burnup. The first part will demonstrate that the power duty cycle which is characteristic of SAVFUEL does not have a deleterious effect on fuel performance, while the second part will demonstrate that the peak rod average burnup of the current 14 x 14 fuel design can be increased to 45 GWD/T. A visual examination conducted at poolside was completed on four fuel assemblies which are scheduled to demonstrate the SAVFUEL power cycle and seventeen fuel assemblies which are scheduled to provide high burnup fuel performance data. Results of visual examinations, shoulder gap closure, fuel assembly growth, and fuel rod channel width measurements are reported which show excellent fuel performance for the high burnup; demonstration assemblies after four exposure cycles. These results support an additional exposure cycle for the high burnup demonstration assemblies which currently have an assembly average burnup up to 37 GWD/T

  16. Combustor exhaust-emissions and blowout-limits with diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels utilizing air-atomizing and pressure-atomizing nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of fuel properties on exhaust emissions and blowout limits of a high-pressure combustor segment is evaluated using a splash-groove air-atomizing fuel injector and a pressure-atomizing simplex fuel nozzle to burn both diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels. Exhaust emissions and blowout data are obtained and compared on the basis of the aromatic content and volatility of the two fuels. Exhaust smoke number and emission indices for oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons are determined for comparison. As compared to the pressure-atomizing nozzle, the air-atomizing nozzle is found to reduce nitrogen oxides by 20%, smoke number by 30%, carbon monoxide by 70%, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50% when used with diesel number 2 fuel. The higher concentration of aromatics and lower volatility of diesel number 2 fuel as compared to Jet A fuel appears to have the most detrimental effect on exhaust emissions. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons are twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel.

  17. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 6. Development of fuel cell of pure hydrogen fueled solid polymer type; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 6. Junsuiso kyokyu kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for research and development Task-6. The objective is to verify performance and reliability, by means of field tests, of a power generation plant using fuel cells of pure hydrogen fueled solid polymer type with power transmission terminal efficiency of 45% and output of 30 kW. The fuel cells were developed by using the cathode humidification process as a humidification method suitable for operation at high utilization rates. With a three-cell stack made by using this humidification process (having an effective area of 289 cm{sup 2}), verification was made on the current density of 0.2A/cm{sup 2}, the characteristics of 0.75V or higher, and the uniform voltage distribution performance being the immediate targets. In order to mitigate the hydrogen utilization in the fuel cells, discussions were given on the serial flow system that divides the laminated cells into two blocks. Thus, operation was found possible with the utilization rate in each block reduced to about 80% by selecting an adequate division rate even if the hydrogen utilization rate is 96% in the entire stack. Stable operation has been performed in the 5-kW class power generation test using the cathode interior humidifying system. Specifications for 30-kW class power plant, system configuration, safety, and material balance were discussed. The basic design was made on the hydrogen gas humidity adjusting system. (NEDO)

  18. Simulations of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Chemical Looping Combustion System Utilizing Gaseous Fuel; Simulation de la combustion en boucle chimique d'une charge gazeuse dans un lit fluidise circulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahalatkar, K.; Kuhlman, J. [West Virginia University, Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Morgantown, WV, 26506 (United States); Mahalatkar, K. [ANSYS Inc., 3647 Collins Ferry Road Suite A, Morgantown, WV, 26505 (United States); Kuhlman, J.; Huckaby, E.D.; O' Brien, T. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV, 26507 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Numerical studies using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) have been carried out for a complete circulating fluidized bed chemical looping combustor described in the literature (Abad et al., 2006 Fuel 85, 1174-1185). There have been extensive experimental studies in Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC), however CFD simulations of this concept are quite limited. The CLC experiments that were simulated used methane as fuel. A 2-D continuum model was used to describe both the gas and solid phases. Detailed sub-models to account for fluid-particle and particle-particle interaction forces were included. Global models of fuel and carrier chemistry were utilized. The results obtained from CFD were compared with experimental outlet species concentrations, solid circulation rates, solid mass distribution in the reactors, and leakage and dilution rates. The transient CFD simulations provided a reasonable match with the reported experimental data. (authors)

  19. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  20. H.R. 5433: This Act may be cited as the Nuclear Fuel Utilization and Domestic Production Act of 1988. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, September 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    H.R. 5433 is a bill to assist in creating a viable domestic uranium enrichment industry, to insure the maximum economic utilization of the existing diffusion plant assets, to establish mechanisms which would permit the creation of a privately owned corporation to utilize the Federal Government's investment in centrifuge technology and in the centrifuge assets, to establish alternate sources of enrichment supply, so as to create American jobs, to return moneys to the Government and to increase American industrial competitiveness in world wide nuclear fuel sales

  1. Fuel performance, design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, P.N.; Tripathi, Rahul Mani; Soni, Rakesh; Ravi, M.; Vijay Kumar, S.; Dwivedi, K.P.; Pandarinathan, P.R.; Neema, L.K.

    2006-01-01

    The normal fuel configurations for operating 220 MWe and 540 MWe PHWRs are natural uranium dioxide 19-element and 37- element fuel bundle types respectively. The fuel configuration for BWRs is 6 x 6 fuel. So far, about 330 thousand PHWR fuel bundles and 3500 number of BWR bundles have been irradiated in the 14 PHWRs and 2 BWRs. Improvements in fuel design, fabrication, quality control and operating practices are continuously carried out towards improving fuel utilization as well as reducing fuel failure rate. Efforts have been put to improve the fuel bundle utilization by increasing the fuel discharge burnup of the natural uranium bundles The overall fuel failure rate currently is less than 0.1 % . Presently the core discharge burnups in different reactors are around 7500 MWD/TeU. The paper gives the fuel performance experience over the years in the different power reactors and actions taken to improve fuel performance over the years. (author)

  2. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH BIOMASSA CANGKANG KAKAO DAN KEMIRI SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKAR BRIKET (Utilization of Biomass Wastes from Cocoa and Candlenut Shells as Fuel Briquette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harwin Saptoadi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Biomassa adalah sumber energi utama jutaan manusia di dunia, akan tetapi penggunaannya menurun ketika batubara, minyak dan gas tersedia cukup melirnpah. Namun akhir-akhir ini perhatian muncul kembali karena terjadinya krisis energi dan isu-isu lingkungan. Pemanfaatan biomassa untuk menggantikan bahan bakar fosil dapat menurunkan persoalan emisi CO2 global. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji alternatif sumber energi terbarukan dengan pemanfaatan limbah biomassa cangkang kakao dan kemiri. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menghaluskan biomassa dengan ukuran partikel kurang dari I mm. Kemudian 5 gram campuran bahan baku dengan bahan pengikat gel tepung kanji dengan perbandingan 70:30 untuk kakao dan 80:20 untuk kemiri dibriket dalarn cetakan berdiarneter l6 mm. Setelah dibriket kemudian dikeringkan dengan oven pada suhu 50 oC selama 5 jam. Pembakaran dilakukan dalam ruang bakar pada temperatur dinding 350 oC dan laju aliran udara bervariasi antara 0,1 - 0,4 m/s. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa cangkang kakao dan kemiri mempunyai nilai kalor masing-masing 16.998 dan 21.960 kJ/kg. Emisi CO cukup signifikan pada tahap devolatilisasi. Cangkang kakao memberikan total emisi CO lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan cangkang kemiri. Laju aliran udara juga berpengaruh terhadap emisi CO yang dihasilkan. Penambahan laju aliran udara akan mengurangi emisi CO, hal ini karena adanya penambahan suplai oksigen sehingga pemnbakaran dapat berlangsung lebih sempurna.   ABSTRACT  Biomass was the  primary source of energy for millions of people in the world, but when coal, oil, and gas became widely available, its use was declined. However, in recent years interest in biomass utilization increases because of energy crisis and environmental issues. Utilization of biomass for substituting fossil fuel can reduce global CO2 emission problem. The objective of this research is to study alternative energy sources that utilize biomass waste from cocoa and candlenut

  3. Effects of fuel properties, temperature, and pressure on fuel reactivity, formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides, and release of alkalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aho, M.

    1998-01-01

    This study assists in the development of advanced combustion technologies (PFBC, IGCC) with high efficiency of electricity production from solid fuels (η = 47 - 50%) and in minimizing emissions of nitrogen oxides in atmospheric and pressurised FB combustion. In addition to the work done within the LIEKKI 2 programme, research work has been carried out inside the Joule 2 programme of EU. The research work may be divided into three parts: (1) Study of N x O y formation and destruction, (2) Study of fuel reactivity at elevated pressures, and (3) Study on alkali release from different coals. Experimental work was carried out utilizing a novel pressurized entrained flow reactor (PEFR) completed in VTT Energy in the autumn 1992. The device was unique in the world between 1992 and 1995. The effects of fuel properties on the formation of N 2 O and NO at conditions typical to FB combustion were studied for a large number of fuels including different coals, coal-derived char, peat, and bark. This work started before 1993 and was completed in 1995. FTIR technology was utilized for on-line gas analysis of N 2 O, NO, and NO 2 . The ratio fuel-O/fuel-N was found to be the most important fuel factor determining the formation of N 2 O and NO from volatile fuel-N. Only a small part of N 2 O is formed from char-N. The effect of pressure (0.2 - 2.0 MPa) on the formation of N 2 O, NO, and NO 2 , and destruction of NO with ammonia (Thermal DeNO x , experiments at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.5 MPa) and urea (NO x Out, experiments at 0.5 MPa) were studied in cooperation with Aabo Akademi University (AaAU). VTT performed the experimental work and AaAU the kinetic modelling. A part of these results are presented in the report by AaAU. Increase of pressure decreases NO formation and increases NO 2 formation. The behaviour of N 2 O is more complex. Both destruction processes for NO seem to operate well at elevated pressure, although clear effects of pressure on the temperature window of Thermal DeNO x

  4. Exhaust gas emissions from various automotive fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects on health, environment and energy utilization; Avgasemissioner fraan laetta fordon drivna med olika drivmedel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlvik, P.; Brandberg, Aa. [Ecotraffic RandD AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The main aim of the investigation has been to assess the effects on health and environment from various alternative fuels for light-duty vehicles. Effects that can be identified and quantified, such as acidification, ozone formation, cancer risk and climate change, have been of primary interest but other effects, such as respiratory diseases, have also been investigated. Data have been collected through literature surveys for subsequent calculation of the mentioned effects in different time-frames. Corrections have been used to take into consideration the influence of climate, ageing and driving pattern. Emissions generated in fuel production have also been accounted for. The most significant and important differences between the fuels have been found for effects as ozone formation cancer risk and particulate emissions. Alternative fuels, such as methanol and methane (natural gas and biogas), significantly decrease the ozone formation in comparison to petrol, while ethanol, methanol and methane are advantageous concerning cancer risk. The particulate emissions are considerably higher for diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil and RME in comparison to the other fuels. In the future, the importance of acid emissions in the fuel production will increase since the NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions will decrease from the vehicles. The emissions of climate gases could be significantly reduced by using non-fossil fuels but the efficiency of the drive train is also of importance. The technical development potential for further emission reductions is considerable for all fuels but the advantage for the best fuel options will remain in the future.

