WorldWideScience

Sample records for utilizing astochastic context-free

  1. Becoming Context-Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2017-01-01

    In this lecture I will discuss how we – as department, faculty and university – may enhance our research, teaching and knowledge transfer endeavour. This lecture builds on the current challenges in these three areas and inter alia discusses the impact on the AAU PBL model. As the title suggests...... the lecture has to major components: Sociology of Knowledge and Becoming Context-Free. What the title does not explicitly state, but what glues these two together – and what happens to be my passion – is the notion of ‘newness’. Through my lecture I will argue that ‘becoming context-free’ in pursuit...... of ‘newness’ is essential in our efforts to enhance our inter-disciplinary research and teaching, innovate our PBL model, excel in knowledge transfer – all aimed at enriching social impact of our academic endeavour. Clearly this is not the way, but it may contribute to our holistic academic efforts....

  2. On Intuitionistic Fuzzy Context-Free Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Jin

    2013-01-01

    automata theory. Additionally, we introduce the concepts of Chomsky normal form grammar (IFCNF and Greibach normal form grammar (IFGNF based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The results of our study indicate that intuitionistic fuzzy context-free languages generated by IFCFGs are equivalent to those generated by IFGNFs and IFCNFs, respectively, and they are also equivalent to intuitionistic fuzzy recognizable step functions. Then some operations on the family of intuitionistic fuzzy context-free languages are discussed. Finally, pumping lemma for intuitionistic fuzzy context-free languages is investigated.

  3. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...... observe that there is a simple linguistic characterization of the grammar ambiguity problem, and we show how to exploit this by presenting an ambiguity analysis framework based on conservative language approximations. As a concrete example, we propose a technique based on local regular approximations...

  4. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2007-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...... observe that there is a simple linguistic characterization of the grammar ambiguity problem, and we show how to exploit this to conservatively approximate the problem based on local regular approximations and grammar unfoldings. As an application, we consider grammars that occur in RNA analysis...

  5. HTML Validation of Context-Free Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Schwarz, Mathias Romme

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm that generalizes HTML validation of individual documents to work on context-free sets of documents. Together with a program analysis that soundly approximates the output of Java Servlets and JSP web applications as context-free languages, we obtain a method for statically...... checking that such web applications never produce invalid HTML at runtime. Experiments with our prototype implementation demonstrate that the approach is useful: On 6 open source web applications consisting of a total of 104 pages, our tool finds 64 errors in less than a second per page, with 0 false...

  6. Regular and context-free nominal traces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degano, Pierpaolo; Ferrari, Gian-Luigi; Mezzetti, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Two kinds of automata are presented, for recognising new classes of regular and context-free nominal languages. We compare their expressive power with analogous proposals in the literature, showing that they express novel classes of languages. Although many properties of classical languages hold ...

  7. On restricted context-free grammars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dassow, J.; Masopust, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2012), s. 293-304 ISSN 0022-0000 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : context-free grammars * derivation restriction * normal forms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022000011000572

  8. Context-free parsing with connectionist networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanty, M. A.

    1986-08-01

    This paper presents a simple algorithm which converts any context-free grammar into a connectionist network which parses strings (of arbitrary but fixed maximum length) in the language defined by that grammar. The network is fast, O(n), and deterministicd. It consists of binary units which compute a simple function of their input. When the grammar is put in Chomsky normal form, O(n3) units needed to parse inputs of length up to n.

  9. LR-parsing of Extended Context-free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    1976-01-01

    To improve the readability of a grammar it is common to use extended context free grammars (ECFGs) which are context free grammars (CFGs) extended with the repetition operator (*), the alternation operator (¦) and parentheses to express the right hand sides of the productions. The topic treated h...

  10. Fuzzy Context- Free Languages. Part 2: Recognition and Parsing Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2000-01-01

    In a companion paper \\cite{Asv:FCF1} we used fuzzy context-free grammars in order to model grammatical errors resulting in erroneous inputs for robust recognizing and parsing algorithms for fuzzy context-free languages. In particular, this approach enables us to distinguish between small errors

  11. Refinement of Representation Theorems for Context-Free Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Kaoru

    In this paper, we obtain some refinement of representation theorems for context-free languages by using Dyck languages, insertion systems, strictly locally testable languages, and morphisms. For instance, we improved the Chomsky-Schützenberger representation theorem and show that each context-free language L can be represented in the form L = h (D ∩ R), where D is a Dyck language, R is a strictly 3-testable language, and h is a morphism. A similar representation for context-free languages can be obtained, using insertion systems of weight (3, 0) and strictly 4-testable languages.

  12. Implicit learning of recursive context-free grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.

  13. Adaptable Grammars for Non-Context-Free Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2009-01-01

    languages that are considered as prototype representatives of non-context-free phenomena in natural languages. We define a grammar formalism with these characteristics and show how it can be implemented in logic programming in a surprisingly straightforward way, compared with the expressive...

  14. Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning. PMID:23094021

  15. Implicit learning of recursive context-free grammars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rohrmeier

    Full Text Available Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.

  16. Ambiguity Detection Methods for Context-Free Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.S. Basten (Bas)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe Meta-Environment enables the creation of grammars using the SDF formalism. From these grammars an SGLR parser can be generated. One of the advantages of these parsers is that they can handle the entire class of context-free grammars (CFGs). The grammar developer does not have to

  17. Context-free pragmatism in Danish campus architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard

    an educational ideal that also seem to lack a sense of context, and hence both the architecture and the educational structuring in Campus Roskilde can be understood as a context free pragmatism. I analyze this tendency with references to Dewey’s own work on the meaning of the educational environment.......The idea of new pragmatism has inspired a new Danish wave in architecture that since 2012 has had enormous influence on the design of campus buildings in the professional education sector in Denmark. In arguing for a no-nonsense approach to architecture representatives of new pragmatism refers...

  18. Fuzzy context-free languages - Part 2: Recognition and parsing algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2005-01-01

    In a companion paper [P.R.J. Asveld, Fuzzy context-free languages---Part 1: Generalized fuzzy context-free grammars, Theoret. Comp. Sci. (2005)] we used fuzzy context-free grammars in order to model grammatical errors resulting in erroneous inputs for robust recognizing and parsing algorithms for

  19. Consistent Parameter and Transfer Function Estimation using Context Free Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Daniel; Herrnegger, Mathew; Schulz, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    This contribution presents a method for the inference of transfer functions for rainfall-runoff models. Here, transfer functions are defined as parametrized (functional) relationships between a set of spatial predictors (e.g. elevation, slope or soil texture) and model parameters. They are ultimately used for estimation of consistent, spatially distributed model parameters from a limited amount of lumped global parameters. Additionally, they provide a straightforward method for parameter extrapolation from one set of basins to another and can even be used to derive parameterizations for multi-scale models [see: Samaniego et al., 2010]. Yet, currently an actual knowledge of the transfer functions is often implicitly assumed. As a matter of fact, for most cases these hypothesized transfer functions can rarely be measured and often remain unknown. Therefore, this contribution presents a general method for the concurrent estimation of the structure of transfer functions and their respective (global) parameters. Note, that by consequence an estimation of the distributed parameters of the rainfall-runoff model is also undertaken. The method combines two steps to achieve this. The first generates different possible transfer functions. The second then estimates the respective global transfer function parameters. The structural estimation of the transfer functions is based on the context free grammar concept. Chomsky first introduced context free grammars in linguistics [Chomsky, 1956]. Since then, they have been widely applied in computer science. But, to the knowledge of the authors, they have so far not been used in hydrology. Therefore, the contribution gives an introduction to context free grammars and shows how they can be constructed and used for the structural inference of transfer functions. This is enabled by new methods from evolutionary computation, such as grammatical evolution [O'Neill, 2001], which make it possible to exploit the constructed grammar as a

  20. Human behavior recognition using a context-free grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, Andrea; Conci, Nicola; De Natale, Francesco G. B.

    2014-05-01

    Automatic recognition of human activities and behaviors is still a challenging problem for many reasons, including limited accuracy of the data acquired by sensing devices, high variability of human behaviors, and gap between visual appearance and scene semantics. Symbolic approaches can significantly simplify the analysis and turn raw data into chains of meaningful patterns. This allows getting rid of most of the clutter produced by low-level processing operations, embedding significant contextual information into the data, as well as using simple syntactic approaches to perform the matching between incoming sequences and models. We propose a symbolic approach to learn and detect complex activities through the sequences of atomic actions. Compared to previous methods based on context-free grammars, we introduce several important novelties, such as the capability to learn actions based on both positive and negative samples, the possibility of efficiently retraining the system in the presence of misclassified or unrecognized events, and the use of a parsing procedure that allows correct detection of the activities also when they are concatenated and/or nested one with each other. An experimental validation on three datasets with different characteristics demonstrates the robustness of the approach in classifying complex human behaviors.

  1. Genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for the knapsack problem: first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Peter; Geyer-Schulz, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for combinatorial optimization, apply this method to several variants of the multidimensional knapsack problem, and discuss its performance relative to Michalewicz's genetic algorithm with penalty functions. With respect to Michalewicz's approach, we demonstrate that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints improves convergence. A final result is that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints is ideally suited to modeling complementarities between items in a knapsack problem: The more complementarities in the problem, the stronger the performance in comparison to its competitors.

  2. Chomsky-Schützenberger parsing for weighted multiple context-free languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Denkinger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We prove a Chomsky-Schützenberger representation theorem for multiple context-free languages weighted over complete commutative strong bimonoids. Using this representation we devise a parsing algorithm for a restricted form of those devices.

  3. Comparison of Context-free Grammars Based on Parsing Generated Test Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Fischer (Bernd); R. Lämmel (Ralf); V. Zaytsev (Vadim); U. Aßmann; J. Saraiva; A.M. Sloane

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThere exist a number of software engineering scenarios that essentially involve equivalence or correspondence assertions for some of the context-free grammars in the scenarios. For instance, when applying grammar transformations during parser development---be it for the sake of

  4. Are relations in thesauri "context-free, definitional, and true in all possible worlds"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Much of the literature of information science and knowledge organization has accepted and built upon Elaine Svenonius’ (2004) claim that “paradigmatic relationships are those that are context-free, definitional, and true in all possible worlds” (p. 583). At the same time, the literature...

  5. Tracking Down the Origins of Ambiguity in Context-Free Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.S. Basten (Bas)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractContext-free grammars are widely used but still hindered by ambiguity. This stresses the need for detailed detection methods that point out the sources of ambiguity in a grammar. In this paper we show how the approximative Noncanonical Unambiguity Test by Schmitz can be extended to

  6. Comparing the ambiguity reduction abilities of probabilistic context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Infante-Lopez, G.G.; de Rijke, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a measure for evaluating Probabilistic Context Free Grammars (PCFG) based on their ambiguity resolution capabilities.Probabilities in a PCFG can be seen as a filtering mechanism: For an ambiguous sentence, the trees bearing maximum probability aresingle out, while all others are

  7. Generating All Permutations by Context-Free Grammars in Chomsky Normal Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.; Spoto, F.; Scollo, Giuseppe; Nijholt, Antinus

    2003-01-01

    Let $L_n$ be the finite language of all $n!$ strings that are permutations of $n$ different symbols ($n\\geq 1$). We consider context-free grammars $G_n$ in Chomsky normal form that generate $L_n$. In particular we study a few families $\\{G_n\\}_{n\\geq 1}$, satisfying $L(G_n)=L_n$ for $n\\geq 1$, with

  8. Generating all permutations by context-free grammars in Chomsky normal form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Let $L_n$ be the finite language of all $n!$ strings that are permutations of $n$ different symbols ($n\\geq1$). We consider context-free grammars $G_n$ in Chomsky normal form that generate $L_n$. In particular we study a few families $\\{G_n\\}_{n\\geq1}$, satisfying $L(G_n)=L_n$ for $n\\geq1$, with

  9. Generating All Permutations by Context-Free Grammars in Chomsky Normal Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Let $L_n$ be the finite language of all $n!$ strings that are permutations of $n$ different symbols ($n\\geq 1$). We consider context-free grammars $G_n$ in Chomsky normal form that generate $L_n$. In particular we study a few families $\\{G_n\\}_{n\\geq1}$, satisfying $L(G_n)=L_n$ for $n\\geq 1$, with

  10. Generating All Circular Shifts by Context-Free Grammars in Chomsky Normal Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Let $\\{a_1,a_2,\\ldots,a_n\\}$ be an alphabet of $n$ symbols and let $C_n$ be the language of circular shifts of the word $a_1a_2\\cdots a_n$; so $C_n = \\{a_1a_2\\cdots a_{n-1}a_n, a_2a_3\\cdots a_na_1, \\ldots,a_na_1\\cdots a_{n-2}a_{n-1}\\}$. We discuss a few families of context-free grammars $G_n$

  11. Generating All Circular Shifts by Context-Free Grammars in Chomsky Normal Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Let $\\{a_1,a_2,\\ldots,a_n\\}$ be an alphabet of $n$ symbols and let $C_n$ be the language of circular shifts of the word $a_1a_2\\cdots a_n$; so $C_n = \\{a_1a_2\\cdots a_{n-1}a_n, a_2a_3\\cdots a_na_1, \\ldots,a_na_1\\cdots a_{n-2}a_{n-1}\\}$. We discuss a few families of context-free grammars $G_n$

  12. Generating All Circular Shifts by Context-Free Grammars in Greibach Normal Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, Peter R.J.

    2007-01-01

    For each alphabet Σn = {a1,a2,…,an}, linearly ordered by a1 < a2 < ⋯ < an, let Cn be the language of circular or cyclic shifts over Σn, i.e., Cn = {a1a2 ⋯ an-1an, a2a3 ⋯ ana1,…,ana1 ⋯ an-2an-1}. We study a few families of context-free grammars Gn (n ≥1) in Greibach normal form such that Gn generates

  13. Oxfold: Kinetic Folding of RNA using Stochastic Context-Free Grammars and Evolutionary Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, James W.J.; Haas, Pierre A.; Mathieson, Leigh-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Many computational methods for RNA secondary structure prediction, and, in particular, for the prediction of a consensus structure of an alignment of RNA sequences, have been developed. Most methods however ignore biophysical factors such as the kinetics of RNA folding; no current...... implementation considers both evolutionary information and folding kinetics, thus losing information which, when considered, might lead to better predictions. Results: We present an iterative algorithm, Oxfold, in the framework of stochastic context-free grammars, that emulates the kinetics of RNA folding...

  14. Evolving stochastic context-free grammars for RNA secondary structure prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, James WJ; Tataru, Paula Cristina; Stains, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Background Stochastic Context-Free Grammars (SCFGs) were applied successfully to RNA secondary structure prediction in the early 90s, and used in combination with comparative methods in the late 90s. The set of SCFGs potentially useful for RNA secondary structure prediction is very large, but a few...... to structure prediction as has been previously suggested. Results These search techniques were applied to predict RNA secondary structure on a maximal data set and revealed new and interesting grammars, though none are dramatically better than classic grammars. In general, results showed that many grammars...... with quite different structure could have very similar predictive ability. Many ambiguous grammars were found which were at least as effective as the best current unambiguous grammars. Conclusions Overall the method of evolving SCFGs for RNA secondary structure prediction proved effective in finding many...

  15. Recognition of Equations Using a Two-Dimensional Stochastic Context-Free Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Philip A.

    1989-11-01

    We propose using two-dimensional stochastic context-free grammars for image recognition, in a manner analogous to using hidden Markov models for speech recognition. The value of the approach is demonstrated in a system that recognizes printed, noisy equations. The system uses a two-dimensional probabilistic version of the Cocke-Younger-Kasami parsing algorithm to find the most likely parse of the observed image, and then traverses the corresponding parse tree in accordance with translation formats associated with each production rule, to produce eqn I troff commands for the imaged equation. In addition, it uses two-dimensional versions of the Inside/Outside and Baum re-estimation algorithms for learning the parameters of the grammar from a training set of examples. Parsing the image of a simple noisy equation currently takes about one second of cpu time on an Alliant FX/80.

  16. A stochastic context free grammar based framework for analysis of protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebel Jean-Christophe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last decade, there have been many applications of formal language theory in bioinformatics such as RNA structure prediction and detection of patterns in DNA. However, in the field of proteomics, the size of the protein alphabet and the complexity of relationship between amino acids have mainly limited the application of formal language theory to the production of grammars whose expressive power is not higher than stochastic regular grammars. However, these grammars, like other state of the art methods, cannot cover any higher-order dependencies such as nested and crossing relationships that are common in proteins. In order to overcome some of these limitations, we propose a Stochastic Context Free Grammar based framework for the analysis of protein sequences where grammars are induced using a genetic algorithm. Results This framework was implemented in a system aiming at the production of binding site descriptors. These descriptors not only allow detection of protein regions that are involved in these sites, but also provide insight in their structure. Grammars were induced using quantitative properties of amino acids to deal with the size of the protein alphabet. Moreover, we imposed some structural constraints on grammars to reduce the extent of the rule search space. Finally, grammars based on different properties were combined to convey as much information as possible. Evaluation was performed on sites of various sizes and complexity described either by PROSITE patterns, domain profiles or a set of patterns. Results show the produced binding site descriptors are human-readable and, hence, highlight biologically meaningful features. Moreover, they achieve good accuracy in both annotation and detection. In addition, findings suggest that, unlike current state-of-the-art methods, our system may be particularly suited to deal with patterns shared by non-homologous proteins. Conclusion A new Stochastic Context Free

  17. Incremental Learning of Context Free Grammars by Parsing-Based Rule Generation and Rule Set Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuhiko; Hoshina, Akemi

    This paper discusses recent improvements and extensions in Synapse system for inductive inference of context free grammars (CFGs) from sample strings. Synapse uses incremental learning, rule generation based on bottom-up parsing, and the search for rule sets. The form of production rules in the previous system is extended from Revised Chomsky Normal Form A→βγ to Extended Chomsky Normal Form, which also includes A→B, where each of β and γ is either a terminal or nonterminal symbol. From the result of bottom-up parsing, a rule generation mechanism synthesizes minimum production rules required for parsing positive samples. Instead of inductive CYK algorithm in the previous version of Synapse, the improved version uses a novel rule generation method, called ``bridging,'' which bridges the lacked part of the derivation tree for the positive string. The improved version also employs a novel search strategy, called serial search in addition to minimum rule set search. The synthesis of grammars by the serial search is faster than the minimum set search in most cases. On the other hand, the size of the generated CFGs is generally larger than that by the minimum set search, and the system can find no appropriate grammar for some CFL by the serial search. The paper shows experimental results of incremental learning of several fundamental CFGs and compares the methods of rule generation and search strategies.

  18. Parallel communicating grammar systems with context-free components are Turing complete for any communication model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkin Mary Sarah Ruth

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Parallel Communicating Grammar Systems (PCGS were introduced as a language-theoretic treatment of concurrent systems. A PCGS extends the concept of a grammar to a structure that consists of several grammars working in parallel, communicating with each other, and so contributing to the generation of strings. PCGS are usually more powerful than a single grammar of the same type; PCGS with context-free components (CF-PCGS in particular were shown to be Turing complete. However, this result only holds when a specific type of communication (which we call broadcast communication, as opposed to one-step communication is used. We expand the original construction that showed Turing completeness so that broadcast communication is eliminated at the expense of introducing a significant number of additional, helper component grammars. We thus show that CF-PCGS with one-step communication are also Turing complete. We introduce in the process several techniques that may be usable in other constructions and may be capable of removing broadcast communication in general.

  19. Biological time series analysis using a context free language: applicability to pulsatile hormone data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis A Dean

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach for analyzing biological time-series data using a context-free language (CFL representation that allows the extraction and quantification of important features from the time-series. This representation results in Hierarchically AdaPtive (HAP analysis, a suite of multiple complementary techniques that enable rapid analysis of data and does not require the user to set parameters. HAP analysis generates hierarchically organized parameter distributions that allow multi-scale components of the time-series to be quantified and includes a data analysis pipeline that applies recursive analyses to generate hierarchically organized results that extend traditional outcome measures such as pharmacokinetics and inter-pulse interval. Pulsicons, a novel text-based time-series representation also derived from the CFL approach, are introduced as an objective qualitative comparison nomenclature. We apply HAP to the analysis of 24 hours of frequently sampled pulsatile cortisol hormone data, which has known analysis challenges, from 14 healthy women. HAP analysis generated results in seconds and produced dozens of figures for each participant. The results quantify the observed qualitative features of cortisol data as a series of pulse clusters, each consisting of one or more embedded pulses, and identify two ultradian phenotypes in this dataset. HAP analysis is designed to be robust to individual differences and to missing data and may be applied to other pulsatile hormones. Future work can extend HAP analysis to other time-series data types, including oscillatory and other periodic physiological signals.

  20. Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2014-03-01

    Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

  1. Algorithms for finding Chomsky and Greibach normal forms for a fuzzy context-free grammar using an algebraic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    Algorithms for the construction of the Chomsky and Greibach normal forms for a fuzzy context-free grammar using the algebraic approach are presented and illustrated by examples. The results obtained in this paper may have useful applications in fuzzy languages, pattern recognition, information storage and retrieval, artificial intelligence, database and pictorial information systems. 16 references.

  2. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  3. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  4. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  5. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  6. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  7. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  8. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  9. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  10. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute

  11. Utility training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaros, P.E.; Luxo, Armando; Bruant, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    The study of operational training systems for electro-nuclear utilities may be conducted through two different approaches. A first analytical approach consists of determining, for each position of a given organization chart, the necessary qualifications required and the corresponding complementary training to be provided. This approach applies preferentially to existing classical systems which are converted to nuclear operation with objectives of minimum structural changes and conservation of maximum efficiency. A second synthetical approach consists of determining the specific characteristics of nuclear plant operation, then, of deducting the training contingencies and the optimized organization chart of the plant, while taking into account, at each step, the parameters linked to local conditions. This last approach is studied in some detail in the present paper, taking advantage of its better suitability to the problems raised at the first stage of an electro-nuclear program development. In this respect, the possibility offered by this apprach to coordinate the training system of a given nuclear power station personnel with the overall problem of developing a skilled industrial labor force in the country, may lead to reconsideration of some usual priorities in the economy of operation of the nuclear power plant

  12. Schooling in western culture promotes context-free processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Paulo; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Fernandes, Tânia; Klein, Olivier; Morais, José; Kolinsky, Régine

    2008-06-01

    Culture has been shown to influence the way people apprehend their physical environment. Cognitive orientation is more holistic in East Asian cultures, which emphasize relationships and connectedness among objects in the field, than in Western cultures, which are more prone to focus exclusively on the object and its attributes. We investigated whether, beyond, or in conjunction with culture, literacy and/or schooling may also have an influence on this cognitive orientation. Using the Framed-Line Test both in Portugal and in Thailand, we compared literate schooled adults with two groups of unschooled adults: one of illiterates and one of ex-illiterates. As in former studies on Western people, Portuguese-schooled literates were more accurate in the absolute task than in the relative task. In contrast, Portuguese illiterates and ex-illiterates were more accurate in the relative task than in the absolute task. Such an effect of schooling was not observed in the Thai groups, all of whom performed better on the relative task. Thus, the capacity to abstract from contextual information does not stem only from passive exposure to the culture or the physical environment of Western countries. Western schooling, as part of or in addition to culture, is a crucial factor.

  13. ESTUDIO ESTADÍSTICO DEL NÚMERO DE REGLAS RESULTANTES AL TRANSFORMAR UNA GRAMÁTICA LIBRE DE CONTEXTO A LA FORMA NORMAL DE CHOMSKY STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE NUMBER OF RESULTING RULES WHEN TRANSFORMING A CONTEXT-FREE GRAMMAR TO CHOMSKY NORMAL FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Ángel Miguel Amaya Robayo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Es un hecho conocido que toda gramática libre de contexto puede ser transformada a la forma normal de Chomsky de tal forma que los lenguajes generados por las dos gramáticas son equivalentes. Una gramática en forma normal de Chomsky (FNC, tiene algunas ventajas, por ejemplo sus árboles de derivación son binarios, la forma de sus reglas más simples etc. Por eso es siempre deseable poder trabajar con una gramática en FNC en las aplicaciones que lo requieran. Existe un algoritmo que permite transformar una gramática libre de contexto a una en FNC, sin embargo la cantidad de reglas generadas al hacer la transformación depende del número de reglas en la gramática inicial así como de otras características. En este trabajo se analiza desde el punto de vista experimental y estadístico, la relación existente entre el número de reglas iniciales y el número de reglas que resultan luego de transformar una Gramática Libre de Contexto a la FNC. Esto permite planificar la cantidad de recursos computacionales necesarios en caso de tratar con gramáticas de alguna complejidad.It is well known that any context-free grammar can be transformed to the Chomsky normal form so that the languages generated by each one are equivalent. A grammar in Chomsky Normal Form (CNF, has some advantages: their derivation trees are binary, simplest rules and so on. So it is always desirable to work with a grammar in CNF in applications that require them. There is an algorithm that can transform a context-free grammar to one CNF grammar, however the number of rules generated after the transformation depends on the initial grammar and other circumstances. In this work we analyze from the experimental and statistical point of view the relationship between the number of initial rules and the number of resulting rules after transforming. This allows you to plan the amount of computational resources needed in case of dealing with grammars of some complexity.

  14. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  15. US utility partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, B.

    1995-01-01

    Activities of the United States Energy Association were reviewed, as well as the manner in which its members are benefitting from the Association's programs. The principal cooperative program set up is the Utility Partnership Program, which was described. Through this program the Association is matching US companies, both electric utilities and gas utilities, with counterparts in Eastern Europe or the former Soviet Union. So far, about 25 partnerships were signed, e.g. in the Czech Republic, in Kazakhstan, in Poland, and in Slovakia. It was estimated that the return to the United States from the investments made by the American government in these Utility Partnership Programs has been well over 100-fold

  16. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  17. Utility portfolio diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffes, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses portfolio analysis as a method to evaluate utility supply decisions. Specifically a utility is assumed to increase the value of its portfolio of assets whenever it invests in a new supply technology. This increase in value occurs because the new asset either enhances the return or diversifies the risks of the firm's portfolio of assets. This evaluation method is applied to two supply innovations in the electric utility industry: jointly-owned generating plants and supply contracts with independent power producers (IPPs)

  18. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  19. Utility franchises reconsidered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, B.

    1981-11-01

    It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by the city with a one-year notice. As IOUs evolved, the annual franchise fee has been incorporated into the rate in a move that taxes ratepayers and maximizes profits. Cities that found franchising unsatisfactory are looking for ways to terminate the franchise and finance a takeover, but limited-term and indeterminate franchises may offer a better mechanism when public needs and utility aims diverge. A directory lists franchised utilities by state and comments on their legal status. (DCK)

  20. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  1. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  2. Utility, games, and narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of theories and tools to model individual and collective decision-making. In particular, stress is laid on the interaction of several decision-makers. A substantial part of this paper is devoted to utility maximization and its application to collective decision-making, Game Theory. However, the pitfalls of utility maximization are thoroughly discussed, and the radically alternative approach of viewing decision-making as constructing narratives is pre...

  3. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  4. Measurement of utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2014-05-01

    The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) is the most widely recommended health outcome measure for use in economic evaluations. The QALY gives a value to the effect of a given health intervention in terms of both quantity and quality. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the duration of time spent in a given health state, in years, by the quality of life weighted, known as utility. Utility can range from 0 (the worst health state-the equivalent of death) to 1 (the best health state-full health). This paper provides an overview of the various methods that can be used to measure utility and outlines the recommended protocol for measuring utility, as described in the Guidelines for Health Technology Assessment in Thailand (second edition). The recommendations are as follows: Wherever possible, primary data collection using EQ-5D-3L in patients using Thai value sets generated from the general public should be used. Where the EQ-5D-3L is considered inappropriate, other methods such as Standard gamble (SG), Time-trade-off (TTO), Visual analogue scale (VAS), Health Utilities Index (HUI), SF-6D, or Quality of well being (QWB) can be used. However, justification and full details on the chosen instrument should always be provided.