  5. Utilization as solid fuel and its physicochemical characteristic of hydroponic cultured plants for wastewater treatment; Suiko saibai shokubutsutai no kotai nenryoka to butsurigakuteki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M; Hirano, K [Kanagawa Environmental Research Center, Kanagawa (Japan); Inamori, Y [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-10

    A treatment of the wasted flower plants used for the waste water treatment process by the indoor drying and pressing method was studied for their effective reuse as columnar solid fuel. Three kinds of wasted flower plants were processed for making samples by indoor drying method for about two months. The samples which were chop plants about 10cm long, half powdery ones and powdery ones were made into the columnar solid fuels under 1-5 t{center_dot}cm{sup -2} pressure. According to the drop`s strength test for the solid fuels, it was investigated that they lost their physical strength rapidly in proportion to the elapsed time. The solid fuel made of powdery processed plants particularly lost its strength most rapidly. In the case of solid fuels made of chops, when they were pressed by the method that the trunk and the branches filled into the press`s vessel in the same direction against the press`s one, their physical strength were maintained for a long time. Furthermore, the form of solid fuels processed by this method looked like keeping their original one for a relatively long term. It was found that their combustible efficiency was excellent because the combustible calorie of the wasted plants ranged from 3,600 cal{center_dot}g{sup -1} to 3,800 cal{center_dot}g{sup -1}. 18 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. The fuel cycle scoping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, G.D.; Malone, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Fuel Cycle Scoping System (FCSS) was created to fill the need for a scoping tool which provides the utilities with the ability to quickly evaluate alternative fuel management strategies, tails assay choices, fuel fabrication quotes, fuel financing alternatives, fuel cycle schedules, and other fuel cycle perturbations. The FCSS was specifically designed for PC's that support dBASE-III(TM), a relational data base software system by Ashton-Tate. However, knowledge of dBASE-III is not necessary in order to utilize the FCSS. The FCSS is menu driven and can be utilized as a teaching tool as well as a scoping tool

  7. Utilization of freshly induced high-energy gamma-ray activity as a measure of fission rates in re-irradiated burnt UO{sub 2} fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M. F.; Perret, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Krohnert, H.; Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    In the frame of the LIFE-PROTEUS (Large-scale Irradiation Fuel Experiments at PROTEUS) program, a measurement technique is being developed to measure fission rates in burnt fuel, following re-irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. In the presented approach, the fission rates are estimated by measuring high energy gamma-rays (above 2000 keV) emitted by short-lived fission products freshly produced in the fuel. Due to their high energies, these gamma-rays can be discriminated against the high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the burnt fuel, which reaches energies up to 2000 keV. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, fresh and burnt fuel samples (with burn-ups varying from 36 to 64 MWd/kg) were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institut, and their emitted gamma-ray spectra were recorded shortly after irradiation. It was possible, for the first time, to detect the short-lived gamma-ray activity in the high-energy region, even in the presence of the intrinsic gamma-ray background of the burnt fuel samples. Using the short-lived gamma-ray lines {sup 142}La (2542 keV), {sup 89}Rb (2570 keV), 95Y (2632 keV), {sup 138}Cs (2640 keV) and {sup 95}Y (3576 keV), relative fission rates between different core positions were derived for a fresh sample as well as for a burnt sample with a burn-up of 36 MWd/kg. It was shown that, for both the fresh and burnt fuel samples, the measured fission rate ratios agreed well, i.e. within the statistical uncertainties, with calculation results obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. (authors)

  8. CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacEwan, J.R.; Notley, M.J.F.; Wood, J.C.; Gacesa, M.

    1982-09-01

    The direction of CANDU fuel development was set in 1957 with the decision to build pressure tube reactors. Short - 50 cm long - rodded bundles of natural UO 2 clad in Zircaloy were adopted to facilitate on-power fuelling to improve uranium utilization. Progressive improvements were made during 25 years of development, involving 650 man years and 180 million dollars. Today's CANDU bundle is based on the knowledge gained from extensive irradiation testing and experience in power reactors. The main thrust of future development is to demonstrate that the present bundle is suitable, with minor modifications, for thorium fuels

  9. Effect of Utilization of Silicide Fuel with the Density 4.8 gU/cc on the Kinetic Parameters of RSG-GAS Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiyanto; Sembiring, Tagor M.; Pinem, Surian

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the RSG-GAS reactor using silicide fuel element of 2.96 gU/cc. For increasing reactor operation time, its planning to change to higher density fuel. The kinetic calculation of silicide core with density 4.8 gU/cc has been carried out, since it has an influence on the reactor operation safety. The calculated kinetic parameters are the effective delayed neutron fraction, the delayed neutron decay constant, prompt neutron lifetime and feedback reactivity coefficient very important for reactor operation safety. the calculation is performed in 2-dimensional neutron diffusion-perturbation method using modified Batan-2DIFF code. The calculation showed that the effective delayed neutron fraction is 7. 03256x10 -03 , total delay neutron time constant is 7.85820x10 -02 s -1 and the prompt neutron lifetime is 55.4900 μs. The result of prompt neutron lifetime smaller 10 % compare with silicide fuel of 4.8 gU/cc. The calculated results showed that all of the feedback reactivity coefficient silicide core 4.8 gU/cc is negative. Totally, the feedback reactivity coefficient of silicide fuel of 4.8 gU/cc is 10% less than that of silicide fuel of 2.96 gU/cc. The results shown that kinetic parameters result decrease compared with the silicide core with density 2.96 gU/cc, but no significant influence in the RSG-GAS reactor operation. (author)

  10. Decreasing fuel cost weight in electric utility business. ; Urged peak measures and management constitution improvement. Denki jigyo no nenryohi weight wa gensho. ; Isogareru peak taisaku to keiei taishitsu kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The electric power industry has made stable and economic power supply possible by advancing diversification in power sources and shifting the petroleum supply sources to southern countries and China. The cost constitution of the electric utility business in the fiscal year 1992 was such that the ratio of fuel cost is 15.9% against the total cost amount of 13 trillion 399.3 billion yen. As opposed, the fuel cost percent in the fiscal 1980 was 37.7%. This means that the effect of the fuel cost on the total cost has become smaller even if the fuel cost varies as a result of external factors including fluctuation in foreign exchange rates. Peaks in the power demand have been recorded in day time in high summer when air conditioning demand increases, which have been growing year after year. Expenses to maintain facilities and functions to deal with this demand increase have been increasing. The owned capital ratio in the electric power business was 15.7% in the fiscal 1992, which is by far lower than the average of whole industry of 28%. Execution of measures against the power peaks and improvement of the management constitution are the problems posed on the electric power industry. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Biogas Production from Local Biomass Feedstock in the Mekong Delta and Its Utilization for a Direct Internal Reforming Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Shiratori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fuel-flexible solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC technologies are presently under study in a Vietnam-Japan international joint research project. The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate an SOFC-incorporated energy circulation system for the sustainable development of the Mekong Delta region. Lab-scale methane fermentation experiments in this study with a mixture of biomass feedstock collected in the Mekong Delta (shrimp pond sludge, bagasse, and molasses from sugar production recorded biogas production yield over 400 L kgVS−1 with H2S concentration below 50 ppm level. This real biogas was directly supplied to an SOFC without any fuel processing such as desulfurization, methane enrichment and pre-reforming, and stable power generation was achieved by applying paper-structured catalyst (PSC technology.

  12. The utilization of natural gas in the electricity production through fuel cell; A utilizacao do gas natural na geracao distribuida atraves de celulas combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi Junior, Paulo

    2004-07-01

    In function of the necessity of electric energy as input of vital importance for the development of the country, this work aims at to offer plus an energy alternative for Brazil. The exploitation of the natural gas reserves recently discovered can be made through modern methods that give as priority the distributed generation and the low ambient impact. All these aspects can be gotten with the use of fuel cell, working with the remodelled natural gas. Increased to the factor of a low ambient impact in the proper generation, the project suggests that the generating source can be located next the consumer, diminishing still more the problems generated for transmission lines, fuel transport, etc. The fuel cell has received a great attention in the international community and some models, some already in commercial period of training, they have shown excellent possibilities of capsize to be one of the future technologies in the generation of electric energy with low ambient impact. (author)

  13. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  14. GREEN-FC. Decentralized biogas conversion on modular plants for the utilization of biogenic energy sources by means of fuel cells; GREEN-FC. Dezentrale Biogaskonversion ueber modulare Anlagen zur Nutzung biogener Energietraeger durch Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birth, Torsten [Fraunhofer-Einrichtung fuer Fabrikbetrieb und -Automatisierung (IFF), Magdeburg (Germany); Heineken, Wolfram; He, Ling

    2013-10-01

    About 60% of the world's annual demand (500 bm{sup 3}) of hydrogen is provided by the reforming of fossil fuels. Regarding the limitation of fossil resources, the production of H{sub 2} from biogas becomes increasingly important. The GREEN-FC prototype for biogas conversion to hydrogen for fuel cells includes five modules: gas supply, gas purification, gas reforming, gas utilization and post-combustion. Operation parameters of the entire system have been optimized in order to maximize the H{sub 2} yield while limiting the CO content to avoid poisoning the HT-PEMFC. A replacement of modules is possible such that alternative reactors for biogas conversion and the further use of this concept can be studied. (orig.)