  5. Electric utility report '80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A collection of brief atricles describes the trends and developments in Canada's electric utilities for the 1980's. Generating stations planned or under construction are listed. The trends in technology discused at a recent Canadian Electrical Association meeting are summarized in such areas as turbine stability control, power line vibration control, system reliability, substations and transformer specifications. Developments in nuclear generation are discussed and compared on the world scale where Japan, for example, has the world's largest nuclear program. Progress on fusion is discussed. In Canada the electric utilities are receiving the support of the comprehensive nuclear R and D program of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. New innovations in utility technology such as street lighting contactors, superconductive fault limiters and demand profile analyzers are discussed. (T.I.)

  6. Utility planning for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  7. Markets: green utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    Publicly owned utilities have consistently led the United States in the rate of customer participation in green power programmes. The US has about 2000 community and state-owned utilities, which serve 43 million customers and account for about 16.6% of kilowatt-hour sales to consumers. In all, public power is responsible for about 10% of the nation's installed electric capacity. Investor owned utilities account for 39%, with the remainder of the nation's power mostly from independent power generators. Although IOUs have almost four times as much electric capacity as public power, they edge out public power by only a small margin when it comes to renewable capacity. IOUs are responsible for 24,577.5 MW of renewable capacity, compared to the 21,338 MW installed by public power. The reasons discussed by the author range from small town advantage to clean and cheap power. (Author)

  8. Octopus: LLL's computing utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Laboratory's Octopus network constitutes one of the greatest concentrations of computing power in the world. This power derives from the network's organization as well as from the size and capability of its computers, storage media, input/output devices, and communication channels. Being in a network enables these facilities to work together to form a unified computing utility that is accessible on demand directly from the users' offices. This computing utility has made a major contribution to the pace of research and development at the Laboratory; an adequate rate of progress in research could not be achieved without it. 4 figures

  9. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  10. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  11. "Utilizing" signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Spencer K; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-09-01

    What do inferring what a person is thinking or feeling, judging a defendant's guilt, and navigating a dimly lit room have in common? They involve perceptual uncertainty (e.g., a scowling face might indicate anger or concentration, for which different responses are appropriate) and behavioral risk (e.g., a cost to making the wrong response). Signal detection theory describes these types of decisions. In this tutorial, we show how incorporating the economic concept of utility allows signal detection theory to serve as a model of optimal decision making, going beyond its common use as an analytic method. This utility approach to signal detection theory clarifies otherwise enigmatic influences of perceptual uncertainty on measures of decision-making performance (accuracy and optimality) and on behavior (an inverse relationship between bias magnitude and sensitivity optimizes utility). A "utilized" signal detection theory offers the possibility of expanding the phenomena that can be understood within a decision-making framework. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  13. Utilization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    About 200 research reactors are now in operation in different parts of the world, and at least 70 such facilities, which are in advanced stages of planning and construction, should be critical within the next two or three years. In the process of this development a multitude of problems are being encountered in formulating and carrying out programs for the proper utilization of these facilities, especially in countries which have just begun or are starting their atomic energy work. An opportunity for scientific personnel from different Member States to discuss research reactor problems was given at an international symposium on the Programing and Utilization of Research Reactors organized by the Agency almost immediately after the General Conference session. Two hundred scientists from 35 countries, as well as from the European Nuclear Energy Agency and EURATOM, attended the meeting which was held in Vienna from 16 to 21 October 1961

  14. Health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren

    An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... containment measures affect the utilization of health services, and how these measures interact with the number of patients per provider. Based on very valid register data, this is investigated for 9.556 Danish physiotherapists between 2001 and 2008. We find that higher (relative) fees for a given service...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...

  15. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  16. Utility customer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Customer issues affected by the restructuring of the $250 billion US electric power industry were discussed. In the past the industry's vertically integrated utilities conducted their business in protected geographic markets. With deregulation and greater competition, that industry structure will change. This presentation highlighted the strategies that Unicom is using to react to the restructuring of the electric power industry. The underlying principle is for the utility to reinvent itself to change its market orientation and focus on customer services, such as reliability, responsiveness, custom tailored solutions, and guaranteed savings over time. Attempting to become total energy providers and delivering integrated solutions to meet the needs of large industrial and commercial consumers, intensive market research, improved service and installation, and sophisticated customer retention initiatives will also have to be high on the agenda

  17. Role of the utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, A.

    1986-03-01

    It is common to say that a nuclear programme needs basic infrastructures such as an appropriate educational system, governmental organizations for regulation, decision and inspection, engineering organizations for design and implementation, industrial infrastructures for manufacturing, erection and commissioning, operation organizations for running and maintaining power plants. This schematic organization is not sufficient to succeed in a nuclear programme: one has to consider very carefully the attribution of responsibilities. It appears, that, among all the different systems which exist in the world for the organization of a nuclear project, it is always the utility which bears the overall responsibility for the implementation of the project. It defines objectives such as production capacity, schedule, price; it takes part in the definition of a national policy for energy supply, for the choice of a type of reactor, for the implementation of a national nuclear industry; it selects sites and conducts feasibility studies including a preliminary project; it participates in the definition of organization charts and selects contractors; it calls for and obtains authorizations from regulatory bodies; it manages the project, coordinates contractors and permanently ensures that goals are attained as regards safety, quality, schedule, costs. The French utility has directly taken charge of all these basic responsibilities and this is commonly considered as a major reason of the success of the French nuclear programme. Depending on its capacities, the utility may delegate some of these responsibilities - mainly concerning engineering and project management - to experienced firms. Nevertheless, one has to remember that the utility bears the final responsibility and that it is probably the organization most fully aware of the fact that the final goal is not the construction of a nuclear power station but the production of nuclear electricity in the best and safest conditions

  18. Reactor utilization, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor was operated until August 1984 due to prohibition issued by the Ministry since the reactor does not have the emergency cooling system nor special filters in the ventilation system yet. This means that the operation plan was fulfilled by 69%. This annex includes detailed tables containing data about utilization of reactor experimental channels, irradiated samples, as well as interruptions of operation. Detailed data about reactor power during this period are shown as well

  19. Electric utilities in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

  20. Utilization of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J L; Ross, C C; Smith, M S; Harper, S R [Georgia Tech Research Corp., Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the systems and equipment required to convert biogas into useful thermal and/or electrical energy was conducted, and the results published in the Handbook on Biogas Utilization (Walsh et al., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 1988). The physical, chemical and combustion characteristics of biogas, and the impact of these characteristics on both new and modified combustion equipment, were considered. The study also included consideration of auxiliary equipment for biogas collection, clean-up, compression and storage. (author).

  1. UTILITY OF SIMPLIFIED LABANOTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  2. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  3. Market research for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-01-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to

  4. Time Functions as Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  5. Electricity utilities: Nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants requires an appropriate infrastructure on the part of the operator as well as a high level of technical quality of the plants and of qualification of the personnel. Added to this are a variety of services rendered by specialist firms. The Bayernwerk utility, with plants of its own, has played a major role in the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany. The importance of nuclear power to this firm is reflected in the pattern of its electricity sources and in the composition of its power plants. (orig.) [de

  6. Reactor utilization, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1981-01-01

    The reactor operating plan for 1981 was subject to the needs of testing operation with the 80% enriched fuel and was fulfilled on the whole. This annex includes data about reactor operation, review of shorter interruptions due to demands of the experiments, data about safety shutdowns caused by power cuts. Period of operation at low power levels was used mostly for activation analyses, and the operation at higher power levels were used for testing and regular isotope production. Detailed data about samples activation are included as well as utilization of the reactor as neutron source and the operating plan for 1982 [sr

  7. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  8. Managing the nuclear utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given

  9. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  10. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  11. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  12. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Utilities in UNIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.

    2002-01-01

    This manual goes to the users with some or much experience in the unix operating system. In such manner that they can get more efficiency using the unix of the most vendors. Include the majority of UNIX commands, shell built-in functions to create scripts, and a brief explication of the variables in several environments. In addition, other products are included, more and more integrated in the most of the unix operating systems. For example: the scanning and processing language awk, the print server LPRng, GNU Utilities, batch subsystem, etc. The manual was initially based in an specific unix. But it and been written for use of the most unix that exist: Tru64 unix, aix, iris, hpux. solaris y linux. In this way, many examples in the chapter had been included. The purpose of this manual is to provide an UNIX reference for advanced users in any of the unix operating systems family. (Author)

  14. Hydrogen and energy utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustadt, Daniel [Vattenfall Europe Innovation GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Renewable electricity generation plays one major role with the biggest share being wind energy. At the end of the year 2009 a wind power plant capacity of around 26 GW was installed in Germany. Several outlooks come to the conclusion that this capacity can be doubled in ten years (compare Figure 1). Additionally the German government has set a target of 26 GW installed off-shore capacity in North and Baltic Sea until 2030. At Vattenfall only a minor percentage of the electricity production comes from wind power today. This share will be increased up to 12% until 2030 following Vattenfall's strategy 'Making Electricity Clean'. This rapid development of wind power offers several opportunities but also means some challenges to Utilities. (orig.)

  15. Utility prudency issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnoff, G.

    1986-01-01

    The conventional legal standard of prudence found in the common law of public utility regulation precludes a judgment about past decisions based on present knowledge of whether the decisions proved in time to have been right or wrong. The proper inquiry is not whether every management decision proved to be correct. Rather, the proper inquiry as stated by the New York Public Service Commission in Re Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc. is ...whether the company's conduct was reasonable at the time, under all of the circumstances, considering that the company had to solve its problems prospectively.... The exercise of prudence does not guarantee performance on schedule or within budget, or the making of correct decisions, when judged after the fact. But it does require or involve the exercise of reasoned decision making within a framework of reasonably available alternatives

  16. Energy utilities and the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The chances for energy utilities in the Netherlands to present themselves on the Internet are briefly outlined. It appears that other businesses are ahead of the Dutch utilities in offering electronic services with respect to energy

  17. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  18. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  19. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Utility application of simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss dynamic system simulation from the perspective of a successful utility user. In it, four aspects of the issue of utility use of simulation will be addressed: (1) What simulation software is available to utilities which can be of practical assistance with a modest investment in staff and training. (2) To what specific problems can utilities apply the technique of simulation and achieve reasonably cost effective results. (3) What the advantages are of in-house dynamic simulation capability, as opposed to depending on NSSS vendors or consultants. (4) What the prospects are for wider use of dynamic simulation in the utility industry

  1. Market research for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-12-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

  2. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  3. SYMPAL: utilities guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.A.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    1997-02-01

    The processing code SYMPAL is used to perform the data treatment for creating a new version of the European Activation File (EAF). The entire process is handled by different modules of the code in a sequential and orderly manner. The modular code system accesses, translates and processes cross section data from a wide variety of libraries and calculations with nuclear model codes. Two major data bases are accessed and merged so as to create a new library version. The Master Data File (MDF) contains the original cross section data extracted, unmodified but reformatted, from numerous sources. The Master Parameter File (MPF) contains a compilation of all physical information necessary to renormalise, split and internally validate any particular type of cross section. The combination of these two files generates a new activation library in pointwise and various groupwise formats. The SYMPAL utilities guide describes a set of programs developed to handle certain aspects of the procedure done outside of the main processing tasks. These include counting, translating, selecting and plotting data streams. Special printing and plotting procedures have been written to handle the large amounts of information present in activation libraries. (author)

  4. Gnuastro: GNU Astronomy Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Gnuastro (GNU Astronomy Utilities) manipulates and analyzes astronomical data. It is an official GNU package of a large collection of programs and C/C++ library functions. Command-line programs perform arithmetic operations on images, convert FITS images to common types like JPG or PDF, convolve an image with a given kernel or matching of kernels, perform cosmological calculations, crop parts of large images (possibly in multiple files), manipulate FITS extensions and keywords, and perform statistical operations. In addition, it contains programs to make catalogs from detection maps, add noise, make mock profiles with a variety of radial functions using monte-carlo integration for their centers, match catalogs, and detect objects in an image among many other operations. The command-line programs share the same basic command-line user interface for the comfort of both the users and developers. Gnuastro is written to comply fully with the GNU coding standards and integrates well with all Unix-like operating systems. This enables astronomers to expect a fully familiar experience in the source code, building, installing and command-line user interaction that they have seen in all the other GNU software that they use. Gnuastro's extensive library is included for users who want to build their own unique programs.

  5. Knowledge-based utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwalowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  6. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  7. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  8. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  9. Facility Utilization Reports - FAA Aviation Information Utilization Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides: (1) Space management and planning, including area calculations, tracking space by organization and employee, and monitoring space utilization information....

  10. Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan I.

    Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

  11. Privatization of municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges and special issues which arise through the sale of a municipal electric utility were discussed. The recent sales of two utilities, the Kentville Electric Commission in Nova Scotia and Cornwall Electric in Ontario, were used as examples to show how the sale of an electric utility differs from the sale of most business enterprises. Municipal utilities are integral parts of the communities they serve which introduces several complexities into the sale. Factors that require special attention in the sale of the utilities, including electricity rates, local accountability, treatment of employees and local economic development, and the need for a comprehensive communication program to deal with the substantial public interest that sale of a municipal utility will engender, were reviewed

  12. Mox fuel utilization in ATR

    OpenAIRE

    下村 和生; 川太 徳夫

    1987-01-01

    ATR, a heavy-water moderated boiling-light-water cooled reactor developed in Japan, is a unique reactor with out-standing flexibility regarding nuclear fuel utilization, because it has superior properties concerning the utilization of plutonium, recovered uranium and depleted uranium. The development of this type of reactor is expected to contribute both to the stable supply of energy and to the establishment of plutonium utilization in Japan. Much effort has been and will be made on the deve...

  13. Utility deregulation and AMR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of deregulation on other utilities and services and examines how the electric utilities can avoid the worst of these effects and capitalize of the best aspects of competition in achieving marketing excellence. The article presents deregulation as a customer service and underscores the need for utilities to learn to compete aggressively and intelligently and provide additional services available through technology such as automated meter reading

  14. Subjective expected utility without preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssou , Denis; Marchant , Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of subjective expected utility based on primitives only involving the fact that an act can be judged either "attractive" or "unattractive". We give conditions implying that there are a utility function on the set of consequences and a probability distribution on the set of states such that attractive acts have a subjective expected utility above some threshold. The numerical representation that is obtained has strong uniqueness properties.

  15. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  16. Multiattribute Utility Theory, Intertemporal Utility and Correlation Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Convenient assumptions about qualitative properties of the intertemporal utility function have generated counterintuitive implications for the relationship between atemporal risk aversion and the intertemporal elasticity of substitution. If the intertemporal utility function is additively separable...... aversion. Our results show that subjects are correlation averse over lotteries with intertemporal income profiles....

  17. The changing utility workforce and the evolution of utility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, A. [Autodesk Inc., (United States); Zeiss, G. [Autodesk Inc., (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Electric utilities are experiencing an unprecedented workforce turnover as a wave of retirement approaches. The challenge for the industry is to mitigate the loss of industry knowledge and attract talented new designers and engineers. Utilities need to effectively transfer knowledge from an existing workforce with up to three decades of experience to their new hires who have very different skill levels as well as different expectations regarding design tools compared to their predecessors. Knowledge transfer from the retiring workforce to the new hires can be facilitated with rules-based design software. Easy-to-use design software with built-in validations can accelerate training. By investing in utility design software that incorporates the best elements of design processes from other industries, utilities can attract the new generation of engineers and designers to help utilities define new processes to upgrade existing infrastructure, bring online new distributed and renewable generation facilities, implement smart devices and meters, and improve customer service. 3 refs.

  18. The utility target market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, G.J.; Martin, J.

    1994-01-01

    A new model (the Utility Target Market Model) is used to evaluate the economic benefits of photovoltaic (PV) power systems located at the electrical utility customer site. These distributed PV demand-side generation systems can be evaluated in a similar manner to other demand-side management technologies. The energy and capacity values of an actual PV system located in the service area of the New England Electrical System (NEES) are the two utility benefits evaluated. The annual stream of energy and capacity benefits calculated for the utility are converted to the installed cost per watt that the utility should be willing to invest to receive this benefit stream. Different discount rates are used to show the sensitivity of the allowable installed cost of the PV systems to a utility's average cost of capital. Capturing both the energy and capacity benefits of these relatively environmentally friendly distributed generators, NEES should be willing to invest in this technology when the installed cost per watt declines to ca $2.40 using NEES' rated cost of capital (8.78%). If a social discount rate of 3% is used, installation should be considered when installed cost approaches $4.70/W. Since recent installations in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District have cost between $7-8/W, cost-effective utility applications of PV are close. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Empirical Specification of Utility Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    Decision theory can be applied to four types of decision situations in education and psychology: (1) selection; (2) placement; (3) classification; and (4) mastery. For the application of the theory, a utility function must be specified. Usually the utility function is chosen on a priori grounds. In this paper methods for the empirical assessment…

  20. Xylose utilization in recombinant zymomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Perry G; McCole, Laura; Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V

    2014-03-25

    Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains studied were found to accumulate ribulose when grown in xylose-containing media. Engineering these strains to increase ribose-5-phosphate isomerase activity led to reduced ribulose accumulation, improved growth, improved xylose utilization, and increased ethanol production.

  1. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hualapai Tribal Nation

    2008-05-25

    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon

  2. Dealing with the difficult utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, D.E.; Sundquist, M.J.; Cross, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    STS HydroPower, Ltd. (STS) is an independent hydroelectric power developer involved in the full scope of hydroelectric activities. This includes the permitting, design, financing, turbine design and manufacturing, site construction and operation of small to mid-sized hydroelectric sites across the United States. At the present time, STS owns and operates nine sites in four states with a combined capacity of 20 megawatts. In dealing with the implementation of these sites, STS has dealt with five different utilities. In addition, in pursuing additional development opportunities throughout the United States, STS has had contact with numerous other utilities. During this time it would be fair to conclude that each of these utilities has exhibited its own personality with respect to dealing with independent developers. To the credit of the utility industry, the majority of these utilities have been helpful and supportive of independent projects, but a small number of utilities have approached projects from an initial and continuing adversarial position. The purpose of this paper is to examine those options and procedures available to the developer when a utility is encountered with a negative predisposition

  3. Generation of components for software renovation factories from context-free grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den M.G.J.; Sellink, M.P.A.; Verhoef, C.

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach for the generation of components for a software renovation factory. These components are generated from a contex-free grammar definition that recognizes the code that has to be renovated. We generate analysis and transformation components that can be instantiated with a

  4. Two Algorithms for Learning the Parameters of Stochastic Context-Free Grammars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heeringa, Brent; Oates, Tim

    2001-01-01

    .... Most algorithms for learning them require storage and repeated processing of a sentence corpus. The memory and computational demands of such algorithms are illsuited for embedded agents such as a mobile robot...

  5. Synthesizer: Expediting synthesis studies from context-free data with information retrieval techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M Gandy

    Full Text Available Scientists have unprecedented access to a wide variety of high-quality datasets. These datasets, which are often independently curated, commonly use unstructured spreadsheets to store their data. Standardized annotations are essential to perform synthesis studies across investigators, but are often not used in practice. Therefore, accurately combining records in spreadsheets from differing studies requires tedious and error-prone human curation. These efforts result in a significant time and cost barrier to synthesis research. We propose an information retrieval inspired algorithm, Synthesize, that merges unstructured data automatically based on both column labels and values. Application of the Synthesize algorithm to cancer and ecological datasets had high accuracy (on the order of 85-100%. We further implement Synthesize in an open source web application, Synthesizer (https://github.com/lisagandy/synthesizer. The software accepts input as spreadsheets in comma separated value (CSV format, visualizes the merged data, and outputs the results as a new spreadsheet. Synthesizer includes an easy to use graphical user interface, which enables the user to finish combining data and obtain perfect accuracy. Future work will allow detection of units to automatically merge continuous data and application of the algorithm to other data formats, including databases.

  6. A utility perspective on BRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, B.

    1988-01-01

    The author is program manager for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for the Utility Nuclear Waste Management Group (UNWMG), an activity funded by 45 utilities with nuclear power programs. The UNWMG represents the utility industry on high-level and low-level radioactive waste issues in legislative, regulatory, and technical proceedings, and therefore has a strong interest in the progress of below-regulatory-concern (BRC) regulations. The author addresses waste disposal volumes prior to discussing recent developments and status of BRC regulations

  7. Medicare Utilization for Part B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance SMI) which includes the Medicare Part B Physician and Supplier...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. Decentralized method for utility regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, M. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh); Magat, W.A.

    1979-10-01

    A new institutional arrangement for regulating utilities is suggested that minimizes the costs of natural monopolies. A mixture of regulation and franchising, the plan draws on the advantages of each and eliminates many of the problems. The proposal allows utilities to set their own price on the basis of demand and marginal-cost projections. Subsidies are provided by the regulatory agency if there is a consumer surplus. The system encourages the utility to select a competitive price and to produce only the amount of service needed. Operating efficiency is encouraged by rewarding cost reductions and discouraging cost overstatement at the rate review. The regulatory agency would not need to take action to bring price and marginal costs into equality. The franchise sale can be made by competitive bidding, in which the bidders would capitalize part or all of the subsidy or the regulatory agency could recover the subsidy in a lump-sum tax on the utility.

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. Medicare Utilization for Part A

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part A (Hospital Insurance HI) which include the Medicare Ranking for all Short-Stay Hospitals by...

  12. Build Resilience at Your Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    CREAT allows users to evaluate potential impacts of climate change on their utility and to evaluate adaptation options to address them using both traditional risk assessment and scenario-based decision making.

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. HUG - the Hydrogen Utility Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkler, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen Utility Group (HUG) was formally established in October 2005 by a group of leading electric utilities with a common interest in sharing hydrogen experiences and lessons learned. HUG's Mission Statement is: 'To accelerate utility integration of promising hydrogen energy related business applications through the coordinated efforts and actions of its members in collaboration with key stakeholders, including government agencies and utility support organizations.' In February 2006, HUG members presented a briefing to the US Senate Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucus in Washington, DC, outlining the significant role that the power industry should play in an emerging hydrogen economy. This presentation provides an overview of that briefing, summarizing the HUG's ongoing interests and activities

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. Critical paths to coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, G R

    1977-01-01

    The present dilemma of energy producers, converters, and policy decision makers is presented. The consequences of environmental control regulations, coupled with the need for conservation and energy, and of energy resources on the increased utilization of coal, are discussed. Several recent technical accomplishments that make possible increased utilization of coal for power generation are described. Groundwork is laid for discussion of the technical development that must occur if the United States is to retain its energy viability.

  19. The 1990 utility tax conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on the Sixth Annual Utility Tax Conference held in Washington, D.C. in October. Topics of the conference concerned tax issues associated with depreciable assets, employee benefits plans, valuation on utility property, pollution control, and restructuring and reorganization. Also discussed briefly were the tax changes being considered at that time as part of the negotiation of the details of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act

  20. Strategies for the plutonium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Lima, J.O.V.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-11-01

    A review of the activities involving plutonium (its recycle, utilization and technological status and perspectives) is done. These informations are useful for an economic viability study for the plutonium utilization in thermal reactors (recycling) and in fast breeders reactor (FBR), trying to collect the major number of informations about these subjects. The initial phase describes the present status and projections of plutonium accumulation and requirements. Then, the technological process are described and some strategies are analyzed. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man month study was undertaken to identify utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980s. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items that must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  2. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man-month study, jointly funded by EPRI and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-EAST, was undertaken to identify the utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980's. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items which must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  3. Inter-utility trade review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnes, E.M.; Vaahedi, E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Board was requested by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources to identify possible measures to improve cooperation among Canadian electrical utilities and to enhance access for buyers and sellers of electricity to available transmission capacity through intervening systems for wheeling purposes. To identify measures to improve cooperation, a questionnaire was sent to electric utilities and other interested parties on the present extent and future possibilities for inter-utility cooperation. The questionnaire and its results are presented. It was found that there already exists a significant amount of inter-utility cooperation in Canada. Such cooperation generally involves interchanges of economy energy, non-economic capacity and energy, coordinated operation, resource sharing, maintenance scheduling, emergency supports, etc. There is a very limited degree of integrated generation expansion planning. Typically, these agreements are carried out under interconnection agreements negotiated on a bi-lateral basis. The highest current degree of cooperation exists under the auspices of the Alberta interconnected power system pool. Wheeling is limited and generally restricted to cases where the sender and receiver are the same entity or where power is wheeled to a utility purchasing it from the wheeler's system. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Utilization trend of wood species utilized in furniture industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization trend of four commonly used wood species and two lesser used wood species that are used for furniture making was examined. The wood species are Mansonia altissima (Mansonia), Khaya ivorensis (Khaya), Cordia millenii (Cordia) and Tectona grandis (Teak) as commonly used wood species; Aningeria ...

  5. The NRC and utility finances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byus, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    In a speech before the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners in November 1991, Nuclear Regulatory Commission Chairman Ivan Selin presented what he called an open-quotes expansion of the concept of safety beyond our previous narrow bounds.close quotes He went on to explain, open-quotes To be seen as successful and safe operators of nuclear facilities, utilities must have safe and predictable cash flows.close quotes While there is little disagreement that the concepts of successful plant operations and financial strength go hand in hand, the relationship between the two is not clear. Which came first, successful operation of generating plants or financial strength? Selin's views on NRC involvement in financial aspects of utility operation in the United States are sure to stimulate debate on the issue

  6. The European Utility Requirement Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  7. Calculating utility prudency issue costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry, particularly utilities and their construction, engineering and vendor agents, is faced with a surging increase in prudency management audits. What started as primarily a nuclear project-oriented requirement has spread to encompass most significant utility capital construction projects. Such audits are often a precedent condition to commencement of rate hearings. The cost engineer, a primary major capital construction project participant, is required to develop or critique ''prudency issue'' costs as part of such audits. Although utility costs in the broadest sense are potentially at issue, this paper concentrates on the typical project/construction management costs. The costs of design, procurement and construction are all subject to the calculation process

  8. Utility applications and broadband networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebra, R.; Taylor, P.

    2003-02-01

    A detailed analytical model of a cable network that would be capable of providing utilities with such services as automatic meter reading, on-line ability to remotely connect and disconnect commodity service, outage notification, tamper detection, direct utility-initiated load control, indirect user prescribed load control, and user access to energy consumption information, is described. The paper provides an overview of of the zones of focus that must be addressed -- market assessment, competitive analysis, product identification, economic model development, assessment of skill set requirements, performance monitoring and tracking, and various technical issues -- to identify any gaps in the organisation's ability to fully develop such a plan. Developers of the model field tested it in 1995 using some benchmarks that were available at that time, and found that the benefit afforded by direct labor saving was not sufficient to cover the capital expenditure of the advanced utility gateway connected to the cable network. However, since 1995 the unanticipated shift in the derived consumer value from a host of cable-based communications services has rendered these original projections irrelevant. Since national communications organizations concentrate on 'tier one' or at best 'tier two' cities (roughly corresponding to the NFL franchise cities and baseball farm team cities), the uncovered rural and suburban areas of the country create a significant digital divide within the population. The developers of the model contend that these unserviced areas provide utilities, especially municipal utilities, with an excellent opportunity to step into the gap and provide a full range of services that includes water, electricity and communications. The proposed model provides the foundation for utilities upon which to base their ultimate implementation decisions.

  9. 24 CFR 5.632 - Utility reimbursements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Payment § 5.632 Utility reimbursements. (a) Applicability. This... the utility supplier to pay the utility bill on behalf of the family. If the PHA elects to pay the utility supplier, the PHA must notify the family of the amount paid to the utility supplier. (3) In the...

  10. 'Utility marketing' as an oxymoron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedge, P.

    1996-01-01

    Electricity industry restructuring through the elimination of monopolies and the introduction of competition was examined. A distinction was made between marketing a product and brand marketing, emphasizing the customer loyalty, customer confidence and high profitability associated with brand names. The meaning of 'brand' in general and particularly in relation to electric power was explained. The old and the new utilities world were contrasted, and the place and importance of marketing in the deregulated, customer choice-based, market-driven new utilities world was described

  11. Environmental issues: I - Energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental issues and policies. Overall, the paper also examines several issues related to energy utilization, environment, sustainable development from both current and future perspectives, and energy use and its environmental impacts in the transportation sector. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations are presented in the form to be beneficial to energy scientists, engineers and energy policy makers. (author)

  12. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  13. E-Commerce for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malicky, M. [Metzler and Associates, Deerfield, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of E-Commerce by energy utility and service companies was discussed. E-Commerce was described as being all communication via the web including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce communication includes the exchange of information, data, money services, products, ideas, conversations, knowledge, inventory and events. E-Commerce can be applied to electric and gas utilities to enhance energy marketing, delivery, retail energy, energy services, retail services and customer satisfaction. This means of communication is quickly becoming an essential part of customer care strategy. It reduces costs and improves performance. It was forecasted that E-Commerce will more than double from 1998 to 2001. 15 refs.

  14. `Utility marketing` as an oxymoron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedge, P. [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Electricity industry restructuring through the elimination of monopolies and the introduction of competition was examined. A distinction was made between marketing a product and brand marketing, emphasizing the customer loyalty, customer confidence and high profitability associated with brand names. The meaning of `brand` in general and particularly in relation to electric power was explained. The old and the new utilities world were contrasted, and the place and importance of marketing in the deregulated, customer choice-based, market-driven new utilities world was described.

  15. Thorium utilization in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraceno; Marcos.

    1978-10-01

    In this work the recent (prior to Aug, 1976) literature on thorium utilization is reviewed briefly and the available information is updated. After reviewing the nuclear properties relevant to the thorium fuel cycle we describe briefly the reactor systems that have been proposed using thorium as a fertile material. (author) [es

  16. Breaking into the utility market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argue, D.; Rubinoff, M.

    1992-01-01

    The wind energy industry in Canada must displace competition from government protected conventional energy industries if it is to gain a market position. This hypothesis is discussed for the case of Ontario, where the provincial utility has historically focused on nuclear, large hydro, and coal-fired sources. It is alleged that the utility has consistently underestimated costs for conventional energy sources and overestimated those for renewable sources such as wind power. Research by a coalition of environmental groups is cited to show that avoided generation costs in Ontario range from 8 cents/kWh for off-peak periods to a high of 12 cents/kWh during peak periods. At these values, even the utility's high cost estimates of $1,890-$2,600/kW for wind turbines and wind farms indicates cost effectiveness. Estimates of the added costs of conventional energy developments (the costs of environmental impacts not taken into account in conventional utility accounting) range from 1.1 cents/kWh for gas combined cycle cogeneration to 4.4 cents/kWh for existing coal-fired plants. By taking this kind of information to public hearings on energy developments, the wind energy industry can help establish new standards for evaluating conventional energy technology

  17. Natural gas for utility generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1992-01-01

    Forecasters predict that natural gas will be the dominant fuel choice for utility capacity additions in the coming decade and that power generation will be by far the largest growth market for gas sales. While gas's low emissions, high efficiency potential, and present low cost argue persuasively for a surge in gas-fired generation, many utilities have been slow to commit to a gas future, citing reasoned concern about long-term price trends and the ability of gas suppliers to deliver the fuel where and when it will be needed. Meanwhile, the relatively low cost of gas-fired units is providing an opportunity for independent power producers to compete strongly with utilities for generation contracts. EPRI studies suggest that a sound, competitive strategy will be based not on how much gas a utility burns, but rather on how this capacity fits into its overall generating mix at various fuel price levels. Gas suppliers will need to pay special attention to the operating needs of power generators if they are to solidify this important market

  18. Utilities practices toward sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The strategy toward a Sustainable Development is not standardised and it is useful to compare approaches of companies. WG C3.03 analysed a number of Sustainability Reports or Environmental Reports, published by Utilities, exposing their current approaches to the three 'Pillars': environmental aspects, society development and economical performances. Case studies, relevant to the three 'Pillars', show examples of practices

  19. Utility of spoken dialog systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available the evolution of poken dialog system research in the developed world, and show that the utility of speech is based on user factors and application factors (among others). After adjusting the factors for the developing world context, and plotting...

  20. Utility impact on STARFIRE design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFreece, D.A.; Waganer, L.M.; Woklenhauer, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A primary objective of STARFIRE has been to design a tokamak fusion power plant that was attractive to the utilities. To achieve this goal, several utility representatives were directly involved in the decision-making processes as the design evolved. An initial step was to establish the relative importance to the utilities for an extensive list of economic, performance, safety and environmental issues. The top twenty issues were ranked. Cost of electricity was clearly most important with very little spread in the ratings of individual evaluators. Licensing is a go/no-go factor and must be accomplished for the other factors to have meaning. The top nine factors were judged to be very important by all evaluators, as was shown by the spread of ratings from 5 to 10. There is considerably more spread in the bottom eleven, which reflects a lack of consensus as to the relative importance of the evaluation factors. This evaluation was utilized in establishing the initial design concept

  1. Solar energy storage and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W.; Bloom, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A method of storing solar energy in the ground for heating residential buildings is described. The method would utilize heat exchanger pipes with a circulating fluid to transfer the energy beneath the surface as well as to extract the stored energy.

  2. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  3. Utilizing Twitter for Concept Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Armand; Holdan, E. Gregory; Rota, Daniel; McCarthy, John

    2016-01-01

    Despite the perception that face-to-face classrooms provide speaking opportunities, studies by Fassinger (1995), Nunn (1996), and Weimer (2013) have conveyed that there is limited interaction in a traditional college lecture setting. Social media networks such as Twitter provide an opportunity for instructors to utilize popular mobile technology…

  4. Expected utility with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory...

  5. Utilization technology on slurried ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Yoshio; Yasuda, Minoru; Furuki, Yasuhiko [The Coal Mining Research Centre, Japan, Tokyo, Japan; Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1987-08-01

    Three research results of the utilization technology on slurried ash were reported. As for the utilization as the fly ash quick setting (FQS) backfill grout for tail void in shield works of tunneling, grout blending was simplified, the blended solution of cement, clay, additives and water was stabilized, and a favorable workability and long term durability were obtained. As for the utilization as the material of a SMW (soil mixing wall) method for continuous walls in long shaft digging, a fly ash-gypsum-cement (FGC) stabilizer showed an excellent workability and remarkably high water-tightness as compared with conventional cement bentonite. As for the utilization as the material of an injection method of overlay mats in foundation works of light weight structures on the sea bed mud foundation, since a FGC concrete weight in water was remarkably light as 0.7t/m{sup 3}, no both large mold form strength and vibration compacting were required. 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Production and utilization of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Toshiaki; Matsuoka, Hiromitsu

    1999-01-01

    A plan of developing radioisotopes with a high power proton accelerator of the Neutron Science Project is presented. The status of production and utilization of radioisotopes in Japan is briefly discussed. The radioisotopes to be produced for biomedical use are discussed together with the facility for production of those radioisotopes and for research with the products. (author)

  7. Waste heat utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Proceedings contain 17 papers presented at meetings of the Working Group for Waste Heat Utilization of the Committee of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture of which 7 fall under the INIS scope. The working group met in May 1980 in Brno, Czechoslovakia, in October 1981 in Aberdeen, Scotland and in September 1982 in Brno. (Z.M.)

  8. Utilization and management of alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Briggs; Dean S. DeBell; William A. Atkinson

    1978-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia, red alder often grows on forest lands following natural or man-caused disturbances. Frequently ignored as a pest or weed, many alder stands have developed to the point where important utilization and management questions are being asked. It is recognized that alder is a fast growing species, and that its rapid early growth...

  9. TWRS LDUA utilization study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Tank Waste Remediation Systems functional requirements were reviewed. The Light Duty Utility Arm capabilities were considered as a means to support completion of these functional requirements. The recommendation is made to continue to develop the LDUA, integrating TWRS functional needs into the design to better support completion of TWRS mission needs

  10. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  11. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of

  12. Robot transparency, trust and utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Robert H.; Theodorou, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    As robot reasoning becomes more complex, debugging becomes increasingly hard based solely on observable behaviour, even for robot designers and technical specialists. Similarly, non-specialist users have difficulty creating useful mental models of robot reasoning from observations of robot behaviour. The EPSRC Principles of Robotics mandate that our artefacts should be transparent, but what does this mean in practice, and how does transparency affect both trust and utility? We investigate this relationship in the literature and find it to be complex, particularly in nonindustrial environments where, depending on the application and purpose of the robot, transparency may have a wider range of effects on trust and utility. We outline our programme of research to support our assertion that it is nevertheless possible to create transparent agents that are emotionally engaging despite having a transparent machine nature.

  13. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  14. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. New Energy Utility Business Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2016-01-01

    Recently a lot of big changes happened in the power sector: energy efficiency and renewable energy sources are quickly progressing, distributed or decentralised generation of electricity is expanding, climate change requires reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and price volatility and incertitude of fossil fuel supply is common. Those changes have led to obsolescence of vertically integrated business models which have dominated in energy utility organisations for a hundred years and new business models are being introduced. Those models take into account current changes in the power sector and enable a wider application of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially for consumers, with the decentralisation of electricity generation and complying with the requirements of climate and environment preservation. New business models also solve the questions of financial compensations for utilities because of the reduction of centralised energy generation while contributing to local development and employment.(author).

  16. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  17. RTNS-II utilization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwilsky, Klaus M.

    1978-09-01

    This plan describes a general program for the effective utilization of this resource by the fusion materials community. Because its flux is low relative to levels expected in commercial fusion reactors, the RINS-II is not expected to produce data of direct engineering significance (with some exceptions). Rather, it will be used chiefly to aid in the development of models of high energy neutron effects. Such models are needed in projecting engineering data obtained in high flux fission reactors to the fusion environment. Fission reactors, because of their relatively soft neutron spectra, cannot produce the high ratio of transmutations to displacements (except in an important special case) or the high energy recoil atoms appropriate to fusion reactors utilizing the D-T reaction.

  18. Neutron dosimeter utilizing CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, H.V.C. de.

    1991-05-01

    A personnel neutron dosimeter has been developed with discretization in a wide range of energies of real interest, utilizing the CR-39 polymer, to detect recoil protons in the fast range, and alpha particles in the thermal and epithermal ranges, with possibility to be disposed in the IRD/CNEN's conventional film badge suport. They are presented, abstractly, the difficulties and importance of the neutron dosimetry, beyond the general objectives that motivated this work execution. The details of the materials utilized in the dosimeter confection, and the experimental methodology employed to obtain the performance curves are presented. The results about linearity response of the dosimeter with respect to equivalent dose, in a wide range of doses, and about the verified angular dependence are analysed. (author)

  19. Strategy for utilizing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    One of the national goals is to achieve independence in the area of energy supplies in the next few years. It is believed that attaining this goal will require extensive utilization of nuclear power in conventional fission reactors. It is proposed that the best way to develop the nuclear resource is through government ownership of the reactors. It is argued that this will minimize the risks associated with the nuclear-power option and clear the way for its exploitation

  20. FAIR VALUE: UTILITY AND LIMITS

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Gabriel Cristea

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the utility and the limits of the fair value. We believe that any new product must be tried and tested before being imposed on the market and must be accepted by all potential users and those who will be affected, directly or indirectly and its advantages, disadvantages, risks, its cost must be predetermined and analyzed in a comprehensive and objective.We ask: Do financial statements at fair value meet users' expectations? The requirement to use fair value pricing mode...

  1. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  2. Environmental impacts of energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, C.P.C. do; Orsini, C.M.Q.; Rodrigues, D.; Barolli, E.; Nogueira, F.R.; Bosco, F.A.R.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.

    1981-04-01

    A survey is done of the available data on the physical environmental impacts in Brazil, derived from energetic systems such as: petroleum, hydroelectricity, firewood, coal, ethanol, methanol and hydrogen. A critical evalution of these data is done with respect to the preservation of the environment. The necessity of studying the environmental impact of the utilization of ethanol, nuclear fuels and coal is stressed. (M.A.) [pt

  3. Developing utility emergency preparedness exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1986-01-01

    Utility emergency preparedness exercises constitute an important link in upgrading the response to nuclear power plant emergencies. Various emergency exercises are arranged annually at the Loviisa nuclear power plant. The on-site simulator is a practical tool in developing suitable accident scenarios and demonstrating them to the site emergency players and spectators. The exercises concentrate on emergency management and radiological activities. It is important to create a high degree of motivation. (author)

  4. Deprival value: information utility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Marco Antonio; Pinto, Alexandre Evaristo; Barbosa Neto, João Estevão; Martins, Eliseu

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article contributes to the perception that the users’ learning process plays a key role in order to apply an accounting concept and this involves a presentation that fits its informative potential, free of previous accounting fixations. Deprival value is a useful measure for managerial and corporate purposes, it may be applied to the current Conceptual Framework of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). This study analyzes its utility, taking into account cognitive...

  5. FFTF utilization for irradiation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, D.C.; Julyk, L.J.; Hoth, C.W.; McGuire, J.C.; Sloan, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about 50 test assemblies throughout the early FFTF operating cycles

  6. Selenium Utilization Strategy by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Araie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of selenoproteins raises the question of why so many life forms require selenium. Selenoproteins are found in bacteria, archaea, and many eukaryotes. In photosynthetic microorganisms, the essential requirement for selenium has been reported in 33 species belonging to six phyla, although its biochemical significance is still unclear. According to genome databases, 20 species are defined as selenoprotein-producing organisms, including five photosynthetic organisms. In a marine coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta, we recently found unique characteristics of selenium utilization and novel selenoproteins using 75Se-tracer experiments. In E. huxleyi, selenite, not selenate, is the main substrate used and its uptake is driven by an ATP-dependent highaffinity, active transport system. Selenite is immediately metabolized to low-molecular mass compounds and partly converted to at least six selenoproteins, named EhSEP1–6. The most (EhSEP2 and second-most abundant selenoproteins (EhSEP1 are disulfide isomerase (PDI homologous protein and thioredoxin reductase (TR 1, respectively. Involvement of selenium in PDI is unique in this organism, while TR1 is also found in other organisms. In this review, we summarize physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of selenium utilization by microalgae and discuss their strategy of selenium utilization.

  7. Purchasing non-utility power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackeen, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses Houston Lighting and Power Company's procedure for purchasing power from cogenerators. By way of introduction, HL and P is the eighth largest electric utility in the United States in terms of kilowatt-hour sales and the second largest purchaser of natural gas in the nation. HL and P is also the principal utility providing electric service to the massive petrochemical industry in Southeast Texas. Of the 4,800 MW of cogeneration available, HL and P buys 945 MW under firm contracts, wheel 1,600 MW to other utilities, buy 400 MW under non-firm contracts and the balance is self-generation used to displace power which would otherwise be purchased from HL and P. With all this cogeneration capacity available, the problem until recently has been managing the surplus. HL and P now is finding itself in the unaccustomed position of needing to buy additional power or build plants to meet the modest growth it forecasts for Houston. The need for additional capacity coincides with the expiration of cogeneration contracts in 1993 and 1994. To meet this capacity need, they are determined to avoid buying cogeneration at a very high price and on delivery terms which do not reflect realistic benefits to their electric customers. The paper gives information on the background on PUC regulations and legislation, then briefly reviews the procedure for purchase of cogenerated power in Texas

  8. Plant design and beam utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    Plant design and beam utilization are two things closely tied together: without a proper plant design, one can never get good beam utilization. When a company decides to build an irradiation facility, there are some major decisions to be made right in the beginning. These decisions can be most important for the long-term success or failure of the irradiation facility, because the company normally will have to live with these decisions during the whole life-time of the irradiation equipment. To start with the decision has to be made whether to select a cobalt-60 irradiation plant or an accelerator irradiation plant. This decision can only be reached after a careful study of the products and the 'weight' and the material of the products the company wants to irradiate. As an old accelerator-man, I tend to personally favor accelerators, although I am very impressed by the newer cobalt-60 pallet irradiation plants from A.E.C.L. I believe that they have a great future in the emerging field of food irradiation. As I have primarily been involved with accelerators during the last 14 years, this paper is only dealing with different design approaches and utilizations of accelerator-plants. (author)

  9. Simple utility functions with Giffen demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences......Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences...

  10. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, H. R.

    2005-06-01

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO, Operation and Management of HANARO Homepage, HANARO Workshop 2004, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users, Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  11. Promotion of HANARO utilization for year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J. M.; Park, K. B.; Kim, Y. J.

    2004-06-01

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. - The neutron usage fee in HANARO - Achievements of HANARO utilization - Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO - Management of HANARO Homepage - HANARO Workshop 2003 - Operation and Management of HANARO related committees - Training of HANARO users - Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  12. Promotion of HANARO utilization for year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J. M.; Park, K. B.; Kim, Y. J.

    2003-06-01

    Object and importance to activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for activation of the research using HANARO, Management of HANARO homepage, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users, Establishment of user-room, Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  13. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Jun, B. J. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO. Achievements of HANARO utilization. Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO. HANARO Symposium. Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index. Operation and Management of HANARO Server. Management of HANARO related committees. Training of HANARO users. Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future.

  14. Integrating photovoltaics into utility distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Barnes, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy sources vary from site to site and utility to utility. The objective of this paper is to examine several utility- and site-specific conditions which may affect economic viability of distributed PV applications to utility systems. Assessment methodology compatible with technical and economic assessment techniques employed by utility engineers and planners is employed to determine PV benefits for seven different utility systems. The seven case studies are performed using utility system characteristics and assumptions obtained from appropriate utility personnel. The resulting site-specific distributed PV benefits increase nonsite-specific generation system benefits available to central station PV plants as much as 46%, for one utility located in the Southwest

  15. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  16. Vision 2021. The utilities future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liere, J van [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    The electricity industry is gradually making the transition to a free market economy characterized by competition. With the arrival of a more market-oriented structure, the electricity companies have taken measures to reduce costs while retaining reliability and safety of the production and distribution. Today the majority of these efforts are oriented towards optimizing the scope and the structure of the organizations and towards streamlining internal processes in order to improve productivity. Throughout the world, the increasing competition among utilities is accompanied by the unbundling of production, transport, distribution and customer service functions. There is a remarkable similarity between the transitions in the computer industry some years ago (from main frame to personal PC`s) and in the electric utility industry today. The new structure is expected to be less centralized and more dispersed. In the dispersed generation concept the locally deployed power plant must become smaller, more flexible, more efficient and less expensive than today`s power plants. Power generation is gradually changing from a steam cycle (Rankine cycle) via the combined cycle to the gas cycle (Brayton cycle). The fuel used to power the gas turbine is expected to change in the future from high calorific to low calorific gas, generated from biomass, waste, oil residues, blast furnaces, coal, etc. Five new areas to be addressed have been identified that can be characterized as follows: (a) improved utilization of capital-intensive production resources to reduce costs, (b) electrification and the supply of heat to increase sales and market share, (c) sustainable developments to broaden our future resource base, (d) improved efficiency based on the Brayton cycle to increase flexibility, (e) development of energy services with new secondary services to stay in the market. (EG) 10 refs.

  17. Resource utilization during software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses resource utilization over the life cycle of software development and discusses the role that the current 'waterfall' model plays in the actual software life cycle. Software production in the NASA environment was analyzed to measure these differences. The data from 13 different projects were collected by the Software Engineering Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and analyzed for similarities and differences. The results indicate that the waterfall model is not very realistic in practice, and that as technology introduces further perturbations to this model with concepts like executable specifications, rapid prototyping, and wide-spectrum languages, we need to modify our model of this process.

  18. Economical electricity supply and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, K

    1980-05-01

    During the first oil crisis in 1973, hundreds of millions of D-marks have been wasted by medium-sized businesses in the FRG due to avoidable losses and increased electricity costs. Serious attempts towards excluding such losses have to be initiated by an analysis of the individual technical conditions of an enterprise and by consultations 'on site'. Problems relating to an economical electricity supply and utilization in medium-sized industrial enterprises are discussed in this article from the point of view of an industrial consultant being an expert in this field. Practical examples are also given.

  19. FAIR VALUE: UTILITY AND LIMITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel Cristea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utility and the limits of the fair value. We believe that any new product must be tried and tested before being imposed on the market and must be accepted by all potential users and those who will be affected, directly or indirectly and its advantages, disadvantages, risks, its cost must be predetermined and analyzed in a comprehensive and objective.We ask: Do financial statements at fair value meet users' expectations? The requirement to use fair value pricing model that was carrying was not accompanied by a parallel examination of its impact on the presentation of accounts.

  20. 236-Z canyon utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The 236-Z canyon contains equipment for repurification of plutonium and recovery of plutonium from scrap material. To meet production requirements of Fast Flux Test Facility/Clinch River Breeder Reactor oxide with the existing plant, several new pieces of equipment will be needed in the future. More storage space and a better accountability system are needed to support this increased production. The available canyon space needs to be utilized to its fullest in order to accommodate the new equipment. The purpose of this document is to identify the new pieces of equipment, show how they fit into the flowsheet, and locate them in the canyon

  1. Transforming your Municipal Electric Utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, P.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on what municipalities should and can do to prepare for a competitive energy market in Ontario. Particular attention was given to business strategies, restructuring and transformation of the Municipal Electric Utilities (MEU). Issues and questions regarding ownership were also discussed. Each municipality will have to decide what is the most appropriate governance and organizational structure for their MEU. It was noted that one of the most contentious areas is refinancing and rate structures. Issues regarding merger or partnering options were also discussed. 1 tab

  2. Direct utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010) which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005). This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MW th , almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO 2 being released to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity). (author)

  3. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  4. Support for cold neutron utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Han, Young Soo; Choi, Sungmin; Choi, Yong; Kwon, Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hee

    2012-06-01

    - Support for experiments by users of cold neutron scattering instrument - Short-term training of current and potential users of cold neutron scattering instrument for their effective use of the instrument - International collaboration for advanced utilization of cold neutron scattering instruments - Selection and training of qualified instrument scientists for vigorous research endeavors and outstanding achievements in experiments with cold neutron - Research on nano/bio materials using cold neutron scattering instruments - Bulk nano structure measurement using small angle neutron scattering and development of analysis technique

  5. Kyoto : implications for utility regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsky, P.

    2003-01-01

    The author provided a historical perspective of energy use and the role of carbon in the western hemisphere by displaying a series of graphs showing carbon intensity of energy, carbon emissions from energy, and the long path to green power. The 1990s represented a decade of progress. Almost three times as much wind capacity as nuclear capacity was added worldwide in 2001. The main challenge for the 21st century will be to bring under-developed countries into the fold while perpetuating the economic and human progress of the twentieth century. It was emphasized that environmental damage caused by utilities must be reversed. The contemporary context for the Kyoto Protocol was reviewed. Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The challenge for utility regulators to meet this commitment was examined. The costs are not entirely excessive. Some of the regulatory issues were discussed, namely revising a broad rate making framework, cost recovery and others. The Kyoto compliance plan was also reviewed with reference to internal options, external options, identification of regulatory barriers, and consideration of greenhouse gas credit markets. figs

  6. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  7. Inter-utility trade review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaahedi, E.; Poirier, R.; Necsulescu, C.; Warnes, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Board (NEB) was requested by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources to identify possible measures to improve cooperation among Canadian electrical utilities and to enhance access for Canadian buyers and sellers of electricity to available transmission capacity through intervening systems for wheeling purposes. To identify measures for enhancing transmission access, two projects were initiated: a study of technical issues associated with wheeling, and quantification of potential wheeling benefits. The first project examined the technical and economic problems associated with wheeling, while the second used computer simulation to quantify benefits of wheeling. The projects are described together with a historical review of wheeling in Canada. The following conclusions where reached: there seems to be enough wheeling benefits (a 6-10% increase in benefits) to justify its promotion; wheeling should be performed on a voluntary basis; the wheeling utility should make the final decisions regarding the ability of the system to wheel power and the need for system improvements; pricing should be flexible, reflecting the conditions of the service; the buy/sell type of arrangement which disregards the transmission path may be the preferred wheeling arrangement; and if negotiation fails to resolve conflicts over pricing, arbitration is suggested as an effective means for resolving disputes. 6 refs., 6 figs

  8. Chinese Manned Space Utility Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.

    Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured

  9. Managing change in nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has undergone change since inception, but never so much as now. The rewards for proactively changing in anticipation of emerging demands are great, but the cost of failure is also great. Today nuclear plants are being shut down by socio-political and economic processes. The survival of the technology as a clean energy source for the future depends on the demonstration of long term safety to the public, protection of the environment, and economic superiority to competing energy sources. The overriding influence on these factors is strong management of the business with effective regulation. In particular it is necessary for both utility and regulator to believe that enhancing safety is part of being successful. This publication has been developed for all levels of management who are developing and implementing changes within their areas of responsibility. The safety conscious, continuous improvement, management culture, which has proven successful in today's nuclear business, has taken time to develop. Many utilities have difficulty sustaining this culture during the transitions that are intrinsic to change. Properly managed however, changes can enhance nuclear safety, plant reliability and cost competitiveness, from the design stage to decommissioning. Change has no respect for timing and regardless of the level of experience managers may have in its management, large scale change is confronting every nuclear utility world wide. These take the form of government policy changes, open market demands, privatization with the demand for increased shareholder returns, regulatory and social pressures, and economic and political transition. The danger from such issues for the nuclear company executive and the regulator is that they are powerful distractions, particularly for those executives who are not experienced in the unique managerial requirements of the nuclear business. This report gathers the experience of Member States into an array of

  10. Managing change in nuclear utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has undergone change since inception, but never so much as now. The rewards for proactively changing in anticipation of emerging demands are great, but the cost of failure is also great. Today nuclear plants are being shut down by socio-political and economic processes. The survival of the technology as a clean energy source for the future depends on the demonstration of long term safety to the public, protection of the environment, and economic superiority to competing energy sources. The overriding influence on these factors is strong management of the business with effective regulation. In particular it is necessary for both utility and regulator to believe that enhancing safety is part of being successful. This publication has been developed for all levels of management who are developing and implementing changes within their areas of responsibility. The safety conscious, continuous improvement, management culture, which has proven successful in today's nuclear business, has taken time to develop. Many utilities have difficulty sustaining this culture during the transitions that are intrinsic to change. Properly managed however, changes can enhance nuclear safety, plant reliability and cost competitiveness, from the design stage to decommissioning. Change has no respect for timing and regardless of the level of experience managers may have in its management, large scale change is confronting every nuclear utility world wide. These take the form of government policy changes, open market demands, privatization with the demand for increased shareholder returns, regulatory and social pressures, and economic and political transition. The danger from such issues for the nuclear company executive and the regulator is that they are powerful distractions, particularly for those executives who are not experienced in the unique managerial requirements of the nuclear business. This report gathers the experience of Member States into an array of

  11. NON-EXPECTED UTILITY THEORIES: WEIGHTED EXPECTED, RANK DEPENDENT, AND CUMULATIVE PROSPECT THEORY UTILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Tuthill, Jonathan W.; Frechette, Darren L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the failings of expected utility including the Allais paradox and expected utility's inadequate one dimensional characterization of risk. Three alternatives to expected utility are discussed at length; weighted expected utility, rank dependent utility, and cumulative prospect theory. Each alternative is capable of explaining Allais paradox type problems and permits more sophisticated multi dimensional risk preferences.

  12. NNP-LANL Utilities - Condition Assessment and Project Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Grant Lorenz [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-21

    This report is a presentation on LANL Utilities & Transportation Asset Management; Utility Assets Overview; Condition Assessment; Utilities Project Nominations & Ranking; and Utilities Project Execution.

  13. New record in peat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Increment of peat utilization that started in 1990 continued also in 1991, due to which new record was achieved. Peat delivery increased 11.2 % from 16.1 million m 3 in 1990 to 17.9 million m 3 in 1991. The portion of energy peat was 16.4 million m 3 , and the portion of peat for other purposes 1.5 million m 3 . The energy content of fuel peat was 15.8 TWh, of which 13.8 TWh was milled peat and 2.0 TWh sod peat. The main portion of energy peat was used in communal back-pressure power plants for production of electricity and district heat. The second largest utilizer was industry. The rests 0.3 TWh (2 %) was delivered to private small scale utilization and export. About 88 000 MWh of sod peat was exported to Sweden. The portion of horticultural peat of the peat delivered for other purposes than energy production was 662 000 m 3 , of which only 260 000 m 3 was used in Finland and 408 000 m 3 was exported. Agriculture is the main user of peat outside the energy production. Weakly humified peat was used as litter and as absorber for slurrified manure about 286 000 m 3 . The value of the deliveries of peat industry exeeded 800 million FIM, of which the portion of milled peat was about 650 million FIM, the portion of sod peat about 95 million FIM, and the portion of domestic deliveries of horticultural peat 30 million FIM. The export of peat was 36 million FIM. Peat production in 1991 was 10.605 million m 3 , which is nearly a half of the production of 1990. The decrease was caused by both poor weather of may-june 1991 and the large peat supplies from the year 1990. About 60 % of the production target of 1991 was achieved. The production of sod peat increased by over 50 % from 736 000 m 3 in 1990 to 1 147 000 m 3 in 1991

  14. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  15. Electret dosimeter utilizing gas multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeya, M.; Miki, T.