  15. BWR fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baily, W.E.; Armijo, J.S.; Jacobson, J.; Proebstle, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    The General Electric experience base on BWR fuel includes over 29,000 fuel assemblies which contain 1,600,000 fuel rods. Over the last five years, design, process and operating changes have been introduced which have had major effects in improving fuel performance. Monitoring this fuel performance in BWRs has been accomplished through cooperative programs between GE and utilities. Activities such as plant fission product monitoring, fuel sipping and fuel and channel surveillance programs have jointly contributed to the value of this extensive experience base. The systematic evaluation of this data has established well-defined fuel performance trends which provide the assurance and confidence in fuel reliability that only actual operating experience can provide

  16. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Project research report. Development of separation technology of hetero-compounds from coal-derived oil, and use methods of them; 1998 nendo sekitan ekikayuchu no tetero kagobutsu nado no bunri gijutsu to yoto no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project develops the efficient separation technology of compounds including hetero-atoms such as O and N from coal- derived oil, and researches effective use methods of them. Study is made on the concrete applications and problems of the following separation technologies of hetero-compounds: Distillation/refrigeration, extraction, supercritical gas extraction, pressurized crystallization, crystallization, adsorption, and membrane separation technologies. Based on the study result, the applicability of such various separation technologies of hetero-compounds from coal-derived oil fractions is confirmed experimentally. By using the newly developed bench-scale test equipment of an optimum separation process, the process performance is confirmed, and various engineering data are collected. Study is also made on the effective use method of the hetero-compounds separated by the above equipment. In fiscal 1998, as the electric membrane dialysis experiment result on phenolates derived from phenols in Kashima pilot naphtha and atmospheric light oil, the existence of substances (Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}) deteriorating membranes was confirmed. Preventive measures against contamination of these bivalent cations and anions are one of future issues. (NEDO)

  17. Utilizing TEMPO surface estimates to determine changes in emissions, community exposure and environmental impacts from cement kilns across North America using alternative fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, M. J.; Gibson, M. D.; Asamany, E.

    2015-12-01

    A major problem faced by all North American (NA) Governments is managing solid waste from residential and non-residential sources. One way to mitigate the need to expand landfill sites across NA is waste diversion for use as alternative fuel in industries such as cement manufacture. Currently, waste plastic, tires, waste shingles and other high carbon content waste destined for landfill are being explored, or currently used, as an alternative supplemental fuels for use in cement kilns across NA. While this is an attractive, environmentally sustainable solution, significant knowledge gaps remain in our fundamental understanding of whether these alternative fuels may lead to increased air pollution emissions from cement kilns across NA. The long-term objective of using TEMPO is to advance fundamental understanding of uncharacterized air pollution emissions and to assess the actual or potential environmental and health impacts of these emissions from cement kilns across NA. TEMPO measurements will be made in concert with in-situ observations augmented by air dispersion, land-use regression and receptor modelling. This application of TEMPO follows on from current research on a series of bench scale and pilot studies for Lafarge Canada Inc., that investigated the change in combustion emissions from various mixtures of coal (C), petroleum coke (PC) and non-recyclable alternative fuels. From our work we demonstrated that using an alternative fuel mixture in a cement kiln has potential to reduce emissions of CO2 by 34%; reduce NOx by 80%, and reduce fuel SO2 emissions by 98%. We also provided evidence that there would be a significant reduction in the formation of secondary ground-level ozone (O3) and secondary PM2.5 in downwind stack plumes if alternative waste derived fuels are used. The application of air dispersion, source apportionment, land use regression; together with remote sensing offers a powerful set of tools with the potential to improve air pollution

  18. HTGR fuel and fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotts, A.L.; Coobs, J.H.

    1976-08-01

    The status of fuel and fuel cycle technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) is reviewed. The all-ceramic core of the HTGRs permits high temperatures compared with other reactors. Core outlet temperatures of 740 0 C are now available for the steam cycle. For advanced HTGRs such as are required for direct-cycle power generation and for high-temperature process heat, coolant temperatures as high as 1000 0 C may be expected. The paper discusses the variations of HTGR fuel designs that meet the performance requirements and the requirements of the isotopes to be used in the fuel cycle. Also discussed are the fuel cycle possibilities, which include the low-enrichment cycle, the Th- 233 U cycle, and plutonium utilization in either cycle. The status of fuel and fuel cycle development is summarized

  19. Steam generation: fossil-fired systems: utility boilers; industrial boilers; boiler auxillaries; nuclear systems: boiling water; pressurized water; in-core fuel management; steam-cycle systems: condensate/feedwater; circulating water; water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of development in steam generation is presented. First, fossil-fired systems are described. Progress in the design of utility and industrial boilers as well as in boiler auxiliaries is traced. Improvements in coal pulverizers, burners that cut pollution and improve efficiency, fans, air heaters and economisers are noted. Nuclear systems are then described, including the BWR and PWR reactors, in-core fuel management techniques are described. Finally, steam-cycle systems for fossil-fired and nuclear power plants are reviewed. Condensate/feedwater systems, circulating water systems, cooling towers, and water treatment systems are discussed

  20. Acid pre-hydrolysis of biomass as a preparation process for its utilization as thermoelectric power plants fuel; Pre-hidrolise acida da biomassa como preparacao de combustivel para termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinatti, D G; Resende, R L [Fundacao de Tecnologia Industrial (FTI), Lorena, SP (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    It is described a process of production of celulignin from biomass through acid pre-hydrolysis in continuous reactor made of advanced materials such as niobium, titanium and monel. The celulignin is a fuel of 28.50 MJ/kg of heating power. The utilization of this technology together with eucalyptus reforestation by vegetative propagation and high efficiency thermoelectric plant (triple cycle of steam turbine, gas turbine and MHD electrical generation) allow electric power production with competitive cost when compared to hydroelectric power. (author). 1 ref. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Handbook of fuel cell performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, T.G.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1980-05-01

    The intent of this document is to provide a description of fuel cells, their performances and operating conditions, and the relationship between fuel processors and fuel cells. This information will enable fuel cell engineers to know which fuel processing schemes are most compatible with which fuel cells and to predict the performance of a fuel cell integrated with any fuel processor. The data and estimates presented are for the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells because they are closer to commercialization than other types of fuel cells. Performance of the cells is shown as a function of operating temperature, pressure, fuel conversion (utilization), and oxidant utilization. The effect of oxidant composition (for example, air versus O/sub 2/) as well as fuel composition is examined because fuels provided by some of the more advanced fuel processing schemes such as coal conversion will contain varying amounts of H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, H/sub 2/O, and sulfur and nitrogen compounds. A brief description of fuel cells and their application to industrial, commercial, and residential power generation is given. The electrochemical aspects of fuel cells are reviewed. The phosphoric acid fuel cell is discussed, including how it is affected by operating conditions; and the molten carbonate fuel cell is discussed. The equations developed will help systems engineers to evaluate the application of the phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells to commercial, utility, and industrial power generation and waste heat utilization. A detailed discussion of fuel cell efficiency, and examples of fuel cell systems are given.

  2. Utilization of plastic detector for pool water radioactivity control of IEA-R1 reactor. Examination of fuel element irradiation behaviour fabricated at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berretta, J.R.; Mesquita, C.H. de; Madi Filho, T.

    1989-01-01

    For the examination of fuel element irradiation behavior that were fabricated at IPEN/CNEN/SP Metalurgical Departament, it was provided a detection system for pool water radioactivity measurements. This system uses a plastic scintillator detector produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP Health Physics Department, with dimensions and shape apropriated for such work. The detection system shows a sensibility of 4.125x10 -2 dps/cm 3 and 20% of efficiency for 131 I radiations. (author) [pt

  3. Fuel R and D to improve fuel reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rosa; Cheng, Bo; Deshon, Jeff; Edsinger, Kurt; Ozer, Odelli

    2006-01-01

    Light water reactor fuel is operating in an increasingly challenging environment. Fuel burnup extension and cycle length increase both can increase the local duty. Reactor water chemistry modifications for the purpose of protection the plant system materials have the potential of increasing fuel surface deposition and cladding corrosion and hydriding. The status of fuel performance in US reactors is summarized and an update of the Fuel Reliability Program' established by the utility industry to ensure reliability is provided. (author)

  4. A concept to combine DOE waste minimization goals with commercial utility needs for a universal container system for spent nuclear fuel storage, transportation, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falci, F.P.; Smith, M.L.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of storing, transporting, and disposing of spent fuel using a single package has obvious advantages. Coupling this concept with using contaminated scrap metal from the EM Complex will help reduce a significant portion of waste that would otherwise need to be packaged, stored, and disposed of as low level radioactive waste. Assuming a material of cost of $1 per pound for 800,000 tons of metal needed for universal containers, the potential material cost savings from manufacturing these containers from what would otherwise be a waste product is about $1.5 billion. Clearly, this concept is novel and has significant obstacles that need to be addressed and overcome; particularly in the regulatory arena. However, the potential benefits warrant the evaluation of the proposal on several fronts. DOE OCRWM should seriously consider the universal cask concept for management of spent fuel. DOE EM should pursue the development of melting contaminated scrap for the manufacture of casks. Finally, EM and OCRWM should cooperate on the evaluation of using EM contaminated scrap metal for the manufacture of universal casks for OCRWM spent fuel

  5. Nuclear fuel lease accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The subject of nuclear fuel lease accounting is a controversial one that has received much attention over the years. This has occurred during a period when increasing numbers of utilities, seeking alternatives to traditional financing methods, have turned to leasing their nuclear fuel inventories. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current accounting treatment of nuclear fuel leases as prescribed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) Uniform System of Accounts. Cost accounting for leased nuclear fuel during the fuel cycle is also discussed

  6. Future automotive fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepik, M.

    1993-01-01

    There are several important factors which are fundamental to the choice of alternative automobile fuels: the chain of energetic efficiency of fuels; costs; environmental friendliness; suitability for usual engines or adapting easiness; existing reserves of crude oil, natural gas or the fossil energy sources; and, alternatively, agricultural potentiality. This paper covers all these factors. The fuels dealt with in this paper are alcohol, vegetable oil, gaseous fuel, hydrogen and ammonia fuels. Renewable fuels are the most valuable forms of renewable energy. In addition to that rank, they can contribute to three other problem areas: agricultural surpluses, environmental degradation, and conservation of natural resources. Due to the competitive utilization of biomass for food energy production, bio-fuels should mainly be produced in those countries where an energy shortage is combined with a food surplus. The fuels arousing the most interest are alcohol and vegetable oil, the latter for diesel engines, even in northern countries. (au)

  7. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  8. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  9. Fuel-cycle cost comparisons with oxide and silicide fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.; Freese, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper addresses fuel cycle cost comparisons for a generic 10 MW reactor with HEU aluminide fuel and with LEU oxide and silicide fuels in several fuel element geometries. The intention of this study is to provide a consistent assessment of various design options from a cost point of view. Fuel cycle cost benefits could result if a number of reactors were to utilize fuel elements with the same number or different numbers of the same standard fuel plate. Data are presented to quantify these potential cost benefits. This analysis shows that there are a number of fuel element designs using LEU oxide or silicide fuels that have either the same or lower total fuel cycle costs than the HEU design. Use of these fuels with the uranium densities considered requires that they are successfully demonstrated and licensed