    1980-01-01

    It was found that the high electric field around the surface of an electret leads to cascade multiplication of the ionization process in a surrounding gas. Very sensitive charge decay constants of the order of 1mrad, were obtained for electrets composed of polyvinyliden fluoride or teflon polymers. The reduced charge is stable and can be utilized in personnel dosimetry. A simple pocket chamber dosimeter is described consisting of a small speaker or buzzer, a cylindrical chamber filled with air, argon or other gases, a polymer thermoelectret foil and an electrode. The sonic vibration of the foil induces an alternating charge on the electrode which is amplified and detected. The feasibility of this dosimeter and its shock and vibration resistance have been demonstrated. (author)

  16. Geothermal energy utilization and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, Mary H; Fanelli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal energy refers to the heat contained within the Earth that generates geological phenomena on a planetary scale. Today, this term is often associated with man's efforts to tap into this vast energy source. Geothermal Energy: utilization and technology is a detailed reference text, describing the various methods and technologies used to exploit the earth's heat. Beginning with an overview of geothermal energy and the state of the art, leading international experts in the field cover the main applications of geothermal energy, including: electricity generation space and district heating space cooling greenhouse heating aquaculture industrial applications The final third of the book focuses upon environmental impact and economic, financial and legal considerations, providing a comprehensive review of these topics. Each chapter is written by a different author, but to a set style, beginning with aims and objectives and ending with references, self-assessment questions and answers. Case studies are includ...

  17. Virginia ADS consortium - thorium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myneni, Ganapati

    2015-01-01

    A Virginia ADS consortium, consisting of Virginia Universities (UVa, VCU, VT), Industry (Casting Analysis Corporation, GEM*STAR, MuPlus Inc.), Jefferson Lab and not-for-profit ISOHIM, has been organizing International Accelerator-Driven Sub-Critical Systems (ADS) and Thorium Utilization (ThU) workshops. The third workshop of this series was hosted by VCU in Richmond, Virginia, USA Oct 2014 with CBMM and IAEA sponsorship and was endorsed by International Thorium Energy Committee (IThEC), Geneva and Virginia Nuclear Energy Consortium Authority. In this presentation a brief summary of the successful 3 rd International ADS and ThU workshop proceedings and review the worldwide ADS plans and/or programs is given. Additionally, a report on new start-ups on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) systems is presented. Further, a discussion on potential simplistic fertile 232 Th to fissile 233 U conversion is made

  18. News technology utilization fossil fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blišanová Monika

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel – “alternative energy“ is coal, petroleum, natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are scarce resources, but they are delimited. Reserves petroleum will be depleted after 39 years and reserves natural gas after 60 years.World reserves coal are good for another 240 years. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. It is the least expensive energy source for generating electricity. Many environmental problems associated with use of coal:in coal production, mining creates environmental problems.On Slovakia representative coal only important internal fuel – power of source and coal is produced in 5 locality. Nowadays, oneself invest to new technology on utilization coal. Perspective solution onself shows UCG, IGCC.

  19. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  20. Utility unbundling : large consumer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, C.

    1997-01-01

    The perspectives of Sunoco as a large user of electric power on utility unbundling were presented. Sunoco's Sarnia refinery runs up an energy bill of over $60 million per year for electricity, natural gas (used both as a feedstock as well as a fuel), natural gas liquids and steam. As a large customer Sunoco advocates unbundling of all services, leaving only the 'pipes and wires' as true monopolies. In their view, regulation distorts the market place and prevents the lower prices that would result from competition as has been seen in the airline and telephone industries. Sunoco's expectation is that in the post-deregulated environment large and small consumers will have a choice of energy supplier, and large consumers will increasingly turn to co-generation as the most desirable way of meeting their power needs

  1. Deprival value: information utility analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article contributes to the perception that the users’ learning process plays a key role in order to apply an accounting concept and this involves a presentation that fits its informative potential, free of previous accounting fixations. Deprival value is a useful measure for managerial and corporate purposes, it may be applied to the current Conceptual Framework of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB. This study analyzes its utility, taking into account cognitive aspects. Also known as value to the business, deprival value is a measurement system that followed a path where it was misunderstood, confused with another one, it faced resistance to be implemented and fell into disuse; everything that a standardized measurement method tries to avoid. In contrast, deprival value has found support in the academy and in specific applications, such as those related to the public service regulation. The accounting area has been impacted by sophistication of the measurement methods that increasingly require the ability to analyze accounting facts on an economic basis, at the risk of loss of their information content. This development becomes possible only when the potential of a measurement system is known and it is feasible to be achieved. This study consists in a theoretical essay based on literature review to discuss its origin, presentation, and application. Considering the concept’s cognitive difficulties, deprival value was analyzed, as well as its corresponding heteronym, value to the business, in order to explain some of these changes. The concept’s utility was also explored through cross-analysis with impairment and the scheme developed was applied to actual economic situations faced by a company listed on stock exchange.

  2. Laboratory cost and utilization containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J W; Root, J M; White, D C

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyzed laboratory costs and utilization in 3,771 cases of Medicare inpatients admitted to a New England academic medical center ("the Hospital") from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1990. The data were derived from the Hospital's Decision Resource System comprehensive data base. The authors established a historical reference point for laboratory costs as a percentage of total inpatient costs using 1981-82 Medicare claims data and cost report information. Inpatient laboratory costs were estimated at 9.5% of total inpatient costs for pre-Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs) Medicare discharges. Using this reference point and adjusting for the Hospital's 1990 case mix, the "expected" laboratory cost was 9.3% of total cost. In fact, the cost averaged 11.5% (i.e., 24% above the expected cost level), and costs represented an even greater percentage of DRG reimbursement at 12.9%. If we regard the reimbursement as a total cost target (to eliminate losses from Medicare), then that 12.9% is 39% above the "expected" laboratory proportion of 9.3%. The Hospital lost an average of $1,091 on each DRG inpatient. The laboratory contributed 29% to this loss per case. Compared to other large hospitals, the Hospital was slightly (3%) above the mean direct cost per on-site test and significantly (58%) above the mean number of inpatient tests per inpatient day compared to large teaching hospitals. The findings suggest that careful laboratory cost analyses will become increasingly important as the proportion of patients reimbursed in a fixed manner grows. The future may hold a prospective zero-based laboratory budgeting process based on predictable patterns of DRG admissions or other fixed-reimbursement admission and laboratory utilization patterns.

  3. Utilization of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Full text: Report on an IAEA interregional training course, Budapest, Hungary, 5-30 November 1979. The course was attended by 19 participants from 16 Member States. Among the 28 training courses which the International Atomic Energy Agency organized within its 1979 programme of technical assistance was the Interregional Training Course on the Utilization of Nuclear Research Reactors. This course was held at the Nuclear Training Reactor (a low-power pool-type reactor) of the Technical University, Budapest, Hungary, from 5 to 30 November 1979 and it was complemented by a one-week Study Tour to the Nuclear Research Centre in Rossendorf near Dresden, German Democratic Republic. The training course was very successful, with 19 participants attending from 16 Member States - Bangladesh, Bolivia, Czechoslovakia, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Iraq, Korean Democratic People's Republic, Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam and Yugoslavia. Selected invited lecturers were recruited from the USA and Finland, as well as local scientists from Hungarian institutions. During the past two decades or so, many research reactors have been put into operation around the world, and the demand for well qualified personnel to run and fully utilize these facilities has increased accordingly. Several developing countries have already acquired small- and medium-size research reactors mainly for isotope production, research in various fields, and training, while others are presently at different stages of planning and installation. Through different sources of information, such as requests to the IAEA for fellowship awards and experts, it became apparent that many research reactors and their associated facilities are not being utilized to their full potential in many of the developing countries. One reason for this is the lack of a sufficient number of trained professionals who are well acquainted with all the capabilities that a research reactor can offer, both in research and

  4. Utility Energy Services Contracts Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

  5. Operating Room Utilization at Frederick Memorial Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    .... A logistical regression analysis was used to identify the impact of variables on operating room utilization rates and therefore help explain how or why some operating rooms incurred higher utilization rates than others...

  6. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  7. UTILIZATION OF 5Es' CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    learning, the effective utilization of which can enhance biology teaching and learning. This paper focused on how ... KEYWORDS: Utilization, 5Es Constructivist approach, difficult concepts, Biology. ... gives hope to the development of the deep.

  8. Evaluating Utility in Diagnostic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Jean R.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of the procedures special educators apply in making decisions about the identification of handicapped individuals has not been thoroughly studied. The paper examines the utility of diagnostic decision making from the perspective of receiver operating curve analysis. (Author)

  9. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  10. Urban ecology and the municipal utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools......Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools...

  11. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  12. 49 CFR 218.22 - Utility employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utility employee. 218.22 Section 218.22... employee. (a) A utility employee shall be subject to the Hours of Service Act, and the requirements for... parts 217, 219, and 228 of this chapter. (b) A utility employee shall perform service as a member of...

  13. Integration of SPS with utility system networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupang, B.M.

    1980-06-01

    This paper will discuss the integration of SPS power in electric utility power systems. Specifically treated will be the nature of the power output variations from the spacecraft to the rectenna, the operational characteristics of the rectenna power and the impacts on the electric utility system from utilizing SPS power to serve part of the system load.

  14. Multiservice utility plug for remote fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Jensen, D.A.

    1979-10-01

    This paper presents the design of a multiservice utility plug and drive system to be used for reliably engaging and disengaging all utility connections automatically that serve large portable equipment modules. The modules are arranged into a fuel processing production line within the Fuels and Materials Examination Laboratory. The utility plugs allow the modules to be easily replaced, rearranged or removed for maintenance

  15. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  16. Proceedings: 1993 fuel oil utilization workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The primary objective of the Workshop was to utilize the experiences of utility personnel and continue the interchange of information related to fuel oil issues. Participants also identified technical problem areas in which EPRI might best direct its efforts in research and development of fuel oil utilization and to improve oil-fired steam generating systems' performance. Speakers presented specific fuel projects conducted at their particular utilities, important issues in the utilization of fuel oil, studies conducted or currently in the process of being completed, and information on current and future regulations for fuel utilization. Among the major topics addressed at the 1993 Fuel Oil Utilization Workshop were burner and ESP improvements for the reduction of particulate and NO x emissions, practical experience in utilization of low API gravity residual fuel oils, the use of models to predict the spread of oil spills on land, implementing OPA 90 preparedness and response strategies planning, a report on the annual Utility Oil Buyers Conference, ASTM D-396 specification for No. 6 fuel oil, the utilization of Orimulsion reg-sign in utility boilers, recent progress on research addressing unburned carbon and opacity from oil-fired utility boilers, EPRI's hazardous air pollutant monitoring and implications for residual fuel oil, and the feasibility of toxic metals removal from residual fuel oils. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  17. Activation of HANARO utilization for year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Kang, Y. H.

    2002-04-01

    In order to activate the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. Receipt of neutron usage fee in HANARO, Technical support to use the HANARO utilization facilities, technical support to activate research using HANARO, development and management of HANARO homepage, organization of HANARO Workshop 2001, management of HANARO related committees, training of HANARO users and related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  18. Microwave reactor for utilizing waste materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pigiel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a designed and manufactured, semi-industrial microwave reactor for thermal utilization of asbestos-bearing wastes. Presented are also semi-industrial tests of utilizing such wastes. It was found that microwave heating can be applied for utilizing asbestos with use of suitable wetting agents. The wetting agents should ensure continuous heating process above 600 °C, as well as uniform heat distribution in the whole volume of the utilized material. Analysis of the neutralization process indicates a possibility of presenting specific, efficient and effective process parameters of utilizing some asbestos-bearing industrial wastes.

  19. Celss nutrition system utilizing snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  20. The clinical utility of posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Jasper E; Carpenter, Mark G; van der Kooij, Herman; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2008-11-01

    Postural instability and falls are common and devastating features of ageing and many neurological, visual, vestibular or orthopedic disorders. Current management of these problems is hampered by the subjective and variable nature of the available clinical balance measures. In this narrative review, we discuss the clinical utility of posturography as a more objective and quantitative measure of balance and postural instability, focusing on several areas where clinicians presently experience the greatest difficulties in managing their patients: (a) to make an appropriate differential diagnosis in patients presenting with falls or balance impairment; (b) to reliably identify those subjects who are at risk of falling; (c) to objectively and quantitatively document the outcome of therapeutic interventions; and (d) to gain a better pathophysiological understanding of postural instability and falls, as a basis for the development of improved treatment strategies to prevent falling. In each of these fields, posturography offers several theoretical advantages and, when applied correctly, provides a useful tool to gain a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in patients with balance disorders, at the group level. However, based on the available evidence, none of the existing techniques is currently able to significantly influence the clinical decision making in individual patients. We critically review the shortcomings of posturography as it is presently used, and conclude with several recommendations for future research.

  1. Electric utilities and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electricity has become essential to American life. Approximately 70 percent of the nation's electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels, with coal, the most abundant, domestically-available, extracted natural resource, providing over 55 percent of the total electricity consumed. Emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels are regulated by both the federal and state governments. In 1970, Congress passed the comprehensive Clean Air Act which established a national program to protect the nation's air quality. In 1977, additional strict regulations were passed, which mandated even more stringent emission controls for factories, power plants and auto emissions. Prior to passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990, utilities were required to adhere to three major types of clean air regulations: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) review. NAAQS established limits for the maximum concentration levels of specific air pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. For example, for an area to be in compliance with the NAAQS for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), its annual average SO 2 concentration must not exceed 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and a peak 24 hour level of 0.14 ppm of SO 2 must not be exceeded more than once per year

  2. Utilization of 'pluthermal' in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itakura, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Yoshinobu

    1982-01-01

    The plutonium recycle subscommittee of the atomic energy committee in the Advisory Committee for Energy of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry reported that the use of plutonium to thermal reactors should be positively promoted, and the establishment of plutonium technology and the effective utilization of plutonium, which is a semi-domestic resource, should be attempted. The use of plutonium to thermal reactors, specifically to light water reactors, is called ''Pluthermal'', and hereafter, the use of plutonium for this purpose will be written as ''Pluthermal''. In this review, first the outline of the interim report of the plutonium recycle subcommittee is described, next, the plutonium balance, SGR (self generating recycle) and technical problems for ''Pluthermal'', and the ATRs (advanced thermal reactor) for ''Pluthermal'' are discussed. If the present capacity of nuclear power generation is assumed to be 17 million kW, it is estimated that about 10 tons of plutonium is in reactors, and 3 tons or more plutonium are taken out every year, contained in spent fuel. For those, reprocessing techniques must be fully established to prepare for future fast reactor operation. At present, 400 to 500 kg of plutonium is always in a light water reactor. If it is assumed that the MOX (mixed oxide fuel) of 30 % Pu is loaded to these reactors, no essential difference arises because its quantity only becomes about 900 kg. Finally, the results of ''Pulthermal'' in foreign countries are briefly reported. (Sakatsuki, Y.)

  3. Geology in coal resource utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The 37 papers in this book were compiled with an overriding theme in mind: to provide the coal industry with a comprehensive source of information on how geology and geologic concepts can be applied to the many facets of coal resource location, extraction, and utilization. The chapters have been arranged to address the major coal geology subfields of Exploration and Reserve Definition, Reserve Estimation, Coalbed Methane, Underground Coal Gasification, Mining, Coal Quality Concerns, and Environmental Impacts, with papers distributed on the basis of their primary emphasis. To help guide one through the collection, the author has included prefaces at the beginning of each chapter. They are intended as a brief lead-in to the subject of the chapter and an acknowledgement of the papers' connections to the subject and contributions to the chapter. In addition, a brief cross-reference section has been included in each preface to help one find papers of interest in other chapters. The subfields of coal geology are intimately intertwined, and investigations in one area may impact problems in another area. Some subfields tend to blur at their edges, such as with reserve definition and reserve estimation. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  4. Method for aluminium dross utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucheva, B.; Petkov, R.; Tzonev, Tz.

    2003-01-01

    A new hydrometallurgical method has been developed for metal aluminum utilization from secondary aluminum dross. Secondary aluminum dross is a powder product with an average of 35% aluminium content (below 1mm). It is waste from primary aluminum dross pyrometallurgical flux less treatment in rotary DC electric arc furnace. This method is based on aluminum leaching in copper chloride water solution. As a result an aluminum oxychloride solution and solids, consisting of copper and oxides are obtained. In order to copper chloride solution regenerate hydrochloric acid is added to the solids. The process is simple, quick, economic and safe. The aluminum oxychloride solution contains 56 g/l Al 2 O 3 . The molar ratios are Al:Cl=0,5; OH:Al=1. The solution has 32 % basicity and 1,1 g/cm 3 density. For increasing the molar ratio of aluminium to chlorine aluminum hydroxide is added to this solution at 80 o C. Aluminum hydroxide is the final product from the secondary aluminum dross alkaline leaching. As a result aluminum oxychloride solution of the following composition is prepared: Al 2 O 3 - 180 g/l; Al:Cl=1,88; OH:Al=4,64; basicity 82%; density 1,22 g/cm 3 , pH=4 -4,5. Aluminum oxychloride solution produced by means of this method can be used in potable and wastewater treatment, paper making, in refractory mixture as a binder etc. (Original)

  5. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    . To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air......We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  6. Domestic utility attitudes toward foreign uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The current embargo on the enrichment of foreign-origin uranium for use in domestic utilization facilities is scheduled to be removed in 1984. The pending removal of this embargo, complicated by a depressed worldwide market for uranium, has prompted consideration of a new or extended embargo within the US Government. As part of its on-going data collection activities, Nuclear Resources International (NRI) has surveyed 50 domestic utility/utility holding companies (representing 60 lead operator-utilities) on their foreign uranium purchase strategies and intentions. The most recent survey was conducted in early May 1981. A number of qualitative observations were made during the course of the survey. The major observations are: domestic utility views toward foreign uranium purchase are dynamic; all but three utilities had some considered foreign purchase strategy; some utilities have problems with buying foreign uranium from particular countries; an inducement is often required by some utilities to buy foreign uranium; opinions varied among utilities concerning the viability of the domestic uranium industry; and many utilities could have foreign uranium fed through their domestic uranium contracts (indirect purchases). The above observations are expanded in the final section of the report. However, it should be noted that two of the observations are particularly important and should be seriously considered in formulation of foreign uranium import restrictions. These important observations are the dynamic nature of the subject matter and the potentially large and imbalanced effect the indirect purchases could have on utility foreign uranium procurement

  7. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  8. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, H. R.

    2006-06-01

    Object and Importance To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. Scope and Contents In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO, HANARO Symposium, Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index, Operation and Management of HANARO Server, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users and Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  9. 1994 Panel 1 Utilization Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is intended to receive, handle, and permanently dispose of transuranic (TRU) waste. To fulfill this mission, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) constructed a full-scale facility to demonstrate both technical and operational principles of the permanent isolation of TRU waste. The WIPP consists of surface and underground facilities. Panel 1 is situated in the underground facility horizon which is located approximately 2,150 feet below the surface in the predominantly halite Salado Formation. The Panel 1 Utilization Plan provides a strategy for the optimum use of Panel 1 which is consistent with the priorities established by the DOE to accomplish the WIPP mission. These priorities, which include maintaining personnel safety, conducting performance assessment, and continued operational enhancements, are the guiding premise for the decisions on the planned usage of the WIPP underground facility. The continuation of ongoing investigations along with the planned testing and training to be carried out in Panel 1 will enhance the current knowledge and understanding of the operational and geotechnical aspects of the panel configuration. This enhancement will ultimately lead to safer, more efficient, and more cost-effective methods of operation. Excavation of the waste storage area began in May 1986 with the mining of entries to Panel 1. The original design for the waste storage rooms at the WIPP provided a limited period of time during which to mine the openings and to emplace waste. Each panel, consisting of seven storage rooms, was scheduled to be mined and filled in less than 5 years. Panel 1 was developed to receive waste for a demonstration phase that was scheduled to start in October 1988. The demonstration phase was deferred, and the experimental test program was modified to use contact-handled (CH) transuranic waste in bin-scale tests, planned for Room 1, Panel 1

  10. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  11. Present status of research on radiation utilization in 1994 at JAERI. Utilization of irradiation and RI production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment is in charge of the utilization of irradiation, and Tokai Research Establishment is in charge of the production and utilization of radioisotopes. As for the utilization of irradiation the development of new polymers, the development of environment preservation technology such as flue gas treatment, and by using various ion beams from four accelerators, the development of the materials used for space environment, nuclear fusion and new functional materials, the research on the radiation application to biotechnology, the development of the production and utilization of new radioisotopes have been carried out. As for the production and utilization of radioisotopes, the development of new products and new utilization techniques, the technology of producing and using a large amount of tritium, and the research on the chemical behavior of tritium have been carried out. The international cooperations have been promoted positively. In this report, the research activities in 1994 are described. (K.I.)

  12. [Utilities: a solution of a decision problem?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Michael; Ohmann, Christian; Lorenz, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    Utility is a concept that originates from utilitarianism, a highly influential philosophical school in the Anglo-American world. The cornerstone of utilitarianism is the principle of maximum happiness or utility. In the medical sciences, this utility approach has been adopted and developed within the field of medical decision making. On an operational level, utility is the evaluation of a health state or an outcome on a one-dimensional scale ranging from 0 (death) to 1 (perfect health). By adding the concept of expectancy, the graphic representation of both concepts in a decision tree results in the specification of expected utilities and helps to resolve complex medical decision problems. Criticism of the utility approach relates to the rational perspective on humans (which is rejected by a considerable fraction of research in psychology) and to the artificial methods used in the evaluation of utility, such as Standard Gamble or Time Trade Off. These may well be the reason why the utility approach has never been accepted in Germany. Nevertheless, innovative concepts for defining goals in health care are urgently required, as the current debate in Germany on "Nutzen" (interestingly translated as 'benefit' instead of as 'utility') and integrated outcome models indicates. It remains to be seen whether this discussion will lead to a re-evaluation of the utility approach.

  13. The causal structure of utility conditionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefon, Jean-François; Sloman, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of reasoning is increasingly considering agents' values and preferences, achieving greater integration with judgment and decision making, social cognition, and moral reasoning. Some of this research investigates utility conditionals, ''if p then q'' statements where the realization of p or q or both is valued by some agents. Various approaches to utility conditionals share the assumption that reasoners make inferences from utility conditionals based on the comparison between the utility of p and the expected utility of q. This article introduces a new parameter in this analysis, the underlying causal structure of the conditional. Four experiments showed that causal structure moderated utility-informed conditional reasoning. These inferences were strongly invited when the underlying structure of the conditional was causal, and significantly less so when the underlying structure of the conditional was diagnostic. This asymmetry was only observed for conditionals in which the utility of q was clear, and disappeared when the utility of q was unclear. Thus, an adequate account of utility-informed inferences conditional reasoning requires three components: utility, probability, and causal structure. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Resolving inconsistencies in utility measurement under risk: Tests of generalizations of expected utility

    OpenAIRE

    Han Bleichrodt; José María Abellán-Perpiñan; JoséLuis Pinto; Ildefonso Méndez-Martínez

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores inconsistencies that occur in utility measurement under risk when expected utility theory is assumed and the contribution that prospect theory and some other generalizations of expected utility can make to the resolution of these inconsistencies. We used five methods to measure utilities under risk and found clear violations of expected utility. Of the theories studied, prospect theory was the most consistent with our data. The main improvement of prospect theory over expe...

  15. Diagnosis method utilizing neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K.; Tamayama, K.

    1990-01-01

    Studies have been made on the technique of neural networks, which will be used to identify a cause of a small anomalous state in the reactor coolant system of the ATR (Advance Thermal Reactor). Three phases of analyses were carried out in this study. First, simulation for 100 seconds was made to determine how the plant parameters respond after the occurence of a transient decrease in reactivity, flow rate and temperature of feed water and increase in the steam flow rate and steam pressure, which would produce a decrease of water level in a steam drum of the ATR. Next, the simulation data was analysed utilizing an autoregressive model. From this analysis, a total of 36 coherency functions up to 0.5 Hz in each transient were computed among nine important and detectable plant parameters: neutron flux, flow rate of coolant, steam or feed water, water level in the steam drum, pressure and opening area of control valve in a steam pipe, feed water temperature and electrical power. Last, learning of neural networks composed of 96 input, 4-9 hidden and 5 output layer units was done by use of the generalized delta rule, namely a back-propagation algorithm. These convergent computations were continued as far as the difference between the desired outputs, 1 for direct cause or 0 for four other ones and actual outputs reached less than 10%. (1) Coherency functions were not governed by decreasing rate of reactivity in the range of 0.41x10 -2 dollar/s to 1.62x10 -2 dollar /s or by decreasing depth of the feed water temperature in the range of 3 deg C to 10 deg C or by a change of 10% or less in the three other causes. Change in coherency functions only depended on the type of cause. (2) The direct cause from the other four ones could be discriminated with 0.94+-0.01 of output level. A maximum of 0.06 output height was found among the other four causes. (3) Calculation load which is represented as products of learning times and numbers of the hidden units did not depend on the

  16. Integrated waste hydrogen utilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The BC Hydrogen Highway's, Integrated Waste Hydrogen Utilization Project (IWHUP) is a multi-faceted, synergistic collaboration that will capture waste hydrogen and promote its use through the demonstration of 'Hydrogen Economy' enabling technologies developed by Canadian companies. IWHUP involves capturing and purifying a small portion of the 600 kg/hr of by-product hydrogen vented to the atmosphere at the ERCO's electrochemical sodium chlorate plant in North Vancouver, BC. The captured hydrogen will then be compressed so it is suitable for transportation on roadways and can be used as a fuel in transportation and stationary fuel cell demonstrations. In summary, IWHUP invests in the following; Facilities to produce up to 20kg/hr of 99.999% pure 6250psig hydrogen using QuestAir's leading edge Pressure Swing Absorption technology; Ultra high-pressure transportable hydrogen storage systems developed by Dynetek Industries, Powertech Labs and Sacre-Davey Engineering; A Mobile Hydrogen Fuelling Station to create Instant Hydrogen Infrastructure for light-duty vehicles; Natural gas and hydrogen (H-CNG) blending and compression facilities by Clean Energy for fueling heavy-duty vehicles; Ten hydrogen, internal combustion engine (H-ICE), powered light duty pick-up vehicles and a specialized vehicle training, maintenance, and emissions monitoring program with BC Hydro, GVRD and the District of North Vancouver; The demonstration of Westport's H-CNG technology for heavy-duty vehicles in conjunction with local transit properties and a specialized vehicle training, maintenance, and emissions monitoring program; The demonstration of stationary fuel cell systems that will provide clean power for reducing peak-load power demands (peak shaving), grid independence and water heating; A comprehensive communications and outreach program designed to educate stakeholders, the public, regulatory bodies and emergency response teams in the local community, Supported by industry

  17. The laboratory test utilization management toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Efficiently managing laboratory test utilization requires both ensuring adequate utilization of needed tests in some patients and discouraging superfluous tests in other patients. After the difficult clinical decision is made to define the patients that do and do not need a test, a wealth of interventions are available to the clinician and laboratorian to help guide appropriate utilization. These interventions are collectively referred to here as the utilization management toolbox. Experience has shown that some tools in the toolbox are weak and other are strong, and that tools are most effective when many are used simultaneously. While the outcomes of utilization management studies are not always as concrete as may be desired, what data is available in the literature indicate that strong utilization management interventions are safe and effective measures to improve patient health and reduce waste in an era of increasing financial pressure.