  10. The plutonium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Ang, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000-MW water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural uranium, fast-breder reactors, gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium and highly enriched uranium, and gas-cooled reactors fueled with thorium, plutonium and recycled uranium. The radioactivity quantities of plutonium, americium and curium processed yearly in these fuel cycles are greatest for the water reactors fueled with natural uranium and recycled plutonium. The total amount of actinides processed is calculated for the predicted future growth of the U.S. nuclear power industry. For the same total installed nuclear power capacity, the introduction of the plutonium breeder has little effect upon the total amount of plutonium in this century. The estimated amount of plutonium in the low-level process wastes in the plutonium fuel cycles is comparable to the amount of plutonium in the high-level fission product wastes. The amount of plutonium processed in the nuclear fuel cycles can be considerably reduced by using gas-cooled reactors to consume plutonium produced in uranium-fueled water reactors. These, and other reactors dedicated for plutonium utilization, could be co-located with facilities for fuel reprocessing ad fuel fabrication to eliminate the off-site transport of separated plutonium. (author)

  11. Some technical subjects on production of hydrocarbon fuel from synthetic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takashi

    1987-06-20

    Since fuel oil meeting the requirements of current petroleum products can be produced by SASOL F-T synthetic process, the manufacturing process of hydrocarbon fuel oil from the coal-derived synthesis gas, downstream processes are being successively investigated. Mobile M-gasoline, MTG, process which produces gasoline from the natural gas-derived synthesis gas through methanol went into commercial operation in New Zealand in 1986. Although the gasoline suffices the quality of commercial gasoline by both fixed bed and fluidized bed systems, the price and service life of catalyst and control of by-product durene must be improved. Any STG processes have not been completed yet and the yield and quality of gasoline are inferior to those of gasoline produced by the MTG process. Applying two-stage process, the STG process will be more economically effective.(21 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs)

  12. Evaluation of concepts for controlling exhaust emissions from minimally processed petroleum and synthetic fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. L.; Beal, G. W.; Sederquist, R. A.; Shultz, D.

    1981-01-01

    Rich-lean combustor concepts designed to enhance rich combustion chemistry and increase combustor flexibility for NO(x) reduction with minimally processed fuels are examined. Processes such as rich product recirculation in the rich chamber, rich-lean annihilation, and graduated air addition or staged rich combustion to release bound nitrogen in steps of reduced equivalence ratio are discussed. Variations to the baseline rapid quench section are considered, and the effect of residence time in the rich zone is investigated. The feasibility of using uncooled non-metallic materials for the rich zone combustion construction is also addressed. The preliminary results indicate that rich primary zone staged combustion provides environmentally acceptable operation with residual and/or synthetic coal-derived liquid fuels

  13. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  14. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  15. Bioethanol: fuel or feedstock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Falsig, Hanne; Jørgensen, Betina

    2007-01-01

    Increasing amounts of bioethanol are being produced from fermentation of biomass, mainly to counteract the continuing depletion of fossil resources and the consequential escalation of oil prices. Today, bioethanol is mainly utilized as a fuel or fuel additive in motor vehicles, but it could also...

  16. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushimi, Atsushi; Shimada, Hidemitsu; Aoyama, Motoo; Nakajima, Junjiro

    1998-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for an n x n lattice-like BWR type reactor, n is determined to 9 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 4.4% by weight or less. Alternatively, n is determined to 10 or greater, and the enrichment degree of plutonium is determined to 5.2% by weight or less. An average take-out burnup degree is determined to 39GWd/t or less, and the matrix is determined to 9 x 9 or more, or the average take-out burnup degree is determined to 51GWd/t, and the matrix is determined to 10 x 10 or more and the increase of the margin of the maximum power density obtained thereby is utilized for the compensation of the increase of distortion of power distribution due to decrease of the kinds of plutonium enrichment degree, thereby enabling to reduce the kind of the enrichment degree of MOX fuel rods to one. As a result, the manufacturing step for fuel pellets can be simplified to reduce the manufacturing cost for MOX fuel assemblies. (N.H.)

  17. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  18. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition

  19. Evaluation and demonstration of methods for improved fuel utilization. Third semi-annual progress report, October 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The demonstrations are being performed in the Fort Calhoun reactor. The current program consists of two parts, one to demonstrate low leakage fuel management (SAVFUEL - Shimmed And Very Flexible Uranium Element Loading) and the other to demonstrate high burnup. During this period the four SAVFUEL demonstration assemblies were undergoing their second exposure cycle, simulating the SAVFUEL power cycle. In addition, one high burnup demonstration assembly, which is being irradiated for a fifth exposure cycle has achieved a peak rod average burnup of 45 GWD/T which is the burnup originally targeted for this program. This assembly is projected to achieve a peak rod average burnup of 49 GWD/T at the end of its fifth exposure cycle. During this period analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of the economics to cycle lengths chosen for Fort Calhoun. Cost savings for 18 month cycles relative to 12 month cycles are reported

  20. Utilization of gases from biomass gasification in a reforming reactor coupled to an integrated planar solid oxide fuel cell: Simulation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costamagna Paola

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the high-efficiency options currently under study for a rational employment of hydrogen are fuel cells. In this scenario, the integrated planar solid oxide fuel cell is a new concept recently proposed by Rolls-Royce. The basic unit of a modular plant is the so called "strip", containing an electro-chemical reactor formed by a number of IP-SOFC modules, and a reforming reactor. For a better under standing of the behavior of a system of this kind, a simulation model has been set up for both the electrochemical reactor and the reformer; both models follow the approach typically employed in the simulation of chemical reactors, based on the solution of mass and energy balances. In the case of the IP-SOFC electro chemical reactor, the model includes the calculation of the electrical resistance of the stack (that is essentially due to ohmic losses, activation polar is action and mass transport limitations, the mass balances of the gaseous flows, the energy balances of gaseous flows (anodic and cathodic and of the solid. The strip is designed in such a way that the reaction in the reforming reactor is thermally sustained by the sensible heat of the hot air exiting the electrochemical section; this heat exchange is taken into account in the model of the reformer, which includes the energy balance of gaseous flows and of the solid structure. Simulation results are reported and discussed for both the electrochemical reactor in stand-alone configuration (including comparison to experimental data in a narrow range of operating conditions and for the complete strip.

  1. Diesel fuel filtration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1996-01-01

    The American nuclear utility industry is subject to tight regulations on the quality of diesel fuel that is stored at nuclear generating stations. This fuel is required to supply safety-related emergency diesel generators--the backup power systems associated with the safe shutdown of reactors. One important parameter being regulated is the level of particulate contamination in the diesel fuel. Carbon particulate is a natural byproduct of aging diesel fuel. Carbon particulate precipitates from the fuel's hydrocarbons, then remains suspended or settles to the bottom of fuel oil storage tanks. If the carbon particulate is not removed, unacceptable levels of particulate contamination will eventually occur. The oil must be discarded or filtered. Having an outside contractor come to the plant to filter the diesel fuel can be costly and time consuming. Time is an even more critical factor if a nuclear plant is in a Limiting Condition of Operation (LCO) situation. A most effective way to reduce both cost and risk is for a utility to build and install its own diesel fuel filtration system. The cost savings associated with designing, fabricating and operating the system inhouse can be significant, and the value of reducing the risk of reactor shutdown because of uncertified diesel fuel may be even higher. This article describes such a fuel filtering system

  2. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  3. Fuel processor integrated H{sub 2}S catalytic partial oxidation technology for sulfur removal in fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, T.H.; Berry, D.A.; Lyons, K.D.; Beer, S.K.; Freed, A.D. [U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (USA). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-12-01

    H{sub 2}S catalytic partial oxidation technology with an activated carbon catalyst was found to be a promising method for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from fuel cell hydrocarbon feedstocks. Three different fuel cell feedstocks were considered for analysis: sour natural gas, sour effluent from a liquid middle distillate fuel processor and a Texaco O{sub 2}-blown coal-derived synthesis gas. The H{sub 2}S catalytic partial oxidation reaction, its integratability into fuel cell power plants with different hydrocarbon feedstocks and its salient features are discussed. Experimental results indicate that H{sub 2}S concentration can be removed down to the part-per-million level in these plants. Additionally, a power law rate expression was developed and reaction kinetics compared to prior literature. The activation energy for this reaction was determined to be 34.4 kJ/g mol with the reaction being first order in H{sub 2}S and 0.3 order in O{sub 2}. 18 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Fabrication of a nanosize-Pt-embedded membrane electrode assembly to enhance the utilization of Pt in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Junseok; Kim, Doyoung; Shim, Jinyong; Lee, Inhae; Tak, Yongsug

    2011-08-01

    A procedure to locate the Pt nanostructure inside the hydrophilic channel of a Nafion membrane was developed in order to enhance Pt utilization in PEMFCs. Nanosize Pt-embedded MEA was constructed by Cu electroless plating and subsequent Pt electrodeposition inside the hydrophilic channels of the Nafion membrane. The metallic Pt nanostructure fabricated inside the membrane was employed as an oxygen reduction catalyst for a PEMFC and facilitated effective use of the hydrophilic channels inside the membrane. Compared to the conventional MEA, a Pt-embedded MEA with only 68% Pt loading showed better PEMFC performance.