  18. Utilities' ''obligation to serve'' under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities' franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that's been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions

  19. Stochastic Dominance under the Nonlinear Expected Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinling Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, von Neumann and Morgenstern introduced the well-known expected utility and the related axiomatic system (see von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953. It is widely used in economics, for example, financial economics. But the well-known Allais paradox (see Allais (1979 shows that the linear expected utility has some limitations sometimes. Because of this, Peng proposed a concept of nonlinear expected utility (see Peng (2005. In this paper we propose a concept of stochastic dominance under the nonlinear expected utilities. We give sufficient conditions on which a random choice X stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the nonlinear expected utilities. We also provide sufficient conditions on which a random choice X strictly stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the sublinear expected utilities.

  20. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities--or about 25% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  1. Using consensus building to improve utility regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, J.

    1994-01-01

    The utility industry and its regulatory environment are at a crossroads. Utilities, intervenors and even public utility commissions are no longer able to initiate and sustain changes unilaterally. Traditional approaches to regulation are often contentious and costly, producing results that are not perceived as legitimate or practical. Consensus building and alternative dispute resolution have the potential to help utilities, intervenors and regulators resolve a host of regulatory issues. This book traces the decline of consensus in utility regulation and delineates current controversies. It presents the theory and practice of alternative dispute resolution in utility regulation and offers a framework for evaluating the successes and failures of attempts to employ these processes. Four regulatory cases are analyzed in detail: the Pilgrim nuclear power plant outage settlement, the use of DSM collaboratives, the New Jersey resource bidding policy and the formation of integrated resource management rules in Massachusetts

  2. Present and possible utilization of PUSPATI reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Ah Auu.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of PUSPATI TRIGA Mark II Reactor (PTR) has increased reasonably well since its commissioning last year. PTR was used mainly for training of operators, neutron flux measurements and neutron activation analysis. However, the present utilization data indicates that further increase in PTR utilization to include teaching and the usage of the beam ports is desirable. Some possible areas of PTR applications in the future in relevance to our needs are also described in this paper. (author)

  3. Impact of the legislation on electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Long, M.

    1982-01-01

    The possible impact of Federal nuclear waste legislation on electric utilities is discussed. The proposed legislation will set forth a well defined program enabling utilities with nuclear plants to make long term plans under a statutory mandate committed to an available technology and implementation timetable. The legislation includes the necessary specificity for the utility companies to fulfill their responsibilities in describing their waste disposal plans to their customers, the concerned public, and state and local legislators

  4. Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility

    OpenAIRE

    Kahneman, Daniel; Wakker, Peter; Sarin, Rakesh

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo core meanings of “utility” are distinguished. “Decision utility” is the weight of an outcome in a decision. “Experienced utility” is hedonic quality, as in Bentham’s usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility), or in retrospective evaluations of past episodes (remembered utility). Psychological research has documented systematic errors in retrospective evaluations, which can induce a preference for dominated options. We propose a formal normative ...

  5. Estimating the relative utility of screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K; Eckstein, Miguel P; Boone, John M

    2013-05-01

    The concept of diagnostic utility is a fundamental component of signal detection theory, going back to some of its earliest works. Attaching utility values to the various possible outcomes of a diagnostic test should, in principle, lead to meaningful approaches to evaluating and comparing such systems. However, in many areas of medical imaging, utility is not used because it is presumed to be unknown. In this work, we estimate relative utility (the utility benefit of a detection relative to that of a correct rejection) for screening mammography using its known relation to the slope of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve at the optimal operating point. The approach assumes that the clinical operating point is optimal for the goal of maximizing expected utility and therefore the slope at this point implies a value of relative utility for the diagnostic task, for known disease prevalence. We examine utility estimation in the context of screening mammography using the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trials (DMIST) data. We show how various conditions can influence the estimated relative utility, including characteristics of the rating scale, verification time, probability model, and scope of the ROC curve fit. Relative utility estimates range from 66 to 227. We argue for one particular set of conditions that results in a relative utility estimate of 162 (±14%). This is broadly consistent with values in screening mammography determined previously by other means. At the disease prevalence found in the DMIST study (0.59% at 365-day verification), optimal ROC slopes are near unity, suggesting that utility-based assessments of screening mammography will be similar to those found using Youden's index.

  6. Lessons Learned: Community Solar for Municipal Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-12-01

    This report outlines the work that STAT has completed, discusses the range of approaches utilities are taking, and highlights several challenges municipal utilities face in deciding whether and how to pursue community solar. As this report shows, there is no 'silver bullet' in terms of municipal utility community solar design or implementation - programs vary significantly and are highly dependent on localized contexts.

  7. Utilities for high performance dispersion model PHYSIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1992-09-01

    The description and usage of the utilities for the dispersion calculation model PHYSIC were summarized. The model was developed in the study of developing high performance SPEEDI with the purpose of introducing meteorological forecast function into the environmental emergency response system. The procedure of PHYSIC calculation consists of three steps; preparation of relevant files, creation and submission of JCL, and graphic output of results. A user can carry out the above procedure with the help of the Geographical Data Processing Utility, the Model Control Utility, and the Graphic Output Utility. (author)

  8. Characterization qualitative and potentialities of utilization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization qualitative and potentialities of utilization of methacomposts of poultry in the nurseries aboveground. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences.

  9. Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1992-03-01

    The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

  10. Wind energy systems. Application to regional utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This study developed a generic planning process that utilities can use to determine the feasibility of utilizing WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) as part of their future mix of equipment. While this is primarily an economic process, other questions dealing with WECS availability, capacity credit, operating reserve, performance of WECS arrays, etc., had to be addressed. The approach was to establish the worth, or breakeven value, of WECS to the utility and to determine the impact that WECS additions would have on the utilities mix of conventional source.

  11. Dynamic decision making without expected utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jaffray, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    Non-expected utility theories, such as rank dependent utility (RDU) theory, have been proposed as alternative models to EU theory in decision making under risk. These models do not share the separability property of expected utility theory. This implies that, in a decision tree, if the reduction...... maker’s discordant goals at the different decision nodes. Relative to the computations involved in the standard expected utility evaluation of a decision problem, the main computational increase is due to the identification of non-dominated strategies by linear programming. A simulation, using the rank...

  12. Water and Sewage Utilities Sector (NAICS 2213)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental regulation information for water utilities, including drinking and wastewater treatment facilities. Includes links to NESHAP for POTW, compliance information, and information about pretreatment programs.

  13. Three essays on utility regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlasny, Vladimir

    To induce utilities in the gas distribution market to operate efficiently, US states have deployed consumer choice programs, price caps, and variations of sliding scale plans. My first essay studies the impact of these restructuring and deregulation efforts on consumer rates, using panel data from a custom survey of state commissions and the Department of Energy. I estimate the residential, small commercial and industrial price equations jointly, and use instrumental variables to control for the potentially endogenous demand and status of deregulation. Consumer choice programs lower the prices by 2.2-20.1% compared to the rate of return regulation, benefiting industrial consumers the most and households the least. These effects appear even one to two years prior to the programs' implementation, and become stronger over time. Price caps lower all prices by 0.0-20.0%, with the same ranking. The impacts of sliding scale plans are close to zero, between -2.6% and +4.0% The second paper evaluates health damages caused by air concentrations of SO2 under three alternative environmental policies leading to identical aggregate emissions: emission caps, a nationwide emission tax, and a system of tradable emission allowances such as the one currently used in the US. The numerical model of the industry finds generators' output, participation in energy trade and SO2 abatement effort under each policy. The resulting SO2 concentrations are used to derive the aggregate health damages using estimates in the medical literature. SO2 concentrations vary across policies even when the aggregate emissions are the same. These variations translate into substantially different losses for any individual state, and, nationwide, to hundreds of millions of dollars of difference in aggregate damages. Emission caps are found to lead to the lowest damages, outperforming the currently used system of allowances by 452 million. A uniform emission tax leads to very similar damages as the system of

  14. The predictive validity of prospect theory versus expected utility in health utility measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan-Perpiñan, Jose Maria; Bleichrodt, Han; Pinto-Prades, Jose Luis

    2009-12-01

    Most health care evaluations today still assume expected utility even though the descriptive deficiencies of expected utility are well known. Prospect theory is the dominant descriptive alternative for expected utility. This paper tests whether prospect theory leads to better health evaluations than expected utility. The approach is purely descriptive: we explore how simple measurements together with prospect theory and expected utility predict choices and rankings between more complex stimuli. For decisions involving risk prospect theory is significantly more consistent with rankings and choices than expected utility. This conclusion no longer holds when we use prospect theory utilities and expected utilities to predict intertemporal decisions. The latter finding cautions against the common assumption in health economics that health state utilities are transferable across decision contexts. Our results suggest that the standard gamble and algorithms based on, should not be used to value health.

  15. The homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a test to verify if every agent from a population of heterogeneous consumers has the same marginal utility of income function. This homogeneous marginal utility of income assumption is often (implicitly) used in applied demand studies because it has nice aggregation properties and

  16. Better utilization of low-grade woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    The objective of this paper is threefold: to outline briefly some of the avenues of approach so far employed in utilizing low-grade wood, to comment on the economic aspects of the problem, and finally, to speculate about what developments the future might bring to the field of utilization.

  17. Utilization Management in the Blood Transfusion Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jeremy Ryan Andrew; Dzik, Walter “Sunny”

    2015-01-01

    The scope of activity of the Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) makes it unique among the clinical laboratories. The combination of therapeutic and diagnostic roles necessitates a multi-faceted approach to utilization management in the BTS. We present our experience in utilization management in large academic medical center. PMID:24080431

  18. Back to Bentham? Explorations of Experienced Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kahneman (Daniel); P.P. Wakker (Peter); R.K. Sarin (Rakesh)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo core meanings of “utility” are distinguished. “Decision utility” is the weight of an outcome in a decision. “Experienced utility” is hedonic quality, as in Bentham’s usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility), or in retrospective evaluations of past

  19. Multi-Utilities : Trends - Blurring Industry Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Dirk

    2001-01-01

    The prospects of cost savings, increased market share, and other competitive advantages are prompting more, and more utilities to cross traditional industry lines, and offer services in several sectors. The note reviews the changes occurred during the last two decades, when deregulation, and private sector development raised the quality, and expansion of utility services, opportunities enh...

  20. Clinical Utility and "DSM-V"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    The construction of the American Psychiatric Association's diagnostic manual has been guided primarily by concerns of construct validity rather than of clinical utility, despite claims by its authors that the highest priority has in fact been clinical utility. The purpose of this article was to further articulate the concept and importance of…

  1. Molecular characterization of autochthonous hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Materials and Methods ... culturable hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) were enumerated by vapour phase ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial isolates by boiling method according to ... obtained in this investigation are consistent with past field studies (Kostka et ... Microbial and other related changes in a Niger sediment.

  2. Benchmark Two-Good Utility Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.

    Benchmark two-good utility functions involving a good with zero income elasticity and unit income elasticity are well known. This paper derives utility functions for the additional benchmark cases where one good has zero cross-price elasticity, unit own-price elasticity, and zero own price

  3. Hydrogen utilization potential in subsurface sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Rishi Ram; Glombitza, Clemens; Nickel, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Pacific, and Gulf of Mexico) with different predominant electron-acceptors. Hydrogenases constitute a diverse family of enzymes expressed by microorganisms that utilize molecular hydrogen as a metabolic substrate, product, or intermediate. The assay reveals the potential for utilizing molecular hydrogen...

  4. Determinants of Maternal Healthcare Utilization in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive healthcare has remained a point of concern in sub-Saharan Africa due to the prevailing high maternal mortality rate. Despite the fact that the utilization of maternal healthcare services is a curbing solution, the records of utilization still remains low. This paper examined the determinants of the decision to use ...

  5. UTILIZING CREEKS FOR INTEGRATED RURAL COASTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-02-09

    Feb 9, 2013 ... This study examines the Utilization of Creeks for Integrated Coastal Development of Ilaje ... utilization, poor fishing techniques, poor sources of water and navigation routes, and manual ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 No.3 .... together, implement, monitor and evaluate.

  6. Recent market behavior of utility stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews the recent market behavior of utility stocks as compared to the Standard and Poor's 500 and the long-term government bond yield. Utility stock's performance continues to be affected by unfavorable regulation,and it appears that it will continue to be a factor for some time to come. A continually shrinking excess capacity continues to be a concern

  7. Predictors of Adolescent Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingilis, Evelyn; Wade, Terrance; Seeley, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This study, using Andersen's health care utilization model, examined how predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, need, personal health practices, and psychological factors influence health care utilization using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Canadian adolescents. Second, this study examined whether this process…

  8. Microbial growth and substrate utilization kinetics | Okpokwasili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial growth on and utilization of environmental contaminants as substrates have been studied by many researchers. Most times, substrate utilization results in removal of chemical contaminant, increase in microbial biomass and subsequent biodegradation of the contaminant. These are all aimed at detoxification of the ...

  9. Utility maximization and mode of payment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.; Ridder, G.; Heijmans, R.D.H.; Pollock, D.S.G.; Satorra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of stochastic utility maximization in a model of choice of payment are examined. Three types of compatibility with utility maximization are distinguished: global compatibility, local compatibility on an interval, and local compatibility on a finite set of points. Keywords:

  10. Utilization of research reactors - A global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents 1) a worldwide picture of research reactors, operable, shutdown, under construction and planned, 2) statistics on utilization of research reactors including TRIGA reactors, and 3) some results of a survey conducted during 1988 on the utilization of research reactors in developing Member States in the Asia-Pacific Region

  11. Electric utilities strategies in final energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, A.

    2000-01-01

    In rapidly changing markets, electric utilities pay growing attention to customers and service. They are aware that competition needs strategies capable of transforming and strengthening the privileged position resulting from the knowledge of the market. Moreover, this aspect is the link between different value chains to describe new multi utility approaches [it

  12. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  13. Risk and utility in portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Morrel H.; Natoli, Vincent D.

    2003-06-01

    Modern portfolio theory (MPT) addresses the problem of determining the optimum allocation of investment resources among a set of candidate assets. In the original mean-variance approach of Markowitz, volatility is taken as a proxy for risk, conflating uncertainty with risk. There have been many subsequent attempts to alleviate that weakness which, typically, combine utility and risk. We present here a modification of MPT based on the inclusion of separate risk and utility criteria. We define risk as the probability of failure to meet a pre-established investment goal. We define utility as the expectation of a utility function with positive and decreasing marginal value as a function of yield. The emphasis throughout is on long investment horizons for which risk-free assets do not exist. Analytic results are presented for a Gaussian probability distribution. Risk-utility relations are explored via empirical stock-price data, and an illustrative portfolio is optimized using the empirical data.

  14. Utility guidance to advanced LWR designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedidia, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the process envisioned for the development of advanced reactors for future use by the utility industry. The role of the potential utility customer is gradually evolving from that of an owner-operator of such plants to that of a sponsor-participant in the actual design process. The author discusses development of a set of utility requirements, intended to describe in detail utility needs and expectations relative to the performance of future reactors. The reactor vendors, who participated actively in the preparation of the requirements documents, pledged to make every effort to meet them in their future designs. At that stage, when the requirements have been finalized and agreed to by all parties involved, including the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the utilities were expected to move to the sidelines and wait for the reactor vendors to come up with the product

  15. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kaiser, Marshall [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities—or about 25% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  16. Are American utilities sorry they went nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaire, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    The future of nuclear power in the U.S. will be determined in large measure by what the electric utilities decide to do. Very few electric utilities are planning to build more nuclear power plants. Most utilities feel the 12 to 14 years it takes to build a nuclear plant is simply too long, especially when construction money must be borrowed at record interest rates. Also, there are too many uncertainties regarding what an acceptable plant design is. On the other hand, these utilities also strongly believe that the U.S. needs nuclear power and that it would be imprudent for a utility to put all its energy eggs in one basket, coal

  17. Impact of power purchases from non-utilities on the utility cost of capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, E.; Stoft, S.; Belden, T.

    1995-01-01

    The bond rating agencies in the USA have asserted that long-term power purchase contracts between non-utility generators and utilities are the equivalent of debt to the utilities, and therefore raise the cost of capital to the purchaser. Non-Utility generators claim that these contracts reduce risk to the utilities. This debate is reflected in the 1992 Energy Policy Act. This paper investigates this controversy from the perspective of the equity markets. Using a CAPM framework, various specifications of the cost of equity capital are estimated, to shed light on this question. No evidence is found for the hypothesis that non-utility generation contracts raise the cost of capital. There does appear to be a slight increase in this cost for those utilities seeking to build their own generation capacity as opposed to purchasing it from non-utility suppliers. (author)

  18. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  19. Tempest in a teapot: utility advertising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciscel, D.H.

    1976-08-12

    Utility sales programs represent a form of organizational slack. It is an expense that can be traded off in times of administrative stress, providing a satisfactory payment to the consumer while maintaining the integrity of the present institutional arrangement. Because it is a trade-off commodity, regulatory control of utility advertising will remain a ''tempest in a teapot.'' Marketing programs are an integral part of the selling process in the modern corporation, and severe restrictions on advertising must be temporary in nature. Court cases have pointed out that utility companies need to inform the consumer about the use of the product and to promote demand for the product. These actions will be considered legally reasonable no matter what the final disposition of current environmental regulations and energy restrictions. In fact, as acceptable social solutions develop for environmental and energy supply problems, the pressure on utility advertising can be expected to fall proportionately. However, the utility still represents the largest industrial concern in most locales. The utility advertising program makes the company even more visible. When there is public dissatisfaction with the more complex parts of the utility delivery system, the raucous voice of outrage will emerge from this tempestuous teapot.

  20. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, nearly 600 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or almost 20% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals about 125. Through these programs, more than 40 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2004 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  1. Characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Matsui, Hiroshige; Meguro, Kenichi; Ueda, Masamichi; Yamada, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Hatazawa, Jun; Kinomura, Shigeo (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis and Cancer)

    1990-12-01

    To make clear the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia, PET studies with 18F-FDG were carried out. Taking the pattern of 18F-FDG utilization, dementia can be subdivided into two types. One type shows a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction glucose utilization in the posterior part of neocortex covering the temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices. This is referred to as type I. Although this type constitutes only about 1/5 of all dementia patients, it is considered the fundamental type of dementia. Aside from this, there is type wherein a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction in glucose utilization of the neocortex. This is type II. It constitutes about 4/5 of all dementia patients which is far more type I. There are no essential difference in the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in AD and MID. However, with regards the mean, AD is lower than MID. Various organic defect in neocortex do not correlate with the global reduction in glucose utilization in dementia patients. These results suggest that the reduction in glucose utilization in dementia may be functional disorder. (author).

  2. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  3. Characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Matsui, Hiroshige; Meguro, Kenichi; Ueda, Masamichi; Yamada, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Hatazawa, Jun; Kinomura, Shigeo

    1990-01-01

    To make clear the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in dementia, PET studies with 18F-FDG were carried out. Taking the pattern of 18F-FDG utilization, dementia can be subdivided into two types. One type shows a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction glucose utilization in the posterior part of neocortex covering the temporal, parietal and occipital association cortices. This is referred to as type I. Although this type constitutes only about 1/5 of all dementia patients, it is considered the fundamental type of dementia. Aside from this, there is type wherein a simultaneous and symmetrical reduction in glucose utilization of the neocortex. This is type II. It constitutes about 4/5 of all dementia patients which is far more type I. There are no essential difference in the characteristics of cerebral glucose utilization in AD and MID. However, with regards the mean, AD is lower than MID. Various organic defect in neocortex do not correlate with the global reduction in glucose utilization in dementia patients. These results suggest that the reduction in glucose utilization in dementia may be functional disorder. (author)

  4. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Cardinal, K.

    2004-09-01

    Utilities first began offering consumers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. Since then, the number of U.S. utilities offering green pricing programs has steadily grown. Today, more than 500 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or about 16% of all utilities nationally--offer their customers green power options. Because some of these utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other public power entities, the number of distinct programs is slightly more than 100. Through these programs, more than 33 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs, or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers must pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2003 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data provided in this report can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  5. Material degradation - a nuclear utility's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spekkens, P.

    2007-01-01

    Degradation of nuclear plant materials has been responsible for major costs and unit outage time. As such, nuclear utilities are important end users of the information produced by R and D on material degradation. This plenary describes the significance of material degradation for the nuclear utilities, and how utilities use information about material degradation in their short, medium and long term planning activities. Utilities invest in R and D programs to assist them in their business objective of operating safely, reliably and cost competitively. Material degradation impacts all three of these business drivers. Utilities make decisions on life cycle planning, unit refurbishment and 'new build' projects on the basis of their understanding of the behaviour of a variety of materials in a broad range of environments. The R and D being carried out today will determine the future business success of the nuclear utilities. The R and D program needs to be broadly based to include a range of materials, environments and time-frames, particularly any new materials proposed for use in new units. The R and D community needs to help the utility managers make choices that will result in an optimized materials R and D program

  6. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. It also participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. Several successes were achieved in 2001 as the utility implemented its first performance plan. Oral public hearings were held for applications by Pacific Northern Gas and by Pembina Pipelines, owners of the common carrier oil pipeline from Taylor to Kamloops. A review of BC Gas' rate design to apportion utility revenue requirements fairly to different classes of customers was successfully achieved by a negotiated settlement process. In 2001, there was also a high level of proposed mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. Duke Energy Corporation's share acquisition of Westcoast Energy's two affiliated gas utilities was approved. BC Gas' application to divest its customer care activities to a joint venture company with Enbridge was also reviewed, and an oral hearing was held to review a West Kootenay Power application to sell its Kootenay River hydroelectric generation assets to Columbia Basin Trust and the Columbia Power Corp. In this case, the decision rendered was that the sale terms had to be changed so that customers could share the proceeds. The utility therefore, decided not to proceed with the sale under these conditions. The BC Hydro legislated rate freeze, which was due to expire on September 30, 2001, was extended for an additional 18 months to allow the new provincial government time to implement a new energy policy. The new energy policy is expected to give the province an energy advantage by facilitating growth and diversification in energy production while providing competition and more choice for

  7. The utility of health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Moshe; Nir, Adi Rizansky

    2012-03-01

    Tradeoffs between health and wealth are among the most important decisions individuals make, and are central to social and economic policy. Yet, only a few studies have investigated the utility of health and wealth empirically. This paper investigates this utility function both theoretically and empirically. We conduct detailed personal interviews with 180 cancer patients, and also obtain questionnaires from 132 diabetes patients. We find strong support for the utility function U(h, w)=h·log(w), where h denotes health and w denotes wealth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. From Regular to Context Free to Mildly Context Sensitive Tree Rewriting Systems: The Path of Child Language Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Current syntactic theory limits the range of grammatical variation so severely that the logical problem of grammar learning is trivial. Yet, children exhibit characteristic stages in syntactic development at least through their sixth year. Rather than positing maturational delays, I suggest that acquisition difficulties are the result of limitations in manipulating grammatical representations. I argue that the genesis of complex sentences reflects increasing generative capacity in the systems...

  9. ARC Code TI: CFD Utility Software Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CFD Utility Software Library consists of nearly 30 libraries of Fortran 90 and 77 subroutines and almost 100 applications built on those libraries. Many of the...

  10. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, systems designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

  11. Utilization of unbound aggregates for road construction

    OpenAIRE

    Fladvad, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Crushed rock aggregate is a non-renewable resource of great interest in road construction and other branches of the construction industry. To prevent resource scarcity, utilization of aggregates should be considered carefully. © 2016 Norsk Bergforening

  12. Racing to be an indispensable utility

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Every major IT supplier is rushing to be involved in the global computing grid, eager to take advantage of the developments and experience they will gain. Why? Because the race is on to become an IT utility" (1 page).

  13. US utility I ampersand C upgrade initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an initiative which is being pursued to address the problems associated with the increasing obsolescence of instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in nuclear power plants. Such efforts will improve safety, availability, and reliability of plant operation. The program presented is a joint plan between EPRI, utilities, and vendors, to bring about the development of technology to meet these needs, to encourage the private sector to develop such technology, and to prove to utilities the value and utility in applying such technology to upgrade their facilities. Part of this plan is demonstration programs where plant-wide sensor and I ampersand C improvements can be implemented, in a documented manner, to provide R ampersand D information on their performance, functionality, and reliability. The intent is to reduce the costs and shorten the learning curve associated with the utilization of modern I ampersand C equipment

  14. Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data - Outpatient

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Outpatient Utilization and Payment Public Use File (Outpatient PUF) presents information on common outpatient services provided to Medicare fee-for-service...

  15. Additive conjoint measurement for multiattribute utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.; Wakker, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper shows that multiattribute utility can be simplified by methods from additive conjoint measurement. Given additive conjoint measurability under certainty, axiomatizations can be simplified, and implementation and reliability of elicitation can be improved. This also contributes to the

  16. The RWE utility - a beaming giant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefer-Bosse, T.; Mez, L.; Moeller, F.; Osnowski, R.; Rebentisch, M.; Theissen, A.; Uka, W.

    1984-01-01

    West Germany's biggest electric utility has become the subject of gossip. Formerly only known - if ever - as the sender of electricity bills, the Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk (RWE) now is talked about and brought in for controversial issues in the field of energy and environmental policy. The book deals with the history of the RWE utility, developing from a municipal utility to the Federal Republic's biggest electricity supplier, the people that have given guidance and support to RWE, the highly interesting system of owner-ship rights, the role of RWE as a contributor to environmental pollution, the interlockings and manifold interests, the utility's behaviour and attitude in the nuclear business, the ingenious business policy at the taxpayers' expense, chances of exerting an impact on, or developing means of resistance against, the business policy of RWE. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has released a series of publicly available data files that summarize the utilization and payments for procedures, services, and prescription drugs provided to...

  18. Utility machinery vibration monitoring guide: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.T.; Thomas, C.C.

    1987-08-01

    Section I of this guide presents a methodology for developing machinery vibration monitoring programs specifically designed for application within the utility industry. The methodology is designed to enhance a monitoring program and can be used at the outset of program development or as a reference after programs have been started. Section I evaluates all aspects of the monitoring program, including Objectives and Goals, Information Type, Timing and Format, Data Analysis, Data Acquisition, Measurement and Transducer Selection, Personnel and Organization, Program Instrumentation, Program Costs, Program Justification, and Implementation of a Monitoring Program. The methodology is then applied to two host utility plants in Section II, which contains the monitoring programs developed by Gulf States Utilities and Philadelphia Electric Company using this guide. Section III contains the histories of several different types of existing utility monitoring programs. Some of the lessons learned, including the recommendations of these ''mature'' programs for persons starting new programs, are included

  19. Knowledge and Utilization of Electrocardiogram among Resident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... knowledge and utilization of ECG among family medicine residents in Nigeria. Materials and ... doctors regarding their ECG requests, preferred source of interpretation, most common ECG ..... There are no conflicts of interest.

  20. Utilization of spent sulfite liquor carbohydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, A J; Whitmore, L M; Boggs, Jr, L A

    1959-01-01

    Possible utilization of the sugars in spent sulfite liquor in the manufacture of ethanol, torula food yeast, and other fermentation products, and in the production of sugar derivatives, such as the diacetone derivatives, is discussed.

  1. Experience with nuclear fuel utilization in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harizanov, Y [Committee on the Use of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-12-01

    The presentation on experience with nuclear fuel utilization in Bulgaria briefly reviews the situation with nuclear energy in Bulgaria and then discusses nuclear fuel performance (amount of fuel loaded, type of fuel, burnup, fuel failures, assemblies deformation). 2 tabs.

  2. Asset Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewing and replacing the nation's public water infrastructure is an ongoing task. Asset management can help a utility maximize the value of its capital as well as its operations and maintenance dollars.

  3. Integration of SPS with utility system networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupang, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    The integration of Satellite Power System (SPS) power in electric utility power systems is discussed. Specifically, the nature of the power output variations from the spacecraft to the rectenna, the operational characteristics of the rectenna power, and the impacts on the electric utility system from utilizing SPS power to serve part of the system load are treated. It is concluded that if RF beam control is an acceptable method for power control, and that the site distribution of SPS rectennas do not cause a very high local penetration (40 to 50%), SPS may be integrated into electric utility system with a few negative impacts. Increased regulating duty on the conventional generation, and a potential impact on system reliability for SPS penetration in excess of about 25% appear to be two areas of concern.