  5. New technology and fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooradian, A.J.

    1979-06-01

    The means of improving uranium utilization in nuclear power reactors are reviewed with respect to economic considerations, assurance of adequate fuel supplies and risk of weapons proliferation. Reference is made to what can be done to improve fuel economy in existing reactor systems operating on a once-through fuel cycle and the potential for improvement offered by fuel recycle in those systems. The state of development of new reactor systems that offer significant savings in uranium utilization is also reviewed and conclusions are made respecting the policy implications of the search for fuel economy. (author)

  6. Data feature: Fuel procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a review of the effect of fuel costs on the procurement strategies of a utility and a conjecture that the same strategies may have an effect on the price of fuel. Factors affecting fuel costs are reviewed, and a number of procurement strategies taken to trim fuel costs are reviewed. The major trend is away from long-term enrichment contracts and into such strategies as: (1) Spot market purchases, (2) Inventory reduction, (3) Purchase of CIS material, and (4) Market-related contracts instead of base-escalated contracts

  7. Japan's fuel recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has formulated Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan for the next 20 years, based on the idea that the supply and demand of plutonium should be balanced mainly through the utilization of plutonium for LWRs. The plan was approved by AEC, and is to be incorporated in the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy' up for revision next year. The report on 'Nuclear fuel recycling in Japan' by the committee is characterized by Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan and the supply-demand situation for plutonium, the principle of the possession of plutonium not more than the demand in conformity with nuclear nonproliferation attitude, and the establishment of a domestic fabrication system of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. The total plutonium supply up to 2010 is estimated to be about 85 t, on the other hand, the demand will be 80-90 t. The treatment of plutonium is the key to the recycling and utilization of nuclear fuel. By around 2000, the private sector will commercialize the fabrication of the MOX fuel for LWRs at the annual rate of about 100 t. Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, future nuclear fuel recycling program in Japan, MOX fuel fabrication system in Japan and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  9. Fissile fuel doubling time characteristics for reactor lifetime fuel logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindler, M.; Harms, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The establishment of nuclear fuel requirements and their efficient utilization requires a detailed knowledge of some aspects of fuel dynamics and processing during the reactor lifetime. It is shown here that the use of the fuel stockpile inventory concept can serve effectively for this fuel management purpose. The temporal variation of the fissile fuel doubling time as well as nonequilibrium core conditions are among the characteristics which thus become more evident. These characteristics - rather than a single figure-of-merit - clearly provide an improved description of the expansion capacity and/or fuel requirements of a nuclear reactor energy system

  10. COOLCEP (cool clean efficient power): A novel CO{sub 2}-capturing oxy-fuel power system with LNG (liquefied natural gas) coldness energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na; Han, Wei [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lior, Noam [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6315 (United States); Liu, Meng [Division of Research and Environment Standardization, China National Institute of Standardization, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2010-02-15

    A novel liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled power plant is proposed, which has virtually zero CO{sub 2} and other emissions and a high efficiency. The plant operates as a subcritical CO{sub 2} Rankine-like cycle. Beside the power generation, the system provides refrigeration in the CO{sub 2} subcritical evaporation process, thus it is a cogeneration system with two valued products. By coupling with the LNG evaporation system as the cycle cold sink, the cycle condensation process can be achieved at a temperature much lower than ambient, and high-pressure liquid CO{sub 2} can be withdrawn from the cycle without consuming additional power. Two system variants are analyzed and compared, COOLCEP-S and COOLCEP-C. In the COOLCEP-S cycle configuration, the working fluid in the main turbine expands only to the CO{sub 2} condensation pressure; in the COOLCEP-C cycle configuration, the turbine working fluid expands to a much lower pressure (near-ambient) to produce more power. The effects of some key parameters, the turbine inlet temperature and the backpressure, on the systems' performance are investigated. It was found that at the turbine inlet temperature of 900 C, the energy efficiency of the COOLCEP-S system reaches 59%, which is higher than the 52% of the COOLCEP-C one. The capital investment cost of the economically optimized plant is estimated to be about 750 EUR/kWe and the payback period is about 8-9 years including the construction period, and the cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.031-0.034 EUR/kWh. (author)

  11. COOLCEP (cool clean efficient power): A novel CO2-capturing oxy-fuel power system with LNG (liquefied natural gas) coldness energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Na; Lior, Noam; Liu, Meng; Han, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A novel liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueled power plant is proposed, which has virtually zero CO 2 and other emissions and a high efficiency. The plant operates as a subcritical CO 2 Rankine-like cycle. Beside the power generation, the system provides refrigeration in the CO 2 subcritical evaporation process, thus it is a cogeneration system with two valued products. By coupling with the LNG evaporation system as the cycle cold sink, the cycle condensation process can be achieved at a temperature much lower than ambient, and high-pressure liquid CO 2 can be withdrawn from the cycle without consuming additional power. Two system variants are analyzed and compared, COOLCEP-S and COOLCEP-C. In the COOLCEP-S cycle configuration, the working fluid in the main turbine expands only to the CO 2 condensation pressure; in the COOLCEP-C cycle configuration, the turbine working fluid expands to a much lower pressure (near-ambient) to produce more power. The effects of some key parameters, the turbine inlet temperature and the backpressure, on the systems' performance are investigated. It was found that at the turbine inlet temperature of 900 o C, the energy efficiency of the COOLCEP-S system reaches 59%, which is higher than the 52% of the COOLCEP-C one. The capital investment cost of the economically optimized plant is estimated to be about 750 EUR/kWe and the payback period is about 8-9 years including the construction period, and the cost of electricity is estimated to be 0.031-0.034 EUR/kWh.

  12. A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 2, Topical reports: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This study, identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. The research needs that have high priority in establishing the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of large-scale capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants are:(1) survey and assess the capacity, cost, and location of potential depleted gas and oil wells that are suitable CO{sub 2} repositories (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (2) conduct research on the feasibility of ocean disposal, with objectives of determining the cost, residence time, and environmental effects for different methods of CO{sub 2} injection; (3) perform an in-depth survey of knowledge concerning the feasibility of using deep, confined aquifers for disposal and, if feasible, identify potential disposal locations (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (4) evaluate, on a common basis, system and design alternatives for integration of CO{sub 2} capture systems with emerging and advanced technologies for power generation; and prepare a conceptual design, an analysis of barrier issues, and a preliminary cost estimate for pipeline networks necessary to transport a significant portion of the CO{sub 2} to potentially feasible disposal locations.

  13. ABB high burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Helmersson, S.; Nilsson, S.; Jourdain, P.; Karlsson, L.; Limback, M.; Garde, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fuel designed and fabricated by ABB is now operating in 40 PWRs and BWRs in Europe, the United States and Korea. An excellent fuel reliability track record has been established. High burnups are proven for both PWR and BWR. Thermal margin improving features and advanced burnable absorber concepts enable the utilities to adopt demanding duty cycles to meet new economic objectives. In particular we note the excellent reliability record of ABB PWR fuel equipped with Guardian TM debris filter proven to meet the 6 rod-cycles fuel failure goal, and the out-standing operating record of the SVEA 10 x 10 fuel, where ABB is the only vendor to date with batch experience to high burnup. ABB is dedicated to maintain high fuel reliability as well as continually improve and develop a broad line of PWR and BWR products. ABB's development and fuel follow-up activities are performed in close co-operation with its utility customers. This paper provides an overview of recent fuel performance and reliability experience at ABB. Selected development and validation activities for PWR and BWR fuel are presented, for which the ABB test facilities in Windsor (TF-2 loop, mechanical test laboratory) and Vaesteras (FRIGG, BURE) are essential. (authors)

  14. Method of inserting fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimoto, Shuji; Imoo, Makoto; Tsuchida, Kenji.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of inserting a fuel rod upon automatic assembling, automatic dismantling and reassembling of a fuel assembly in a light water moderated reactor, as well as a device and components used therefor. That is, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to an aimed point of insertion by surrounding the periphery of the fuel rod to be inserted with guide rods, and thereby suppressing the movement of the fuel rod during insertion. Alternatively, a fuel rod is inserted reliably to a point of insertion by inserting guide rods at the periphery of the point of insertion for the fuel rod to be inserted thereby surrounding the point of insertion with the guide rods or fuel rods. By utilizing fuel rods already present in the fuel assembly as the guide rods described above, the fuel rod can be inserted reliably to the point of insertion with no additional devices. Dummy fuel rods are previously inserted in a fuel assembly which are then utilized as the above-mentioned guide rods to accurately insert the fuel rod to the point of insertion. (I.S.)

  15. Modular dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Long term uncertainties in US spent fuel reprocessing and storage policies and programs are forcing the electric utilities to consider means of storing spent fuel at the reactor site in increasing quantitities and for protracted periods. Utilities have taken initial steps in increasing storage capacity. Existing wet storage pools have in many cases been reracked to optimize their capacity for storing spent fuel assemblies

  16. Impact of fuel fabrication and fuel management technologies on uranium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnsberger, P.L.; Stucker, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium utilization in commercial pressurized water reactors is a complex function of original NSSS design, utility energy requirements, fuel assembly design, fuel fabrication materials and fuel fabrication materials and fuel management optimization. Fuel design and fabrication technologies have reacted to the resulting market forcing functions with a combination of design and material changes. The technologies employed have included ever-increasing fuel discharge burnup, non-parasitic structural materials, burnable absorbers, and fissile material core zoning schemes (both in the axial and radial direction). The result of these technological advances has improved uranium utilization by roughly sixty percent from the infancy days of nuclear power to present fuel management. Fuel management optimization technologies have also been developed in recent years which provide fuel utilization improvements due to core loading pattern optimization. This paper describes the development and impact of technology advances upon uranium utilization in modern pressurized water reactors. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs

  17. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirukawa, Koji; Sakurada, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a fuel assembly for a BWR type reactor, water rods or water crosses are disposed between fuel rods, and a value with a spring is disposed at the top of the coolant flow channel thereof, which opens a discharge port when pressure is increased to greater than a predetermined value. Further, a control element for the amount of coolant flow rate is inserted retractable to a control element guide tube formed at the lower portion of the water rod or the water cross. When the amount of control elements inserted to the control element guide tube is small and the inflown coolant flow rate is great, the void coefficient at the inside of the water rod is less than 5%. On the other hand, when the control elements are inserted, the flow resistance is increased, so that the void coefficient in the water rod is greater than 80%. When the pressure in the water rod is increased, the valve with the spring is raised to escape water or steams. Then, since the variation range of the change of the void coefficient can be controlled reliably by the amount of the control elements inserted, and nuclear fuel materials can be utilized effectively. (N.H.)