  4. Decision support for utility environmental risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balson, W.E.; Wilson, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews a number of decision support methods developed and applied by Decision Focus Incorporated to help utility personnel manage current environmental problems. This work has been performed for the Environmental Risk Analysis Program of EPRI's Environment Division, and also for a number of electric utilities across the country. These are two distinct types of decision support software tools that have been created: economic risk management and environmental risk analysis. These types differ primarily in the identification of who will make a decision. Economic risk management tools are directed primarily at decisions made by electric utilities. Environmental risk analysis tools are directed primarily at decisions made by legislative or regulatory agencies, about which a utility may wish to comment

  5. Utilization of Presentation Software for Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The abundance of information that needs to be disseminated to students about events in space exploration and the theories and technology utilized maybe overwhelming to the beginning teacher or lecturer. No matter the age of the learner, one must cons...

  6. Development of a utility conflict management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    A critical process for the timely development and delivery of highway construction projects is the early : identification and depiction of utility interests that may interfere with proposed highway facilities. The : effective management of such utili...

  7. Drug utilization research and risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Mol, Peter G. M.; Elseviers, Monique; Wettermark, Björn; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Andersen, Morten; Benko, Ria; Bennie, Marion; Eriksson, Irene; Godman, Brian; Krska, Janet; Poluzzi, Elisabetta; Taxis, Katja; Vlahovic-Palcevski, Vera; Stichele, Robert Vander

    2016-01-01

    Good risk management requires continuous evaluation and improvement of planned activities. The evaluation impact of risk management activities requires robust study designs and carefully selected outcome measures. Key learnings and caveats from drug utilization research should be applied to the

  8. mathematical models for estimating radio channels utilization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Mathematical models for radio channels utilization assessment by real-time flows transfer in ... data transmission networks application having dynamic topology ..... Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, 56(2): 85–90.

  9. MARS and its applications at Northeast Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Y.F.; Raines, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The MAAP Accident Response System (MARS) for Northeast Utilities Millstone Unit 1 (MP-1) has been jointly developed by Northeast Utilities (NU) and Fauske ampersand Associates, Inc. (FAI). Millstone Unit 1 is a 2011-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR)/3 with a Mark-I containment. MARS/MP1 is user-friendly computer software that is structured to provide Northeast Utilities management and engineering staff with key insights during actual or simulated accidents. Times to core uncovery, vessel failure, and containment failure are among the figures of merit that can be obtained from this system. MARS/MP1 can predict future conditions of the MP-1 plant based on current plant data and their trends (time-dependent plant data). The objective of this paper is to present the research and development effort of the MARS/MP1 software at Northeast Utilities

  10. Population dynamics and distribution of hydrocarbon utilizing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus species was found to be present in all the soil samples analysed ... The presence of these organisms in soils contaminated with spent and unspent lubricating oil ... hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria, bioremediation, enrichment medium,

  11. university students` perception and utilization of technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... university students` perceptions and utilization of technology for learning at Haramaya University in. Ethiopia (as a ... teaching and learning in classroom can greatly enhance the ..... benefits that it should be deliver. Looking at ...

  12. Utility Maximization in Nonconvex Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This monograph formulates a framework for modeling and solving utility maximization problems in nonconvex wireless systems. First, a model for utility optimization in wireless systems is defined. The model is general enough to encompass a wide array of system configurations and performance objectives. Based on the general model, a set of methods for solving utility maximization problems is developed. The development is based on a careful examination of the properties that are required for the application of each method. The focus is on problems whose initial formulation does not allow for a solution by standard convex methods. Solution approaches that take into account the nonconvexities inherent to wireless systems are discussed in detail. The monograph concludes with two case studies that demonstrate the application of the proposed framework to utility maximization in multi-antenna broadcast channels.

  13. improving utilization of conceptual and theoretical framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MRS. AKPABIO

    existing theories or conceptual models as basis or guide for the study to ... would have broad significance and utility as well as relevant ... assumptions are usually specified, thus making practical .... Taking a decision on whether the theory is.

  14. Utility FGD survey, January--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. (IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company. Simplified process flow diagrams of FGD systems, definitions, and a glossary of terms are attached to the report. Current data for domestic FGD systems show systems in operation, systems under construction, and systems planned. The current total FGD-controlled capacity in the United States is 67,091 MW.

  15. A case study of utility PV economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.; Hoff, T.; Osborn, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents selected results from a detailed study of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) applications within the service area of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. The intent is to better understand the economics and markets for grid-connected PV systems in a utility setting. Research results include: Benefits calculations for utility-owned PV systems at transmission and distribution voltages; How the QuickScreen software package can help utilities investigate the viability of distributed PV; Energy production and capacity credit estimates for fixed and tracking PV systems; Economics and rate impacts of net metering residential PV systems; Market potential estimates for residential rooftop PV systems; and Viability and timing of grid-connected PV commercialization paths

  16. Medicares Hospice Benefit - Analysis of Utilization and..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Descriptive analyses reported in Medicares Hospice Benefit - Analysis of Utilization and Resource Use, published in Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  17. Movements and habitat utilization of nembwe, Serranochromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distance migrations onto the floodplains. It is concluded that although staying within relatively small home ranges, nembwe appears as a species with a variable and flexible habitat utilization. Keywords: fish, radio-tagging, telemetry, home range ...

  18. CROSS DRIFT ALCOVE/NICHE UTILITIES ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Goodin

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the design basis and general arrangement requirements of the non-potable water, waste water, compressed air and ventilation (post excavation) utilities required in support of the Cross Drift alcoves and niches

  19. 76 FR 18445 - Financial Market Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ..., the risk of significant liquidity or credit problems spreading among financial institutions or markets..., and settlement activities of certain financial market utilities (``FMUs'') that are designated as.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: [[Page 18446

  20. improving utilization of conceptual and theoretical framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MRS. AKPABIO

    KEYWORDS: Conceptual, Framework, Nursing, Research, Theoretical. INTRODUCTION ... frameworks, define the concepts in the framework and apply them .... abstraction; clinical utility and perspective on the issues of interest. Thus, before ...

  1. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is a family of health care databases and related software tools and products developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  2. Awareness and utilization of emergency contraception among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    students were aware of emergency contraception, and 211 (71.5%) had utilized them. Among those who had .... Maiduguri has been a centre of learning and commercial activity since the .... magazines, television and movies.[31] In particular ...

  3. Metabolic Engineering for Substrate Co-utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawand, Pratish

    Production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals is being increasingly pursued by chemical industry to reduce its dependence on petroleum. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is an abundant source of sugars that can be used for producing biofuels and bio-based chemicals using fermentation. Hydrolysis of LCB results in a mixture of sugars mainly composed of glucose and xylose. Fermentation of such a sugar mixture presents multiple technical challenges at industrial scale. Most industrial microorganisms utilize sugars in a sequential manner due to the regulatory phenomenon of carbon catabolite repression (CCR). Due to sequential utilization of sugars, the LCB-based fermentation processes suffer low productivities and complicated operation. Performance of fermentation processes can be improved by metabolic engineering of microorganisms to obtain superior characteristics such as high product yield. With increased computational power and availability of complete genomes of microorganisms, use of model-based metabolic engineering is now a common practice. The problem of sequential sugar utilization, however, is a regulatory problem, and metabolic models have never been used to solve such regulatory problems. The focus of this thesis is to use model-guided metabolic engineering to construct industrial strains capable of co-utilizing sugars. First, we develop a novel bilevel optimization algorithm SimUp, that uses metabolic models to identify reaction deletion strategies to force co-utilization of two sugars. We then use SimUp to identify reaction deletion strategies to force glucose-xylose co-utilization in Escherichia coli. To validate SimUp predictions, we construct three mutants with multiple gene knockouts and test them for glucose-xylose utilization characteristics. Two mutants, designated as LMSE2 and LMSE5, are shown to co-utilize glucose and xylose in agreement with SimUp predictions. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in glucose-xylose co-utilization of the

  4. Utilization of renewable energy in architectural design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lei; QIN Youguo

    2007-01-01

    Renewable energy does not simply equal to using a photovoltaic (PV) board.In addition to heating,ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) engineering considerations,the design approaches of architects are crucial to the utilization condition and methods of renewable energy.Through profound comprehension of the relationship between renewable energy utilization and design approaches,we can achieve a dual-standard of building environment performance and esthetics.

  5. Industry activities to resolve utility procurement issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.

    1993-01-01

    There are several industry organizations which are active in assisting the utilities in their equipment procurement enhancement. They include the Nuclear Management Resources Council (NUMARC), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Nuclear Procurement Issues Committee (NUPIC). The products include the NUMARC Procurement Initiatives, EPRI procurement related guidelines and databases, and NUPIC joint audits and commercial grade surveys. The industry procurement activities and products are reviewed, and their use by utilities to enhance their procurement process is related. 1 fig

  6. Resourceful utilization technology for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is a description of new applications that will contribute in increasing the demand for natural gas. First, technical issues to turn natural gas into a more resourceful fuel (efficient transportation and storage, integrated utilization of energies, uses as non-fuel), and also pitch-based high performance carbon materials and utilization techniques in the field of energy (isotropic carbon fiber, activated carbon fiber, spherical carbon micro-beads, high modulus carbon fiber). (TEC)

  7. A utility theory approach for insurance pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gharakhani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Providing insurance contract with “deductible” is beneficial for both insurer and insured. In this paper, we provide a utility modeling approach to handle insurance pricing and evaluate the tradeoff between discount benefit and deductible level. We analyze four different pricing problems of no insurance, full insurance coverage, insurance with β% deductible and insurance with D-dollar deductible based on a given utility function. A numerical example is also used to illustrate some interesting results.

  8. Response and utilization of phosphorus by sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Reddy, P.; Sreenivasa Raju, A.; Prasad Rao, A.; Sultana, Fatima

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to find the response and utilization of applied P by sunflower at different levels of N, in the light soils of Andhra Pradesh using 32 P labelled fertilizer. The results of the experiment clearly brought out the significant effects of N and P application on the dry matter yield, per cent Pdff and P utilization of sunflower at flowering and seed yield at harvest

  9. AN EXPERIMENT IN MULTIATTRIBUTE UTILITY THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Delforce, Robert J.; Hardaker, J. Brian

    1985-01-01

    A version of multiattribute utility theory is evaluated as an aid to social decision making using an Australian case study. A multiattribute utility function is assessed over the descriptive, discrete decision alternatives of the decision problem rather than over the risky consequences of the attributes as in the standard approach. The evaluation is made first from the perspective of the decision analysts as a test of the feasibility of the method, and second, from the perspective of social d...

  10. Evolution of non-expected utility preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Widekind, Sven von; Fandel, G

    2008-01-01

    The theory on the evolution of preferences deals with the endogenous formation of preference relations in strategic situations. It is related to the field of evolutionary game theory. In this book we analyze the role and the influence of general, possibly non-expected utility preferences in such an evolutionary setup. In particular, we demonstrate that preferences which diverge from von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility may potentially prove to be successful under evolutionary pressures.

  11. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E.; Gadd, Nichole E.; Caldwell, Erin E.; Peters, Brian T.; Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Oddsson, Lars I. E.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory—visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orie...

  12. Multiattribute Fixed-State Utility Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-27

    of a companion distribution, are presented in Appendix A. Because of the theory of conditional expected utility and the modelling of the utilities by...obtain approximations to the moments, using the companion V ) ) distribution discussed in Section 3. The moments of both distributions are discussed...1956b, 21, 207-216. Slavic, P. "From Shakespeare to Simon: Speculation -- and some evidence -- about man’s ability to process information." O g . a

  13. Utility requirements for advanced LWR passive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedidia, J.M.; Sugnet, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    LWR Passive Plants are becoming an increasingly attractive and prominent option for future electric generating capacity for U.S. utilities. Conceptual designs for ALWR Passive Plants are currently being developed by U.S. suppliers. EPRI-sponsored work beginning in 1985 developed preliminary conceptual designs for a passive BWR and PWR. DOE-sponsored work from 1986 to the present in conjunction with further EPRI-sponsored studies has continued this development to the point of mature conceptual designs. The success to date in developing the ALWR Passive Plant concepts has substantially increased utility interest. The EPRI ALWR Program has responded by augmenting its initial scope to develop a Utility Requirements Document for ALWR Passive Plants. These requirements will be largely based on the ALWR Utility Requirements Document for Evolutionary Plants, but with significant changes in areas related to the passive safety functions and system configurations. This work was begun in late 1988, and the thirteen-chapter Passive Plant Utility Requirements Document will be completed in 1990. This paper discusses the progress to date in developing the Passive Plant requirements, reviews the top-level requirements, and discusses key issues related to adaptation of the utility requirements to passive safety functions and system configurations. (orig.)

  14. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 600 utilities—or about 20% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals more than 130. Through these programs, more than 50 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  15. Local government and utility firms’ debts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has affected the Croatian local public sector. In such circumstances, local government units’ debts and borrowing should be approached with caution. The highly interwoven financial operations of local government units and their utilities indicate the need for analysis of consolidated financial statements of local governments and utility companies in order to gain an insight into the real financial “health” of local units. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the size and the structure of the consolidated (local government and utility companies local public debt in Croatia. Accordingly, the paper presents the financial position of local government units supplemented with information on the financial operations of utility companies, with particular emphasis on the size and structure of their liabilities and gross and net debt. Although the current Budget Law does not require formal preparation of consolidated financial statements by local governments and their utility firms, consolidation is stipulated by International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. The application of IPSAS regulations would be helpful in determining overall direct and indirect exposure of local government units arising from the financial operations of their utilities.

  16. Report on promotion of utilization of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents results of studies made by the Atomic Energy Commission concerning research and development activities to be carried out in future to promote the utilization of radiation. First, the current state of radiation utilization is described, centering on practical applications, research and development activities (for practical and advanced applications), and international cooperation (with developing and advanced nations). The second part deals with activities required in future to promote practical utilization of radiation, research and development of advanced techniques, and cooperation to be offered to developing countries. Third, specific measures to be carried out for effective radiation utilization are described. For γ-rays and electron beams, which are widely in use at present, there are some economic and social problems remaining to be solved. For advanced utilization of radiation beams, further efforts should be focused on basic research on π-meson and μ-particle beams and their application to canser treatment and nuclear fusion; research on monochromatic neutron beams; application of RI beams to the development of new materials and new analysis techniques, application of epithermal neutron beams to elementary radiography and CT; etc. The utilization, application and development of tracers are also described. (Nogami, K.)

  17. Shaping the future of electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byus, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    On December 14, 1992, Cincinnati Gas ampersand Electric Company (CG ampersand E) and PSI Resources, Inc. announced an agreement to merge the two companies into a newly formed company, CINergy Corp. In announcing the proposed merger, James E. Rogers Jr., chairman, president, and chief executive officer of PSI said, Our companies have chosen to shape our future and our industry. This is an ideal partnership, since our strengths complement each other and our vision of the future is the same. Will this merger be the first of many that will shape the future of the electric utility in the United States? What is the vision of the future for the industry? About five years ago, a well-known Wall Street utility analyst traveled around the country talking about the anticipated consolidation of electric utility companies in the US His motto was Fifty in Five, meaning widespread consolidation that would reduce the number of independent investor-owned utilities from more than 100 to 50 within a five-year period. He even developed a map showing the mergers/consolidations he looked for and actually named names. More than five years have passed, and only a handful of utility mergers have taken place. But, looking forward from 1992, restructuring of the utility industry is very much a vision of the future. What is the driving force? The National Energy Policy Act of 1992 provides the legislative framework for the electric utility industry in the US in future years. While the specific rules that will govern the industry are yet to be promulgated, the intent to allow (even promote) competition is evident in the Act itself. But it appears the vision of the future is market driven

  18. Development of beam utilization/application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B H; Kim, Y K; Song, T Y [and others

    1999-05-01

    High power proton accelerator is considered as one of national fundamental research facilities and a key to advanced nuclear technology development, having been widely used in an un detachable relationship with nuclear research in advanced countries. The high power proton accelerator will be installed in several phases as an up front facility of the nuclear waste transmutation system. It is expected that a common understanding and a general agreement over proper utilization of the accelerator should be deduced and that a user program for beam utilization and application should be firmly established in time for the completion of each phase of the accelerator. This high power proton accelerator will consist of several component accelerators and, from up front, accelerators such as injector, RFQ, CCDTL, etc. will be installed in sequence and deliver respectively at each stage beams of 3MeV, 20MeV, 100Mev, etc. to be variously utilized forindustries, defence industry, medical treatment, environmental protection and basic science research. In order for the accelerator to be fully utilized as a national fundamental research facility beyond nuclear field, it is necessary to formulate a proceeding plan of the user program for the accelerator and to cultivate industrial utilization/application studies of proton beams accelerated by injector or RFQ of the accelerator. (author). 38 refs., 84 tabs., 39 figs.

  19. Electric vehicle utilization for ancillary grid services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Electric vehicle has been developed through several decades as transportation mean, without paying sufficient attention of its utilization for other purposes. Recently, the utilization of electric vehicle to support the grid electricity has been proposed and studied intensively. This utilization covers several possible services including electricity storage, spinning reserve, frequency and voltage regulation, and emergency energy supply. This study focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of utilization of electric vehicles and their used batteries to support a small-scale energy management system. Charging rate of electric vehicle under different ambient temperature (seasonal condition) is initially analyzed to measure the correlation of charging rate, charging time, and state-of-charge. It is confirmed that charging under warmer condition (such as in summer or warmer region) shows higher charging rate than one in colder condition, therefore, shorter charging time can be achieved. In addition, in the demonstration test, each five electric vehicles and used batteries from the same electric vehicles are employed and controlled to support the electricity of the office building. The performance of the system is evaluated throughout a year to measure the load leveling effect during peak-load time. The results show that the targeted peak-load can be shaved well under certain calculated peak-shaving threshold. The finding confirms that the utilization of electric vehicle for supporting the electricity of grid or certain energy management system is feasible and deployable in the future.

  20. Thorium resources and energy utilization (14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unesaki, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, thorium reactor has been attracting attention from the viewpoint of safety. Regarding thorium as the resources for nuclear energy, this paper explains its estimated reserves in the whole world and each country, its features such as the situation of utilization, and the reason why it attracts attention now. The following three items are taken up here as the typical issues among the latest topics on thorium: (1) utilization of thorium as a tension easing measure against environmental effects involved in nuclear energy utilization, (2) thorium-based reactor as the next generation type reactor with improved safety, and (3) thorium utilization as the improvement policy of nuclear proliferation resistance. The outline, validity, and problems of these items are explained. Thorium reactor has been adopted as a research theme since the 1950s up to now mainly in the U.S. However, it is not enough in the aspect of technological development and also insufficient in the verification of reliability based on technological demonstration, compared with uranium-fueled light-water reactor. This paper explains these situations, and discusses the points for thorium utilization and future prospects. (A.O.)

  1. Development of beam utilization/application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B. H.; Kim, Y.K.; Song, T.Y.

    1999-05-01

    High power proton accelerator is considered as one of national fundamental research facilities and a key to advanced nuclear technology development, having been widely used in an un detachable relationship with nuclear research in advanced countries. The high power proton accelerator will be installed in several phases as an up front facility of the nuclear waste transmutation system. It is expected that a common understanding and a general agreement over proper utilization of the accelerator should be deduced and that a user program for beam utilization and application should be firmly established in time for the completion of each phase of the accelerator. This high power proton accelerator will consist of several component accelerators and, from up front, accelerators such as injector, RFQ, CCDTL, etc. will be installed in sequence and deliver respectively at each stage beams of 3MeV, 20MeV, 100Mev, etc. to be variously utilized for industries, defence industry, medical treatment, environmental protection and basic science research. In order for the accelerator to be fully utilized as a national fundamental research facility beyond nuclear field, it is necessary to formulate a proceeding plan of the user program for the accelerator and to cultivate industrial utilization/application studies of proton beams accelerated by injector or RFQ of the accelerator. (author). 38 refs., 84 tabs., 39 figs

  2. Iranian nurses' constraint for research utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Neda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper identifies the views of Iranian clinical nurses regarding the utilization of nursing research in practice. There is a need to understand what restricts Iranian clinical nurses to use research findings. The aim of this study was to identify practicing nurses' view of aspects which they perceived constrain them from research utilization that summarizes and uses research findings to address a nursing practice problem. Methods Data were collected during 6 months by means of face-to face interviews follow by one focus group. Analysis was undertaken using a qualitative content analysis. Results Findings disclosed some key themes perceived by nurses to restrict them to use research findings: level of support require to be research active, to be research minded, the extent of nurses knowledge and skills about research and research utilization, level of educational preparation relating to using research, administration and executive challenges in clinical setting, and theory-practice gap. Conclusion This study identifies constraints that require to be overcome for clinical nurses to actively get involved in research utilization. In this study nurses were generally interested to use research findings. However they felt restricted because of lack of time, lack of peer and manager support and limited knowledge and skills of the research process. This study also confirms that research utilization and the change to research nursing practice are complex issues which require both organizational and educational efforts.

  3. Information security becoming a priority for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaides, S. [Numerex, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    As part of North America's national critical infrastructure, utilities are finding themselves at the forefront of a security issue. In October 2007, a leading security service provider reported a 90 per cent increase in the number of hackers attempting to attack its utility clients in just one year. Utilities are vulnerable to cyber attacks that could disrupt power production and the transmission system. This article discussed the need for intelligent technologies in securely enabling resource management and operational efficiency of the utilities market. It discussed the unique security challenges that utilities face at a time of greater regulatory activity, heightened environmental concerns, tighter data security requirements and an increasing need for remote monitoring and control. A new tool has emerged for cyber security in the form of an international standard that may offer a strong guideline to work toward 11 security domains. These include security policy; organization of information security; asset management; human resources security; physical and environmental security; communications and operations management; access control; information systems acquisition; development and maintenance; information security incident management; business continuity management; and compliance. 2 figs.

  4. Electric utilities look back on 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    A review of activities in the electric power industry in Canada during 1998 is presented. In general, the principal preoccupation of Canadian electric utilities in 1998 was preparation for competition in a deregulated energy market. Utilities worked with provincial and national legislatures to redraw the rules of power supply. US FERC order 888 was central to many debates. FERC order 888 stipulates the unbundling of the retail aspects of operations from those that will remain regulated. Electric utilities also continued to prepare for the Y2K phenomenon and to work towards achieving ISO 14001 environmental management accreditation. They also explored alternative means of power generation. The year began with utilities across Canada sharing expertise and manpower to mitigate the impact of the ice storm which devastated parts of Quebec, Ontario and New Brunswick. It is believed that as a result of the ice storm of 1998, the Canadian utility industry is much better prepared to deal with weather-related emergencies than ever before. 1 fig

  5. A bayesian approach to laboratory utilization management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G Hauser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory utilization management describes a process designed to increase healthcare value by altering requests for laboratory services. A typical approach to monitor and prioritize interventions involves audits of laboratory orders against specific criteria, defined as rule-based laboratory utilization management. This approach has inherent limitations. First, rules are inflexible. They adapt poorly to the ambiguity of medical decision-making. Second, rules judge the context of a decision instead of the patient outcome allowing an order to simultaneously save a life and break a rule. Third, rules can threaten physician autonomy when used in a performance evaluation. Methods: We developed an alternative to rule-based laboratory utilization. The core idea comes from a formula used in epidemiology to estimate disease prevalence. The equation relates four terms: the prevalence of disease, the proportion of positive tests, test sensitivity and test specificity. When applied to a laboratory utilization audit, the formula estimates the prevalence of disease (pretest probability [PTP] in the patients tested. The comparison of PTPs among different providers, provider groups, or patient cohorts produces an objective evaluation of laboratory requests. We demonstrate the model in a review of tests for enterovirus (EV meningitis. Results: The model identified subpopulations within the cohort with a low prevalence of disease. These low prevalence groups shared demographic and seasonal factors known to protect against EV meningitis. This suggests too many orders occurred from patients at low risk for EV. Conclusion: We introduce a new method for laboratory utilization management programs to audit laboratory services.

  6. Utilization of Smartphone Literacy In Learning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Yuniati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of smartphones is increasingly developing among the students. It causes various modifications of attitude and behavior, that media literacy nowadays becomes highly important. Therefore, media literacy shall become the priority for related parties specifically parents and teachers. In addition to helping to find information and to conduct fast communication, smartphone is also functions in formal learning process among the students.The aim of this research is to acknowledge the utilization of smartphones in formal learning process. This study uses qualitative descriptive method which makes serious efforts in describing and depicting utilization of smartphones in learning process among Junior High School students in Bandung. The research result shows that smartphones may function as a device to channel messages and to stimulate the mind, feeling and desire of the students which may encourage learning process in them and to give positive values and to bridge media literacy among the students.

  7. Evaluation of isotope utilizations in consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1980-01-01

    Consumer products are generally divided into three groups, according to the state of radioactive material or radiation used. First, there are those intentionally added with radioactive materials, such as self-luminous paints and ionization type smoke detectors, utilizing the ionization and excitation by radiation. Second, there are those utilizing natural radioactive materials like glaze. Third, there are those materials containing intrinsically natural radioactive materials. In the first group, the safety evaluation of self-luminous watches and clocks and the risk-benefit evaluation of ionization type smoke detectors are described, and the approval standards for the consumer products and the R/B evaluation method are explained. There are variety of consumer products utilizing radiation, by the exposure dose caused by them is extremely insignificant, far lower than that due to natural radiation. (J.P.N.)

  8. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUSIENE, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides the references to the requisite codes and standards to he applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Utilities Subsystems that support the first phase of waste feed delivery (WFD). The DST Utilities Subsystems provide electrical power, raw/potable water, and service/instrument air to the equipment and structures used to transfer low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) to designated DST staging tanks. The DST Utilities Subsystems also support the equipment and structures used to deliver blended LAW and HLW feed from these staging tanks to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor facility where the waste will be immobilized. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations. This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  9. Water utilization in the Snake River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, William Glenn; Stabler, Herman

    1935-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the present utilization of the water in the Snake River Basin with special reference to irrigation and power and to present essential facts concerning possible future utilization. No detailed plan of development is suggested. An attempt has been made, however, to discuss features that should be taken into account in the formulation of a definite plan of development. On account of the size of the area involved, which is practically as large as the New England States and New York combined, and the magnitude of present development and future possibilities, considerable details have of necessity been omitted. The records of stream flow in the basin are contained in the reports on surface water supply published annually by the Geological Survey. These records are of the greatest value in connection with the present and future regulation and utilization of the basin's largest asset water.

  10. Time management problems and discounted utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Cornelius J; Kleinmann, Martin

    2007-05-01

    The lens of behavioral decision theory offers a new perspective for research on time management. The basic idea of this approach is that people discount future consequences of their time management decisions, meaning that they work on tasks with smaller but sooner outcomes rather than on tasks with larger but later outcomes. The authors performed 2 experimental studies to test whether people are sensitive to differences in the discounted utility of time management decisions. In Experiment 1, they used vignettes of typical time management situations; Experiment 2 was a laboratory simulation (an in-basket task that was part of a training assessment). Participants in both studies were German students. As expected, manipulating the discounted utility of options resulted in different time management decisions. In Experiment 1, reactions to time management situations were judged as less likely if the reactions had lower discounted utilities. In Experiment 2, people spent less time on an interruption.

  11. Power from biomass: the power utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimova, K.; Angele, H.-C.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at possible strategies that electricity utilities in Switzerland could follow in order to be able to make use of biomass as a source of energy. Increasing interest in damp biomass as a relatively cheap, renewable and climate-friendly source of energy is commented on. Strategic choices that energy utilities have to make when they decide to enter into the biomass market are examined. The potentials involved are examined, including biogenic materials from domestic wastes and from agriculture. Figures on potential waste tonnage are quoted. Questions on subsidies and the free market are examined. The setting up of 'virtual power stations' - networks of installations using photovoltaic, wind and biomass - is discussed, as are various strategies that utilities can follow in this area. Examples of such 'virtual power stations' are listed.