  18. Utilization of Swedish fly ash from bio fuel fired power plants as a filler material in concrete; Anvaendning av svenska flygaskor som fillermaterial i betong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundblom, Hillevi [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The tested Swedish fly ashes (FA) (FA from bio combustion) in this project proved to have good filler qualities such as improving the stability and the rheological behavior of the concrete. One of tested FA could directly replace the compared limestone filler in the concrete recipes in booth laboratory investigation and in full-scale demonstration. The other FA demanded more water. The recipes were modified in the laboratory investigation to get a functional recipe for full-scale demonstration. The process to investigate the Swedish FA has been following (this project is one part of several investigation): Basic characterization; Characterization as a filler material; Full-scale demonstration; Certification, regularly quality assurance; Continuous use of Swedish FA in the Swedish Concrete Industry. Three representatives Swedish FA have been investigated in step 1-3 according to the process above. There were two FA in a full-scale demonstration a FA from bio fuel/paper sludge fired circulated fluidized bed boiler (at a paper mill) and a FA from a peat fired pulverized boiler. The test made was basic chemical and physical characterization, investigation as a filler material and strength development of a crushed aggregate self-compacting concrete in laboratory and in a full-scale demonstration. The conclusion were following: FA from the paper mill CFB boiler changes in strength development depending on the combustion temperature. It seems the reason is in the way CaO is distribute into different chemical compounds. Higher compressive strength with higher free CaO (analyzed in XRD) Higher content of reactive SiO{sub 2} and free lime in the CFB FA comparing with the PF FA. The soundness of the FA have been tested in early research projects. The sieves curves demonstrated that the FA from the CFB boiler coarser than the other FA tested and the limestone filler compared. The coarser grain fraction could explain why the FA demanded more water in the laboratory and full

  19. Distributed H2 Supply for Fuel Cell Utility Vehicles Year 6 - Activity 3.5 - Development fo a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almlie, Jay

    2012-04-15

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a high-pressure hydrogen production system that reforms a liquid organic feedstock and water at operating pressures up to 800 bar (~12,000 psig). The advantages of this system include the elimination of energy-intensive hydrogen compression, a smaller process footprint, and the elimination of gaseous or liquid hydrogen transport. This system could also potentially enable distributed hydrogen production from centralized coal. Processes have been investigated to gasify coal and then convert the syngas into alcohol or alkanes. These alcohols and alkanes could then be easily transported in bulk to distributed high-pressure water-reforming (HPWR)-based systems to deliver hydrogen economically. The intent of this activity was to utilize the EERC’s existing HPWR hydrogen production process, previously designed and constructed in a prior project phase, as a basis to improve operational and production performance of an existing demonstration unit. Parameters to be pursued included higher hydrogen delivery pressure, higher hydrogen production rates, and the ability to refill within a 5-minute time frame.

  20. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Shungo; Ogiya, Shunsuke.

    1990-01-01

    In a fuel assembly, if the entire fuels comprise mixed oxide fuels, reactivity change in cold temperature-power operation is increased to worsen the reactor shutdown margin. The reactor shutdown margin has been improved by increasing the burnable poison concentration thereby reducing the reactivity of the fuel assembly. However, since unburnt poisons are present at the completion of the reactor operation, the reactivity can not be utilized effectively to bring about economical disadvantage. In view of the above, the reactivity change between lower temperature-power operations is reduced by providing a non-boiling range with more than 9.1% of cross sectional area at the inside of a channel at the central portion of the fuel assembly. As a result, the amount of the unburnt burnable poisons is decreased, the economy of fuel assembly is improved and the reactor shutdown margin can be increase. (N.H.)

  1. Fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Hideyuki

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent bending of fuel rods caused by the difference of irradiation growth between coupling fuel rods and standards fuel rods thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: The f value for a fuel can (the ratio of pole of zirconium crystals in the entire crystals along the axial direction of the fuel can) of a coupling fuel rod secured by upper and lower tie plates is made smaller than the f value for the fuel can of a standard fuel rod not secured by the upper and the lower tie plates. This can make the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the coupling fuel rod greater than the irradiation growth of the fuel can of the standard fuel rod and, accordingly, since the elongation of the standard fuel rod can always by made greater, bending of the standard fuel rod can be prevented. (Yoshihara, M.)

  2. Status of SFR Metal Fuel Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chan Bock; Lee, Byoung Oon; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: • Metal fuel recycling in SFR: - Enhanced utilization of uranium resource; - Efficient transmutation of minor actinides; - Inherent passive reactor safety; - Proliferation resistance with pyro-electrochemical fuel recycling. • Demonstration of technical feasibility of recycling TRU metal fuel by 2020: - Remote fuel fabrication; - Irradiation performance up to high burnup

  3. Nuclear fuel quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Full text: Quality assurance is used extensively in the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants. This methodology is applied to all activities affecting the quality of a nuclear power plant in order to obtain confidence that an item or a facility will perform satisfactorily in service. Although the achievement of quality is the responsibility of all parties participating in a nuclear power project, establishment and implementation of the quality assurance programme for the whole plant is a main responsibility of the plant owner. For the plant owner, the main concern is to achieve control over the quality of purchased products or services through contractual arrangements with the vendors. In the case of purchase of nuclear fuel, the application of quality assurance might be faced with several difficulties because of the lack of standardization in nuclear fuel and the proprietary information of the fuel manufacturers on fuel design specifications and fuel manufacturing procedures. The problems of quality assurance for purchase of nuclear fuel were discussed in detail during the seminar. Due to the lack of generally acceptable standards, the successful application of the quality assurance concept to the procurement of fuel depends on how much information can be provided by the fuel manufacturer to the utility which is purchasing fuel, and in what form and how early this information can be provided. The extent of information transfer is basically set out in the individual vendor-utility contracts, with some indirect influence from the requirements of regulatory bodies. Any conflict that exists appears to come from utilities which desire more extensive control over the product they are buying. There is a reluctance on the part of vendors to permit close insight of the purchasers into their design and manufacturing procedures, but there nevertheless seems to be an increasing trend towards release of more information to the purchasers. It appears that

  4. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels: Technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Song, C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Boehman, A.; Coleman, M.M.

    1995-02-01

    There are five tasks within this project on thermally stable coal-based jet fuels. Progress on each of the tasks is described. Task 1, Investigation of the quantitative degradation chemistry of fuels, has 5 subtasks which are described: Literature review on thermal stability of jet fuels; Pyrolytic and catalytic reactions of potential endothermic fuels: cis- and trans-decalin; Use of site specific {sup 13}C-labeling to examine the thermal stressing of 1-phenylhexane: A case study for the determination of reaction kinetics in complex fuel mixtures versus model compound studies; Estimation of critical temperatures of jet fuels; and Surface effects on deposit formation in a flow reactor system. Under Task 2, Investigation of incipient deposition, the subtask reported is Uncertainty analysis on growth and deposition of particles during heating of coal-derived aviation gas turbine fuels; under Task 3, Characterization of solid gums, sediments, and carbonaceous deposits, is subtask, Studies of surface chemistry of PX-21 activated carbon during thermal degradation of jet A-1 fuel and n-dodecane; under Task 4, Coal-based fuel stabilization studies, is subtask, Exploratory screening and development potential of jet fuel thermal stabilizers over 400 C; and under Task 5, Exploratory studies on the direct conversion of coal to high quality jet fuels, are 4 subtasks: Novel approaches to low-severity coal liquefaction and coal/resid co-processing using water and dispersed catalysts; Shape-selective naphthalene hydrogenation for production of thermally stable jet fuels; Design of a batch mode and a continuous mode three-phase reactor system for the liquefaction of coal and upgrading of coal liquids; and Exploratory studies on coal liquids upgrading using mesopores molecular sieve catalysts. 136 refs., 69 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Increasing TRIGA fuel lifetime with 12 wt.% U TRIGA fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naughton, W F; Cenko, M J; Levine, S H; Witzig, W F [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    In-core fuel management studies have been performed for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) wherein 12 wt % U fuel elements are used to replace the standard 8.5 wt % U TRIGA fuel. The core configuration used to develop a calculational model was a 90-element hexagonal array, which is representative of the PSBR core, and consists of five hexagonal rings surrounding a central thimble containing water. The technique employed for refueling the core fully loaded with 8.5 wt % U fuel involves replacing 8.5 wt % U fuel with 12 wt % U fuel using an in-out reloading scheme. A batch reload consists of 6 new 12 wt % U fuel elements. Placing the 12 wt % U fuel in the B ring produces fuel temperatures ({approx}450 {sup o}C) that are well below the 800{sup o}C maximum limitation when the PSBR is operating at its maximum allowed power of 1 Megawatt. The advantages of using new 12 wt % U fuel to replace the burned up 8.5 wt % U fuel in the B ring over refueling strictly with 8.5 wt % U-Zr TRIGA fuel are clearly delineated in Table 1 where cost calculations used the General Atomic pre-1972 prices for TRIGA fuel, i.e., $1500 and $1650 for an 8.5 and 12 wt % U fuel element, respectively. Experimental results obtained to date utilizing the 12 wt % U fuel elements agree with the computed results. (author)

  6. Westinghouse introduces new fuel for PWRs and BWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, W L; McClintock, D C

    1985-09-01

    In response to utility demands for improved fuel performance, reduced fuel cycle costs, and enhanced operating margins, Westinghouse recently introduced advanced fuel assembly designs for both types of LWR - Vantage 5 for PWRs, and Quad+ for BWRs.

  7. Nanofluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-11-01

    Fuel cells are gaining momentum as a critical component in the renewable energy mix for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. State-of-the-art fuel cell technology benefits greatly from nanotechnology applied to nanostructured membranes, catalysts, and electrodes. However, the potential of utilizing nanofluidics for fuel cells has not yet been explored, despite the significant opportunity of harnessing rapid nanoscale reactant transport in close proximity to the reactive sites. In the present article, a nanofluidic fuel cell that utilizes fluid flow through nanoporous media is conceptualized and demonstrated for the first time. This transformative concept captures the advantages of recently developed membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cell architectures paired with the enhanced interfacial contact area enabled by nanofluidics. When compared to previously reported microfluidic fuel cells, the prototype nanofluidic fuel cell demonstrates increased surface area, reduced activation overpotential, superior kinetic characteristics, and moderately enhanced fuel cell performance in the high cell voltage regime with up to 14% higher power density. However, the expected mass transport benefits in the high current density regime were constrained by high ohmic cell resistance, which could likely be resolved through future optimization studies.