  12. Evaluation of the electric utility missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, J.

    2000-01-01

    The French law from February 10, 2000, about the modernization and development of the electric utility, has created new missions of public utility and foresees some compensation mechanisms for not handicapping the power operators in charge of these missions and for not creating competition distortions to their detriment on the European market. The author explains, first, the financial and economical stakes linked with these new missions. Then, he evokes the evolution of the energy context that has taken place between the 2. World war and the enforcement of the February 10, 2000 law, and he analyzes the systems foreseen for the power generation and distribution. For each public utility charge, the existing dispositions and those introduced by the law are analyzed and compared to the equivalent systems existing in other countries. Then, charge evaluation criteria and sharing rules and proposed. (J.S.)

  13. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  14. Handbook of evaluation of utility DSM programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Reed, J. [eds.; Bronfman, B.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Hicks, E.; Hirst, E.; Hoffman, M.; Keating, K.; Michaels, H.; Nadel, S.; Peters, J.; Reed, J.; Saxonis, W.; Schoen, A.; Violette, D.

    1991-12-01

    Program evaluation has become a central issue in the world of utility integrated resource planning. The DSM programs that utilities were operating to meet federal requirements or to improve customer relations are now becoming big business. DSM is being considered an important resource in a utility`s portfolio of options. In the last five years, the amount of money that utilities have invested in DSM has grown exponentially in most regulatory jurisdictions. Market analysts are now talking about DSM being a $30 billion industry by the end of the decade. If the large volume of DSM-program investments was not enough to highlight the importance of evaluation, then the introduction of regulatory incentives has really focused the spotlight. This handbook was developed through a process that involved many of those people who represent the diverse constituencies of DSM-program evaluation. We have come to recognize the many technical disciplines that must be employed to evaluate DSM programs. An analysis might start out based on the principles of utility load research to find out what happened, but a combination of engineering and statistical methods must be used to ``triangulate`` an estimate of what would have happened without the program. The difference, of course, is that elusive but prized result of evaluation: what happened as the direct result of the DSM program. Technical performance of DSM measures is not the sole determinant of the answer, either. We also recognize the importance of such behavioral attributes of DSM as persistence and free ridership. Finally, DSM evaluation is meaningless without attention to planning an approach, communicating results to relevant decision-makers, and focusing as much on the process as the impacts of the program. These topics are all covered in this handbook.

  15. Formation and utilization of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargyai, J

    1974-01-01

    General problems of slag and fly ash formation and utilization are discussed. The ever-increasing energy demand, and the comeback of coal as an energy carrier in power plants call for efficient solutions to the problem of slag and fly ash. Slag and fly ash are used for concrete in which they partly replace cement. Other possible uses are the amelioration of acid soils, fireclay manufacture, road construction, and tiles. It is possible to recover metals, such as vanadium, iron, aluminum, and radioactive materials from certain types of fly ash and slag. The utilization of fly ash is essential also with respect to the abatement of entrainment from dumps.

  16. Solar thermal utilization--an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deming; Xu Gang

    2007-01-01

    Solar energy is an ideal renewable energy source and its thermal utilization is one of its most important applications. We review the status of solar thermal utilization, including: (1) developed technologies which are already widely used all over the world, such as solar assisted water heaters, solar cookers, solar heated buildings and so on; (2) advanced technologies which are still in the development or laboratory stage and could have more innovative applications, including thermal power generation, refrigeration, hydrogen production, desalination, and chimneys; (3) major problems which need to be resolved for advanced utilizaiton of solar thermal energy. (authors)

  17. Outpatient care utilization in urban Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Jean-Frédéric; Haddad, Slim; Narayana, Delampady; Fournier, Pierre

    2006-07-01

    Kerala is characterized by a high density of public and private health infrastructure. While less inequality in access has been reported in this Indian state, few studies have looked at problems found within cities. Escalation of costs of private services and reduced public investments could generate some inequalities in access for the poor. To assess factors associated with utilization and source of outpatient care in urban Kerala, and to discuss policy implications with regards to access to care. A multilevel analysis of individual and urban characteristics associated with utilization and source of outpatient care was conducted using data from a 1995-96 survey by the National Sample Survey Organisation on health care in urban Kerala. There is a high level of utilization (83.6%) of allopathic medical services. Controlling for illness severity and age, utilization thereof was lower for the very poor (OR 0.13 [0.03; 0.49]), inhabitants of medium towns (OR 0.20 [0.05; 0.70]), and inhabitants of cities with a lower proportion of permanent material (pucca) houses (0.21 [0.06; 0.72]). Among all users, 77% resorted to a private source of care. Utilization of a private provider was less likely for the very poor (OR 0.13 [0.03; 0.51]) and individuals from casual worker households (OR 0.54 [0.30; 0.97]), while it was more likely for inhabitants of cities from both low public bed density districts (OR 4.08 [1.05; 15.95]) and high private bed density districts (OR 5.83 [2.34; 14.53]). Problems of quality and accessibility of the public sector were invoked to justify utilization of private clinics. A marked heterogeneity in utilization of outpatient care was found between cities of various sizes and characteristics. This study confirms high utilization of private outpatient care in Kerala and suggests problems of access for the poorest. Even in a context of high public availability and considering the health transition factor, relying on the development of the private sector

  18. Assessment of Research Needs for Coal Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1983-08-01

    The Coal Combustion and Applications Working Group (CCAWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on coal combustion and utilization. The important topical areas of coal gasification and coal liquefaction have been deliberately excluded because R and D needs for these technologies were reviewed previously by the DOE Fossil Energy Research Working Group. The CCAWG studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect prospects for augmented coal utilization. In this report, we summarize the findings and research recommendations of CCAWG.

  19. Current radioactive waste utilization at PA 'MAYAK'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkushkin, A.O.

    2001-01-01

    The Production Association 'Mayak' is one of the largest production union of Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) in Russia. In 1988 the last military reactor, which worked for making military plutonium was stopped. From this time civic history of 'Mayak' was began. Today 'Mayak' is the complex production union of NFC, which utilizes the Radiated Nuclear Fuel (RNF). The combine is dynamically develops, new technologies are domesticate and intrude, large works for liquidation of accidents and mistakes of lapsed years are in progress. The short review of radioactive waste utilization methods is present in this account. (author)

  20. The electric utilities in 1989 - A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents the performance of electric utilities financially and in the stock market. The performance of the utility stocks compared with industrial stocks and long term government bonds is addressed as well as an analysis of the reasons for the differences. The effect of rate increases granted versus the rate of inflation on per share earnings is examined. A concern was expressed that increases in demand substantially larger than those projected by the industry for 1989 may result in excess capacity disappearing much sooner than predicted by industry managements

  1. Combined utilization of biogas and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, J.; Tafdrup, S.; Christensen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The Danish natural gas network has been established during the past 10 years. Running parallel with this a small but growing production of biogas from centralized biogas plants and landfills has been developed. The annual biogas production is expected to keep growing and increase tenfold in the next 25 year period with a reduction of green house gas emissions as one of the important incentives. The last years' development and expansion of the Danish biogas sector has shown a need for combined utilization of biogas and natural gas. If larger volumes of biogas are present, upgrading and distribution by the natural gas network may be an alternative to combined utilization. (au) 12 refs

  2. Utilizing FFTF: the keystone for breeder development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziff, J.J.; Arneson, S.O.

    1981-05-01

    This paper describes the role of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the US Department of Energy sponsored Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program. The programs that are in place to ensure that the FFTF fulfills its role as an essential key to the development of LMFBR technology are delineated. A detailed FFTF Operating Plan has been developed to present in integrated form the strategy for gaining maximum useful information from the planned FFTF operations. The three principal areas of FFTF Utilization: Plant Utilization, Irradiation Testing, and Safety, combine to form the overall FFTF Operating Plan. Primary areas where FFTF is already making major contributions to LMFBR development are described

  3. Liquefaction chemistry and kinetics: Hydrogen utilization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and kinetics that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and kinetics, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of kinetic models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.

  4. CONCRETE SUPPORT DESIGN FOR MISCELLANEOUS ESF UTILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misiak, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to design concrete supports for the miscellaneous utility equipment used at the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Two utility systems are analyzed: (1) the surface collection tanks of the Waste Water System, and (2) the chemical tracer mixing and storage tanks of the Non-Potable Water System. This analysis satisfies design recommended in the Title III Evaluation Reports for the Subsurface Fire Water System and Subsurface Portion of the Non-Potable Water System (CRWMS M andO 1998a) and Waste Water Systems (CRWMS M andO 1998b)

  5. Studies on nitrogen utilization in ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Erick Darlisson

    2015-01-01

    In cattle, efficiency of nitrogen (N) utilization (g N in product/g N intake) is lower compared to others species (e.g., pig, chicken). For that reason, there is an extensive loss of N in manure, leading to environmental pollution. However, understanding the key mechanisms involved in control of N metabolism, such as efficiency of N capture in the rumen from recycled N and metabolism of amino acids (AA) in the body can improve efficiency of N utilization. To understand these factors, this dis...

  6. Establishing benchmarks and metrics for utilization management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stacy E F

    2014-01-01

    The changing environment of healthcare reimbursement is rapidly leading to a renewed appreciation of the importance of utilization management in the clinical laboratory. The process of benchmarking of laboratory operations is well established for comparing organizational performance to other hospitals (peers) and for trending data over time through internal benchmarks. However, there are relatively few resources available to assist organizations in benchmarking for laboratory utilization management. This article will review the topic of laboratory benchmarking with a focus on the available literature and services to assist in managing physician requests for laboratory testing. © 2013.

  7. Current radioactive waste utilization at PA 'MAYAK'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkushkin, A O [Ozyorsk Technological Institute of Moscow Physical Engineering Institute (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The Production Association 'Mayak' is one of the largest production union of Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) in Russia. In 1988 the last military reactor, which worked for making military plutonium was stopped. From this time civic history of 'Mayak' was began. Today 'Mayak' is the complex production union of NFC, which utilizes the Radiated Nuclear Fuel (RNF). The combine is dynamically develops, new technologies are domesticate and intrude, large works for liquidation of accidents and mistakes of lapsed years are in progress. The short review of radioactive waste utilization methods is present in this account. (author)

  8. Survey of utility robotic applications (1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This special report presents the results of a survey to identify areas of usage where utilities have found robotics to be most beneficial. The survey, which was conducted by U/M RUG, an ad hoc robotics group, should be of interest to all utilities interested in proven applications. The survey shows that robotics are finding increasing use in maintenance tasks, and in cleanup applications. Extended usage of precision positioning, dexterity, intelligence and mobility is not yet apparent. Improvements in these areas would greatly aid maintenance applications of robotics. 7 figs

  9. Under stochastic dominance Choquet-expected utility and anticipated utility are identical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this paper is to convince the reader that Choquet-expected utility, as initiated by Schmeidler (1982, 1989) for decision making under uncertainty, when formulated for decision making under risk naturally leads to anticipated utility, as initiated by Quiggin/Yaari. Thus the two

  10. Under stochastic dominance choquet-expected utility and anticipated utility are identical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to convince the reader that Choquet-expected utility, as initiated by Schmeidler (1982) for decision making under uncertainty, when formulated for decision making under risk naturally leads to Yaari (1987)'s anticipated utility. Thus the two generalizations of expected

  11. Effective utilization and management of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muranaka, R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Research and Isotopes

    1984-06-01

    The problem of utilizing a research reactor effectively is closely related to its management and therefore should not be considered separately. Too often, attention has been focused on specific techniques and methods rather than on the overall programme of utilization, with the result that skills and equipment have been acquired without any active continuing programme of applications and services. The seminar reported here provided a forum for reactor managers, users, and operators to discuss their experience. At the invitation of the Government of Malaysia, it was held at the Asia Pacific Development Centre, Kuala Lumpur, from 7 to 11 November 1983. It was attended by about 50 participants from 19 Member States; it is hoped that a report on the seminar, including papers presented, can be published and thus reach a wider audience. Thirty-one lectures and contributions were presented at a total of seven sessions: Research reactor management; Radiation exposure and safety; Research reactor utilization (two sessions); PUSPATI Research Reactor Project Development; Core conversion to low-enriched uranium, and safeguards; Research reactor technology. In addition, a panel discussed the causes and resolutions of the under-utilization of research reactors.

  12. 30 CFR 817.180 - Utility installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.180 Utility installations. All underground mining activities shall be conducted in a manner...; oil, gas, and coal-slurry pipelines, railroads; electric and telephone lines; and water and sewage...

  13. Nitrogen-fixing methane-utilizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de J.A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Methane occurs abundantly in nature. In the presence of oxygen this gas may be metabolized by bacteria that are able to use it as carbon and energy source. Several types of bacteria involved in the oxidation of methane have been described in literature. Methane-utilizing bacteria have in

  14. Utilizing the Design Charrette for Teaching Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jason B.; Seymour, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the design charrette as a method for teaching sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: The paper utilizes a student-based design charrette for the Mississippi Gulf Coast comprising a framework for teaching sustainability. An assessment of the charrette's role in promoting sustainability in higher…

  15. Undergraduate students' perception and Utilization of electronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of undergraduate students' perception and utilization of electronic information resources and services was carried out. The population of the study consisted of all registered library users in the 2014/2015 academic session. The total population of the study was 4, 211 registered users. Accidental sampling ...

  16. Outlook for California's electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes how the Southern California Edison Company deals with revolutionary change as the state's electricity industry reinvents itself. The topics of the article include how competition has make things better for SCEC's employees, customers, and shareholders, and an outline of the principal features of the electric utility industry in California

  17. Turmoil and transition: Electric utility industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    In a review of electric utility industry trends, focusing on North America, it is noted that four critical influences are dominant: competition in the electricity supply business; technological advances; the recognized need for environmental protection; and a favoring of market economics and customer choice. As energy costs rose in the 1970s and 1980s, electricity usage growth rates decreased and demand side management became an accepted alternative to building new power plants. In large areas of Canada and the USA, substantial surplus generation capacity arose, transmission linkages improved, and regional electricity markets developed. Privatization measures in the British electric sector were closely studied in North America and electric markets in the USA were pushed toward more competition with the 1992 Energy Policy Act. Non-utility generators have entered the market, including industrial companies, pipeline companies, independent renewable-energy providers, and power companies set up by the utilities themselves. Power pools may evolve into regional transmission grids in which the transmission owning utilities would exchange their lines for an interest in the grid. California is likely to lead in opening access to transmission on a regional scale. Distribution systems are likely to remain a regulated monopoly as before. Substantial change is expected in customer services as functions such as power purchase and conservation are being performed by independent companies. Other possible developments in the industry include emissions trading and spot markets for power. The implications of these trends for British Columbia Hydro are discussed

  18. Communication Outreach Strategies Utilized By Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on communication outreach strategies utilized by agricultural extension agents in the Imo State Agriculural Development Programme, Nigeria. Data was obtained form 60 randomly selected agricultural extension agents from the study area. Data were analysed using frequency, percentage and mean ...

  19. The Challenge of Utilizing Information and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper, The Challenge of Utilizing Information and Communication Technology in Book Editing: A Study of Select Publishing Houses in Nigeria is a survey research. Two hundred and sixty (260) book editors working in the 87 NPA member firms within Ibadan and Ikeja, Lagos metropolis in Southwest Nigeria constituted ...

  20. Sociodemographic characterization of ECT utilization in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ona, Celia M; Onoye, Jane M; Goebert, Deborah; Hishinuma, Earl; Bumanglag, R Janine; Takeshita, Junji; Carlton, Barry; Fukuda, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Minimal research has been done on sociodemographic differences in utilization of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) for refractory depression, especially among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. This study examined sociodemographic and diagnostic variables using retrospective data from Hawaii, an island state with predominantly Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Retrospective data were obtained from an inpatient and outpatient database of ECT patients from 2008 to 2010 at a tertiary care community hospital on O'ahu, Hawaii. There was a significant increase in overall ECT utilization from 2008 to 2009, with utilization remaining stable from 2009 to 2010. European Americans (41%) and Japanese Americans (29%) have relatively higher rates of receiving ECT, and Filipino Americans and Native Hawaiians have relatively lower rates in comparison with their population demographics. Japanese Americans received significantly more ECT procedures than European Americans. Electroconvulsive therapy is underutilized by certain sociodemographic groups that may benefit most from the treatment. There are significant differences in ECT usage based on ethnicity. Such differences may be related to help-seeking behavior, economic differences, and/or attitudes regarding mental illness. Further research is needed to elucidate the reasons for differences in utilization.

  1. Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Intestinal Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance, nutrient utilization and intestinal environment of weaned rabbits fed diets supplemented with organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid and formic acid) were investigated with 24 (6-week old) rabbits in a completely randomized design. The control diet was not supplemented while others were supplemented ...

  2. Urea utilization in growing lambs. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, M.

    1989-01-01

    The utilization quota of NPN and pure feed protein for body protein synthesis was calculated on the basis of N balance experiments with 15 N-labelled urea with the help of model concepts of a 3-pool model and its mathematical usage. In lambs weighing 13 kg the efficiency of amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis in the non-amino acid N pool was 64%. This results in a total utilization quota for NPN and pure protein in the ration of 40% and 60%, resp. Lambs weighing 27 kg showed an efficiency in amino acid and nucleic acid synthesis in the non-AA N pool of 77% and in the AA N pool of 60%. The total utilization quota of NPN was 47% and that of pure protein 56%. The pure protein in the ration was thus about twice as well utilized for total protein synthesis and for protein syntesis for crude protein retention as the NPN compounds in the ration. (author)

  3. Utilization of Community Institutional and Organizational Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of the utilization of community institutional and community organizational resources on the implementation of adult basic literacy and functional literacy programmes in Cross River State. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested. The survey research design was adopted for the study.

  4. Cardinal Coordinate Independence for Expected Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.

    1984-01-01

    A representation theorem for binary relations on (Re)n is derived. It is interpreted in the context of decision making under uncertainty. There we consider the existence of a subjective expected utility model to represent a preference relation of a person on the set of bets for money on a finite

  5. Cardinal Coordinate Independence for Expected Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractA representation theorem for binary relations on n is derived. It is interpreted in the context of decision making under uncertainty. There we consider the existence of a subjective expected utility model to represent a preference relation of a person on the set of bets for money on a

  6. ATTITUDE, KNOWLEDGE AND UTILIZATION OF FAMILY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    Keywords: Knowledge, Utilization, family planning, rural women ... on public health issues and human rights calling for a strong focus on sexual and reproductive health .... information on pills from churches, mosques, and market places. ... condoms and safe period (35%) and (50%) of the respondents got their sources of ...

  7. Improving Knowledge Management and Utilization of Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving Knowledge Management and Utilization of Research Results in Ecohealth Projects. This study brings together lead investigators from 11 past and ongoing Ecohealth projects across Latin America who are interested in achieving better development outcomes guided by research results. Their collective ...

  8. Availability and utilization of information communication technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of ICT in learning is critical in development of any society. Today's learning has emphasized its importance as basis for 21st century knowledge acquisition. This study investigated the availability and utilization of ICT facilities in Madonna University, Nigeria with particular reference to the Okija campus. It employed ...

  9. A UTILITY THEORY OF OLD AGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAMLIN, ROY M.

    HERZBERG'S JOB SATISFACTION MODEL SERVES AS THE BASIS FOR AN ANALYSIS OF OLD AGE. THE PATTERN VARIES AMONG INDIVIDUALS, BUT THE CAPACITY FOR ORGANIZED BEHAVIOR RATHER THAN RANDOM STRESS REDUCTION SUPPLIES EACH INDIVIDUAL WITH A TASK. THE HYPOTHESIS IS THAT IF THE OLDER INDIVIDUAL REALIZES UTILITY IN HIS YEARS BEYOND 70, HE WILL RETAIN COMPETENCE…

  10. General vibration monitoring: Utility Building, August 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    This vibration data was generated from measurements made on 8/12/92. The contents are self explanatory. They are baseline measurements and no exceptionally large vibration amplitude or response was observed. These measurements represent baseline measurements, i.e., measurements with no driving forces active, made on the utility building, a service building for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

  11. Opportunities for electric utilities in telecommunications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the opportunities for utility participation in the telecommunications market on private microwave systems and hybrid microwave and fiber systems. The topics of the article include entering the market, national information infrastructure, business opportunities and considerations, levels of participation in telecommunications market, and regulatory objectives

  12. Perspectives and utilization technologies of chicory ( Cichorium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring and developing multiple utility technologies of plant resources is an alternative way for improving the efficiency of land used for food and fuel production. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) has a nutritional quality comparable to lucerne as it contains similar proportions of protein, lipid, minerals and other nutrients.

  13. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Energetic utilization of dietary fiber in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The energetic utilization of fermentable dietary fiber (fDF) of different fiber sources and its relation to physical activity and housing conditions was studied in three experiments. In all experiments the daily intake of digestible nutrients, nitrogen and energy balances, heat production, and

  15. Utilization of the world wide web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, P.; Mallard, G.; Ralchenko, U.; Schultz, D.

    1998-01-01

    Two aspects of utilization of the World Wide Web are examined: (i) the communication of technical data through web cites that provide repositories of atomic and molecular data accessible through searchable databases; and (ii) the communication about issues of mutual concern among data producers, data compilers and evaluators, and data users. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  16. Forest biological diversity interactions with resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.T. Mok

    1992-01-01

    The most important forest resources of the Asia-Pacific region are the highly diverse rain forests. Utilization of the resource is a natural and inevitable consequence of the region's socio-economic development. The sustainable management and development of forest resources in the region can be achieved by implementing conservational forestry, which is based on...

  17. Transporter engineering in biomass utilization by yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kobayashi, Jyumpei; Yamada, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Daisuke; Kuriya, Yuki; Hirono-Hara, Yoko; Ishii, Jun; Araki, Michihiro; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-11-01

    Biomass resources are attractive carbon sources for bioproduction because of their sustainability. Many studies have been performed using biomass resources to produce sugars as carbon sources for cell factories. Expression of biomass hydrolyzing enzymes in cell factories is an important approach for constructing biomass-utilizing bioprocesses because external addition of these enzymes is expensive. In particular, yeasts have been extensively engineered to be cell factories that directly utilize biomass because of their manageable responses to many genetic engineering tools, such as gene expression, deletion and editing. Biomass utilizing bioprocesses have also been developed using these genetic engineering tools to construct metabolic pathways. However, sugar input and product output from these cells are critical factors for improving bioproduction along with biomass utilization and metabolic pathways. Transporters are key components for efficient input and output activities. In this review, we focus on transporter engineering in yeast to enhance bioproduction from biomass resources. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. US utility uranium procurement: goals and tactics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Jim

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes and attempts to explain the results of a survey sent to 37 US utilities asking them two questions: What are the goals of your uranium procurement strategy? and what are the tactics you use in achieving those goals? The results are presented in a summary fashion to protect individual company proprietary information. This paper is directed particularly to non-US uranium market participants as an aid to gain further insight into ''the US market'' and to understand how the potential cumulative market responses of US utilities may influence their procurement plans. Out of 37 utilities surveyed, 25 responded. Some utilities were interviewed over the telephone. Some responses were as short as one paragraph, while others were 1 to 5 pages in length. The format was chosen to encourage original responses. The range of responses could be used in the future as a basis for a multiple-choice type survey to form a more statistically representative sample. The responses are summarized for each of the two questions. (author)

  19. Fuel utilization experience in Slovak Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petenyi, V [Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic, Bajkalska (Slovakia)

    1997-12-01

    The paper summarizes shortly the gained experience in utilization of the fuel in the four-year fuel cycles and describes the future activities in fuel management. The spent fuel management is also included. (author). 2 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  20. Operation and utilization of Indonesia Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntoro, Iman; Sujalmo, Saiful; Tarigan, Alim

    2004-01-01

    For supporting the R and D in nuclear science and technology and its application, BATAN own and operate three research reactors namely, TRIGA-2000, KARTINI and RSG-GAS having thermal power of 2 MW, 100 kW and 30 MW respectively. The main features, operation and utilization progress of the reactors are described in this report. (author)

  1. Development of industrial utilization of metallic sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuhara, Shunichi

    1995-01-01

    Sodium exists in large quantity, being ranked to 6th in the existence proportion of elements, and takes 2.83% of the matters composing earth crust. Sodium is an alkali metal which is light weight, chemically very active and a strong reducing substance. It is excellent in the compatibility with iron and steel materials, and it possesses good heat conduction and flow characteristics and stable nuclear characteristics. Since the industrial production of sodium became practical, its utilization was developed as the reducing agent and catalyst in chemical industry, the core coolant and heat transport medium for nuclear reactors, the material composing the secondary batteries for storing electric power, and the auxiliaries for metal refining and so on. The industrial production of metallic sodium is carried out by the electrolysis of melted salt, namely Downs process. The production of metallic sodium in Japan is 3000-6000 t yearly, and its import is 300-350 t. Its main use is for organic chemical industry including dye production. The grades of metallic sodium products and their uses are shown. The utilization of sodium for large fast reactors, the utilization of NaK as the heat transport and cooling medium for space use nuclear reactors and deep sea fast reactor system, and the utilization of sodium as the catalyst in dye production, for silicon carbide fiber production and for agricultural and medical chemical production are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Light duty utility arm software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the software requirements for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. It is intended to be used to guide the design of the application software, to be a basis for assessing the application software design, and to establish what is to be tested in the finished application software product

  3. Defining utility trace substance emissions and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.

    1993-01-01

    An update is presented on the activities of EPRI and other organizations, including DOE, aimed at improving the quality of available information on utility trace element emissions, control technologies and risks. Because of these efforts, the state of knowledge is advancing rapidly. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments aim to reduce emissions of 189 substances that they designate as hazardous air pollutants - commonly called air toxics. The more neutral term open-quotes trace substancesclose quotes is used in this paper, since most are emitted in extremely low concentrations from utility stacks. The degree of toxicity or hazard at these concentrations is subject to considerable uncertainty, and clarifying this is one of the objectives of the work in progress. The most clear and urgent need emanating from the CAAA has been to obtain reliable information on which of the substances on the CAAA list are emitted from different types of power plants - in what amounts, what risks they pose, how much is removed by today's pollution control equipment. EPRI is addressing the issue on several fronts, e.g.; developing a data base and tools that will enable utilities to estimate emissions levels from their power facilities, given the types of fuels burned and plant characteristics; developing a better understanding of how emissions are transported and transformed before they encounter humans and ecological systems; and assessing the risk to public health and the environment posed by utility releases of these substances

  4. Not business as usual for water utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article addresses the implementation of the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Amendments of 1986 and their economic impacts to water utilities, financiers, stockholders and consumers. The author looks at various funding schemes, rate structure changes and potential mergers all designed to finance the compliance with new EPA standards

  5. Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Bielová, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    The subject of bachelor's thesis "Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication" is analyze problematic of marketing communications in sector of educational services. The aims are potential clients of education. I will try to make out import of marketing research for marketing communication of the company.

  6. Developing an Actuarial Track Utilizing Existing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kathy V.; Sarol, Yalçin

    2014-01-01

    Students earning a degree in mathematics often seek information on how to apply their mathematical knowledge. One option is to follow a curriculum with an actuarial emphasis designed to prepare students as an applied mathematician in the actuarial field. By developing only two new courses and utilizing existing courses for Validation by…

  7. Awarensss and utilization of information technology among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the awareness and utilization of Information Technologies among Agricultural scientists in Nigeria. Data were collected from 170 respondents with the aid of structured questionnaire and analysed using frequency, percentage, mean and Ordinary Least Square multiple regression. This study found that ...

  8. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeker William C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Data Synthesis Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Results Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Conclusion Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine.

  9. Utilization of cocoyam production technologies among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analysed utilization of improved cocoyam production technologies among women in Abia State, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select sixty (60) women. Data for the study were collected using a structured questionnaire and analysed with descriptive statistics and inferential statistics ...

  10. Utilization Of Malaria Prophylaxes Amongst Nigerian Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    utilization of a combination of interventions such as sleeping under insecticide treated nets (ITNs),. Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), insecticide room spraying (IRS) and effective case management and treatment. All these strategies have been adopted in Nigeria through a national policy on malaria.