  8. Basic studies on coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, M. (National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of research and development of coal liquefaction technologies in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992, regarding the coal liquefaction reaction, reforming and utilization of liquefaction products. For the fundamental study on coal liquefaction reaction, were investigated effect of asphaltene in petroleum residue on coprocessing, pretreatment effect in coprocessing of Taiheiyo coal and tarsand bitumen using oil soluble catalyst, solubilization and liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal at mild conditions with the aid of super acid, and flash hydropyrolysis of finely pulverized swollen coal under high hydrogen pressure. On the other hand, for the study on hydrotreatment of coal derived liquid, were investigated catalytic hydroprocessing of Wandoan coal liquids, production of gasoline from coal liquids by fluid catalytic cracking, solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from coal liquids, and separation of hetero compounds in coal liquid by means of high pressure crystallization. Further progress in these studies has been confirmed. 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. An assessment of once-through homogeneous thorium fuel economics for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Hyung Kook; Noh, Jae Man; Yoo, Jae Woon

    2001-01-01

    The fuel economics of an once-through homogeneous thorium fuel concept for PWR was assessed by doing a detailed core analysis. In addition to this, the fuel economics assessment was also performed for two other ways enhancing the economic potential of thorium fuel; thorium utilization in the mixed core with uranium fuel assembly and Duplex thorium fuel concepts. As a results of fuel economics assessment, the thorium fuel cycle does not show any economic incentives in preference to uranium fuel cycle under the 18-months fuel cycle for PWR. However, the utilization of thorium is the mixed core with uranium fuel assembly and Duplex thorium fuel cycle and show superior fuel economics to uranium fuel under the longer fuel cycle scheme. The economic potential of once-through thorium fuel cycle is expected to be increased further by utilizing the Duplex thorium fuel in the mixed core with uranium fuel assembly

  10. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    Basic elements of the ex-reactor part of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fabrication, waste handling and transportation) are described. Possible technical and proliferation measures are evaluated, including current methods of accountability, surveillance and protection. The reference oxide based cycle and advanced cycles based on carbide and metallic fuels are considered utilizing conventional processes; advanced nonaqueous reprocessing is also considered. This contribution provides a comprehensive data base for evaluation of proliferation risks

  11. Economical analysis to utilize MTR fuel elements using silicides in research reactors; Analisis economico sobre el uso de elementos combustibles MTR a base de siliciuros en reactores de investigacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergallo, Juan E; Novara, Oscar E; Adelfang, Pablo [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Dept. de Combustibles Nucleares

    2000-07-01

    According to international programs on reducing enrichment in research reactors and the necessity to maintain their operation, new fuel elements have been developed in order to meet both objectives. Thus, U-Si alloy fuel elements for research reactors are becoming of greater interest for the international markets. It became necessary to make an economic study about the convenience of introducing this type of fuel elements in the RA-3 reactor and to know the potentiality of this fuel. The economical behavior of the reactor operation has been evaluated comparing the actual U{sub 3}O{sub 8} nuclear fuel cycle with U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} nuclear fuels. Results obtained show that the main economical factor to determine the change of fuels is the cost of fabrication, and the change is advisable up to an 80% difference. The other factors related to the cost of nuclear fuel cycle are not relevant or have real minor impacts. (author)

  12. Impact Analysis for Fuel Assemblies in Spent Fuel Storage Rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jinho

    2013-01-01

    The design and structural integrity evaluation of a spent fuel storage rack (SFSR) utilized for storing and protecting the spent fuel assemblies generated during the operation of a reactor are very important in terms of nuclear safety and waste management. The objective of this study is to show the validity of the SFSR design as well as fuel assembly through a structural integrity evaluation based on a numerical analysis. In particular, a dynamic time history analysis considering the gaps between the fuel assemblies and the walls of the storage cell pipes in the SFSR was performed to check the structural integrity of the fuel assembly and storage cell pipe

  13. Impact Analysis for Fuel Assemblies in Spent Fuel Storage Rack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jinho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The design and structural integrity evaluation of a spent fuel storage rack (SFSR) utilized for storing and protecting the spent fuel assemblies generated during the operation of a reactor are very important in terms of nuclear safety and waste management. The objective of this study is to show the validity of the SFSR design as well as fuel assembly through a structural integrity evaluation based on a numerical analysis. In particular, a dynamic time history analysis considering the gaps between the fuel assemblies and the walls of the storage cell pipes in the SFSR was performed to check the structural integrity of the fuel assembly and storage cell pipe.

  14. Failed fuel action plan guidelines: Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a generic guideline that can be used to formulate a failed fuel action plan (FFAP) for specific application by a utility. This document is intended to be part of a comprehensive fuel reliability monitoring, management, and improvement program. The utilities may utilize this document as one resource in developing a failed fuel action plan. This document is not intended to be used as a failed fuel action plan standard. This document is intended to provide guidance on: management responsibilities; fuel performance parameters; cost/benefit analysis; action levels; long-term improvement methods; and data collection, analysis, and trending. 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Utilization of biomass in the U.S. for the production of ethanol fuel as a gasoline replacement. I - Terrestrial resource potential. II - Energy requirements, with emphasis on lignocellulosic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchak, J. D.; Pye, E. K.

    The paper assesses the biomass resource represented by starch derived from feed corn, surplus and distressed grain, and high-yield sugar crops planted on set-aside land in the U.S. It is determined that the quantity of ethanol produced may be sufficient to replace between 5 to 27% of present gasoline requirements. Utilization of novel cellulose conversion technology may in addition provide fermentable sugars from municipal, agricultural and forest wastes, and ultimately from highly productive silvicultural operations. The potential additional yield of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass appears to be well in excess of liquid fuel requirements of an enhanced-efficiency transport sector at present mileage demands. No conflict with food production would be entailed. A net-energy assessment is made for lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks' conversion to ethanol and an almost 10:1 energy yield/energy cost ratio determined. It is also found that novel cellulose pretreatment and enzymatic conversion methods still under development may significantly improve even that figure, and that both chemical-feedstocks and energy-yielding byproducts such as carbon dioxide, biogas and lignin make ethanol production potentially energy self-sufficient. A final high-efficiency production approach incorporates site-optimized, nonpolluting energy sources such as solar and geothermal.

  16. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  17. Biogas utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M.A. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Options for successfully using biogas depend on project scale. Almost all biogas from anaerobic digesters must first go through a gas handling system that pressurizes, meters, and filters the biogas. Additional treatment, including hydrogen sulfide-mercaptan scrubbing, gas drying, and carbon dioxide removal may be necessary for specialized uses, but these are complex and expensive processes. Thus, they can be justified only for large-scale projects that require high-quality biogas. Small-scale projects (less than 65 cfm) generally use biogas (as produced) as a boiler fuel or for fueling internal combustion engine-generators to produce electricity. If engines or boilers are selected properly, there should be no need to remove hydrogen sulfide. Small-scale combustion turbines, steam turbines, and fuel cells are not used because of their technical complexity and high capital cost. Biogas cleanup to pipeline or transportation fuel specifications is very costly, and energy economics preclude this level of treatment.

  18. Simulations of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Chemical Looping Combustion System Utilizing Gaseous Fuel Simulation de la combustion en boucle chimique d’une charge gazeuse dans un lit fluidisé circulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalatkar K.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerical studies using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD have been carried out for a complete circulating fluidized bed chemical looping combustor described in the literature (Abad et al., 2006 Fuel 85, 1174-1185. There have been extensive experimental studies in Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC, however CFD simulations of this concept are quite limited. The CLC experiments that were simulated used methane as fuel. A 2-D continuum model was used to describe both the gas and solid phases. Detailed sub-models to account for fluid-particle and particleparticle interaction forces were included. Global models of fuel and carrier chemistry were utilized. The results obtained from CFD were compared with experimental outlet species concentrations, solid circulation rates, solid mass distribution in the reactors, and leakage and dilution rates. The transient CFD simulations provided a reasonable match with the reported experimental data. Des études numériques de simulation des écoulements (CFD ont été réalisées sur un lit fluidisé circulant opérant en combustion par boucle chimique (CLC décrit dans la littérature (Abad et al., 2006 Fuel 85, 1174-1185. Si de nombreuses études expérimentales ont été conduites pour étudier le procédé CLC, les études concernant la simulation des écoulements par CFD de ce concept sont très limitées. Le système de combustion en boucle chimique simulé dans cette étude concerne la combustion d’une charge gazeuse (méthane. Un modèle 2-D à deux phases continues a été utilisé pour décrire les phases gaz et solide avec des sous-modèles détaillés pour décrire les forces d’interactions entre fluideparticule et particule-particule. Des modèles cinétiques globaux ont été intégrés pour décrire les réactions de combustion et de transformation du matériau transporteur d’oxygène. Les résultats obtenus par CFD ont été comparés aux concentrations expérimentales mesurées des diff

  19. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  20. Automated fuel pin loading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  1. Addressing fuel recycling in solid oxide fuel cell systems fed by alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    An innovative study on anode recirculation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with alternative fuels is carried out and investigated. Alternative fuels under study are ammonia, pure hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, DME and biogas from biomass gasification. It is shown that the amount of anode off......%. Furthermore, it is founded that for the case with methanol, ethanol and DME then at high utilization factors, low anode recirculation is recommended while at low utilization factors, high anode recirculation is recommended. If the plant is fed by biogas from biomass gasification then for each utilization...

  2. Gamma irradiation plants using reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckow, W.

    1976-11-01

    Recent irradiation plants utilizing fuel elements are described. Criteria for optimizing such plants, evaluation of the plants realized so far, and applications for the facilities are discussed. (author)

  3. FY 2000 report on the results of development of technology for commercializing high-efficiency fuel cell systems. Development of technology for commercializing high-efficiency fuel cell systems (Development of technology for effective utilization of power produced by polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems); 2000 nendo kokoritsu nenryo denchi system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kotai kobunshigata nenryo denchi no shutsuryoku yuko riyo gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This project is aimed at development of technologies for effective utilization of power produced by polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems and waste heat, to spread cogeneration systems incorporating PEFC systems for residential purposes. Described herein are the FY 2000 results. The program for high-efficiency peripherals for residential PFEC systems attempts use of GaN-FET as the semiconductor device of wide band gap and high breakdown voltage to realize conversion efficiency over 90% by improving inverter efficiency. Two types of the prototype heat recovery systems are developed for the PEFC, one incorporating a latent heat cooling system and the other a water cooling system, to improve heat recovery efficiency and increase heat recovery temperature. The program for technology to fit PEFC output to energy demand develops hot water supply systems provided with a hot water storage function for stable supply of hot water irrespective of the heat recovery conditions, and also with a back-up function with burners. The program also develops the PEFC system of fine load following characteristics, for which pure hydrogen is used as the fuel to allow the system to instantaneously follow fluctuating loads. The program for high-efficiency partial load operation technology studies a 1kW-class residential PEFC cogeneration system incorporating a power storage device for high-efficiency operation at partial loads, where the former operates in a high output mode while the latter absorbs fluctuating loads. (NEDO)

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Masao; Nishida, Koji; Karasawa, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Toru; Orii, Akihito; Nagayoshi, Takuji; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Masuhara, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly, for a BWR type nuclear reactor, comprising fuel rods in 9 x 9 matrix. The inner width of the channel box is about 132mm and the length of the fuel rods which are not short fuel rods is about 4m. Two water rods having a circular cross section are arranged on a diagonal line in a portion of 3 x 3 matrix at the center of the fuel assembly, and two fuel rods are disposed at vacant spaces, and the number of fuel rods is 74. Eight fuel rods are determined as short fuel rods among 74 fuel rods. Assuming the fuel inventory in the short fuel rod as X(kg), and the fuel inventory in the fuel rods other than the short fuel rods as Y(kg), X and Y satisfy the relation: X + Y ≥ 173m, Y ≤ - 9.7X + 292, Y ≤ - 0.3X + 203 and X > 0. Then, even when the short fuel rods are used, the fuel inventory is increased and fuel economy can be improved. (I.N.)

  5. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hajime.

    1995-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having fuel rods of different length, fuel pellets of mixed oxides of uranium and plutonium are loaded to a short fuel rod. The volume ratio of a pellet-loaded portion to a plenum portion of the short fuel rod is made greater than the volume ratio of a fuel rod to which uranium fuel pellets are loaded. In addition, the volume of the plenum portion of the short fuel rod is set greater depending on the plutonium content in the loaded fuel pellets. MOX fuel pellets are loaded on the short fuel rods having a greater degree of freedom relevant to the setting for the volume of the plenum portion compared with that of a long rod fuel, and the volume of the plenum portion is ensured greater depending on the plutonium content. Even if a large amount of FP gas and He gas are discharged from the MOX fuels compared with that from the uranium fuels, the internal pressure of the MOX fuel rod during operation is maintained substantially identical with that of the uranium fuel rod, so that a risk of generating excess stresses applied to the fuel cladding tubes and rupture of fuels are greatly reduced. (N.H.)

  6. Nuclear fuel activity with minor actinides after their useful life in a BWR; Actividad del combustible nuclear con actinidos menores despues de su vida util en un reactor BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez C, E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: eduardo.martinez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    Nuclear fuel used in nuclear power reactors has a life cycle, in which it provides energy, at the end of this cycle is withdrawn from the reactor core. This used fuel is known as spent nuclear fuel, a strong problem with this fuel is that when the fuel was irradiated in a nuclear reactor it leaves with an activity of approximately 1.229 x 10{sup 15} Bq. The aim of the transmutation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is to reduce the activity of high level waste that must be stored in geological repositories and the lifetime of high level waste; these two achievements would reduce the number of necessary repositories, as well as the duration of storage. The present work is aimed at evaluating the activity of a nuclear fuel in which radioactive actinides could be recycled to remove most of the radioactive material, first establishing a reference of actinides production in the standard nuclear fuel of uranium at end of its burning in a BWR, and a fuel rod design containing 6% of actinides in an uranium matrix from the enrichment tails is proposed, then 4 standard uranium fuel rods are replaced by 4 actinide bars to evaluate the production and transmutation of the same, finally the reduction of actinide activity in the fuel is evaluated. (Author)

  7. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  8. Fuel and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear fuel is studied in detail, the best choice and why in relation with the type of reactor, the properties of the fuel cans, the choice of fuel materials. An important part is granted to the fuel assembly of PWR type reactor and the performances of nuclear fuels are tackled. The different subjects for research and development are discussed and this article ends with the particular situation of mixed oxide fuels ( materials, behavior, efficiency). (N.C.)

  9. Licensing and advanced fuel designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, S.L.; Novendstern, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    For the past 15 years, Westinghouse has been actively involved in the development and licensing of fuel designs that contain major advanced features. These designs include the optimized fuel assembly, The VANTAGE 5 fuel assembly, the VANTAGE 5H, and most recently the VANTAGE+ fuel assembly. Each of these designs was supported by extensive experimental data, safety evaluations, and design efforts and required intensive interaction with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) during the review and approval process. This paper presents a description of the licensing approach and how it was utilized by the utilities to facilitate the licensing applications of the advanced fuel designs for their plants. The licensing approach described in this paper has been successfully applied to four major advanced fuel design changes ∼40 plant-specific applications, and >350 cycle-specific reloads in the past 15 years

  10. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraioli, Anthony V.; Young, John E.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  11. MOX fuel design and development consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamate, K.; Abeta, S.; Suzuki, K.; Doi, S.

    1997-01-01

    Pu thermal utilization in Japan will be realized in several plants in late 1990's, and will be expanded gradually. For this target, adequacy of methods for MOX fuel design, nuclear design, and safety analysis has been evaluated by the committee of competent authorities organized by government in advance of the licensing application. There is no big difference of physical properties and irradiation behaviors between MOX fuel and UO 2 fuel, because Pu content of MOX fuel for Pu thermal utilization is low. The fuel design code for UO 2 fuel will be applied with some modifications, taking into account of characteristic of MOX fuel. For nuclear design, new code system is to be applied to treat the heterogeneity in MOX fuel assembly and the neutron spectrum interaction with UO 2 fuel more accurately. For 1/3 MOX fueled core in three loop plant, it was confirmed that the fuel rod mechanical design could meet the design criteria, with slight reduction of initial back-fitting pressure, and with appropriate fuel loading patterns in the core to match power with UO 2 fuel. With the increase of MOX fuel fraction in the core, control rod worth and boron worth decrease. Compensating the decrease by adding control rod and utilizing enriched B-10 in safety injection system, 100% MOX fueled core could be possible. Up to 1/3 MOX fueled core in three loop plant, no such modifications of the plant is necessary. The fraction of MOX fuel in PWR is designed to less than 1/3 in the present program. In order to improve Pu thermal utilization in future, various R and D program on fuel design and nuclear design are being performed, such as the irradiation program of MOX fuel manufactured through new process to the extent of high burnup. (author). 8 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content (HHC) - Fueled Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumm, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The overarching goal of this research program has been to evaluate the potential impacts of coal-derived syngas and high-hydrogen content fuels on the degradation of turbine hot-section components through attack of protective oxides and thermal barrier coatings. The primary focus of this research program has been to explore mechanisms underpinning the observed degradation processes, and connections to the combustion environments and characteristic non-combustible constituents. Based on the mechanistic understanding of how these emerging fuel streams affect materials degradation, the ultimate goal of the program is to advance the goals of the Advanced Turbine Program by developing materials design protocols leading to turbine hot-section components with improved resistance to service lifetime degradation under advanced fuels exposures. This research program has been focused on studying how: (1) differing combustion environments – relative to traditional natural gas fired systems – affect both the growth rate of thermally grown oxide (TGO) layers and the stability of these oxides and of protective thermal barrier coatings (TBCs); and (2) how low levels of fuel impurities and characteristic non-combustibles interact with surface oxides, for instance through the development of molten deposits that lead to hot corrosion of protective TBC coatings. The overall program has been comprised of six inter-related themes, each comprising a research thrust over the program period, including: (i) evaluating the role of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) combustion environments in modifying component surface temperatures, heat transfer to the TBC coatings, and thermal gradients within these coatings; (ii) understanding the instability of TBC coatings in the syngas and high hydrogen environment with regards to decomposition, phase changes and sintering; (iii) characterizing ash deposition, molten phase development and infiltration, and associated corrosive

  13. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-12-20

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  14. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  15. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance

  16. Nuclear design of APSARA reload-2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, M.; Veeraraghavan, N.

    1978-01-01

    In view of the satisfactory operating performance of initial and reload-1 fuel designs of Apsara reactor, it was felt desirable to adopt a basically similar design for reload-2 fuel, i.e. the fuel assembly should consist of equally spaced parallel fuel plates in which highly enriched uranium, alloyed with aluminium, is employed as fuel. However, because of fabricational constraints, certain modifications were necessary and were incorporated in the proposed reload design to cater to the multiple needs of operational requirements, improved fuel utilization and inherent reactor safety. The salient features of the nuclear design of reload-2 fuel for the Apsara reactor are discussed. (author)

  17. Advancing PWR fuel to meet customer needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, F W

    1987-03-01

    Since the introduction of the Optimized Fuel Assembly (OFA) for PWRs in the late 1970s, Westinghouse has continued to work with the utility customers to identify the greatest needs for further advance in fuel performance and reliability. The major customer requirements include longer fuel cycle at lower costs, increased fuel discharge burn-up, enhanced operating flexibility, all accompanied by even greater reliability. In response to these needs, Westinghouse developed Vantage 5 PWR fuel. To optimize reactor operations, Vantage 5 fuel features distinct advantages: integral fuel burnable absorbers, axial and radial blankets, intermediate flow mixers, a removable top nozzle, and assembly modifications to accommodate increased discharge burn-up.

  18. Characterizing fuels in treated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Ottmar; Clinton S. Wright

    2002-01-01

    Small-log utilization or thinning operations followed by a fuel treatment such as prescribed fire can be used to change the composition and structure of fuelbeds, thereby mitigating deleterious fire effects and reducing the potential for catastrophic wildfires in some forested landscapes. We are developing a national system, Fuel Characteristic Classification (FCC),...

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuyama, Tadashi; Mukai, Hideyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the bending of a fuel rod caused by the difference in the elongation between a joined fuel rod and a standard fuel rod thereby maintain the fuel rod integrity. Constitution: A joined fuel rod is in a thread engagement at its lower end plug thereof with a lower plate, while passed through at its upper end plug into an upper tie plate and secured with a nut. Further, a standard fuel rod is engaged at its upper end plug and lower end plug with the upper tie plate and the lower tie plate respectively. Expansion springs are mounted to the upper end plugs of these bonded fuel rods and the standard fuel rods for preventing this lifting. Each of the fuel rods comprises a plurality of sintered pellets of nuclear fuel materials laminated in a zircaloy fuel can. The content of the alloy ingredient in the fuel can of the bonded fuel rod is made greater than that of the alloy ingredient of the standard fuel rod. this can increase the elongation for the bonded fuel rod, and the spring of the standard fuel rod is tightly bonded to prevent the bending. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Utilization of diesel fuel, anhydrous ethanol and additives blend of a stationary diesel engine with rotatory pump; Utilizacao de mistura ternaria alcool, diesel e aditivo em motores do ciclo diesel com bomba de injecao rotativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Cruz, Yordanka; Cavado Osorio, Alberto [Centro de Pesquisas de Petroleo (CEINPET), Havana (Cuba); Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Pereira, Pedro P.; Pinto, Nauberto Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Mecanica; Aranda, Donato A. Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In this paper is analyzed the performance and fuel consumption of a stationary Diesel engine, with rotary diesel fuel injection pump, using (diesel fuel + anhydrous ethanol + 0.5% additive) blend. The engine performance parameters and fuel consumption tests were performed at the Termic Machine Laboratory, located in Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and evaluated using a MWM Series 10 model 4.10 TCA. Two test cycles were used for this test program: the tests were carried out starting from the base diesel S-500, used as a reference; the engine operated with (diesel fuel S-500 - 8% anhydrous ethanol - DIOLEFECT additive (0,5% SPAN80 + 0,1% Biomix-D)) blend. The results indicate that: the reduction levels in power and torque of engine are approximately the same which is (2,55{+-}2%), the brake specific fuel consumption increased in 1,8%. (author)