  11. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  12. Mathematicians' Perspectives on the Utility of Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, James

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine mathematicians' perspectives of the utility of software in mathematics and the teaching of mathematics. In particular, we report findings from a survey questioning 422 mathematicians with respect to their beliefs regarding the usefulness of software in mathematics research, teaching, and learning; recommended software…

  13. Utilizing Information Technology to Facilitate Rapid Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    PAGES 109 14. SUBJECT TERMS Rapid Acquisition, eCommerce , eProcurement, Information Technology, Contracting, Global Information Network...Agency. 5 eCommerce and eProcurement, and possess an adequate knowledge of information technology. D. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Primary Research... eCommerce , Information Technology, and eProcurement knowledge, and government and private industry reports utilizing numerous library and Internet

  14. Social Work Science and Knowledge Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Reed, Martena

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article advances understanding of social work science by examining the content and methods of highly utilized or cited journal articles in social work. Methods: A data base of the 100 most frequently cited articles from 79 social work journals was coded and categorized into three primary domains: content, research versus…

  15. The Causal Structure of Utility Conditionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefon, Jean-Francois; Sloman, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of reasoning is increasingly considering agents' values and preferences, achieving greater integration with judgment and decision making, social cognition, and moral reasoning. Some of this research investigates utility conditionals, ‘"if 'p' then 'q'’" statements where the realization of "p" or "q" or…

  16. Manufacturing Capacity Utilization and Industrial Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    utilization in the late 1970s was as high as 78.70 percent and nosedived to as low as 43.80 percent in the 1980s. Between ... through a regime of high inflation rate which makes domestic manufacturers and domestic market ... However, inflation and loans and advances to manufacturing were found to have negative effect.

  17. Light Duty Utility Arm Software Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes how validation testing of the software will be implemented for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm System (LDUA). The purpose of LDUA software validation testing is to demonstrate and document that the LDUA software meets its software requirements specification

  18. Increasing Counseling Center Utilization: Yeshiva University's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Victor; Nissel, Chaim; Eisenberg, Daniel; Kay, Jerald; Brown, Joshua T.

    2012-01-01

    Yeshiva University established a counseling center during the 2004-2005 academic year. As a religiously based institution, the administration recognized that there would likely be significant impediments to utilization of on-campus mental health services as a result of negative attitudes about mental illness and its treatment--stigma. To combat…

  19. Agricultural utilization of industrial thermal effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, P.; Delmas, J.; Grauby, A.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment is made of the utilization of thermal effluent for agricultural purpose (viz. early vegetables, cereals, trees). Heated waters are being used in field experiments on soil heating, improvement of agricultural procedures and crop yields. Thermal pollution cannot be removed yet it is reduced to acceptable limits. New prospects are open to traditional agriculture, leading towards a more competitive industrial model [fr

  20. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    This plan details the methods and procedures necessary to ensure a safe transition in the operation of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The steps identified here outline the work scope and identify responsibilities to complete startup, and turnover of the LDUA to Characterization Project Operations (CPO)

  1. A Simple Axiomatization of Nonadditive Expected Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.K. Sarin (Rakesh); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides an extension of Savage's subjective expected utility theory for decisions under uncertainty. It includes in the set of events both unambiguous events for which probabilities are additive and ambiguous events for which probabilities are permitted to be nonadditive. The

  2. A simple axiomatization of nonadditive expected utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Sarin, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides an extension of Savage's subjective expected utility theory for decisions under uncertainty. It includes in the set of events both unambiguous events for which probabilities are additive as well as ambiguous events for which probabilities are permitted to be nonadditive. The main

  3. Subjective Expected Utility Theory with "Small Worlds"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Jacob; Hansen, Frank

    which is a more general construction than a state space. We retain preference axioms similar in spirit to the Savage axioms and obtain, without abandoning linearity of expectations, a subjective expected utility theory which allows for an intuitive distinction between risk and uncertainty. We also...

  4. West Virginia harvest and utilization study, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Shawn. Grushecky

    2014-01-01

    Thirty active harvesting operations were part of a harvest and utilization study conducted in West Virginia in 2008. Data were collected on roundwood product and residue yields obtained from trees of different sizes, species, and qualities. This study was modeled after studies conducted on a regular and frequent basis by the Forest Inventory and Analysis unit in the...

  5. Inter-utility trade in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penman, A.

    1992-01-01

    Enhanced inter-utility cooperation could have a profound effect on the future of the electricity supply industry. Coordinated planning, development, and operations of electric power systems have the potential to reduce the cost of electricity to consumers and to lessen the impact of electricity supply on the environment. These effects could be achieved by being able to supply electricity from lower cost and more environmentally benign sources located over wider geographic areas, and having to install less new generating capacity. Access to transmission and wheeling services would be an important factor in allowing increased inter-utility cooperation to occur. Canada's National Energy Board conducted a review to identify measures that can be taken to enhance interprovincial trade in electricity, to encourage greater cooperation between electric utilities in the areas of systems planning and development, and to enable buyers and sellers of electricity to obtain access to available transmission capacity through intervening provinces for wheeling purposes. The work undertaken by the Board during that review is described. A total estimated economic benefit of $23-32.5 billion was identified, mainly from long-term firm sales and from seasonal diversity exchanges. Four options were developed that appear to be available to encourage and achieve enhanced inter-utility cooperation. These are continuation of voluntary cooperation, voluntary cooperation with federal monitoring, establishing voluntary regional planning entities, and establishing regional planning entities with mandated federal power

  6. 29 CFR 1915.93 - Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.93 Utilities... a pressure not exceeding the safe working pressure of the vessel's system in its present condition...

  7. Public utility service in energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abenante, R.

    2000-01-01

    Under the current legislation, the idea of public utility service is thoroughly expressed and settled within that of public service. Lacking a new definition, not all businesses in the electricity and gas industries are subjected to the authoritative and regulatory opinions of the Authority established by act 481/95 which can only be expressed in matters strictly concerning public services [it

  8. Effective utilization and management of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, R.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of utilizing a research reactor effectively is closely related to its management and therefore should not be considered separately. Too often, attention has been focused on specific techniques and methods rather than on the overall programme of utilization, with the result that skills and equipment have been acquired without any active continuing programme of applications and services. The seminar reported here provided a forum for reactor managers, users, and operators to discuss their experience. At the invitation of the Government of Malaysia, it was held at the Asia Pacific Development Centre, Kuala Lumpur, from 7 to 11 November 1983. It was attended by about 50 participants from 19 Member States; it is hoped that a report on the seminar, including papers presented, can be published and thus reach a wider audience. Thirty-one lectures and contributions were presented at a total of seven sessions: Research reactor management; Radiation exposure and safety; Research reactor utilization (two sessions); PUSPATI Research Reactor Project Development; Core conversion to low-enriched uranium, and safeguards; Research reactor technology. In addition, a panel discussed the causes and resolutions of the under-utilization of research reactors

  9. Resource and utilization of Estonian hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raesaar, P.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the Estonian hydropower resources and their utilization at present as well as prospective for the future are presented in this paper. A short overview of advantages of small hydropower stations and related issues is given. Some technological aspects are treated briefly. (authors)

  10. Data communication standards for power utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nortoft, P.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the development of electric utility communication technology during the next decade is addressed. Two main factors are identified: the European Single Market, and the environmental tasks of the nineties. The standardization efforts in Europe are seen as the crank centering this development. some of the standardization efforts reflecting this trend are described

  11. Chiropractic and CAM utilization: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Dana J; Meeker, William C

    2007-01-22

    To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine.

  12. Vesical endometriosis: utility of imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, M.; Cascon, E.; Robledo, R.; Perez, M.

    1999-01-01

    We present three cases of vesical endometriosis initially studied with ultrasound. One case was also studied with intravenous urography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We discuss on the utility of these imaging methods in the diagnosis of vesical endometriosis. (Author) 9 refs

  13. Terminology, Emphasis, and Utility in Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Lissitz and Samuelsen (2007) have proposed an operational definition of "validity" that shifts many of the questions traditionally considered under validity to a separate category associated with the utility of test use. Operational definitions support inferences about how well people perform some kind of task or how they respond to some kind of…

  14. Nuclear fuel utilization in Kozloduy NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadzhiev, Z; Kharalampieva, Ts; Pejchinov, Ts [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1994-12-31

    An assessment of fuel utilization in Kozloduy NPP units 1-6 is made on the basis of operational data obtained for a total of 62 fuel cycles. Basic characteristics of core loading and operation conditions are given. SPPS-1 and BIPR-7 codes are used to calculate assembly-wise power distributions for different full power days of a given cycle and unit. The data are compared with the measured values of these quantities. The analysis performed shows that the core loading option chosen has led to efficient fuel utilization without violation of the nuclear safety criteria. For WWER-440 (Units 1 - 4) this is expressed in effective reduction of the reactor vessel irradiation, maintaining the design duration of the fuel cycles at a reduced number of assemblies by a factor 5 - 5-10%, utilizing fuel with higher enrichment and implementing the 4-year fuel cycle. For WWER-1000 the improvements lead to: adoption of the 3-year fuel cycle utilizing fuel with 4.4% initial enrichment, implementation of improved fuel with a new type of absorbers and more effective low-leakage core loading patterns. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 7 refs.

  15. Availability And Utilization Of Information And Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study surveyed the availability and utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Adamawa State Civil Service. Five hundred and thirty (530) civil servants were involved in the study. They included lower, middle and upper level civil servants. Major results of the study are as follows: Personal ...

  16. Japanese electric utilities call for IPP capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, E.

    1997-03-01

    Japan`s ten power utilities have finally grasped the nettle, and called in IPPs to supply at least 3 GW of new capacity in each of the next ten years. The first twenty schemes awarded last year are all based on existing industrial energy producers, and consist mainly of coal- or oil-fired plants of 150 MW or less. 1 tab.

  17. Beyond Widgets -- Systems Incentive Programs for Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walter, Travis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Utility incentive programs remain one of the most significant means of deploying commercialized, but underutilized building technologies to scale. However, these programs have been largely limited to component-based products (e.g., lamps, RTUs). While some utilities do provide ‘custom’ incentive programs with whole building and system level technical assistance, these programs require deeper levels of analysis, resulting in higher program costs. This results in custom programs being restricted to utilities with greater resources, and are typically applied mainly to large or energy-intensive facilities, leaving much of the market without cost effective access and incentives for these solutions. In addition, with increasingly stringent energy codes, cost effective component-based solutions that achieve significant savings are dwindling. Building systems (e.g., integrated façade, HVAC and/or lighting solutions) can deliver higher savings that translate into large sector-wide savings if deployed at the scale of these programs. However, systems application poses a number of challenges – baseline energy use must be defined and measured; the metrics for energy and performance must be defined and tested against; in addition, system savings must be validated under well understood conditions. This paper presents a sample of findings of a project to develop validated utility incentive program packages for three specific integrated building systems, in collaboration with Xcel Energy (CO, MN), ComEd, and a consortium of California Public Owned Utilities (CA POUs) (Northern California Power Agency(NCPA) and the Southern California Public Power Authority(SCPPA)). Furthermore, these program packages consist of system specifications, system performance, M&V protocols, streamlined assessment methods, market assessment and implementation guidance.

  18. Utilization of the ion traps by SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, C.; Lienard, E.; Mauger, F.; Tamain, B.

    1997-01-01

    An ion trap is a device capable of confine particles, ions or atoms in a well-controlled environment isolated from any exterior perturbations. There are different traps. They are utilized to collect or stock ions, to cool them after in order to subject them to high precision measurement of masses, magnetic moments, hyperfine properties, beta decay properties, etc. Some dozen of traps are currently used all over the world to study stable or radioactive ions.. SPIRAL has been designed and built to produce radioactive ions starting from various heavy ion beams. SPIRAL has the advantage that the projectile parameters, the target and the energy can be chosen to optimize the production in various regions of the nuclear chart. Also, in SPIRAL it is possible to extract more rapidly the radioactive ions formed in the targets. In addition, in SPIRAL the multicharged ion production in a ECR source is possible. The utilization of multicharged ions is indeed very useful for fast mass measurements or for the study of the interaction between the nucleus and the electronic cloud. Finally, utilization of a ion trap on SPIRAL can be designed first at the level of production target by installing a low energy output line. Than, the trap system could be up-graded and brought to its full utilization behind of the recoil spectrometer. It must be capable of selecting and slowing down the ions produced in the reactions (fusion transfer, very inelastic collisions, etc.) induced by the radioactive ions accelerated in CIME. At present, the collaboration is debating on the most favored subject to study and the most suited experimental setups. The following subjects were selected: ion capture, purification and manipulation; isomers (separation and utilization); mass measurements; hyperfine interactions; lifetimes, nuclear electric cloud; β decays; study of the N = Z nuclei close to the proton drip line; physical and chemical properties of transuranium systems

  19. State Policies Influence Medicare Telemedicine Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Jonathan D; Doarn, Charles R; Aly, Reem

    2016-01-01

    Medicare policy regarding telemedicine reimbursement has changed little since 2000. Many individual states, however, have added telemedicine reimbursement for either Medicaid and/or commercial payers over the same period. Because telemedicine programs must serve patients from all or most payers, it is likely that these state-level policy changes have significant impacts on telemedicine program viability and utilization of services from all payers, not just those services and payers affected directly by state policy. This report explores the impact of two significant state-level policy changes-one expanding Medicaid telemedicine coverage and the other introducing telemedicine parity for commercial payers-on Medicare utilization in the affected states. Medicare claims data from 2011-2013 were examined for states in the Great Lakes region. All valid claims for live interactive telemedicine professional fees were extracted and linked to their states of origin. Allowed encounters and expenditures were calculated in total and on a per 1,000 members per year basis to standardize against changes in the Medicare population by state and year. Medicare telemedicine encounters and professional fee expenditures grew sharply following changes in state Medicaid and commercial payer policy in the examined states. Medicare utilization in Illinois grew by 173% in 2012 (over 2011) following Medicaid coverage expansion, and Medicare utilization in Michigan grew by 118% in 2013 (over 2012) following adoption of telemedicine parity for commercial payers. By contrast, annual Medicare telemedicine utilization growth in surrounding states (in which there were no significant policy changes during these years) varied somewhat but showed no discernible pattern. Although Medicare telemedicine policy has changed little since its inception, changes in state policies with regard to telemedicine reimbursement appear to have significant impacts on the practical viability of telemedicine programs

  20. Risk Aversion and Expected-Utility Theory: A Calibration Theorem.

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Rabin.

    2000-01-01

    Within the expected-utility framework, the only explanation for risk aversion is that the utility function for wealth is concave: A person has lower marginal utility for additional wealth when she is wealthy than when she is poor. This paper provides a theorem showing that expected-utility theory is an utterly implausible explanation for appreciable risk aversion over modest stakes: Within expected-utility theory, for any concave utility function, even very little risk aversion over modest st...

  1. Beyond Bentham – Measuring Procedural Utility

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno S. Frey; Alois Stutzer

    2001-01-01

    We propose that outcome utility and process utility can be distinguished and empirically measured. People gain procedural utility from participating in the political decision-making process itself, irrespective of the outcome. Nationals enjoy both outcome and process utility, while foreigners are excluded from political decision-making and therefore cannot enjoy the corresponding procedural utility. Utility is measured by individuals’ reported subjective well-being or happiness. We find tha...

  2. Understanding the unbundled utility conservation bidding proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    For several years regulatory advisers have been engaged in controversy about the propriety of integrating energy conservation measures into the total resource planning processes of electric utilities, and of proposed methods of doing so in the competitive supply procurement programs which have been initiated by some utilities. Two prominent economists conceived a method for doing this in competitive bidding programs and at the same time overcoming objections to previous proposals which were based on perceived violations of basic economic principles. They explained their concept and its operation in an article published here in June of last year. In this article another economist subjects the concept to further analysis, identifying its essential elements, and point to inevitable results of their application

  3. Utility requirements for advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiels, A.; Gray, S.; Mulford, T.; Rodwell, E.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry is actively engaged in developing advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs for the next century. The new designs take advantage of the thousands of reactor-years of experience that have been accumulated by operating over 400 plants worldwide. The EPRI effort began in the early 1980's, when a survey of utility executives was conducted to determine their prerequisites for ordering nuclear power plants. The results were clear: new plants had to be simpler and safer, and have greater design margins, i.e., be more forgiving. The utility executives also supported making improvements to the established light water reactor technology, rather than trying to develop new reactor concepts. Finally, they wanted the option to build mid-size plants (∼600 MWe) in addition to full-size plants of more than 1200 MWe. 4 refs

  4. Utilization of structural steel in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Muiris C; Allwood, Julian M

    2014-08-08

    Over one-quarter of steel produced annually is used in the construction of buildings. Making this steel causes carbon dioxide emissions, which climate change experts recommend be reduced by half in the next 37 years. One option to achieve this is to design and build more efficiently, still delivering the same service from buildings but using less steel to do so. To estimate how much steel could be saved from this option, 23 steel-framed building designs are studied, sourced from leading UK engineering firms. The utilization of each beam is found and buildings are analysed to find patterns. The results for over 10 000 beams show that average utilization is below 50% of their capacity. The primary reason for this low value is 'rationalization'-providing extra material to reduce labour costs. By designing for minimum material rather than minimum cost, steel use in buildings could be drastically reduced, leading to an equivalent reduction in 'embodied' carbon emissions.

  5. Restructuring of Canada's nuclear utilities: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guindon, S.

    1998-01-01

    Business decisions relating to the electric power sector are a provincial responsibility in Canada. The federal government looks to the three nuclear utilities to manage their nuclear assets and maintain them in a way that maximizes their reliability, efficiency and overall performance. A significant development in Canada's nuclear sector in the past year was the Ontario Hydro Nuclear Asset Optimization Plan. Structural change in the North American electricity market is a major impetus for decisions regarding nuclear assets by Canada's electric power utilities. The Ontario government is now taking steps to introduce competition in the Ontario Electricity market. The province of New Brunswick, which has one reactor at Point Lepreau which supplies one-third of the province's electricity, is also taking measures to introduce competition in its electricity market. (author)

  6. Utilities' nuclear fuel economic evaluation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonz, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the typical perceptions, methods, considerations, and procedures used by an operating electric utility in the economic evaluation of nuclear fuel preparation and utilization scenarios. The means given are probably not an exclusive review of those available, but are the author's recollection of systems employed to select and recommend preferable courses of action. Economic evaluation of proposed nuclear fuel scenarios is an important, but not exclusive, means of deciding on corporate action. If the economic evaluation is performed and coordinated with the other corporate considerations, such as technical and operational ability, electrical system operations management, tax effects, capital management, rates impact, etc., then the resultant recommendation may be employed to the benefit of the customers and, consequently, to the corporation

  7. Beyond expected utility: rethinking behavioral decision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, D; Clemen, R T

    1994-07-01

    Much research in psychology has evaluated the quality of people's decisions by comparisons with subjective expected utility (SEU) theory. This article suggests that typical arguments made for the status of utility theory as normative do not justify its use by psychologists as a standard by which to evaluate decision quality. It is argued that to evaluate decision quality, researchers need to identify those decision processes that tend to lead to desirable outcomes. It is contended that a good decision-making process must be concerned with how (and whether) decision makers evaluate potential consequences of decisions, the extent to which they accurately identify all relevant consequences, and the way in which they make final choices. Research that bears on these issues is reviewed.

  8. Circulating tumor cells: clinical validity and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabel, Luc; Proudhon, Charlotte; Gortais, Hugo; Loirat, Delphine; Coussy, Florence; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Bidard, François-Clément

    2017-06-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare tumor cells and have been investigated as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in many types of cancer. Although CTCs are not currently used in clinical practice, CTC studies have accumulated a high level of clinical validity, especially in breast, lung, prostate and colorectal cancers. In this review, we present an overview of the current clinical validity of CTCs in metastatic and non-metastatic disease, and the main concepts and studies investigating the clinical utility of CTCs. In particular, this review will focus on breast, lung, colorectal and prostate cancer. Three major topics concerning the clinical utility of CTC are discussed-(1) treatment based on CTCs used as liquid biopsy, (2) treatment based on CTC count or CTC variations, and (3) treatment based on CTC biomarker expression. A summary of published or ongoing phase II and III trials is also presented.

  9. Multi-Device Knob Utility for LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelazny, Michael; Chevtsov, Sergei; Chu, Chungming Paul; Fairley, Diane; Krejcik, Patrick; Rogind, Deborah; Smith, Howard; White, Greg; Yocky, Gerald; /SLAC

    2009-12-09

    At the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) the Controls Department (CD) has developed a new Multi-Device Knob Utility (MKB) based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit for controlling one or more Process Variables (PVs) in unison, or simultaneously, from a physical knob located in the control room, or from various software tools such as the EPICS Extensible Display Manager (EDM) or a Swing slider in Java. A group of devices are hooked up to a knob, and then the value written to the devices is a simple function of the value of the knob. This is used, most commonly, to create a bump in the electron beam for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Control system variables typically controlled are magnetic fields, phases, and timing offsets. This paper describes the technologies used to implement this utility.

  10. Preparation, characterization and utilization of starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Sung Soo; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2015-02-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature and is typically isolated from plants in the form of micro-scale granules. Recent studies reported that nano-scale starch particles could be readily prepared from starch granules, which have unique physical properties. Because starch is environmentally friendly, starch nanoparticles are suggested as one of the promising biomaterials for novel utilization in foods, cosmetics, medicines as well as various composites. An overview of the most up-to-date information regarding the starch nanoparticles including the preparation processes and physicochemical characterization will be presented in this review. Additionally, the prospects and outlooks for the industrial utilization of starch nanoparticles will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilization of curve offsets in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseltalab, Vahid; Yaman, Ulas; Dolen, Melik

    2018-05-01

    Curve offsets are utilized in different fields of engineering and science. Additive manufacturing, which lately becomes an explicit requirement in manufacturing industry, utilizes curve offsets widely. One of the necessities of offsetting is for scaling which is required if there is shrinkage after the fabrication or if the surface quality of the resulting part is unacceptable. Therefore, some post-processing is indispensable. But the major application of curve offsets in additive manufacturing processes is for generating head trajectories. In a point-wise AM process, a correct tool-path in each layer can reduce lots of costs and increase the surface quality of the fabricated parts. In this study, different curve offset generation algorithms are analyzed to show their capabilities and disadvantages through some test cases and improvements on their drawbacks are suggested.

  12. Pipelines, utilities plan over 150 scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that North American pipelines and utilities will spend more than $170 million on new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems during the 30-month period that commenced Sept. 1. Another $12.5 million will be spent on peripherals and consulting. Among the 699 various projects to be implemented during the period, companies will install 151 scada systems, add 154 remote-terminal units (RTUs) to existing scada units, and install 196 communications systems. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform a set of monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  13. Trends in telemedicine utilizing artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacis, Danica Mitch M.; Subido, Edwin D. C.; Bugtai, Nilo T.

    2018-02-01

    With the growth and popularity of the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI) in several fields and industries, studies in the field of medicine have begun to implement its capabilities in handling and analyzing data to telemedicine. With the challenges in the implementation of telemedicine, there has been a need to expand its capabilities and improve procedures to be specialized to solve specific problems. The versatility and flexibility of both AI and telemedicine gave the endless possibilities for development and these can be seen in the literature reviewed in this paper. The trends in the development of the utilization of this technology can be classified in to four: patient monitoring, healthcare information technology, intelligent assistance diagnosis, and information analysis collaboration. Each trend will be discussed and presented with examples of recent literature and the problems they aim to address. Related references will also be tabulated and categorized to see the future and potential of this current trend in telemedicine.

  14. High-gravity brewing utilizing factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of factors can influence the behavior of yeast during fermentation. Some of these factors (initial wort concentration, initial pH and percentage of corn syrup in the composition of the wort were studied in order to determine their influence on the productivity of fermentation. Fermentations were carried out at 25ºC utilizing a 2³ factorial design of these factors. The results showed that the percentage of corn syrup had no influence on process productivity, whereas initial pH and especially initial wort concentration did. It can be concluded that using pH and initial wort concentration values higher than those utilized in this work (5.5 and 20ºP, respectively will result in a higher productivity.

  15. Overview of Steel Slag Application and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant quantities of steel slag are generated as waste material or byproduct every day from steel industries. Slag is produced from different types of furnaces with different operating conditions. Slag contains Ferrous Oxide, Calcium Oxide, Silica etc. Physical and chemical properties of slag are affected by different methods of slag solidification such as air cooled, steam, and injection of additives. Several material characterization methods, such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanned Electron Microscopy (SEM and Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES are used to determine elemental composition in the steel slag. Therefore, slags can become one of the promising materials in various applications such as in transportation industry, construction, cement production, waste water and water treatment. The various applications of steel slag indicate that it can be reused and utilized rather than being disposed to the landfill. This paper presents a review of its applications and utilization.

  16. Utilization of geothermal energy in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, V.I.; Dvorov, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that at present geothermal energy is utilized in the USSR mostly for district heating, and for industrial and agricultural purposes. The populations of 7 towns have district heating that is supplied by thermal waters. The population supplied totals about 125,000 people. The total area of greenhouses is 850,000 m 2 . Electric energy generated at geothermal power stations still remains negligible with the installed capacity of the single Pauzhetka station (Kamchatka) being 11 MW. another station at Mutnovka is currently under construction and is expected to be producing 50 MW by 1992 and 200 MW by 1998. The proven geothermal resources in the USSR provide hope for a significant increase in the utilization of the earth's deep heat in the near future

  17. Implementing wind forecasting at a utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L.; Hansen, M.A.; Vesterager, K.; Bergstroem, W.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes a project - funded by the Danish Ministry of Energy and the Environment - that has as its aim to implement prediction of the power produced by wind farms in the daily planning at the Danish utility ELKRAFT. The predictions are generated from forecasts from HIRLAM (HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model) of the Danish Meteorological Institute. These predictions are then made valid at individual sites (wind farms) by applying either a matrix generated by the sub-models of WA{sup s}P (Wind Atlas Application and Analysis Program) or by use of a Kalman filter. In the project 17 wind farms have been selected for study. The farms are located on the Zealand and Bornholm islands and all belonging to the Danish utility ELKRAFT. (au) 10 tabs., 65 ills., 14 refs.

  18. EPCOR Utilities Inc. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Financial information from EPCOR Utilities Inc. and a review of their 1998 operations was presented. EPCOR was incorporated in 1995 and established as parent of Edmonton Power, Aqualta and Eltec in 1996. The city of Edmonton is the sole shareholder. EPCOR showed strong financial results and operational achievements in 1998. Among the many achievements were the efforts to ensure that the electric power systems are ready for the year 2000. Reduction of CO 2 emissions was another task pursued with good results. The electric power utility also invested in the re-powering of the Rossdale Generating Station and participated in the co-generation project at Joffre. The report provides details of these and other operational activities and presents consolidated financial statements. A new work management system to improve operational excellence and to better serve EPCOR customers during power disturbances was also launched during the year under review. tabs., figs

  19. Advanced energy utilization MHD power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 'Technical Committee on Advanced Energy Utilization MHD Power Generation' was started to establish advanced energy utilization technologies in Japan, and has been working for three years from June 2004 to May 2007. This committee investigated closed cycle MHD, open cycle MHD, and liquid metal MHD power generation as high-efficiency power generation systems on the earth. Then, aero-space application and deep space exploration technologies were investigated as applications of MHD technology. The spin-off from research and development on MHD power generation such as acceleration and deceleration of supersonic flows was expected to solve unstart phenomena in scramjet engine and also to solve abnormal heating of aircrafts by shock wave. In addition, this committee investigated researches on fuel cells, on secondary batteries, on connection of wind power system to power grid, and on direct energy conversion system from nuclear fusion reactor for future. The present technical report described results of investigations by the committee. (author)

  20. How utilities respond to radwaste needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Slow progress is being made toward regionalization of waste disposal, some states working toward regional compacts while others choose to go it alone. More promising is the reduction of radwaste volumes discharged from nuclear stations. More and more utilities are contracting with private companies for LLW processing. While such services are provided predominantly by mobile units at plant sites, one fixed installation already offers processing of dry waste and two others await final regulatory approval. Both developments are detailed. This article also includes an analysis of the design, performances comparison between slagging combustors (SC) and the FBC boiler. Comparisons are also made for SC technology to FBC for 250-MW unit and of utility-unit conversion costs